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Published by: Izhar Shaikh on Aug 20, 2010
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This paper gives you deep information about Global Positioning System (GPS) along with its advantages, disadvantages & applications.

wide array of products, services, and Internetbased utilities. GPS works accurately in all weather conditions, day or night, around the clock, and around the globe. There is no subscription fee for use of GPS

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a technical marvel made possible by a group of satellites in earth orbit that transmit precise signals, allowing GPS receivers to calculate and display accurate location, speed, and time information to the user. By capturing the signals from three or more satellites (among a constellation of 31 satellites available), GPS receivers are able to use the mathematical principle of trilateration to pinpoint your location. With the addition of computing power, and data stored in memory such as road maps, points of interest, topographic information, and much more, GPS receivers are able to convert location, speed, and time information into a useful display format. GPS was originally created by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) as a military application. The system has been active since the early 1980s, but began to become useful to civilians in the late 1990s. Consumer GPS has since become a multi-billion dollar industry with a
Reflexes 2010

signals. GPS signals may be blocked by dense forest, canyon walls, or skyscrapers, and they don¶t penetrate indoor spaces well, so some locations may not permit accurate GPS

navigation.GPS receivers are generally accurate within 15 meters, and newer models that use Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) signals are accurate within three meters.

While the U.S. owned and operated GPS is currently the only active system, five other satellite-based global navigation systems are being developed by individual nations and by multi-nation consortiums.

The global positioning system. which is 20. which is a satellite based navigation system. The monitor stations send the collected information to the master control station that computes precise satellite orbits. with three antennas and five monitor stations located throughout the world. space and control. operational satellites in six circular orbits. The application of GPS includes its' usage by computer-controlled harvesters. winter or fall. ground stations. These satellites perform the task of broadcasting position and time data throughout the world. airborne and sea operators to receive the GPS satellite broadcasts and make a precise calculation of their position and time. Global positioning system is defined as the constellation of satellites. 200 km above the earth at an inclination angle of 55 degrees with a 12hour period. The Control Segment has a master control station in Colorado Springs. positioning system includes its' usage as a navigation aid in ships. GPS receivers make use of triangulation to calculate the user's exact location. aero planes and cars. 2 . associated command and control facilities that are maintained by the department of defense. the global positioning system works in all conditions. is made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U. y The user Segment consists of processors. Be it day or night. The time difference enables the GPS receiver to calculate how far away the satellite is.S department of defense. mine trucks and other vehicles. Be it summer.GPS How does the GPS work? The primary application of the global positioning system is to enable forces to target locations for missile troops. GPS works for 24 hours. You do not even have to pay subscription fees or set up charges to use the global positioning system. receivers and antennas that permit land. navigation payloads that produce the GPS signals. The application of global position and display it on the unit's electronic map. The receiver could also determine the user's Reflexes 2010 y y Segments of GPS The three segments of GPS are user. data links. The monitor stations keep track of all GPS satellites and collect information from the satellite broadcasts. GPS satellites transmit signal information to the earth after circling the earth twice a day. The space Segment includes 24 velocity. The global positioning system receivers compare the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite to the time it was received.

GPS Handheld Device: Basics & Working A GPS device or a GPS unit is an electronic device using which one can determine his approximate location.Carrier phase · Architecture .Automobile navigation. The positional accuracy would be approximately within 20 meters.Code correlation . built-in electronic compasses. Coarse acquisition (C/A) code is for civilian use and is deliberately degraded. The satellites provide two different signals. A GPS receiver uses triangulation of the GPS satellites' navigational signals to determine their current location.Multiplex receivers GPS receivers can be classified on the basis of: navigation units.General purpose handheld . The military uses Precision (P) code and is not corrupted.Sequential receivers . The GPS device can be used to navigate from the current location to another location. time and position.Aviation . voice · Application .Continuous receivers . Reflexes 2010 3 . the position and the time signal. Simultaneous measurements from the four satellites are processed to solve for the three dimensions of velocity. depending on its complexity. that provide different accuracies. The positional accuracy would be about 100 meters. The coordinates for the GPS devices are normally given in terms of the latitude and longitude. The unit may have other addons.Attitude determination . etc. IVHS and Fleet · Method of operation .GPS Note that all global positioning system satellites transmit accurate positions and time signals. These include maps.

One of the original design goals of GPS navigation was to provide navigation information for planes and ships. Imagine going out for a run or bike ride and capturing all of your speed. These scenarios and many more are reality with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. In space navigation. Imagine playing golf and always knowing the exact distance to the pin. a GPS receiver is used to determine the position and velocity of a satellite. Sports.Original Equipment Manufacturer . GPS provides precise navigation tools and accurate landing systems. GPS for Driving. GPS Navigation System: How it happens? GPS navigation is one of the everyday Imagine never being lost or needing to ask for directions as you drive. Outdoors. Reflexes 2010 4 . and More applications of Global Positioning System. elevation change and heart rate data and uploading it to a training log or an online map you can share. Imagine going hiking and always knowing the way back to camp.Timing The precise point-to-point navigation of a GPS system helps save fuel and extends the aircraft's range by ensuring pilots stay on the most direct routes to the destination.Mapping and data collection . GPS is only an aid to navigation and navigators must also know and use the traditional piloting and navigational techniques.GPS location . to accurately determine the time of observations from other tracking or scientific instruments and many more.Surveying . thus making flying safer and more efficient.Marine . distance.Space .

and automotive is the fastest-growing segment of the GPS market. improved accuracy and usability of maps and directions. Specialized golf GPS receivers provide precise yardage and other useful information and can be preloaded with your favorite courses. Handhelds can enhance outdoor safety. all of these reasons and more. a GPS unit can replace a conventional cycle computer. heart rate. the ability to wirelessly link a mobile phone to an in-car unit to get hands-free mobile speakerphone use. making getting lost much less likely. for example. In Your Car locations -. and providing precise position information that can be relayed to rescuers in case of an emergency. Why? Better and brighter color screens. These handhelds let you enter "waypoints" -. a campsite.precise Reflexes 2010 5 . Some manufacturers offer GPS products 3. replacing map and compass with moving digital maps. safe passage across a stream. and cadence data that is uploadable to a computerized training log or to a Web site. added features such as traffic alerts. and add another layer of features. anything of importance to the user.for a favorite fishing spot. On the Trail specifically for cycling or running. Sales of aftermarket in-car GPS devices have more than doubled over the past two years. Sports & Fitness 2. topographic and other data. In cycling. as well.GPS 1. Handheld GPS units have dramatically changed outdoors travel. elevation. and precise location. such as route mapping. and trip.

Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) GPS has been a boon to recreational and commercial boaters. Built-topurpose. route page. On the Water Aviation features include: map page. In the Air measure small variations in the GPS satellites' signals in the western hemisphere. Reflexes 2010 6 . position data page. and availability. including precision approaches to any airport within its coverage area. and many additional maps for the earth's oceans and lakes are available. use the corrections while computing their positions to improve accuracy.GPS 4. "direct-to" navigation. integrity. WAAS is intended to enable aircraft to rely on GPS for all phases of flight. in North America and Hawaii. Essentially. where WAAS-enabled GPS receivers Portable aviation units offer intuitive. which queue the received Deviation Correction (DC) and send the correction messages to geostationary WAAS satellites in a timely manner (every 5 seconds or better). portable chartplotters often come loaded with detailed coastal maps. Those satellites broadcast the correction messages back to Earth. airport information. 5. easy to use. Measurements from the reference stations are routed to master stations. with the goal of improving its accuracy. Moving-map displays and navigation overlays are incredibly convenient. WAAS uses a network of ground-based reference stations. and more. and dramatically enhance all-weather. terrain page. The ability to provide precise position information in case of an emergency is another key safety feature. all-light-condition safety. to The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is an air navigation aid developed by the Federal Aviation Administration to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS). providing a great supplement to a plane's instrumentation. movingmap views with navigation overlays.

help you out or alert the authorities. the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay 3. A gps system can be used to locate a lost child. and many scientific applications. 6. If your vehicle is ever stolen the gps system will track the vehicle and the authorities will be able to get it back in no time. Satellite respectively. treks. Augmentation Commercial System systems include StarFire and OmniSTAR. 7. the Indian GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN). A gps system in a car. computers.GPS 1. Your car will never loose your car at a football match or mall. The device is quite small and is like a watch or button on a collar. When this button is pressed an operator at the gps carrier can listen in on the conversation and either WAAS Logo The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) calls this type of system a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS). Service (EGNOS) and the Japanese Multifunctional (MSAS). Gps systems are used to detect structural problems in buildings and roads and to predict disasters like earthquakes and so on. 2. This will keep you safe in case of accidents or hi jacks. Reflexes 2010 7 . The system can track goods at any point of time and accurately predict when goods will reach their destination. The gps service will track the car for you and send its lights flashing. 4. 5. GPS receivers can be incorporated into cars. boat. map making. Advantages & Disadvantages of GPS Advantages: Global positioning systems are widely in use today for navigation. A gps system comes with a ³panic´ button. The scientific applications of a gps system are many. A gps system streamlines supply chains and truck movements. Europe and Asia are developing their own SBASs. plane or haversack will ensure that you are never lost. boats. land surveying fishing. mobile phones watches and more. There are many advantages of having a gps system: pet or family.

Nowadays. You can appreciate the value of the GPS technology by taking a look at the numerous With the speed by which technology evolves. which brings numerous advantages to users around the world.or any type of object . there is a wide array of civilian applications A word of caution before signing up for a gps system find out what you are paying for and what the monthly fee will cover. tracking devices are a definite must for people who are always on the go and those who are fond of updating themselves with the latest technological gizmos. to make it easier to find your direction as you sail. almost advantages of a GPS tracking device. One of the most popular advantages of a GPS tracking device is when it is used as a vehicle navigator. direction and speed by measuring the distance between the receiver and three or more (out of the 24) medium Earth satellites. vehicles. can be used in conjunction with cameras. even a person . distance calculation and a lot 8 everything is possible with the latest that technology has to offer. you do not have to worry about getting lost and asking for directions if your car has a GPS tracking device. Here.that you would like to locate. applications. in the sense that communicating with another person from the other side of the world has become instantaneous. The GPS technology is currently being used for a multitude of military Reflexes 2010 . for the GPS technology. GPPS Gps systems have so many uses. A gps is a great exercise monitor and will help you keep track of your spped and so on. have varied use in military and have great use in surveying for volcanic eruptions. it is not a surprise that the world has become 'smaller'. calculate the distance and verify the direction that you need to take in order to arrive at a particular place. One of the products of the continuous and advancing developments in technology is the GPS or Global Positioning System. and numerous advantages to worldwide users. they help determine weather patterns. If you are new to a place. movements in the earth¶s plates and so on. Another popular advantage of a GPS tracking device is when it is embedded as a feature of your mobile phones. You can use this feature for directionfinding purposes. GPS is global satellite navigational system which enables a GPS receiver to determine its specific location. The same goes for boats which have a GPS tracking device. palmtops or personal digital assistants. you will be able to determine the exact location.GPS 8. A GPS tracking device can be incorporated in mobile phones. Aside from its important application in the military. sink holes.

which can drain quickly. If you purchase a "bargain GPS. GPS devices are limited by having clear access to the satellites that provide the tracking. All of them fall under five basic categories: y y y Cost Purchasing a GPS based on price can be a major disadvantage. Instead. It could also miss new roads and businesses. In locations with tall buildings or sparse coverage. benefits and uses to suit most of your individual needs. that can help you find your location and the area you are attempting to travel to. Lastly.GPS more. Before you rush out and get a GPS device. Turn-by-turn directions are not available on every type of GPS device. here are some of the disadvantages to consider. known as GPS.a GPS tracking device definitely provides a multitude of applications. or for surveillance purposes . Additionally. GPS Applications GPS has a wide range of applications. however. reception can be poor. boats or can even be handheld devices. a lost pet. Battery Life GPS units that are not plugged into a power source. monitoring the location of wild or endangered species. and features such as traffic and up-to-date maps could be lacking. Whether it is a stolen vehicle. Reception Directions Accuracy Maps on GPS devices are not updated in real time for all models. and rely on batteries. This means that it is possible a GPS device Disadvantages: No longer do you need to carry a map around with you when exploring a town by car or hiking in an area that you are unfamiliar with. Location Navigation Tracking 9 Reflexes 2010 .is just what the name implies ." you will get what you pay for.'to track' or determine the location of something. These GPS devices can be mounted in cars. Some will give very little advanced notice before an upcoming turn. there are Global Positional Systems. GPS tracking devices are used by sports enthusiasts to calculate the range that they traveled as they work out. This can increase the cost of owning a GPS unit significantly. and this is probably one of the most important uses of a GPS tracking device . will direct you onto a road that is closed or no longer exists.

y There are ONLY two 'public' Global Positioning Systems (GPS systems) at this moment: y NAVSTAR y GLONASS consumer costs.GPS y y Mapping Timing Future Scope y While the U. The GLONASS system is owned by the Russian Federation. thus reducing currently the only active system. it managed by the NAVSTAR GPS Joint Program Office located at Los Angeles Air Force Base. save a substantial amount of money and reduce air pollution to a large extent. The point of contact for GLONASS information is the Russian Space Forces' Coordinational Scientific Information Center (CSIC). The NAVSTAR is a GPS device owned by the United States. There will be more Public GPS Systems developed in no time. y Additional civil frequencies and civil codes will be developed to meet the requirements of civilian users. Traveling aboard ships and aircrafts will be safer in all weather conditions. Smart vehicle location and GPS navigation systems are GPS systems that would help us find efficient routes to our destinations.S. five other satellite-based global navigation systems are being developed by individual nations and by multi-nation consortiums. The civilian point of contact for the NAVSTAR system is the United States Coast Guard's Navigation Center (NAVCEN). owned and operated GPS is Combining GPS with current and future computer mapping techniques would enable us to identify and manage our natural resources. There are two 'public' Global Positioning Systems (GPS systems): y y NAVSTAR GLONASS According to Technologists. Reflexes 2010 10 . Businesses would be able to manage their resources more efficiently.

and air forces. sea. and newer models that use WAAS signals are accurate within three meters. Weather forecasting etc. Emergency Services. y GPS receivers are generally accurate within 15 meters. round-theclock. y It has a wide variety of applications like Defense Systems. Reflexes 2010 11 . navigation capabilities for military ground. reception gets poor in case of an area where large buildings & also it requires a large battery backup. y In case of GPS handheld device.GPS Conclusion y Global Positioning System device was developed by the US Department of Defense to provide all-weather.

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