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Metadata 100 Success Secrets 100 Most asked questions on Meta Data How-To Management, Repositories, Software, Standards, Tools and Databases

Metadata 100 Success Secrets 100 Most asked questions on Meta Data How-To Management, Repositories, Software, Standards, Tools and Databases

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Metadata (meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data", of any sort in any media. An item of metadata may describe an individual datum, or content item, or a collection of data including multiple content items and hierarchical levels, for example a database schema.

Metadata provides context for data.

Metadata is used to facilitate the understanding, characteristics, and management usage of data. The metadata required for effective data management varies with the type of data and context of use. In a library, where the data is the content of the titles stocked, metadata about a title would typically include a description of the content, the author, the publication date and the physical location.

In order to build or buy a metadata solution, a full set of metadata requirements need to exist. These requirements are not what you find documented in the average data warehouse reporting tool - they are much more. This book explains what else needs to be considered, and takes you through the way to get them, organize them, and use them.

This book is for the person that is using or implementing a metadata solution. It is also for the person that needs to decide why the metadata solution that exists in his/her organization isn't what it could be. It offers a good perspective about metadata, ownership versus stewardship.

Highly recommended, quick read covering everything metadata, something Data/IT Managers should be familiar with.
Metadata (meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data", of any sort in any media. An item of metadata may describe an individual datum, or content item, or a collection of data including multiple content items and hierarchical levels, for example a database schema.

Metadata provides context for data.

Metadata is used to facilitate the understanding, characteristics, and management usage of data. The metadata required for effective data management varies with the type of data and context of use. In a library, where the data is the content of the titles stocked, metadata about a title would typically include a description of the content, the author, the publication date and the physical location.

In order to build or buy a metadata solution, a full set of metadata requirements need to exist. These requirements are not what you find documented in the average data warehouse reporting tool - they are much more. This book explains what else needs to be considered, and takes you through the way to get them, organize them, and use them.

This book is for the person that is using or implementing a metadata solution. It is also for the person that needs to decide why the metadata solution that exists in his/her organization isn't what it could be. It offers a good perspective about metadata, ownership versus stewardship.

Highly recommended, quick read covering everything metadata, something Data/IT Managers should be familiar with.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 20, 2010
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  • Understanding Content Metadata
  • The Scenes behind Metadata Extract
  • The Different Metadata File types and the Relevance they play
  • A comprehensive study about LOM Meta- data
  • What is a metadata crosswalk?
  • An Effective Tool known as Metadata Ex- traction Tool
  • The Concept of Metadata Mapping
  • Learning to Understand XMP Metadata
  • Understanding Document Metadata
  • The Policies and Procedures about FGDC Metadata
  • The Beauty of Interoperability Metadata
  • The Properties of MARC Metadata
  • A comprehensive description on Metadata
  • What is Management of Metadata?
  • The Fundamentals of RDF Metadata
  • IPTC Metadata: The Simplest Tool to Sign Digital Photos
  • Work Smarter, Not Harder with JQuery
  • The Tricky World of Media Cataloging
  • Simple Metadata Definition: An Introduc- tion
  • The Benefits of Metadata Ontology Stan- dardization
  • Utilizing Different Metadata Schemas for Different Purposes
  • Understanding the Basic Usage of XML Metadata
  • Three Categories for your Library Metadata
  • Analyzing Company Metadata for Better Productivity
  • Two Best Metadata Download Sources
  • The Basic Characteristics of Metadata Schema
  • Metadata Tools: Automating the Process of Metadata Creation
  • What You Should Know About Metadata
  • Metadata in Today’s Digital Libraries
  • Phases to Create Metadata
  • Managing Metadata Location
  • GIS Metadata Software Tools
  • Importance of Cleaning Your Metadata
  • Metadata on Flash Application
  • Standards Applied on Metadata Formats
  • Training for Building and Implementing Metadata Program
  • Metadata Helps Your Web Site Get Notice
  • The Rules Concerning Copyright Metadata
  • The IMS Metadata Categories
  • How to Learn the Metadata Report?
  • Dig-In the Metadata Repositories
  • The SCORM Metadata Through Time
  • The Geospatial Metadata History
  • Metadata Browser and Its Impact on Searches
  • The System of Metadata Reporter
  • The Overview of Preservation Metadata
  • The Meaning Behind Semantic Metadata
  • Why there is a Need to Clean up Metadata?
  • FGDC Metadata Standards to Follow
  • Functionalities of the Kaa Metadata Mod- ule
  • Computer Forensics with Metadata Foren- sics
  • Metadata List of Definitions
  • Remove Metadata for Better Document Security
  • What Is Metadata and Its Types?
  • The Reason to Clear Metadata Entries
  • Icecast Metadata History and Other Icecast Features
  • Metadata Bridge: Easier Access to Adobe Photoshop Images
  • Different Metadata Jobs for Professionals
  • The Importance of Creating Metadata Reg- istries
  • Payne Metadata Assistant Product Fea- tures
  • Different Terms Coming From Standard Metadata
  • Understanding Business Intelligence Metadata Architecture
  • About business intelligence metadata architecture
  • General IT Metadata For Web Writing
  • Relational Database Metadata: Benefits and Uses
  • Data Warehouse Metadata and Its Benefits
  • IT Metadata Management Products: His- tory and Uses
  • The Plusses and Deltas of Document Meta- data
  • Metamodels – The Basics of Metamodeling
  • The Value of Meta-Metadata
  • The Importance of Geospatial Metadata
  • The Need for a Metadata Repository
  • Metadata’s Role on GIS
  • The Essence of Setting up Metadata Stan- dards
  • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – What was it for?
  • Understanding A File System Metadata
  • Image Metadata: Increasing Image Search- ability And Access
  • Lightroom Metadata Easy to Push to Original Image
  • Metadata Assistant: When Cleaning Files Is Imperative
  • Ex Falso: A Very Useful Audio Metadata Linux Editor
  • When Metadata Removal Becomes Neces- sary
  • Vista Metadata Useful But Should Be Used Carefully
  • Is WCF Metadata the Same as WSDL?
  • Free Metadata Software for Every Applica- tion Abound
  • Metadata Files: Automatically and Manu- ally Created
  • Metadata: Law Concerns and Require- ments
  • How Important Are Metadata Photos?
  • Metadata Service: Varied Yet Complete
  • Program Metadata: What Is it?

Metadata 100 Success Secrets

Metadata (meta data, or sometimes metainformation) is "data about data", of any sort in any media. An item of metadata may describe an individual datum, or content item, or a collection of data including multiple content items and hierarchical levels, for example a database schema. Metadata provides context for data. Metadata is used to facilitate the understanding, characteristics, and management usage of data. The metadata required for effective data management varies with the type of data and context of use. In a library, where the data is the content of the titles stocked, metadata about a title would typically include a description of the content, the author, the publication date and the physical location. In order to build or buy a metadata solution, a full set of metadata requirements need to exist. These requirements are not what you find documented in the average data warehouse reporting tool they are much more. This book explains what else needs to be considered, and takes you through the way to get them, organize them, and use them. This book is for the person that is using or implementing a metadata solution. It is also for the person that needs to decide why the metadata solution that exists in his/her organization isn't what it could be. It offers a good perspective about metadata, ownership versus stewardship. Highly recommended, quick read covering everything metadata, something Data/IT Managers should be familiar with.

Metadata 100 Success Secrets
100 Most asked questions on Meta Data how-to Management, Repositories, Software, Standards, Tools and Databases
George Nelson

ISBN 978-1-921523-52-6


9 781921 523526

Metadata 100 Success Secrets
100 Most asked questions on Meta Data how-to Management, Repositories, Software, Standards, Tools and Databases

Metadata 100 Success Secrets Copyright © 2008 Notice of rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.

Metadata 100 Success Secrets

There has never been a Metadata Guide like this. 100 Success Secrets is not about the ins and outs of Metadata. Instead, it answers the top 100 questions that we are asked and those we come across in forums, our consultancy and education programs. It tells you exactly how to deal with those questions, with tips that have never before been offered in print. This book is also not about Metadata’ best practice and standards details. Instead, it introduces everything you want to know to be successful with Metadata.

........................................Table of Contents Understanding Content Metadata.......................28 Database Metadata: Facilitating the Automation of Data Storage and Delivery ..........................................34 Simple Metadata Definition: An Introduction.......................14 What is a metadata crosswalk? ...26 What is Management of Metadata?......25 A comprehensive description on Metadata ............................................................................................................ Not Harder with JQuery ..................................27 The Fundamentals of RDF Metadata ..18 Learning to Understand XMP Metadata ....................................................................................................................22 The Beauty of Interoperability Metadata ......................24 The Properties of MARC Metadata.........................17 The Concept of Metadata Mapping............32 Work Smarter...........................................................10 The Scenes behind Metadata Extract .....................................30 IPTC Metadata: The Simplest Tool to Sign Digital Photos ...............36 .....................................................16 An Effective Tool known as Metadata Extraction Tool............11 The Different Metadata File types and the Relevance they play 13 A comprehensive study about LOM Metadata .............................................................................35 The Benefits of Metadata Ontology Standardization .......21 The Policies and Procedures about FGDC Metadata....................19 Understanding Document Metadata .33 The Tricky World of Media Cataloging...............................................................

............................... 52 Metadata in Today’s Digital Libraries..................................................... 71 How to Learn the Metadata Report? .............................. 40 ESRI Metadata: Providing Different Formats for Information Research...................................................................................................................... 56 GIS Metadata Software Tools . 44 Three Categories for your Library Metadata ...................................................... 38 Understanding the Basic Usage of XML Metadata .................. 73 ....................... 66 Metadata Helps Your Web Site Get Notice .......................... 42 ISO Metadata Registry: Standardization for Better Information Exchange........................................................................ 69 The IMS Metadata Categories ...... 46 Analyzing Company Metadata for Better Productivity ............................................................................................................................................................. 68 The Rules Concerning Copyright Metadata ............... 49 Metadata Tools: Automating the Process of Metadata Creation 51 What You Should Know About Metadata ........................ 55 Managing Metadata Location............ 60 Metadata on Flash Application .................................................. 64 Training for Building and Implementing Metadata Program....................................... 48 The Basic Characteristics of Metadata Schema............................ 62 Standards Applied on Metadata Formats . 58 Importance of Cleaning Your Metadata ................................................................... 53 Phases to Create Metadata........Utilizing Different Metadata Schemas for Different Purposes................................ 47 Two Best Metadata Download Sources ..............................

...............................................................................................104 Metadata Bridge: Easier Access to Adobe Photoshop Images ................103 Icecast Metadata History and Other Icecast Features.................................................................................................99 What Is Metadata and Its Types?........................................81 The System of Metadata Reporter ...................................................................................87 Why there is a Need to Clean up Metadata? ..................83 The Overview of Preservation Metadata..111 Different Terms Coming From Standard Metadata...85 The Meaning Behind Semantic Metadata............96 How to Ensure Security and Privacy despite the Presence of Metadata Word Document .....75 The SCORM Metadata Through Time .........................................89 FGDC Metadata Standards to Follow..108 The Importance of Creating Metadata Registries................................................................................................113 Understanding Business Intelligence Metadata Architecture.......101 The Reason to Clear Metadata Entries..........................115 ........Dig-In the Metadata Repositories...109 Payne Metadata Assistant Product Features ............92 Computer Forensics with Metadata Forensics ...90 Functionalities of the Kaa Metadata Module...................................................77 The Geospatial Metadata History...........................................................................94 Metadata List of Definitions ..........79 Metadata Browser and Its Impact on Searches.....................................106 Different Metadata Jobs for Professionals ..................................................................................97 Remove Metadata for Better Document Security..

. 126 The Value of Meta-Metadata .................................................................................................. 119 Data Warehouse Metadata and Its Benefits ............................................................ 131 META + DATA = INFORMATION ABOUT DATA ........................ 134 Metadata’s Role on GIS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 145 ArcGIS Metadata: Following a Standard Facilitate Data Sharing .......... 123 The Plusses and Deltas of Document Metadata ..... 142 Understanding A File System Metadata...................................... 132 The Need for a Metadata Repository ....................... 149 ...........................General IT Metadata For Web Writing .............. 147 Lightroom Metadata Easy to Push to Original Image ......................................................... 117 Relational Database Metadata: Benefits and Uses........................................................... 137 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – What was it for? .... 125 Metamodels – The Basics of Metamodeling....... 128 Metadata – Its Role in the Quest for a Perfectly Functional Digital Library .......... 135 The Essence of Setting up Metadata Standards .... 121 IT Metadata Management Products: History and Uses ............. 138 Audio Metadata: Definition............................................................. 129 The Importance of Geospatial Metadata....................... And Asset Management ............. Audio Compression. 140 Existing Software Metadata That Are Commonly Proven Effective And Efficient....................... 144 Image Metadata: Increasing Image Searchability And Access...............................

.............162 Marine Metadata Interoperability Project: Aims Collaboration in Marine Science Research..170 Metadata Service: Varied Yet Complete....160 Free Metadata Software for Every Application Abound ..................................................................164 Metadata Files: Automatically and Manually Created .....................................................168 How Important Are Metadata Photos? ..................171 VOD Metadata Specifications for Easier Content Selling and Customer Usage ...........159 Is WCF Metadata the Same as WSDL? ....................................................................................................................173 Program Metadata: What Is it? .............................166 Metadata: Law Concerns and Requirements.....................................157 Vista Metadata Useful But Should Be Used Carefully ....175 ............................................................................Metadata Assistant: When Cleaning Files Is Imperative .......................................................................153 Ex Falso: A Very Useful Audio Metadata Linux Editor.............155 When Metadata Removal Becomes Necessary.............151 Metadata: A Different Metadata Format for Different Applications.

9 .

more to that. These two categories are formidably the very well identified sections that create a better way of navigating through the content metadata section. to make things a lot simpler. However. The content metadata is one of the fast rising applications that a lot of industrialists are using in their business because of its capacity to expedite the process and allows to strengthen the capacity of the database to even perform better and a lot robust. These choices are being categorized as both the field which has the information item and the description that narrates the description of the identified item. then it becomes somehow a bit complex to understand. content metadata is simply the process of saving and storing any information that concerns a specific piece or portion of content. The content metadata being a deposited information about a piece of content usually is being restricted from being tracked and reported as the pieces of information that were entered on the content metadata page are only viewable and seen. The menu options that a user can choose from have subdirectories that have the Rights Management Section Information and the Life Cycle Section Information. The Content metadata comprises of a series of options and choices that a user can select and choose.10 Understanding Content Metadata Metadata being referred to as the information about a piece of information is quite a simple concept to understand. the information that were entered are only acting as a point of reference for the identified piece of content. Nonetheless. when you think about how you store the content that resides on that information within the metadata process. .

As for the office files. we have to understand that extracting metadata involves pulling out a data from a data in a persevered manner and under a different file format. There are also audio and sound files which bear either WAV or MP3 file formats. And lastly. you can now establish a better and stronger concept about what extraction of data is all about. Now. c. GIF and JPEG which are products of probably Adobe and the TIFF file format. First thing. In this case.11 The Scenes behind Metadata Extract Metadata in itself is such a complicated concept to perceive much more to comprehend with ease. b. After having learned this. the file formats that are supported are the bitmap produced by MS Paint. we shall try to discover the scenes and the essential elements about metadata extract. we will need to understand that there are file formats where metadata extraction can happen. Now. when you incorporate extraction of data about another data. the documents such as MS Word which produces doc files. the concept becomes a lot more complex and intricate to fathom. In images. The abovementioned concepts can now lead you towards better . the markup files which are produced by either the HTML or the XML application software. the XLS files produced by spreadsheets like Excel and PPT produced by PowerPoint. d. The following are some of the file formats that are being supported in the extract metadata process: a. in order to eliminate the complexity that hounds the concept. The actions that are bearing relevance here are preservation and establishing a compatible file format.

12 understanding the concept of metadata and extraction of data about a data. .

They are capable of establishing a better means towards providing a more controlled metadata schema and at a certain can jeopardize the whole metadata schema. the Office file types such as DOC. mapped. manipulated. GIF. These file types are also important in trying to determine whether or not these metadata schemas are capable of being controlled. and the MP3 file types. This is the reason why the file type is playing a significant role. The file type is what delimits the other metadata features from getting control over the metadata schema. and PPT files. XLS. TIFF. Some of the files types that are very common to metadata schema are the image file types such as JPEG. and managed. These files types are capable of being controlled by the metadata features as they bear compatibility with one another and does not have any issue in terms of interoperability. It is for this reason that the choosing of the data file types is given high importance by the metadata makers and developers. the metadata concept brings about the essential and significant relevance of files and file types in the whole concept of the metadata process. The metadata file types as deemed essential should not be ignored and taken with least precautions. the sound and audio file type such as the WAV. AVI. The file type of the metadata schema is what dictates where it is created and established. and BMP. . Files are what come out after all the metadata schemas have completed the metadata process.13 The Different Metadata File types and the Relevance they play As we are all aware of.

14 A comprehensive study about LOM Metadata LOM or Learning Object Metadata may seem to look very intimidating to learn and study the first time you hear of the concept. why study and learn LOM or Learning Object Metadata? What are the advantages of learning it? The Learning Object Metadata firmly adheres to the idea of supporting the following concepts: a. The concept of allowing inter-operations between and among metadata schemas more often within the concept of the LMS. this is not always the case. So. The concept of discovering and unleashing some of the learning objects that are useful and functional to the technology. b. The ability to use and re-use the learning objects that were utilized. c. The Learning Object Metadata is a model of data that is being in metadata process. . d. It is usually encoded using the Extensible Markup Language because this application software (XML) has an easy to learn and understand method on how one can describe the learning entities or objects and likely digitalized resource that is being used to place support on the learning process. This may be a true perception to a lot of people but generally. The creation of a shared description about learning resources between and among the discovery resource matrix that can lead to a reduced cost in the services that are provided.

This may include but not limited to having a suited and controlled vocabulary used for the classification.15 e. The creation of a tailored resource system for the demands and needs of the people in the community. . reduction in the number of entities as described in the schemas.

This means that there can be a mapping process that can happen between or among metadata schemas. The mapping is referenced towards locating the fields. The crosswalk method accepts for the systems to be effectively converting metadata from one form of standard used in metadata into another form.16 What is a metadata crosswalk? Metadata process is itself a considered very powerful database management tool. One of the features that metadata possesses is the crosswalk metadata. syntax. the only pre-requisite is to have a clearly identified definitive parameters for the elements that are found on every metadata schema. This dynamic method allows then for the collection of mixed and dynamic data to be mapped and searched using a single search method or a single query mechanism that is supposed to be working only for a single database. The crosswalk method is one of the widely used tools because it allows for the dynamic operability of the various metadata schemas. However. when you try to discover the potential powers of the metadata procedure. meaning the crosswalk metadata process happens by searching thru a matrix the data elements and semantics are located. A crosswalk is a method that is used to simplify the mapping and locating data process. It can be from one metadata scheme or a composition of many metadata schemas. labels. you will get amazed with how well these features and tools were built in order to simplify the whole process of managing a data or the database itself. In order for the crosswalk metadata process to be successful. . and semantics found on a metadata schema. The mapping process.

along with these issues are the immediate resolutions that are built. The metadata extraction tool was initially developed in New Zealand that is geared towards allowing for the extraction of a preserved data about a data in a file format that is wide range such as PDF for Adobe. This process has paved way for so many essential and significant discoveries in the Information Technology aspect. Nonetheless. more and more issues are coming out. . However. this extraction tool was developed to perform the following tasks: a. b. One of the latest discoveries is the metadata tool known as the Metadata Extraction tool. This Extraction tool allows for the metadata to be extracted in a preserved manner. Specifically. As people began to notice the capacity and features of the tool.17 An Effective Tool known as Metadata Extraction Tool Metadata is such a very innovative and creative process ever developed. it has become an open source file that was officially launched in the year 2007. To create an automated approach on how to extract data about a data from files which have digital format. JPEG for image files. This Metadata Extraction tool was developed and established in the year 2003 by the National Library of the New Zealand country. To be able to create a product or an output of the metadata in a format of an Extensible Markup language that can be used for preservation processes. The extracted metadata should be preserved into its original form. WAV and AVI for audio and sound files among others. as the technology essentially progresses and develops.

insert. The metadata mapping uses a generic code in order to make sure that details needed to update. In this way. the metadata mapping becomes more simplified and easy.18 The Concept of Metadata Mapping Mapping is a very intelligent tool that man has ever invented and conceived. energy. A Metadata mapping basically allows or permits the application makers or developers to have a clear definition on how the mapping processes are capable if being made on a simple matrix format. from that memory object into the physical object such as the database storage. Mapping as a directional method to determine whether you are doing the right thing or you are on the right track has been proven to be very effective in achieving goals and ostensibly efficient in the usage of the resources. Every computing expert is very well aware on how a piece of a data is being used and transported from the memory object of the user’s device to the database storage that he or she uses. read. meaning located. This process then results into a far more effective means and way to save time. and modify these data come in a very handy process. This whole process of determining and locating where these data are being saved or to the least being used is what is referred to as the metadata mapping. . Metadata mapping is the process of creating a method on how data is being segmented from the memory object of the user’s device and how it can be possibly mapped out. and a lot more company resources.

then you may have heard about how the Extensible Metadata platform can help you with your photo editing issues. In order to support the XMP metadata. there are various XMP tools that are made available for use.19 Learning to Understand XMP Metadata Have you heard about XMP or Extensible Metadata Platform? If you are inclined to using photo editing software applications or inclined to using the Adobe Photoshop software for your photography tools. Thus separately storing it onto a file allows for a number of problems not to occur. Usually this type of a problem occurs on a non-XMP based application. c. An XMP file is capable of being injected onto a significantly different file formatting (some of the more popular file formats) that does not cause any damage on the file contents that make it unreadable. photo and graphic format. and editing of photo applications. There is a standard way to process and store a metadata and that is via the Adobe XMP or the Adobe Extensible Metadata Platform. The injection of the metadata results into many issues. The following are the reasons why this kind of standardization is being implemented: a. Some of the more notable tools are the iTags which are very functional for tag and . The Extensible Markup Language application or the XML is capable of being used in different applications like the PDF format. The XMP application is capable of creating a standard definition on how to create and process metadata under the extensible environment. b.

the Kalimages which has a very strong features in terms of IPTC editing for JPEG images and file indexing for digital photo based files. .20 searching for graphic and image files such as JPEG and AVI files.

Not only that these are strong in document making but more important to note. The metadata inscribed on each document allows for the organization to have a legal claim on the mentioned document. these documents as deemed vital need to be also exposed to some kind of an inherent technological advancement so that they can be further utilized.21 Understanding Document Metadata Documents are such very important elements for every organizational entity. Documents are relatively being created under the environment of MS Office. not only because it was proven to be very effective and efficient in providing for the necessary meta-information but because of its ability to ensure availability of these pieces of information in every document that is created and made. Documents are what make everything on the business entity become legally official. This kind of a metadata feature is deemed very essential. Data about the data (metadata) is very essential in the eye of the organizational leaders. These application software products are first and foremost being used because of the strong capabilities of these application software products in terms of document making. For this reason. Document metadata is here to stay. in a litigation process. Many relevant data about a data are capable of being seen on it because of the metadata involved in the document. . the data that describes the content is very relevant in a legal battle or in a legal environment because of the sensitivity of the platform being used. For example. these application software products are capable of creating a strong metadata files for the documents.

22 The Policies and Procedures about FGDC Metadata The Federal Geographic Data Committee or the FGDC is one of the federal inter-agencies that the United State of America has established and created. It is a federal agency that was established as a coordinating committee which is engaged in discreet and confidential planning to make sure that there is continuing effort in the proper investment of the resources within the three important spectra: a. b. The complete protection stipulates the privacy and the confidentiality of the information bearing personal level in terms of the geospatial database records of information. The Federal Geographic Data Committee or the FGDC just like any federal government agency is bounded and limited on its performance based on the policies and procedures based on the design and programs that it is associated into. One of the more prominent policies that has been articulated is the policy about the access of the public to all the information that Federal Geographic Data Committee or the FGDC can purvey to the public together with the appropriate and complete protection of these information. High value programs that focus on generating federal programs that result into better welfare for the people. The geospatial database records are normally requiring people to disclose information that are highly personal because these pieces of information are potentially associated with the . Activities that involve development in the technological aspect.

• Any agency is required to ensure that there is a continued effort to protect private and confidential information at all cost. Below are some of the working guidelines in terms of the Federal Geographic Data Committee or the FGDC policies: • Any agency is required to disclose data that are geospatial only on request basis.23 property address and records that are private and confidential. .

the need for an interoperability of devices. and files became a necessity in all levels. the software makers and solution developers. As it tries to achieve perfection in its methodology. Due to this massive change and dynamic evolution. Every element of the constructs (semantics and contents) is being tested against varied entities to ensure effective interoperability. information. The interoperability process or method is trying to continuously expand its semantics and content range based on the growing demands and trends of the users in as far as the schemas are concerned. Interoperability process allows for a single file or a device to be used and controlled under a single environment. This method allowed for people to potentially save resources and all at the same time become multi tasking. the interoperability process that has been in used for quite some time continues to evolve. Or a file being used in a dynamic setting like it is being used as multiple file.24 The Beauty of Interoperability Metadata The sudden progress and growth that was felt in the arena of information technology brought about so many drastic changes and dynamic evolutions that impacted not only the single individuals who acts users of the IT but a worldwide impact – this included the business entities. the consuming public. This answer to the rapid evolution of technology has become a far suited answer because of the unprecedented events that have happened and existed in the last decade of the Information Technology. As of the moment. it is also trying to achieve dynamism in terms of usage. . the computing industry among the others.

these concepts become more involved in the process. there seems to be a better future for the MARC metadata. the MARC metadata along with FGDC and the Dublin Core Metadata are all types of the metadata process. there are concepts like metadata that are seemingly very confusing and difficult to understand. . The MARC metadata is a cataloging metadata that is being used widely. specifically in bigger University Libraries.25 The Properties of MARC Metadata In this digital and high technology that we have. The MARC metadata type is known for its strong capabilities to adapt itself with metadata mapping which makes it easier for the users to easily locate and search for the data or record that they wish to have. This kind of a feature is very well needed and is necessitated by institutions which have a bigger volume of data and records to maintain and manage. Many of the big university libraries that we have nowadays are either using the MARC metadata or the Dublin Core metadata type. as these concepts go along with the current trend in the industrial development. Some of the terms that are practically generating more confusion to people are the words metadata combined with MARC metadata. resulting to familiarity with the concepts. however. With the evolution of metadata concepts. The Machine Readable Cataloging has been in existence in the early days but has not been fully developed just until recently. For clarity. MARC metadata stands for Machine Readable Cataloging which makes use of a different database schema for individuality purposes.

metadata is also sometimes being referred to as the meta-information. . it is being understood clearly as a data about or referencing to a similar data. From the given descriptions. The word “meta” is originally a Greek word specifically a preposition and at times functioning as a prefix which when translated to the English will yield a lexical definition such as “about. it is safe to claim that metadata as a process of putting a referencing character to another data is functionally helpful in strategically positioning data on a repository mechanism. Furthermore. a data is being referenced by another data. along with” to name a few. when metadata is used. assessing. we shall be using the below given definitions: • Metadata is a very well structured and architectured piece of data that provides clear description on another data that bears a relevant entity aimed at identifying.26 A comprehensive description on Metadata In the world of computing and information technology. and managing the said entities and objects related to the data. With metadata. Logically. it is being technically referenced to as metadata. • Metadata is a cluster of well-framed descriptions capable of being utilized in assisting experts in strategically locating other data or objects. thus the description on metadata that is referencing to a piece of information about a piece of an information remains acceptable and logical. In a more comprehensive manner of describing the term metadata. behind. when a data pertains to another data. A data remain a meaningless data when there is a null reference that is attributed to it.

27 What is Management of Metadata? The technology that we have these days has indeed brought so many positive for the human kind. users of the technology perceived ways and methods on how they can protect their data from potential hackers and malicious users. These two instruments that are widely being used are capable of putting a shield that will protect and strategically manage the metadata of the company or the institution. . The Metadata Removal Tool is capable of cleaning and putting a document or a piece of a data in a “quarantine” period before it is being sent or accepted to and from the company. are the threats to the security and integrity of data and information. The metadata management process protects the information by studying how the superhighway channel can trigger potential damage to the data. The Metadata management process on the other hand protects the data or the information that goes in and out of the company using the electronic delivery system. It is a common knowledge to everyone that the electronic superhighway that is used to communicate and transmit data is prone to many potential malicious users. This is a better way to avoid being hacked or infested by malicious software caused by documents being accepted without further checking on it. For this reason. This has brought into the conception of the metadata management software tool or better known as the Metadata Removal Tool and the enhanced metadata management process. along with these positive aspects. Metadata management also allows for the safe-keeping of the information regarding an information in a much protected manner. However.

it allows for a clear definition of the syntax and rules used by any web domain application. The use of the XML software basically allows the Resource Description Framework to be described using the web understandable format – usually via the Uniform Resource Identifier or the URI. By employing such method. the defined mechanism becomes neutral. The RDF method of metadata will allow for a more expeditious and faster way to gain access to data that is apparently relevant to all users. Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a very effective mechanism to allow for interoperability between and among data or applications performing a method of exchanging information that is understandable by the machine instead of just being read by the machine. Incidentally. It is only through the Resource Description Framework method that this interoperation between applications can happen and exist. the use of the Resource Description Framework or the RDF is come up with a clear definition of the mechanism in describing the resource that using a specific application web domain without using any assumptions on it. The Resource Description Framework utilizes the XML software (Extensible Markup Language) as its encoding application in order for it to enforce the data being a metadata. In addition. however.28 The Fundamentals of RDF Metadata The RDF Metadata or the Resource Description Framework is one of the mechanisms that metadata process uses. attaining a mechanism in clearly defining a proper description for any type of web domain. .

the use of the RDF is for the nodes to have models together with their attributes and the values that are innately inscribed on every attribute.29 Essentially. .

information administrators need to input data to the database. Database metadata can be relational. Although there are different uses of metadata for data warehousing. These reusable codes can be used to populate the database with repetitive data.30 Database Metadata: Facilitating the Automation of Data Storage and Delivery Databases process the storage and delivery of data and they need metadata schemas to facilitate this exchange. the goal is simply to automate the processes involved in the flow of information. information managers can create reusable codes. data must be encoded in it so that it can be useful for the company. In creating a database. Hard encoding however is a repetitive and cyclical process. source specific. In order to simplify data extraction and to facilitate faster delivery of information. The flow of information to the database will also be faster and more accurate. process specific. metadata codes can be used by information managers. As long as the database is live. Just like the encoding process. collating information for different business processes would be easier. Database metadata can also be used for extraction of information. In this way. extraction of information is a repetitive procedure. This is the stage of hard encoding in order to populate the database. The reusable codes are the metadata schemas that have specific values automating the encoding process. The metadata codes can also automate the extraction of . or can also be used for extracting business intelligence. It can simplify database management. Businesses need data for their operation and to deliver services. To avoid rewriting hundreds of data that come from different sources.

31 data and can be scheduled for a more programmed delivery of information. .

its resolution. the hardware used. The information will not appear on the photograph but on its metadata structure. and the date of production can be embedded on the digital image. Its importance becomes more pronounced as the digital media technology becomes more advanced. The embedded information therefore serves as the signature of the photo. The photo can be edited. For example. Digital media production and distribution therefore will be easier and simpler through the use of IPTC metadata. the photographer can sign the photo using IPTC metadata schemas. Different applications and web spiders or crawlers will be able to read the photo and recognize it as data. becomes the IPTC metadata. and digitally sign their creation. Specifically.32 IPTC Metadata: The Simplest Tool to Sign Digital Photos IPTC metadata is the information embedded on digital media graphics. Through such applications. the description of the photo. Leading graphic developers implemented IPTC metadata capability for their applications. This signature. or manipulated using different graphic tools. use the metadata tools available on their graphic software. The name of the photographer. digital photos can be signed by its creator using IPTC compliant graphic tools and applications. if used in conjunction with markup technologies. . They can simply create or recreate a photo. enhanced. IPTC metadata is very useful in describing digital still media. Graphic artists therefore will not be compelled to learn markup programming just to embed an IPTC metadata. The graphics platform can provide tools that can create metadata for the media. a photographer can use a digital or SLR camera to take still pictures.

With jQuery. One such solution that you should be taking into consideration now would be the one that jQuery has to offer. jQuery is the one that is fast and concise and runs in such a way that it can truly simplify the way you traverse your html documents. In short. by the time you finish with the entire task it is only limited to around two or three lines and will usually not get all the more shorter unless you actually get to find a way for it to do so. Furthermore. In contrast. Among all the java script libraries that are available. everything is really a breeze to perform. the jQuery tool is something that you can use to change the way your website looks and feels with java script simply because that was the purpose and intent for which it was designed to do. With the former. you can complete the work in half that quantity if you opt to use jQuery – using only ten lines down the notch. Not Harder with JQuery Working with metadata can be very overwhelming if you do not know of the best solutions you can apply for it.33 Work Smarter. To illustrate jQuery’s efficiency when it comes to metadata handling. you will probably take around twenty lines of really tedious work with DOM types of java scripts. jQuery can also handle events and even perform stellar animations. . as well as add some really impressive Ajax interactions to make your webpage not just viewable or passable but very much an experience in itself.

date it was created and its content. which is metadata cataloguing. . you would probably not want a prospective customer of yours to find out the historical context of the data regarding an original author from a file you have sent to them. you may choose to transfer these into pdf formations using a pdf creator before you complete it and send the whole thing to the person who was requesting for it. Word and Excel. location. these types of information or attributes are indeed very helpful. one lament of these experts is that metadata cataloguing is not as generally known in the wider public circles as it should be. author. metadata is all about information that pops up in different programs such as Microsoft PowerPoint. However.34 The Tricky World of Media Cataloging Experts left and right have been currently talking about the buzz word. Simply put. who did who and what during what period of time. However. These metadata are usually some descriptions about the attributes of a document like its title. It is like a tracking of the number of revisions. unlike in circles that are composed of people in the know. When you catalogue using metadata. It is the information that exists about the given information your electronic documents already have – and most probably contain a lot of. As it is. So in order to keep your metadata cataloguing safe and sound. metadata can also be used to share some confidential and some potentially embarrassing information with an audience you might not wish to pay heed to.

The format of the document can also be included in the metadata. If used on websites. metadata is a critical piece of data to simplify the discovery of information. users can simply look at its metadata to know the information that can be found in its pages. the date of its creation and how long the document is. Users therefore can determine if the information will be useful for them. So instead or reading the entire document to discover its content. Some programs however can have their own metadata utility that automatically generates information for the created media. There are standalone applications designed to create metadata information for electronic media. There are available tools today that can be used to generate metadata. Essentially. Essentially. It is the data embedded in the data. metadata will provide basic information unique to the document. it will not show on the interface but it could be read by the search engines for indexing purposes. metadata schemas can provide a more focused search.35 Simple Metadata Definition: An Introduction Metadata is the short description of data to make information readily recognizable to users. Metadata can be embedded on a webpage or it can be written as a separate markup page that can be displayed independently on a browser and pointing to a specific resource. who wrote it. a simple document can have a metadata describing its content. This is especially useful today because information overload is a common occurrence in an information society. Metadata can be utilized on almost every type of digital media. . For example. With lots of information available to users.

36 The Benefits of Metadata Ontology Standardization Metadata ontology mimics the bibliographical design commonly found on published works. A standard set of language and symbols specifically designed to identify a user can be embedded in the application documentation. The use of standard metadata ontology can provide four benefits to users and developers of information. tags. The use of logical search terms can yield more accurate results. and syntax are used to facilitate communication between computers. This is possible only if the metadata structures of electronic media have standard ontological system. symbols. queries would be more logical thus saving valuable time during a search for information. First. an ontology based metadata can facilitate the organization and systematization of electronic library services. So when a communication process is requested. Lastly. . As metadata is commonly used for electronic and digital media. These symbols will be included in the metadata information. Standard semiotics is applied on metadata structures in order to create a uniform system of registry to facilitate information discovery. Second. where different icons. It can also be used for as standards for facilitating client and server interaction. This reflects the inherent nature of the Internet. the recipient will recognize the sender thus facilitating secure transactions. This is useful for the communication processes of two separate computers or applications. the application of standardized ontology is important to enhance information or data exchange. metadata ontology can also be used for very specific identification procedures.

All three benefits of using standard metadata ontology can significantly improve the flow of information and communication processes.37 Specific tags and symbols can be added to the metadata of a document or file to achieve automation of cataloguing techniques. .

audio. Normally. The standards specify the information that will be included in the metadata. There are also schemas specifically designed for digital creations such as photos. Metadata schemas must also use a recognizable encoding system so that it can be utilized by a third party user. This is to allow the intended reader of the metadata to easily find or discover the information presented on the document or media. These schemas or structures of metadata are used for variety of purposes. Standardization of metadata schemas will facilitate communication between different enterprise applications or computer program. stricter standards have been implemented for the metadata schemas.38 Utilizing Different Metadata Schemas for Different Purposes There are literally hundreds of metadata schemas that publishers can use for their electronic documents or digital media. In fact. For example. a metadata schema encoded for markup language can be . The Meta tags and the structuring of the text are created to conform to the algorithms used by search companies. Through metadata. There are metadata schemas designed solely for search optimization procedures. information exchange will be easier and faster. the schemas used for metadata have their own standards. the ISO has standardized the metadata registry of companies. languages. Structures. and specific elements of the metadata have been standardized also by the ISO. and features. For business and corporate information transactions however.

. The metadata then can be visible to the user from the source code view. The metadata will not be readable on the interface unless users look into the source code of the web page.39 embedded on website pages.

XML metadata is designed primarily to simplify web context. the delivery of metadata goes a step further.40 Understanding the Basic Usage of XML Metadata XML metadata was conceptualized and developed specifically to support markup language technologies. XML metadata is also commonly used for web optimization purposes. can be displayed correctly. Through this technology. XML metadata can be used in many ways. Simply said. This makes the delivery of information more flexible and extremely user-friendly. As search engine algorithms became more sophisticated in contextualizing the content of a website. Through metadata. Whether a web page contains text. audio. Users therefore can understand the context of data. XML metadata will be used by the developer to . Metadata means data within data. display pages and receive media content on any format or platform. data contained on a web page or any other media channels. The most extensive use of this technology however can be seen on web development and media applications using HTML as a delivery medium. or video. it is a set of information that contained the specifics or the detailed description of the information itself. So. XML metadata will be able to simplify the language of web content so that different applications can read the data and display it on the interface in recognizable format. the importance of providing metadata information also became more important. a markup or web content can be easily understood. With the development of Extensible Markup Language or XML. graphics.

41 describe the entire content of a webpage to make it friendlier to search engines. .

Scientific information managers therefore use metadata to organize millions of digitized files to make it recognizable for search functions. ESRI metadata can be very useful when creating a digital library for maps and other geographic information. The utility ensures that the correct format of metadata is being followed by data administrators. and map developers can dump their bulky and cumbersome filing cabinets and use digital libraries to find information.42 ESRI Metadata: Providing Different Formats for Information Research ESRI is the leading developer of mapping software and different GIS applications. research would be simpler. The application is similar . Researchers. information centers could make use of ESRI’s validation application ensuring correct metadata input. and easier. The ESRI metadata can also be hosted on a portal serving as a clearinghouse where users can search for millions of scientific information. faster. Validation of metadata structure and content are means to standardize filing and cataloguing for library services. By using the ESRI metadata utility. Individual list element can be accessed simply by utilizing markup language. It has also developed a dedicated ESRI metadata schema to simplify the discovery. A scientific file stored on a database however will be very difficult to discover if not properly catalogued. scientists. Information database managers can configure metadata into a simple list format. distribution and cataloguing of scientific data created using standard GIS applications. ESRI metadata schemas also use stylesheet techniques. By creating encapsulated information on each file.

. The researcher can view the entire library resource on a single HTML page.43 to HTML pages for site map or frequently asked questions.

The standard ISO metadata registry will also help users of information in their search and discovery of information. That’s because the metadata schema of a company would be unrecognizable to other companies. Normally. business facilitation will be possible. such services offer database support services and data warehousing. Standardization would be particularly useful for organizations that create voluminous information through electronic or digital media. Business organizations are required to standardize their metadata registry. . The ISO metadata follows an internationally recognized syntax and format for the metadata information which can be recognized through different platforms and format. ISO standardization therefore serves both users and creators of data. In this way. different applications or programs of companies can communicate and interoperate with each other. This will facilitate smooth crossenterprise interactions or transactions. If companies will not follow a standard metadata language. cross-transactional schemes and language will be needed. This can be achieved through the use of metadata. Standardized metadata registry is also particularly useful for utilizing web services or hosted applications. By complying with the standards. With today’s increasing interactivity of business software. That’s where ISO metadata registry standardization comes in.44 ISO Metadata Registry: Standardization for Better Information Exchange An ISO compliant metadata registry was designed to standardize the syntax. cross-transactional operations will be impossible. structure and format of metadata information.

the clients can find data from the servers using standard ISO metadata registry. . the hosting server can easily recognize the data sent from the clients. In this way.45 To make data transfer between the enterprise and web services simple. standard metadata structures must be applied. Inversely.

where the information that is involved with the object may be composed of logical units like pages in a book to come up with the entire thing. And finally. Here. it is all about information on information about any type of media. The first one is the descriptive category. which are necessary for long term preservation of these types of digital objects. which is information for the object or control access based on how it was scanned and what its storage format is like. . these may be categorized into three parts. For libraries that are using different kinds of metadata. These categories are often used in order to provide descriptions of the objects that make it up. Simply put. These are often used for purposes that are bibliographic in nature. there is the administrative category. you might have already heard about metadata. The second is structural. the information which describes the intellectual content of such an object is for cataloguing records as well as finding some aids or same types of schemes. This is also a collection of information or data which may also have multiple contents and even some levels and hierarchies. This new type of archiving information is really a great way for libraries to be organized – and any kind of library at that! Any item that is part of the library of metadata may be referred to as the individual datum. also known as a content item.46 Three Categories for your Library Metadata If you are looking into the latest news about data storing.

This means they may be doing something wrong yet they do not know it. one case study showed that though the meta title had the business name listed. . For example. When information is overwhelmingly large and the demand for one’s products and services are simply too much.47 Analyzing Company Metadata for Better Productivity A lot of company owners have more than their fair share of tasks to complete. five were chosen for the research. When it comes to working with websites and web pages. metadata is part and parcel of the whole operation. Among three hundred and fifty companies. This is especially true for the newer studies about how some manufacturers use the SEO method or the search engine optimization method. what is one to do and what is one to think about? Thankfully. it did not have any metadescription and some keywords. especially when it comes to organizing the information they deal with each and every day. In the five companies that were chosen. Different types of businesses may also benefit from some case studies showing companies that sink due to poor titles and metadata which must be improved via the search engine optimization perspective. The same is very true for companies that work over the web or run their operations via websites. it was found out that they had scored the worst when it came to terms that can be search engine optimized. the most important thing you can do is to go back to basics and bring it all down to the metadata level.

Yet another contender in metadata download would be Guba. it remains to be the strongest contender in the realm of metadata download sources and is continuously growing stronger than ever. . This one is actually a sub branch from the Usenet product. It had already made over one million US dollars on the very first week of its operation alone.48 Two Best Metadata Download Sources There are so many places on the internet that you can get your metadata downloads – especially when it comes to files like movies. If you are looking for files to download. Some of these are actually very well known. And for that alone we can truly say that it is worthy of its place in the rankings of metadata download file sources. Of course. iTunes is the most popular form of metadata download source ever since it was first started. Ever since these two successes. You probably never realized it. Guba had been able to compete on the prices and also make some lowest priced offerings compared to the others. What happened was they were able to make a successful deal with selling Warner Brothers movies and then was followed up with a deal to sell movies made by Sony. you can probably first search these two because they are most likely to have the stuff you want and need. Nevertheless. The first and foremost of all of these would be that of iTunes. but movies are also types of metafiles that can be categorized and placed in different stations for you to access. such a metadata download site may also have its own fair share of bugs.

The syntax represents the specific description of elements while the form specifies the media or vehicle used in order to read the elements. A typical metadata schema should have these characteristics divided into syntax and form. To understand how to create a metadata schema. It is essentially the data that will give meaning to each element of the metadata. This is the brief information that provides context to the name values. It is thus called the metadata schema. For exam- .49 The Basic Characteristics of Metadata Schema A schema is the complete structure of the entire metadata. This is the metadata schema’s third characteristic. The metadata schema is very useful in providing detailed description of markup content using minimum information. Providing specific names for each element is a must in creating a metadata schema. Across each metadata name value is the syntax meaning. the metadata schema should have few elements. one should know the basic characteristics that should be contained in it. The general rule of thumb therefore is to write limited elements on the schema capturing the essence of the markup content. its schema need not be too descriptive. it is important to provide specific name values for each element to make the description simpler. This means the developer should make the description as compact as possible. Because metadata is essentially a summary of the content. This is its second important characteristic. As each element of metadata describes part of content. First.

. or description of the media whether it is a document. or a physical hard copy. digitized. or a video. the syntax can be reflected as the content summary. On the other hand. an audio.50 ple. location of the publisher. the form specifies whether the content is formatted in electronic file.

metadata is utilized as an effective information discovery tool. However. it is still best to manually check the metadata entries and crosscheck its accuracy. DIF. It would be easier then for those who create digital data to create a unique metadata.51 Metadata Tools: Automating the Process of Metadata Creation There are different metadata tools that can be used for different media format and for different purposes. digital signing. This type of tool can be very useful for generating standards-compliant metadata information. photographs. Metadata meanwhile can be used for website optimization and indexing. These types of tools can automate metadata generation. Through the use of metadata. There are tools that generate metadata for documents. This is especially useful for web developers. or SGML. information search will become easier. metadata can be applied on almost any type of electronic media and there are specific tools to create it. Tools that check the correctness of metadata structures can also check if its format and syntax conform to the general standards. There are also tools that can be used to check the structure of metadata. . In fact. and electronic cataloguing. Text. Basically. There are also tools that can be used to extract metadata information for a given document or media. and web pages. Usually these tools are designed to parse data and generate an encoded indented text. There are tools available in the market that can also check the accuracy of metadata information. Some very powerful metadata creators can also render extracted data into different platforms such as HTML. audio and video files.

3. It is used to provide documentation for data products. focal length. and how the data are being documented. It answers who. 2. The metadata of an individual data item will typically include the name of the field and its length. what. To explain more about metadata is to provide the following metadata examples: 1. where. Data managers who are technically literate scientists or scientifically literate computer specialists create Metadata. It is used to facilitate the understanding. sometimes referred as metainformation is data about data. type of file and the name of the data administrator. As you take pictures on your camera. why. etc. The content of the computer files is the data. white balance. except the creator needs to know more of the scientific information behind the data in order to document them properly. Metadata is used to help companies publicize and support the data that have been produced. Camera. or a collection of data including multiple content items. shutter timing. To create a correct metadata is similar to library cataloging. use and management of data. . the photographic image itself is a data but other than that metadata would normally include the date the photograph was taken and details of the camera settings (lens. Metadata generates the artist and song listings. An item with metadata describes an individual datum. On the player will show the album names. or content item. Digital Music Player. song titles and album art embedded in the music files. It will include the name of the file. when. Information system.52 What You Should Know About Metadata Metadata. aperture.).


Metadata in Today’s Digital Libraries
In today’s world of digital technology, even libraries are digitalized. A digital library is a library in where collections are stored in digital formats and are accessible thru the use of computers. It is a type of informational retrieval system. To make retrieval easy is to use metadata, which will describe the content and attributes of any particular item in a digital library. Metadata is important in digital libraries as it is the key to resource discovery and use of any document. Digital Libraries conforms to the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard schema. It is the standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, usually expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium. To maintain a library of digital objects would require maintaining metadata of those objects. Metadata is necessary for effective management and the use of digital objects is both more extensive than and different from the metadata used for managing collections of printed works and other physical materials. Technology makes cataloguing and access to library materials easier. Digital libraries provide a search interface to find resources. They usually use the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) to expose their metadata to other digital libraries, and search engines like Google, MSN or Yahoo. They use OAI-PMH to collect metadata descriptions of the records in an archive in order to build services using metadata from many archives. Naming a library item is important in digital library as an ISBN number is important in a traditional library. Names assigned for digital libraries should be uniquely


identify to the digital objects for reasons to include citations, information retrieval, to make links among objects, and for managing copyright.


Phases to Create Metadata
Metadata deals with data about data. It presents the background information that describes the content, quality, condition, and other appropriate characteristics of the data. It is used to make the understanding, use and management of data easier. There are two ways to go on learning how to create metadata. One is to attend a metadata training workshop or develop a metadata of your own. The development of metadata is more than storing text in a cryptic format. Metadata development is organized in four phases: creation, verification, distribution, and maintenance. These phases are described as follows: 1. Creation. The phase is where strategies are developed and techniques are implemented to create metadata. These include assembling information, review of other metadata examples, and familiarity with the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM), and choice of metadata tool. 2. Verification. At this phase, the data has been completed and the information it contains must be reviewed or parsed. Parsing refers to a procedure where values and structure of metadata records are reviewed against the CSDGM. Any errors in the metadata record are identified for correction. A metadata record is considered compliant if they are successfully parsed and error-free document. 3. Distribution. As soon as the metadata record has passed the parse routine, it is ready for distribution. The main purpose of metadata is to help geospatial data users find the data they need and determine how best to use it. Thus, having the metadata get to the user is as important as the data itself. 4. Maintenance. This phase is keeping the metadata update and reviews it periodically. Any change in data, you will have to document the change in the metadata.


Managing Metadata Location
In as much as metadata is data about data, this information is frequently stored in a c central location called as metadata registry. The metadata registry is the location where metadata definitions are stored and maintained in a controlled method. Metadata registries are useful to organization who wants to standardize their data. Examples of these organization cases include: 1. Organizations that uses structures such as XML, Web Services or EDI to transmit data. 2. Organizations that require consistent definitions of data across time, between organizations or between processes. Example is when an organization builds a data warehouse. 3. Organizations that attempts to break down "silos" of information captured within applications or proprietary file formats A metadata location or registry has the following characteristics: 1. It is in a safe area wherein authorized individuals can make changes. 2. It stores data elements which include both semantics and representations. 3. The metadata registry semantic areas contain the meaning of a data element with precise definitions 4. The metadata registry representational areas define how the data is represented in a specific format, either within a database or a structured file format such as XML. The metadata registries needs to be managed. Companies should have a program called metadata management which will store information about other information. There are different

Metadata is the key in providing users and applications a roadmap to where information is stored in the warehouse.57 types of media used as references to the location of the data which requires that there be management of diverse repositories. .

a software interface used to implement sophisticated editing operations on large. It uses a versatile editing tool based on the Td/Tk toolkit. Arc View – is full-featured GIS software designed for visualizing. It checks the structure of a metadata record against the FGDC standard. 8. and services. which can be pasted in metadata . 7. Mq. 4. DBFmeta – a tool that helps to document DBF files. XTME – edits formal metadata. diverse collections of metadata records. 6.58 GIS Metadata Software Tools To implement a metadata strategy for an organization is to decide on the tools to use. managing. Arc Catalog – is an application that organizes and manages all GIS information such as maps. The software lets you understand the geographic context of your data. which are stored as separate files. globes. 3. A tool used in case a text metadata record appears to have correct element names but the format that cannot be parsed by mp. models. data sets. Various software packages are specially designed for metadata management. 2. It creates detailed description. metadata. Tkme – is another software tool that edits formal metadata. Managing and implementing metadata standards for an organization’s computer software have a wide ranged. and analyzing geographic data. CNS – is a pre-parser for formal metadata. creating. Some of these metadata software used in government information systems (GIS) are: 1. allowing you to see relationships and identify patterns in new ways. indicating discrepancies and re-expresses the several useful alternative formats of the metadata. 5. MP – compiles formal metadata.

Err2html – makes easier to read mp’s error message. It can detect spelling errors or other consistency problems in the data file 9. .59 record using Tkme. The tool re-expresses the error listing as generated by mp thus reducing duplication. show most severe messages first. and show hypertext links for element names.

As an example is when you borrow a contract or model that is brief as a Word document. multimedia card. There are cleanup softwares available to protect your company from revealing information beyond what you intends to provide. An email document sent to someone could reveal information. Meta data cleaner application supports all external storage media such as USB drive. e-mail. This information is called metadata. It also requires maintenance. it is essential that you should clean up unnecessary and extraneous data. chat messengers. you simply modify the contract to fit your needs. news. In today’s world where we exchange electronic documents back and forth. which is more than what you want others to know about you. It sanitizes your hard disk permanently erasing internet activities like cookies. temporary internet files etc. Making private information available to third parties may place your company at a financial risk and/or at an embarrassing situation. SD . your organization. history.60 Importance of Cleaning Your Metadata Metadata is data about data. Metadata is good if managed and controlled properly. Most often. document history and editing history. but have you bothered to check the information about the document. It describes an individual datum. It is used to document data products. or a collection of data including multiple content items. Metadata cleaner erases your personal and secret document files permanently on your hard disk or removable media. It might be that the original author is still embedded in the document and even deleted text could still be present within the document. Word documents contain lots of information about you. or content item.

removable drive. thumb drive. compact multimedia card etc. memory card. smart media. .61 card.

where applicable) are all examples of flash video metadata. Language. Today.refers to the language code of the SWF file.62 Metadata on Flash Application Metadata means data about data. With metadata. and the number of kilobytes of data transferred per second as the video plays (video and audio data rates. Yahoo. Author. the number of frames per second that the video displays (frame rate). The information on the flash file is the primary data and the metadata is the information about the flash file. The length of the video (duration). Title – refers to the title of the SWF file. Flash is an application that allows you to create quick loading vector based animations and full featured interactivities on the web. 6. 2. Metadata Flash may contain one or all of the following formats: 1. As an example is the flash video. Description refers to the description of the SWF file. 3. you can now include metadata in your Flash movies or Shockwave Flash (SWF) files. 5. 4. and . Date – refers to the date of publication of the SWF file. Publisher – refers to the name of the SWF file publisher. it allows a better indexing of your SWF Flash files in different search engines like Google. You just need to add the title and description to your Flash document and the search engines can index more of the Flash content on the web.refers to the name of the SWF file author.

. The Flash application brings to end the time when your flash site containing SWF files is unreferenced or unlocated by search engines. The Flash application allows you to insert metadata without referring to SWF source codes.com.63 Live.

3. suggests metadata elements for describing data. prescribes content values for selected elements. It was designed to describe satellite and other remotely sensed data. audio recordings.64 Standards Applied on Metadata Formats Meta data is a file record of information that is usually on a XML document. Meta data standards are tailored based specific organization needs. what. It tells information about the who. where. Standards by which both humans and machines can use effectively. They promote the interoperability between organizations. Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2). which addresses the need to determine common terminology for geospatial metadata and to define the minimum set of metadata elements needed to describe a spatial data resource. The items are described using headings and/or uniform titles to make the items more accessible in catalog searches. There are several standards of metadata formats and some of these are: 1. A US Federal Metadata standard. and provides a structure for transferring metadata among infor- . Metadata has to conform to standards. basic characteristics or information resource. A metadata standard should have a common set of terms and definitions that are presented in a structured format. and films are organized and described. when. and people. This metadata standard defines how library materials such as books. why and how of the resource. Directory Interchange Format (DIF). Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM). A metadata structure directory developed by NASA and maintained by the Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (IWGDMGC). 2. It covers the data. systems.

65 mation systems. The metadata descriptions allow user to make an initial determination whether the data set may contain information of relevance or not. . This is a metadata standard used by library community to facilitate exchange of catalog records that employ the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules to describe a myriad of resources. Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC). 4.

content and knowledge.66 Training for Building and Implementing Metadata Program The creation of a Metadata is a by-product of business development. Part6icipanyts include Business. what you know about the data. Data Architects. content and knowledge. Students or participants to the metadata training programs must have a background knowledge and understanding of data and metadata management technology. Technology and Data Managers. and how to formulate a meta-data program immediately and develop a strategy that can reduce costs and improve productivity with minimal investment. System Integrators and Consultants who are responsible for reducing the Information . these are: 1. The management of data. There are two things that information technologies focus on. Metadata uses information technologies to support such development. Metadata is present in every business and is an IT tool from project management tools to database management tools to object tools to web tools. 2. They must be in a position to define and implement a metadata management program for their company. how to identify the “right” meta-data to manage. Solution Architects. Training programs are offered to students who seek to learn on how to build the components of a meta-data program. principles and best practices. To build a program to manage metadata for your company reduce business and IT costs and improve the productivity knowledge of your worker. The management of metadata. It is about what you know about your business and customers and.

67 Technology costs and the quality management of information assets. The training program usually has 2 days duration. . The course format is done through lecture discussion and workshop exercises.

Meta data is information that describes of your entire website. You need to specify the keywords to be used for search engines by using metadata tags. . Your metadata on your web site should contain information. If the search engine finds metadata tags that match the keywords as user entered. but mostly they count on your meta data. Keywords to be used must be descriptive and applicable to your site and words which you would expect users to type into a search engine. who is it for and why it might be useful. The keywords are the words that users enter when they do a search on the text box of the search engine. the search engine will show your site as one of the hits.68 Metadata Helps Your Web Site Get Notice Business people use their websites to work for their business. As customers make inquiry into a search engine web page. It would be better if you can put that all in one sentence. Definitely. Search engine uses different approach to index websites. The information that you entered on this field is what the search engines will retrieve. you would want your company to be on top of the list. which match their inquiry. first they must be able to find the company website. 2. they are given a list of vendor websites. They need to have a website that can attract new customers and inform them about their products and services. However. in order to do that is. Entering the keywords for the page. Entering page description. which allows search engines to classify your site properly. There are two things to know when you fill up metadata fields on your website: 1. This field allows you to describe your website.

who will benefit from your work financially. Copyright metadata follows the same concept as well. or who may carry out the work. Every circumstance calls for various dealings toward the situation. Also. who can copy or print information which is for individual use only. Everything can be twisted in exchange of something that is greater and favorable. there are still instances that are being reported that about doubtful execution of the copyright law. . In libraries copyright metadata have many restrictions and they only allowed educational users. And in some cases the services that are made available for the user are also provided. So. the right holder. However. what are the elements of metadata used in supporting the interests of a work’s copyright status? The elements are: the creator. Reproduction without permission is not allowed. The need to support copyright around licensed metadata has become crucial. Other rights that accompany copyright is to get credited by any of your work. who can adopt your work. and others that are associated with copyright.69 The Rules Concerning Copyright Metadata Every original work of whatever form like authorship and invention require exclusive rights or what know as copyright. Certain rules and regulations are also laid down on the table if copyright metadata is the issue being addressed with. publishing information and creation information. The schematic model of all the elements involved in the copyright status of a certain work can be considered as the summary of guiding principles in copyright metadata. Copyright infringement is punishable by law.

70 certain services are allowable if it is for serving users who want to some unknown information about a particular work. .

some other creation information like the date of publication. instructors and teachers understand the need of digitized modules to match the customized e-books initiated by the publishers. The technical category encompasses the format. and rights category. and discipline on the other hand are the information found in characteristics category.71 The IMS Metadata Categories The digital generation has been compelling the demand for first-rate digital course content. Life cycle category includes however the version. metadata category. and OS requirements of the information content. Rights category on one hand includes the role (the learner as the user of . IMS Metadata has developed services that fortify the recommendations and search and browse functions for the benefit of the users. location (URL). publisher information (organization/publishing company and the date of publication) of the resources. description. The language. rich and standard metadata resources are employed apart from being cost effective. creation information (date and contributor). On metadata category. The schema of the resource is also part of the metadata category. life cycle category. To make the IMS Metadata more convenient and manageable categories have been formulated by: general category. This issue has been dealt with by publishers through e-books. Hence in specific courses. Through IMS Metadata. person. Metadata tools which are based on IMS Metadata can also facilitate in following the IMS Metadata structure. In general category content information like identifier (ISBN) and title are supplied. characteristics category. technical category. and organization must be also included.

In reality.72 the resources) and the conditions of the resource which deals with the price and amount of the resource. . there are various IMS metadata elements that are built to perform nuanced searches which contain vocabularies and logical combinations of a particular resource particularly in the libraries.

and so on can now be directed bearing their entire form by simply referring to the internet. due to the inflating number of information resources. This is particularly true in the part of the librarians and other information specialists. this concern has been addressed the soonest time. audios. And metadata report is in fact what facilitates the resource discovery and manage to make use of its provisions. The validity of the metadata reports acquired through web-based search tools has created doubts. Various metadata formats were made available. certain issues about metadata reports formats have been raised as well. Before the advent of the internet. who is the longest time made use of traditional systems and standards in managing metadata. images. The characteristics and attributes of the objects of information such as: documents. Nonetheless. On the other hand. Hence. Issues about differing format which segment or aggregate data element fields have been questioned. Metadata has become the center force in networked environment especially when the internet turned into an essential research tool. The need for more efficient metadata record tools and other new models became crucial. traditional metadata reports exist as bibliographic records. new models and metadata tools have been created which can be aid both non-professionals and professionals in organizing metadata reports. the traditional systems and standards can no longer accommodate such information growth. videos. data sets.73 How to Learn the Metadata Report? The data and information about data is defined as metadata. However. IT experts are trying to establish a single metadata report format that will be used in .

. This will lead to interoperability of a networked environment that mainly relies on the Web.74 describing various domains and kinds of resources.

Also. The entire creation process in documenting information is recorded in a certain metadata level. To avoid such catastrophe. Otherwise. incomplete. repositories undergo testing before production so that at the end of all it meets the accepted the quality standards of the enterprise. Then. . update. In fact there are already available servers which can be used as metadata repository that have the facilities to export. inconsistent and inaccurate information will be produced. Second. What are the key benefits in acquiring and adopting a centralized repository in dealing with enterprise metadata? First. and resolve metadata along with its document actions. Through metadata server a centralized and manageable system is deployed resulting in consistent data repositories that are accessible to all the users and programmers. it guarantees data integrity and credibility. storage systems and metadata are employed. it simplifies systems support as it also eradicates all information intricacies. Hence. Such metadata repository will help in supporting enterprise intelligence strategy. The metadata server enables technical management and administration in all applications. any changes will be captured and reconstructed which make the information more comprehensive and updated. import.75 Dig-In the Metadata Repositories Large and medium enterprises and even small enterprises to some extent sustain a massive number of data sources and applications. IT professionals and experts take shots in creating a centralized and integrated metadata repository that is needed and required by any organization.

any changes within the servers can be acquired and reused so there is no use of complicated consolidation of programs.76 Finally. . Resources only need regular updating to ensure the quality information that the users will need. the very apparent benefit is the lower cost of ownership. And because of this. Metadata servers and repositories can be supported by the existing database infrastructures.

More so. to see the development of SCORM metadata versions here is the list that is arranged accordingly to its timeline: Executive Order 13111 launched in January 1999 SCORM Version 1. The runtime environment of SCORM metadata also takes part in indentifying how content package is converted into a ZIP (a data compression format) file.77 The SCORM Metadata Through Time Metadata goes beyond presenting data about data in any sort of media. the US Department of Defense has made a directive that e-learning purchases are obliged to correspond with the SCORM standards. In fact it even bears the sanction of the Office of the United States Secretary of Defense. This sequencing involves a set of rules that the learner needs to learn in practicing content objects. The Advanced Distributed Learning or ADL consortium mainly identifies SCORM functions in e-learning.0 launched in January 2000 . Metadata is also manifested in file of a content package generally referred to us as repositories. The host system which is also called as the runtime environment belongs to learning management system. 2004. There are actually several SCORM versions yet SCORM 2004 differs from the rest because it has introduced an intricate idea that is called sequencing. In the same year. Finally. SCORM is a collection of specifications and standards of communication that involves the client side content and a host system. SCORM on the other hand which means Sharable Content Object Reference Model is used in e-learning which is clearly supported by the Web.

0) launched in October 2009 .2 launched in October 2001 The First Edition of SCORM 2004 launched in January 2004 The Second Edition of SCORM 2004 launched in July 2004 The Department of Defense Instruction Edition launched in June 2006 The Third Edition of SCORM 2004 launched in October 2006 SCORM 2.0 (Web 2.78 SCORM Version 1.1 launched in January 2001 SCORM Version 1.

the US Federal Geographic Data Committee also developed its own geospatial metadata. it can also be stored as documents. agencies. and communities of practice take part in re-casting the preceding metadata standards. In 1992 to 1994. some countries. After the harmonized range of formal and actual standards of ISO/TC 211 in 1999 to 2002 “Geographic Information Metadata” was released in 2003. This has helped in initiating metadata collection that is based on diverse formats contained in agencies. Then in 1996. datasets. The data which has a definite or indefinite geographic extent can be restored in a Geographic Information System or GIS. . However. One good example of the geospatial metadata evolution was NASA’s DIF metadata. and so on that is available in a certain native environment but it still featured attributes that is relevant to a geospatial metadata. geospatial databases. Geospatial metadata gained recognition and appreciation during the 1980s and the 1990s. continents. They used such metadata standards as profiles and made them as subsets of ISO 19115. By 1988 it was approved and then became official. countries. Until then. earth imagery. and communities of practice. This metadata was developed in 1987 at the time of Earth Science and Applications Data Systems Workshop. Australia and New Zealand showed their interests in geospatial metadata as well and it was seen on version 1 illustrating metadata guidelines.79 The Geospatial Metadata History Geospatial metadata is basically defined as data that has reference to a geographic location or context is linked with selected position on the surface of the earth.

.80 The development of geospatial metadata has continued to grow and become popular on the Web during the 1990s. More geospatial features were created along with the Semantic Web in 2000s. Ontologies for semantic geospatial metadata became part of such advancement in the history of geospatial metadata.

The search process is applied manually during the recording of the artifact in the knowledge repository. Keyword searches employ specific words that are linked with the artifacts identification. Non-textual information like audios. The tendency would be poor results and more result searches. In full text searches documents are scanned from top to bottom. So the search would be leveled according to appropriateness and relatedness.81 Metadata Browser and Its Impact on Searches Can you imagine the trouble of searching into something like a file or a document on your computer that has been created a year ago? What is more upsetting is when you cannot remember the document name or where among the many storage systems in your local network is your file located. you are definitely wasting much of your time into something that is unknown. Each knowledge artifact is assigned with specific information that in turn will be used to locate specific details and information. In most cases. Through metadata browser three kinds of searches can be done very conveniently on a knowledge repository. such troubles can be totally eradicated through metadata browser. These are: full text searches. and graphics seem to be difficult to search though. videos. Words and parts of words are searched and will be matched to the user’s selection. and keyword searches. However. Apart from the worries of where to start searching. Portal search utilities are also needed. keyword searches produce good but . metadata searches. With an “intelligent” metadata database that uses knowledge artifacts so that information can be readily located and be made available.

Metadata searches on the other hand are derived from pre-defined taxonomy or schematic classification. Through metadata searches.82 less results. This is considered to be the most excellent form of searching because the taxonomy is already built in the search engine. every artifact is recorded based on specific business-defined characteristics. . Though the results are also considered more focused compared to full text searches.

The metadata reporter installation needs configuration so that the user can get access on it. The installation of metadata reporter proper. and web browser. The spotting of the document root and servlet directories in the web server. database drivers. Such systems are: repository of PowerMart or Powercenter. . database drivers. Though the installation and configuration can be tough especially when taken care of by different people. To allow the configuration to take place.83 The System of Metadata Reporter The Installation and Configuration of the Metadata Reporter Metadata reporter mainly employs a diverse set of standards in analyzing repositories. The Metadata Reporter Installation In installation of metadata reporter the following steps should be followed exactly: 1. make sure that the particular systems of metadata reporter components are active and functioning properly. PowerMart or PowerCenter repository allows metadata reporter generation of reports. the repository of either PowerMart or PowerCenter is also required. 2. Such components include: the web server. a set of components in installation of metadata reporter are essential. web browser. Additionally. and a web server that supports Servlets of Java. a group of system administrators should be all oriented in doing the job to prevent further troubles. In practice. the files in the metadata reporter. Every component should be properly installed and configured to effectively generate reports.

4. The sections are: the location of document directory.84 3. The mentioned information is a clear-cut view of what truly happens in the installation and configuration processes of metadata reporter. The web server should be restarted to complete the installation process. On the other hand the configuration can be done when the four sections of the Metadata Reporter Setup are ready. The configuration of the classpath contained in the web server. the list of repositories. and message frame enables setup tool displays warning. . advanced settings are properly connected to a repository database.

This is to recommend comprehensive sets of elements and highly-leveled standards so that management systems will become more efficient and automated. The idea behind preservation metadata is in fact directed to storage of technical details based on the format. The need to save essential elements of digital resources has turned into a very integral subject matter. The accessibility and recorded information which are both needed in the management and preservation of digital information encompass what we now call as the preservation metadata.85 The Overview of Preservation Metadata The access in the preservation of digital information is an ongoing trend in the discipline of metadata. and structure of the digital content. preservation metadata researches and developments are being addressed with. The accounts and records of all the actions that have been executed on the resources that have implied changes and decisions are actually stored. The legitimacy and validity of information about technical features and the information about the rights and responsibilities in action preservation are all stored through preservation metadata. With the current condition of technical capabilities. preservation metadata is now and then deliberated as a separate division of administrative metadata that is responsible in management information support and technical metadata that is presently supporting the digital content access. More so. . In fact preservation metadata is generally contrasted to descriptive metadata schemas (which employs the identification and discovery of digital objects). use.

and packaging information.86 Lastly. representation information. . preservation metadata schemas in various forms have been developed which aims to present reference points in acquiring relevant information for a particular enterprise perhaps. preservation description information. Different preservation metadata categories are actually formulated that will deal with content information.

executives and other business content should be found. So if the content of the information is about business domain. the disparities of content nature. Every element that can contribute an in-depth insight about a certain document should fall into a certain semantic metadata category. Metadata should be based on properly represented information and should be contextually-relevant as well. relevant information will be tagged. Semantic gap portrays the variations of two definitions of an object that might be categorized differently through computational representation. uses metadata model that has the capacity to serve its purpose. Dictionary and Thesauri 2. Such complexities include: various formats of the content. The formal languages like what is used in programming language reproduce various computational representations. ticker symbol. Ontologies . The techniques that can be used in engaging in this kind of endeavor are as follows: 1. that is industry-specific. the complexities of information management should be overpowered. it is expected that relevant semantic metadata like the company name. To make the organization of information more efficient and the computational representations more accurate within a certain enterprise. The information. Semantic metadata enables to reach the semantic gap so that the complete worth of the information will be obtained. The precise and proper creation of semantic metadata is required so that when extraction of information is done. and the need to acquire accuracy and intelligence from the content. sector.87 The Meaning Behind Semantic Metadata One of the many functions of metadata is to facilitate and to bridge semantic gap.

comprehensive and accommodating since structuring of domain-specific relationships among various entities is the focal point of semantic representations. ontology-driven metadata is the most flexible.88 3. . Document Analysis Among the three.

89 Why there is a Need to Clean up Metadata? Metadata is useful information used in almost anything. third parties who are capable of retrieving the metadata of certain files may know all or some of the sensitive information about the file creator easily. it may not be as useful as it seemed to be in digital products. The name of the file creator. computer used. the text which should not be in the document. That is why many people are making ways on how to clean up metadata within the documents and other files they made. and other traces of making the file will be seen by a third party. However. especially for commercial products. Some people see metadata as important content of a document while some may consider it as a threat to their privacy. his initials. . the company and organization where that person works for. There are many websites teaching how this can be done. the first sentences. Even making complicated deletions of files may be done as long as the person knows how to. Therefore. Even the revisions and versions of the document can also be seen because of metadata. and the comments made to the document can be traced using the metadata. even the changed figures and estimates in a spreadsheet application can be traced. Metadata can provide information to a third party about how a certain file came to its final version. There are some easy ways to clean up metadata. Metadata may also track the pasted sentences or paragraphs in a document. To clean up metadata is very important when sending digital copies of documents due to the many information that the metadata can provide the third party. Due to this. This can be done through editing and erasing some information in the document. the wrong sentences.

virtual. which records all the basic characteristics of a certain information or data resource. They do not just have a metadata tool but they have what they call as the FGDC metadata standards. This can be achieved by the FGDC through its publishing efforts called the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. and use of the geospatial data nationwide. publication information. deleted. This special metadata type is used to record the geographical digital resource which is also called as the GIS or Geographic Information System file. it is always aimed at preserving the data history of the nation. For FGDC. Whatever FGDC metadata standards may be used. Other than that. and organizational network that was designated to allow sharing and development of the various digital geographic information in the nation. and why. This is the physical. dissemination. It is also defined as something that represents the when. and database elements like attribute domain values and attribute label definitions. it also records the earth imagery and the geospatial databases. There is also the FGDC geospatial metadata record that contains the core elements which include the title. Instilling . The specific metadata type used by the FGDC is called the Geospatial metadata. and updated can be done easily. sharing. it needs to use metadata record. extent. metadata record pertains to a file or data. where.90 FGDC Metadata Standards to Follow FGDC or Federal Geographic Data Committee is responsible in promoting the strategic development. It may also be used in assessing the character and age of the various data holdings so that determining the data that needs to be maintained. commonly in XML document. how. For the FGDC to become effective in its objective.

.91 the data accountability and limiting the data liability should also be promoted using the FGDC metadata standards.

The primary purpose why Kaa was created is to encourage sharing of codes between various projects and serve as a necessary and useful umbrella for many disparate media modules. For image files. and avi. length. video.92 Functionalities of the Kaa Metadata Module Kaa Media Repository or simply called as “Kaa” is a set of various python modules that are all related to different media. resolution. file descriptor monitor. wma. cd. For Audio. flv. and callbacks. m4a. it can work with the formats tiff. This Kaa module has the ability to extract the different metadata from different media types including audio. png. which was made by Thomas Schueppel and was maintained using the Freevo project. But aside from this module. The advantage of using Kaa Metadata is that it has support for many media formats. chapters and tracks. Some of the specific metadata that the Kaa Metadata can extract are the codec. wmv. is the predecessor of the Kaa Metadata. the Kaa Metadata has support for the formats vcd iso. ogg. The Kaa Metadata is considered to be a very powerful media parser. dvd iso. signals. the MMPython. flac. and jpeg. Kaa also has other modules and one of these is the metadata. gif. pcm. mp3. it can work with ac3. . and image. Kaa Metadata can also work well with other media formats like dvd. mpg. bmp. This software application provides different base modules for the users like mainloop management. It has proved to be worthy to succeed the MMPython because of the usefulness it provides for the different users. timers. and vcd. mov. For video. ogm. asf. Actually. mkv. and dts.

Mevas. EPG. . and Imlib2. Display. Evs. other Kaa modules available aside from the Metadata are record.93 Meanwhile. Canvas. Beacon. popcorn. Xine.

audio files. electronic documents. There may be a lot of things to be done in a computer forensics but among the most important element that experts often look into is the metadata. This process is sometimes called as the digital forensics and may include investigating the computer system. only few of these are considered interesting. Metadata is simply a data or information about a certain data.94 Computer Forensics with Metadata Forensics The term “forensics” is common only to crime investigations of dead body or crime scene. Collection. and image files. the storage media. Computer forensics follows the five basic steps which are the Preparation. Examination. and Reporting. metadata plays several important roles. Included to these are the metadata about the file system and the digital image. obscured. Looking into the metadata is often referred to as metadata forensics. or deleted by a person. video files. . email messages. One of these is providing the corroborating information regarding the data in a certain document. In computer forensics. Metadata can also reveal information that may be hidden. But there is also what people call as computer forensics. The goal of computer forensics is just the same with the common forensics—to explain how the current state of a digital artifact came into its present form. Analysis. There are a lot of metadata that can be found in computer files but for computer forensics. It also helps in computer forensics through automatically using correlate documents from various sources.

some may still find it very useful.95 Moreover. some metadata formats that are also useful in computer forensics are the EXIF. . those who do not want to reveal sensitive information through metadata can find ways on how to delete or hide them. Anyway. ID3. Microsoft OLE 2. Although some users find metadata as revealing sensitive information. and TIFF.

. Among these defined metadata as an encoded and structured data which explains the characteristic of an entity that bears the data or information in order to help in management. for example.” thus the definition of the term “data about the data. others still have further description of the term. the word “meta” has a literal meaning. This is used on many kinds of media to describe a single datum or collection of data. along with. This definition of metadata can be utilized. in photographs. In markup technologies. in epistemology.” various definitions were made including the simple definition mentioned before this paragraph. and identification of the said entity. the “meta” in the metadata is a Greek word which may mean behind. In etymology. However. But it should go along with the markup which describes the specific kinds of data content and the structure of how that data will be presented. with. in the midst of.” Using these few information about the origin of the term “metadata. metadata also works specifically different from the general description. “about. discovery. or by means of.96 Metadata List of Definitions Metadata is simply defined as data or information about the data. Although metadata can be understood with just these simple sentences. assessment. after. There are also more complicated or more sophisticated metadata descriptions available. The date of capturing the image and the specifications of the camera while it was captured can be the metadata for the captured image. Another definition of metadata is being a structured information that is publicly available in order to support in locating the defined object. metadata can be described as the characteristics about certain data. Here.

how. then selecting the Options . One way to ensure a secured making of Word document is turning off the Fast Save functionality of the program. and who created a certain document. metadata can also be used to acquire sensitive information about the document’s creator. The metadata tool may be helpful in properly managing files and even retrieving lost files. where.” Turning off the tool called Track Changes can also help the user be protected from revealing important information about him.97 How to Ensure Security and Privacy despite the Presence of Metadata Word Document Microsoft Word has a lot of functionalities and tools that even common users do not know about. However. The user can also remove his personal information saved in the document through the Tools menu. This specific feature allows fast saving up of documents through saving only the changes made to a certain document. This tool can be turned off through the Tools menu. To turn the Fast Save off. Metadata stores information on when. the user should go to the Tools menu and select Options. the added images. Fortunately. But this function may also store up the deleted portions in the document. and the pasted sentences. The Save tab should be selected and he should clear the check box “allow fast saves. One of these is the presence of metadata tool. there are number of ways on how to protect the creator from disclosing important information through the stored metadata. It may also be able to store other important information on how the document was done like the erased paragraphs.

The user can also use the add-in tool known as Remove Hidden Data to easily delete all the hidden comments and text in a certain document. In the Privacy option. the “remove personal information from file properties on save” should be clicked OK. .98 and Security tab.

99 Remove Metadata for Better Document Security In the common Office Suite. Other metadata entries that may be included to some documents are the file properties. his initials. The metadata entries can be easily accessible using the user interface of the software application. document version. hidden cells and texts. file. If not removed. document revision. However. or retrieve his documents through the different metadata entries. embedded OLE objects. they also store information within the files called as metadata. template information. personalized views. Most users do not have the intention to include this metadata but there they are. comments. these metadata can be easily acquired by a third party who knows how to retrieve metadata entries. Included to the metadata that the user can remove or edit are the name of the user. it is better to remove the metadata entries. Adding metadata makes it easier for the user to edit. Although the purpose is for the user’s benefits. open. and network server name where the document was saved. the metadata can also be used to disclose information about the file’s creator. and save documents. there are also metadata that needs technical skills to retrieve. files may be created along with their metadata. edit. the organization or company name. and the name of the document’s previous authors. . metadata are created to have a more organized filing process. ready to be disclosed to a third party. To avoid circumstances that may put the sender on harm because of metadata. view. name of the computer. Many users do not know this but every time they create. In its originally intent.

these processes vary software application used. There are specific Internet on how to remove metadata in a application.100 Anyway. there is also a way on how to on documents. However. remove metadata depending on the guidelines in the specific software .

and geospatial metadata. This will aid in facilitating better understanding. which is also an important element in many audio files.101 What Is Metadata and Its Types? Metadata is defined simply as the information about a certain data. . and Structural. and characteristics of data. management usage. Digital library metadata is also a type of metadata. The first type is the relational database metadata which is obviously used for relational database files. metadata can further be classified into 14 types. document metadata. General IT metadata is another type of metadata. Included to the list of metadata types is the existing software metadata. and the columns available in each database. There is also the program metadata which assists the executable files. names. and structural. Image metadata is also available and is obviously used for different image files. Administrative. The main purpose of creating metadata is to provide a more comprehensive description of a certain data. it is important that one knows the different metadata types. which may be separated into three categories: descriptive. However. This type of metadata may include data about the tables. Although there may be more sophisticated definitions available for metadata. but this very simple and concise definition already tells everything about the concept. administrative. Audio metadata is also included. their sizes. There is also the business intelligence metadata that is used in explaining on how the corporate finance is reported. The concept of metadata is divided into 3 categories: Descriptive. To have a better understanding of metadata. There is also the File system metadata that is utilized for different filing systems. Another metadata type is the data warehouse metadata which may be seen in two separate sections: the back room and the front room. and the number of rows.

102 Other metadata types are the metamodels and the metametadata. .

the process depends on the software application and the type of file. it may also be harmful for some users. The process is just easy but the step-by-step procedure may vary. . However. Now.103 The Reason to Clear Metadata Entries To create information about a certain information—that is the primary purpose of metadata. This is also true to other types of digital files. the data of creating the file. To achieve confidentiality of the file. everyone who uses a certain media or information will understand better its characteristics as well as management usefulness. The use of metadata may vary depending on context and type but it still works for the same purpose—to provide information about certain data. the receiver may retrieve some information about the sender like the user of the computer where it was created. sending a Microsoft Word document from a confidential party would mean that the file should have no other information regarding the sender. the sender should make sure to clear the metadata entries first before sending the file. For example. because there are metadata within that file. So. The added data may be helpful for the user. However. all software applications today have this tool where the user can edit and even clear the metadata entries within a certain file. But certainly. With metadata. Metadata is very important for a very effective data management. having a single data does not just having one data since there are metadata behind these data that adds more information about them. how can the sender clear the metadata entries in a certain file? Actually. and so on. why do some people would want to clear metadata entries? In today’s digital world.

Some say that it did not work as it supposed to do. the Icecast metadata provides a history of songs played so that the user can retrieve the information anytime. This feature is simply used to store up information about the metadata changes. Although there are some who criticize this feature since some claimed that this is not a very reliable feature. the software application also has developed its authentication methods. Aside from the improved Icecast metadata. For that reason. there is a feature called as metadata history in Icecast. In fact. better documentation upgrades. This is very important for the user since it keep tracks of the played song in Icecast in order for the user to update the activity of his player. better XSL update. Icecast has released a newer version called the Icecast 2. The metadata can update every time which makes the song history change every time the metadata updates. The metadata in Icecast usually has an update every time the song is changes.104 Icecast Metadata History and Other Icecast Features Metadata is said to be used universally on anything. Icecast expects to satisfy more customers. And so. updating process of the listening socket.2 which may send metadata to the user in Latin but this can still be configured to use other characters instead. The user is also allowed to save the metadata changes which can be stored up and retrieved and be viewed using a browser. Through this. Some Icecast users reported faulty functioning of the metadata. and ability to update how the stream directory is handled. especially on digital applications like Icecast.3. . Icecaps also did several cleanups.

and the shutdown and relay startup became cleaner.105 automatic generation of playlist. .

106 Metadata Bridge: Easier Access to Adobe Photoshop Images There is a software application come bundled with the Adobe Creative Suite which is called the Adobe Bridge. the user will not find it difficult to search files in Photoshop even though there is a large collection of files in it. the user can delete some . the user can edit the metadata of the particular image. The purpose of this application is to link the different parts of the Adobe Creative Suite using a certain format that is similar to file browser that was once in the previous versions of the Adobe Photoshop. Once the editing is completed. Through this. Aside from adding information through the metadata Bridge. Metadata Bridge becomes possible because of the metadata editor that was incorporated into the Adobe Bridge software application. Editing the metadata can be done through selecting a specific photo and going to the File properties. the user can easily find the picture file through typing the specific keyword in a certain metadata category. To save for some disk space and be acquainted only with the necessary information. and then to the camera data and to the IPCT Core. the user can personalize his files through editing the metadata of the various images. A single Photoshop image is usually composed of many different data. the user can also delete some data using the said functionality. This specific function may be simply referred to as metadata Bridge. Through the metadata Bridge. Adobe Bridge can also be found as a stand-alone application in Adobe Photoshop which can perform different processing functions like changing the metadata of Photoshop images. The metadata tab will be seen and there.

107 metadata categories and have an easier management of his Photoshop images. .

There are still other metadata jobs available for applicants and these may vary depending on the industry and the specific kind of job one is expected to handle. Even the job of a data warehouse developer is also considered as a metadata job since it involves working with metadata repository maintenance and development. but the actual process is not. . There is also the senior metadata librarian who supervises the efficiency of work of the metadata librarians. And so. the company can easily track the products. and metadata engineer. Although making metadata for commercial products may be easy. Common examples of those in need of metadata are commercial products. metadata manager. There is also someone called as metadata librarian who is responsible to create an effective metadata strategy. One of the metadata jobs is metadata editor. That is why companies consider to hire professionals who know how to make metadata or retrieve metadata. but to all things that need extra description. metadata jobs were created to add to the increasing list of job opportunities for professionals. not only on electronic or digital things. Another metadata job is the director of data architecture since he will be working with the metadata in XML. thus. This person is responsible for helping in growing and establishing the vision and voice of the cutting edge digital entertainment and technology. There are also metadata jobs called as metadata consultant. inventory becomes easier.108 Different Metadata Jobs for Professionals It becomes a necessity to provide metadata. especially those who know well about metadata processes. The many metadata jobs available proves that the metadata is really a broad concept that is not only applicable in digital or technology industry but to other conventional industries too. Through using metadata.

Examples of these are the Apelon Medical Registry. The semantic area contains all the meanings of a certain data element along with their precise definitions. The metadata registry also stores up different data elements including the representations and semantics. Usually. Some organizations trying to break down their information “silos” within some applications can also use metadata registries. or Web Services structures. and US Department of Defense Metadata Registry.109 The Importance of Creating Metadata Registries Metadata registries refer to a certain organization’s central location or storage area for all its metadata definition. metadata registries can be used whenever there are important data that will be constantly needed by a certain organization. metadata registries is a well-secured place where only few permitted officials can have access and make changes. US Environmental Protection Agency. Those organization in need of consistent data definition regardless of time and may use the data between different processes and organization may also need metadata registries especially if they are building data warehouse. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. EDI. The metadata registry area should also be defined well how it should be structured and formatted. Some of these organizations may be those that transfer information using the XML. Usually. There are many metadata registries where public can have access. Creating a metadata registry may seem simple to some. But creating a reliable and well-protected metadata registry is a different issue. Private companies that do not know how to create metadata registries can trust some names in the industry that provides .

110 metadata solutions. WellGEO RegREP. freebXML Registry. . and Masai Technologies. Among these vendors are the Data Foundations Metadata Registry. InfoLibrarian Metadata Integration Framework.

5 million people around the world. They claimed that these products are used by more or less 2. What make the company and its products astounding is the different features and functionalities they provide their clients. courseware. Every purchase of this edition comes with additional support like patches. The Metadata Assistant can also be used to erase the unwanted side-information about these files. Excel. customization and updates. and PowerPoint in order to determine the amount and type of metadata that are hidden within them. This software application is also able to analyze the Microsoft Office files like Word. The company is also said to be the leading provider of different desktop automation and metadata removal software applications. corporations. This can also be used whether the file to be cleaned up is close or open.111 Payne Metadata Assistant Product Features Metadata Assistant Enterprise and Retail Version are both famous products of Payne Groups. This version also has the capacity to process many files located inside a single folder whether that folder is in a local or network computer. and training services for various enterprises like government agencies. The Enterprise Edition can also be used to clean and analyze different files attached with emails and convert the already cleaned files to other formats like PDF format. . and law firms. The edge of Metadata Assistant Enterprise Edition is that it can do a standalone operation through its utilities that can run within the Microsoft Office applications. project management services. The Metadata Assistant Enterprise Edition is recommended for companies having more than 20 workstation licenses.

112 For easier use. email clients like Outlook. . the Metadata Assistant Enterprise Edition is able to integrate with the Microsoft Office application. Hummingbird. and other document management programs like Worldox. and Interwoven.

description. Due to the broad concept of metadata.date reviewed. some suggest to use the standard metadata.title. dc. . Although there may be types of metadata.date created. According to one source. using standard metadata will provide the best managing practice for federal agencies’ websites. people still get confused on what metadata really is and its purposes.language. dc. Although many believe that using the standard metadata is very effective. The information in the website can also be tracked and assembled easily with the standard metadata. It also said that using the standard metadata will help the public locate and even use the various government information and offered services more efficiently. These are the dc. The implementation of the standard metadata should also follow a common term.113 Different Terms Coming From Standard Metadata Metadata is generally a term used for almost anything. This action may also support the website administration and maintenance. dc. One of the terms coming from standard metadata is the use of six metadata elements on all major entry points and homepage of the federal agency. The six standard metadata elements were based from the Dublin Core standards.creator. the standard metadata is only applicable for certain compatible agencies. Improving the search relevancy is also possible with using the standard metadata. there are still some who ask about the benefits of shifting to this guideline. But there are terms coming from a standard metadata. dc. One reason why it is important to use similar terms coming from standard metadata is that it provides uniform system in classifying and labeling the federal agency’s web content. However. and dc.

duplicate content. and obsolete web contents in the website. Overall. . using similar terms coming from the standard metadata provides better service for the public.114 This move may also help in identifying the redundancy.

it has optimal hardware resource requirements. About business intelligence metadata Business intelligence metadata is a system of analyzing bulk amounts of data in business operations. . The concept of metadata encompasses many areas including business intelligence metadata. However. profit from individual sales and expenses. This is usually stored in large databases called data warehouse. It is utilized in making business decisions. business intelligence metadata can be used to provide understanding on some business reports. About business intelligence metadata architecture Business intelligence metadata architecture refers to strategies for managing data. The centralized metadata architecture makes sure that metadata works across all business systems. It is a structured and written data that makes descriptions of information to be used in the location of these described entities. There are two scenarios on business intelligence metadata architecture. which means that there is no need to synchronize all the components. It may be centralized or distributed.115 Understanding Business Intelligence Metadata Architecture Metadata when simply defined is information about information. Basically. This kind of metadata uses software tools may it be for filtering and analyzing. There must no duplication of metadata across all systems. This type of architecture does not need much effort in system integration.

has a disadvantage. in turn. Having a distributed metadata means that business shall have difficulty in terms of updates and synchronization. .116 The distributed metadata. The main purpose of business intelligence data is to achieve centralized metadata architecture. therefore businesses must strive to have this type of strategy. This is because the main idea behind date warehousing is to have a centralized location for information.

General IT metadata should be viewed as an essential skill among web writers. It is said to be the most misunderstood areas of content management because writers tend to view general IT metadata as a technical issue. Web . general IT metadata cannot be ignored. Why is this so? Metadata gives the web content context. In more complex definition. Web writers who don’t give an appropriate general IT metadata will likely have scan readers running away. web writers should not publish sloppy general IT metadata. When talking about metadata. This is information about information if put in simple terms. Therefore. It includes all information from business processes. systems and interfaces. Website writers think that since this is a technical issue then only technical people should be concerned about it. Uses on Web Writing General It metadata has considerable scope that it can also be useful for website writers. Nothing is more wrong than this way of thinking. General IT metadata is what scan readers read when they want to know if the page is what they need.117 General IT Metadata For Web Writing With so many accumulated data in various areas and organizations. rules and structures. the concept of metadata came about. Majority of data includes web services. The importance of having skills on creating general IT metadata among web writers cannot be underestimated. metadata is about physical data of organizations coming from internal and external environments. Scan readers want general IT metadata to give them an idea on whether they should read on or not.

118 writers know their contents therefore they know better than the technical persons. .

Good examples of this are tables of all tables in database including names. 2. which eventually can aid in future decisions. There are relational database metadata systems that are designed for the following: 1. Various uses and benefits There are many relational database metadata systems that are being offered on the Internet. There is also independence in terms of data storage and logical database structure. data is easily accessible and there is flexibility in database design. This reports can be also be customized in whatever is suitable for the user. It can be used to update and manage information especially for future planning.It can be used to create visualizations from any point may it be origin. sizes and number or rows in each table. . It can also be tables of columns in each database including the type of data in each column and what tables they are used in. It can be utilized for the formulation of different scenarios and time scales. immediate point of final report. It can be used to manage a large amount of various technical and business metadata that provides different end-toend views depending on the user. Using relational database metadata means that data storage and redundancy are minimized. 3.119 Relational Database Metadata: Benefits and Uses Relational database metadata is known in database terminology as the catalog.

120 Relational database metadata can be used in accordance to what data is needed for the moment and who would be the user. It can also be used for making future decisions or in planning. .

which are . users will be able to use the value of information in the data warehouse. most of these businesses were not successful to reach a level of integration in terms of data warehouse metadata with their business information. Business users need to have an understanding of what data the business has in the data warehouse. Various benefits Businesses must make themselves aware on the importance of data warehouse metadata by knowing its potential benefits. data warehouse metadata function was not simplified.121 Data Warehouse Metadata and Its Benefits Many businesses are now using data ware housing to be able to integrate information that is both accurate and consistent. However. the fact that there are businesses. However. A metadata that is both integrated and consistent creates an efficient environment for the technical staff. Aside from this. metadata integration is also a complicated task. An organized and integrated data warehouse metadata has the ability to track changes immediately. The management of a data warehouse metadata is not easy. This is because they can now make decisions that are based on timely and organized data. Data warehouse metadata contributes to improved productivity. Although there are available packaged analytic applications in data warehousing. Why is this so? The reason is that there is a lack of understanding on the significance of metadata. They usually want to know what pre-build reports and analysis exist. Through data warehouse metadata.

122 making an effort into putting up an integrated data warehouse metadata. is enough proof that this is useful for the business. .

This is the principle behind metadata management. IT metadata management products are systems that make the creation of an integrated and consistent metadata easier.123 IT Metadata Management Products: History and Uses Due to the onslaught of information. This means that a business should choose wisely on what IT metadata management products would be used. deleted text and drafting history. and ADABAS's Predict. the IMS Data Dictionary. The fourth generation products is more with architectural modeling tool such as Adaptive Metadata Manager from Adaptive. which is planning to transfer all existing content to a new site. If these data are shared outside. some private informa- . The first generation are those that are used for integrated data dictionary. An example of these is authors of the document. The main problem in transferring is that there are hidden data and extraneous information in some files. This is used to support various file and DBMS types. must consider a third party software. There are various generations of IT metadata management products. The second generation is ASG's DATAMANAGER product. The third generation products became known in the 1990s together with RDBMS engines such as IBM's DB2. Things to consider A business. businesses aside from the usual data management system have to put up another system. InfoLibrarian Metadata Integration Framework and Troux Technologies Metis Server product and others.to keep data on available information. Rochade from ASG.

Application of this solution is easy to administer and use. IT metadata management products have different uses. a business can employ a metadata removal solution. The best thing is to know what the business needs and to choose the best product appropriate to those needs. which erases the harmful metadata. To be able to avoid this scenario.124 tion might be disclosed which can either be embarrassing or create risks. .

125 The Plusses and Deltas of Document Metadata Metadata is a term that is used to describe any essential information specific to any data or file. anyone can view and edit document metadata and this can be done by clicking on FILE on the Menu bar. then PROPERTIES. having these data embedded on files may also lead to undesirable disclosures. These items are also called “document metadata”. which in turn compromises the privacy and security of an individual or a company plus the confidentiality of the information. Therefore. This is usually a result of unsafe leaking of sensitive data sent through the internet and other media gateway. Indeed. The specifics of the document file will then appear on a dialog box that contains a SUMMARY tab where anyone can view the metadata fields such as TITLE. SUBJECT. . As a result. thus making it easier for users to recognize what information to use. But then again. Embedded metadata are frequently used in most programs that create documents. and the number of times it was accessed and printed. and usually contain the author of the document. Literally. people are now more cautious that they make use of “metadata removal tools” to clean documents before they are sent. metadata has also its fair share of drawbacks. particularly Microsoft Word. it is very important to be wary all the time so as to avoid being in a very compromising situation. and Microsoft SharePoint among other Microsoft Office applications. Such programs save metadata with the document files. CATEGORY and so on. It is typically embedded on the content of the file itself. the name of the person who recently made changes to the file.

while developing an architecture for executing such applications. Now these constructs are therefore generalized across different models. theories. Now the question is how can a Metamodel emerge from different models? There are times when modeling a set of related systems that usually belongs to a given domain. (b) As a schema for semantic data that needs to be stored or exchanged. a Metamodel. Thus. (b) as the modeling of information on how to manipulate and use application models. as going “meta” simply means developing a computational model for a family of applications. which in turn will result to a Metamodel that the set of related models should conform to. some share many constructs. rules. and (c) as the multiple instantiation levels of application language. on the other hand. is another abstraction but this time highlighting the properties of the model itself. frames. metamodeling is the construction. analysis and development of the models. Some of the common uses of metamodels include: (a) As a language that supports a particular process or method. Metamodeling is also considered as an explicit description of how a domain-specific model is built. If a model is an abstraction of phenomena in the real world. creating a Metamodel will defi- .126 Metamodels – The Basics of Metamodeling “A model of models” – this is basically what Metamodel means. and (c) As a language used to express additional semantics of existing information. and constraints that are applicable for modeling a predefined class of problems. which includes certain constructs and rules that comprise a formalized specification of domain-specific documents. Indeed. Metamodeling can be identified into three dimensions: (a) as the modeling of a representation language. Metamodels also have a lot of uses.

127 nitely lead to creating a standard of transforming parameters that will positively affect system performance. .

Meta-metadata is also being used in the field of photography. it is very seldom to encounter such a term where the first syllable is repeated. and such information includes the following: (a) the person who created the record. Metametadata is used to capture the unique label of the metadata record in the catalogue. (c) and the primary language of the record. Given the right knowledge and tools to discover such information. By using state-of-the-art machine-generated software applications. Now if the Greek word “meta” means about (its own category) and “metadata” literally means “data about data”. . Meta-metadata then includes interesting facts that the user might need. one can determine what brands of cameras were used in a specific photo session among other things (e.g. These are just some of the many uses of meta-metadata. lens. it will definitely add more value to every single data or metadata presented. such as number of images captured by the camera and what lens was used. Since metadata is still considered a data itself. then what does meta-metadata mean? Meta-metadata simply means “metadata of metadata” or “about metadata”. and zoom property). serial numbers. and these include metadata of images. there are no rules that will limit the creation of detailed description about metadata. It is also being used to learn some things about the photographer. (b) the metadata scheme used.128 The Value of Meta-Metadata Have you heard of the term “meta-metadata”? It sounds redundant isn’t it? Indeed. Consider a library system as a concrete example. Applications such as Aperture and Lightroom have the capability of maintaining a database of images.

therefore a lot of institutions nowadays have gone from paper and pencil to computers and printers.129 Metadata – Its Role in the Quest for a Perfectly Functional Digital Library Information Technology has definitely brought about a huge impact in people’s everyday life. Advancement in technology has made manual systems of doing transactions very prehistoric. implementing sophisticated library cataloguing schemes and principles to help find information from a variety of sources. And yes.ties each object to others to make up logical units. and (c) administrative – being used to manage the object or control access to it. Three categories of metadata are frequently used to describe objects in a digital library and these are: (a) descriptive describes the intellectual content of the object such as cataloguing records or similar schemes and is typically used for search and retrieval and bibliographic purposes. the quest for a perfectly functional digital library is still ongoing. As work on digital libraries progresses. With a lot of researches and studies that are . As a result. even traditional libraries have joined the bandwagon to meet the needs of their patrons. (b) structural . Libraries nowadays have truly evolved. making things a little less complicated. new metadata needs are arising on how it can be shared to make it possible for users to cross the boundaries from one library to another. librarians face and address a host of metadata-related issues every single day. which may include its storage format. Indeed. to organize online contents into complex structures and develop tools to accomplish such objectives. and copyright and licensing information.

format conversion. copyright clearance and bibliography maintenance is never too far from possibility. document summarization. . a digital library that supports activities such as indexing.130 currently being performed.

With these items at hand. music and video players. a file or a program. These may also come in images. such as Microsoft Office programs. cameras and other digital devices. (d) provide an online interface to a dataset and link to other information. (f) corporate knowledge and investments are preserved.). more and more people are recognizing the advantages of metadata. geographic features may be appropriate to describe in a metadata catalogue (also known as data inventory and data directory etc. Here are some of them: (a) enable effective management of resources. (e) properly documented datasets are less likely duplicated. Such objects are associated with some position on the surface of the earth and may be stored in a geographic information system (GIS). is used to provide description and/or details to specific information. and (g) accompany a dataset when it is transferred thereby its proper use will be fully understood and recognized. Such metadata is called geospatial metadata (also known as geographical metadata).131 The Importance of Geospatial Metadata Through the years. There are a lot of reasons as to why there is a need to use geospatial metadata. (c) serve as a record in a searchable catalogue of datasets. documents or other related items that exist in some other native environment. . be it a data. Metadata. These are the common functions of geospatial metadata and definitely a lot more will be added as time passes by. It is widely used by a lot of applications and gadgets. (b) concisely describe datasets and other resources. datasets. from the term itself. The list of uses does not stop as metadata is now being used as objects that have an implicit or explicit geographic extent.

lens. content datum or a collection of data. there is one term that describes any given information – may it be an individual datum. etc. It is also being used to facilitate the characteristics. In entertainment. “where”. its name. Metadata is also being used in photography. It can be classified into three types: (a) Content – describes the resource or its content. wherein it displays the date the image was captured and other details of the camera settings that include focal length. When computer files are being talked about. understanding and management usage of data. The term “meta” comes from a Greek word that means “alongside with. symbolic (metadata describing the raw data) or logical (metadata that allows logical reasoning). Indeed. In technology. the word “laptop” is the noun while “new” is the adjective. and (c) Logical function – can be sub-symbolic (contains the raw data).in this sentence. “why” and “how” questions about the data. song titles and artists embedded in music files are also called metadata. thus metadata is sometimes called “data about data”. In essence. Such a term is called “metadata”. shutter timing. Since it provides context for data. it is a text document that describes the “who”. the term “adjective” means a word or a group of words that describe a noun in any given sentence. on the other hand. size and author. meta- .132 META + DATA = INFORMATION ABOUT DATA In English grammar. after or next”. it has a lot of uses specifically in Information Technology. the album names. “I just bought a new laptop” . “when”. (b) Mutability – can be either immutable or mutable. “what”. metadata includes such information like the type of file.

133 data is being used in a lot of different applications. therefore making it easier for users to identify and make use of data. .

a metadata repository can allow the data stored about specific web sites to be consistently searched and made available whenever such information is needed. Web sites use metadata to provide descriptions about the types of data they contain as well as other bits of information that describe the items on the page itself. such as Microsoft Word and other Microsoft Office programs. In simple terms. Say for example. metadata repositories have a lot of uses and its growing popularity will definitely result to improved services to a variety of functions. Indeed. Same is true with metadata as there is a need for metadata repository so as to ensure consistency of metadata. . more and more Internet organizations are now realizing the importance of metadata and there is a probable attempt in the future to centralize the data that are kept in metadata repositories.134 The Need for a Metadata Repository For hobbyists. But then again. their collections are usually grouped according to type or class. Metadata repositories are not only used in web sites but for other applications as well. If metadata is referenced as needed. thereby making it hard for companies to easily use it when needed. Devices such as iPods and digital cameras also use metadata repositories to store information about music files and captured images. a metadata repository acts like a database that literally stores data about other data. When used appropriately. there is no single metadata repository that can accommodate all these information. a stamp hobbyist has a separate storage for stamps that he or she got from the US and another one for stamps from foreign countries. As such. the space to store these descriptions of sites data will also be less.

In simple terms. analyzing. what GIS does is that it is capable of integrating. analyze spatial information and present the results real-time. where users can navigate on it to perform interactive queries. store. resource management. sharing and displaying geographically referenced information. this is where metadata comes in. urban planning. there is no doubt that a lot of software developers have come up with their own GIS software application. topology. cartography. environmental impact assessment and marketing among others.g. maps. metadata provides description to a specific location. analyze. but metadata information as well. GIS applications also play a major role in scientific investigations. This is indeed an advantage to users because not only spatial information and attribute information will be made available. One of the more popular GIS applications that are being used nowadays is Google Earth. With its huge contribution to different fields of work and study. editing. logistics. coordinates) and attribute (descriptive) information about geographic features. geographic history. edit data. GIS data is more than just a computerized map as it also provides information about spatial location and relationships (e. To better assist users in navigating through any GIS software application. Some GIS software programs are for free (opensource software). storing. while others are being distributed by organizations for their employees to use such as government and military entities. The integration of . manage and present data which are linked to a certain location. Metadata is one of the important components of GIS. Indeed. Now.135 Metadata’s Role on GIS Geographical Information System or GIS is a type of information system that is used to capture.

.136 metadata to GIS software programs is another technological breakthrough that makes life less complicated.

application or device that they are currently using indeed passed specific requirements. It is not a mystery for users that at times files being sent over the Internet are susceptible to external risk factors that may compromise data and user confidentiality. Since almost everything has gone wired nowadays. . alongside other factors that support a broader range of purposes and business models. at work or sometimes even at home. but it also promotes widespread acceptance of metadata standards that will help individuals and organizations to take hold of its maximum potential.137 The Essence of Setting up Metadata Standards Setting up standards to at least meet certain requirements is something that is very much evident in today’s environment. because at least you will be guided by these standards in order to pass certain requisites for personal growth and development. Metadata. It is not something that is a disadvantage though. No matter if you are in school. Not only humans are bound by such standards. a term for structured data about data. thereby making almost every single thing in this world vulnerable. this is what ISO’s (International Organization for Standardization) role is all about. certain sets of standards were conceived to make it more convenient for users to at least have a guarantee that the software program. Indeed. This is something that the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) is currently working on. DCMI does not only make metadata policies simple for everyone to follow. also has its own certain standards to follow. Essentially. there are certain rules to follow so as to least meet acceptable standards.

As an organization. Ohio where the work was originated in 1995 by OCLC. sharing and management of information. recognizing cultural and linguistic differences. (b) International – DCMI encourages the participation from organizations around the world. refers to the fact that metadata element is a basic yet expandable in nature. DCMI is built on a community of individuals from many different disciplines and backgrounds located in institutions all over the world that are committed in building and developing .85-2007. image and media link web pages. text. on the other hand. As defined by ISO in 2003 ISO Standard 15836. its three major characteristics (also known as the three I’s) include: (a) Independent – DCMI is not controlled by any interests and is not biased towards specific domains nor does it command specific technical solutions. “Dublin” in the name refers to Dublin.138 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – What was it for? The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) is an organization that is dedicated in developing interoperable online metadata standards that support a broader range of purposes that will enable more intelligent information discovery systems. the Dublin Core metadata element is being used to describe digital materials such as sound. Such characteristics make it easier for DCMI to provide simple standards to facilitate the finding. and (c) Influenceable – DCMI is an organization that aims in building consensus among participating organizations. “Core”. video. and NISO Standard Z39.

policies. DCMI still continues to attract organizations worldwide to act as a team in designing and developing metadata standards and technologies. As of this time. . standards and technologies. standard liaison and other educational efforts. To promote the widespread acceptance of metadata practices and standards.139 practices. DCMI holds activities that include global conferences and workshops.

which are audio metadata that operate only to a particular program running. Regardless of audio metadata type—static. generic data compression algorithms are found out to be poorly functional with audio data.wav files.g. This method is mainly developed and designed to reducing considerable sizes of audio files. audio metadata are associated to how data must be written to enable efficient readability by a specified processor. just like any other media files and metadata handling. And Asset Management “Data about data. Unfortunately. Generally.. Consequently. Lastly. For audio compression purposes. which are particularly designed for . Such technologies are normally observed in Audio Engine Programming (e. Audio Compression. audio compression algorithms are carried out as audio codecs in some computer software. audio metadata would also require an effective and easy management. while audio files and metadata proliferate. They are largely ineffective in reducing file sizes and were cannot be used in real time setting. or dynamic. been generally used in popular mainstream audio devices in the consumer market. is an essential form of data compression. on the other hand. a good and systematic archiving or management of these files is helpful and even ensure future availability and accessibility of these assets. lossy algorithms is found to offer a more substantial compression ratios and hence. So. between these two algorithms. these troublesome scenarios led to the creation of “lossless” and “lossy” algorithms. which are those that rather manipulate . Microsoft RIFF (resource interchange file format) technologies.” is basically the standard definition of audio metadata. Audio compression. However.140 Audio Metadata: Definition.

. availability. and accessibility of audio files and their metadata.141 how the program runs and operate—asset management of metadata is essential to ensure proper storage.

142 Existing Software Metadata That Are Commonly Proven Effective And Efficient The Object Management Group (OMG) came out to be mostly known when it comes to metadata handling and processing. the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) was created. Moreover. most of the middleware products commonly employed by computer industries or companies use CORBA— apparently functions as strategic architecture for distributed objects. CORBA is characterized by a central element called Object Request Broker (ORB). KDM is defined as a general language-independent intermediate representation that offers an integrated perspective of a whole enterprise application (e. there are . Amazingly.” As a result. software mining. which includes data. Middleware is a common term for any programming use to mediate or “glue together” two current and isolated programs. This particular specification is basically known as the OMG Knowledge Discovery Metamodel (KDM). program flow. such as software modernization. OMG enables a clear description of metadata format to represent the entire current applications for some essential purposes.g. OMG was organized by a notable group of vendors in 1989 in order to create and design a standard architecture for a network’s “components” or “distributed objects. a middleware product allows either in the accessibility and use of several programs from a designated database. or accessibility to other existing databases.. Business Rules Mining). and software assurance. In most cases. and structure. which enables server requests by a client object regardless of exact location for both client object and network server. Generally. Specifically.

.143 over 500 member companies under OMG. and are expected to increase further.

The process may be done either through a single or multiple file systems. once the dispatcher forwards the request to the format agent. such as inodes or in filenames even. through specially-purposed data or information mainly by the sole implementation (e. Also. which are initially unreadable by the file system. Normally. more bits. from icons through arbitrary attribute-value pairs. So. almost all file systems store metadata files outof-band. icons and/or free text comments. Soon as the requested metadata attribute data is retrieved. while there are systems that maintain metadata directory entries. Lastly. there are also those designed in a specialized structure. the type of metadata essentially ranges from simple timestamps. the format agent tries then to access a metadata attribute archive or storage to comply to client’s request accordingly and satisfactorily. there would be a format agent that manages a particular file system. So. these are then sent back to the client requestor. . Evidently.g.144 Understanding A File System Metadata To enable a client access to metadata attributes. These extended features enable the association of computer files containing metadata. a client’s request is received by a dispatcher through a developed and designed interface. a system and method on handling certain request need to be identified and established. file systems also include extended file attributes. The client’s request is accomplished by the format agent regarding the metadata attributes contained in the associated format of specific file system. In case the client’s request includes metadata not included in the respective format of file system. Hence..

. content information is instead created by an individual.145 Image Metadata: Increasing Image Searchability And Access Metadata are generally defined as “data about data. thus providing description of image content. these image attributes are produced by one’s camera with every picture taken. Evidently. Examples of an image’s technical information include ISO speed. and more others. which are technical and content information. refers to the information or details about the image.” Specifically. category. camera type. While technical information is produced by a device or equipment used in creating the image. Technical information simply pertains to the technical details of the image. on the other hand. and aperture value. Apparently. tagging pictures or images with essential and relevant subjects and keywords. content is created through an individual’s understanding and perception of an image. The metadata embedded in these images files basically serve as a method to access and retrieve further details of a particular image. Image metadata is classified into two types or categories. This type of information commonly includes subject. country. Content information. and other descriptive details help for the image become easily and immediately searchable by Internet users. Apparently. emotions. keywords. image metadata is basically essential information regarding a certain image or picture. and Exchangeable image file format (EXIF) are common examples of image files that contain metadata. Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG).

While being required of free registration. Contents provided then increases for the searchability and access to these images on the Internet. Flicker and Photobucket are among the many popular image tagging services currently available on the Internet. these services enable registered users to upload images and provide content on (tags) each uploaded image.146 Lastly. .

In the case of geospatial metadata. across different agencies and even across different countries. Data would easily be understood across different organizations. Of course. refers to a group of commercially available GIS products. The definition could then further be defined according to how metadata is applied. which aims to give a comprehensive description for every data source. metadata works to describe geographic objects such as maps. Collabora- . Following the standard will facilitate data sharing with a wider audience since having the same standard means following the same vocabulary and terminology. for analysis of spatial relationships and also for model spatial processes. viewed and analyzed. on the other hand. The Federal Geographic Data Committee has Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata. But the information that it describe varies.147 ArcGIS Metadata: Following a Standard Facilitate Data Sharing One of the most common definitions of metadata is that it is information about information. spreadsheet. It could be a document. datasets and anything else that has any geospatial components. audio or image. ArcGIS. There are standards for creating ArcGIS metadata. The availability of tools for the creation and validation of the metadata is one. Metadata could also provide a description about application workings. GIS also offers a framework for collecting and organizing spatial information and other related data so that such information can be shared. The Geographic Information System or the GIS is there to provide software and data for geographic places information management and retrieval. following the standard has its advantage.

.148 tion and other researches will be aided with the data they get from various other sources.

If one needs to describe his images and how he took them to somebody else or to an audience it would be easy because the settings are recorded. . The Adobe Lightroom is one of the most commonly used software around. spreadsheet. The original RAW file remains as is but Lightroom metadata is recorded through XMP or eXtensible Metadata Platform. One can actually embed this metadata into the original file. Metadata come in handy when it comes to photos.149 Lightroom Metadata Easy to Push to Original Image Metadata refers to a description about an item of various formats like documents. it is easy to go back to the images one has captured. One reason is that doing this process for a hundred images could take time. Not only does it allow viewing and processing of JPEG images but of RAW files too. With the metadata embedded with photos. photos and other types. In an age of digital photography photos are typically processed through the use of various types of photo processing and editing software. And in processing captured images in Lightroom. most Lightroom users don’t practice this. Other details can also be added or created by the author of the item. metadata about the processing instructions is also recorded. The effect is that the original image would appear unchanged when one opens the file again. Other data can even be edited or deleted as well. It is therefore useful even to more serious photographers. However. Metadata can be automatically created with the item. music. Another reason is the risk of corrupting the original file.

. It’s even more useful especially when one uses other software than Lightroom.150 One good option for viewing the processed image instead is to record it as JPEG or TIFF files.

Many companies and individuals especially businesses do not necessarily share everything.151 Metadata Assistant: When Cleaning Files Is Imperative Metadata provides great assistance especially in data organization. they would not want other companies to see more than that the information they are sharing. They need a way to manage their documents and other files especially those that they need to third parties. a company who wants to send a proposal to one company would not want that company to see the kind of proposal they have sent to other companies. Outlook and Po- . However. For instance. When companies share financial reports. As much as possible. Excel. Then the company has the option to remove the metadata so they will be able to send clean files. metadata assistant software is now available in the market. They want control when it comes to sharing information. It is also as helpful when used in an application to describe its workings. search and management. therefore. They would not. But the company can also run it within Word. Fortunately for them. A metadata assistant would help the company analyze the amount of metadata written within the file. law firms would also like to manage data sharing whenever they can. security is one concern for having metadata embedded with files. It is even useful in simple applications such as music organization or in tagging for easier searching and retrieval. want to send metadata to other parties. This software can run as a standalone component.

The software can analyze an open file and it can also work on a closed one. the company would be assured that they are only sharing clean files.152 PowerPoint. With the metadata assistant. . It can even work on several files by batches.

Tagging is also possible when using the XMP format. Reporting metadata include the structures and also the description about the charts. defines descriptions and structures of algorithms. on the other hand. The most general and the most simplistic definitions of term are that metadata is information about information and it is data about data. In business intelligence. And just as there are many metadata uses. different metadata format is also used in storing such data. Adobe’s camera RAW and Apple’s Aperture software are both quite capable. on the other hand. filters and expressions. All in all. reports. business intelligence metadata defines how data should . metadata are better defined more specifically according to its uses and types. datasets and queries. Metadata is quite useful in providing context for data. variables. queries. For more complex uses.153 Metadata: A Different Metadata Format for Different Applications Metadata has many uses and in each application it has the term metadata can also be defined in a different way. for example. datasets. company data are stored in data warehouses and these data are normally analyzed to come up with reports and trends for the purpose of facilitating better decision making among managers and other executives. When it comes to images. Three types of metadata are stored in this process. For processing metadata recording. cubes and levels among others. dimensions. The first is the OLAP metadata which describes the structures of measures. metadata is recorded with the image files when they are in EXIF and TIFF. Data mining metadata.

It describes how financial reports are calculated. specifically those reported in Wall Street. . are there to provide description for geographic objects.154 be queried. They are stored in a geographic information system and at times as documents too. Geospatial metadata. filtered and also displayed. analyzed. of course.

this information can easily be viewed. Why would one need an audio file metadata editor? Well.155 Ex Falso: A Very Useful Audio Metadata Linux Editor Metadata is basically a description about an item. Through Ex Falso these are all possible. In order to take advantage of this feature. Metadata is also very useful in programming applications and systems. This is only one way of how metadata in the Linux operating system is used and edited so that it becomes more useful to the end user. one only has to install the Ex Falso through the add/remove function under the application menu. In the case of audio files specifically songs. Anyway. Incidentally. metadata could contain the name of the performing artist. It could be about a document. a spreadsheet. the composer. the date of release of the song and also the name of the album from which it was taken from. most music players and other devices that play audio are run under the Linux operating system. resource or content. the most obvious answer is for better and easier management of audio files. In other applications under Linux. One can also add more information. One can do this by changing or editing the song metadata. an image and many others. the good news is that there is now a way to tag the songs loaded and saved in players and even in hard disks. metadata also . In the age of MP3 and modern electronic digital players. an audio. By adding tags that one created himself one can organize the songs according to his taste.

It can be edited and more information can be added according to the needs of its users. .156 serves its purpose.

They do not have to worry about . all of which aim to help clean files from metadata. This add in is specifically only for Windows XP and Office 2003 though. This software is capable of removing all the hidden data. metadata works to provide context to content. In many instances. On the other hand. Sharing information will be controlled and managed. so to speak. Fortunately. But other people don’t even know that metadata is being recorded in every document and other file format they create. MS Excel and MS PowerPoint files. This is a general way of defining this term. Having metadata is helpful in many instances.157 When Metadata Removal Becomes Necessary One definition given to metadata is that it is data about data. it provides a description about the workings of the applications. metadata facilitates data organization and management. To understand it better. Microsoft for one released a metadata removal add-in. Other vendors also have their own offering. For businesses. In applications. It also removes collaboration data like track changes from MS Word. By producing clean files first before sending them to other parties. giving out documents and other data with metadata embedded in them could put them at a competitive disadvantage. many individuals and companies are very concerned about revealing metadata to other people. It would define how things are to function. The rest just do not mind them. metadata removal software is now available. the companies are only sharing information they intend to share. Even posting data such as spreadsheet and documents on their website could potentially harm the company.

.158 sending out data that may be hidden and embedded with the files.

edited and even deleted by the authors or the creators of the items. It would even contain the release date of the song. Confidentiality should be guarded as much as possible in these scenarios. At times. Some metadata are not easily seen by an everyday user. it is indeed very useful to computer use.159 Vista Metadata Useful But Should Be Used Carefully Metadata is basically a form of description about an item. For instance. it’s also created. . Other times. metadata could be detrimental when revealed to other people. The composer and the singer could be written there. Vista metadata is there to assist its users in finding items when making searches. Removal of some details can easily be done through the item properties. Since Vista uses metadata to make the searches. It is quite possible to remove metadata by batches too. The author of the said file and the time of its creation are found in the metadata as well. Legal firms could also do the same on their client files. Music files would have metadata that describe the music item. Some fields cannot be changed though. In these instances. Some labels or tags can be attached to customers for business management purposes. Spreadsheets and document files also contain metadata. Some metadata can easily be viewed and edited through the properties of the file. However. there are also some data that users don’t want to pass on to other people. The file can even be created without the metadata. metadata are automatically written upon the creation of a file or other types of resources. But they are actually there.

It further defines the necessary options for each like security. And then it could also define the endpoints that are to be implemented by the service.exe to automatically generate client code so access to a service can be allowed. Metadata describes how information is to be managed and used. WCF utilizes metadata in describing the ways that interaction should take place at the service endpoints. Being a part of the .NET 2.0 supports. music and photos a more descriptive definition is imperative especially when it’s applied to communications programs and systems. WCF metadata could include the operations that a particular service can do. function and operate. WCF works to unify into a single model all the programming models for communications that . It also includes the data type structure that operations act with or return. While it is accurate in terms of its application on single documents. This could be accurate today. the story would turn out differently should services be written in formats that do not use SOAP like . Some consider WCF metadata as WSDL. On the other hand. WCF or Windows Communication Foundation is a framework for programming which main utilization is for building applications that inter-communicate. However. Metadata could then be appropriately defined as the data that describes the infrastructures and how components should interact. spreadsheets. This enables tools like Svcutil.160 Is WCF Metadata the Same as WSDL? The most simplistic definition given to metadata is that it is data about data.NET Framework.

it would be more appropriate to just refer to WCF metadata as such.161 REST. . So while most services have a WSDL interface.

But basically metadata refers to the description given to a resource. Metadata is very much helpful in making searches possible and faster.0. There are metadata tools for library images too. In storing data into data repositories. Because of its many uses. how and who collected and formatted the data. there is the Microsoft Photo Info 1. Metadata dictates how items are related and how such relationships are to be evaluated in searches. They would usually enable reading. .162 Free Metadata Software for Every Application Abound Metadata is commonly defined as data about data. Free metadata software are available for different types of resources. There is even an application that would help create Federal Geographic Data Committee compliant metadata. It may also be about the time it was written and the source of the document. It could contain information about when. When it comes to documents. metadata can also be defined in many ways. writing and deleting of metadata for specific images. For instance. This software allows photographers to add and delete some metadata of a certain image. There are also metadata tools that serve as browser editor and consistency checker. There are metadata tools that can be used for the creation of metadata for maps. metadata are also used. The free metadata software available today ranges from free metadata viewer to free metadata tools. metadata usually describes the content of the data. data sets and models.

There are also some vendors and even agencies that offer them for free. . there are also many metadata software. Each of which is geared to serve one or a general area. just as there are so many metadata applications.163 So.

Most of all. And so metadata managers in this field are working to establish a common vocabulary. It also works to give the best data resources for data management. Metadata can also be manually created. It could also describe relationships and the rest of the workings of applications. It is a form of description about items such as documents. audio and images. Like in all researches. Metadata is also useful in marine science especially in the area of research.164 Marine Metadata Interoperability Project: Aims Collaboration in Marine Science Research Metadata is data about data. With . A shared terminology is being established so that two or more systems can become interoperable. That is why the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project is so focused on this. It is working towards the provision of good and straightforward guides. Metadata can be automatically created when the item is created. It can be edited and deleted as well. In order to facilitate collaboration it is the aim of the project to simplify the complex metadata used in marine science research. The main concern and aim of the project is to encourage collaboration in marine science research. the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project works to develop advanced metadata tools and metadata services for the marine science research community. The project acknowledges that the key to collaboration and interoperability is having and speaking the same language. data and test results need to be organized and managed. Metadata would be helpful not only in organizing data but it would be helpful in facilitating easier and faster searches and data retrieval as well.

collaboration would then hopefully be facilitated. Researches in the area of marine science would be more progressive and productive. .165 interoperable systems.

more details are added to the image. The singer of the song would be named as well as the composer. audio metadata could also describe how a specific audio are to be recorded. But if the said image was taken in RAW format and processed in Adobe camera RAW. a separate metadata file is usually recorded in the . Documents and spreadsheets have metadata. When the original file is processed using a photo processing software. It can describe a single content or in more complex situations. These are manually created metadata files written for audio programming. While some of these are automatically created with the file. Metadata is also used to facilitate and assist understanding and management of data. Of course. Metadata is there to provide context for the specific data it is describing. The date of release and the album from which it was taken are also enumerated. Image metadata typically describe the settings used in capturing a specific data. In some instances. too. All of this additional information is saved with the original image when it is saved in TIFF or EXIF files. Audio files. have metadata. more metadata details can be added to such metadata. Certain details can also be added to the metadata. It would also describe the kind of camera used in taking the photo. the file size and the date it was created. They usually describe the file by naming the author of the file. it describes a database schema.166 Metadata Files: Automatically and Manually Created Metadata is simply data about data or information about information.

167 XMP format. metadata can also be created automatically or it can be generated manually. It is therefore important to take note that while metadata can actually be embedded with the original data separate metadata files are also created in other instances. . With either cases.

for instance. chats. The item it describes could vary from documents. metadata is also very useful especially in maintaining files of documents and communications. Instead of manually coding their files. In the case of items or content used in law practitioners. images to the workings of programs and applications. While metadata cannot be seen in printed or paper form. In electronic discovery. emails. and files produced in Microsoft Office. These are revealed when data is required at its native form. it would be better to further define it as description about an item. The uses of metadata have quite many applications. To understand this definition. Having metadata which are typically stored electronically allows organization. metadata is produced instead. CAD/CAD files and accounting bases could also be needed in court. there might something there that could be damaging to the company. The other party and the court could ask the company to . storage and retrieval of files to be easier and faster. Things are done faster and more cost effectively. In some cases though. the company may be asked to produce data captured in instant messages. This is so when such information presents damaging evidence against the company or the individual. Data from websites.168 Metadata: Law Concerns and Requirements Metadata is said to be information about information. having the information such those stored in metadata can be quite detrimental to a company.

The company has no other choice but to comply. the company could face sanctions. . Should it be found out that the metadata was corrupted or deleted.169 actually submit the data in this format.

But metadata are essentially a set of data that tells something about an item or a file. Usually when people upload photos to various sites on the internet they are asked to provide keywords or tags to describe the photo. That is because the sites rely on the tags to come up with results for the searches done by its users. There is also another way in which metadata are created. In addition to this data. he should provide quite descriptive and popular keywords for his photos.170 How Important Are Metadata Photos? Metadata is described as the information about information. The photos metadata also contains information about the focal point used and whether the flash was fired or not. the metadata could contain the date when an image was taken. the shutter speed and ISO used can easily be known through the EXIF metadata. If one is trying to showcase his work. In the case of photos. This is how metadata is created anew or more information is added to it. for example. the date and time of edit is also recorded. It would contain the brand and the model of the camera which was used to take the photo. Exposure information are also written. And when the image is edited. the file size and the file type of the photo is also indicated here. This time it’s more of a creation of the person using the photo. . The better description the photo has the better chances that it will appear searches. Metadata may describe a single item or a series of items. The aperture.

projects and researchers on metadata creation and management. Metadata is also used essentially to describe relationships and how relationships should be used to make systems and applications work. there are also numerous companies that offer the said services. Metadata is also utilized to facilitate an understanding and management of data. Complete metadata services program are also offered. Trainings are given and metadata design workshops are also included in the program. They give consultation services to libraries. publication dates and actual locations of each content. And to complete the whole program metadata management is also taught. the date when the photo was taken and the camera used to take it. In libraries. There are metadata companies who create metadata for schools and their libraries so browsing. It can also be used to describe content.171 Metadata Service: Varied Yet Complete Metadata is defined as information about information. In photos. Metadata could have many different definitions depending on the way it is used. Most companies and some individuals opt to hire metadata services. searching and retrieving of content can be facilitated. metadata describes the settings used to capture a specific image. In turn. metadata usually includes names of the authors of the contents. . These companies also produce and manage subscription metadata for customers who need to access content from the system. Then implementation and mentoring is also provided. Metadata production and design are also catered. for example.

172 So the metadata services available in the market vary according to the need of every company. . But the range of metadata services is wide and even comprehensive that company’s needs would surely be provided.

searching and retrieval. It could provide simple information such as the titles of the movies. Metadata is also quite useful in defining the workings of applications. a project has been formed to scrutinize content such as movies being sent by many different providers to cable operators. such specifications can be defined for all content. its specifications. But it can also be manually created. It could also contain other information to facilitate indexing of different scenes of the movie. people would edit and delete metadata too. This is to aid cable operators operate their business. For this purpose. Metadata could also provide instructions on how the movie is to be displayed. VOD metadata would typically give instructions for the subscriptions.173 VOD Metadata Specifications for Easier Content Selling and Customer Usage Metadata provides descriptions for content like documents. In some instances. Metadata for such content would typically contain data about content asset package. With the use of metadata. Metadata can be automatically generated. VOD metadata specifications standards create ways for them to offer movies to custom- . While metadata would also inform the cable operators the restrictions imposed on every movie and of course. In the case of videos. Metadata is useful in providing data about the content it is describing. It even helps data organization. audio and images. sold and copied. What the project really aims to achieve is to provide specifications for VOD subscriptions. one use for metadata is on VOD or Video-on-demand subscriptions. VOD metadata would aid cable operators by providing flexibility on how they can offer content to their customers.

174 ers and ways for their customers to search for favorite scenes in movies. .

codes. Program metadata in particular. which usually associated with a single television (TV) program. codes. of which appear to be more configurable or abstract. The term metadata is commonly included in most executable file formats (e. and more. Any portion of the metadata can be used to enable or disable interactive functions. Metadata may consists of editorial information. tags. JPEG. likewise of the relevant portions of content streams. Another specific example would be in the case of content stream or a portion. Apparently. An EPG-related operation is one example.. which is generally defined as “data about data. editorial information.g. Basically. tags. the content stream (e. .” is normally used throughout an asset specification. Metadata are usually used to define or describe some controlling data used in developing and designing software architectures. TIFF. and more) that is associated with one TV program can be used to describe or index segments of at least one program. pointers.175 Program Metadata: What Is it? Metadata. it includes relative attributes—either or both technical and content data—and/or perhaps any further descriptive information about an image or asset. wherein metadata is of less significance. pointers. keywords or indexing information.. are hard if not almost unfeasible to be accurately distinguished vis-á-vis the overall stored-program computing architecture.g. A machine that reads a metadata and acts upon accordingly simply illustrates what is known as computational instruction. flags. Essentially. which are potentially configured and have behavioral runtime features. and more). program metadata may have more function and use than the standard metadata.

there are others which include further substantial annotations.176 In conclusion. . hence enabling usage for several development tools. And while other metadata provides support reflection at a runtime. program metadata evidently contain metadata that may function more or be used further than the standard metadata.

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