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High-Level Web Service for 3D Building Information Visualization and Analysis
University of Potsdam, Hasso-Plattner-Institute Prof.-Dr.-Helmert-Str. 2-3 D-14482 Potsdam, Germany +49 (0) 331 97992 580
University of Potsdam, Hasso-Plattner-Institute Prof.-Dr.-Helmert-Str. 2-3 D-14482 Potsdam, Germany +49 (0) 331 97992 580
This paper presents an approach to visualize and analyze 3D building information models within virtual 3D city models. Building information models (BIMs) formalize and represent detailed information related to the lifecycle of buildings, e.g., information about composition, facilities, equipment, usage, maintenance, and workflows such as rescue scenarios. Complementary, virtual 3D city models represent objects and phenomena of urban areas, typically at a lower level of information detail; virtual 3D city models as a general framework and platform for spatial data allow us to seamlessly combine GIS and BIM data. In our approach, BIM data and 3D geodata, both provided by possibly distributed, heterogeneous web services, are efficiently integrated by the underlying real-time 3D geovisualization system. To facilitate insights into complex spatial scenarios, two configurable BIM-specific visualization techniques have been developed, which map BIM data onto 3D building graphics variables respectively geometrically distort 3D building representations. The visualization functionality can itself be accessed as a specialized web 3D perspective view service. We demonstrate our approach by a fire and rescue scenario for a part of a 3D campus model.
Web Services, Building Information Models, Virtual 3D City Models, Geovisualization.
One of the key requirements of geoinformation systems and applications represents the integration of heterogeneous, distributed geoinformation from different domains and at different scales. As a fundamental conceptual and technical framework, virtual 3D city models can effectively represent georeferenced objects and phenomena of entire urban areas in a systematic way. Virtual 3D city models are used in a growing number of decisionsupport and geoinformation systems as a general type of geoinformation user interface. While a growing number of manifold geoinformation sources become available, detailed information about individual buildings is typically not managed nor represented by GIS data. To enhance and complement virtual 3D city models in this respect, information provided by CAD models and other buildingmanagement tools needs to be integrated and helps to bridge the gap between the BIM, CAD, and GIS domains (Figure 1). In this paper, we describe an approach to visualize and analyze CAD-based 3D building information models (BIM) within 3D virtual city models. This way, detailed georeferenced building information about usage, structure, properties, and associated workflows becomes available embedded into their spatial context. Without such integration, we would not be able to see the spatial context of BIM. Furthermore, the approach represents a general strategy to seamlessly integrate georeferenced data from the domain of CAD with GIS data at the visualization level. We assume that BIM data as well as 3D geodata are both available from web services such as WFS and WMS. Based on the 3D geodata, our 3D viewer system creates a virtual 3D city model as a specialized kind of geovirtual environment, in which we can embed the BIM data. We extend the visualization features for building models provided by the 3D viewer by two BIM-specific visualization techniques. One technique is based on mapping BIM data on graphics variables of 3D building models, while the other is based on a geometrically distorted and rearranged view of components of 3D building models. With these techniques, we facilitate understanding and insight into complex BIMs. The 3D viewer client we developed is based on web services that provide the underlying BIM data and GIS data. In addition, the
Categories and Subject Descriptors
C.0 [Computer Systems Organization]: General – system architectures. C.2.4 [Computer-Communication-Network]: Distributed Systems – distributed applications. H.3.4 [Information Storage and Retrieval]: Systems and Software – distributed systems. H.4.2 [Information Systems Application]: Types of Systems – decision support. I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation – viewing algorithms. I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism – virtual reality. I.3.8 [Computer Graphics]: Applications.
Design, Human Factors, Management, Standardization.
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walls. which not only represent buildings but also their environment. and inspection can be built on BIMs. 2007). different types of walls and slabs. landuse). openings (e. Meta-information that can be attached to CityGML objects include address. Traffic and transportation network models. and lakes. stairs. chimneys. so-called building furniture. slabs. rooms. They contain properties. 3D viewer client can itself operate as a high-level web service providing BIM-specific 3D visualization by a specialized 3D perspective view service. 2. which is widely used by many vendors in the AEC and F&M field and has been deployed by different authorities for their own BIM standards. 2007). relations between objects. architectural models (LOD-3).1 Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) are a comprehensive example for a BIM standard.. Figure 1: Scales and degree of semantics found in 3D building models with corresponding CityGML level-of-detail categories. CityGML can be extended for specialized domains and purposes by generic attributes and classes as well as by application domain extensions. position and extension). topology information (e. and spatial properties. which are block models (LOD-1).1 Elements of BIMs The main goal for defining BIM standards is to provide a common model for a set of building-related information.2. CityGML provides a limited support..IFC is a powerful standard for an in-detail architectural specification of building models including their internal infrastructure and development history.g. 2007).2 Examples of BIMs 2. which are not known a priori. or arbitrary building installations (for representing balconies. which has been developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI. beams. roofs. which are interpreted according to their names. usage of buildings and rooms. and monuments. the GSA BIM Standard (GSA. 2006) and is implemented as an application schema for the Geography Markup Language 3 (GML3). 2007) and the National BIM Standard (NBIMS. the proposed visualization bridges the gap between BIM. geometry models (LOD-2). tunnels. e. workflows such as plans for rescue. geometry. the model can include information about the geometry of each entity (i. etc. different people. In this way we can include building information into a CityGML-based virtual 3D city model. In addition. topology. and thereby enabling interoperability between different domains. windows and doors). they must provide flexibility for representing building-related features and attributes. CityGML uses a transparent data model based on XML for storage and exchange (Gröger et al. We illustrate our approach by a virtual 3D campus model using BIM as basis for a fire and rescue scenario. and appearance (Kolbe et al. participants.. In addition. We describe visualization views and styles as well as the supported 3D interaction. roofs. Hierarchical aggregations of generic city objects. additional attributes. 2. IFC has been evolved to an industrial standard.. doors. 2005). windows. Building models at four levels of quality. Vegetation models to represent plants and biotopes. emergence. IFC provides IfcPropertySets for the definition of domain-specific data... connectivity of rooms). Water models to represent water bodies.g. function.).2. With respect to building information. electrical installations.e. stairs. CityGML supports also generalization hierarchies between thematic classes. City furniture models such as streetlights.. Because BIMs are intended for a variety of application domains. The IAI has supported several projects for extending IFC for special domains such as HVAC. which is basis for cross-domain communication and building lifecycle support. Thematic models (e. and systems. stories. groupings into building parts). rivers. 2. it introduces classes and relations for topographic objects of urban environments and regional models including their semantics. or other relationships (e. The following geo-referenced building information can be considered relevant for such fire and rescue scenarios: 2 . and GIS model use. park benches. In contrast to IFC. A BIM defines an ontology for the main building structures such as rooms. typically restricted to the graphical appearance of related 3D objects. In LOD-4 building models we can specify building parts. Site models such as for bridges.g. or structural analysis (IAI. Figure 2 shows BIM-related parts of the CityGML schema. CityGML concentrates on regional 3D information models that in most cases consist of hundreds of components.g. etc.2 CityGML CityGML denotes a general information model for representing geovirtual 3D environments such as virtual 3D city models. and different purposes. 2. and interior models (LOD-4).g. Additionally to this semantics. aggregations.. The general object types supported by CityGML include: Terrain models including grid-based and TIN-based representations.3 BIM for a Fire Rescue Scenario Fire and rescue is one domain where the availability of building information is of high interest for saving people and assets. CAD. BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS 2.
If there is no such combination. oil. etc. which is a primary thematic concept of CityGML.g. Fire prevention and fire fighting is regarded by different BIM standards and IFC. a common representation must be used for bridging the different underlying concepts. hydrants. fire. curved geometries. onto which IFC data can be mapped directly (Benner et al. CityGML only provides a boundary representation. stories and roofs). Expected overall number of people. we use them as starting point for mapping BIM to CityGML. This kind of “integration at the visualization level” has to map semantic. Building part: component that details buildings (e. Building attributes: represent name-value pairs.g.. room numbers) for supporting the orientation of helpers. especially onto the building model. both models have to be integrated. we consider the following CityGML model elements as relevant: Building: a building entity with a specified identity. Storage locations of dangerous substances (e. fire hydrants. internal building installations (e. 2006) 3 . balconies. Nevertheless. we focus in IFC as main source of BIM.. In the case of only a single BIM source (i.g.. Tracking information of people and objects. Instead. as in the case of staircases and balconies. regarding. or motion detectors for estimating the source of fire and the overall condition. Boundary surface: represents the shell of building and rooms. and funnels spreading heat.g. So IFC 2x3 includes the “plumbing fire protection domain” and provides a fire compartment as zone of spaces. exterior and interior walls. roofs. young and older ones).. we apply the virtual 3D city model and its graphics representation for this purpose and extend them in a BIM-specific manner. Additionally. This could be done by a common reference (e.g. Sprinklers. sprinklers. To integrate BIM data into a virtual 3D city model. temperature sensors. and fire rating properties describing the fire resistance of used materials. floors and ceilings. chimneys. Figure 3 shows an IFC-CityGML example. for defining stories. water bodies. walls. not all IFC elements have a canonical representation in CityGML.g... those model entities must be identified that describe aspects of the same realworld entity. by building or room identifiers) or by analytical identification (e. and chemicals). Since LOD-4 CityGML building models can describe internal building structures. Statics and material of building structures. can further support the process of evaluating the site of fire and aid in making decisions. lattices) and key owners. hose reels. ground surfaces. Outer building installation: component that belong to the outside of a building. (From Gröger et al.e. Furthermore.. Cables.. number of people who need assistance (e. 2. Building interior: include rooms. special fire/smoke dampers. City object grouping: special city model feature.g. and smoke.g.. and doors. no additional other <<Feature>> CityModel <<Feature>> _CityObject _GenericAttribute <<Feature>> ReliefFeature <<Feature>> CityFurniture <<Feature>> _Site <<Feature>> GenericCityObject <<Feature>> CityObjectGroup <<Feature>> _VegetationObject <<Feature>> _WaterObject <<Feature>> _AbstractBuilding <<Feature>> Building <<Feature>> BuildingPart <<Feature>> Room <<Feature>> BuildingFurniture <<Feature>> IntBuildingInstallation <<Feature>> BuildingInstallation <<Feature>> _BoundarySurface <<Feature>> FloorSurface <<Feature>> RoofSurface <<Feature>> WallSurface <<Feature>> GroundSurface <<Feature>> ClosureSurface <<Feature>> CeilingSurface <<Feature>> _Opening <<Feature>> Window <<Feature>> Door Figure 2. One could design a super-model but due to the extreme diversity of vendor-specific formats and domain-specific variants this would hardly be a pragmatic solution. Part of the CityGML schema with BIM-relevant entities and attributes. e. e. ducts. e. physical quantities.. cleaning supplies. In our approach. surrounding buildings and other infrastructure elements. for example. geometric. a subset of IFC building information details cannot be directly mapped (e.Fire extinguishers. Navigation hints (e. gas.g. e. layered materials). stairs or pipes). Information about locking of windows and doors (e. integration can be achieved at the visualization level on the bases of the geospatial reference. as well as relationships between entities. IFC and CityGML. Both models. For the mapping. 2005).. Opening: represents windows and doors in walls. rising mains. and thematic attributes. windows. vegetation.. windows. and several relevant property sets.. building furniture. include the concept of complex buildings formed by aggregating building parts.4 Mapping BIM to City Model Elements For the visualization of a BIM within its geospatial context on the bases of a virtual 3D city model. While IFC supports various types of shape representation. CityGML defines detailed building elements such as slabs.g. hose reels.g. which is supported by numerous vendors in that field.g. e. Sensors such as smoke detectors. we map BIM data to CityGML model data.g.g. That is.. Enriching this building information with complementary geospatial information of the surrounding area of the building such as terrain. streets. by comparing their geometric extents). Such combination at the semantics level is essential to enable a precise analysis...
trees. edit. edge styles. nominal..g. size. ordinal. shape. and rational. orientation. e.g. building model available) no integration is necessary. Together with appropriate interaction techniques such as navigation or editing. Geovisualization comprises the mapping of geoinformation onto a computer graphics model and the synthesis of images. this geometry is reused for the city model object.g. semantics..3.2 Mapping BIM to Geometry For each BIM data to be mapped onto the city model there must be an existing or derived geometry whose appearance can be adjusted according to the type and value of the building information. interior walls. different visual variables for virtual 3D city models can be identified: Shape of city objects (e.g.g. and texture of boundary surfaces (e. Material. e. buildings. rooms). 3. color value and hue.g. windows. facade elements. etc. the usage of a room. VISUALIZATION OF BIM BY VIRTUAL 3D CITY MODELS Geovisualization is an effective and efficient means for the transfer of geospatial knowledge.. Explosion view of a LOD-4 CityGML building model derived from an IFC model. windows. This high-level functionality can be provided in a service-based manner and so can be included into ad-hoc rescue-processes for enabling. Carpendale (2001) discusses general visual variables. doors. shading. high-quality visualization. For the visualization of building information we identify two challenging tasks: The visualization of internals of composite structures (e. and motion. roofs) or other city objects. in particular those introduced by cartography.g.. enabling an inside-view of a building). including 3D city models and 3D landscape models. system and framework for 3D geodata management and real-time 3D geodata visualization (3D Geo. evaluate. View showing the relative temperature on the second floor. color. Position and orientation of city objects (e. explore. and analyze geoinformation and information with spatial reference.. colors are defined by object type. On this basis. The implementation of our combined GIS and BIM visualization is based on the LandXplorer technology. facades.1 Mapping BIM to Visual Variables Visual variables denote graphical aspects in which visualized entities can be varied for showing differences or relationships. LandXplorer supports users to create. Virtual 3D city models represent an important type of geovirtual environment and means for geovisualization. the BIM elements can be simply transformed into the corresponding city model elements. Figure 3.. If no such inherent Figure 4. groupings such as stories) Both are regarded by the building visualization techniques that are described in this chapter. building height). Due to this. building interiors). outer building installations. texture. of boundary surfaces or other city objects. Special visualization aspects such as illumination. Size of city objects (e. it allows the human user to easily perceive. 4 . they include position. manage. and analyze complex geovirtual 3D environments. 3.. doors. geometric. can potentially influence the corresponding properties of the city object element it is mapped to. BIM data generally shows multivariate characteristics. For BIM attributes the different data scales have to be considered: categorical.. We present two techniques for the automated ad-hoc visualization of BIM and GIS information. The visualization of intangible information (e. each of the properties of a BIM element. 2007). and thematic data. If the original building information is of type geometry. interval. shadows.g.
an extinguisher model) and are integrated into the 3D scene or positioned within the view plane as described by Maass and Döllner (2006).. As another approach to visualizing BIM we distort the geometry of building elements on the basis of their semantics. For explosion views.g. For the second floor only room objects are included. etc. HVAC installations.3 Emphasized BIM Visualization One approach for visualizing BIM information hides and emphasizes building structures: Important objects are highlighted and less important objects are reduced in perceptibility or even removed from the visualization. or chemicals. Apart from removal case. 3.. Figure 5 shows another view for identifying any rooms in the building that include any hazardous materials. or 3D objects (e. For example.. to visualize the presence of extinguishers. oil. For example. escape routes (topology) or stories (grouping of rooms).4 Deforming Building Structures for BIM Visualization Figure 5. and outlines for this visualization technique. View showing the rooms with hazardous materials. On the one side this tilting provides less information than the explosion view. The rooms on second floor are colored according to their temperature value from light red to dark red. Another issue is the 5 Figure 6. Thereby insight into every story is enabled and indoors elements such as furniture can be perceived without modifying the building objects’ appearance. the energy consumption of buildings could be mapped to the height of the building’s block model.g. The view contains all elements of the first floor in normal style. or first-aid kits. Alternatively. windows. 3D annotations can be visualized by texts. by using transparency.g. Those are used for exploding the building model vertically and for popping open the building model vertically. e. Such visualization is essential when dynamic data such as tracking data of firefighters shall be integrated with this building model and all their positions shall be visible at the same time. gas. Only its second floor is inspected in detail. . In detail GityGMLGroupings are evaluated for identifying the stories of a building and all story elements. e. Tilting up of the building for gaining insight. For the visualization of values.g. Therefore. For the story separation CityObjectGroups have been evaluated. symbols. see Figure 6. we are using only color. A second deforming technique just tilts up the building structures above a defined storey. which enables to perceive and judge the real-world spatial configuration and relationships. Figure 4 shows a 3D campus building. for example. non-geometric building information can be represented by annotations of the 3D scene. this technique leaves geometry unaltered. a geometrically translation is applied to the building stories and roof. A BIM-style controls the visual variables and defines the appearance of city model objects and building objects. transparency. A BIM-view configuration describes the objects that are included or excluded from the visualization and which BIMstyle to apply. a BIM style offers the possibility to define one of the object attributes whose values modify the original object color. The geometry can be composed from surfaces.calculation of a camera position that is appropriate for showing all the selected entities of interest. a base color hue (whose value is modified) and a normal range for the attribute’s values are defined. In the sense of the fire scenario this can indicate the fire source. for extracting the story geometry from all associated walls. either another BIM object can be used for representing the building information. geometry exists. According to the rendering. Furthermore. e. Only those rooms are colored which contain such materials. derived geometry is required for visualizing relationships such as room’s connectivity. Non-geometric building information can be mapped to attributes of geometry. respectively. on the other side it needs less image space and still contains more information 3. or a corresponding geometry has to be generated. only rooms of the building are displayed in transparent mode.
for example. 3. 4. Figure 7. photorealistic depictions of 3D geovirtual environments as well as to user-oriented and task-oriented depictions of geoinformation. with the investigation of GIS data. Provision of high-quality visualizations. WEB PERSPECTIVE VIEW SERVICE for BIM (BIM-WPVS) 4. domainspecific exploration and analysis functionality.1 High-Level Geoinformation Services The OGC web services such as Web Feature Service (WFS). a common understanding of the underlying classification and its entities is necessary. In general. Scenegraph-oriented: A Web 3D Service (W3DS) would deliver a scene graph. higher-level geoinformation services are implemented. i. a specialized mass coordinate transformation. 1998). these services are essential for implementing business processes. As shown in Figure 7 this deforming visualization technique can be combined with the mapping technique described above. 2006). or transforming geodata.g. or physical-based. accessible through a user interface. only for the second floor the room usage is color-coded. leads to a holistic approach for (semantical and geospatial) building information analysis. a specification of a virtual 3D world including 3D objects. and to request a visual representation of the report. Integration of complex geoinformation: The services typically integrate heterogeneous. correcting. Provision of business functionality: Include services that implement domain-specific knowledge and provide functionality such as adding business data to geodata. As a concept for such building information analysis we provide a tool with room report functionality. The tool allows the user to include or exclude different data sources such as GIS and BIM information from the analysis process. As a basis for the systematical investigation of building information. Configurable 3D views and rendering styles. Complementing this BIM investigation. we could implement the BIM-related high-level geoinformation service on top of the following OGC web services: Data-oriented: A Web Feature Service (WFS) would deliver and modify feature objects and their attributes. their attributes und hierarchical 4.e. The visualization of specific building information is an essential part of this room report tool.. e.. for indoor navigation (Mäs.e. 2007). which therefor uses the web service described in chapter 4. 2007). High-level geoinformation services are generally characterized by the following capabilities and functionalities: Enhancing geoinformation: Include services that enhance geodata by adding. than just removing the upper building parts from the visualization.5 Room Report as a Concept for BIM Analysis Building information analysis includes a kind of building decomposition and organizing. and evaluating the composites considering the relationships between them.g. Automated calculation of the camera positions. It is designed as a specialized Web Perspective View Service (WPVS) for building information (BIM-WPVS) and addresses the following requirements: Integration of 2D/3D GIS data and BIM data from diverse sources at the visualization level. e. Support of user interaction: Services that provide user interaction can be deployed at the application level (Voisard and Schweppe. They provide. inspecting. Support of context-awareness: Context-awareness refers to identifying and providing information about the tasks the user fulfills and the devices that the users deploys. and Web Map Service (WMS) provide means to communicate geodata and can be considered generic. distributed geodata at the modeling level or at the visualization level (Döllner and Hagedorn. Web Coverage Service (WCS).2 The BIM Visualization Web Service The geoinformation service for integrating and visualizing BIM and GIS data represents a kind of high-level web service.. stylized. room usage is color coded. the features and attributes the user is interested in). to select a room report (i. Explosion view for gaining insight. manipulating. 2004).low-level geoinformation services. “High quality” refers to enhanced. 2007). for interoperable 3D emergency routing (Neis et al. 6 . However. and orchestration of web services for disaster management (Weiser and Zipf. Provision of high-quality geovisualizations: Geovisualization is essential for geoinformation-based systems and applications.. Yet in a number of application-specific web services.. The view includes all building information. current geodata infrastructures need to evolve towards integrated systems for the provision of customized information and services (Morales and Radwan.
WPVS (as well as W3DS) do not transfer any further semantics to the client than the information contained in the synthesized image (or scene graph. Using a WPVS has the key advantage that there is no need for consumer-side 3D rendering because image synthesis is performed at the server side.. could deliver a semantical model of a geospatial scene in the CityGML format. In our case the different geoinformation is accessed from a central database. As a disadvantage. 4. the service provides several parameters which a) define the geoinformation layers to include. to apply processing-intensive techniques (e. and further context buildings for the geospatial surrounding on the basis of a virtual 3D city model. or ambient occlusion for simulating global illumination in geovirtual environments). and GetView. integrated and composed by the central LandXplorer-based server component.. We decided to implement the BIM in a visualization-oriented way. vegetation. The perspective view provided by the BIM-WPVS can be integrated into different processes for giving users insight into the geoinformation in an effective way. provide functionality for further improving the visual representation of the virtual 3D environment (e. aerial images.. In particular. Figure 8.. the server can be equipped with appropriate 3D computer graphics hardware. This approach would require additional knowledge about the format and processing of CityGML at the service consumer side. The GetCapabilities response further describes different general analysis views.4 Service Interface Similar to the OGC WPVS. the BIM-WPVS deploys a fat-server/thin-client approach.g.g. and additional building information. GetCapabilities. i. or supply interaction capabilities (e. BIM-WPVS provides different views that are configurable with respect to visualized data and visualization style. In contrast to that work. System architecture of the BIM-WPVS. the rendering of an image that emphasizes specific building information. structure. Tilt up view of a large campus building within its geospatial context. 2001).e. which.g. GetCapabilities: Describes the geoinformation layers that are available through the service and can be selected by the service consumer for visualization. Visualization-oriented: A Web Perspective View Service (WPVS) would provide perspective views of a static 3D scene as image. 4. but it might be distributed and could be accessed by using WFS and WMS web service adaptors that we have added to the LandXplorer CityGML viewer as a contribution to the CAD/GIS/BIM thread within OGC’s web services initiative. which provides the synthesized image.g. 2007). These views define the in-scope building information and how they are visualized.. LOD-4 building models. i. by adding annotations to the view).g. this data is processed by 3D rendering engines for visualization. phase 4 (OGC.e. Compared to the OGC WPVS.. additional detailed building information. we can deploy high-quality 3D rendering without having to consider the diverse client 3D rendering capabilities since BIM visualization results need only to be transferred to and displayed by lightweight client applications (Singh. for navigation and editing).g. Various sources and formats of geoinformation are accessed. to ad-hoc sensor network data). vegetation rendering. the BIM-WPVS provides two operations. which can be chosen for the server-side image rendering process.e. In the context of a BIM-WPVS this includes user authentication and authorizing the access to the underlying data which has to be appointed with user restrictions. e. including water or sky). which provides information about the service and its capabilities. 7 .Terrain Model Application Server (LandXplorer Platform) Request Aerial Images Building Models for Context Detailed Building Models Building Information Virtual 3D City Model BIM-Web Perspective View Service Image 3D Rendering System Client Application Security is another important issue that can be addressed with service composition.3 Service Architecture Figure 8 illustrates the system architecture of the BIM-WPVS. b) define the position of the virtual camera or leave this to the server for Figure 9. such as the OGC WFS. terrain data.. Building information is modeled as one layer of the BIM-WPVS. GetView: It provides the capabilities of the BIM-WPVS to the service consumer. Semantical information is currently only provided by data services. our BIM-WPVS is extended as follows: BIM-WPVS includes integration capabilities for different geoinformation. It is capable of integrating terrain data. The application of the BIMWPVS can be further enhanced by the combination with other services which could enable the access to further complex geoinformation (e. accordingly. non-photorealistic rendering. several building data.. For its configuration. This separation of geovisualization concerns allows us to implement specialized 3D visualization techniques such as for natural phenomena (e. i. respectively). a rendering of a geovirtual 3D environment..
org/files/?artifact_id=21371. We have explained how to map BIM data to components of virtual 3D city models. A. Fisher. Facility Information Council.. 5. B.  Neis.automated calculation. Reinhardt. Springer.. http://www. W.ca. 4073.org/bim. Available at http://pharos. 2004). Considering Visual Variables as a Basis for Information Visualization..) Springer.M. (Eds. In Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (Istanbul. 3rd International Symposium on Geoinformation for Disaster Management (Toronto. 2007. Phase 4 (OWS-4) Interoperability Testbed.) 2001. Netherlands. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Smart Graphics 2006 (Vancouver. In addition.. H. In Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Geo-Information for Disaster Management (Delft. 2007). 8 .  Kolbe. IFC model specification. F. LandXplorer Studio Software System. 306-316. A. 2005). and Zipf.  Weiser. van.opengeospatial. A.. 2005. October. 3D Emergency Route Service (3D-ERS) Based on OpenLS Specification. July 12-23. (Eds. GI4DM.ucalgary. A. G. we will focus on combining the BIMWPVS with other geoinformation and visualization services. Oosterom. Open Geospatial Consortium. http://www. Summary of the OGC Web Services.gsa.facilityinformationcouncil.. S. In our future work.H.. A. Fendel E. P. St. and Hagedorn. OpenGIS OGC Interoperability Program Report. Integrating Urban GIS. pp. 12(4). J. J. Germany.  Carpendale.  Voisard. K. Zlatanova.) Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. which successfully utilizes virtual 3D city models for seamlessly integrating and visualizing GIS and BIM data. 2004. United States General Services Administration. We demonstrated the applicability of the approach by our implementation of a BIM-WPVS. ISPRS 2004. Gröger. 2006. (Eds. UDMS 2007. 2007. Candidate OpenGIS CityGML Implementation Specification (City Geography Markup Language). A. P. and Czerwinski.gov/bim. pp. Springer.  GSA 2007.. Th. International Alliance for Interoperability. we will develop advanced BIM visualization techniques that focus on providing insight into complex spatial assemblies using non-photorealistic.. GI4DM 2007..e.cpsc.  Maass.T. and Wang. Zlatanova. and BIM Data by Service-Based Virtual 3D City Models. http://www. J.  OGC 2007. P. Conception of a 3D Geodata Web Service for the Support of Indoor Navigation with GNSS. http://www. Germany.  NBIMS 2007. 1227-1232. 26th Urban Data Management Symposium (Stuttgart. May 23-25. Open Geospatial Consortium.. May 23-25. A. d) define the general analysis view to apply. Abstraction and Decomposition in Interoperable GIS. Canada. and Leinemann. Vol. June 21-22. and Schweppe. M.R. 2006). Architecting Distributed Geo-Information Services: Beyond Data Infrastructures. J. In press. Department of Computer Science. A.iai-international. Kolbe. 3rd International Symposium on Geoinformation for Disaster Management (Toronto. 2006. 2007). Flexible Generation of Semantic 3D Building Models. 2007). V. 1998. or e) define a taskand domain-specific view with explicitly setting the relevant entities and the visualization style.  Gröger G. and Radwan.. (Ed.. CONCLUSIONS We have outlined design and implementation of a high-level geoinformation service that helps to close the gap between spatial information at the building level and spatial information at the city model level. Building Information Modeling Guide Series.. Canada. July 23-25.  IAI 2007. CityGML – Interoperable Access to 3D City Models. Abdul-Rahman. OGC Web Terrain Server (WTS).de. Schilling. A. National Building Information Standard project. pp. and Olivier. Figure 9 shows the result for a GetView request which integrates detailed building information for a large campus building within its geospatial context (i.  Singh. 2005. M.  Benner. and Zipf. CAD. A.  Morales. rendering styles can be configured by the service operation parameters and different views for analysis purposes can be obtained. University of Calgary. http://portal. REFERENCES  3D Geo 2007. we consider the BIM-WPVS as an example of a high-level geoinformation service that synthesizes complex data and applies advanced 3D visualization techniques while offering a high degree of interoperability due to the server-side 3D rendering.) 2006. illustrative 3D rendering techniques. Th. 1-12. terrain data and aerial image) and uses the tilt up view to allow the service consumer to gain insight into the building structure and properties.3dgeo. Geiger.. Efficient View Management for Dynamic Annotation Placement in Virtual Landscapes.. March 21–23.. B. GI4DM 2007. 2005). In Proceedings of Next Generation 3D City Models (Bonn. Web Service Orchestration (WSO) of OGC Web Services (OWS) for Disaster Management. Turkey. R.org. (Eds. S.) Lectures Notes in Computer Science.  Mäs. Krüger. Canada. L. In Innovations in 3D Geoinformation Science. Technical Report. 315-333.H. 2007. and Coors. and exemplified the approach by two BIM-specific visualization techniques. 2001. c) define the requested image size. S. As a general insight. In International Journal of GIS (IJGIS). and Döllner. Butz.  Döllner. pp. and Plümer.S.
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