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The Truth About Employment Services Jobs - How to Job-Hunt and Career-Change for Employment Services Jobs - The Facts You Should Know

The Truth About Employment Services Jobs - How to Job-Hunt and Career-Change for Employment Services Jobs - The Facts You Should Know

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Published by Emereo Publishing
For the first time, a book exists that compiles all the information candidates need to apply for their first Employment Services Job, or to apply for a better job, loaded with hundreds of strategies for applying your strengths.

Discover that..

- Although future job growth in the employment services industry expected to continue at a faster-than-average pace, this growth will represent a slowdown from the very rapid growth of the 1990s.
- Most temporary jobs in this industry require only graduation from high school, while some permanent jobs may require a bachelor’s or higher degree.
- Temporary jobs provide an entry into the workforce, supplemental income, and a bridge to full-time employment for many workers.

The book comes filled with useful cheat sheets. It helps you get your career organized in a tidy, presentable fashion. It also will inspire you to produce some attention-grabbing cover letters that convey your skills persuasively and attractively in your application packets.

After studying it, too, you'll be prepared for interviews, or you will be after you conducted the practice sessions where someone sits and asks you potential questions. It makes you think on your feet!

This book makes a world of difference in helping you stay away from vague and long-winded answers and you will be finally able to connect with prospective employers, including the one that will actually hire you.

Highly recommended to any harried Employment Services Jobs jobseeker, you'll plan on using it again in your efforts to move up in the world for an even better position down the road.

What you'll find especially helpful are the worksheets. It is so much easier to write about a work experience using these outlines. It ensures that the narrative will follow a logical structure and reminds you not to leave out the most important points. With this book, you'll be able to revise your application into a much stronger document, be much better prepared and a step ahead for the next opportunity.

This book offers excellent, insightful advice for everyone from entry-level to senior professionals. None of the other such career guides compare with this one. It stands out because it: 1) explains how the people doing the hiring think, so that you can win them over on paper and then in your interview; 2) has an engaging, reader-friendly style; 3) explains every step of the job-hunting process - from little-known ways for finding openings to getting ahead on the job.

This book covers everything. Whether you are trying to get your first Employment Services Job or move up in the system, get this book.
For the first time, a book exists that compiles all the information candidates need to apply for their first Employment Services Job, or to apply for a better job, loaded with hundreds of strategies for applying your strengths.

Discover that..

- Although future job growth in the employment services industry expected to continue at a faster-than-average pace, this growth will represent a slowdown from the very rapid growth of the 1990s.
- Most temporary jobs in this industry require only graduation from high school, while some permanent jobs may require a bachelor’s or higher degree.
- Temporary jobs provide an entry into the workforce, supplemental income, and a bridge to full-time employment for many workers.

The book comes filled with useful cheat sheets. It helps you get your career organized in a tidy, presentable fashion. It also will inspire you to produce some attention-grabbing cover letters that convey your skills persuasively and attractively in your application packets.

After studying it, too, you'll be prepared for interviews, or you will be after you conducted the practice sessions where someone sits and asks you potential questions. It makes you think on your feet!

This book makes a world of difference in helping you stay away from vague and long-winded answers and you will be finally able to connect with prospective employers, including the one that will actually hire you.

Highly recommended to any harried Employment Services Jobs jobseeker, you'll plan on using it again in your efforts to move up in the world for an even better position down the road.

What you'll find especially helpful are the worksheets. It is so much easier to write about a work experience using these outlines. It ensures that the narrative will follow a logical structure and reminds you not to leave out the most important points. With this book, you'll be able to revise your application into a much stronger document, be much better prepared and a step ahead for the next opportunity.

This book offers excellent, insightful advice for everyone from entry-level to senior professionals. None of the other such career guides compare with this one. It stands out because it: 1) explains how the people doing the hiring think, so that you can win them over on paper and then in your interview; 2) has an engaging, reader-friendly style; 3) explains every step of the job-hunting process - from little-known ways for finding openings to getting ahead on the job.

This book covers everything. Whether you are trying to get your first Employment Services Job or move up in the system, get this book.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 20, 2010
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10/31/2014

Sections

  • INTRODUCTION
  • EMPLOYMENT SERVICES – THE LOWDOWN
  • Significant Points
  • Nature of the Industry
  • Working Conditions
  • Employment
  • Training and Advancement
  • Outlook
  • Earnings
  • Sources of Additional Information
  • Where to Learn About Job Openings
  • Job Search Methods
  • Applying for a Job
  • Job Interview Tips
  • Evaluating a Job Offer
  • THE INTERVIEW AND SELECTION PROCESS
  • Step 1
  • Step 2
  • Step 3
  • Step 4
  • SAMPLE CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
  • Responsible
  • Likeable
  • Believable
  • Outgoing
  • Unflappable
  • INTERVIEWING
  • Planning
  • Confirming/Scheduling Interview
  • Conducting the Interview
  • Closing
  • Follow Up
  • TIPS ON INTERVIEWING
  • Questions/ Assessment Tools
  • Interview Questions To Get You Started
  • Supervisor and Manager Competencies
  • Interviewing People With Disabilities
  • Accommodating Persons With Disabilities For An Interview
  • Interview Do’s and Don’ts
  • CHECKING REFERENCES
  • Which References Should I Check?
  • Tips for Checking References
  • The Reference Check Questions To Ask
  • Prohibited Questions and Practices
  • RECORDING A PROFILE OF IMPRESSIONS
  • Supervisory and Managerial Competencies:
  • Building Coalitions/Communication:
  • RECRUITING
  • Before Submitting the Vacancy
  • When the Vacancy Announcement is Open
  • Once the Certificate is Received
  • After The Selection is Made
  • ASSESSING YOUR RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PRACTICES
  • Policies and Procedures
  • Recruitment Strategies

Getting and Finding Employment Services Jobs – The Ultimate Guide for Job Seekers and Recruiters

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES
Copyright Notice of Rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. No Claim to Orig. U.S. Govt. Works. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

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org if you write a review on Amazon (e. just log in to your account and click on the Create your own review (under Customer Reviews) button of the relevant product page. IF you purchased from another online store.g. What happens when I submit my review? Once you have submitted your review.$99 VALUE If you recently bought this book we would love to hear from you! Benefit from receiving a free eBook from our catalog at http://www. You can find examples of product reviews in Amazon. simply follow their procedures. send us an 3 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES WRITE A REVIEW – RECEIVE ANY FREE EBOOK FROM OUR CATALOG . the online store where you purchased this book) about your last purchase! How does it work? To post a review on Amazon.emereo.

4 . You will receive an email with your eBook as download link.emereo. and the eBook you'd like as our thank you from http://www.org with the link to your review.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES email at review@emereo. Pick any book you like from the catalog. It's that simple.org. up to $ 99 RRP.

.........................14 Nature of the Industry ..............................19 Employment ...........................................................................94 5 ................................................EMPLOYMENT SERVICES TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......................13 Significant Points .................................................... 9 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES – THE LOWDOWN .................................................................................56 Job Interview Tips .........15 Working Conditions ...22 Training and Advancement .................................................................................................................81 Step 2 ...42 Sources of Additional Information .................................................................................................48 Applying for a Job ..........................................................................45 FINDING AND APPLYING FOR EMPLOYMENT SERVICES JOBS AND EVALUATING OFFERS ................................35 Outlook ............................................................................46 Where to Learn About Job Openings................................................63 Evaluating a Job Offer ...................................................................................................84 Step 3 ...........................................38 Earnings........................................47 Job Search Methods ........................67 WHAT TO EXPECT FROM THE OTHER SIDE OF THE TABLE…HIRING THE BEST ........................................................77 THE INTERVIEW AND SELECTION PROCESS .......................................................................................................................................................................79 Step 1 ................................................................

.........................................................115 Outgoing ......124 Planning .....................................................................................................132 Interview Questions To Get You Started .........151 6 .121 INTERVIEWING ....................................................................................................................................132 Questions/ Assessment Tools ........118 Unflappable ..............124 Confirming/Scheduling Interview.............129 Follow Up ................143 CHECKING REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................136 Interviewing People With Disabilities .....................................141 Interview Do’s and Don’ts .111 Believable...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................138 Accommodating Persons With Disabilities For An Interview ................................................................................................................134 Supervisor and Manager Competencies .............................................................................147 Which References Should I Check? .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Step 4 .............97 SAMPLE CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................107 Responsible ..................130 TIPS ON INTERVIEWING .............................................107 Likeable ..............................................................................................149 Tips for Checking References ...................................126 Conducting the Interview ...........................................................................................................................................................127 Closing.......................................................................

.............154 Prohibited Questions and Practices .173 Recruitment Strategies ........................157 RECORDING A PROFILE OF IMPRESSIONS ........................................................................164 When the Vacancy Announcement is Open ..............................................................................................171 ASSESSING YOUR RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PRACTICES 173 Policies and Procedures ........167 Once the Certificate is Received...................................EMPLOYMENT SERVICES The Reference Check Questions To Ask.........................................163 Before Submitting the Vacancy ................161 Building Coalitions/Communication: .........169 After The Selection is Made .......176 7 ........162 RECRUITING ........................................................................................................159 Supervisory and Managerial Competencies: .......................................................

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 8 .

It also will inspire you to produce some attention-grabbing cover letters that convey your skills persuasively and attractively in your application packets. It helps you get your career organized in a tidy. a book exists that compiles all the information candidates need to apply for their first Employment Services job.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES INTRODUCTION For the first time. presentable fashion. be much better prepared and a step ahead for the next opportunity. 9 . What you'll find especially helpful are the worksheets. With this book. It is so much easier to write about a work experience using these outlines. you'll be able to revise your application into a much stronger document. or to apply for a better job. It ensures that the narrative will follow a logical structure and reminds you not to leave out the most important points. The book comes filled with useful cheat sheets.

This book successfully challenges conventional job search wisdom and doesn't load you with useful but obvious suggestions ("don't forget to wear a nice suit to your interview. you'll be prepared for interviews. it deliberately challenges conventional job search wisdom. offers radical but inspired suggestions for success.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES After studying it. including the one that will actually hire you. or you will be after you conducted the practice sessions where someone sits and asks you potential questions." for example). and in so doing. too. It makes you think on your feet! This book makes a world of difference in helping you stay away from vague and long-winded answers and you will be finally able to connect with prospective employers. Instead. and good business acumen and consistency?" Think that "the most qualified candidate gets the job?" Think again! Time and again it is proven that finding a job is a highly 10 . logic. Think that "companies approach hiring with common sense.

11 . so that you can win them over on paper and then in your interview. 2) has an engaging. reader-friendly style. Not sure how to do this? Don't worry-How to Land a Top-Paying Employment Services Job guides the way. Highly recommended to any harried Employment Services jobseeker. You'll plan on using it again in your efforts to move up in the world for an even better position down the road. None of the other such career guides compare with this one.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES subjective business filled with innumerable variables. insightful advice for everyone from entry-level to senior professionals. It stands out because it: 1) explains how the people doing the hiring think. whether you want to work for the government or a company. This book offers excellent. The triumphant jobseeker is the one who not only recognizes these inconsistencies and but also uses them to his advantage. 3) explains every step of the job-hunting process from little-known ways for finding openings to getting ahead on the job.

12 . Whether you are trying to get your first Employment Services*job or move up in the system. get this book.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES This book covers everything.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES EMPLOYMENT SERVICES – THE LOWDOWN • • • • • • • • Nature of the Industry Working Conditions Employment Occupations In The Industry Training and Advancement Outlook Earnings Sources of Additional Information 13 .

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Significant Points • Although future job growth in the employment services industry expected to continue at a faster-than-average pace. while some permanent jobs may require a bachelor’s or higher degree. Temporary jobs provide an entry into the workforce. this growth will represent a slowdown from the very rapid growth of the 1990s. Most temporary jobs in this industry require only graduation from high school. and a bridge to full-time employment for many workers. • • 14 . supplemental income.

The employment services industry has three distinct segments. TEMPORARY HELP SERVICES. on a contract basis and for a limited period. These services include providing temporary workers to other businesses. INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION. EMPLOYMENT PLACEMENT AGENCIES list employment vacancies and place permanent employees. PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYER ORGANIZATIONS are engaged in providing human resources and human resources management services to staff client businesses. also referred to as temporary staffing agencies. provide employees to other organizations. The employment services industry provides a variety of human resources services to businesses. to supplement the workforce of the client.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Nature of the Industry GOODS AND SERVICES. helping employers locate suitable employees. They also may share responsibility as a co-employer of workers in order to provide a cost-effective approach to the 15 . and providing human resources services to clients.

The typical employment placement agency has a relatively small permanent staff. who interview jobseekers and try to match their qualifications and skills to those being sought by employers for specific job openings (chart 1). 16 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES management and administration of the human resources functions of their clients. usually fewer than 10 workers.

Temporary workers are employed and paid by the temporary help services firm but are contracted out to a client for either a prearranged fee or an agreed hourly wage. who typically would receive greater salaries and benefits. the overwhelming majority of workers in the temporary help services segment of the employment services industry are temporary workers. relatively few are permanent staff. such as employee absences. Professional employer organizations specialize in performing a wide range of human resource and personnel management duties for their client businesses. Temporary help services firms provide temporary employees to other businesses to support or supplement their workforce in special situations. Some companies choose to use temporary workers full time on an ongoing basis. As a result. temporary skill shortages. including payroll processing. temporary help agencies typically employ many more workers. and varying seasonal workloads.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES In contrast to the smaller employment placement agencies. rather than employ permanent staff. 17 .

benefits administration. Employee leasing establishments. 18 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES accounting. typically acquire and lease back some or all of the employees of their clients and serve as the employer of the leased employees for payroll. and labor relations. benefits. recruiting. and related purposes. which are a type of professional employer organization.

Most assignments are of short duration 19 . Workers employed as permanent staff of employment agencies. Most full-time temporary workers put in 35 to 40 hours a week. Permanent employees in employment agencies usually work a standard 40-hour week.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Working Conditions HOURS. Temporary employees work in a variety of environments and often do not stay in any one place long enough to settle into a personal workspace or establish close relationships with coworkers. while some work longer hours. The low average work week reflects the fact that a temporary employee could work 40 or more hours a week on a contract for an extended period and then take a few weeks off from work. unless seasonal fluctuations require more or fewer hours. temporary help services firms. The average annual work week in the employment services industry was about 33 hours in 2006. compared with the average of 34 hours across all industries. or professional employer organizations usually work in offices and may meet numerous people daily.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES because temporary workers may be called to replace a worker who is ill or on vacation or to help with a short-term surge of work. persons juggling job and family responsibilities. assignments of several weeks or longer occasionally may be offered. The opportunity for a short-term source of income while enjoying flexible schedules and an ability to take extended leaves of absence is well-suited to students. However. those exploring various careers. temporary employees may work for a new supervisor. and those seeking permanent positions in a chosen career. Temporary work assignments provide an opportunity to experience a variety of work settings and employers. Employment as a temporary is attractive to some. On each assignment. and to learn new skills. Firms try to accommodate workers’ preferences for particular days or hours of work and for frequency or duration of assignments. 20 . to sharpen skills through practice.

many workers in temporary assignments would prefer the stability and greater benefits associated with full-time work. Temporary workers in industrial occupations often perform work that is more strenuous and potentially more dangerous.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Nevertheless.3 cases for every 100 full-time workers in 2006. The annual injury and illness rate for the employment services industry as a whole was 3. For example. WORK ENVIRONMENT. Since temporary and leased workers are used by a variety of different businesses. Permanent employees who are responsible for the day-to-day activities of firms within the industry tend to work in offices.4 for the entire private sector. 21 . temporary or leased clerical workers typically work in offices while production workers work in manufacturing plants. lower than the rate of 4. the work environments faced can vary greatly. and may have a higher rate of injury and illness. depending on the type of work done.

000 establishments in the industry are temporary help services firms which employ 7 out of 10 industry workers. about 2. Employment in the employment services industry is distributed throughout the United States. Workers are somewhat younger than those in other industries—42 percent of employment services workers are under 35.000. compared with 35 percent of all workers.6 million of them in temporary help services firms.000 of the 68. Professional employer organizations employed about 729. 22 .7 million jobs in 2006. reflecting the large number of clerical and other entry-level positions in the industry that require little formal education.000. and employment placement agencies employed another 296. About 40.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Employment The employment services industry provided 3.

MANAGERS ensure that the agency is run effectively. business. and they often conduct interviews of potential clients and jobseekers. and the variety of occupations supplied through the temporary help services segment of the industry and the professional employer organizations. EMPLOYMENT. SALES WORKERS actively pursue new client 23 . In general. and sales occupations.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Occupations in the Industry The employment services industry encompasses many occupations. business. which together account for about 9 percent of jobs in this industry. financial. RECRUITMENT. and sales occupations. occupations in the industry include the permanent staff of employment services firms. from office and administrative support occupations to professional and production occupations (table 1). AND PLACEMENT SPECIALISTS recruit and evaluate applicants and attempt to match them with client firms. Management. financial. Many of these workers are in management. The staff of employment service agencies is responsible for the daily operation of the firm.

Because of fierce competition among agencies. SECRETARIES perform a range of tasks. producing reports.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES firms and recruit qualified workers. and answering the telephone. although some persons take special training to learn skills such as bookkeeping. GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS file documents. FILE CLERKS classify and store office 24 . RECEPTIONISTS greet visitors. LEGAL SECRETARIES must be familiar with the format of common legal documents. Experience in office and administrative support occupations usually is preferred for these jobs. These positions may be either temporary or permanent. marketing and sales work at times can be quite stressful. such as keyboarding. and enter computer data. MEDICAL SECRETARIES make appointments and need a familiarity with common medical terms and procedures. About 24 percent of workers in this industry are in office and administrative support jobs. and perform assorted office functions. depending on the type of firm in which they work. field telephone calls. type reports. OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES information and records. WORD PROCESSORS AND TYPISTS enter and format drafts of documents using computers. BOOKKEEPING CLERKS compute. and material moving occupations. more repetitive tasks on production lines. and record transaction data for financial records and reports. although in many of them related work experience is an asset. transportation. Others require significant experience and on-the-job training. Few of these jobs require education beyond high school. STOCK. classify. or other businesses. Production occupations and transportation and material moving occupations together account for 40 percent of employment in the employment services industry. AND MATERIAL MOVERS transport goods to and from storage areas in either factories. HAND PACKERS AND 25 . Production. while other less skilled workers perform simpler. Highly skilled ASSEMBLERS AND FABRICATORS may assemble and connect parts of electronic devices. warehouses. DATA ENTRY KEYERS enter information into a computer data base. LABORERS AND FREIGHT.

A growing number of temporary workers are specialized professional and related workers. inspect. and maintain computer software. who administer medication. COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS write. tend to patients. the programs that computers follow to perform functions. test. and label materials manually. For example. Professional and related occupations. While computer programmers 26 . package. some of whom require many years of postsecondary education to qualify for their positions. and advise patients and family members about procedures and proper care. often keeping records of what has been packed and shipped.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES PACKAGERS wrap. who currently account for another 11 percent of employment. ENGINEERS require at least a bachelor’s degree. but they may be assigned to private duty in patients’ homes. Other professionals requiring some postsecondary education include REGISTERED NURSES. Professional and related occupations include a variety of specialists and practitioners. LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES provide basic bedside care to patients. They usually work in hospitals.

HOME HEALTH AIDES usually work in the home of an elderly or ill patient. The remainder of the workers in this industry includes those in farming. Service occupations. and repair occupations. allowing the patient to stay at home instead of being institutionalized. formal training is an asset. but employers do prefer previous experience. NURSING AIDES and ORDERLIES also seldom need education beyond high school.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES are not required to have postsecondary education. These workers assist nurses with patient care in hospitals and nursing homes. fishing. and forestry as well as installation. maintenance. 27 . Service workers employed on a temporary basis also include a number of health care support occupations. Becoming a home health aide generally does not require education beyond high school.

and placement specialists 70 1. Number Percent 2006-16 3. (Employment in thousands) Employment. recruitment.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 1.7 1. 2006 Occupation All occupations Percent change.9 Management.5 27.8 13. and financial occupations Top executives Employment.7 28 . 2006 and projected change.9 205 5.7 31.0 18.6 30.657 100. 392 70 25 18 10. business.6 21.6 28 0.9 11.7 0. Employment of wage and salary workers in employment services by occupation.9 0. 2006-2016.9 Professional and related occupations Computer specialists Engineers Engineering technicians.4 27.

secondary.6 26. and special education teachers Registered nurses Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 54 1. Number Percent 2006-16 Service occupations Nursing aides. 2006 Occupation except drafters Primary.3 37.8 26.5 26. and attendants Fast food and counter workers Waiters and waitresses 376 52 10.6 29 .6 95 2. Employment of wage and salary workers in employment services by occupation. 2006 and projected change.5 26.3 1. orderlies.7 26.6 18 0.6 Percent change.4 25. 2006-2016.6 21 47 0. (Employment in thousands) Employment.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 1.6 1.

2006 and projected change.3 29. (Employment in thousands) Employment.7 0. except maids and housekeeping cleaners Maids and housekeeping cleaners Landscaping and groundskeeping workers 20 0.8 19. 2006-2016.3 Office and administrative support occupations 872 23.8 11.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 1. Number Percent 2006-16 28 0.6 49 1. 2006 Occupation Janitors and cleaners.4 Percent change.5 1.8 12.1 Sales and related occupations Retail sales workers Telemarketers 110 26 30 3.0 0.6 26. Employment of wage and salary workers in employment services by occupation.6 21.8 30 .

9 31 .2 40 1.7 7. and traffic clerks Stock clerks and order fillers Secretaries and administrative assistants Data entry keyers Office clerks.7 106 2. Number Percent 2006-16 61 1. general 54 183 1.5 11.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 1. 2006 Occupation Bookkeeping.0 1. 2006-2016.6 Percent change.5 5.1 26. accounting.2 21.3 12.9 39. Employment of wage and salary workers in employment services by occupation. receiving. (Employment in thousands) Employment. 2006 and projected change. and auditing clerks Customer service representatives Receptionists and information clerks Shipping.2 129 3.0 44 1.8 44 1.2 5.

6 58 1.6 26. 2006-2016.2 32 . 2006 Occupation Percent change. (Employment in thousands) Employment.6 26.6 22.5 22.9 21.2 26.9 26.5 0.9 0.1 5. Employment of wage and salary workers in employment services by occupation. maintenance. 2006 and projected change.6 Installation.5 Production occupations Team assemblers Machine tool cutting 697 200 32 19. and repair occupations Maintenance and repair workers.6 26. Number Percent 2006-16 Construction and extraction occupations Carpenters Construction laborers 178 29 91 4.8 2. general 32 0.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 1.

2006 and projected change.3 18. and weighers Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders Helpers--Production workers 120 3.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 1. and tenders.7 32.3 24 0.0 33 .6 13. Number Percent 2006-16 Transportation and material moving occupations 752 20. operators.9 Percent change. 2006 Occupation setters. metal and plastic Machinists Inspectors. samplers.0 19.9 37 1. sorters. Employment of wage and salary workers in employment services by occupation. testers.7 13.9 61 1. 2006-2016. (Employment in thousands) Employment.

9 Percent change. hand Packers and packagers.0 13. 2006 and projected change. Employment of wage and salary workers in employment services by occupation.9 Note: Columns may not add to totals due to omission of occupations with small employment 34 . heavy and tractor-trailer Truck drivers. stock. 2006 Occupation Truck drivers.6 26 0. Number Percent 2006-16 42 1. (Employment in thousands) Employment. light or delivery services Industrial truck and tractor operators Laborers and freight.7 26.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 1.8 13. and material movers. 2006-2016.6 38 1.3 469 12.1 26. hand 139 3.8 1.

Agency training policies vary. so persons considering temporary work should ask firms what training they offer and at what cost. Some temporary help services firms offer skills training to newly hired employees to make them more marketable. may require a bachelor’s or higher degree. 35 . while some permanent jobs. This training often is provided free to the temporary worker and is an economical way to acquire training in important skills such as word processing. a growing number of jobs will require a bachelor’s or advanced degree. As the industry expands to include various professional and managerial occupations.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Training and Advancement The employment services industry offers opportunities in many occupations for workers with a variety of skill levels and experience. In general. The majority of temporary jobs still require only graduation from high school or the equivalent. such as those in management. the training requirements of temporary workers mirror those for permanent employees in the economy as a whole.

For example.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Advancement as a temporary employee usually takes the form of pay increases or greater choice of jobs. such as secretaries or data entry keyers. such as accountants or nurses. administrative support workers. many accept offers to work full time for clients for whom they worked as temporary workers. Staff of employment placement agencies and permanent staff of temporary help services firms typically comprise employment interviewers. More often. Some experienced temporary workers may be offered permanent jobs with help firms. Agencies specializing in placing administrative support workers. agencies that place professionals. such as training others for temporary jobs. are more likely to hire interviewers with less 36 . Turnover among temporary workers within help supply firms usually is very high. and managers. temporary workers transfer to full-time jobs with other employers. The qualifications required of employment interviewers depend partly on the occupations that the employment placement agency or temporary help services firm specializes in placing. usually employ interviewers with college degrees in similar fields.

and administration. risk management. payroll. usually do not require formal education beyond high school. Staffs of professional employer organizations include professionals in human resources management. legal services. employment compliance. but who have experience in those occupations. recruitment. Employment. such as receptionists. Sometimes. Most managers have college degrees. but seldom without a bachelor’s degree. and placement specialists often advance to managerial positions. an undergraduate degree in personnel management or a related field is the best preparation for these jobs. related work experience may be needed. financial management. 37 . Although administrative support occupations. staff experienced in administrative support occupations advance to employment interviewer positions.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES education.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

Outlook EMPLOYMENT CHANGE. Employment services has been one of the fastest growing industries in the Nation. Although future job growth is expected to continue at a faster-than-average pace, this growth will represent a slowdown from the very rapid growth of the 1990s. The industry is expected to gain about 692,000 new jobs over the 2006–16 projection period. Wage and salary employment in the employment services industry is expected to grow 19 percent over this period, compared to the 11 percent growth projected for all industries combined. Temporary help agencies, the largest sector within employment services, should continue to generate the most new jobs in this industry. This growth will be spurred by businesses in need of workers to manage seasonal and other temporary increases in their workloads, demand for specialized workers, and those businesses seeking to expand without incurring the initial costs associated with permanent employees.

38

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

Employment in professional employer organizations is expected to grow in response to demands by businesses for changes in human resources management. The increasing complexity of employee-related laws and regulations and a desire to control costs, reduce risks, and provide more integrated services will spur more businesses to contract with professional employer organizations to handle their personnel management, health benefits, workers’ compensation claims, payroll, tax compliance, and unemployment insurance claims. Businesses are expected to increasingly enter into relationships with professional employer organizations and shift these responsibilities to specialists. Employment placement agencies are expected to continue growing, but not as fast as temporary help services or professional employer organizations. Growth in these agencies stems from employers’ increasing willingness to allow outside agencies to perform the preliminary screening of candidates and the growing acceptance of executive recruitment services. However, online employment placement agencies

39

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

operate without employment counselors and need fewer administrative support workers. Job postings on employer Web sites; online newspaper classified ads; and job matching Internet sites operated by educational institutions and professional associations compete with this industry, thereby limiting employment growth. JOB PROSPECTS. Increasing demand for flexible work arrangements and schedules, coupled with significant turnover in these positions, should create plentiful job opportunities for persons who seek jobs as temporary or contract workers through 2016. In particular, suppliers of medical personnel to hospitals and other medical facilities should continue to fare well, as demand for temporary health care staffing grows to meet the needs of aging baby boomers and to supplement demand for more health care services throughout the country. Also, businesses are expected to continue to seek new ways to make their staffing patterns more responsive to changes in demand. As a result, firms increasingly may hire temporary employees with specialized skills to reduce costs

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risk management. 41 . growth of temporary help firms and professional employer organizations—which provide human resource management. including engineers and health care practitioners such as registered nurses. production. However. In addition. the continuing trend toward specialization also will spur growth among professional workers. and transportation and material moving occupations. as government increasingly contracts out management functions.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES and to provide the necessary knowledge or experience in certain types of work. Most new jobs will arise in the largest occupational groups in this industry—office and administrative support. Marketing and sales representative jobs in temporary staffing firms also are expected to increase along with competition among these firms for the most qualified workers and the best clients. Managers also will see an increase in new jobs. accounting. and information technology services— will provide more opportunities for professional workers within those fields.

Also. but some experienced temporary workers make as much as or more than workers in similar occupations in other industries. As in other industries.76 per hour and $453 per week. May 2006 Employment Occupation services All industries 42 . earnings among nonsupervisory workers in employment services firms were $13. Median hourly earnings of the largest occupations in employment services. Table 2.76 an hour and $568 a week for all private industry. temporary workers usually earn less than workers employed as permanent staff.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Earnings INDUSTRY EARNINGS. lower than the $16. In 2006. managers and professionals earn more than clerks and laborers. Earnings in the largest occupations in employment services appear in table 2. Earnings vary as widely as the range of skills and formal education among workers in employment services.

40 11.63 9.54 20.97 11.62 11. and material movers.04 8. and placement specialists Customer service representatives Office clerks. general Construction laborers Production workers.97 8.10 All industries $27.74 10.66 11. all other Team assemblers Laborers and freight.63 8.38 9.89 19.40 12.20 13. hand Helpers--production workers Packers and packagers. hand 8.90 9.20 services $30.48 43 . May 2006 Employment Occupation Registered nurses Employment. recruitment. Median hourly earnings of the largest occupations in employment services.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Table 2.69 10. stock.53 9.

compared with about 13 percent of workers in all industries combined. temporary workers usually do not receive such benefits unless they work a minimum number of hours or days per week to qualify for benefit plans.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES BENEFITS AND UNION MEMBERSHIP. Only 2 percent of workers in employment services are union members or are covered by union contracts. 44 . Most permanent workers receive basic benefits.

contact: • American Staffing Association. Banner Elk. Washington St. Internet:http://www. VA 22314. Box 2128. contact: National Association of Professional Employer Organizations.. NC 28604.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Sources of Additional Information For information concerning employment in temporary help services. The Village At Banner Elk. P. Suite 108.napeo.net For information about professional employer organizations.org For information about employment placement agencies. Suite 200. Internet: http://www. 277 S. contact: National Association of Personnel Services. Alexandria. • • 45 .O.americanstaffing.

And knowing how to judge the job offers you receive makes it more likely that you will end up with the best possible job. • • • • • Where to learn About Job Openings Job Search Methods Applying for a Job Job Interview Tips Evaluating a Job Offer 46 . but knowing more about job search methods and application techniques can increase your chances of success.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES FINDING AND APPLYING FOR EMPLOYMENT SERVICES JOBS AND EVALUATING OFFERS Finding—and getting—a job you want can be a challenging process.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Where to Learn About Job Openings • • • • Personal contacts School career planning and placement offices Employers Classified ads: i. National and local newspapers ii. Trade magazines • • • • • • • • Internet resources Professional associations Labor unions State employment service offices Federal Government Community agencies Private employment agencies and career consultants Internships 47 . Professional journals iii.

career testing. acquaintances. Be sure to tell people that you are looking for a job because the people you know may be some of the most effective resources for your search. and others who know of an opening. People get them by talking to friends. or professional organizations. join student. They also may have lists of open jobs. neighbors. School career planning and placement offices. Personal contacts.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job Search Methods Finding a job can take months of time and effort. Some invite recruiters to use their facilities for interviews or career fairs. 48 . former coworkers. To develop new contacts. Most also offer career counseling. High school and college placement offices help their students and alumni find jobs. community. family. But you can speed the process by using many methods to find job openings. Many jobs are never advertised. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest that people who use many job search methods find jobs faster than people who use only one or two. teachers.

and effective interviewing. In addition to giving you career information. Consider asking for an informational interview with people working in the career you want to learn more. what they like and dislike about the work. develop a list of potential employers in your desired career field. host workshops on job search strategy. Through library and Internet research. Some have career resource libraries. do not hesitate to contact the employer: You never know when a job might become available. Ask them how they got started. what type of qualifications are necessary for the job.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES and job search advice. Directly contacting employers is one of the most successful means of job hunting. critique drafts of resumes. they may 49 . Then call these employers and check their Web sites for job openings. Employers. Web sites and business directories can tell you how to apply for a position or whom to contact. and what type of personality succeeds in that position. Even if no open positions are posted. and sponsor job fairs. letter writing. resume writing. conduct mock interviews.

do not rely solely on the classifieds. and personal qualifications required for the position. because openings may be filled quickly. 50 . educational background. Answer ads promptly. and many people find work by responding to these ads. even before the ad stops appearing in the paper. But when using classified ads. Classified ads. The "Help Wanted" ads in newspapers and the Internet list numerous jobs. • Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded. and they can keep you in mind if a position opens up. • Read the ads every day.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES be able to put you in contact with other people who might hire you. particularly the Sunday edition. including the specific skills. which usually includes the most listings. keep the following in mind: • • Follow all leads to find a job.

others are local. including career planning. Many Web sites allow job seekers to post their resumes online for free. 51 . educational programs. remember that job listings may be posted by field or discipline. The Internet includes many job hunting Web sites with job listings. Some job boards provide National listings of all kinds. These are online discussion groups where anyone may post and read messages. To find good prospects. others are general. begin with an Internet search using keywords related to the job you want. Professional associations. Also look for the sites of related professional associations. Many professions have associations that offer employment information. so begin your search using keywords. Also consider checking Internet forums. Some relate to a specific type of work. Use forums specific to your profession or to career-related topics to post questions or messages and to read about the job searches or career experiences of other people. also called message boards. In online job databases.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Internet resources.

To use these services.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES job listings. Labor unions. information can be obtained directly from an association through the Internet. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration. associations usually require that you be a member. Local offices. Labor unions provide various employment services to members and potential members. help job seekers to find jobs and help employers to find qualified workers at no cost to either.S. look in the State government telephone listings under "Job Service" or "Employment. State employment service offices. found nationwide. by telephone. To find the office nearest you. including apprenticeship programs that teach a specific trade or skill." 52 . operates in coordination with the U. sometimes called the Job Service. or by mail. The State employment service. Contact the appropriate labor union or State apprenticeship council for more information. and job placement.

State employment service offices also refer people to opportunities available under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998. If you are a veteran. dislocated workers. an interviewer will determine if you are "job ready" or if you need help from counseling and testing services to assess your occupational aptitudes and interests and to help you choose and prepare for a career. These programs 53 . After you are job ready. veterans are entitled to priority job placement at State employment service centers. A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. and youth. including adults. At the State employment service office.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job matching and referral. Educational and career services and referrals are provided to employers and job seekers. By law. a veterans’ employment representative can inform you of available assistance and help you to deal with problems. Services for special groups. you may examine available job listings and select openings that interest you.

such as 54 . and reduce their dependency on welfare. career development. Information on obtaining a position with the Federal Government is available from the U.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES help to prepare people to participate in the State's workforce. offer counseling. and job placement services. These numbers are not toll free. including religious institutions and vocational rehabilitation agencies.usajobs. Community agencies. and charges may result.S.opm. Many nonprofit organizations. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) through USAJOBS. improve their educational and occupational skills. generally targeted to a particular group. Federal Government. increase their employment and earnings potential.

55 . When determining if the service is worth the cost.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES women. Some internships and longterm volunteer positions come with stipends and all provide experience and the chance to meet employers and other good networking contacts. Private agencies can save you time and they will contact employers who otherwise might be difficult to locate. But these agencies may charge for their services. career centers. or older workers. Most operate on a commission basis. consider any guarantees that the agency offers. Look for internships and volunteer opportunities on job boards. and company and association Web sites. You or the hiring company will pay the fee. Internships. minorities. Private employment agencies and career consultants. Many people find jobs with business and organizations with whom they have interned or volunteered. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying associated fees before using the service. but also check community service organizations and volunteer opportunity databases. charging a percentage of the first-year salary paid to a successful applicant. ex-offenders. youths.

You will almost always need to complete resumes or application forms and cover letters. education. Later. the next step is to apply for them. The goal of these documents is to prove—as clearly and directly as possible—how your qualifications match the job’s requirements. Resumes and application forms both include the same information. and skills that most closely fit the job you want. gather the following facts: • Contact information. Resumes and application forms. As a first step. you will probably need to go on interviews to meet with employers face to face. Do this by highlighting the experience. e-mail address 56 . including your name. mailing address. Gathering information. accomplishments. Resumes and application forms give employers written evidence of your qualifications and skills.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Applying for a Job After you have found some jobs that interest you.

include the job title. months and years of attendance. name and location of employer. Include a grade point average if you think it would help in getting the job. Also consider listing courses and awards that might be relevant to the position. "Supervised 10 57 . including school name and its city and State. highest grade completed or diploma or degree awarded. For each job. • Type of work or specific job you are seeking or a qualifications summary. paid and volunteer. for example. and major subject or subjects studied. • Experience. write. and dates of employment. and telephone number. which describes your best skills and experience in just a few lines.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES (if you have one you check often). Briefly describe your job duties and major accomplishments. In a resume. • Education. use phrases instead of sentences to describe your work.

finished a task in half the usual time. Throughout the application or resume. coworkers. proficiency in foreign languages. or and membership in organizations in a separate section. you might say that you increased sales by 10 percent. using some of the same words and phrases to describe your work and education.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES children" instead of writing "I supervised 10 children. focus on accomplishments that relate most closely to the job you want. You can even use the job announcement as a guide. for instance. Be ready to provide references if requested. • References. achievements. You will be asked to provide contact information for the people you choose. 58 . You might list computer skills." • Special skills. Good references could be former employers. or teachers or anyone else who can describe your abilities and job-related traits. Look for concrete examples that show your skills. When describing your work experience.

the format is set. have someone else look over the form before submitting it. In a resume. Most applicants list their past jobs in reverse chronological order. Still other applicants choose 59 . If possible. organizing their work experience under headings that describe their major skills. employers. But some applicants use a functional format. the next step is to put it in the proper format. In an application form. Do not omit any requested information. but the most important information should usually come first. describing their most recent employment first and working backward. and dates of employment. there are many ways of organizing the information you want to include.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES or received three letters of appreciation from customers. Consider making a copy of the form before filling it out. in case you make a mistake and have to start over. But make sure you fill it out completely and follow all instructions. Choosing a format. Just fill in the blanks. They then include a brief work history section that lists only job titles. After gathering the information you want to present.

Many experts recommend that new workers use a one-page resume. Keep in mind that many employers scan resumes into databases.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES a format that combines these two approaches in some way. or industry buzz words. keep your resume short. Consider using bullets to highlight duties or key accomplishments. Choose the style that best showcases your skills and experience. which they then search for specific keywords or phrases. Whatever format you choose. Avoid long blocks of text and italicized material. Are the headings clear and consistently formatted with bold or some other style of type? Is the type face large enough? Then. The keywords are usually nouns referring to experience. Identify keywords by reading the job description and qualifications in the job ad. personal characteristics. Before submitting your resume. make sure that it is easy to read. ask at least two people to proofread the resume for spelling and other errors and make sure you use your computer’s spell checker. use these same words 60 . education.

if you know that your resume will be scanned. It is also a good idea to send a traditionally formatted resume along with your scannable resume. follow a business letter format. If you must submit a paper resume. For example. use the words "customer service" on your resume. Cover letters. Your cover letter should capture the employer’s attention.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES in your resume. and usually should include the following information: 61 . and you have the option. and graphics. When sending a resume. e-mail an electronic version. which could mean some of your keywords don’t get into the database. italics. most people include a cover letter to introduce themselves to the prospective employer. if the job description includes customer service tasks. make it scannable by using a simple font and avoiding underlines. Most cover letters are no more than three short paragraphs. So. Scanners sometimes misread paper resumes. with a note on each marking its purpose.

As with your resume. which avoids graphics. Request for an interview.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Name and address of the specific person to whom the letter is addressed. and underlines. it may be helpful to look for examples on the Internet or in books at your local library or bookstore. 62 . • • • • Reason for your interest in the company or position. you should also include a scannable cover letter. If you send a scannable resume. but be sure not to copy letters directly from other sources. Your main qualifications for the position. italics. Your home and work telephone numbers. fancy fonts.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job Interview Tips An interview gives you the opportunity to showcase your qualifications to an employer. Preparation: • • • • Learn about the organization. showing how it relates it the job. The following information provides some helpful hints. so it pays to be well prepared. 63 . Review your qualifications for the job. such as "Why should I hire you?" "Why do you want this job?" "What are your strengths and weaknesses?" • Practice an interview with a friend or relative. Have a specific job or jobs in mind. Personal appearance: • Be well groomed. • Be ready to answer broad questions. Be ready to briefly describe your experience.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • • Dress appropriately. • • • • • • Use good manners with everyone you meet. Use proper English—avoid slang. 64 . Ask questions about the position and the organization. Be cooperative and enthusiastic. Relax and answer each question concisely. but avoid questions whose answers can easily be found on the company Web site. Learn the name of your interviewer and greet him or her with a firm handshake. • Also avoid asking questions about salary and benefits unless a job offer is made. Use body language to show interest— use eye contact and don’t slouch. Do not chew gum or smoke. The interview: • • Be early.

Government-issued identification (driver’s license). Get permission before using anyone as a reference. Resume or application. Employers may require an official copy of transcripts to verify grades. dates of 65 . Try to avoid using relatives as references. Employers typically require three references. coursework. • References. and previous employment. Make sure that they will give you a good reference. Information to bring to an interview: • • • Social Security card. you should be able to furnish the interviewer information about your education. Send a short thank you note. Although not all employers require a resume. training. • Transcripts.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • • Thank the interviewer when you leave and shake hands.

and highest grade completed or degree awarded. 66 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES attendance.

size. you must decide if you want the job. You generally can get background information on an organization. on its Internet site or by telephoning its public relations office. Background information on an organization can help you to decide whether it is a good place for you to work. Will the organization be a good place to work? Will the job be interesting? Are there opportunities for advancement? Is the salary fair? Does the employer offer good benefits? Now is the time to ask the potential employer about these issues—and to do some checking on your own. There are many issues to consider when assessing a job offer. The organization. particularly a large organization.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Evaluating a Job Offer Once you receive a job offer. and location. A public company’s annual report 67 . Fortunately. Factors to consider include the organization’s business or activity. age. financial condition. most organizations will give you a few days to accept or reject an offer.

If you cannot get an annual report. company newsletters or magazines. products and services. Background information on the organization may be available at your public or school library. speak to current or former employees of the organization. goals. check the library for reference directories that may provide basic facts about the company. such as earnings. Press releases. Most government agencies can furnish reports that describe their programs and missions. and recruitment brochures also can be useful. If possible. Ask the organization for any other items that might interest a prospective employee.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES to the stockholders tells about its corporate philosophy. products or services. and financial status. and number of employees. Some directories widely available in libraries either in print or as online databases include: • • Dun & Bradstreet’s Million Dollar Directory Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations 68 . history.

economy.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • • • Mergent’s Industrial Review (formerly Moody’s Industrial Manual) Thomas Register of American Manufacturers Ward’s Business Directory Stories about an organization in magazines and newspapers can tell a great deal about its successes. online at www.gov/oco/cg.) Trade magazines also may include articles on the trends for specific industries. are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and revised every 2 years. You can identify articles on a company by looking under its name in periodical or computerized indexes in libraries. Long-term projections of employment and output for detailed industries. or by using one of the Internet’s search engines. failures. The library also may have government publications that present projections of growth for the industry in which the organization is classified.S. and plans for the future. covering the entire U. However. 69 . it probably will not be useful to look back more than 2 or 3 years. (See the Career Guide to Industries.bls.

During your research consider the following questions: • Does the organization’s business or activity match your own interests and beliefs? • It is easier to apply yourself to the work if you are enthusiastic about what the organization does. Ask a career center representative how to find out about a particular organization. and better employee benefits than do small firms. Large employers also may have more advanced 70 . • How will the size of the organization affect you? Large firms generally offer a greater variety of training programs and career paths. more managerial levels for advancement.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Career centers at colleges and universities often have information on employers that is not available in libraries.

you will be unhappy if you dislike the day-to-day work.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES technologies. a closer working relationship with top management. However. the more you find out about the job before accepting or rejecting the offer. the excitement of helping to create a company and the potential for sharing in its success more than offset the risk of job loss. The job. Jobs in small firms may offer broader authority and responsibility. the more likely you 71 . but for many people. Even if everything else about the job is attractive. Should you work for a relatively new organization or one that is well established? New businesses have a high failure rate. However. and a chance to clearly see your contribution to the success of the organization. However. Determining in advance whether you will like the work may be difficult. it may be just as exciting and rewarding to work for a young firm that already has a foothold on success. many jobs in large firms tend to be highly specialized.

How important is the job to the company or organization? An explanation of where you fit in the organization and how you are supposed to contribute to its 72 . you should consider the time and expense of commuting. Does the work match your interests and make good use of your skills? The duties and responsibilities of the job should be explained in enough detail to answer this question. Even if the job location is in your area. the availability of housing and transportation.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES are to make the right choice. and the quality of educational and recreational facilities in that section of the country. Consider the following questions: Where is the job located? If the job is in another section of the country. you need to consider the cost of living.

A good job offers you opportunities to learn new skills. and rise to positions of greater authority. during the day. some jobs routinely require overtime to meet deadlines or sales or production goals. and prestige. What will the hours be? Most jobs involve regular hours—for example. 40 hours a week. Monday through Friday. or to better serve customers. A 73 . responsibility. Other jobs require night. weekend. Consider the effect that the work hours will have on your personal life.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES overall goals should give you an idea of the job’s importance. How long do most people who enter this job stay with the company? High turnover can mean dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or something else about the job. In addition. Opportunities offered by employers. increase your earnings. or holiday work.

will you compete with applicants from outside the company? Can you apply for jobs for which you qualify elsewhere within the organization. If you choose to negotiate for higher pay and better benefits. 74 . When an employer makes a job offer. how long does this usually take? When opportunities for advancement do arise. information about earnings and benefits are usually included. or are mobility within the firm limited? Salaries and benefits. What is the next step on the career ladder? If you have to wait for a job to become vacant before you can be promoted. You will want to research to determine if the offer is fair.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES lack of opportunities can dampen interest in the work and result in frustration and boredom. objective research will help you strengthen your case. The company should have a training plan for you. What valuable new skills does the company plan to teach you? The employer should give you some idea of promotion possibilities within the organization.

Check the library or your school’s career center for salary surveys such as those conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers or various professional associations. specifically tailored to your job offer and circumstances. Depending on the job. Ask your teachers and the staff in placement offices about starting pay for graduates with your qualifications. which may be significantly higher in a large metropolitan area than in a smaller city. or acquaintances that recently were hired in similar jobs. or rural area. Try to find family. town. Find out how many hours you will be expected to work each 75 . friends. You also should learn the organization’s policy regarding overtime. make allowances for differences in the cost of living. Help-wanted ads in newspapers sometimes give salary ranges for similar positions. you may or may not be exempt from laws requiring the employer to compensate you for overtime. If you are considering the salary and benefits for a job in another geographic area.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES You should also look for additional information.

Benefits also can add a lot to your base pay.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES week and whether you receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for working more than the specified number of hours in a week. or 3 or more years? An employer cannot be specific about the amount of pay if it includes commissions and bonuses. How much can you expect to earn after 1. Your salary should be reviewed on a regular basis. 76 . Also take into account that the starting salary is just that—the start. Find out exactly what the benefit package includes and how much of the cost you must bear. 2. but they vary widely. many organizations do it every year.

This chapter guides you to how to perform a truly in-depth hiring process and interview for candidates.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES WHAT TO EXPECT FROM THE OTHER SIDE OF THE TABLE…HIRING THE BEST This chapter is all about clarity of the total hiring process – for you. but people make the difference. Hiring the Best provides you with a process that reduces trial and error in recruiting a lot. Computers and equipment are wonderful tools. Hiring the Best makes it clears just how valuable it is to hire and work with the best. your manager and your candidates. The process will allow you and your company to select the best candidates for key positions. You will need or encounter a Great Process to Hire the Best. 77 . but still ensures that you will be able to hire the best. The mistakes you will avoid make the investment very valuable.

giving you insight into the candidates experience.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES You will be able to use the materials shown here as an outstanding tool. use this Guide. This will. in short. and growth allowing you to determine what they are capable of today and in the future. let you go from hoping your next hire works out to being confident your next hire will be a star. 78 . Before you make your next hire. performance history.

What will a person in this job have to do on a regular basis to succeed. Ask questions such as: • • • What would the “perfect” candidate’s competencies and skills look like. Asking a series of questions will help you in establishing the technical competencies. What are the necessary competencies and skills the person will need in order to achieve the desired results of the position.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES THE INTERVIEW AND SELECTION PROCESS A position description. and Why have people left this job in the past? 79 . and interviewing the previous and current holders of the job and the immediate supervisor will be helpful in determining the competencies required and the performance standard. observing the job being performed. • • How will a person hired for this job know he or she is succeeding.

direct and specific. list the top five most important technical competencies the candidate MUST have to succeed in the job. simple. Avoid questions that require overly specific knowledge. Base all the questions on the job description and the top five technical competencies. Below is a sample Technical Competency Assessment Guide for use in determining the technical competencies and developing relevant interview questions. 80 . Remember when developing your interview questions to keep the questions open-ended.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES After you have analyzed the job and developed several technical competencies.

(Answer questions and list competencies in the space.) • What would the “perfect” candidate’s competencies and skills look like? • What will a person in this job have to do on a regular basis to succeed? • What are the necessary competencies and skills the person will need in order to achieve the desired results of the position? • How will a person hired for this job know he or she is succeeding? 81 . Analyze Technical Aspects of Job.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Step 1 Technical Competencies Assessment Guide Job Title: _____________________________________ A.

82 . 2. 4. 3. 1.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Why have people left this job in the past? B. C. List the top five most important technical competencies the candidate MUST have to succeed in the job. Develop a Technical Question for Each of the Five Required Technical Competencies. • Base all your questions on the job description and the technical competencies you listed above. 5.

• Avoid questions that require a specific knowledge of your division. direct and specific. 83 . simple. • Ask for assistance developing technical questions if you are not the technical expert.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Keep the questions open-ended.

an individual working in a receptionist position will need to be flexible and unflappable in order to handle the pressure of multiple phone calls and simultaneous visitors. For example. We are experienced in determining if the candidate has the 84 . Assessing customer service focused competencies during the interview process is something we may not be typically used to doing as managers. Identifying the customer service focused competencies needed to successfully perform the job and determining if the candidate possesses those competencies is critical. since most people calling an organization would like to be met by someone with enthusiasm. They also need some degree of friendliness for welcoming the public and some degree of extroversion.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Step 2 Determine the Customer Service Focused Competencies of the Job A large percentage of employees who did not succeed in a position had the technical skills but did not have the customer service focused skills required for the job.

To determine what customer service focused competencies are needed for the position. But in order to get the BEST candidate for the position. why have people left this job in the past? 85 . and • Related to customer service reasons. • How will a person hired for this job know he or she is meeting the customer service focused expectations. • • What will a person in this job have to do on a regular basis to succeed.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES technical skills and abilities to perform the job. questions similar to those asked to determine the technical competencies should be answered: • What would the “perfect” candidate’s customer service focused competencies look like. What are the necessary customer service focused competencies the person will need in order to achieve the desired results of the position. customer service focused competencies need to be determined and assessed also.

getting along with others. having leadership qualities. being self-motivated. focus on the customer service focused competencies or behaviors that an individual needs to exhibit in order to succeed in this job. Towards the end of this document.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES As you think about the job vacancy you need to fill. Depending on the specific job under consideration. These questions can be used to develop the examination portion of the recruiting announcement or they can be used in the interview process. such as paying attention to detail. Below you will find five descriptive elements of personality to assist you in determining customer service focused competencies. 86 . and being tolerant of stressful events. you will find a list of questions to correspond to each personality factor. are examples of the skills critical to success on the job. customer service focused characteristics. Descriptive words have been added to give you ideas and help you determine what behaviors are required for the position.

dependable. highintegrity. cautious.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES The five descriptive elements of personality are Responsible. and self. 87 . disciplined. casual. precise. Characterized by high levels of responsibility and behaviors these employees are controlled. and their work is purposeful. quality-focused. exact. responsible. cost-conscious. Definitions: Responsible. and businesslike. to develop realistic action plans while remaining sensitive to time constraints and resource availability. scrupulous. tasks. and well organized. highly systematic. easygoing. committed. Believable. Likeable. The ability to organize or schedule people. disciplined. Outgoing and Unflappable. and reliable. and having a well developed sense of ethics and integrity. They approach life as a series of tasks to be accomplished and goals to be reached. persistent. Their behavior is consistent. trustworthy. Descriptors: detail-oriented.

we find sympathetic. They appear to accept things as they are. They are agreeable. collaborative. willing to follow procedures without 88 . supportive. In the middle to low range of believable thinking. Believable. empowering. predictable and conventional. and understanding individuals. Descriptors: amicable. nurture others. They are capable of reasonable levels of professional and personal risk taking and are willing to work outside their “comfort zone. easygoing. Capable of eliciting belief or trust. helpful. willing to reexamine tenets and consider new ideas. In the moderate to high range of likeability. accommodating. we find people who are open. congenial. compromising. and are obviously friendly and caring people. Describes a person’s ability to modify their behavioral style to respond to the needs of others while maintaining one’s own objectives and sense of dignity. compassionate. friendly.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Likeable.” Highly believable people can be described as practical. and kind. empathetic. thoughtful. helpful.

risk-taking. assertive. Individuals in the moderately high range of extroversion are upbeat. systematic. down-to-earth. Individuals who are moderately introverted are often viewed as self-contained. entrepreneurial. curious. traditional. and are able to coach or facilitate a work team’s progress. ambitious. Descriptors: active. independent. team-building capability. outgoing. enthusiastic. and able to work well either alone or in small groups. Descriptors: creative. venturesome. cheerful. uninhibited. They demonstrate leadership. flexible. dominant. persuasive. generally well balanced. practical. and energetic. conventional. Describes the ability to work with people in such a manner as to build high morale and group commitments to goals and objectives.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES question. energizing. open-to-new-ideas. They tend to be enterprising. and appropriately assertive. spontaneous. Outgoing. self- 89 . untraditional. forceful. original. concrete. methodical. They often form the emotional “back bone” of an organization. positive.

self-assured. quiet. but to the ability to maintain a clear perspective under stressful conditions as well as those that elicit little or no stress. task-oriented. resilient. Descriptors: calm. such as interpersonal conflict. optimistic. thoughtful. and able to cope effectively across a wide range of situations and circumstances. or time demands. poised. secure. personal rejection. At moderately high levels of stress tolerance we find relaxed. They are steady. formal. The ability to maintain a mature. hazardous conditions. Unflappable. well adjusted. composed. unassuming. problem-solving attitude while dealing with a range of stressful conditions. eventempered. CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUSED BEHAVIORS ASSESSMENT GUIDE 90 . self-reliant.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES contained. reserved. hostility. restrained. They demonstrate maturity that is not necessarily related to age. secure. realistic. and hardy individuals who are poised and adaptive in a wide range of situations. unflappable. self-confident.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job Title: _____________________________________ A. curious. open-to-new-ideas. Responsible – detail-oriented. dependable. spontaneous. empathetic. exact. helpful. 91 . Likeable – amicable. friendly. disciplined. venturesome. independent. systematic. easygoing. cautious. responsible. conventional. easygoing. congenial. committed. trustworthy. supportive. Believable – creative. collaborative. quality-focused. accommodating. practical. high-integrity. traditional. flexible. compromising. List the most typical Customer Service Focused behaviors required on this job on a daily basis. methodical. empowering. original. uninhibited. down-to-earth. casual. Use the previously identified personality factors to help you. untraditional. cost conscious. concrete.

2. enthusiastic. dominant. C.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Outgoing – active. ambitious. 92 . List of Customer Service Focused Behaviors 1. Unflappable – calm. persuasive. task-oriented. formal. assertive. Develop a Question for Each of the Customer Service Focused Behaviors 1. unflappable. entrepreneurial. energizing. thoughtful. outgoing. restrained. well-adjusted. self-assured. 3. resilient. B. eventempered. unassuming. 4. self-confident. selfcontained. quiet. optimistic. secure. poised. risk-taking. reserved. composed. forceful. 5.

93 . 3.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 2. 4. 5.

” Don’t ask. “This job involves dealing with difficult customers. ask a probing question or two to get more detail. In a halfhour interview. Always ask open-ended questions. at least two of them should be customer service-type questions. depending upon the type of job. Think of a time when you had to deal with a difficult customer and tell us what you did. “Have you ever dealt with difficult customers?” You probably will get an answer like.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Step 3 Develop Interview Questions to Assess Both Technical and Customer Service Focused Competencies Decide how long the interviews will be and select a reasonable number of questions to ask. I work with difficult customers all the time. “What exactly 94 .” But it won’t tell you HOW the individual works with difficult customers. or is giving you a “canned” answer. If you feel the candidate is making up an answer. “Yes. only about 5 behavioral-based questions can comfortably be asked. Ask. If five questions are asked.

Don’t ask a question about using equipment if they don’t use that equipment to do their job. a probing question will generally fluster them and they will not be as confident in giving an answer. You can ask for the candidate to think of another example to use in answering the question. Using the list of customer service focused skills you identified from the position description are needed to do the job. 95 . develop open-ended questions to determine if the candidate has the technical skills necessary for the job. Using the list of most important tasks you developed during the review of the Position Description.” Generally. if they have read a book on “most commonly asked interview questions” and memorized an answer.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES did you say to the customer to get them to stop yelling. develop open-ended questions to determine the candidate’s customer service focused competencies. Only ask technical questions that relate to that particular job. or are making up the situation.

96 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES There is a list of sample interview questions at the end of this document to help you. They are arranged by the five personality factors identified above.

be sure to discuss interviewing procedures and confidentiality of candidate information with the employee prior to the interviews. Before the interview starts. If you choose to include a non-management employee on your interview panel. Welcome the candidate and establish rapport by introducing them to the members of the interview panel. establish the criteria used for scoring and then meet with the interview panel to discuss the process and review the questions and criteria used for scoring. some managers may also wish to include a non-management employee with special knowledge of the position duties as part of a panel. It is encouraged that all interview panels be as diverse as possible.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Step 4 Conducting the Interview Have an interview panel of at least two managers/supervisors. Ask easy questions such as “Did you have any difficulty finding the office?” or “Would you like 97 .

give “canned” speeches. In such cases. the interview will be a series of prepared questions asked by the interview panel designed to get to know the candidate. If you have handed the position description and organization chart out while they waited for the interview to start. approximate length of the interview. and the panel will be taking notes during the interview.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES a glass of water before we begin?” Give a brief explanation of the organization or section and show the organization chart so they understand how this position fits within the organization.” Even though the interview process is accomplished through a panel. ask if they have any questions about the position or organization. Some candidates tend to wander. or simply try to deliver a monologue. Transition into the main purpose of the interview by saying. including. one person should act as “facilitator” and make sure the interview stays focused. Explaining the interview process can also help ease a candidate’s nervousness and also gives them information about the process. you 98 . “Let’s get a bit more focused and start asking the interview questions.

“Please give me a specific example about when you…” Because behavior-based questions require specific examples to answer them successfully. You may have to wait 30. or even 90 seconds for the candidate to start answering the question. so the candidate can start thinking of specific examples ahead of time and organizing their thoughts.” To clarify a response or to get a candidate to give specific examples you can ask. “I think we’ve gotten a little off target here.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES need to diplomatically interrupt and redirect the candidate to the question at hand. Let me restate my question. You might simply say. Resist the temptation to talk during this silence! It takes time to recall specific behavioral examples that clearly answer your questions and you want the candidate to do their best during the interview. 99 . 60. An option available to the hiring manager is to hand out the list of questions to the candidates a few minutes before the interview starts. sometimes a candidate will need to think for a few seconds to come up with an appropriate example.

After each interview take a few minutes for the panel members to summarize their thoughts and score the questions. 100 . All employment decisions will be based on the most suitable candidate relative to a position. while taking into consideration Affirmative Action goals. use openended probes such as: “Could you review your role in…” “Please describe how you…” “What happened after…” If after the first or second try to get an answer more relevant to the question move on to the next question. Every effort will be made to reach out to the broadest possible labor market. or complete the rating process.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES If an answer does not give you the information you need to rate the candidate’s answer. Affirmative Action Organizations value diversity in the workplace.

and others who are thought to be able to provide information about the competencies of a candidate. The Human Resources Background Investigator will verify information provided by the applicant by contacting former and current supervisors. The Background Investigator listens for subtle innuendoes and long pauses after posing questions. and will evaluate whether the individual giving the reference sounds like he/she is struggling to carefully select each word. In these cases. you need to explain that the organization needs to contact this employer to assist with the hiring decision and that we don’t 101 . persons listed by the candidate as references. Occasionally. a finalist will indicate they do not wish you to contact their current employer. more specific probing questions will be asked. In these instances.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Step 5 Background and Reference Checks The final stage of the hiring process is the background and reference checks.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES hire anyone without completing a background and reference check with the current employer. 102 .

and the Director or Deputy Director.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Making a Job Offer When you have identified the candidate to whom you would like to make a job offer based on the information gathered through the application. and you have the approval of your supervisor. interview. evaluation of background and references. Classification Salary Range Rate of pay and timing of first pay increase Vacation accrual rate and ability to transfer vacation accruals from another State organization Trial Service period Eligibility for Personal benefits Confirming Job Offer Letter 103 . examination. you may contact that candidate and offer him/her the position. please work closely with Human Resources staff to verify certain information. Before you contact the candidate. For example.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Human Resources staff will send a confirming job offer letter. This signed copy must be returned to Human Resources to document the understanding and the acceptance of the terms. The letter will outline the terms of the job offer and will provide a space for the candidate to sign his or her name confirming that he/she accepts the terms of employment. It is important that all information in this letter of confirming letter of hire be correctly stated because it is an implied employment contract. If they continue to ask for information. Human Resources can help you with this step. If a candidate contacts you directly to ask why he or she was not hired. each of the remaining candidates should be contacted to notify them that the hiring decision has been made. Informing Unsuccessful Candidates After the selected candidate formally accepts your job offer. the best thing to do is to simply tell them that we hired the most suitable candidate for the position. contact your Human Resources 104 .

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES staff for guidance in how to answer the candidate’s questions. Retention of Interview Materials Please collect all interview and selection materials and notes and return them promptly to Human Resources. 105 .

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 106 .

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES SAMPLE CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (Grouped by customer service based behaviors) Responsible 1 Tell us about a time when the details of something you were doing were especially important. What facts did you consider? How long did it take you to make a decision? 3 Jobs differ in the extent to which people work independently or as part of a team. Have you ever been faced with this dilemma? What did you do? 5 Tell us about a time when you put in some extra effort to help move a particular project forward. How did you attend to them? 2 Describe a time when you had to make a difficult decision on the job. Tell us about a time when you worked independently. 4 It is often easy to blur the distinction between confidential information and public knowledge. How did you do it and what happened? 107 .

How did you discover or come to notice it. Give us a specific example of when you had to give yourself that extra push. 11 Tell us about a time when you disagreed with a procedure or policy instituted by management. and what did you do? 9 We often have to push ourselves harder to reach a target. 10 Tell us about a time when you achieved success through your willingness to react quickly.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 6 Tell us about a demanding situation in which you managed to remain calm and composed. How do you do to ensure your accuracy? 8 Give an example of a time you noticed a process or task that was not being done correctly. What was your reaction and how did you implement the procedure or policy? 12 What kinds of measures have you taken to make sure all of the small details of a project 108 . What did you do and what was the outcome? 7 There are times when we have a great deal of paperwork to complete in a short time.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES or assignment were done? Please give a specific example. 13 How do you determine what constitutes a top priority in scheduling your work? Give a specific example. personally or professionally? 17 What can you tell us about yourself that you feel is unique and makes you the best candidate for this position? 18 What strengths do you have that we haven’t talked about? 19 Tell us about a time when you had to review detailed reports or documents to identify a problem. How did you go about it? What did you do when you discovered a problem? 20 How do you determine what constitutes a top priority in scheduling your time (the time of others)? 109 . 16 What has been your greatest success. 14 If I call your references. what will they say about you? 15 What are two or three examples of tasks that you do not particularly enjoy doing? Tell us how you remain motivated to complete those tasks.

22 Have you planned any conferences.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 21 Do you have a system for organizing your own work area? Tell us how that system helped you on the job. workshops or retreats? What steps did you take to plan the event? 110 .

Therefore. feelings and concerns. Give us a 111 . 2 Give us an example of how you have been able to develop a close.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Likeable 1 Tell us about a time when you were able to build a successful relationship with a difficult person. positive relationship with one of your customers. 4 Describe a particularly trying customer complaint or resistance you had to handle. 3 Give us an example of how you establish an atmosphere at work where others feel comfortable in communicating their ideas. How did you react and what was the outcome? 5 How would you describe your management style? How do you think your subordinates perceive you? 6 Some people are difficult to work with. How did you handle it? 7 In working with people. we find that what works with one person does not work with another. we have to be flexible in our style of relating to others. Tell us about a time when you encountered such a person.

How did it work out? 8 It is important to remain composed at work and to maintain a positive outlook. Give us a specific example of when you were able to do this. Give us an example of a time when you achieved success through attaining insight into the other person’s perspective. 10 Have you ever had difficulty getting along with a co-worker? How did you handle the situation and what was the outcome? 11 Tell us about a time when you needed someone’s cooperation to complete a task and the person was uncooperative. 9 Having an understanding of the other person’s perspective is crucial in dealing with customers. 112 . What did you do? What was the outcome? 12 There are times when people need extra assistance with difficult projects. Give us an example of when you offered assistance to someone with whom you worked.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES specific example of when you had to vary your work style with a particular individual.

How did you handle the situation? 18 We don’t always make decisions that everyone agrees with. What was the outcome? Would you do anything differently today? 17 Describe a time when you weren’t sure what a customer wanted. Give us an example of an unpopular decision you have made. How 113 . If you have had such an experience. Describe the qualities of that work environment.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 13 Tell us about a situation in which you became frustrated or impatient when dealing with a coworker. tell me how you handled it. 16 On occasion we may be faced with a situation that has escalated to become a confrontation. Give us an example of a time when you worked on a team to complete a project. How did it work? What was the outcome? 15 Tell us about a job where the atmosphere was the easiest for you to get along and function well. What did you do? What was the outcome? 14 Many jobs are team-oriented where a work group is the key to success.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES did you communicate the decision and what was the outcome? 114 .

8 All jobs have their frustrations and problems. particularly one that was odd or unusual. Give examples of the type of personnel issues you’ve confronted and how you addressed them. Including examples of the process you used for any disciplinary action taken or grievance resolved. 6 Give us an example of how you establish an atmosphere at work where others feel comfortable in communicating their ideas. 2 What were some of the most important things you accomplished on your last job? 3 What is your management style? How do you think your subordinates perceive you? 4 Give us an example of when someone brought you a new idea.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Believable 1 Describe your ideal supervisor. 7 Give a specific example of how you have involved subordinates in identifying performance goals and expectations. What did you do? 5 It is important that performance and other personnel issues be addressed timely. Describe some specific tasks or conditions 115 . feelings and concerns.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES that have been frustrating to you. Give us an example of an unpopular decision you made. Tell what you did and us about a time when this happened. 13 We don’t always make decisions that everyone agrees with. What did you do about it? 12 What do you do differently from other (__________)? Why? Give examples. How did you communicate the decision and what was the outcome? 14 Describe a situation in which you received a new procedure or instructions with which you disagreed. What did you do? 15 Describe a situation in which you had to translate a broad or general directive from superiors into individual performance 116 . Why were they frustrating and what did you do? 9 Jobs differ in the degree to which unexpected changes can disrupt daily responsibilities. 10 What are your standards of success in your job and how do you know when you are successful? 11 Sometimes supervisors’ evaluations differ from our own.

117 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES expectations. How did you do this and what were the results? 16 Give an example of how you monitor the progress your employees are making on projects or tasks you delegated.

What was the outcome? 5 On occasion. Give us the details surrounding a situation when you had to insist on doing something “your way”. 6 Being successful is hard work. Tell us about a specific achievement when you had to work especially hard to attain the success you desired. we have to be firm and assertive in order to achieve a desired result. Tell us about a time when you had to do that. What did you do. 4 There are times when we need to insist on doing something a certain way. 118 . what was the outcome? 3 Tell us about a time when you delayed responding to a situation until you had time to review the facts. 2 Tell us about a time when you had to motivate a group of people to get an important job done. even though there was pressure to act quickly.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Outgoing 1 Describe a time when you were able to effectively communicate a difficult or unpleasant idea to a superior.

Tell us about a time when you had to respond to this type of situation. (restrained) 9 In working with people. How did it work out? 10 Describe some particularly trying customer complaints or resistance you have had to handle. we have to be flexible in our style of relating to others. How did you manage yourself? 8 Many of us have had co-workers or managers who tested our patience.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 7 In job situations you may be pulled in many different directions at once. Give us a specific example of when you had to vary your work style with a particular individual. Tell us about a time when you restrained yourself to avoid conflict with a co-worker or supervisor. How did you react? What was the outcome? 11 Have you ever had difficulty getting along with co-workers? How did you handle the situation and what was the outcome? 12 Tell us about a time when you needed someone’s cooperation to complete a task 119 . Therefore. we find that what works with one person does not work with another.

What did you do? What was the outcome? 13 Tell us about a situation in which you became frustrated or impatient when dealing with a coworker. Think of a time when you had to handle unreasonable requests. What did you do? What was the outcome? 14 Sooner or later we all have to deal with a customer who has unreasonable demands. Why were you effective? What was the outcome? 16 How do you know if your customers are satisfied? 120 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES and the person was uncooperative. What did you do and what was the outcome? 15 Tell us about a time when you were effective in handling a customer complaint.

Tell us about a time when you felt pressured at work and how you coped with it. 2 Give us an example of a demanding situation when you were able to maintain your composure while others got upset.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Unflappable 1 There are times when we all have to deal with deadlines and it can be stressful. What was the outcome? 4 We have to find ways to tolerate and work with difficult people. 3 On occasion. What was the outcome? 6 Tell us about a time when you received accurate. How did you handle the evaluation? How did it affect your work? 121 . boss. 5 Many times. a job requires you to quickly shift your attention from one task to the next. Tell us about a time at work when you had to change focus onto another task. Describe such a situation and tell us how you handled the conflict. Tell us about a time when you have done this. we experience conflict with our superiors. negative feedback by a co-worker. or customer.

How did it turn out? 9 Tell us about a time when you put in some extra effort to help move a project forward. How did you do that? What happened? 10 Describe suggestions you have made to improve work procedures. How did it turn out? 122 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 7 Give us an example of when you felt overly sensitive to feedback or criticism. How did you handle your feelings? 8 Give us an example of when you made a presentation to an uninterested or hostile audience.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 123 .

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES INTERVIEWING A Practical Guide for Selecting THE INTERVIEW PROCESS Planning Time spent planning will ensure the interview process proceeds smoothly and that you obtain the information needed to assess the candidates. • Thoroughly review all candidate applications. Ask yourself: – What are the strengths/weaknesses of this candidate? • What is the candidate’s – relevant the skills/experience? Does education fit the job requirements? 124 . You should: • Review the position description and qualification requirements (refer to the vacancy announcement).

Although you are not required to interview all candidates. think about the perception of other candidates if you interview only one person. • Formulate questions and write them down.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Is there evidence of the ability to communicate with individuals and groups from diverse backgrounds in a variety of situations? • Is there evidence of the ability to lead and accomplish work through others? • Decide who you will interview. 125 . This will help ensure you ask all candidates the same questions. • Allow 1-2 hours for the interview.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Confirming/Scheduling Interview Selecting officials are encouraged to confirm scheduled interviews with applicants in writing. 126 .

or.) Indirect probing is also an effective way to elicit more information. such as: I see. that may allow them time to think of additional things to say. you are not prohibited from asking additional questions. Probe for additional information. It will help you both relax. • • Ask questions and listen. spend a few minutes chatting informally. oh? That may prompt the candidate to 127 . or you may use neutral phrases. • Give a brief overview of the job and mission of the organization. (Although it is important that you write down a list of questions before you begin the interviews. Ask the candidate to elaborate on or clarify what was just said. If you are silent for a few seconds after the candidate responds.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Conducting the Interview After welcoming the candidate.

benefits. it is the candidate who should be doing most of the talking. 128 . It’s distracting to you and the candidate. Some suggested interview questions can be found in Section III. but don’t try to capture every word. • Allow the candidate time to ask questions.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES elaborate further. leave. This is where you can elaborate on the Organization. • Inform the candidate about maxi flex. and/or the specific job. The point is that in this phase of the interview. • Take notes. etc. holidays. your lab. TIPS ON INTERVIEWING.

you may: • Ask if the candidate is still interested in the position. Be prepared to advice on the timeframe for selection and how the selectee will be notified. close the interview diplomatically. • Inform the candidate of the next step. • Thank the candidate for coming for the interview. • Inform the candidate that references will be checked. 129 . and/or having an interest in the Organization and position. • Write up your notes. applying for the position.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Closing If the candidate won’t be considered further. If you are interested in the candidate.

You may wish to do so after a selection has been made. 130 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Follow Up A good customer service practice is to write all candidates acknowledging the interview and thanking the person for showing an interest in the organization.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 131 .

and follow-up documentation. The panel is facilitated by a person trained in the method. B.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES TIPS ON INTERVIEWING Questions/ Assessment Tools Careful thought should be given to constructing the interview. orientation. The Traditional Interview. the kind of questions you ask will determine the type of person you select for your position. skills. The candidate describes. and interviewing. The Behavioral Event Inventory (BEI). The phases of the process include planning. and abilities) and SPFs (selective placement factors) you used in the vacancy announcement. There are various assessment tools available to evaluate candidates including: A. in detail. Questions are 132 . debriefing. Together with the KSAs (knowledge. a past experience that demonstrates the KSA or competency to a panel.

evidence or characteristics of the audience. the action taken. or problem that includes: a description of the context. and the outcome.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES developed prior to the interview. “Are you still interested in this position?” 133 . The only yes or no question you should ask is. Asking yes and no questions will severely limit the kind of information you obtain from the interview. • Ask open-ended questions. • Encourage the candidate to give an example of a real situation. or environment. activity. Additionally the interviewer can. The same basic questions are asked of each candidate.

• What planning processes have you found useful? In what way do you feel you have improved in your planning 134 . Why do you want to work for our organization? • What are your short-term and long-term goals? • What are the two biggest accomplishments in your life? • What has been your greatest technical achievement in your current position? Your career? • Describe your participation in professional associations.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Interview Questions To Get You Started • • • What interests you most about our position? What role do you take in a group situation? Give an example.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES abilities/methods? • How does your past experience impact your qualifications for this position? 135 .

This competency includes conflict management. Leading People. all candidates must be evaluated using the following two competencies: A. and integrity/honesty (either work related or outside experience). cultural awareness. • Ability to instill trust and confidence in others. Ask each candidate to describe a situation. mentoring.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Supervisor and Manager Competencies When preparing for supervisory or managerial interviews (whether using traditional or BEI). problem. 136 . or event that demonstrates: • • Ability to work with a diverse group. • Use of skills and abilities as a leader under stressful conditions. Ability to prevent or mediate a conflict or disagreement or overcome dissension in a group. team building.

partnering. • Ability to make presentations to groups in order to gain acceptance of an idea by the group. influencing/negotiating. skills for to to gain or change programs. This competency includes oral and/or written communication. Building Coalitions/Communications. 137 . • Negotiating approval modification procedures. Ask each candidate to describe a situation. etc.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES B. problem or event that demonstrates: • Ability to express not ideas or or give readily instructions easily understood by their audience. and political savvy. interpersonal skills.

hire a person. Definition of a “Disability-Related Question” means a question that is likely to elicit information about the disability. abilities. skills. experiences and interests. Remember. hire a disability or supervise a disability. Definition of “Medical Examination” is a procedure or test that seeks information about an individual’s physical or mental impairments or health. You can interview a person. you cannot interview a disability. Therefore.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Interviewing People With Disabilities Concentrate on the applicant’s technical and professional knowledge. post-offer and employment. the rules differ regarding the permissibility of disabilityrelated questions and medical examinations. the two most important questions for employers to address are: 138 . The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) separates the hiring process into three stages: pre-offer. At each stage. not on the disability. and supervise a person.

as long as all entering employees in the job category are asked the questions or given the examinations. The law requires that medical information collected at any stage must be kept confidential.preoffer. even if the questions or examinations are related to the job.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Is the question disability-related or is the examination medical? And • Where are we (i.e. post-offer. or employment) in the employment process? At the first stage (the pre-offer stage). 139 . At the third stage (after the employee starts work). the law permits disabilityrelated questions and medical examinations only if they are job-related and consistent with business necessity. At the second stage (after the applicant is given a conditional job offer). the law allows all disabilityrelated questions and medical examinations. the ADA prohibits all disability-related questions and medical examinations.. at which stage .

eeoc. 140 .gov/docs/preemp.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES For examples of some commonly asked questions on “Pre-employment Disability Related Questions and Medical Examination Questions.html.” please refer to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission website at www.

hearing or cognitive disabilities. 141 . if a person who is blind states he or she will need help filling out forms. When setting up the interview explain what the hiring process involves and ask the individual if he or she will need reasonable accommodations for any part of the interview process.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Accommodating Persons With Disabilities For An Interview • Application and interviewing procedures should comply with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). • Be willing to make appropriate and reasonable accommodations to enable a job applicant with a disability to present him or herself in the best possible light. For example. provide the assistance. visual. • Agencies employment offices and interviewing location(s) are to be accessible to applicants with mobility. The ADA prohibits disability-related questions or medical exams before a real job offer is made.

Do not ask whether or not the individual needs an accommodation to perform these functions. because such information is likely to reveal whether or not the individual has a disability. Speak to essential job functions regarding the position for which the applicant is applying. • Do not let a rehabilitation counselor. social worker or other third party take an active part in or sit in on an interview unless the applicant requests it. if he or she requests one. as well as why. provide details or specific instructions to applicants with cognitive disabilities. 142 . if this type of accommodation is required.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES provide an interpreter for an applicant who is deaf. This is an ADA requirement to ensure that an applicant with a disability in not excluded before a real job offer is made. • Make sure that all questions asked during the interview are job-related. how. where. when and by whom each task or operation is performed.

.. • • Listen attentively. help the candidate feel at ease. • Use professional terminology to evaluate the candidate’s knowledge. • Be friendly to establish rapport. Note the kinds of questions the candidate asks. If the interviewee becomes verbose or drifts off the subject. Keep the interview under control. it’s your job to get back on track. Do they concern opportunities for self-improvement and increased responsibilities. • • Consider potential as well as current ability. Know yourself and your 143 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Interview Do’s and Don’ts DO. or only pay and fringe benefits? • Be objective.

• • Talk too much. you can be flexible during the interview. DON’T. • Be honest. If you’ve prepared your questions. You’ll become more flexible and react easily to different situations and personalities as you gain 144 . even if it means saying something negative (e. Just don’t overemphasize it.g. knowing that you can easily get back on track.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES stereotypes. • • Observe the candidate. the facility is old and there is not much office space). Relax and enjoy the interview. Use a rigid or overly standardized approach... • Understand that we tend to hire people who look like us..

• Make commitments you may regret or are not authorized to make. • Be satisfied with surface facts. • Take detailed notes. • • Ask convoluted or over-defined questions. A good candidate reacts favorably to these.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES experience. Be aggressive or evasive. Look for reasons. 145 . • Ask questions in a way that indicates the answers you want. • Hide demands of the job. and probe. It may keep you from observing nonverbal responses and maintaining the conversational flow. • Try to impress the interviewee with your knowledge.

146 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Raise candidates’ hopes when they are not likely to be selected.

but the reference check is really the only way you have to verify information given by the candidates.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES CHECKING REFERENCES You have completed the interviews. • You gain insight into who your candidates are and how they behave in the workplace. Normally. A resume and interview are great tools. Reliability of the reference check is based on the concept that past performance is a good predictor of future performance. you can only make a tentative offer) without first doing an 147 . Never make an offer (remember. but you are not done yet. you will conduct a reference check on the one or two finalists. Reference checks will help: • Verify information the candidate provided both in the application and during the interview.

148 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES exhaustive check of the candidate’s background. A comprehensive reference check goes back 5 years and includes contacting a minimum of three sources that are knowledgeable about the candidate’s abilities. Contact Enough references to confirm the quality of your selection.

• Seek your own independent sources who know the candidate. • Your network of professional associates/associations. 149 . • Candidate’s personal references–they will generally provide a favorable reference.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Which References Should I Check? • • Academic references–institutions and teachers/professors. Ask them for names and positions of other persons who know the candidate and contact them. Current and former supervisors–immediate supervisors are often the best sources for reliable information about a candidate’s work performance. • Candidate’s colleagues–business or work associates will sometimes provide an objective analysis of the candidate’s strengths and weaknesses.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 150 .

• Do not eliminate one candidate because of poor references and then neglect to check 151 . • If the reference provider keeps talking. • • Ask open-ended questions and probe. Use telephone reference checks rather than mail inquiries since they are faster and less time consuming. If you speak to the person in a relaxed manner. you will get better results. Seek out judgmental comments and try to read between the lines of what the person is telling you. A reference who says the candidate tried hard or is a people person may be saying such things to avoid talking about real problems or issues. • Keep the conversation casual.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Tips for Checking References • Ask only job-related questions and ask the same questions about each candidate. keep listening and asking more questions.

Give only a general description of the vacant position. As in the case of the employment interview. overshadow less obvious or possibly negative traits. Too many details may bias the reference person in formulating their answers. • Always check dates and times the person giving the reference worked with or supervised the candidate. such as a good academic record.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES references from the remaining candidate(s). • Do not use leading questions such as “He’s a good manager. • Speak to someone in addition to the current 152 . such as a poor leave record. and then • • Determine if there is a personal relationship. isn’t he?” • Do not let a prominent characteristic. let the other person do most of the talking.

A dishonest supervisor may try to unload a problem employee by giving a glowing reference.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES supervisor. • Listen carefully to the answers you are given and take notes. 153 .

The information you provide will be considered along with other information submitted by the applicant and other references. we recommend you begin with.” Then. we may become obligated to disclose the information to the applicant or others involved in the selection or review process.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES The Reference Check Questions To Ask When contacting a reference. ask and record the answers to the following: • • How long have you known the candidate? In what capacity were you associated with the candidate? • As employer? Friend? • Supervisor? Co-worker? Other? Using a scale of 1-5. with 1 being poor and 154 . Please be aware that under the Federal government’s employment policies. “Thank you for taking a few moments to provide information about our job candidate.

how would you rate the candidate in comparison to most others you have known.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 5 being excellent. RATINGS 12345 _______ Work ethic? Work quality? Technical skills? Writing skills? Communication skills? Interpersonal skills? Reliability & dependability? Receptivity to feedback? Adaptability to change? Ability to deal with job stress? • _____ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ What would you consider to be some of this candidate’s most positive attributes or strengths? • What would you consider to be some areas where this person is not as 155 .

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

strong or needs to improve? • What type of work environment does the candidate require to excel? • Describe the candidate’s initiative,

personality, and negative habits. • How does the candidate get along with customers? Co-workers? Supervisors and managers? • Is the candidate reliable? Honest?

Trustworthy? Of good character? • • Would you rehire the candidate? Is there any other information concerning the candidate’s qualifications, character, conduct and general fitness I should know about?

156

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

Prohibited Questions and Practices Please do not put yourself in a position of engaging in a prohibited personnel practice related to employment and selection. As a selecting official with the authority to take, direct others to take, recommend, or approve any personnel action, you must not: • Discriminate for or against any employee or candidate for employment on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. • Deceive or willfully obstruct any person with respect to such person’s right to compete for employment. • Influence any person to withdraw from competition for any position for the purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of any other person for employment.

157

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

Appoint or employ a relative to a position over which you exercise jurisdiction or control as a selecting official.

Take or fail to take a personnel action with respect to a candidate for employment as a reprisal.

Discriminate for or against a candidate for employment on the basis of conduct which does not adversely affect the performance of the candidate or the performance of others (except for criminal behavior).

158

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES RECORDING A PROFILE OF IMPRESSIONS Candidate’s Name_______________________ 1. The candidate seemed knowledgeable about/ interested in: 4. What are the candidate’s strongest assets in relation to the requirements for this position? 2. What position? are in the candidate’s to this shortcomings relation 3. Contradictions were: or inconsistencies noted 159 .

. directness. less than positive. reference checks were positive. Examples/key descriptions or characteristics? 160 .g. Overall. the candidate responded to questions with: (e.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 5. poise. The candidate was evasive about: 6. confidence. glibness. evasiveness.) Examples? 7. mediocre. Overall. etc. openness.

Ability to develop solutions to management problems? 3. Ability to gain commitment and support from others? 2.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Supervisory and Managerial Competencies: Leading People is there evidence demonstrating: 1. Ability to foster cooperative working environment among employees? 5. Ability to establish performance objectives? 4. Ability to deal with morale and employee concerns? 161 .

Conflict resolution? 2.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Building Coalitions/Communication: Is there evidence demonstrating: 1. Expression of ideas and views that others understand and that influence (persuade) them to act? 162 . Working as a member of a team? 3.

Considering these suggestions can help minimize the time required for recruitment on YOUR end and also help the Human Resources (HR) Specialist speed up the process.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES RECRUITING It Takes More Than A Job Announcement! One of the critical steps in the recruitment process involves the actions you take to speed up the process and reach the largest. Simply posting the vacancy on job websites will not guarantee that you receive quality applications for the job. desirable pool of candidates. 163 . This chapter provides suggestions on steps YOU should take to ensure YOUR recruitment activity works for YOU.

Career Enhancement Program. and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the job. o Ensure that the KSAs can be directly related back to duties and responsibilities in the position description. skills. • Consider alternative hiring methods o Determine if the position can be filled using the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). o Develop your “Quality Experience” definition. or other hiring methods. Federal Career Intern Program. special hiring authorities for individuals with disabilities or veterans. Identify experience a candidate will need to bring to the job on day one.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Before Submitting the Vacancy • Review and rethink the position description o Ensure that the duties and responsibilities reflect the needs (or discipline) of the position at this time. • Think about the vacancy announcement 164 . o Determine if it accurately reflects the knowledge. and USDA Direct Hire Authority.

165 . o • Develop a strategy to reach your candidate o Identify ways to market the job announcement to reach potential applicants. or online advertising sites that might be useful in marketing the job. o Identify colleagues (both within and outside the organization) who can help in marketing the job. o Visit or contact the Career Center. journals. o Identify colleges and universities or professional societies and organizations where the announcement should be mailed. o Identify newspapers. Determine if you will need to recruit nationwide or if there will be sufficient candidates in the local commuting area to give you a diverse applicant pool from which to select. and Professors if you are located on a campus to promote and highlight the many career opportunities available with ARS.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES o Determine who the applicants are you are trying to reach. Deans.

• Contact your servicing HR Specialist o Discuss recruitment strategies and alternatives. o Keep in touch with your HR Specialist by email during the recruitment process. o Submit draft ad text along with the request to save time (remember. your servicing HR Specialist must review and approve all ads prior to being placed). as well as expectations for completion of the action.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES o Contact the Recruitment Office and your Area Civil Rights Manager for ideas on how to reach a diverse candidate pool. o Submit your “Quality Experience” definition. • Submit all required paperwork o Submit all position descriptions and forms needed to request the personnel action. 166 .

and don’t give the impression they will get the job. o E-mail the announcement to co-workers. however. and place ads in newspapers. magazines. Identify a Diverse Group of Interview Panel Members and Set Up Panel Dates o Ask your HR Specialist for an approximate timeframe for receipt of the certificate of eligibles. o Send the vacancy announcement to individuals. stakeholders. 167 . or organizations you have identified. schools and colleges. o • Document your efforts.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES When the Vacancy Announcement is Open • Conduct your Marketing o o Be PROACTIVE! Personally identify potential candidates and send a note with the announcement or call to encourage them to apply – be cautious. and peers with a brief note asking for assistance in publicizing the job. and online job boards. colleagues.

• Contact Your HR Specialist Throughout The Process o o Ask if you are receiving applications. replace panel members immediately. o o • Develop Interview Questions o Share interview questions with the panel members for comments and suggestions. Ask your HR Specialist to scan applications received to get an idea of the quality of applicants before making a decision to extend the closing date. Clear your calendar also! Keep your interview panel members informed throughout the recruitment process – if conflicts arise. Determine if you need to extend the closing date.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES o Ask interview panel members to block out time on their calendars for the interview process. 168 .

Set a timeframe to complete the interviews. Talk to your HR Specialist if you have concerns. Remember. o Have an open mind – interview “Preference Eligible” (Veterans and Displaced) candidates before making judgments on their ability to do the job. o Advise applicants of your timeframe for conducting the interviews – if they are interested.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Once the Certificate is Received • Schedule the Interviews Immediately So The Best Candidates Are Still Available o Review the certificate right away and identify the candidates you believe should be interviewed. if they are on the certificate. they will make themselves available. Ask for help from colleagues as needed. o Schedule the interviews close together to minimize losing a desirable candidate and to maximize the likelihood of remembering individual candidates’ strengths and weaknesses. 169 . they meet the qualifications for the position.

o Obtain required area/organization approvals of the selection and incentives being proposed. o Ask the HR Specialist to issue the written employment offer including information on negotiated pay. interview panel – give them guidelines). • Make Your Tentative Selection o Contact the candidate selected to advise that their name is being recommended to Human Resources. the HR Specialist must make the official offer of employment. etc. EOD. Ask if any issues with pay. incentives.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES o Advise the candidates of the process you will use to conduct interviews (for example. • Conduct Reference Check o Always conduct reference checks on top candidates! This is more critical than ever before. o Notify HR Specialist of your decision and discuss options for offering recruitment incentives. recruitment incentives and bonuses. 170 . and EOD date. Remember.

and other documents the new employee should read. procedures. o • Contact the candidates interviewed and encourage them to apply for other positions. Share impressive applications o Share other impressive applications with colleagues who may be recruiting for similar jobs – they can contact and encourage quality applicants to apply for their positions.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES After The Selection is Made • Notify other candidates interviewed of your decision o HR will notify all non-selected candidates of the final outcome. o Share a copy of other impressive applications with the Recruitment Office – this office can refer the applications to others recruiting for similar positions. 171 . • Prepare for the new employee/s arrival o Make copies of appropriate policies. o Have the employee’s workspace cleaned up and the desk stocked with essential supplies.

Identify a mentor and develop an Individual Development Plan (IDP) to address with the employee. discuss the job and work they will be doing. of the position.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES o Prepare the performance plan and provide it along with a copy of the position description on the first day of work. Make sure the employee is set up with an email address and computer access. and let the employee know they can ask questions. etc. o o o o 172 . if any. provide time to read through materials. Set time on your calendar to spend with the new employee on the first day – show them around the facility. Inform the employee of the probationary period requirements as well as the promotion potential.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES ASSESSING YOUR RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PRACTICES Policies and Procedures Your organization’s policies and procedures should thoroughly document the recruitment. assessment and selection processes supported by written policies and procedures that are up-to-date. • Are recruitment. The policies and procedures should be accessible and understood by not only HR professionals but Managers and others involved in the hiring process. assessment and selection policies to those who are involved in the process? (Ideally to all staff. Ask yourself these questions to help assess whether or not your organization’s policies and procedures are current and include new requirements.) 173 . accurate and complete? (Ideally within 2 years.) • How widely communicated are the organization’s written recruitment. assessment and selection processes.

how long does it take to fill a position within the organization from the start of recruitment until an offer is extended? (Ideally 2 months or less.) • Does the organization provide training and/or written guidelines about recruitment.) • On average. assessment and selection plan at the start of each recruitment? (Link to sample recruitment plan) • Training Managers. supervisors. 174 . • Who performs recruitment activities for the organization? (Ideally HR with unit management participation. and personnel involved in the hiring process should receive comprehensive training in the organization’s full recruitment process and thoroughly understand proper interview and selection techniques.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Does the organization utilize these policies and procedures for the recruitment. assessment and selection processes? • Does the organization have a written policy describing procedures for the review of competencies and/or qualifications? • Does the organization follow a formal recruitment.

conducting interviews. reviewing applications.g. and evaluating candidates)? 175 .EMPLOYMENT SERVICES assessment and selection policies and procedures to managers and supervisors prior to them seeking to fill a position (e..

civic 176 . local and regional newspapers. job fairs. internet job sites. professional organizations.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Recruitment Strategies The organization should tailor their recruitment strategy to meet the need for the specific position and the organization’s goals. as well as attract a diverse pool of applicants. qualified candidates? • What recruitment strategies are utilized to attract hard-to-find qualified candidates? (Ideally executive search firms. • Does the organization develop a specific recruiting and marketing plan to identify how and who they need to contact to help achieve finding the best candidates? • Does the organization have a plan to recruit qualified applicants who represent the diversity of the State or local service area? • Does the organization compare its workforce demographics to the State. county or local labor force demographics? • Does the organization utilize specialized recruitment strategies to attract hard-tofind.

etc. bargaining agreements. laws. regulations. and professional standards.) • • Does the organization track the effectiveness of different recruiting methods? Are recruitment sources periodically evaluated to assure they meet the needs of the organization and return on investment calculated? • • Recruitment Process and Hiring Recruitment procedures should be developed and administered in compliance with all applicable organization policies.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES organizations. Employment Security Department. • Is a job analysis conducted to identify the key responsibilities of a position prior to announcement? • Are required qualifications reviewed prior to position announcements to assure they are job related? • Are preferred qualifications reviewed prior to position announcements to assure they are job related? 177 . networking.

regulations. relevant interview questions? • • Selection Process Selection procedures should be developed and administered in compliance with all applicable laws. skills testing.) • What percentage of the final selection decisions is documented? (This includes reasons for hire versus non-hire. • What methods are used for the selection process? (Ideally selection matrix.) • How long is the selection documentation retained? 178 . resume ranking. etc. background checks. interview notes. reference checks.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • Does the organization’s HR staff assure all applicants selected for employment meet the posted qualifications for the position? • What percentage of job announcements identify the competencies needed to perform the job? • • Are essential functions of the position discussed with the candidate? Does the organization utilize a behavioral interviewing tool to develop standardized. and professional standards.

EMPLOYMENT SERVICES • • • Does the organization evaluate and assess how well the selection procedures worked? How frequently does the organization assess its selection procedures? Does the organization maintain documentation of the assessment process? 179 .

9-12. 169 Accommodating Persons 6 accommodations 141-2 ADA (American with Disabilities Act) 138-9. 171. 126. 23-4. 31 businesses 15. 74-6. 103. see ADA announcement 165. 136 benefits 2-3. 168. 166-7 classified 40. 138.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES INDEX* A abilities 20. 13. 38-40. 21. 67. 136 behaviors 86-7. 115 authority 71. 91-2 BEI (Behavioral Event Inventory) 132. 161. 35 background 101-3. 50 advancement 5. 154. 85. 125. 27. regular 76. 175 impressive 171 area/organization approvals. 164. 55. 101. 136. 152-4 candidate's 100 applicants 23. 94-5. 17. 28. 17-18. 132 assets 25. required 170 assessment 173-4 assessment tools 6. 176. 58. 47. 79. 81. 95 bookkeeping 24. 44. 165. 23. 178 application forms 56. 89-90. 38-9. 109 atmosphere 111. 73. 125. 141-2. 141 ads 50. 64. 25. 36. 157 B bachelor 14. 159 assignments 19-20. 74. 59. 178 candidate's 148 background information 67-8 Banner Elk 45 basis. 70. 87. 65. 143. 21. 74 agencies 17. 128 BEST candidate 85 book 2-4. 67. 103. 177 answers 63-4. 35. 72. 58. 138-9. 59 applications 9. 167. 132. 113. 105. 55 180 . 168-9. 147. 85 Behavioral Event Inventory (BEI) 132. 155. 99-100. 55 employment service 23 Amazon 3 American with Disabilities Act. 145.

94-5. 178 candidate's 79. 84-6. 127-30. housekeeping 30 clients 15-18. 132-3. 92. 70 C calendars 168. 124-5. 172 calm 90. 77 181 . 169-71 [3] best 77. 81. 119. 23. 167 community service organizations 55 company 2. 163-5. 149. 137. 154-60. 82. 68-9. 101. 62. 36 co-workers 112. 136-7. 154. 71-4. 169 change 28-34. 84. 143-7. 166 candidate time 128 candidate's abilities 148 candidates experience 78 candidate's initiative 156 Candidate's Name 159 candidate's nervousness 98 candidate's qualifications 156 candidate's shortcomings 159 candidate's strengths 149 career 9. 176 evaluating 175 non-selected 171 potential 167 qualified 10. 20. 121. 109. 55. 103-4. 53. 136-7. 94-5. 165. 155 cleaners. 134 catalog 3-4 certificate 7. 108 candidate 39. 151-2. 77. 17. 11. 167. 75. 48-9. 176 selected 104 top 170 candidate applications 124 candidate contacts 104 candidate information 97 candidate pool 163. 81 technical 79-80. 167 college degrees 36-7 colleges 70. 77 compensatory time 76 competencies 79. 169. 85 compliance 177-8 computer programmers 26 computers 25-6. 156. 132.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES organization's 67. 174. 97-101.

170-1. 95 customer service representatives 31. 120 customer complaints 111. 75-6. 43 customer service tasks 61 customers 59. 52.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES conduct interviews 23. 116 Descriptors 87-90 designations 2 Develop Interview Questions 94 Disabilities 6. 170 conduct mock interviews 49 Confirming/Scheduling Interview 6 conflict 119. 41 implied employment 104 copy 59. 95. 56. 138. 54. 42 182 . 170-1 unpopular 113. 120-1. 84. 91 eBook 4 education 25. 168. 116 degree 14. 40. 48. 58. 140-2. 148-9. 68. 91 duties 72. 94-5. 55. 156 difficult 94 D databases 55. 72. 157. 168 interpersonal 90 contact 45. 164 E e-mail 61. 91 counseling 53-4 country 40. 111-13. 35. 37. 90-2. 27. 42. 166-7 earnings 5. 72 coworkers 19. 164 cognitive 141-2 Diverse Group of Interview Panel 167 diversity. organizations value 100 down-to-earth 89. 107 candidate's 85. 60-1 decision 107. 65 formal 22. 52. 113. 73. 73-4 hourly 42-3 easygoing 87-8. 103-4. 58. 141 disability 138. 66. 39. 57. 119-20 customer service 61. 60. 101. 165-6. 48-50. 116. 113-14. 136. 176 contact employers 55 contracts 19. 171-2 cost 35. 121. 84-6.

84. 63. 171-2 non-management 97 permanent 15. 57. 36. 72-81. 157. 19. 87. 49. 45. 69. 35. 36. 18. 163-73 [15] EMPLOYMENT SERVICES abilities/methods 135 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Accommodating Persons 141 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES accounting 18 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Advancement 36 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Applying 56 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES assessment 175 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES attendance 66 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES BENEFITS 44 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Building Coalitions/Communication 162 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Career centers 70 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES CHECKING REFERENCES 147 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES children 58 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Confirming/Scheduling Interview 183 . 22. 138-9. 59. 108-16.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES postsecondary 26-7 Eligibility for Personal benefits 103 employees 15. 68. 117. 93-102. 38. 52-4. 27. 97. 65. 84-7. 170 [2] full-time 14 salary 38 employment agencies 19 Employment and Training Administration 52 EMPLOYMENT CHANGE 38 employment compliance 37 employment counselors 40 employment decisions 100 employment information 51 employment interview 152 employment interviewer positions 37 employment interviewers 36 Employment of wage 28-34 employment placement agencies 16-17. 118-24. 20. 43. 39. 36. 73-6. 67. 55-9. 21. 40-4. 138 [1] employment 5. 154-6. 70. 45 EMPLOYMENT PLACEMENT AGENCIES list employment vacancies 15 employment process 139 Employment Security Department 177 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 3-5. 161. 65. 18. 25-6. 19-20. 101-2. 7-12. 52-3. 157-8. 28-34. 20-1. 59-61. 139. 39. 148-50. 27-34. 20. 40 employee's workspace 171 employers 16. 22-3. 38 temporary 17. 127-9. 37.

19. 25. 39 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 13 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Evaluating 67 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES expectations 117 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES experience 145 employment services firms 23. 42 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES firms 24 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Follow 130 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Human Resources staff 104 employment services industry 14-15. 17.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 126 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Copyright 2 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES education 37 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Employment 22. 9. 46 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Likeable 88 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Making 103 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES management 16 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Nature 15 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Occupations 23 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES organizations 177 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Outgoing 92 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES PACKAGERS 26 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Prohibited Questions and Practices 157 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES question 89 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES RECORDING 159 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Recruitment Strategies 176 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES references 152 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES SAMPLE CUSTOMER SERVICE 107 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Significant Points 14 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Sources of Additional Information 45 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES staff 105 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Step 6 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES stereotypes 144 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES supervisor 153 184 . 38 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES information 25 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Internet resources 51 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Interview 143 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Interview Questions 134 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Interviewing People 138 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job Interview Tips 63 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES job listings 52 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job matching 53 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job Search Methods 48 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Job Title 91 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES JOBS 5. 21-3. 35.

113. 65 graphics 61-2 groups 51.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Supervisor and Manager Competencies 136 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Supervisory and Managerial Competencies 161 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES TABLE of CONTENTS 5 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES technologies 71 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES TIPS 132 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Tips for Checking References 151 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Training and Advancement 35 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES women 55 employment services workers 22 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Working Conditions 19 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES  65. 139. 41. 62. 59-60 G Good references 58. 146. 82-3. 166 F Federal Government 54 Federal government's employment policies firms 20-1. 40-1. 138. 174. 24-5. 118. 38-9. 125. 37. 136. 86. 125. 109. 78 limiting employment 40 guides 58. 160 experience 20. 35. 69. 99. 77-8 H hard-to-find 176 harried Employment Services jobseeker 154 11 185 . 133. 139 medical 138-9 examples 3. 63. 158. 140. 164 Experiencex2016 definition 164. 178-9 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES  Dress 64 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES  Mergent 69 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES  Nam e 62 engineers 26. 161-2 examinations 103. 54. 70-1 large 70-1 format 24. 60. 28. 121 evidence 56. 55-7. 116. 136-7 growth 14. 41. 89. 125. 41 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 140 evaluations 103. 35-6. 115-16. 27.

178 sample 96 suggested 128  Develop 168 interview questions‖ 95 interviewee 143. 68. 167. 116. 125. 53. 11. 107. 141. 127-30. 75-6. 40 hours 19-20. 38. 133 186 . 70. 62 internships 55 interview 5-6. 17.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES he/she 101. 134. 44. 170-1 I individuals 89. 56. 172 Industrial Review 69 industries 5. 137. 40-4. 104 hiring methods 164 hiring process 101. 170 interview panel members 168 interview process 84. 138. 42. 174-5 [4] half-hour 94 informational 49 managerial 136 scheduled 126 interview jobseekers 16 interview panel 97-8. 59. 168 interview questions 6. 125 HR. 62. 73. 19. 98. 169. 62-5. 103-5. 51-2. 124. 125. 10-11. 132-3. 173-4 holiday work 73 home 26-7. 48. 35. 97-100. 13-15. 145 interviewer information 65 interviewers 36. 62 HOME HEALTH AIDES 27 hospitals 26-7. 80. 138 hiring 5. 54. 69 Industry Organization 15 industry workers 22 information candidates 9 Informing Unsuccessful Candidates 104 instructions 2. 142 interests 53. 21-4. 86. 27. 163. 72. 98. 141. 64. 40-1. 56. 138. 147. 77. 77 hiring decision 101. 138 Internet 45. 129-30. 167. 141-4. 104 health 27. 53. see Human Resources HR Specialist 166-70 servicing 166 Human Resources (HR) 15. 164. 64-5.

82. 165. 163-5. 71-5. 75. 80. 111 list 49. 42-3 Labor's Employment 52 laws 53. 81 K keywords 51. 67. 177-8 [16] full-time 36 new 38. 46-9. 34. 104 liability 2 libraries 49. 35-6 real 141-2 job announcement 58. 91. 164 L Labor unions 52 laborers 25. 68-70. 132 effective 49 interviewing location 141 Interviewing People 6 interviewing procedures 97. 164 candidate's 143 KSAs 132. 124. 91. 63-4. 35-7. 95-6 Long-term projections of employment M magazines 68-9. 41 permanent 14.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES interviewing 6. 163. 80. 115-16. 82 Job Interview Tips 5 job listings 51. 167 J job 69 187 . 178 job candidate 154 job description 60-1. 103-4. 48-53. 61-2. 80. 56. 75 Likeable 6. 145. 139. 60-1 knowledge 41. 7982. 59. 22-5. 46. 128. 84-6. 49. 16. 55-8. 53 job search wisdom 10 job seekers 51-3 Job Service 52 job titles 57. 87. 53 job openings 5. 59. 177 letters 9. 83. 94-5. 141 Interviews Immediately 169 italics 61-2 9-12. 79. 132.

35. 67-72. 165. 167 nonprofit organizations 54 number 27-34. 84. 63-4. 41-2. 84. 92 orderlies 27. 165. 41. 97. 162. 127-30. job search 5. 108 human resources 37. 58.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES maids 30 maintenance 27. 63 N newspapers 50. 29 office 19. 171  Agencies em ploym ent 141 Office of Personnel Management (OPM) 54 online 3. 165. 101. 167 Median 42-3 members 52. 41. 25. 76. 115 managers 23. 30. 41 management style 111. 165 online employment placement agencies 39 open-to-new-ideas 89. 60. 175 marketing 24. 97. 29 organization 15. 156. 55. 75. 29. 32 repair 27. 121 occupations 23. 76. 41 production 23. 23-4. registered 26. 94 work telephone 62 nurses. 167 methodical 89. 39 risk 37. 91 OPM (Office of Personnel Management) 54 optimistic 90. 119. 48 mind 50. 36-7. 28. 98. 54. 21. 33. 28-37. 26. 69. 41. 173-4. 91 methods. 118. 45. 69. 173. 32 sales 23 service 27. 42-3 industrial 21 largest 42-3 managerial 35 moving 25. 32 management 23. 74. 176-9 [2] large 67 organization chart 98 188 . 46. 68. 89. 152. 43 O occasion 113. 97. 77.

124. 116. 132. 79. 166 personnel issues 115 personnel management 37. 132 phrases 58. 98. 158 candidate's work 149 person 2. 115-16. 24. 164. 168 paperwork 108 patients 26-7 payroll 18. 147. 87. 157 [5] Personal appearance 63 personal characteristics 60 Personal contacts 47-8 personal life 73 personal qualifications 50 personal rejection 90 personal relationship 152 personal workspace 19 personality 49. 173 position announcements 177 position description 79.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES organization track 177 organization's goals 176 outcome 108. 173-4 applicable organization 177 organization's 75. 89. 132. 167 panel members 100. 85. 39 personnel management duties 17 personnel practice. 156 five descriptive elements of 86-7 personality factors 86. 40. 98. 138. 37. 124. 39 performance 79. 108. 134 policies 7. 11920. 144. 75-6 P panel 97-8. 96 personnel 174 medical 40 personnel action 157-8. 35. 101. 172 189 . 151-2. 171. prohibited 157 Personnel Services 45 person's ability 88 persons juggling job 20 person's perspective 112 phases 128. 111-14. 60 planning 6. 166. 81. 95. 111-12. 118 overtime 73. 92. 118-21. 91. 133 outgoing 6. 132. 62.

176 professionals 26. 97-8. 147 190 . 56-62. 117. 166. 129. 155 recruiting 7. 51. 108. 68 professional associations 40. 51 Private employment agencies 47. 22-3. 62-3. 28. 39. 100. 92 responsibilities 39. 36. 134 professional employer organizations 15. 177-8 request 166 resilient 90. 151-2. 65. 115. 154 reference person 152 references 58. 122 projected change 28-34 publisher 2 Q qualifications 16. 160. 48. 103. 75. 163. 166. 55 probe 145. 133. 100. 178 References 6. 173-4 recruitment incentives 170 Recruitment Office 166.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES post 3. 174 recruitment strategies 7. 176 recruitment 7. 151 process 46. 101 R range 17. 164 resume 49. 176 Reference Check Questions 7. 18. 112-13. 168. 71-3. 36-7. 163. 75. 171 recruitment process 163. 169. 42 professions 51 project 107-8. 24. 149 referrals 53 regulations 39. 101-3. 135. 87. 42. 147-9. 173 production workers work 21 products 2. 56. 141 open-ended 94-5. 17-19. 170. 163. 109. 77. 23. 174 questions candidate's 105 disability-related 138-9. 43. 171. 49. 45 professional organizations 48. 37. 90 high 88-9 rate 21. 37. 154. 151 probing 94-5. 60. 41. 168. 77. 65. 132.

112-13. 52. 17. 37. 154. 97. 68 human resources 15 services firms 17. 157. 35. 136-7. 20. placement 28. 25. 27. 169. 42 Staff of employment placement agencies 36 Staffs of professional employer organizations 37 standards. 19. 19. 95. 52-3. 166. 169. 118-21. 35. high 14. 43 staff organization's HR 178 permanent 16-17. 37. 173-4. 23. 170-1 selection policies 173. 98-9.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES employers scan 60 scannable 61-2 Retail sales workers 30 Retention of Interview Materials 105 review 3-4. 35-6 services segment 17. 118. 109. 174 State employment service 52 State employment service centers 53 191 . 79. 129-30. 144 skills 9. 36 selection 7. 55. 148. 39-40. 45. 24. 124. 79. 155 skills/experience 124 specialists. 89 self-confident 90. 155 occupational 54 technical 84-5. 178 self 87. 50. 108. 58-60. 116. 95. 42. 48 seconds 99. 95 [6] interpersonal 137. 72-4. 100. personal 88 S salary 17. 22. 84. 15. 95. 167. 56. 174 risks. 67. 172 Share interview questions 168 situation 90. 175 selection procedures 179 selection processes 5. 36. 16. 125. 74-6 salary workers 28-34 sales work 24 SALES WORKERS 23 SCEP (Student Career Experience Program) 164 scheduling 109 school. 36. 127 secretaries 24. 23 set 59. 64. professional 177-8 start 59. 76. 86. 31. 81. 92 services 2.

42-3 tasks 24. 17. 86. 162 Temporary employees work 19 temporary jobs 14. 103. 119. 119. 24. 112 Suite 45 supervise 138 supervisors 20. 87. 58. 30. 104. 119 subjects 57. 9. 142 team 107. 99. 129. 143 subordinates 111. 111. 94. 58. 156. 108-9. 118 achieved 108. 26. 55. 113. 147 behavioral interviewing 178 top 80. 151-2. 82 Top-Paying Employment Services Job 11 top priority 109 track 143-4 trademarks 2 192 . 56. 118-22. 101. 71. 37 system. 112. 67. 11. administrative 23-4. 35-6. 72. 94. 97. 113. 95. 48. 116. 163-4 [6] set 172 short 108 time constraints 87 time demands 90 timeframe 129. 74. 121. 42. 20-1. 36. 110. 44 full-time 19 temporary workers mirror 35 temporary workers transfer 36 tenders 33 time 9-10. 117. 69. 84.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES State employment service offices 52-3 State organization Trial Service period 103 State's workforce 54 step 5. 35-6 temporary work 35 Temporary work assignments 20 temporary workers 15. 17 support occupations. 107-9. 101. 79. 115. 116. 60. 154. 115 success 10. 46. 59. 17. official employment information 54 T Table 28-34. 163 Student Career Experience Program (SCEP) 164 style 11. 174-5 supplement 15. 169 approximate 167 tools 77-8. 81. 111-13.

58-9 work group 113 work history section 59 work style 112. 121. 118-19. 174 transportation 25. 101. 11. 132. 87-9. 25. 124. 136. 24. 167 venturesome 89. 60-1. 44. 38-9. 52 repair 32 service 27 skilled 25 193 . 35. 156 work ethic 155 work experience 9. 73-5. 55 administrative support 36. 70-1. 169 W wage 28-34. 35-6. 19-21. 41. 42. 128 work 3. 163-4 vacancy announcement 7. 113. 49-51. flexible 40 work environment 21. 67. 43 professional 41 qualified 24. 57-8. 26-7. 19-24.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Traditional Interview 132 training 5. 91 veterans 53. 164. 111-13. 40 contract 40 counter 29 dislocated 53 full-time 21 groundskeeping 30 leased 21 leased clerical 21 nonsupervisory 42 permanent 44 production 33. 164. 38 Web sites 49. 65. 37. 72 Truck drivers 34 U unemployment insurance claims 39 V vacancy 7. 33. 51 WIA (Workforce Investment Act) 53 words 58. 26-7. 41. 119 work team's progress 89 workers 14-17. 172 [12] work arrangements.

emereo.org 3-4 53 194 . 17 workforce demographics 176 Workforce Investment Act (WIA) workloads 38 seasonal 17 workplace 100.EMPLOYMENT SERVICES social 142 specialized 38 workers use 60 workforce 14-15. 147 workshops 110 host 49 www.

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