RHCE Session 1  RHCE Certification Level  History of Unix, Features of Unix & Distribution  History of Linux, Features of Linux & Flavors

 About GNU, FSF & GPL  Difference B/W Unix-Linux  RHCE Course Details Session 2  Linux Architecture ( Kernel, Shell)  Difference B/W Linux & Windows  Types of Red Hat Linux  Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  Types of Linux Installation • • Session 3 & 4  HDD Basic, Types of HDD Partitions  Boot loader & MBR  Types of Boot loader In Linux  Types of File Systems In Linux & Windows  Difference B/W ext2-ext3, Fat-Ntfs  Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Practical Installation ( LAB ) Through CDROM – Text & GUI Mode Through Network – Text & GUI

Session 5  Linux & Windows File Structure  All Linux System Directories Under /  Installation According to RHCE EXAM  Types of Modes in Linux – 1) TUI 2) GUI  Types of User – 1) System 2) Non-System  Types of Desktop – 1) GNOME 2) KDE 3) TWM  Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Session 6  Basic Commands In Linux pwd, cd, fdisk, df, du, hostname, dnsdomainname, ls, mkdir, rmdir, rm, touch, cat, ifconfig, man, info, --help, cp, mv, cal, Date, logout, exit Shutting Down Command – init 0, poweroff, halt, shutdown Restarting Command – init 6, reboot, shutdown, ctrl+alt+del Session 7  Vi Editor & Its Operations – Copy, Cut, Paste, Delete, Undo, Redo, Search in forward-Reverse, Set numbers & Others   Mounting & Un mounting of CDROM, USB, Floppy & Windows Partitions Hostname Setting, IP Address Setting, ifup, ifdown Session 8  Types of Runlevel, Single User Mode, /etc/inittab file  switchdesk & startx Command, Access GNOME, KDE, TWM  Compressions-Decompressions, Archiving

Session 9  About Inodes, Soft & Hard Links  After installation Partition Creation Creation of Ext3 Partitions Creation of Vfat Partitions Creation of Swap Partitions Session 10  Package Installation in Text & Graphical Mode ( RPM )  Package Installation Through YUM Session 11 & 12  User & Group Administration  Permission Bits ( rwx ), Suid, Sgid & Sticky Bits  Access Control List (ACL) Session 13  User Quota  Job Scheduler – Crontab Session 14  Process Management  RAID – RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5  How to Create RAID during Installation & after Installation

Session 15  LVM ( Logical Volume Manager )  How to Create LVM during Installation & after Installation  Resize of LVM  LVM Snapshot, Backup & Restore Session 16 & 17  Imp Files In Linux /etc/inittab, /etc/fstab, /etc/mtab, /etc/grub.conf, /etc/passwd, /etc/group, /etc/shadow, /etc/gshadow, /etc/securetty, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts, /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny, /etc/sysconfig/network, /etc/pam.d/login  Basic shell Scripting Session 18, 19 & 20  Minor & Major Troubleshooting  Rescue Mode Problems  EXAM 1 Session 21  RHCE Lab Setup  Telnet Server & Telnet Client  Security of Telnet Server (Th :-Xinetd)  SSH Server (Secure Shell) & SSH Client, SCP, Slogin Session 22

 DHCP Server & DHCP Client (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)  NFS Server & NFS Client (Network File System) Session 23  DNS Server & DNS Client (Domain name Service)  Local DNS Configuration /etc/hosts file Session 24  Samba Server & Samba Client  Samba Server Configuration in Windows  Share File & Directory B/W Windows & Linux Session 25  NIS Server & NIS Client (Network Information Service)  NTP Server & Client (Network Time Protocol) Session 26  Web Server & Web Client, Secure Web Server  Web Site Accessing in TUI & GUI Session 27 & 28  Squid Proxy Server  Allow & Deny Web Sites

 VSFTP Server & VSFTP Server (Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  Uploading & Downloading Through System or Non System User & Anonymous User Session 29 & 30  Sendmail Server  IMAP-POP3 Server :- Mutt  IMAP-SSL Session 31  Printer Server & Printer Client  Syslog Server  VNC Server Session 32  Tcp_Wrappers - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny  PAM – Pluggable Authentication Module  Ipv6 Configuration, RADVD Server Session 33  IP Forwarding - /etc/sysctl.conf  Firewall – Iptables  Basic About SELINUX (Security Enhanced Linux) Session 34

ADSL Setup ( KPPP )  Mp3 Songs. GEdit. Graphical Tools  How to Create & Run C. Defining Default Boot Loader. XEN With Virtualization :Installation of Packages. Movie Player Installation  CD Writing & Acrobat Reader  Open Office. Installation of Virtual Operating System Session 35  Modem Installation. JAVA & SHELL Program  EXAM 2 .

SESSION 1  RHCE Certification Level  History of Unix. Features of Unix & Distribution  History of Linux. FSF & GPL  Difference B/W Unix-Linux  RHCE Course Details Redhat Linux Certification RHCA RHCSS RHCE RHCT RHCE Course Modules ARCHITECT SECURITY SPECIALIST ENGINEER TECNICIAN . Features of Linux & Flavors  About GNU.

 Redhat Linux Basic (RH 033)  Redhat Linux System Administration (RH 133)  Redhat Linux Network & Security Admin (RH 253) History of Unix  1969 BELL LAB’S DEVELOP A “PLATEFORM INDEPENDENT “ OPERATING SYSTEM THAT IS KNOWN AS “UNIX” Features of Unix  PLATEFORM INDEPENDENT  OPEN SOURCE BUT NOT FREEWARE  SMALL & SIMPLE PROGRAMME TO USE  ALL HARDWARE DEFINE IN FORM OF FILES  EXECUTION OF MULTIPLE COMMAND IS POSSIBLE BY USING PIPE ( | ) SYMBOL Distribution of Unix COMPANY  IBM  HP  SUN MICROSYSTEM History of Linux  IN 1991 A STUDENT LINUS TORVALDS DEVELOP A KERNEL WITH THE HELP OF UNIX PROGRAMMER THAT IS KNOWN AS “LINUX” KERNEL + SHELL + APPL. S/W = OS OPERATING SYSTEM AIX HP/UX SUN SOLARIS .

OPERATING SYSTEM RHEL SUSE MANDRAK YELLOW DOG OPEN LINUX GNU FSF (FREE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION) GPL (GENERAL PUBLIC LICENCE) UNIX V/S LINUX .Features of Linux  PLATFORM INDEPENDENT  OPEN SOURCE & FREEWARE  SMALL & SIMPLE PROGRAMME TO USE  EVERYTHING DEFINE IN FORM OF FILE  WE CAN EXECUTE MULTIPAL COMMAND Distribution of Linux COMPANY  REDHAT  NOVEL  MANDRAKE  YELLOW DOG  OPEN How Linux Become Free  IN 1992 LINUS TORVALDS SUBMITS HIS PROJECT IN AN ORGANIZATION WHICH KNOWN AS “GNU”.

Shell)  Difference B/W Linux & Windows  Types of Red Hat Linux  Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  Types of Linux Installation • • Through CDROM – Text & GUI Mode Through Network – Text & GUI Linux Architecture HARDWARE KERNEL COMPILERS COMMANDS & TOOL APP.UNIX LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM KERNEL OPEN SOURCE BUT NOT FREEWAREOPEN SOURCE &FREEWARE SESSION 2  Linux Architecture ( Kernel. S/W DATABASE PACKAGE SHELL USER What Is Kernel & Shell .

0 Redhat Linux 8.0 Redhat Linux 9.Kernel is main part of an O..0 2) Fedora Feodra 4.0 a) Server b) Client .  Shell .0 Redhat Linux 4. S/W NO SINGLE DESKTOP NO Type of Redhat Linux 1) Redhat Linux Redhat Linux 3.0 3) RHEL RHEL 3. HDD etc & used to manage Processes.S.0 Redhat Linux 6.0 - Feodra 3.0 Feodra 5.Shell is a text based program.0 Redhat Linux 7.0 Redhat Linux 5.0 RHEL 5.0 RHEL 4. manage I/O devices. Users can only interact with shell.0 a) AS b) WS c) ES Feodra 7. RAM. manage resources like CPU. Kernel is used to interact with hardware.0 Feodra 6. Kernel . then shell interacts with kernel & finally kernel can interact with hardware. WINDOWS V/S LINUX LINUX KERNEL WINDOWS OPRATING SYSTEM OPEN SOURCE & FREEWARE N/A VIRUS PROOF MULTIPLE DESKTOP INBUILT APP.

File Transfer Protocol HTTP .Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  PIII .Any  RAM .Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Installation through CDROM  Insert Linux CD 1st & set cdrom 1st boot device • • a) For GUI Installation -.boot: Press Enter b) For TUI Installation -.Min 800 Mhz  PIV .Network File System FTP .256 MB (512 MB)  HDD .10 GB  CDROM Types of Linux Installation  Installation through CDROM (All Linux CD’s required)  Installation through Network (Only Linux 1st CD required) • • • NFS .boot: linux text  Create Following Partition Manually through fdisk • •  a) / (ext3)  b) swap (swap) 5000MB 2*RAM Size A) Minimal Installation Method .

0. Subnet Mask.254. (B) Advanced Installation Method  a) /boot b) / c) /usr d) /home e) /var f) swap (ext3) 100MB (ext3) 1000MB (ext3) 5000MB (ext3) 500MB (ext3) 500MB (swap) 2*RAM Size  Define IP Address. Gateway & FQDN Information  Define Time Zone (Aisa/calculta)  Define root user password  Select Packages for installation • After it installation starts & changes CD’s Installation through Network  Insert Linux CD 1st & set cdrom 1st boot device • • For GUI Installation -.254  Define IP address of NFS Server & directory name .boot: linux askmethod b) For TUI Installation -.24.boot: linux text askmethod  Select Installation Method (NFS)  Define Local m/c IP address information IP Address : 172.254 Default Gateway : 172.0.24.255. Nameserver.X Subnet Mask : 255.0 Primary Nameserver : 172.254.24.

Nameserver.  Create Following Partition Manually through fdisk • A) Minimal Installation Method a) / b) swap (ext3) 5000MB (swap) 2*RAM Size (B) Advanced Installation Method a) /boot b) / c) /usr d) /home e) /var f) swap (ext3) 100MB (ext3) 1000MB (ext3) 5000MB (ext3) 500MB (ext3) 500MB (swap) 2*RAM Size  Define IP Address.254 or Name of Server Path : /var/ftp/pub  Then press ok Now Client M/C contact with server m/c. Subnet Mask.Server : 172. if server is ready then client connects to server m/c & fetches all data from server directory.254.  Gateway & FQDN Information  Define Time Zone (Aisa/calculta)  Define root user password  Select Packages for installation Now no need to change CD’s. client automatically fetches data from server. .24.

secondary Slave . sdd for SATA. sdb.SESSION 3 & 4  HDD Basic.  Sda.Secondary Master hdd . • • • • hda . sdc. SCSI & USB drive. hdc. Types of HDD Partitions  Boot loader & MBR  Types of Boot loader In Linux  Types of File Systems In Linux & Windows  Difference B/W ext2-ext3. hab.Primary Master hdb . hdd for IDE or PATA HDD.Primary Slave hdc . Fat-Ntfs  Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Practical Installation ( LAB ) HDD Basic  hda.

In a HDD we can create max. we format the HDD drive. hda3. cylinder. MBR is the zero or first sector of a HDD. Windows Linux .S.In a HDD we can create maximum 1 extended partition. hda2. 1 extended & 2 logical partition MBR & Bootloader  MBR stand for Master Boot Record. For defining file system.0) LILO . MBR is used to store bootloader & booting files information.Types of HDD Partitions  Primary Partition (Booting Partitions)  Extended Partitions (Define Space for logical partitions)  Logical Partitions under Extended Partitions (Used for data storage)  Note . heads etc. hda6 means 2 primary.In Linux 1 to 4 numbers are reserved for primary & extended partitions & logical always starts from 5. of tracks. sectors. Types of HDD Partitions  Note . hda5.  Bootloader is a software that is used to define list of all installed O. Bootloader in Linux GRUB .Grant Universal Boot Loader (Default in RHEL 5. bootloader installed into MBR.  Note ..  Example: hda1.Linux Loader File System & Types of File system in Windows & Linux  File System is known as indexing. 4 primary partitions but after that we can’t create extended & logical partitions. File system is used to define no.

EXT3 Swap LVM Difference B/W ext2-ext3 EXT2 EXT3 JOURLANING FEATURES DYNAMIC INODES FILE SYSTEM RECOVERY ADVANCED FILE SYSTEM Difference B/W NTFS-FAT32 NTFS DISK QUOTA FAT32 .   FAT 16 FAT 32 NTFS RAID VFAT EXT2.

. represented by a lone / (forward slash) character.COMPRESSION & DECOMPRESSION ENCRYPTION SECURE Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Minimum 2 partition required for Linux • • / (ext3) swap (swap) 5000MB 2*RAM Size Practical Lab Setup Installation of Linux in GUI & TUI SESSION 5  Linux & Windows File Structure  All Linux System Directories Under /  Installation According to RHCE EXAM  Types of Modes in Linux – 1) TUI 2) GUI  Types of User – 1) System 2) Non-System  Types of Desktop – 1) GNOME 2) KDE 3) TWM  Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Linux File Structure Concept  Files and directories are organized into a single-rooted inverted tree structure. File system begins at the root directory.

/sys Shared Libraries: /lib. /usr/local/lib Configuration: /etc Temporary Files: /tmp /usr/local/bin /usr/local/sbin All Linux System Directories Under /  The /dev Directory The /dev directory contains _le system entries which represent devices that are attached to the system. Other Mountpoints: /media. /usr/bin. /mnt • • Linux File Structure Concept  Example of More System Directories • • • • Kernels and Bootloader: /boot Server Data: /var.• • Names are case-sensitive Paths are delimited by / Linux File Structure Concept  Example of some System Directories • • • • Home Directories: /root. These shared library images are . System Executables: /sbin. /usr/sbin. /srv System Information: /proc./home/username User Executables: /bin. /usr/lib. These _les are essential for the system to function properly  The /lib Directory The /lib directory should contain only those libraries that are needed to execute the binaries in /bin and /sbin.

such as CD-ROMs and floppy disks. administrative and logging data. mkswap. route. fdisk.  The /sbin Directory The /sbin directory is for executables used only by the root user. halt.. the following programs should be in /sbin: arp.  The /media Directory The /media directory is for temporarily mounted file systems. Due to the great variety of data available within /proc and the many ways this directory can be used to communicate with the kernel.getty. and transient and temporary _les.  The /var Directory Since the FHS requires that you be able to mount /usr read-only.*. swapoff. any programs that write log _les or need spool or lock directories should write them to the /var directory. lilo.  The /opt Directory The /opt directory provides an area for third party packages  The /proc Directory The /proc directory contains special "files" that either extract information from or send information to the kernel..mkfs. ifconfig. clock. shutdown.reboot.*.variable data _les. an entire chapter has been devoted to the subject.  The /etc Directory The /etc directory is reserved for system & network Configuration files. grub. The /usr directory usually has its own partition. The FHS states /var is for: "." . This includes spool directories and _les.swapon. At a minimum.particularly important for booting the system and executing commands within the root _le system. update  The /usr Directory The /usr directory is for files that can be shared across a whole site.fsck. and it should be mountable read-only.init.

Types of Modes in Linux  A typical Linux system will run six virtual consoles and one graphical console Server systems often have only virtual consoles Desktops and workstations typically have both Switch among virtual consoles by typing: Ctrl-Alt-F[1-6] Access the graphical console by typing Ctrl-Alt-F7 Types of User  Two type of User in the Linux 1) System User or Root User (#) ex :. Open source implementation of X Look and behavior largely controlled by the desktop environment.[r1@station1 ~]$ Note :.Here “Station1” is Host Name And “ ~ ” is Home Directory of Root User or a Simple User Types of Desktop  The X Window System is Linux's graphical subsystem.K Desktop Environment  TWM – Tab Window Manager Fully Qualified Domain Name .  Three desktop environments provided by Red Hat  GNOME: the default desktop environment – GNU Network Model Environment  KDE: an alternate desktop environment.[root@station1 ~]# 2) Simple User ($) ex :.

ctrl+alt+del Basic Commands In Linux  Commands have the following syntax: command options arguments Each item is separated by a space Options modify a command's behavior . mv. cd. poweroff. Date. shutdown Restarting Command – init 6.com SESSION 6  Basic Commands In Linux pwd. reboot. mkdir. FQDN – Fully qualified domain name  Host+domainname = FQDN • EX. rm. dnsdomainname. exit • • Shutting Down Command – init 0.example. logout.com = station1. df. cat. fdisk. halt. ifconfig. cp. Station1+ example. cal. --help. hostname. rmdir. touch. du. info. ls. shutdown. man.

 Single-letter options usually preceded by “ .“ Can be passed as -a -b -c or -abc  Full-word options usually preceded by “ -.“ Example: --help  [root@station1 ~]# date (display date and time) Mon Nov 26 07:26:49 IST 2007  [root@station1 ~]# cal (display calendar) November 2007 Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  The whatis Command • • • Displays short descriptions of commands Uses a database that is updated nightly Often not available immediately after install [root@station1 ~]# whatis cal cal (1) .displays a calendar  The Pwd Command [root@station1 ~]# pwd (show present working directory) Result = /root .

0 GB. • To your home directory: [root@station1 etc]# cd • To your previous working directory: [root@station1 etc]# cd –  The fdisk Command [root@station1 ~]# fdisk –l (Show all hdd partition information) Disk /dev/hda: 80. 63 sectors/track.[root@station1 etc]# pwd Result = /etc  The cd Command • • Ex:cd (changes directories) To an absolute or relative path: [root@station1 etc]# cd /home/ram/work • To a directory one level up: [root@station1 etc]# cd . 9729 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Start End Blocks Id System 83 Linux /dev/hda2 1913 1925 104422+ /dev/hda3 1926 4475 20482875 83 Linux  The df Command . 80026361856 bytes 255 heads..

com  The dnsdomainname Command [root@server1 home]# dnsdomainname example.[root@station1 ~]# df –h (Show all mounted Partition information) Filesystem /dev/hda3 /dev/hda2 tmpfs Size 19G 99M 1009M Used Avail 12G 0 6.com  The nisdomainname Command [root@server1 home]# nisdomainname notexample  The ls Command .example.Show dir usage space) 12K 237K 11M /boot/lost+found /boot/grub /boot/  The hostname Command [root@server1 home]# hostname server1.3G 17M 78M Use% 66% 18% Mounted on / /boot /dev/shm 1009M 0%  The du Command [root@server1 home]# du -h /boot/ (disk usages.

[root@server1 home]# ls s2 s1 t1 [root@server1 home]# ll (Details in list form ) total 3 drwx-----. but not all..3 t1 t1 4096 Sep 3 12:28 t1 [root@server1 home]# ls -a (Show hidden file also) . or set the system date. on which time. . commands ex :.  The man Command Provides documentation for commands .$ date –help Display the current time in the given FORMAT. on which terminal)  The --help Option Displays usage summary and argument list Used by most.2 s1 s1 4096 Aug 11 19:03 s1 drwx-----. guests ram s1 t1  The ifconfig Command [root@server1 ~]# ifconfig (This Command is use for viewing information about LAN card & IP Address)  The who & w Command [root@server1 ~]# who [root@server1 ~]# w (Both Command’s show that how many user login.2 s2 s2 4096 Aug 30 12:35 s2 drwx-----.

move and/or rename files and directories Usage: [root@station1 etc]# mv [options] file destination More than one file may be moved at a time if the destination is a directory: [root@station1 etc]# mv [options] file1 file2 destination Destination works like cp .Almost every command has a man "page“ Pages are grouped into "chapters" Collectively referred to as the Linux Manual  The info Command Similar to man. but often more in-depth Run info without arguments to list all age info pages are structured like a web site Each page is divided into "nodes" Links to nodes are preceded by *  Copying Files and Directories (cp command) cp .copy files and directories Usage: [root@station1 etc]# cp [options] file destination More than one file may be copied at a time if the destination is a directory: [root@station1 etc]# cp [options] file1 file2 destination  Moving and Renaming Files and Directories (mv command) mv .

.create empty files or update file timestamps [root@station1 etc]# rm . Creating and Removing Files [root@station1 etc]# touch . Ex: [root@station1 etc]# rm -r directory(recursive) [root@station1 etc]# rm -f file (force)  Creating and Removing Directories [root@station1 etc]# mkdir creates directories [root@station1 etc]# rmdir removes empty directories [root@station1 etc]# rm -r recursively removes directory trees  Command for shutting down [root@station1 etc]# init 0 [root@station1 etc]# poweroff [root@station1 etc]# halt [root@station1 etc]# shutdown –h now  Command for restart [root@station1 etc]# init 6 [root@station1 etc]# reboot .remove files [root@station1 etc]# rm [options] <file>.

Redo & Others  Mounting & Un mounting of CDROM. Paste. Cut. VI Editor . USB. Undo. IP Address Setting. Floppy & Windows Partitions  Hostname Setting.[root@station1 etc]# ctrl+alt+del [root@station1 etc]# shutdown –r now SESSION 7  Vi Editor & Its Operations – Copy. Delete.

vi creates it when the edits are saved for the first time . cut. insert.Esc always returns to command mode Vi Editor  Opening a file in vim To start vi: vim filename If the file exists. VI Editor is used to create a new file. etc Esc exits current mode Note:. quit. edit in existing file. paste. the file is opened and the contents are displayed If the file does not exist. with file name Ex: #vi training or /home/ram/training For edit existing file #vi existing file name or with add file name #cd /etc after that #vi fstab # vi /etc/fstab Vi Editor Modes  Keystroke behavior is dependent upon vi "mode"  Three main modes: Command Mode (default): Move cursor. For creating new file we write down #vi file name/destination add. copy. cut/paste text. delete. set numbers before the line etc. change mode Insert Mode: Modify text Ex Mode: Save.

 Modifying a File Insert Mode i begins insert mode at the cursor  Saving a File and Exiting vim Execution Mode Enter Ex Mode with “ : “ Creates a command prompt at bottom-left of screen Common write/quit commands: :w writes (saves) the file to disk :wq writes and quits. even if changes are lost  Undoing Changes Command Mode u undo most recent change U undo all changes to the current line since the cursor landed on the line Ctrl-r redo last "undone" change  Cut/Copy/Paste Command Mode dd for delete a line. 5dd delete 5 lines yy for copy a line. 5yy copy 5 lines p for paste a line What Is Mounting . wq! write forcefully :q! quits.

 Before accessing. must be manually mounted.iso 9660 defaults 00  CD/DVD Reader mount /media/cdrom  Un mounts and ejects eject Mounting USB Media  Mounting USB Media Detected by the kernel as SCSI devices /dev/sdaX or /dev/sdbX or similar Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE Icon created in Computer window Mounted under /media/Device ID Device ID is built into device by vendor Mounting Floppy Disks  Must be manually mounted and un mounted . etc)  Mountpoints are usually under /media Mounting of CDROM  Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE. floppy. usb. media must be unmounted  By default. dvd. media must be mounted  Before removing.Otherwise. First we have to insert a line in “/etc/fstab” file. non-root users may only mount certain devices (cd. Mounting means making a foreign filesystem look like part of the main tree. /dev/hdb /media/cdrom udf.

IP Address settings  Setting up new IP add.this is temporary mounting. we only mount FAT32 partition in Linux. change we write down following command #hostname station100. for Permanente Mounting we have to enter details in “/etc/fstab” file like we enter for cdrom Hostname Setting  Temporary change: For temp.mount /media/floppy umount /media/floppy DOS floppies can be accessed with mtools Mounts and unmounts device transparently Uses DOS naming conventions mdir a: mcopy /home/file.txt a: Mounting Windows Partitions  For Mounting windows partition we have to write down following command #mount -t vfat /dev/hdc1 /media/partition1  Note:. We write following command #netconfig or #system-config-network #service network restart .example.com  Permanente change: For this we open “#vi /etc/sysconfig/network” file and change host name when we restart our pc we find new hostname.

 Init is the first process of the system and the process id is 1 Types of Runlevels  Init 0 = for shutdown  Init 1 = for single user mode / troubleshooting  Init 2 = multi user. Access GNOME. TWM  Compressions-Decompressions. Note: if above command not run then we open a file “#vi /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg-eth0” and write IPADDR=. SESSION 8  Types of Runlevel. Single User Mode  switchdesk & startx Command. text mode without N/W support  Init 3 = multi user. KDE.  In Linux there are 7 type of runlevels from 0-6  These runlevels control by ”init” command. text mode with N/W support  Init 4 = unused  Init 5 = multi user. with N/W support  Init 6 = reboot Runlevel setting  For set a default Runlevel Open . text + gui mode. Archiving Intro of Runlevels  Runlevels is system software of the operating system that defines no of process exist for a level. NETMASK=. GATEWAY=.

“#vi /etc/inittab” file. Press “b” for booting  Now system starts in single user mode without username & password. We can change any file of the system.  For check the current Runlevel #runlevel Single User Mode  For access single user mode  At the booting time press “e” on Linux boot loader line  Come at second line or on kernel line again press “e”  Go last of the line press “spacebar” then press “s or 1” then enter. store. change line in the file “ld:3: initdefault” in place of 3 we enter 5 for GUI + Text support  After that reboot pc.standard Linux archiving command Archives are commonly compressed Algorithm applied that compresses file Uncompressing restores the original file tar natively supports compression using gzip and bzip2 . Accessing GUI directly from Runlevel 3  For accessing GUI directly we run following command #switchdesk gnome  For run GUI #startx  Note : For run the switchdesk command we have to check switchdesk package is installed or not Archiving  Archiving places many files into one target file Easier to back up. and transfer tar .

tar.tar or #bunzip2 f1.tar f1.gz Result: f1.tar (for extracting .tar contain) #tar xvf f1.tar.tar s2 s4 s5 s6 #tar tvf f1.tar.bz2 or or #bzip2 f1.tar Result: f1.tar.gz  For decompression  #gunzip f1.tar files name Ex: #tar cvf s1. #tar cvf f1.tar file) Compressions-Decompressions  First we archive file and directories the use following command for compression  #gzip f1.tar (for check the .Archiving Configuration  For compress some files we have to archive them command.bz2 first by using following SESSION 9 .

The link count (count of path names pointing to this file). associating a name with the inode number Copies data into the new file. GID. Creates a dentry in the directory. About Inodes. UID.The file's size and various time stamps. Directories  The computer's reference for a file is the Inode number  The human way to reference a file is by file name  A directory is a mapping between the human name for the file and the computer's Inode number  cp and inodes The cp command: Allocates a free inode number. placing a new entry in the inode table. including: File type. Creation of Ext3 Partitions Creation of Vfat Partitions Creation of Swap Partitions .  mv and inodes If the destination of the mv command is on the same file system as the source. containing information about a file (the metadata). Pointers to the file's data blocks on disk. permissions. Soft & Hard Links  After installation Partition Creation • • • Inodes  An inode table contains a list of all files in an ext2 or ext3 filesystem  An inode (index node) is an entry in the table. Other data about the file.

Data is not actually removed. but will be overwritten when the data blocks are used by another file. Soft & Hard Links  A hard link adds an additional pathname to reference a single file One physical file on the filesystem Each directory references the same inode number. thus freeing the inode number to be reused.Creates a new directory entry with the new file name. Has no impact on the inode table (except for a time stamp) or the location of data on the disk: no data is moved! If the destination is a different filesystem. Deletes the old directory entry with the old file name. Places data blocks on the free list. Increments the link count The rm command decrements the link count File exists as long as at least one link remains When the link count is zero. the file is removed Cannot span drives or partitions ln filename [linkname]  A symbolic link points to another file ls -l displays the link name and the referenced file “lrwxrwxrwx 1 joe joe 11 Sep 25 18:02 pf > /etc/passwd” File type: l for symbolic link The content of a symbolic link is the name of the file that it references Syntax: ln -s filename linkname Partition Creation . Removes the directory entry. mv acts as a copy and remove  rm and inodes Decrements the link count.

2. 3. We can create following type of Partition 1. By the help of this utility we can done many task’s like partition type change etc. creation) (here we suppose that hdd is primary master) :n = create new partition :d = delete a partition :l = list all file system ID :t = change the file system :w = write partition table & quite :q = quite without save :p = show partition table Ext3 Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n : press enter : +100M :w (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (write & quit) #partprobe or reboot (for refreshing the table) Format partition . ext3 (Linux data partition) vfat (fat 32 type) swap (virtual memory partition) For creating partition in Linux we use “fdisk” utility. Fundamental of fdisk utility  Before creating partition we have to know what is the basic command of “fdisk” • #fdisk /dev/hda (step 1 of the par.

#mkfs. [1-11] #partprobe or reboot (refreshing table) Format partition #mkfs.vfat /dev/hda11 Vfat Partition Mounting #mkdir /media/newpartition2 Now open “#vi /etc/fstab” & enter new partition details .ext3 /dev/hda10 Ext3 Partition Mounting #mkdir /media/newpartition Now open “#vi /etc/fstab” & enter new partition details /dev/hda10 /media/newpartition ext3 defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a (mount all partition which in the fstab file) Vfat Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n :press enter : +100M :t New id = d :w (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (for change the file system) (new file system id which know th l) (write & quit) Partition no.

/dev/hda10 /media/newpartition2 vfat defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a (mount all partition which in the fstab file) Swap Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n : press enter : +100M :t (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (for change the file system) Partition no. [1-11] New id = 82 (new file system id which know th l) :w (write & quit) #partprobe or reboot (refreshing table) Format partition #mkswap /dev/hda12 Swap Partition On/Off  For Enable Swap space #swapon /dev/hda12 #free (for checking space of swap partition)  For Disable Swap space #swapoff /dev/hda12 SESSION 10 .

RPM  How to install a package through cdrom or through dump?  First mount your cdrom with a dir. update.rpm RPM Management  How to search all install packages? #rpm -qa #rpm -qa | less (page wise)  How to search a specific package? #rpm -qa telnet* #rpm -qa | grep telnet*  How to Erase a package? #rpm -e package name* #rpm -e --nodeps pack.rpm files In Redhat Linux all packages extension is . Windows supports . Then write following command. Installation thro. #cd /media/cdrom/Server #rpm -ivh package name #rpm -ivh --force package name #rpm -ivh --nodeps package name .exe files and Redhat support . and erase the packages.search. Name . Package Installation in Text & Graphical Mode ( RPM )  Package Installation Through YUM Redhat Package Manager  In this section we learn how to install.

254. Configuration of YUM  First search yum package through rpm #rpm -qa yum* if the package is installed then open #vi /etc/yum.  We have to create repositories either server site or locally for yum. After that write down following command #rpm -Uvh package name Note : here “U” is in capital form and all command in small form.  By the help of this we can remove and update the packages.repo In file [Server] name= any name baseurl = ftp://172.254/pub/Server enabled = 1 (we create this file) . RPM  How to upgrade a package? First go to the destination of the packages.24.  We can use ftp and http methods for installing.repos. We don’t want to remember dependencies name’s. erasing through yum.Updation thro.d/server1.  In graphical mode we write following command #system-config-package YUM  YUM is a new software in RHEL5.0 by this we can install packages and also with dependencies.

update and also for remove the packages. search.gpgcheck = 0 Working of YUM  Now YUM is ready to install. By the help of following command we can done the described process #yum install package name* #yum remove package name* #yum update package name* #yum search package name* .

(usually a shell)  Users cannot read.  Advantage: Prevents new files from belonging to a “public” group  Disadvantage: May encourage making files “world-accessible User Administration  How to add a User?  There is two types to add a User. The commands is following . SGID & Stricky Bit  Access Control List (ACL) User & Group  Every user is assigned a unique User ID number (UID). SUID.  User's new files affiliated with this group.  All users in a group can share files that belong to the group.  Users' names and UIDs are stored in “/etc/passwd“  Users are assigned a home directory and a program that is run when they log in.  Each user is given their own private group Can be added to other groups for additional access.  Users are assigned to this private group. a private group is also created with the same name.  UID 0 identifies root.  GIDs are stored in /etc/group.SESSION 11 & 12  User & Group Administration  Permission Bits ( rwx ).  Users are assigned to groups.  When user accounts are created. write or execute each others files without permission.  Each group is assigned a unique Group ID number (gid).

Group (s1) . The command is following #passwd username  How to Delete a User?  For deleting the user we have following command #userdel user name  Note: By above command we can only delete user not his directories if we want that then we write down following command #userdel -r user name Group Administration  How to add a Group?  The commands is following #groupadd group name  How to Delete a group?  For deleting the group we have following command #groupdel group name  Note: we can’t delete a Primary Group User & Group Administration  A New User always create following 1. User (s1) 2.#useradd user name #adduser user name  How we secure a user?  By giving a password we secure a user.

Directories (/home/s1)  User Id (UID) & Group Id (GID)  All User & group have a unique identification which known as UID & GID. System User: 0-499 (range of UID & GID) Non System User: 500-65535 (range of id)  What is the ID of the User?  The command is following #id user name result: uid(500). r1) User & Group Information file: #vi /etc/passwd (this file store user info. gid(500). #useradd -G p1 p3 . In encryption)  In GUI mode we have to write following command for accessing User & Group Administration #system-config-user  Some Important question related to User & Group Administration  Create a User p1 with User ID 5000. #useradd -u 5000 p1  Cerate a User p2 with Primary Group p1.) #vi /etc/gshadow (group info. group(s1.) #vi /etc/group (this file store group info.) #vi /etc/shadow (user password info.3. #useradd -g p1 p2  Create a user p3 with Secondary Group p1.

p3. this.--. CDROM) Permission Bits for user .  How to add a Secondary group in a User.--. #useradd -s /sbin/nologin /p6 Note: we use service through this user but doesn’t login th. #usermod -G h2 h1  How to add a Primary group in a User. #useradd -d /p5 p5  Create a User p6 without login prompt. # usermod -g h2 h1 Permission Bits  In Linux each file & directories has 10 permissions bits. Printer) b = block devices (Hard Disk.= file c = character devices (Modem. Location /p5. By using “#ll” command we see that . p3 p4  Create a User p5 & define Dire. Create a User p4 with Secondary Group p1. #useradd -G p1. Some question for existing Users.--First bit is for d = directories .

r = Read (4). w = Write (2).--.--After 3 bites are for Group.--. x = execute (1) Note: if we give “x” permission to a file then white color change into green. w = Write (2).--. If we give “w” to others that means other user’s also write that file & dir.--. If we give “r” to others that means other user’s also read that file & dir. w = Write (2). If we give “w” to group that means group members write that file or dir. x = execute (1) Permission Bits for other . . r = Read (4). x = execute (1) Permission Bits for group .--After 3 bites are for user. If we give “x” to others that means other user’s also execute that file & dir. Permission Bits Details Description of “rwx” : r (Read) = If we give “r” to user then user read that file of dir.--. by the help of this we can give permission to Other that they access the file or not. by the help of this we can give permission to user that they access the file or not.--After 3 bites are for Other.--. If we give “r” to group that means group members read that file or dir. If we give “x” to group that means group members execute that file or dir.. w (Write) = If we give “w” to user then user write that file of dir. r = Read (4). x (Execute) = If we give “x” to user then user execute that file of dir. by the help of this we can give permission to Group that they access the file or not.

1) Ex: p1 = user = rwx. Value Method: (r.w. g. But when we create a file or dir we find permission 644 or 755. 2. o = for user.2.x = for read. other = --#chmod 750 p1 .x) = for delete permission + = for add a permission u. 1. Numerical Method: (4. group. write. Ex: p1 = user = rx. other r. UMASK  For know the umask value we run following command #umask #umask 002 (this line change umask temp. It’s change because default umask is 022. group = r-x.Permission Bits Setting  How to change the Permission Bits?  We have two type of method to change the Permission Bits. umask is differ for system & non system user.. means 022 less from the permission of the file & dir.w. other = --#chmod ug+rx Defaults Permission Bits  Defaults Permission Bit’s  Maximum permission of a dir is 777 & a file 666.) . execute. group = r-x.

only the owner of a file can delete the file Access Control List  ACL is process by using we can define more then one user & group on a directories and file. files created in a directory belong to the user's the default group When a file is created in a directory with the SGID bit set.  For using this feature we have to mount /home directories with a partition.acl /home ACL Configuration  Create a file or dir and check the permission by the help of following command #getfacl /home/ram  Cerate a new user  Now we set user & group permission on a file #setfacl -m u:s1:rwx /home/ram . it belongs to the same group as the directory. SGID & Stricky Bit  Normally processes started by a user run under the user and group security context of that user.  Now we remount /home dir. with ACL option #mount -o remount. Normally users with write permissions to a directory can delete any file in that directory regardless of that file's permissions or ownership with the sticky bit set on a directory. If you want to change permanently then open #vi /etc/bashrc Note:In this file we have first simple user umask. Second root user umask.  SUID and/or SGID bits set on an executable file cause it to run under the user and/or group security context of the file's owner and/or group  Used to create a collaborative directory Normally. when group & others are not allowed through permission bit’s. SUID.

Number of files used by user  These two limitation can define soft & hard limit  If a user cross soft limit then a warning message appear & a grace period starts  But that user can used up to hard limit. Remove the assign permission #setfacl -x u:s1 /home/ram SESSION 13  User Quota  Job Scheduler – Crontab User Quota  User Quota service is used to provides a fixed amount of space to users.  In Linux User Quota service can provides two type of limitations 1. ” (comma) User Quota Configuration #mount -o remount /home (This command is remount home dir with new operation) #quotackeck -cvu /home .  For use this function we have to create a partition and mount with the /home dir.  In “/etc/fstab” we have to add “usrquota” with defaults by the help of “ . Number of blocks used by a user 2.  After hard limit “write operation fail” message appears.

. month & day of week. of files & dir in /home ) #quotaon /home (For enable the quota) #repquota -a (For check the quota status) #edquota user name (For edit quota) #quotaoff /home (For disable the quota) #edquota -t (For changing the grace period) Note: create quota problem for simple user “dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/kk/somefile bs=1024 count=30” Job Scheduler – Crontab  Job scheduler is used to scheduling a job previously base on minute. hours.  In Linux “ CRONTAB” is used as Job Scheduler.(For checking no.  How to schedule a job through “Crontab”? #crontab -e Min Hour Date (1-31) Month (1-12) Day of week (0-6/1-7) job/comment poweroff (0-59) (0-23) #service crond restart #chkconfig crond on Crontab Configuration  How to check all schedule job. date.

#crontab –r  How to view other user schedule through #crontab -u username -e Crontab Question  Schedule a crontab that display a message hello on login terminal daily 9.#crontab –l  How to remove all schedule job.30. #crontab –e Min Hour Date Month Day of week job/comment 30 18 * * * echo “shut down” > /dev/tty5 #service crond restart other user.30 pm. . #crontab –e Min Hour Date Month Day of week job/comment 30 9 * * * echo “Hello” | wall #service crond restart  Schedule a crontab that display a message “shut down” on terminal 5 daily at evening 6.

 In Linux “init” is the first process of the system & process id 1  Each process has a process id & a parent process id.  There are two type of process. RAID 1. RAID 5  How to Create RAID during Installation & after Installation Process Management  A program in execution condition is known as process.SESSION 14  Process Management  RAID – RAID 0. #ps (show process) #ps -aef (show back & fore ground process) #ps -aef | grep service name (filter for service) #kill 3458 (process id) .  Foreground Process  Background Process (deamon)  Foreground Process use the terminal.  Background Process doesn’t use the terminal.

ext3 /dev/md0  mdadm allows you to check the status of your RAID devices . #gnome-system-monitor #kpm (k process manager) RAID  Multiple disks grouped together into "arrays" to provide better performance. /dev/md1.provides the administration interface to software RAID.  mdadm . /dev/md0.  Spare disks add extra redundancy  RAID devices are named. RAID Configuration  Create and define RAID devices using mdadm mdadm -C /dev/md0 l 1 n 2 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda13  Format each RAID device with a filesystem mkfs.#pstree (list of all process tree) #top (all current process show with time)  How to access task manager in GUI Mode. /dev/md2. /dev/md3 and so on. including RAID O.  Many "RAID Levels" supported. 1 and 5. redundancy or both.

.  Devices are designated as Physical Volumes. Backup & Restore Logical Volume Manager  A layer of abstraction that allows easy manipulation of volumes. and syslog messages SESSION 15  LVM ( Logical Volume Manager )  How to Create LVM during Installation & after Installation  Resize of LVM  LVM Snapshot.  Allows reorganization of file systems across multiple physical devices.  File systems may be created on Logical Volumes.  Logical Volumes are created on Physical Volumes and are composed of Physical Extents.  One or more Physical Volumes are used to create a Volume Group  Physical Volumes are defined with Physical Extents of a fixed size.mdadm --detail /dev/md0  Software RAID Testing and Recovery Simulating disk failures mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda1  Recovering from a software RAID disk failure replace the failed hard drive and power on reconstruct partitions on the replacement drive mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda1 mdadm. /proc/mdstat. Including resizing of file systems.

ext3 /dev/vg0/data #mkdir /lvm | mount /dev/vg0/data /lvm  Resizing Logical Volumes  Growing Volumes #lvextend -L +50M /dev/vg0/data #resize2fs /dev/vg0/data  How to check the volumes? #pvdisplay (for physical volume) #vgdisplay (for volume group) .LVM Configuration  Creating Logical Volumes  Create physical volumes #pvcreate /dev/hda3  Assign physical volumes to volume groups #vgcreate vg0 /dev/hda3  Create logical volumes from volume groups #lvcreate -L +256M -n data /dev/vg0 #mkfs.

 Snapshots are perfect for backups and other operations where a temporary copy of an existing dataset is needed.  Snapshots contain only data that has changed on the original Logical Volume or the Snapshot since the Snapshot was created.Does not work with other file systems. LVM Snapshots Configuration  Create Snapshot of existing Logical Volume # lvcreate -L 10 -s -n databack /dev/vg0/data  Mount Snapshot # mkdir /mnt/databack # mount /dev/vg0/databack /mnt/databack  Remove Snapshot # umount /mnt/databackup # lvremove /dev/vg0/databackup Back up and restore ext2/3 file systems.#lvdisplay (for logical volume) Logical Volume Manager Snapshots  Snapshots are special Logical Volumes that are an exact copy of an existing Logical Volume at the time the snapshot is created.  When data is changed on the original Logical Volume the older data is copied to the Snapshot.  Snapshots only consume space where they are different from the original Logical Volume.  Snapshots are allocated space at creation but do not use it until changes are made to the original Logical Volume or the Snapshot.f /tmp/data /dev/vg0/databack #umount /mnt/databack . #dump -0u .

d/rc. /etc/securetty.d/login  Basic shell Scripting INITTAB  inittab : Location :.conf. /etc/passwd. /etc/group. /etc/gshadow. /etc/hosts. /etc/fstab.#lvremove /dev/vg0/databack #umount /lvm #mkfs.sysini .ext3 /dev/vg0/data #mount /dev/vg0/data /lvm #cd /lvm #restore -rf /dev/data SESSION 16 & 17  Imp Files In Linux /etc/inittab. /etc/hosts. /etc/pam. /etc/grub. /etc/sysconfig/network. /etc/hosts.allow. /etc/shadow./etc/inittab Line 1: id:5:initdefault:  By using this file we can change the run level permanently  In place of the 5 we placed 3 for running Runlevel 3 at booting time Line 2: si::sysinit:/etc/rc. /etc/resolv. /etc/mtab.conf.deny.

For this we have to changes made in the place of the 5.conf :.conf  Original location :. GRUB. Line 6: x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm –nodaemon  Also change that in which run level graphics starts. For this we have to commented following line Line 5: 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1  We increase and decrease the terminals./etc/grub.conf  This file contain the boot loader configuration Line 1: default=0  By this file we can change the default booting operating system Line 2: timeout=5 ./boot/grub/grub. After increment & decrement the GUI mode automatically change on to higher or lower level of the function key.d/rc 0  Which script run on the booting time Line 4: ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now #ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now  Most important we can disable “ctrl+alt+delete” command on server site or any side so no one can restart that pc by using above command.CONF  Grub. This file know about where is our system initialize Line 3: l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.Location :.

 Change the time of waiting Line 3: splashimage=(hd0. Line 8: title Other title Windows  And also change the other OS name.el5 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet  We know kernel name and root label Line 7: initrd /initrd-2.8)  If the boot partition separately mount then the /dev/hdc9 is /boot.gz  Know the location of the splash image Line 4: title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server(2. Line 6: kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.el5.img  Define initrd image.18-8. in line no 8 we write down the name which we want in place of “Other”  Line no 9 and Line no 10 help us to start other OS when our Linux boot loader is corrupt.  We can secure our Linux by applying password . Otherwise /dev/hdc9 represents “/ ”.6)/grub/splash.18-8.  How we secure our Linux to unauthorized access in single user mode.18-8. Line 8: title Other Line 9: rootnoverify (hd0.xpm.el5) title LINUX  We customize the OS name Line 5: root (hd0.6.0) Line 10: chainloader +1  And also change the other OS name.6.

 Write down “password = ” after the splash image line. enable dump command and set file system checking order. features of the file system.  We can secure our Linux by applying password  Write down “password = ” after the title line.By this we can apply password on the entry of simple user mode.. LABEL=/1 / ext3 ext3 Defaults Defaults 11 12 LABEL=/boot /boot .  By the help of this file we can define partition no./etc/fstab Backup File: /etc/mtab  This file is used for HDD. By this we can apply password on the entry of single user mode. file system.gz Password =  How we secure our Linux to unauthorized access in also simple mode.6)/grub/splash. title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server password = Redhat FSTAB  Fstab: Location :. timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0. CDROM and Network Services mounting.xpm. destination location.

 We define as a following ext3 vfat swap  In the 4th column we have to define features of the file system.mode=620 0 0 tmpfs proc sysfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults /proc /sys proc sysfs defaults defaults 00 00 00 1 Defines HDD.  We define as a following /home  In the 3rd column we have to define partition or drive file system.. and other network services info.  We define as a following /dev/hdc12 Or LABLE =/ram  In the 2nd column we have to define mounting position where we want that partition or drive.  We define as a following .fsck  In the 1st column we have to define HDD Partition no. Floppy Drive and other Network Service Information. CDrom. 2 3 4 5 6 Define mounting Define file Features position system type of file system Dump freq.Devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5. CD-Rom.

Login Through root user & redhat Password.my133t. 4.org .com Successfully dig server1. 2. 3. SESSION 18.defaults -> assign defaults feature ro -> for read only rw -> for read and write usrquota -> for user quota unable acl -> for access control list  In the 6th column we have to define file system checking order by this we define that which file system check first. Set your mode as graphical mode.  We define as a following 0 -> never check 1 -> check first on booting time 2 -> 2nd preference on checking We define up to 7. Successfully ping server1. 19 & 20  Minor & Major Troubleshooting  Rescue Mode Problems  EXAM 1 Minor Troubleshooting 1.example.

#chattr -ia /etc/shadow #chattr -ia /etc/passwd bs=1024 count=70 8. For checking the attributes we have following command #lsattr /etc/shadow #lsattr /etc/passwd See that “ia” is here in attributes. Create a 100 MB partition of ext3 File System & mount permanent under /mnt/new directory 6. Solve NFS Server problem. up to 300MB (280/320) LVM Mount under /home dir. Create a LVM Snapshot of 10MB. User jane can Successfully run Following Command . We can change any file of the system. dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=30 But can not run this command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile Minor Troubleshooting Solution  For solving the question of minor troubleshooting we have to enter in single user mode by the help of following lines. 1.5. In single user mode  For solving this problem we have take 7 steps. Set Userquota Problem. 7.  Step1: Check attributes of “shadow” and “passwd” files. Successfully run showmount –e localhost command for /data directory. Resize LVM (Logical volume size) – max.  At the booting time press “e” on Linux boot loader line Come at second line or on kernel line again press “e” Go last of the line press “spacebar” then press “s or 1” then enter.  If we find “ia” attribute we have to remove that one by using following command. Press “b” for booting now system starts in single user mode without username & password. Login Through root user & redhat Password.

Set your mode as graphical mode.d/login” file and check the following line auth [user_unknown=ignore success=ok ignore=ignore default=bad] pam_securetty.” with “ + ”. 2.  For solving this problem we have to open following file. All important files like shadow. Step 6: Check #vi /etc/passwd file if the file is missing then we have to copy “/etc/passwd-” file and rename it as “/etc/passwd”.so We have to check both underline words. gshadow etc. file it . If we find this directory then we have to delete this directory. For add this attributes we just replace “ . If we didn’t delete “nologin” directory we can’t use Root user for login. Check information by following command. We find following entries in this file Console Vc/1 to Vc/11 Tty/1 to Tty/11 Check that the all entries is proper after this we have to check permission of the should be 600. Step 5: Open “/etc/pam. Step 2: Change Root user password by using following command #passwd Step 3: Check Root User A/C expiration information. have the backup files Step 7: We have to find “nologin” directory in the “/etc”. #chage -l root For changing the age of root user a/c we have to write following command #chage root Step 4: Check “/etc/securetty” file. group.

The files are following #vi /etc/resolve. Successfully ping server1.24. for solving. After this run following command #service xfs restart #chkconfig xfs on Also check #system-config-display 3.my133t.24.254.  To create the partition we have to follow below steps . we have to run following command # netconfig In this command we have to enter “Default Gateway IP” and “Namesever IP” add. Successfully dig server1.24.org  Both question solve simultaneously.com 4.254. Create a 100 MB partition of ext3 File System & mount permanent under /mnt/new directory.254.254.#vi /etc/inittab Now we change 3 into 5 in line no.  Now we open following file #vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 In this file we enter “GATEWAY= 172.254”.254” 5. 1.conf In this file we have to enter following information “nameserver 172.example.  If the commands not working then we have to manually enter in the files. it may be 172.

Resize LVM (Logical volume size) – max. #lvextend -L +50M /dev/vg0/data #resize2fs /dev/vg0/data For checking #lvdisplay #df -h  Now we create snapshoot by using following command (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (write & quit) # partprobe or reboot . Create a LVM Snapshot of 10MB.  For this we have to write down following command. Successfully run showmount –e localhost command for /data directory.  For this we have to open “#vi /etc/exports” If we find space between IP & permission then just delete the space. up to 300MB (280/320) LVM Mount under /home dir. Solve NFS Server problem. #service nfs restart #service portmap restart #chkconfig nfs on #chkconfig portmap on 7.ext3 /dev/hda10 #mkdir /mnt/new #vi /etc/fstab enter new partition details /dev/hda10 /mnt/new ext3 defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a 6.#fdisk /dev/hda :n : : +100M :w Format partition #mkfs.

 Now 30 kb file created but 70 kb file show writing operation file message which we want.# lvcreate -L +10M -s -n databack /dev/vg0/data # mkdir /mnt/databack # mount /dev/vg0/databack /mnt/databack 8.  Now we check quota status again and find that how many block size increase. Now we enter soft & hard limit for the jane user by following command #edquota jane  For example if the size of dir.conf solve that. User jane can Successfully run Following Command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=30 But can not run this command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=70  For solving the above problem we have to write following commands #repquota -a (For check the quota status)  Now we login through jane user and create a dir. LABEL=/1 LABEL=/boot / ext3 Defaults Defaults 11 12 /boot ext3 . Set Userquota Problem. Problems in /etc/fstab & /etc/grub. Major Troubleshooting 1.  First we have to know what we define in the file and how we define. Is 1kb and 2 block increase and used total used block is 20 then we define following limit Soft limit :.85  Means when we create 30kb file it takes 60 block and previous block is 20 then total is 80. And check the size of the dir.80 Hard limit :.

) Step 3: e2label /dev/hdc9 /boot1 (by using command we can change the label) Step 4: mkdir /mnt/redhat Step 5: mount /dev/hdc10 /mnt/redhat Step 6: open fstab file #vi /mnt/redhat/etc/fstab Check the label and correct it after that save it.0 after that write “Linux rescue askmethod”. in rescue mode “/” mounted under /mnt/sysimage. Now we have to know what is the common problem occur in this file.  Now system start into rescue mode. normally they delete underline words which called labels.  Now we change the original position of the root with the following command.conf Now open the file and edit it.  Follow the steps for solving this problem  First insert 1 CD of RHEL 5. #chroot /mnt/sysimage  If this command successfully run then we can solve all problem by checking fstab & grub.  To solve this problem we used “rescue mode”.  when we start our pc it shows “kernel panic error”.conf #vi /mnt/redhat/boot/grub/grub. .) Step 2: e2lable /dev/hdc9 (check label of part. Step 7: mount /dev/hdc9 /mnt/redhat/boot  Now we mount boot in new location to solve the grub.conf.  If this command doesn't execute we follow these step Step 1: fdisk -l (show partition info.

Slogin RHCE Lab Setup . SCP.SESSION 21  RHCE Lab Setup  Telnet Server & Telnet Client  Security of Telnet Server (Th :-Xinetd)  SSH Server (Secure Shell) & SSH Client.

0.  Telnet is possible between Linux to Linux.com TELNET  Telnet is used for remote login but only in text mode. client always use server user for the authentication.0.254.example.254 SM 255.com IP 172.24.example. Xinetd daemon should be running properly.  In Linux.com IP 172.3 station3.1 station1.24.  Telnet provides user authentication process.0.example.com IP 172.example.2 station2. Working of Telnet .Switch IP 172.24.24. Linux to Windows & windows to windows.0.255.  Telnet based on TCP protocol & has port no 23.0 Server1.

10 Login : Password : Authentication Configuration of Telnet  Step 1: search Telnet package rpm -qa telnet*  Result: 2 packages should be there.10 All user define here.24.10 172.255. If your system have the packages then write down following #telnet IP address of the server machine Login : user name of the server side Password : user password Advanced Telnet Server Configuration  For advanced conf.d/telnet in file change “disable = no”  Step 3: #service xinetd restart  Step 4: #chkconfig xinetd on (for run level 2.24.0.24.0/255.0.24. 3.24.0. we have to open following file #vi /etc/xinetd. Xinetd running properly. #telnet 172.0.Switch Forwarding Request Request for accessing IP 172.20 .d/telnet  In this file we have to enter following lines with in the brackets only_from = 172.  Step 2: open file #vi /etc/xinetd.0.0. 5) Telnet Client side configuration : Just search package of the Telnet on client side.0 no_access = 172.

per_source = 4 access_times = 08:00-10:00 Details of the entered lines : only-from : Member of define Network Address can access telnet server. per-source : Maximum connection allowed from a client m/c. Telnet Server  How to allow root user to be used by telnet client m/c.  SSH is based on TCP protocol and use port no. . SSH Server Configuration  Configuration :  Step 1: Search for package #rpm -qa openss* result: 2 packages  Step 2: restart the service #service sshd restart #chkconfig sshd on SSH Client Side  Client side : #ssh IP of the server #ssh y5@172. 22.24. # service xinetd restart Access thro. Step 1 : Open file “#vi /etc/securetty” Step 2 : Now enter in last of the file “pts/0” “pts/1”.3 Slogin Server/ Client  Slogin also use for remote login like SSH. Access-time :Time limitation for client m/c.  SSH is used for remote login but supports only Linux to Linux. no-access : The define IP address m/c can’t access telnet server.0. Now we can use root user in telnet. SSH Server  SSH are stands for secure shell server.

 SCP is used to copy files & directory form one m/c to another m/c securely.4:/boot SCP for Directories : #scp -r hh 172.1  SCP stands for secure copy server.0.24.0.24.24.0. For accessing it we have to write following #slogin 172.0.3 # slogin y2@172.24.5:/data . SCP for Files : #scp f11 172.

Broadcasting operation. running properly. Switch DHCP Server.  DHCP is used to assign static & dynamic IP address to client machine. Dhcpd running Static: ip combine with mac address Dynamic: range 1-20 #netconfig Select DHCP #service network restart or #dhclient .  In a Local Network we can select maximum 1  At server side DHCPD demon should be  Both DHCP client and Server performs  DHCP server has two type of database static database dynamic database DHCP Server Working DHCP Server. of DHCP Server  DHCP is stand for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.SESSION 22  DHCP Server & DHCP Client (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)  NFS Server & NFS Client (Network File System) Intro.  DHCP based on broadcasting technology.  By using “netconfig” command we manually assign IP address to all system’s.

0.128 192. -18000.conf  Change in this file subnet 192.168. "domain.42.168. 255.255. hardware ethernet 12:34:56:78:AB:CD. "domain.168.1.168.168.conf sample /etc/dhcpd. # we want the nameserver to appear at a fixed address host ns { next-server marvin.0.254.0 netmask 255.com.168.0. 192.254. range dynamic-bootp 192. 192.1. fixed-address 207.5 #cp dhcpd.DHCP Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa dhcp* result: 3 package  Step 2: Go to the specific location #cd /usr/share/doc/dhcp-3.org".1.1.0.168.255.175.0. 192.0 { # --.255.1.1.255.redhat.org". } }  For Dynamic IP we have to change following lines .1.0.conf  Step 3: open following file #vi/etc/dhcpd.default gateway option routers option subnet-mask option nis-domain option domain-name option domain-name-servers option time-offset #option ntp-servers #option netbios-name-servers # option netbios-node-type 2. max-lease-time 43200. default-lease-time 21600. 192.

0. range dynamic-bootp 172.redhat.24. DHCP Client  Client Side Configuration :#netconfig select DHCP #service network restart or #system-config-network select DHCP #service network restart or #dhclient Intro of NFS Server  NFS stands for Network File Service.0. This IP is different to our range. .175.  Second we change next-server into stationx.0.com".0 option domain-name “example.24.24. of the LAN card.subnet 172.254.example.50  After saving the file we have to write down #service dhcpd restart  For static IP assign.com  Third we change hardware Ethernet.  Forth now we assign a unique IP to the system. hardware ethernet 12:34:56:78:AB:CD.0 netmask 255.0.30 172. fixed-address 207.  For check the machine add. We have to change the following lines host ns { next-server marvin.com.255. add. }  First we have to change ns into system name. we have to write “ifconfig” and write down the mac.42.

 Portmap: Manage port no.example.0/255. rpc.0.rqoutad Portmap: portmap mount process NFS Server Configuration  Step 1: Search NFS Package #rpm -qa nfs* result: 2 packages  Step 2: open file “#vi /etc/exports” add in Ex: shared dir. rpc.sync) *. portmap.  NFS is a Remote Processor Call (RPC) based service.0(rw. Linux to Unix and Unix to Linux. of all services. 2049.  Rpc.  At Server side following demons should be running properly nfsd.mountd  Nfsd: Manage NFS Server. after that make the “data” directory. 172.rqoutad: Manage quota of NFS Server shared directory.rmount.  At client side we used mount command to access server shared directory.0.sync) this file.  NFS based on UDP Protocol & uses port no.  Shared directories are listed in /etc/exports Working NFS Server Switch without authenticatio n permission NFS Server Nfs: nfsd.  NFS provides no authentication processor. Client IP/ N/A Permission .255. rpc.mountd: Manage mounting & un-mounting of NFS Server shared directory. /data /data NFS Server Save the file.24.  Rpc.rquotad. rpc.com(rw. NFS is used for directory sharing between Linux to Linux.

7 (by the help of this command we can see the shared dir.0.#mkdir /data #service nfs restart #service portmap restart #exportfs -a (refresh the exports file) #exportfs (show the shared dir. M/C) NFS Client:  Temporary Mounting #mount 172. On the given IP add.  In this file if we find space between IP & the Permission then just remove the space.7:/data /p1 nfs defaults 0 0 Q: Run #showmount -e localhost Ans:  For this we have to check “/etc/exports” file. After save the file #service nfs restart #service portmap restart .7:/data /p1  Permanent Mount #vi /etc/fstab 172.24.24.) #chkconfig nfs on # chkconfig portmap on NFS access on Client side #showmount -e 172.24.0.0.

 At Linux samba Server side following demons should be running properly. #smbclient #mount Samba Server Working .Linux to Linux nmbd :. Windows to Linux. smbd :.(Server Message Blocks)  In case of Linux Samba Server and Linux client M/C then a Client M/C can access only Server share directories.  Samba Server provides authentication. then a client m/c can access server shared directory user home directory. Windows to Linux. Printer & Fax m/c of server.SESSION 24  Samba Server & Samba Client  Samba Server Configuration in Windows  Share File & Directory B/W Windows & Linux Samba Server  Samba Server is used for directory shearing between Linux to Linux.  But in case of Linux Server & Windows client.Linux to Windows  At client side (Linux M/C) we uses following command to access Samba Server shared Directories.  Samba Server uses SMB Protocol.

 We have to change the “writeable” permission by this client write in that directory.  We don’t want to made change’s in “Home” ”Printer” directory. . Myshared  In “Global” section we have to change following contents Workgroup = Name of the group Hostallow = 172.  First we change “samba share name” we define this within a [] brackets. Home 3. 172. Add. smbd.24.  We have to define ”valid user” by the help of these users we can access the samba server from client side.  In “Myshare” section we have to change following contains. Which we want to share with others. /data.  Now we copy last example of “Myshared” section and paste it in the last of the file.24. No. 1.  After that we change the “path” actual dir. nmbd running properly. all user’s define here Linux Client Windows Client Unix Client ] Samba Server Configuration Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa samba result: 3 packages Step 2: open file “#vi /etc/samba/smb. one can archive from client side.conf” in this file we find 4 type of section. Global 2.0.Switch SAMBA Server. Source dir. Printer 4.10. info.

0.  Enter the samba server IP add. Should be on destination add. We have to write #smbclient //172. We have to know that actual dir. #smbpasswd -a k1 Now enter password.9/redhat -U k1 #mount -t cifs //172.  For check the Samba Server we have following Checking tools: #testparm #smbclient -L Samba Server IP Samba Client  Samba Client (Linux M/C):  For checking share dir we have to write #smbclient -L Samba Server IP  For accessing the share dir. After that we change the “createmask” value by this we can assign default umask value for creation by client. Through IE or not.  After that we save the file.  After that create new user & also assign password. #useradd k1 # passwd k1  Restart service now #service smb restart #chkconfig smb on  Now we convert simple user into samba user.  After that we change “browseable” option we assign that client access shared dir.24.0. After that enter username and password.  At last we change “write_list” option by this we can assign that which group or group members access that directories. Samba Server / Client  Window Samba Server & Linux Client .9/redhat /mnt/ -0 username=k1  Samba Client (Windows M/C):  In windows client m/c click on my network place now right click and click on search computer.24.

On windows so its automatically become Samba Server #smbclient -L 192. Linux to Unix and Unix to Linux.  At client side following demons should be running properly.  NIS is a centralize user authentication server & centralize user database server.  NIS is possible between Linux to Linux.0.  At server side following demons should be running properly. yppasswd: NIS user password info.0. ypserv: start and manage NIS & NFS.20/c /mnt/ -0 username = administrator #password = redhat SESSION 25  NIS Server & NIS Client (Network Information Service)  NTP Server & Client (Network Time Protocol) Intro of NIS Server  NIS stands for Network Information Server.20 #smbclient //172.24.  NIS client login at local M/C but uses server user’s. . manager  All demons of the NFS Server. ypbind: used to attach with NIS & NFS server autofs: used to auto mount user home dir.0.20/c -U administrator #mount -t cifs //172.24.24. Share dir.  NIS known as “YP” but “YP” is the tread mark of the yellow pages that’s why it name change in to NIS.

NIS Server Working Switch NIS Server.rmountd. In NIS we define a NIS domain name.0.10.0. ypserv.24. only members of NIS domain name can access server user’s.  Tamp.rquotad. portmap running properly.  Type of NIS server Master NIS Server Slave NIS Server  Master NIS server has main database of user.10 autofs NIS Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa yp* result: 3 packages  Step 2: How to set NIS domain name.24. 172. rpc. yppasswdd. nfsd. NISdomain= CCNA all user’s define here #setup [ ] NIS Nisdomain= CCNA IP = 172. Setting: #nisdomainname (for searching) #nisdomainname CCNA  Permanent setting: open following file #vi /etc/sysconfig/network In file NISDOMAIN = CCNA  Now we cerate new user . rpc.  Slave NIS server has a backup database of Master Server and has a connection with Master Server.

#cd /usr/lib/yp # . Rather then three words.#useradd h1 #passwd h1  Now we bind user database with NIS domain name.24.sync) #service nfs restart # service portmap restart NIS Client  On the Client side we have to write down following command.255. next .0/255. #vi /etc/exports In this file we have to write following /home 172. #setup Authentication Use NIS Domain Name 172.0. but at client side a user can’t access it’s home dir.10 ok  Now our M/C become NIS Client & member of NIS domain name.0.0(rw.  After saving the file we write #make  Now we set current M/C NIS Master Server./ypinit -m After that press “Ctrl+D” then “Y” #service ypserv restart #service yppasswdd restart  Now we share /home dir. 109 all : Passwd group  Note: Erase all info.24. #cd /var/yp #vi Makefile (:set nu: for set number before line) Change in line no. By NFS server. To access home dir we use Autofs Service.0.

#ypcat passwd #getent passwd NTP Server  Network Time Protocol :  Workstation hardware clocks tend to drift over time without correction  Many application require accurate timing  Time synchronization makes system logs easier to analyze  NTP counters the drift by manipulating the length of a second  If the system's time is behind the average of the time servers the second is made shorter so that the system clock races towards the correct time.24.Autofs configuration : Open file #vi /etc/auto.  Now we enter following command on the terminal #service-config-date  Now select “Enable network time protocol” clock add is the Server IP add.10 #service ntpd restart  After saving the file we have to write down following line. NTP ceases to work.misc Add a line G1 -fstype = nfs 172.0.  However if the time differs to greatly. #ntpdate -u 172. .misc (this file define server details) After that open other file #vi /etc/auto.0. Thus the time difference is reduced gently without disturbing other applications. NTP Server Configuration  For NTP Server we have to login through GUI Mode.24.8:/home/* #service autofs restart  How to check available user on server?  By using following command we know available user name.master in file add a line /home /etc/auto. In this case the clock must be reset manually with ntpdate.

SESSION 26  Web Server & Web Client.  Web browser convert programming language into human readable format. video.html. audio. Secure Web Server  Web Site Accessing in TUI & GUI Intro of Web Server  What is Webpage?  Webpage is a collection of the text. Linux :.  What is Web site?  Collections of the web pages with some database is called web site. images. Multiple case’s for virtual web hosting : .  At client site we use web browser to access a site like windows :.asp etc.  Web server uses HTTP protocol & port no 80.IE.  For Web Server DNS Server or local database server should be running properly. manage a web site & manage database of that web site.links.  We can host multiple websites on a single web server that is known as virtual web hosting. objects. hyperlinks etc.  Each web site has a home page for example index.  What is Web server?  Web server is a M/C that is used to host a website. index.

eth0:0 172.24.com> #</VirtualHost .0.example.0. 971 “Name Virtual Host” after this we have to write our system IP address or DNS IP address. Web Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa http* result: 2 packages  Case 1:  Step 2: open following file #vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.0. #<VirtualHost *:80> # # # # # ServerAdmin webmaster@host.24.24.24.0.example.com ErrorLog logs/host.8 eth0:3 172.com  Case 2: In this case we host multiple site on Web Server and assign different IP address to all site with the help of aliases.7 eth0:2 172.example. Ex: eth0 172.example.  After that we have to copy last 7 lines. By this we can assign different IP’s to multiple site’s and host multiple site on a Web Server.example.0.com DocumentRoot /www/docs/host.com ServerName dummy-host. Ex: 172.1 site 1 site 2 site 3 site 4 site 5 etc.24.10 yahoo.5 eth0:1 172.0. Case 1: In this case we host one site on Web Server and assign IP address with hostname.9  Aliases: Aliases is a process where we virtually convert one LAN card into multiple LAN cards.example. now made following changes in pasted lines. #<VirtualHost *:80> <VirtualHost yahoo.conf :set nu -> set number before line Edit line no.com-error_log CustomLog logs/com-access_log common  Now paste it in the last of the file.24.

example.com station10 “172.example.example.10 yahoo.html (:wq in this file) Now open #vi /etc/hosts (for local database server) write down following lines in above file 172.com and station10 is for system where site hosted.10 yahoo.com> <VirtualHost 172.7> system hostname in which web site .0.  Now we go to the destination of the site which given in the file and made following file #cd /var/www/html #vi index.24.example.com station10”  Means of line that the 172.0.24.10 is a site IP address and site address is yahoo.24. # ServerName dummy-host. After that #service httpd restart  For accessing the site we have to write down #links yahoo. This we do for local database management by doing this we can access above site in a network.example. like <VirtualHost yahoo. #</VirtualHost> </VirtualHost>  Note : remove comment and complete the web server configuration.24. Note : remove comment and enter your site name like above example # DocumentRoot /www/docs/host.conf Apply comment on “Name Virtual Host” by using #.. Made 2 more website and apply different IP’s in the place of the site name.0.com  Note : remove comment and enter your hosted.example.com DocumentRoot /var/www/html  Note : remove comment and enter your site destination add.0.com  Case 2: open following file #vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.example.com ServerName station10. always made your site in the “/var/www” directories.example.

 At client side we define IP address & port no. (Network Address Translator)  By using Proxy Server Private IP add. Linux -> Links.  By Proxy Server we can limit bandwidth for client M/C. of a proxy server in a web browser.  In Linux “squid” software is used as Proxy Server. After that #service httpd restart SESSION 27 & 28  Squid Proxy Server  Allow & Deny Web Sites  VSFTP Server (Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  Uploading & Downloading Through System or Non System User & Anonymous User Intro of Proxy Server  Proxy Server is used for internet connection sharing & provides security.  Proxy Server uses TCP protocol & Port no. server name remain same. Translate into Public IP add.  How we create aliases? For creating aliases we have to write down following command #netconfig -d eth0:0 After that apply new IP add. on the duplicate LAN card by using #netconfig command. Windows -> IE . Now open #vi /etc/hosts and change the IP of the sites. this process call NAT. allow and deny websites & can allow & deny nodes to access Proxy Server. Mozila  Proxy Server also known as NAT. And Public IP add. to Private IP add. 3128.Also change the destination add. Proxy Server Working .

Forward Switch Internet conn.0.0.0.0/255.0. PROXY Server.conf :set nu -> set no.1/255.255. before line  How to set Proxy Port No Edit line no. squid running properly.0 Note: here p1 is a group name which have allow Network add.255. 255 acl p1 src 172. 73 http_port 3128  How to set Cache Memory? Edit line no 738 Cache_mem 50MB  How to allow a domain to access Proxy Server? Copy line no 2396 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line acl localhost src 127.24. port no 3128 yahoo Rediff hotmail Private IP Proxy Server Configuration Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa squid* result: 1 package Step 2: Open following file #vi /etc/squid/squid.Public IP (Real IP) Req.255. .

to access the internet connection.  FTP client uses “get” command for downloading and uses “put” command for uploading.yahoo.  How to deny Website for Proxy Client? Copy line no 2398 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line acl to_localhost dst 127. Anonymous user: by using anonymous username and any password the client access only /var/ftp directory contains. Linux to Windows and Windows to Linux. 2.0.  FTP is used for file downloading & uploading files and directories.com  Note: Here p2 is group of deny domain name  After that Copy line no 2524 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line http_access deny manager http_access deny p2  Note: we have to write this line before the allow line  Now restart the service #service squid restart  Squid testing tool: #squid -z Intro of FTP Server  FTP is stands for File Transfer Protocol.0.com . FTP Client M/C can uses following type users 1. System or Non system user: by using above type user’s user name & password then client access complete system.(Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  FTP use TCP Protocol & Port no. After that Copy line no 2524 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line http_access allow manager localhost http_access allow p1 Note: Here we allow p1 Network add. 20 & 21.hotmail.  FTP connection possible between Linux to Linux.  In Linux we VSFTP software as a FTP Server.0/8 acl p2 dstdomin . .

24.0. vsftpd running properly. FTP Server Working Switch FTP Server.  FTP client always uses FTP Server user’s & cerate a communication channel between client & server. At client side we uses following command #ftp IP of Server Login:Pass:ftp >  At server site “vsftpd” demon should be running properly. 172. before lines Comment out all following lines and edit as we want 12 anonymous_enable=YES 15 local_enable=YES 18 write_enable=YES 22 local_umask=022 27 anon_upload_enable=YES 31 anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES . all user’s define here Linux Client #ftp IP of Server Login:Pass:ftp > Windows Client FTP Server Configuration Step 1: search package #rpm -qa vsftp* result: 1 package Step 2: open following file #vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf :set nu -> no.10.

Go to the source add.10 FTP Client  Downloading of a file: First come to destination dir. in /var/ftp for uploading and downloading.0.24. FTP Authentication  How to deny a simple user to access by FTP Client M/C?  Open file .10  In graphical ftp://172.0.0. then #ftp 172.24.0.10 ftp://g1@172. #service vsftpd restart #adduser g1 #passwd g1  FTP Client : #ftp 172.24.24. Where you want to download that file #ftp 172.  Make files and dir. 48.10 Login: Password : ftp > cd / ftp > get file name ftp > quit Uploading a file:Simple User: simple user can upload only in it’s home dir.46 chown_uploads=YES 47 chown_username=daemon 48 anon_umask=022 Note : we have to change in line no 47 add “daemon” remove other entry and we have to add line no.24.0.10 ftp > put f4 ftp > quit  Anonymous : only upload in /var/ftp/* dir.

Windows : MS Outlook Linux : Mutt.  Send Mail also known as MTA.  Mail Server has all user mails with Inbox.#vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers Insert name of the user in this file after that #service vsftpd restart  How to allow root user to be access by FTP Client?  Open file #vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers remove root user entry after that open another file #vi /etc/vsftpd/user_list remove root user entry from this file too after that #service vsftpd restart SESSION 29 & 30  Sendmail Server  IMAP-POP3 Server :. 25. check mail etc. Mozila Mail Mail Server Working . edit.  All user fetch mails from Mail Server for fetching mails from the Mail Server we use IMAP/POP3 Server.Mutt  IMAP-SSL Intro of Mail Server  Mail Server is used to store mails.(Mail Transport Agent)  MUA (Mail User Agent) MUA is used to create new mails. (Internet Message Access Protocol/Post Office Protocol 3)  IMAP use port no 143 and POP3 use 110 port no. forward.  In Linux we use “dovecot” software as IMAP/POP3 Server and “send mail” software used as Mail Server.  Send Mail uses TCP protocol & port no. Sent Items & Outbox.

cf  After that #service sendmail restart .conf  We have to remove 17 no line comment after that #service dovecot restart #chkconfig dovecot on  How to check IMAP/POP3 server.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.cf” file by using “macro” #m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.0. 116 with the help of “dnl #”  Now we put all changes into “sendmail.1 143/110 Mail Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa sendmail* result: 4 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/mail/sendmail. #telnet 172. Mail Server + NIS Server Mail Server + NIS Server TP SM MTA SMTP MUA Inbox Outbox Sent Mail Do Inbox ve co tS Outbox /W Sent Mail MUA IMAP/POP3 Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa dovecot* result: 1 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/dovecot.24. For Mail Server DNS Server should be running properly.mc  We have to comment line no.

 After saving the file write down a command REJECT RELAY REJECT OK REJECT .24.pem  Define entries according to question.org Mail Forwarding  Mail Forwarding: For Example we want to forward all mails of t1 user to t2 user. For this we have to open #vi /etc/aliases Go to bottom of the file and add one line t1: t1. #cd /etc/pki/tls/certs #openssl x509 -subject -noout < dovecot. Add a new user #adduser k1 #passwd k1  For sending mail we have to write following file #mutt Mail Server Authentication  How to deny a node or a domain to send a mail on Mail Server.2 *.  By using IMAP-SSL a user can access any other user account securely.pem #rm dovecot. t2 #newaliases IMAP-SSL Server  IMAP-SSL is stands for Internet Message Access Protocol-Secure Socket Layer.  For IMAP-SSL we have to create a certificate.pem #make dovecot.3 y1@my133t.0.example.com 172.25 Connect:10. IMAP-SSL Configuration  Go to the following destination add.  Open a file #vi /etc/mail/access 172.

Two type of printer we have. 87 & 88 enter destination add of the certificate and save the file.com}  By above command login user can access t1 user mail account. Shared Printer 2. & Port no.#vi /etc/dovecot. 1. SESSION 31  Printer Server & Printer Client  Syslog Server  VNC Server Intro of Printer Server  Printer is a combination of print devices & it’s driver software. Network Printer  Shared Printer: A printer directly attach with a pc & shared through out network by that pc is called Shared Printer. After that #service dovecot restart  On Client Side: #mutt -f {t1@station1.  Network Printer : This type of printer directly connected with HUB & Switch each have a unique IP Add.example.conf IMAP-SSL Client  Now made changes in line no. Working of Printer Server:- .

Switch Printer Server Linux Client Windows Client Unix Client Shared Printer: In GUI mode write down following command on terminal. job Printer Client:  Case 1: If Printer Server Linux & Clients are also Linux #system-config-printer Printer Server Configuration . #system-config-printer Printer Server Configuration  Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)-> Forward->select “LPT #1”>Forward->select “Makes” of the printer->Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Printer Client  Checking Tools: #lpq-> show default printer status  Printing Command: #lpr kk-> print file name  Remove Job: #lprm 5-> remove id no.

 Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “LPD/LPR Host or Printer” ->enter Hostname/IP->enter Printer name (Pre.) -> Forward->select “Makes” of the printer ->Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver ->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on  Case 2: Linux Printer Server & Client Windows We share Printer by using Samba Server.  Case 3: when Server is Windows & Client are Linux #system-config-printer Shared Server  Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any) ->Forward->select “Windows Printer via SAMBA”->enter IP of Server/printer name ->Forward->select “Makes” of the printer -> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver>Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Network Printer #system-config-printer Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “AppSoceket/HP jet Direct” ->enter IP of Server/printer name->Forward->select “Makes” of the printer-> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Printer Client Configuration according to exam #system-config-printer Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “IPP”->enter printer name-> Forward->select “Generic” of the printer-> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply Checking Printer Server  Click on Print Test Page after it Open web browser in add. Bar http://server3.example.com/Printers Result Station3 #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on 14k bytes received

Log Server  Log files is used to store user authentication information, service related information, booting related information etc.  Log file define in “/var” directory.  Main Log file of the Linux is “/var/log/message” #tail -f /var/log/message #vi /var/log/secure  In above file we know the login time of the user.  All log file details define in “vi/etc/syslog.conf” file VNC Server  VNC stands for Virtual Name Computing.  By using VNC we can access remote desktop.  How to allow VNC settings. System->Preference->Remote Desktop Now check mark on allow other user then ok.  How to access Remote Access M/C. #vncviewer IP of the Remote Access M/C

SESSION 32  Tcp_Wrappers - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny  PAM – Pluggable Authentication Module  Ipv6 Configuration, RADVD Server TCP Wrappers Authentication  TCP Wrappers provides service based security.  TCP Wrapper control by two files #vi /etc/host.allow #vi /etc/host.deny

 Deny only pc1 to access Telnet Server. #vi /etc/host.deny Service : 172.24.0.1 in.telnetd : 172.24.0.1  By the help of this file we can manage following services in.telnetd, vsftpd, sshd and nfsd.  Allow only pc one to access Telnet Server. in.telnetd : ALL EXCEPT 172.24.0.1  Deny all nodes to access SSH Server sshd : ALL  Deny all members of my133t.org domain but allow example.com to access FTP Server. vsftpd : ALL EXCEPT 172.24.0.0/16 Or vsftpd : .my133t.org EXCEPT .example.com  Note: In TCP Wrappers we have to use one file at a time, we can’t use both files simultaneously. PAM  PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication Module.  PAM provides user based security.  Deny all simple user to access a system. For this just write down following command #touch /etc/nologin  Deny root user to access a system. For this #mkdir /etc/nologin

of LAN Card. IPV6  IPV6 use 128 bits for addressing.  Linux Client fetches prefix from Router Advanced Demon Server RADVD Server Configuration  Step 1: Search Package #rpm -qa radv* result: 1 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/radvd.d/sshd now change in pasted line First change the sense=allow/deny and change file destination add.  IP format is following 0000:F8b:0011:06AB:BA00:A80:BCAD:0001  In Linux IPV6 defines by using prefix and MAC add.d/vsftpd Copy 3rd line of the file And inset this in the following file #vi /etc/pam.conf we have to uncomment all the lines in this file #service radvd restart we have to open following file #cd /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all #vi forwarding For changing 0(zero) into 1 we have to write following command #echo “1” > forwarding Client Side: first we have to open following file . Add previously file created address. Allow Jane user to access your SSH server Create a file #vi /etc/ssh_access  In this file enter user name which want to allow Open file #vi /etc/pam.

/etc/sysctl. of the M/C #ipconfig -a Session 33  IP Forwarding .#vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 In file we have to add following IPV6INIT=Yes IPV6-AOTOCONF=yes #service network restart  For check the IPV6 we have following tools #ip -6 addr show #ping6 IP no. . of the M/C #ifconfig IP no.conf  Firewall – Iptables  Basic About SELINUX (Security Enhanced Linux) IP Forwarding  How to enable IP Forwarding Permanently.

 If packet header info don’t match with any given rule then Linux firewall by default allow the packet.  Iptables is a command line firewall.List all rules . -I :.  If the packet header information don’t match with top most rule then packet skip first rule & match with next rule.  Iptables use’s Network Layer In Iptables we have to know some following characters.  In Linux we use Iptables software as a firewall. until a match is made.Open following file #vi /etc/sysctl. After this we have to write #service network restart # chkconfig network on Firewall  Firewall is a single security point of the network that filters un wanted packets. Firewall Working  Packet header information always check with the topmost rule of a Firewall.Insert a rule -A :. By this we can enable IP Forwarding. IPTABLES:  Iptables is command line firewall also known as packet filtering firewall.  Iptables uses Network Layer.conf In line no 6 we have to change 0 into 1.Append a rule -L :.  By using Firewall we can stop un-authorizes package but can’t stop virus attack.  If packet information header match with topmost rule then define operation perform on that packets and further no matching take place.

Destination IP Address -p :.10 -p icmp -j REJECT/DROP  Deny pc1 to access Telnet Server.24. For this we have to write following #iptable -I INPUT -s 172.-D :.24.Delete a rule -F :.Protocol --sport :. --dport :. .0. -j :.  We have to write following for this type of limitation #iptable -I INPUT -s ! 172.1 -d 172.24.0.24.10 -p tcp --dport 143 -j REJECT #service iptable save # chkconfig iptable on  Deny pc1 to Ping Telnet Server.Source IP Address -d :.0. #iptable-restore < /etc/sysconfig/iptables SELINUX  SELINUX stands for Security Enhanced Linux.0/16 -d 172.24.Flash a rule Chains :INPUT OUTPUT FORWARD -s :.  SELINUX has set of rules called policies that determine how strike the control.org domain.0.com to access IMAP & POP3 Server and deny member of my133t.1 -d 172.Destination port no.REJECT/ACCEPT/DROP  Allow only members of example.0. #iptable -I INPUT -s 172.10 -p tcp --dport 23 -REJECT/DROP  How to restore rules.Source port no.0.  SELINUX define either restricted control or un-confined control.24.

. Anon Ftp Upload. NIS client . Permissive and Disable. #getsebool -a | grep smbd #setseboot service name on/off  When SELINUX is in enforcing mode we have to set following services Samba Home Dir. SELINUX define three level of control Enforcing. #system-config-securitylevel  SELINUX define following levels user : role : type : sensitivity : category #ls -z -> to check Security levels #getenforce -> to check SELINUX unable/disable #setenforce 1 -> for set Enable #system-config-securitylevels -> in GUI mode  How to change the context of a directory? #chcon -t var_t zzz #restorecon zzz Note: for running the Iptables properly we have to write down following command after saving the Iptables #restorecon -R /etc/sysconfig  Boolean Value : we have to change Boolean Value when SELINUX is in Enforcing mode And we want to run specific services.

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