FMEA - Offshore Wind Turbine The following FMEA analysis has been performed for an offshore wind turbine

in order to highlight potential component failure and their possible consequences. s SYSTEMS Components Failure Mode Consequences Potential Causes Occurrence Severity

Currents Design Controls Detection Turbine performance monitored for drop in efficiency Lubricant levels monitoring 6 8 Lubricant level monitoring Lubricant Filter None None High temperature friction materials specified. Warning message produced 8 7 0 0 2 9 Turbine speed sensor none None 8 0 0 Warning message produced 9 none 0 Warning message produced 9

Risk Priority Number

1.

Roller Bearing

1. 2. 3. 4.

Normal wear. Bearing Seizes. Damage to bearing surfaces due to foreign object(s). Damages caused by sudden or excessive loads.

i. ii. iii. iv.

Reduced turbine efficiency Turbine Stops Unsmooth operation Increased Noise

5

Normal wear causing increased friction

8

240

Reduced lubrication increasing friction

4

160

1. Bearing (main)

8 5 2 2. Spring 1. Spring Breaks i. ii. iii. 3. Disc 2. 3. 4. 4. Caliper 5. Friction material wears. Disk cracks due to repeated heat cycles. Contamination of friction surfaces. Calliper wear prevents full locking of brake. Braking efficiency reduced. Turbine stops Brake cannot prevent turbine rotation. 4

Overheating due to lack to lubrication Foreign objects damaging bearing surfaces Bearing overloaded or incorrectly loaded Fluid contaminates friction surfaces Friction material overheats

3 3 2 6 7

192 105 4 24 56

8

Brake fails to fail safe mode

6

432

2. Brake(parking)

9

Both calliper and fail safe spring fail Disc wear leads to complete disc failure

2 3 8

144 27 40

5.

Anemometer

1.

Wind speed sensor fails.

i. ii.

3. Electronic Systems

6.

CPU

2. 3. 4. 5.

7.

Wind direction system

System short circuit due to iii. water ingress. iv. System Crash/software failure. Damaged (wired) connections. Wind direction sensor fails.

Reduced Turbine efficiency. Damaged caused to other components e.g. bearing gearbox Turbine Stops. Error messages produced.

5

Turbine not correctly angled for optimum wind performance Wind speed not detected so blade pitch is not optimised

6

270

7

Incorrect loading of components due to excessive speeds or incorrect wind angles

5

35

8

CPU fails and applies parking brake as fail safe.

1

72

Foundations 1 Part of maintenance schedule Visual checks 5 50 8 Becomes unstable meaning turbine must be shutdown. iii. ii. Damaged caused to other components e. 2. ii. 3. 5 Normal wear causes increased friction Reduced lubrication causes increased friction 5 3 2 3 Turbine efficiency monitored Turbine efficiency monitored none none 8 8 0 0 200 120 16 24 8 Lubrication failure leads to gearbox seizure. Internal component fails causing gearbox to seize. 2 Component wear increases noise 6 Part of maintenance schedule none none 5 60 6 6. 4. Normal wear. Gearbox Shaft misalignment causes broken gear teeth Sudden shock loading (e. bearing gearbox due to incorrect wind loadings. Damages to gears due to foreign object(s). Blades 9. iii. ii. Increased Noise. 5 7 0 35 3 Part of maintenance schedule none Visual detection Warning message produced none Warning message produced Visual checks 5 75 7 8 8 Shaft alignments compromised Blade breaks (total failure) Pitch motor fails Pitch gearbox fails Anemometer fails 3 2 3 3 5 3 0 4 9 0 9 4 21 64 216 24 360 120 4. 9 Warning if communications with turbine are lost none 9 81 8. 4. Turbine collapse.g.g. 1. Gearbox seizes. Blades crack due to excessive flexing. 5.1 System failures are indicated to the turbine operators Blade flex leads to reduced aerodynamic efficiency Blade cracks affect airflow over blades. Gear Tooth Breaks Gear Shafts move out of alignment. 2 4 64 2. Fails to support Tower i. Reduced turbine efficiency. Gearbox damaged (gear teeth broken). 2. Strikes an object. i. 3. Turbine Stops. 1. from sudden park break release/application) causes teeth to break. Reduced Turbine efficiency. Turbine stops. iv. 1. i. Pitch controls fails. 10 Foundation subsides Erosion (tidal) weakens support 5. 5 4 0 0 30 24 . Turbine Stops. Aerofoil shape compromised due to plastic deformation caused by flexing. iv. Turbine speed control is lost.

Turbine collapse.3. Reduced Turbine efficiency. Motor Normal Wear.g. none 6 162 10. Damage to internal components. Corrosion. 9. Power is not generated. 8. i. 12. 1. Generator Transformer 7. Cooling fan fails 5 Temperature monitoring 7 280 7 Warning message produced 9 504 4. 8. 9. Magnetic field failure ii. 4. iii. Yaw Control Gears 3. Turbine lifespan 7 8 Part of maintenance schedule 5 280 1 Wildlife deterrents on outer casing Monitoring of internal 7 49 8 Shell corrodes preventing internal conditions 3 7 168 . iv. iii. High-speed shaft 8. 7. 5. Fan gets stuck 8 Wear to moving parts causes increased friction Electrical failure such as a short circuit or damaged wire. Damage caused to other components e. 10 Structure is weakened due to corrosion from salt water Repeated wind/wave action causes fatigue in structure. 3 none 0 27 i. Wildlife damage creates holes in shell 2 Visual checks 4 64 10. Cooling fan 6. 3. Fire. ii. Damaged connections (wires). 2. 7. Turbine direction cannot be changed. Leaks (water) i. Generator seizes. 3. Tower 8 Structure becomes unstable and turbine must be stopped to prevent total collapse. Driver motor fails. Shell 2. 8 Overheating due to excessive turbine speed caused by speed control mechanism failures. 7 5 none 0 35 9 3 Nacelle designed to withstand this possible scenario. Bearing Fails. Seals 1. Overloaded. Turbine stops. 9 6 9 486 6. 1 0 10 2 none 0 20 9. Bearing 2. Input shaft moves out of alignment. Generator bearings fail 6 Turbine efficiency monitoring Warning message produced 8 384 5. Corrosion i. Reduced Turbine efficiency. bearing gearbox due to incorrect wind loadings. 8 Yaw control mechanism failure Wind direction sensor failure 4 5 5 Warning message produced Warning message produced none 9 9 0 288 360 40 8 Turbine cannot be adjusted to optimize performance for wind conditions Unusual loads caused by incorrect turbine direction. Corrosion to internal components. Damage to coils. 1. Outer Casing (nacelle) 11. Seals deteriorate over time due to temperature change and sunlight allowing access to water. ii. Does not maintain internal iii. Structural instability caused by ii. iv. Short circuit. wave/wind forces. 2. Turbine stability issues. Turbine stops. Generator 1. Gearbox fails. Wind forces act in a direction the nacelle and blades are not designed for.

Coolant overheats. excessive speed causes turbine total failure Non operation of the maintenance crane prevents damaged/worn parts from being changed. Wear out 6 2 none 0 12 19. Driver motor fails. 21. 6. 8 6 Monitoring of turbine performance 8 384 7 Lubricant levels monitored 8 448 5 Lubricant temperature monitoring none 7 280 11. working conditions for components are not ideal.4. Leaks lubricant. 24. 17. ii. Leaks lubricant. Wheels i. Leaks reduce lubricant levels increasing system friction. Rotor Pitch Bearing ii. from being maintained Electrical insulation fails leaving internals vulnerable to lightening strike Movement of nacelle foundation under load creates misalignment between components. Overheating lubricant does not perform as designed. Reduced turbine efficiency. Turbine stops. Radiator leaks. 2 conditions None 0 16 1 None 0 8 2 Warning message produced 9 144 13. Blade angle cannot be changed 11. 9. 5 2 Turbine performance monitored Parking brake can be applied 8 80 20. Gears 10 1 7 70 15. iii. Blade angle cannot be optimised for maximum efficiency Turbine speed cannot be controlled. 5. 8 Damage to internal component causes the turbine to stop. Leaks lubricant. Turbine speed cannot be controlled Reduced Turbine Efficiency Catastrophic failure 7 Wrong lubricant grade specified 1 0 7 16. 2 none 0 16 10. iii. e. Collapses 21. Loses structural rigidity 6 4 Monitoring of internal conditions 7 168 14. i. 7. 18. bearings/gearbox Blade angle cannot be changed to compensate for differing wind speeds. Seizes 12. Foundation 5. Seizes 18. Damage to lubricated components. reduced. Seizes 16. Cooler 4. Crane . Conditions inside the nacelle are compromised. Filter Hose Motor 8 Failure of lubrication system causes other components to seize. Pump 1. 2. Electrical/magnetic insulation fails. 3. Lubrication system 15. Bearing 17. Leaks lubricant. Frame 20. Cracks All scores are out of 10. Radiator leak/blockage. Meaning max possible RPN is 1000. Wear out 13. 12.g. 8. climate. Reduced pump efficiency/failure causes poor lubrication to components increasing system friction. Seizes 14. Wear out 22. Motor 19. i. Blockage. Pump failure. Maintenance cannot be performed 5 1 Part of maintenance schedule 5 25 13. Wear out 23.

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