RHCE Session 1  RHCE Certification Level  History of Unix, Features of Unix & Distribution  History of Linux, Features of Linux & Flavors

 About GNU, FSF & GPL  Difference B/W Unix-Linux  RHCE Course Details Session 2  Linux Architecture ( Kernel, Shell)  Difference B/W Linux & Windows  Types of Red Hat Linux  Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  Types of Linux Installation • • Session 3 & 4  HDD Basic, Types of HDD Partitions  Boot loader & MBR  Types of Boot loader In Linux  Types of File Systems In Linux & Windows  Difference B/W ext2-ext3, Fat-Ntfs  Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Practical Installation ( LAB ) Through CDROM – Text & GUI Mode Through Network – Text & GUI

Session 5  Linux & Windows File Structure  All Linux System Directories Under /  Installation According to RHCE EXAM  Types of Modes in Linux – 1) TUI 2) GUI  Types of User – 1) System 2) Non-System  Types of Desktop – 1) GNOME 2) KDE 3) TWM  Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Session 6  Basic Commands In Linux pwd, cd, fdisk, df, du, hostname, dnsdomainname, ls, mkdir, rmdir, rm, touch, cat, ifconfig, man, info, --help, cp, mv, cal, Date, logout, exit Shutting Down Command – init 0, poweroff, halt, shutdown Restarting Command – init 6, reboot, shutdown, ctrl+alt+del Session 7  Vi Editor & Its Operations – Copy, Cut, Paste, Delete, Undo, Redo, Search in forward-Reverse, Set numbers & Others   Mounting & Un mounting of CDROM, USB, Floppy & Windows Partitions Hostname Setting, IP Address Setting, ifup, ifdown Session 8  Types of Runlevel, Single User Mode, /etc/inittab file  switchdesk & startx Command, Access GNOME, KDE, TWM  Compressions-Decompressions, Archiving

Session 9  About Inodes, Soft & Hard Links  After installation Partition Creation Creation of Ext3 Partitions Creation of Vfat Partitions Creation of Swap Partitions Session 10  Package Installation in Text & Graphical Mode ( RPM )  Package Installation Through YUM Session 11 & 12  User & Group Administration  Permission Bits ( rwx ), Suid, Sgid & Sticky Bits  Access Control List (ACL) Session 13  User Quota  Job Scheduler – Crontab Session 14  Process Management  RAID – RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5  How to Create RAID during Installation & after Installation

Session 15  LVM ( Logical Volume Manager )  How to Create LVM during Installation & after Installation  Resize of LVM  LVM Snapshot, Backup & Restore Session 16 & 17  Imp Files In Linux /etc/inittab, /etc/fstab, /etc/mtab, /etc/grub.conf, /etc/passwd, /etc/group, /etc/shadow, /etc/gshadow, /etc/securetty, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts, /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny, /etc/sysconfig/network, /etc/pam.d/login  Basic shell Scripting Session 18, 19 & 20  Minor & Major Troubleshooting  Rescue Mode Problems  EXAM 1 Session 21  RHCE Lab Setup  Telnet Server & Telnet Client  Security of Telnet Server (Th :-Xinetd)  SSH Server (Secure Shell) & SSH Client, SCP, Slogin Session 22

 DHCP Server & DHCP Client (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)  NFS Server & NFS Client (Network File System) Session 23  DNS Server & DNS Client (Domain name Service)  Local DNS Configuration /etc/hosts file Session 24  Samba Server & Samba Client  Samba Server Configuration in Windows  Share File & Directory B/W Windows & Linux Session 25  NIS Server & NIS Client (Network Information Service)  NTP Server & Client (Network Time Protocol) Session 26  Web Server & Web Client, Secure Web Server  Web Site Accessing in TUI & GUI Session 27 & 28  Squid Proxy Server  Allow & Deny Web Sites

 VSFTP Server & VSFTP Server (Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  Uploading & Downloading Through System or Non System User & Anonymous User Session 29 & 30  Sendmail Server  IMAP-POP3 Server :- Mutt  IMAP-SSL Session 31  Printer Server & Printer Client  Syslog Server  VNC Server Session 32  Tcp_Wrappers - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny  PAM – Pluggable Authentication Module  Ipv6 Configuration, RADVD Server Session 33  IP Forwarding - /etc/sysctl.conf  Firewall – Iptables  Basic About SELINUX (Security Enhanced Linux) Session 34

Installation of Virtual Operating System Session 35  Modem Installation. GEdit. Movie Player Installation  CD Writing & Acrobat Reader  Open Office. ADSL Setup ( KPPP )  Mp3 Songs. XEN With Virtualization :Installation of Packages. Graphical Tools  How to Create & Run C. Defining Default Boot Loader. JAVA & SHELL Program  EXAM 2 .

SESSION 1  RHCE Certification Level  History of Unix. FSF & GPL  Difference B/W Unix-Linux  RHCE Course Details Redhat Linux Certification RHCA RHCSS RHCE RHCT RHCE Course Modules ARCHITECT SECURITY SPECIALIST ENGINEER TECNICIAN . Features of Linux & Flavors  About GNU. Features of Unix & Distribution  History of Linux.

 Redhat Linux Basic (RH 033)  Redhat Linux System Administration (RH 133)  Redhat Linux Network & Security Admin (RH 253) History of Unix  1969 BELL LAB’S DEVELOP A “PLATEFORM INDEPENDENT “ OPERATING SYSTEM THAT IS KNOWN AS “UNIX” Features of Unix  PLATEFORM INDEPENDENT  OPEN SOURCE BUT NOT FREEWARE  SMALL & SIMPLE PROGRAMME TO USE  ALL HARDWARE DEFINE IN FORM OF FILES  EXECUTION OF MULTIPLE COMMAND IS POSSIBLE BY USING PIPE ( | ) SYMBOL Distribution of Unix COMPANY  IBM  HP  SUN MICROSYSTEM History of Linux  IN 1991 A STUDENT LINUS TORVALDS DEVELOP A KERNEL WITH THE HELP OF UNIX PROGRAMMER THAT IS KNOWN AS “LINUX” KERNEL + SHELL + APPL. S/W = OS OPERATING SYSTEM AIX HP/UX SUN SOLARIS .

OPERATING SYSTEM RHEL SUSE MANDRAK YELLOW DOG OPEN LINUX GNU FSF (FREE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION) GPL (GENERAL PUBLIC LICENCE) UNIX V/S LINUX .Features of Linux  PLATFORM INDEPENDENT  OPEN SOURCE & FREEWARE  SMALL & SIMPLE PROGRAMME TO USE  EVERYTHING DEFINE IN FORM OF FILE  WE CAN EXECUTE MULTIPAL COMMAND Distribution of Linux COMPANY  REDHAT  NOVEL  MANDRAKE  YELLOW DOG  OPEN How Linux Become Free  IN 1992 LINUS TORVALDS SUBMITS HIS PROJECT IN AN ORGANIZATION WHICH KNOWN AS “GNU”.

Shell)  Difference B/W Linux & Windows  Types of Red Hat Linux  Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  Types of Linux Installation • • Through CDROM – Text & GUI Mode Through Network – Text & GUI Linux Architecture HARDWARE KERNEL COMPILERS COMMANDS & TOOL APP.UNIX LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM KERNEL OPEN SOURCE BUT NOT FREEWAREOPEN SOURCE &FREEWARE SESSION 2  Linux Architecture ( Kernel. S/W DATABASE PACKAGE SHELL USER What Is Kernel & Shell .

Kernel is main part of an O.0 RHEL 5..0 2) Fedora Feodra 4.0 3) RHEL RHEL 3.0 Redhat Linux 4. WINDOWS V/S LINUX LINUX KERNEL WINDOWS OPRATING SYSTEM OPEN SOURCE & FREEWARE N/A VIRUS PROOF MULTIPLE DESKTOP INBUILT APP. RAM.0 Redhat Linux 9.0 Redhat Linux 5.0 Redhat Linux 6.0 a) AS b) WS c) ES Feodra 7.0 Redhat Linux 8.0 RHEL 4. Kernel is used to interact with hardware. then shell interacts with kernel & finally kernel can interact with hardware.0 Redhat Linux 7.S.0 - Feodra 3. HDD etc & used to manage Processes.0 Feodra 5.  Shell .0 Feodra 6. Users can only interact with shell.Shell is a text based program. Kernel .0 a) Server b) Client . S/W NO SINGLE DESKTOP NO Type of Redhat Linux 1) Redhat Linux Redhat Linux 3. manage resources like CPU. manage I/O devices.

File Transfer Protocol HTTP .10 GB  CDROM Types of Linux Installation  Installation through CDROM (All Linux CD’s required)  Installation through Network (Only Linux 1st CD required) • • • NFS .Any  RAM .Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Installation through CDROM  Insert Linux CD 1st & set cdrom 1st boot device • • a) For GUI Installation -.boot: linux text  Create Following Partition Manually through fdisk • •  a) / (ext3)  b) swap (swap) 5000MB 2*RAM Size A) Minimal Installation Method .Min 800 Mhz  PIV .Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  PIII .boot: Press Enter b) For TUI Installation -.256 MB (512 MB)  HDD .Network File System FTP .

0 Primary Nameserver : 172.255.254  Define IP address of NFS Server & directory name .24.254 Default Gateway : 172.24.254.254.boot: linux text askmethod  Select Installation Method (NFS)  Define Local m/c IP address information IP Address : 172.X Subnet Mask : 255. Nameserver.boot: linux askmethod b) For TUI Installation -.0.0.24. Gateway & FQDN Information  Define Time Zone (Aisa/calculta)  Define root user password  Select Packages for installation • After it installation starts & changes CD’s Installation through Network  Insert Linux CD 1st & set cdrom 1st boot device • • For GUI Installation -. (B) Advanced Installation Method  a) /boot b) / c) /usr d) /home e) /var f) swap (ext3) 100MB (ext3) 1000MB (ext3) 5000MB (ext3) 500MB (ext3) 500MB (swap) 2*RAM Size  Define IP Address. Subnet Mask.

 Create Following Partition Manually through fdisk • A) Minimal Installation Method a) / b) swap (ext3) 5000MB (swap) 2*RAM Size (B) Advanced Installation Method a) /boot b) / c) /usr d) /home e) /var f) swap (ext3) 100MB (ext3) 1000MB (ext3) 5000MB (ext3) 500MB (ext3) 500MB (swap) 2*RAM Size  Define IP Address.254 or Name of Server Path : /var/ftp/pub  Then press ok Now Client M/C contact with server m/c. Subnet Mask. if server is ready then client connects to server m/c & fetches all data from server directory. client automatically fetches data from server.254. .Server : 172.24.  Gateway & FQDN Information  Define Time Zone (Aisa/calculta)  Define root user password  Select Packages for installation Now no need to change CD’s. Nameserver.

SCSI & USB drive. Types of HDD Partitions  Boot loader & MBR  Types of Boot loader In Linux  Types of File Systems In Linux & Windows  Difference B/W ext2-ext3.  Sda. sdd for SATA. sdc. Fat-Ntfs  Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Practical Installation ( LAB ) HDD Basic  hda. • • • • hda . hdd for IDE or PATA HDD.secondary Slave .SESSION 3 & 4  HDD Basic.Primary Master hdb . hdc. hab. sdb.Secondary Master hdd .Primary Slave hdc .

we format the HDD drive.In Linux 1 to 4 numbers are reserved for primary & extended partitions & logical always starts from 5.S. Bootloader in Linux GRUB .  Bootloader is a software that is used to define list of all installed O. MBR is used to store bootloader & booting files information.Grant Universal Boot Loader (Default in RHEL 5. File system is used to define no. For defining file system. sectors. cylinder.0) LILO . Types of HDD Partitions  Note .  Note .Linux Loader File System & Types of File system in Windows & Linux  File System is known as indexing. hda3.. of tracks. MBR is the zero or first sector of a HDD. hda5.  Example: hda1. 1 extended & 2 logical partition MBR & Bootloader  MBR stand for Master Boot Record. bootloader installed into MBR.In a HDD we can create max.In a HDD we can create maximum 1 extended partition. hda6 means 2 primary.Types of HDD Partitions  Primary Partition (Booting Partitions)  Extended Partitions (Define Space for logical partitions)  Logical Partitions under Extended Partitions (Used for data storage)  Note . hda2. heads etc. 4 primary partitions but after that we can’t create extended & logical partitions. Windows Linux .

EXT3 Swap LVM Difference B/W ext2-ext3 EXT2 EXT3 JOURLANING FEATURES DYNAMIC INODES FILE SYSTEM RECOVERY ADVANCED FILE SYSTEM Difference B/W NTFS-FAT32 NTFS DISK QUOTA FAT32 .   FAT 16 FAT 32 NTFS RAID VFAT EXT2.

File system begins at the root directory. . represented by a lone / (forward slash) character.COMPRESSION & DECOMPRESSION ENCRYPTION SECURE Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Minimum 2 partition required for Linux • • / (ext3) swap (swap) 5000MB 2*RAM Size Practical Lab Setup Installation of Linux in GUI & TUI SESSION 5  Linux & Windows File Structure  All Linux System Directories Under /  Installation According to RHCE EXAM  Types of Modes in Linux – 1) TUI 2) GUI  Types of User – 1) System 2) Non-System  Types of Desktop – 1) GNOME 2) KDE 3) TWM  Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Linux File Structure Concept  Files and directories are organized into a single-rooted inverted tree structure.

/home/username User Executables: /bin. These _les are essential for the system to function properly  The /lib Directory The /lib directory should contain only those libraries that are needed to execute the binaries in /bin and /sbin. Other Mountpoints: /media. /sys Shared Libraries: /lib. /usr/bin. /usr/lib. System Executables: /sbin. /usr/local/lib Configuration: /etc Temporary Files: /tmp /usr/local/bin /usr/local/sbin All Linux System Directories Under /  The /dev Directory The /dev directory contains _le system entries which represent devices that are attached to the system.• • Names are case-sensitive Paths are delimited by / Linux File Structure Concept  Example of some System Directories • • • • Home Directories: /root. /srv System Information: /proc. These shared library images are . /mnt • • Linux File Structure Concept  Example of More System Directories • • • • Kernels and Bootloader: /boot Server Data: /var. /usr/sbin.

fdisk. any programs that write log _les or need spool or lock directories should write them to the /var directory. update  The /usr Directory The /usr directory is for files that can be shared across a whole site. mkswap.  The /sbin Directory The /sbin directory is for executables used only by the root user. and it should be mountable read-only. administrative and logging data. The FHS states /var is for: ". grub. ifconfig. The /usr directory usually has its own partition. At a minimum.  The /var Directory Since the FHS requires that you be able to mount /usr read-only. lilo.init. This includes spool directories and _les.  The /opt Directory The /opt directory provides an area for third party packages  The /proc Directory The /proc directory contains special "files" that either extract information from or send information to the kernel. shutdown.variable data _les.swapon.particularly important for booting the system and executing commands within the root _le system. Due to the great variety of data available within /proc and the many ways this directory can be used to communicate with the kernel. route. clock. halt..mkfs. the following programs should be in /sbin: arp.  The /media Directory The /media directory is for temporarily mounted file systems. an entire chapter has been devoted to the subject.reboot.fsck.*.getty." ..*. such as CD-ROMs and floppy disks. and transient and temporary _les. swapoff.  The /etc Directory The /etc directory is reserved for system & network Configuration files.

Types of Modes in Linux  A typical Linux system will run six virtual consoles and one graphical console Server systems often have only virtual consoles Desktops and workstations typically have both Switch among virtual consoles by typing: Ctrl-Alt-F[1-6] Access the graphical console by typing Ctrl-Alt-F7 Types of User  Two type of User in the Linux 1) System User or Root User (#) ex :.  Three desktop environments provided by Red Hat  GNOME: the default desktop environment – GNU Network Model Environment  KDE: an alternate desktop environment.[root@station1 ~]# 2) Simple User ($) ex :.K Desktop Environment  TWM – Tab Window Manager Fully Qualified Domain Name .Here “Station1” is Host Name And “ ~ ” is Home Directory of Root User or a Simple User Types of Desktop  The X Window System is Linux's graphical subsystem. Open source implementation of X Look and behavior largely controlled by the desktop environment.[r1@station1 ~]$ Note :.

rmdir. rm.com SESSION 6  Basic Commands In Linux pwd. FQDN – Fully qualified domain name  Host+domainname = FQDN • EX. cd. mv. touch. cp. halt. ifconfig. mkdir. df.com = station1. fdisk. cal. du. man. poweroff. Date. reboot. ctrl+alt+del Basic Commands In Linux  Commands have the following syntax: command options arguments Each item is separated by a space Options modify a command's behavior . logout. hostname. dnsdomainname. shutdown. info. ls.example. cat. shutdown Restarting Command – init 6. Station1+ example. --help. exit • • Shutting Down Command – init 0.

displays a calendar  The Pwd Command [root@station1 ~]# pwd (show present working directory) Result = /root .“ Example: --help  [root@station1 ~]# date (display date and time) Mon Nov 26 07:26:49 IST 2007  [root@station1 ~]# cal (display calendar) November 2007 Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  The whatis Command • • • Displays short descriptions of commands Uses a database that is updated nightly Often not available immediately after install [root@station1 ~]# whatis cal cal (1) .“ Can be passed as -a -b -c or -abc  Full-word options usually preceded by “ -. Single-letter options usually preceded by “ .

80026361856 bytes 255 heads.[root@station1 etc]# pwd Result = /etc  The cd Command • • Ex:cd (changes directories) To an absolute or relative path: [root@station1 etc]# cd /home/ram/work • To a directory one level up: [root@station1 etc]# cd . 63 sectors/track.0 GB.. 9729 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Start End Blocks Id System 83 Linux /dev/hda2 1913 1925 104422+ /dev/hda3 1926 4475 20482875 83 Linux  The df Command . • To your home directory: [root@station1 etc]# cd • To your previous working directory: [root@station1 etc]# cd –  The fdisk Command [root@station1 ~]# fdisk –l (Show all hdd partition information) Disk /dev/hda: 80.

[root@station1 ~]# df –h (Show all mounted Partition information) Filesystem /dev/hda3 /dev/hda2 tmpfs Size 19G 99M 1009M Used Avail 12G 0 6.Show dir usage space) 12K 237K 11M /boot/lost+found /boot/grub /boot/  The hostname Command [root@server1 home]# hostname server1.example.com  The nisdomainname Command [root@server1 home]# nisdomainname notexample  The ls Command .com  The dnsdomainname Command [root@server1 home]# dnsdomainname example.3G 17M 78M Use% 66% 18% Mounted on / /boot /dev/shm 1009M 0%  The du Command [root@server1 home]# du -h /boot/ (disk usages.

$ date –help Display the current time in the given FORMAT. . but not all.3 t1 t1 4096 Sep 3 12:28 t1 [root@server1 home]# ls -a (Show hidden file also) . or set the system date..2 s1 s1 4096 Aug 11 19:03 s1 drwx-----. commands ex :. on which terminal)  The --help Option Displays usage summary and argument list Used by most.  The man Command Provides documentation for commands . on which time.[root@server1 home]# ls s2 s1 t1 [root@server1 home]# ll (Details in list form ) total 3 drwx-----. guests ram s1 t1  The ifconfig Command [root@server1 ~]# ifconfig (This Command is use for viewing information about LAN card & IP Address)  The who & w Command [root@server1 ~]# who [root@server1 ~]# w (Both Command’s show that how many user login.2 s2 s2 4096 Aug 30 12:35 s2 drwx-----.

copy files and directories Usage: [root@station1 etc]# cp [options] file destination More than one file may be copied at a time if the destination is a directory: [root@station1 etc]# cp [options] file1 file2 destination  Moving and Renaming Files and Directories (mv command) mv .move and/or rename files and directories Usage: [root@station1 etc]# mv [options] file destination More than one file may be moved at a time if the destination is a directory: [root@station1 etc]# mv [options] file1 file2 destination Destination works like cp . but often more in-depth Run info without arguments to list all age info pages are structured like a web site Each page is divided into "nodes" Links to nodes are preceded by *  Copying Files and Directories (cp command) cp .Almost every command has a man "page“ Pages are grouped into "chapters" Collectively referred to as the Linux Manual  The info Command Similar to man.

Ex: [root@station1 etc]# rm -r directory(recursive) [root@station1 etc]# rm -f file (force)  Creating and Removing Directories [root@station1 etc]# mkdir creates directories [root@station1 etc]# rmdir removes empty directories [root@station1 etc]# rm -r recursively removes directory trees  Command for shutting down [root@station1 etc]# init 0 [root@station1 etc]# poweroff [root@station1 etc]# halt [root@station1 etc]# shutdown –h now  Command for restart [root@station1 etc]# init 6 [root@station1 etc]# reboot .create empty files or update file timestamps [root@station1 etc]# rm . Creating and Removing Files [root@station1 etc]# touch .remove files [root@station1 etc]# rm [options] <file>..

VI Editor . Cut. IP Address Setting. Delete.[root@station1 etc]# ctrl+alt+del [root@station1 etc]# shutdown –r now SESSION 7  Vi Editor & Its Operations – Copy. Redo & Others  Mounting & Un mounting of CDROM. Paste. Floppy & Windows Partitions  Hostname Setting. USB. Undo.

paste. vi creates it when the edits are saved for the first time . For creating new file we write down #vi file name/destination add. insert. VI Editor is used to create a new file. cut/paste text. edit in existing file. with file name Ex: #vi training or /home/ram/training For edit existing file #vi existing file name or with add file name #cd /etc after that #vi fstab # vi /etc/fstab Vi Editor Modes  Keystroke behavior is dependent upon vi "mode"  Three main modes: Command Mode (default): Move cursor. delete. quit. copy. etc Esc exits current mode Note:. the file is opened and the contents are displayed If the file does not exist. set numbers before the line etc. cut. change mode Insert Mode: Modify text Ex Mode: Save.Esc always returns to command mode Vi Editor  Opening a file in vim To start vi: vim filename If the file exists.

even if changes are lost  Undoing Changes Command Mode u undo most recent change U undo all changes to the current line since the cursor landed on the line Ctrl-r redo last "undone" change  Cut/Copy/Paste Command Mode dd for delete a line. 5yy copy 5 lines p for paste a line What Is Mounting . Modifying a File Insert Mode i begins insert mode at the cursor  Saving a File and Exiting vim Execution Mode Enter Ex Mode with “ : “ Creates a command prompt at bottom-left of screen Common write/quit commands: :w writes (saves) the file to disk :wq writes and quits. wq! write forcefully :q! quits. 5dd delete 5 lines yy for copy a line.

First we have to insert a line in “/etc/fstab” file. Mounting means making a foreign filesystem look like part of the main tree. must be manually mounted. usb.Otherwise. dvd. non-root users may only mount certain devices (cd. /dev/hdb /media/cdrom udf. media must be unmounted  By default.  Before accessing.iso 9660 defaults 00  CD/DVD Reader mount /media/cdrom  Un mounts and ejects eject Mounting USB Media  Mounting USB Media Detected by the kernel as SCSI devices /dev/sdaX or /dev/sdbX or similar Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE Icon created in Computer window Mounted under /media/Device ID Device ID is built into device by vendor Mounting Floppy Disks  Must be manually mounted and un mounted . floppy. media must be mounted  Before removing. etc)  Mountpoints are usually under /media Mounting of CDROM  Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE.

example. for Permanente Mounting we have to enter details in “/etc/fstab” file like we enter for cdrom Hostname Setting  Temporary change: For temp.mount /media/floppy umount /media/floppy DOS floppies can be accessed with mtools Mounts and unmounts device transparently Uses DOS naming conventions mdir a: mcopy /home/file.this is temporary mounting. IP Address settings  Setting up new IP add.txt a: Mounting Windows Partitions  For Mounting windows partition we have to write down following command #mount -t vfat /dev/hdc1 /media/partition1  Note:. We write following command #netconfig or #system-config-network #service network restart .com  Permanente change: For this we open “#vi /etc/sysconfig/network” file and change host name when we restart our pc we find new hostname. change we write down following command #hostname station100. we only mount FAT32 partition in Linux.

NETMASK=.  Init is the first process of the system and the process id is 1 Types of Runlevels  Init 0 = for shutdown  Init 1 = for single user mode / troubleshooting  Init 2 = multi user. Note: if above command not run then we open a file “#vi /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg-eth0” and write IPADDR=. Access GNOME. TWM  Compressions-Decompressions. with N/W support  Init 6 = reboot Runlevel setting  For set a default Runlevel Open . text + gui mode. KDE. text mode with N/W support  Init 4 = unused  Init 5 = multi user. Archiving Intro of Runlevels  Runlevels is system software of the operating system that defines no of process exist for a level.  In Linux there are 7 type of runlevels from 0-6  These runlevels control by ”init” command. text mode without N/W support  Init 3 = multi user. Single User Mode  switchdesk & startx Command. GATEWAY=. SESSION 8  Types of Runlevel.

Press “b” for booting  Now system starts in single user mode without username & password. Accessing GUI directly from Runlevel 3  For accessing GUI directly we run following command #switchdesk gnome  For run GUI #startx  Note : For run the switchdesk command we have to check switchdesk package is installed or not Archiving  Archiving places many files into one target file Easier to back up.“#vi /etc/inittab” file.standard Linux archiving command Archives are commonly compressed Algorithm applied that compresses file Uncompressing restores the original file tar natively supports compression using gzip and bzip2 . We can change any file of the system.  For check the current Runlevel #runlevel Single User Mode  For access single user mode  At the booting time press “e” on Linux boot loader line  Come at second line or on kernel line again press “e”  Go last of the line press “spacebar” then press “s or 1” then enter. store. and transfer tar . change line in the file “ld:3: initdefault” in place of 3 we enter 5 for GUI + Text support  After that reboot pc.

gz Result: f1.tar.tar s2 s4 s5 s6 #tar tvf f1.tar (for extracting .tar.gz  For decompression  #gunzip f1.bz2 first by using following SESSION 9 .tar file) Compressions-Decompressions  First we archive file and directories the use following command for compression  #gzip f1.tar or #bunzip2 f1.tar.tar (for check the . #tar cvf f1.tar Result: f1.Archiving Configuration  For compress some files we have to archive them command.tar.tar f1.tar contain) #tar xvf f1.bz2 or or #bzip2 f1.tar files name Ex: #tar cvf s1.

 About Inodes. placing a new entry in the inode table. associating a name with the inode number Copies data into the new file. The link count (count of path names pointing to this file). permissions. Other data about the file. Creates a dentry in the directory. Creation of Ext3 Partitions Creation of Vfat Partitions Creation of Swap Partitions . GID. UID.The file's size and various time stamps. Pointers to the file's data blocks on disk. Soft & Hard Links  After installation Partition Creation • • • Inodes  An inode table contains a list of all files in an ext2 or ext3 filesystem  An inode (index node) is an entry in the table. Directories  The computer's reference for a file is the Inode number  The human way to reference a file is by file name  A directory is a mapping between the human name for the file and the computer's Inode number  cp and inodes The cp command: Allocates a free inode number. including: File type.  mv and inodes If the destination of the mv command is on the same file system as the source. containing information about a file (the metadata).

the file is removed Cannot span drives or partitions ln filename [linkname]  A symbolic link points to another file ls -l displays the link name and the referenced file “lrwxrwxrwx 1 joe joe 11 Sep 25 18:02 pf > /etc/passwd” File type: l for symbolic link The content of a symbolic link is the name of the file that it references Syntax: ln -s filename linkname Partition Creation .Creates a new directory entry with the new file name. thus freeing the inode number to be reused. Increments the link count The rm command decrements the link count File exists as long as at least one link remains When the link count is zero. Soft & Hard Links  A hard link adds an additional pathname to reference a single file One physical file on the filesystem Each directory references the same inode number. Data is not actually removed. Deletes the old directory entry with the old file name. Places data blocks on the free list. but will be overwritten when the data blocks are used by another file. Removes the directory entry. Has no impact on the inode table (except for a time stamp) or the location of data on the disk: no data is moved! If the destination is a different filesystem. mv acts as a copy and remove  rm and inodes Decrements the link count.

2. 3. By the help of this utility we can done many task’s like partition type change etc. ext3 (Linux data partition) vfat (fat 32 type) swap (virtual memory partition) For creating partition in Linux we use “fdisk” utility. We can create following type of Partition 1. Fundamental of fdisk utility  Before creating partition we have to know what is the basic command of “fdisk” • #fdisk /dev/hda (step 1 of the par. creation) (here we suppose that hdd is primary master) :n = create new partition :d = delete a partition :l = list all file system ID :t = change the file system :w = write partition table & quite :q = quite without save :p = show partition table Ext3 Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n : press enter : +100M :w (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (write & quit) #partprobe or reboot (for refreshing the table) Format partition .

ext3 /dev/hda10 Ext3 Partition Mounting #mkdir /media/newpartition Now open “#vi /etc/fstab” & enter new partition details /dev/hda10 /media/newpartition ext3 defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a (mount all partition which in the fstab file) Vfat Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n :press enter : +100M :t New id = d :w (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (for change the file system) (new file system id which know th l) (write & quit) Partition no.vfat /dev/hda11 Vfat Partition Mounting #mkdir /media/newpartition2 Now open “#vi /etc/fstab” & enter new partition details .#mkfs. [1-11] #partprobe or reboot (refreshing table) Format partition #mkfs.

/dev/hda10 /media/newpartition2 vfat defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a (mount all partition which in the fstab file) Swap Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n : press enter : +100M :t (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (for change the file system) Partition no. [1-11] New id = 82 (new file system id which know th l) :w (write & quit) #partprobe or reboot (refreshing table) Format partition #mkswap /dev/hda12 Swap Partition On/Off  For Enable Swap space #swapon /dev/hda12 #free (for checking space of swap partition)  For Disable Swap space #swapoff /dev/hda12 SESSION 10 .

rpm files In Redhat Linux all packages extension is . update.exe files and Redhat support . #cd /media/cdrom/Server #rpm -ivh package name #rpm -ivh --force package name #rpm -ivh --nodeps package name .rpm RPM Management  How to search all install packages? #rpm -qa #rpm -qa | less (page wise)  How to search a specific package? #rpm -qa telnet* #rpm -qa | grep telnet*  How to Erase a package? #rpm -e package name* #rpm -e --nodeps pack. Name .search. Package Installation in Text & Graphical Mode ( RPM )  Package Installation Through YUM Redhat Package Manager  In this section we learn how to install. RPM  How to install a package through cdrom or through dump?  First mount your cdrom with a dir. Then write following command. and erase the packages. Windows supports . Installation thro.

0 by this we can install packages and also with dependencies.  We can use ftp and http methods for installing.d/server1. After that write down following command #rpm -Uvh package name Note : here “U” is in capital form and all command in small form.24.254.  In graphical mode we write following command #system-config-package YUM  YUM is a new software in RHEL5.Updation thro. We don’t want to remember dependencies name’s. erasing through yum.repos.254/pub/Server enabled = 1 (we create this file) .repo In file [Server] name= any name baseurl = ftp://172.  We have to create repositories either server site or locally for yum. Configuration of YUM  First search yum package through rpm #rpm -qa yum* if the package is installed then open #vi /etc/yum.  By the help of this we can remove and update the packages. RPM  How to upgrade a package? First go to the destination of the packages.

gpgcheck = 0 Working of YUM  Now YUM is ready to install. search. By the help of following command we can done the described process #yum install package name* #yum remove package name* #yum update package name* #yum search package name* . update and also for remove the packages.

 Users are assigned to groups.  GIDs are stored in /etc/group.  UID 0 identifies root. SUID.  User's new files affiliated with this group. The commands is following . a private group is also created with the same name.SESSION 11 & 12  User & Group Administration  Permission Bits ( rwx ). (usually a shell)  Users cannot read.  All users in a group can share files that belong to the group.  Each group is assigned a unique Group ID number (gid).  Advantage: Prevents new files from belonging to a “public” group  Disadvantage: May encourage making files “world-accessible User Administration  How to add a User?  There is two types to add a User. SGID & Stricky Bit  Access Control List (ACL) User & Group  Every user is assigned a unique User ID number (UID).  Each user is given their own private group Can be added to other groups for additional access.  Users are assigned to this private group.  Users' names and UIDs are stored in “/etc/passwd“  Users are assigned a home directory and a program that is run when they log in. write or execute each others files without permission.  When user accounts are created.

#useradd user name #adduser user name  How we secure a user?  By giving a password we secure a user. User (s1) 2. Group (s1) . The command is following #passwd username  How to Delete a User?  For deleting the user we have following command #userdel user name  Note: By above command we can only delete user not his directories if we want that then we write down following command #userdel -r user name Group Administration  How to add a Group?  The commands is following #groupadd group name  How to Delete a group?  For deleting the group we have following command #groupdel group name  Note: we can’t delete a Primary Group User & Group Administration  A New User always create following 1.

group(s1.) #vi /etc/gshadow (group info. Directories (/home/s1)  User Id (UID) & Group Id (GID)  All User & group have a unique identification which known as UID & GID. gid(500). System User: 0-499 (range of UID & GID) Non System User: 500-65535 (range of id)  What is the ID of the User?  The command is following #id user name result: uid(500).) #vi /etc/group (this file store group info. r1) User & Group Information file: #vi /etc/passwd (this file store user info.3. #useradd -G p1 p3 .) #vi /etc/shadow (user password info. #useradd -g p1 p2  Create a user p3 with Secondary Group p1. #useradd -u 5000 p1  Cerate a User p2 with Primary Group p1. In encryption)  In GUI mode we have to write following command for accessing User & Group Administration #system-config-user  Some Important question related to User & Group Administration  Create a User p1 with User ID 5000.

p3 p4  Create a User p5 & define Dire.--.  How to add a Secondary group in a User. # usermod -g h2 h1 Permission Bits  In Linux each file & directories has 10 permissions bits.p3.= file c = character devices (Modem. #useradd -G p1. Some question for existing Users. #usermod -G h2 h1  How to add a Primary group in a User. #useradd -d /p5 p5  Create a User p6 without login prompt. this. Printer) b = block devices (Hard Disk.--First bit is for d = directories . Create a User p4 with Secondary Group p1. CDROM) Permission Bits for user .--. #useradd -s /sbin/nologin /p6 Note: we use service through this user but doesn’t login th. By using “#ll” command we see that . Location /p5.

by the help of this we can give permission to Group that they access the file or not. r = Read (4). x (Execute) = If we give “x” to user then user execute that file of dir.--. r = Read (4). Permission Bits Details Description of “rwx” : r (Read) = If we give “r” to user then user read that file of dir.--After 3 bites are for user. If we give “r” to others that means other user’s also read that file & dir. .--. w = Write (2). If we give “w” to group that means group members write that file or dir. x = execute (1) Permission Bits for other .--After 3 bites are for Group. If we give “r” to group that means group members read that file or dir. w = Write (2). w (Write) = If we give “w” to user then user write that file of dir. by the help of this we can give permission to Other that they access the file or not. If we give “w” to others that means other user’s also write that file & dir.--. If we give “x” to group that means group members execute that file or dir.--. r = Read (4). x = execute (1) Note: if we give “x” permission to a file then white color change into green. by the help of this we can give permission to user that they access the file or not. w = Write (2)..--. If we give “x” to others that means other user’s also execute that file & dir. x = execute (1) Permission Bits for group .--After 3 bites are for Other.--.

group = r-x. Numerical Method: (4. other = --#chmod ug+rx Defaults Permission Bits  Defaults Permission Bit’s  Maximum permission of a dir is 777 & a file 666.) . write. other r. g. It’s change because default umask is 022. umask is differ for system & non system user. UMASK  For know the umask value we run following command #umask #umask 002 (this line change umask temp. other = --#chmod 750 p1 . But when we create a file or dir we find permission 644 or 755.1) Ex: p1 = user = rwx.2.. execute. Ex: p1 = user = rx. group = r-x.w. 2.w.Permission Bits Setting  How to change the Permission Bits?  We have two type of method to change the Permission Bits. means 022 less from the permission of the file & dir. o = for user. group.x = for read. 1. Value Method: (r.x) = for delete permission + = for add a permission u.

with ACL option #mount -o remount. SGID & Stricky Bit  Normally processes started by a user run under the user and group security context of that user. it belongs to the same group as the directory. Normally users with write permissions to a directory can delete any file in that directory regardless of that file's permissions or ownership with the sticky bit set on a directory.acl /home ACL Configuration  Create a file or dir and check the permission by the help of following command #getfacl /home/ram  Cerate a new user  Now we set user & group permission on a file #setfacl -m u:s1:rwx /home/ram . only the owner of a file can delete the file Access Control List  ACL is process by using we can define more then one user & group on a directories and file.  For using this feature we have to mount /home directories with a partition. Second root user umask. files created in a directory belong to the user's the default group When a file is created in a directory with the SGID bit set. If you want to change permanently then open #vi /etc/bashrc Note:In this file we have first simple user umask. when group & others are not allowed through permission bit’s.  SUID and/or SGID bits set on an executable file cause it to run under the user and/or group security context of the file's owner and/or group  Used to create a collaborative directory Normally. SUID.  Now we remount /home dir.

” (comma) User Quota Configuration #mount -o remount /home (This command is remount home dir with new operation) #quotackeck -cvu /home . Remove the assign permission #setfacl -x u:s1 /home/ram SESSION 13  User Quota  Job Scheduler – Crontab User Quota  User Quota service is used to provides a fixed amount of space to users.  After hard limit “write operation fail” message appears.  In Linux User Quota service can provides two type of limitations 1. Number of files used by user  These two limitation can define soft & hard limit  If a user cross soft limit then a warning message appear & a grace period starts  But that user can used up to hard limit.  For use this function we have to create a partition and mount with the /home dir. Number of blocks used by a user 2.  In “/etc/fstab” we have to add “usrquota” with defaults by the help of “ .

(For checking no. month & day of week.  In Linux “ CRONTAB” is used as Job Scheduler. hours. date. of files & dir in /home ) #quotaon /home (For enable the quota) #repquota -a (For check the quota status) #edquota user name (For edit quota) #quotaoff /home (For disable the quota) #edquota -t (For changing the grace period) Note: create quota problem for simple user “dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/kk/somefile bs=1024 count=30” Job Scheduler – Crontab  Job scheduler is used to scheduling a job previously base on minute.  How to schedule a job through “Crontab”? #crontab -e Min Hour Date (1-31) Month (1-12) Day of week (0-6/1-7) job/comment poweroff (0-59) (0-23) #service crond restart #chkconfig crond on Crontab Configuration  How to check all schedule job. .

#crontab –e Min Hour Date Month Day of week job/comment 30 18 * * * echo “shut down” > /dev/tty5 #service crond restart other user. #crontab –r  How to view other user schedule through #crontab -u username -e Crontab Question  Schedule a crontab that display a message hello on login terminal daily 9.30 pm. . #crontab –e Min Hour Date Month Day of week job/comment 30 9 * * * echo “Hello” | wall #service crond restart  Schedule a crontab that display a message “shut down” on terminal 5 daily at evening 6.30.#crontab –l  How to remove all schedule job.

 In Linux “init” is the first process of the system & process id 1  Each process has a process id & a parent process id.  Foreground Process  Background Process (deamon)  Foreground Process use the terminal. #ps (show process) #ps -aef (show back & fore ground process) #ps -aef | grep service name (filter for service) #kill 3458 (process id) . RAID 5  How to Create RAID during Installation & after Installation Process Management  A program in execution condition is known as process.  Background Process doesn’t use the terminal.SESSION 14  Process Management  RAID – RAID 0. RAID 1.  There are two type of process.

ext3 /dev/md0  mdadm allows you to check the status of your RAID devices .  Spare disks add extra redundancy  RAID devices are named. including RAID O. /dev/md1. #gnome-system-monitor #kpm (k process manager) RAID  Multiple disks grouped together into "arrays" to provide better performance. /dev/md2. 1 and 5. /dev/md0. redundancy or both.  mdadm .  Many "RAID Levels" supported.#pstree (list of all process tree) #top (all current process show with time)  How to access task manager in GUI Mode. /dev/md3 and so on.provides the administration interface to software RAID. RAID Configuration  Create and define RAID devices using mdadm mdadm -C /dev/md0 l 1 n 2 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda13  Format each RAID device with a filesystem mkfs.

.  File systems may be created on Logical Volumes. and syslog messages SESSION 15  LVM ( Logical Volume Manager )  How to Create LVM during Installation & after Installation  Resize of LVM  LVM Snapshot.  Allows reorganization of file systems across multiple physical devices. Backup & Restore Logical Volume Manager  A layer of abstraction that allows easy manipulation of volumes.  Logical Volumes are created on Physical Volumes and are composed of Physical Extents. /proc/mdstat.  One or more Physical Volumes are used to create a Volume Group  Physical Volumes are defined with Physical Extents of a fixed size. Including resizing of file systems.mdadm --detail /dev/md0  Software RAID Testing and Recovery Simulating disk failures mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda1  Recovering from a software RAID disk failure replace the failed hard drive and power on reconstruct partitions on the replacement drive mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda1 mdadm.  Devices are designated as Physical Volumes.

ext3 /dev/vg0/data #mkdir /lvm | mount /dev/vg0/data /lvm  Resizing Logical Volumes  Growing Volumes #lvextend -L +50M /dev/vg0/data #resize2fs /dev/vg0/data  How to check the volumes? #pvdisplay (for physical volume) #vgdisplay (for volume group) .LVM Configuration  Creating Logical Volumes  Create physical volumes #pvcreate /dev/hda3  Assign physical volumes to volume groups #vgcreate vg0 /dev/hda3  Create logical volumes from volume groups #lvcreate -L +256M -n data /dev/vg0 #mkfs.

 Snapshots are perfect for backups and other operations where a temporary copy of an existing dataset is needed.  When data is changed on the original Logical Volume the older data is copied to the Snapshot.Does not work with other file systems.  Snapshots are allocated space at creation but do not use it until changes are made to the original Logical Volume or the Snapshot. LVM Snapshots Configuration  Create Snapshot of existing Logical Volume # lvcreate -L 10 -s -n databack /dev/vg0/data  Mount Snapshot # mkdir /mnt/databack # mount /dev/vg0/databack /mnt/databack  Remove Snapshot # umount /mnt/databackup # lvremove /dev/vg0/databackup Back up and restore ext2/3 file systems.  Snapshots contain only data that has changed on the original Logical Volume or the Snapshot since the Snapshot was created.  Snapshots only consume space where they are different from the original Logical Volume.#lvdisplay (for logical volume) Logical Volume Manager Snapshots  Snapshots are special Logical Volumes that are an exact copy of an existing Logical Volume at the time the snapshot is created. #dump -0u .f /tmp/data /dev/vg0/databack #umount /mnt/databack .

ext3 /dev/vg0/data #mount /dev/vg0/data /lvm #cd /lvm #restore -rf /dev/data SESSION 16 & 17  Imp Files In Linux /etc/inittab. /etc/shadow.conf. /etc/mtab.d/rc. /etc/passwd. /etc/sysconfig/network./etc/inittab Line 1: id:5:initdefault:  By using this file we can change the run level permanently  In place of the 5 we placed 3 for running Runlevel 3 at booting time Line 2: si::sysinit:/etc/rc.#lvremove /dev/vg0/databack #umount /lvm #mkfs. /etc/grub.deny. /etc/hosts. /etc/fstab. /etc/hosts.allow. /etc/pam. /etc/resolv. /etc/group.sysini . /etc/gshadow. /etc/securetty.conf. /etc/hosts.d/login  Basic shell Scripting INITTAB  inittab : Location :.

Location :. After increment & decrement the GUI mode automatically change on to higher or lower level of the function key.d/rc 0  Which script run on the booting time Line 4: ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now #ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now  Most important we can disable “ctrl+alt+delete” command on server site or any side so no one can restart that pc by using above command.conf :.conf  Original location :./boot/grub/grub. GRUB. For this we have to changes made in the place of the 5. Line 6: x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm –nodaemon  Also change that in which run level graphics starts.conf  This file contain the boot loader configuration Line 1: default=0  By this file we can change the default booting operating system Line 2: timeout=5 . For this we have to commented following line Line 5: 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1  We increase and decrease the terminals./etc/grub. This file know about where is our system initialize Line 3: l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.CONF  Grub.

8)  If the boot partition separately mount then the /dev/hdc9 is /boot. Change the time of waiting Line 3: splashimage=(hd0. Line 8: title Other Line 9: rootnoverify (hd0.el5. Line 8: title Other title Windows  And also change the other OS name. in line no 8 we write down the name which we want in place of “Other”  Line no 9 and Line no 10 help us to start other OS when our Linux boot loader is corrupt.6.18-8. Otherwise /dev/hdc9 represents “/ ”.6.  How we secure our Linux to unauthorized access in single user mode.  We can secure our Linux by applying password .xpm.6)/grub/splash.6. Line 6: kernel /vmlinuz-2.18-8.el5) title LINUX  We customize the OS name Line 5: root (hd0.el5 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet  We know kernel name and root label Line 7: initrd /initrd-2.18-8.img  Define initrd image.0) Line 10: chainloader +1  And also change the other OS name.gz  Know the location of the splash image Line 4: title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server(2.

enable dump command and set file system checking order./etc/fstab Backup File: /etc/mtab  This file is used for HDD..  By the help of this file we can define partition no.6)/grub/splash. LABEL=/1 / ext3 ext3 Defaults Defaults 11 12 LABEL=/boot /boot . CDROM and Network Services mounting.gz Password =  How we secure our Linux to unauthorized access in also simple mode. By this we can apply password on the entry of single user mode.By this we can apply password on the entry of simple user mode. features of the file system. timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0. Write down “password = ” after the splash image line.  We can secure our Linux by applying password  Write down “password = ” after the title line. destination location. title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server password = Redhat FSTAB  Fstab: Location :.xpm. file system.

CDrom. 2 3 4 5 6 Define mounting Define file Features position system type of file system Dump freq. CD-Rom.fsck  In the 1st column we have to define HDD Partition no.  We define as a following ext3 vfat swap  In the 4th column we have to define features of the file system.  We define as a following /dev/hdc12 Or LABLE =/ram  In the 2nd column we have to define mounting position where we want that partition or drive.. and other network services info.mode=620 0 0 tmpfs proc sysfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults /proc /sys proc sysfs defaults defaults 00 00 00 1 Defines HDD.  We define as a following .Devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5. Floppy Drive and other Network Service Information.  We define as a following /home  In the 3rd column we have to define partition or drive file system.

com Successfully dig server1. SESSION 18. 19 & 20  Minor & Major Troubleshooting  Rescue Mode Problems  EXAM 1 Minor Troubleshooting 1. Set your mode as graphical mode.defaults -> assign defaults feature ro -> for read only rw -> for read and write usrquota -> for user quota unable acl -> for access control list  In the 6th column we have to define file system checking order by this we define that which file system check first.org . 4. Login Through root user & redhat Password.example. 3. Successfully ping server1.  We define as a following 0 -> never check 1 -> check first on booting time 2 -> 2nd preference on checking We define up to 7. 2.my133t.

5. Successfully run showmount –e localhost command for /data directory. up to 300MB (280/320) LVM Mount under /home dir.  If we find “ia” attribute we have to remove that one by using following command.  Step1: Check attributes of “shadow” and “passwd” files. dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=30 But can not run this command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile Minor Troubleshooting Solution  For solving the question of minor troubleshooting we have to enter in single user mode by the help of following lines. We can change any file of the system. Set Userquota Problem. Resize LVM (Logical volume size) – max. 1. Create a 100 MB partition of ext3 File System & mount permanent under /mnt/new directory 6. User jane can Successfully run Following Command . Press “b” for booting now system starts in single user mode without username & password. Login Through root user & redhat Password. For checking the attributes we have following command #lsattr /etc/shadow #lsattr /etc/passwd See that “ia” is here in attributes. Create a LVM Snapshot of 10MB. In single user mode  For solving this problem we have take 7 steps. Solve NFS Server problem. 7.  At the booting time press “e” on Linux boot loader line Come at second line or on kernel line again press “e” Go last of the line press “spacebar” then press “s or 1” then enter. #chattr -ia /etc/shadow #chattr -ia /etc/passwd bs=1024 count=70 8.

file it . All important files like shadow. #chage -l root For changing the age of root user a/c we have to write following command #chage root Step 4: Check “/etc/securetty” file. Set your mode as graphical mode. Check information by following command.  For solving this problem we have to open following file. gshadow etc. If we find this directory then we have to delete this directory.” with “ + ”. If we didn’t delete “nologin” directory we can’t use Root user for login.d/login” file and check the following line auth [user_unknown=ignore success=ok ignore=ignore default=bad] pam_securetty. have the backup files Step 7: We have to find “nologin” directory in the “/etc”. Step 2: Change Root user password by using following command #passwd Step 3: Check Root User A/C expiration information. group. Step 6: Check #vi /etc/passwd file if the file is missing then we have to copy “/etc/passwd-” file and rename it as “/etc/passwd”. We find following entries in this file Console Vc/1 to Vc/11 Tty/1 to Tty/11 Check that the all entries is proper after this we have to check permission of the should be 600. For add this attributes we just replace “ .so We have to check both underline words. 2. Step 5: Open “/etc/pam.

24.  Now we open following file #vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 In this file we enter “GATEWAY= 172.24.254. Create a 100 MB partition of ext3 File System & mount permanent under /mnt/new directory.conf In this file we have to enter following information “nameserver 172.org  Both question solve simultaneously.  If the commands not working then we have to manually enter in the files.#vi /etc/inittab Now we change 3 into 5 in line no.254” 5.254. we have to run following command # netconfig In this command we have to enter “Default Gateway IP” and “Namesever IP” add.com 4.254.24. 1.my133t. Successfully ping server1. it may be 172. The files are following #vi /etc/resolve. After this run following command #service xfs restart #chkconfig xfs on Also check #system-config-display 3.254.example.254”. Successfully dig server1.  To create the partition we have to follow below steps . for solving.

ext3 /dev/hda10 #mkdir /mnt/new #vi /etc/fstab enter new partition details /dev/hda10 /mnt/new ext3 defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a 6.  For this we have to open “#vi /etc/exports” If we find space between IP & permission then just delete the space.#fdisk /dev/hda :n : : +100M :w Format partition #mkfs. Create a LVM Snapshot of 10MB. #lvextend -L +50M /dev/vg0/data #resize2fs /dev/vg0/data For checking #lvdisplay #df -h  Now we create snapshoot by using following command (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (write & quit) # partprobe or reboot . up to 300MB (280/320) LVM Mount under /home dir. Solve NFS Server problem.  For this we have to write down following command. Resize LVM (Logical volume size) – max. #service nfs restart #service portmap restart #chkconfig nfs on #chkconfig portmap on 7. Successfully run showmount –e localhost command for /data directory.

Set Userquota Problem.# lvcreate -L +10M -s -n databack /dev/vg0/data # mkdir /mnt/databack # mount /dev/vg0/databack /mnt/databack 8.80 Hard limit :.85  Means when we create 30kb file it takes 60 block and previous block is 20 then total is 80. Is 1kb and 2 block increase and used total used block is 20 then we define following limit Soft limit :.conf solve that. Now we enter soft & hard limit for the jane user by following command #edquota jane  For example if the size of dir. Major Troubleshooting 1. And check the size of the dir. User jane can Successfully run Following Command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=30 But can not run this command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=70  For solving the above problem we have to write following commands #repquota -a (For check the quota status)  Now we login through jane user and create a dir.  Now we check quota status again and find that how many block size increase.  Now 30 kb file created but 70 kb file show writing operation file message which we want. LABEL=/1 LABEL=/boot / ext3 Defaults Defaults 11 12 /boot ext3 . Problems in /etc/fstab & /etc/grub.  First we have to know what we define in the file and how we define.

in rescue mode “/” mounted under /mnt/sysimage.  Now system start into rescue mode.conf.conf Now open the file and edit it. Step 7: mount /dev/hdc9 /mnt/redhat/boot  Now we mount boot in new location to solve the grub.) Step 2: e2lable /dev/hdc9 (check label of part. Now we have to know what is the common problem occur in this file.0 after that write “Linux rescue askmethod”. . #chroot /mnt/sysimage  If this command successfully run then we can solve all problem by checking fstab & grub. normally they delete underline words which called labels.  Follow the steps for solving this problem  First insert 1 CD of RHEL 5.  Now we change the original position of the root with the following command.) Step 3: e2label /dev/hdc9 /boot1 (by using command we can change the label) Step 4: mkdir /mnt/redhat Step 5: mount /dev/hdc10 /mnt/redhat Step 6: open fstab file #vi /mnt/redhat/etc/fstab Check the label and correct it after that save it.  when we start our pc it shows “kernel panic error”.  If this command doesn't execute we follow these step Step 1: fdisk -l (show partition info.conf #vi /mnt/redhat/boot/grub/grub.  To solve this problem we used “rescue mode”.

Slogin RHCE Lab Setup . SCP.SESSION 21  RHCE Lab Setup  Telnet Server & Telnet Client  Security of Telnet Server (Th :-Xinetd)  SSH Server (Secure Shell) & SSH Client.

2 station2.254 SM 255.0.com IP 172.com IP 172.0 Server1.24.example. Xinetd daemon should be running properly.0.1 station1.255.254.Switch IP 172.example.  Telnet provides user authentication process.0.  In Linux.  Telnet based on TCP protocol & has port no 23.  Telnet is possible between Linux to Linux.3 station3.24. Linux to Windows & windows to windows.24. client always use server user for the authentication.example.example.0. Working of Telnet .com TELNET  Telnet is used for remote login but only in text mode.24.com IP 172.

Switch Forwarding Request Request for accessing IP 172. 3.0.24.24.0 no_access = 172.0.20 .0.0.d/telnet in file change “disable = no”  Step 3: #service xinetd restart  Step 4: #chkconfig xinetd on (for run level 2.24. we have to open following file #vi /etc/xinetd.0. If your system have the packages then write down following #telnet IP address of the server machine Login : user name of the server side Password : user password Advanced Telnet Server Configuration  For advanced conf. 5) Telnet Client side configuration : Just search package of the Telnet on client side.  Step 2: open file #vi /etc/xinetd. #telnet 172.24.24.d/telnet  In this file we have to enter following lines with in the brackets only_from = 172.255.0. Xinetd running properly.0/255.10 All user define here.10 172.10 Login : Password : Authentication Configuration of Telnet  Step 1: search Telnet package rpm -qa telnet*  Result: 2 packages should be there.

24. SSH Server  SSH are stands for secure shell server. Access-time :Time limitation for client m/c.3 Slogin Server/ Client  Slogin also use for remote login like SSH. # service xinetd restart Access thro. Now we can use root user in telnet.  SSH is used for remote login but supports only Linux to Linux.  SSH is based on TCP protocol and use port no.per_source = 4 access_times = 08:00-10:00 Details of the entered lines : only-from : Member of define Network Address can access telnet server. Telnet Server  How to allow root user to be used by telnet client m/c. SSH Server Configuration  Configuration :  Step 1: Search for package #rpm -qa openss* result: 2 packages  Step 2: restart the service #service sshd restart #chkconfig sshd on SSH Client Side  Client side : #ssh IP of the server #ssh y5@172. 22. . per-source : Maximum connection allowed from a client m/c.0. Step 1 : Open file “#vi /etc/securetty” Step 2 : Now enter in last of the file “pts/0” “pts/1”. no-access : The define IP address m/c can’t access telnet server.

0.  SCP is used to copy files & directory form one m/c to another m/c securely.3 # slogin y2@172.0.0.1  SCP stands for secure copy server. SCP for Files : #scp f11 172.24.24.4:/boot SCP for Directories : #scp -r hh 172. For accessing it we have to write following #slogin 172.24.24.0.5:/data .

Switch DHCP Server.SESSION 22  DHCP Server & DHCP Client (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)  NFS Server & NFS Client (Network File System) Intro.  In a Local Network we can select maximum 1  At server side DHCPD demon should be  Both DHCP client and Server performs  DHCP server has two type of database static database dynamic database DHCP Server Working DHCP Server. Dhcpd running Static: ip combine with mac address Dynamic: range 1-20 #netconfig Select DHCP #service network restart or #dhclient . Broadcasting operation.  DHCP based on broadcasting technology.  DHCP is used to assign static & dynamic IP address to client machine. running properly. of DHCP Server  DHCP is stand for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.  By using “netconfig” command we manually assign IP address to all system’s.

} }  For Dynamic IP we have to change following lines .0 { # --.255.conf  Step 3: open following file #vi/etc/dhcpd.0.5 #cp dhcpd.168.0. hardware ethernet 12:34:56:78:AB:CD.168.conf  Change in this file subnet 192.conf sample /etc/dhcpd. default-lease-time 21600.1.1.DHCP Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa dhcp* result: 3 package  Step 2: Go to the specific location #cd /usr/share/doc/dhcp-3.175. 192.168.0.1. 192.42.254.1.254. -18000.168. range dynamic-bootp 192. max-lease-time 43200. 255.1.0. "domain. fixed-address 207.0.org".0.0 netmask 255.com.255.255.redhat.255.default gateway option routers option subnet-mask option nis-domain option domain-name option domain-name-servers option time-offset #option ntp-servers #option netbios-name-servers # option netbios-node-type 2. 192.org".168.1.128 192.168. 192.168.1. "domain. # we want the nameserver to appear at a fixed address host ns { next-server marvin.

range dynamic-bootp 172.subnet 172.example. we have to write “ifconfig” and write down the mac. hardware ethernet 12:34:56:78:AB:CD.254. DHCP Client  Client Side Configuration :#netconfig select DHCP #service network restart or #system-config-network select DHCP #service network restart or #dhclient Intro of NFS Server  NFS stands for Network File Service.0.com  Third we change hardware Ethernet.0.0. add.  Second we change next-server into stationx.50  After saving the file we have to write down #service dhcpd restart  For static IP assign. We have to change the following lines host ns { next-server marvin.255. fixed-address 207. of the LAN card. .  For check the machine add.com".24.42.0 option domain-name “example. This IP is different to our range.redhat.24.175.0.  Forth now we assign a unique IP to the system.30 172.com.0 netmask 255.24. }  First we have to change ns into system name.

of all services.  Rpc.24. portmap. 2049. after that make the “data” directory.0.com(rw.mountd: Manage mounting & un-mounting of NFS Server shared directory.  NFS is a Remote Processor Call (RPC) based service.0/255. Client IP/ N/A Permission .rquotad. rpc.  Portmap: Manage port no. rpc.sync) this file.  NFS based on UDP Protocol & uses port no.255. NFS is used for directory sharing between Linux to Linux.example.rqoutad Portmap: portmap mount process NFS Server Configuration  Step 1: Search NFS Package #rpm -qa nfs* result: 2 packages  Step 2: open file “#vi /etc/exports” add in Ex: shared dir. rpc.mountd  Nfsd: Manage NFS Server. Linux to Unix and Unix to Linux.0.  Shared directories are listed in /etc/exports Working NFS Server Switch without authenticatio n permission NFS Server Nfs: nfsd.  At Server side following demons should be running properly nfsd. 172.rqoutad: Manage quota of NFS Server shared directory.rmount.  Rpc. /data /data NFS Server Save the file.0(rw. rpc.  At client side we used mount command to access server shared directory.sync) *.  NFS provides no authentication processor.

#mkdir /data #service nfs restart #service portmap restart #exportfs -a (refresh the exports file) #exportfs (show the shared dir.  In this file if we find space between IP & the Permission then just remove the space.0. On the given IP add.) #chkconfig nfs on # chkconfig portmap on NFS access on Client side #showmount -e 172.0.7:/data /p1  Permanent Mount #vi /etc/fstab 172.24.7 (by the help of this command we can see the shared dir.0. After save the file #service nfs restart #service portmap restart .24. M/C) NFS Client:  Temporary Mounting #mount 172.24.7:/data /p1 nfs defaults 0 0 Q: Run #showmount -e localhost Ans:  For this we have to check “/etc/exports” file.

Printer & Fax m/c of server.Linux to Windows  At client side (Linux M/C) we uses following command to access Samba Server shared Directories. Windows to Linux.  Samba Server provides authentication.SESSION 24  Samba Server & Samba Client  Samba Server Configuration in Windows  Share File & Directory B/W Windows & Linux Samba Server  Samba Server is used for directory shearing between Linux to Linux. #smbclient #mount Samba Server Working .  But in case of Linux Server & Windows client.  At Linux samba Server side following demons should be running properly. Windows to Linux.  Samba Server uses SMB Protocol. then a client m/c can access server shared directory user home directory. smbd :.Linux to Linux nmbd :.(Server Message Blocks)  In case of Linux Samba Server and Linux client M/C then a Client M/C can access only Server share directories.

Switch SAMBA Server. all user’s define here Linux Client Windows Client Unix Client ] Samba Server Configuration Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa samba result: 3 packages Step 2: open file “#vi /etc/samba/smb. Home 3.10. Which we want to share with others. .0. Add. Myshared  In “Global” section we have to change following contents Workgroup = Name of the group Hostallow = 172. info. /data.  After that we change the “path” actual dir.conf” in this file we find 4 type of section.  We don’t want to made change’s in “Home” ”Printer” directory. Printer 4. 172.24. nmbd running properly. one can archive from client side. No.  We have to define ”valid user” by the help of these users we can access the samba server from client side. smbd.24.  Now we copy last example of “Myshared” section and paste it in the last of the file. 1. Global 2.  In “Myshare” section we have to change following contains.  First we change “samba share name” we define this within a [] brackets.  We have to change the “writeable” permission by this client write in that directory. Source dir.

Through IE or not.24.0.0.  After that create new user & also assign password. Should be on destination add. We have to know that actual dir.  After that we change “browseable” option we assign that client access shared dir. After that enter username and password. We have to write #smbclient //172. #smbpasswd -a k1 Now enter password.9/redhat -U k1 #mount -t cifs //172.  For check the Samba Server we have following Checking tools: #testparm #smbclient -L Samba Server IP Samba Client  Samba Client (Linux M/C):  For checking share dir we have to write #smbclient -L Samba Server IP  For accessing the share dir. After that we change the “createmask” value by this we can assign default umask value for creation by client.  At last we change “write_list” option by this we can assign that which group or group members access that directories.9/redhat /mnt/ -0 username=k1  Samba Client (Windows M/C):  In windows client m/c click on my network place now right click and click on search computer. Samba Server / Client  Window Samba Server & Linux Client .  After that we save the file.  Enter the samba server IP add.24. #useradd k1 # passwd k1  Restart service now #service smb restart #chkconfig smb on  Now we convert simple user into samba user.

. On windows so its automatically become Samba Server #smbclient -L 192.24. yppasswd: NIS user password info.20/c -U administrator #mount -t cifs //172.0.  NIS client login at local M/C but uses server user’s. ypserv: start and manage NIS & NFS.24. Linux to Unix and Unix to Linux.  At server side following demons should be running properly. Share dir.20 #smbclient //172.20/c /mnt/ -0 username = administrator #password = redhat SESSION 25  NIS Server & NIS Client (Network Information Service)  NTP Server & Client (Network Time Protocol) Intro of NIS Server  NIS stands for Network Information Server.  NIS is possible between Linux to Linux.24. ypbind: used to attach with NIS & NFS server autofs: used to auto mount user home dir.  At client side following demons should be running properly.0.  NIS is a centralize user authentication server & centralize user database server. manager  All demons of the NFS Server.  NIS known as “YP” but “YP” is the tread mark of the yellow pages that’s why it name change in to NIS.0.

nfsd. ypserv.  Slave NIS server has a backup database of Master Server and has a connection with Master Server.  Tamp.0.10 autofs NIS Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa yp* result: 3 packages  Step 2: How to set NIS domain name. yppasswdd. rpc.10. only members of NIS domain name can access server user’s. Setting: #nisdomainname (for searching) #nisdomainname CCNA  Permanent setting: open following file #vi /etc/sysconfig/network In file NISDOMAIN = CCNA  Now we cerate new user .0. In NIS we define a NIS domain name.rmountd.24. rpc.rquotad.  Type of NIS server Master NIS Server Slave NIS Server  Master NIS server has main database of user. NISdomain= CCNA all user’s define here #setup [ ] NIS Nisdomain= CCNA IP = 172. portmap running properly. NIS Server Working Switch NIS Server.24. 172.

#setup Authentication Use NIS Domain Name 172. #cd /usr/lib/yp # .0.10 ok  Now our M/C become NIS Client & member of NIS domain name.0(rw.sync) #service nfs restart # service portmap restart NIS Client  On the Client side we have to write down following command.0.24. Rather then three words.0. To access home dir we use Autofs Service. #cd /var/yp #vi Makefile (:set nu: for set number before line) Change in line no.255. next . #vi /etc/exports In this file we have to write following /home 172.  After saving the file we write #make  Now we set current M/C NIS Master Server. By NFS server. 109 all : Passwd group  Note: Erase all info.#useradd h1 #passwd h1  Now we bind user database with NIS domain name.0/255.24. but at client side a user can’t access it’s home dir./ypinit -m After that press “Ctrl+D” then “Y” #service ypserv restart #service yppasswdd restart  Now we share /home dir.

misc (this file define server details) After that open other file #vi /etc/auto. #ypcat passwd #getent passwd NTP Server  Network Time Protocol :  Workstation hardware clocks tend to drift over time without correction  Many application require accurate timing  Time synchronization makes system logs easier to analyze  NTP counters the drift by manipulating the length of a second  If the system's time is behind the average of the time servers the second is made shorter so that the system clock races towards the correct time. NTP Server Configuration  For NTP Server we have to login through GUI Mode.10 #service ntpd restart  After saving the file we have to write down following line.24.  Now we enter following command on the terminal #service-config-date  Now select “Enable network time protocol” clock add is the Server IP add.0.  However if the time differs to greatly.master in file add a line /home /etc/auto. Thus the time difference is reduced gently without disturbing other applications.misc Add a line G1 -fstype = nfs 172. #ntpdate -u 172.Autofs configuration : Open file #vi /etc/auto.8:/home/* #service autofs restart  How to check available user on server?  By using following command we know available user name.0. . In this case the clock must be reset manually with ntpdate. NTP ceases to work.24.

html. video. Multiple case’s for virtual web hosting : .  For Web Server DNS Server or local database server should be running properly. images. objects.  What is Web site?  Collections of the web pages with some database is called web site.links. manage a web site & manage database of that web site.asp etc.  What is Web server?  Web server is a M/C that is used to host a website. audio. hyperlinks etc. Linux :. index.IE.SESSION 26  Web Server & Web Client.  Each web site has a home page for example index.  Web server uses HTTP protocol & port no 80.  At client site we use web browser to access a site like windows :. Secure Web Server  Web Site Accessing in TUI & GUI Intro of Web Server  What is Webpage?  Webpage is a collection of the text.  Web browser convert programming language into human readable format.  We can host multiple websites on a single web server that is known as virtual web hosting.

com-error_log CustomLog logs/com-access_log common  Now paste it in the last of the file.0.com ServerName dummy-host. now made following changes in pasted lines.0.example.0.example.example. Web Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa http* result: 2 packages  Case 1:  Step 2: open following file #vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd. 971 “Name Virtual Host” after this we have to write our system IP address or DNS IP address.24.com  Case 2: In this case we host multiple site on Web Server and assign different IP address to all site with the help of aliases.example.24.  After that we have to copy last 7 lines. By this we can assign different IP’s to multiple site’s and host multiple site on a Web Server.7 eth0:2 172.8 eth0:3 172.1 site 1 site 2 site 3 site 4 site 5 etc.5 eth0:1 172. eth0:0 172.example.24.conf :set nu -> set number before line Edit line no.0.0. Ex: 172.com DocumentRoot /www/docs/host. #<VirtualHost *:80> <VirtualHost yahoo.com> #</VirtualHost .com ErrorLog logs/host.24. #<VirtualHost *:80> # # # # # ServerAdmin webmaster@host.24.9  Aliases: Aliases is a process where we virtually convert one LAN card into multiple LAN cards. Case 1: In this case we host one site on Web Server and assign IP address with hostname.0.10 yahoo.24.example. Ex: eth0 172.

example. Made 2 more website and apply different IP’s in the place of the site name.html (:wq in this file) Now open #vi /etc/hosts (for local database server) write down following lines in above file 172. Note : remove comment and enter your site name like above example # DocumentRoot /www/docs/host.example. always made your site in the “/var/www” directories.com> <VirtualHost 172.24.com station10”  Means of line that the 172.com  Case 2: open following file #vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.0.0.. After that #service httpd restart  For accessing the site we have to write down #links yahoo.10 yahoo.example.example. like <VirtualHost yahoo.com station10 “172.example. #</VirtualHost> </VirtualHost>  Note : remove comment and complete the web server configuration.10 yahoo.24.10 is a site IP address and site address is yahoo.24. This we do for local database management by doing this we can access above site in a network.24.0.example.com and station10 is for system where site hosted.conf Apply comment on “Name Virtual Host” by using #.0.com DocumentRoot /var/www/html  Note : remove comment and enter your site destination add.7> system hostname in which web site . # ServerName dummy-host.example.example.com ServerName station10.com  Note : remove comment and enter your hosted.  Now we go to the destination of the site which given in the file and made following file #cd /var/www/html #vi index.

 How we create aliases? For creating aliases we have to write down following command #netconfig -d eth0:0 After that apply new IP add. After that #service httpd restart SESSION 27 & 28  Squid Proxy Server  Allow & Deny Web Sites  VSFTP Server (Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  Uploading & Downloading Through System or Non System User & Anonymous User Intro of Proxy Server  Proxy Server is used for internet connection sharing & provides security.Also change the destination add. (Network Address Translator)  By using Proxy Server Private IP add. And Public IP add.  Proxy Server uses TCP protocol & Port no.  By Proxy Server we can limit bandwidth for client M/C. this process call NAT. to Private IP add.  In Linux “squid” software is used as Proxy Server. Mozila  Proxy Server also known as NAT. Windows -> IE . Now open #vi /etc/hosts and change the IP of the sites.  At client side we define IP address & port no. Linux -> Links. of a proxy server in a web browser. 3128. Translate into Public IP add. Proxy Server Working . allow and deny websites & can allow & deny nodes to access Proxy Server. server name remain same. on the duplicate LAN card by using #netconfig command.

24.0.0/255. . before line  How to set Proxy Port No Edit line no.conf :set nu -> set no. port no 3128 yahoo Rediff hotmail Private IP Proxy Server Configuration Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa squid* result: 1 package Step 2: Open following file #vi /etc/squid/squid.Public IP (Real IP) Req. Forward Switch Internet conn.0. 73 http_port 3128  How to set Cache Memory? Edit line no 738 Cache_mem 50MB  How to allow a domain to access Proxy Server? Copy line no 2396 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line acl localhost src 127. squid running properly.255.255. 255 acl p1 src 172.255.1/255.0.0 Note: here p1 is a group name which have allow Network add.0. PROXY Server.

com .0. .  FTP connection possible between Linux to Linux.  FTP is used for file downloading & uploading files and directories. FTP Client M/C can uses following type users 1.com  Note: Here p2 is group of deny domain name  After that Copy line no 2524 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line http_access deny manager http_access deny p2  Note: we have to write this line before the allow line  Now restart the service #service squid restart  Squid testing tool: #squid -z Intro of FTP Server  FTP is stands for File Transfer Protocol. System or Non system user: by using above type user’s user name & password then client access complete system.  In Linux we VSFTP software as a FTP Server.  How to deny Website for Proxy Client? Copy line no 2398 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line acl to_localhost dst 127. Linux to Windows and Windows to Linux.0.(Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  FTP use TCP Protocol & Port no. to access the internet connection.0/8 acl p2 dstdomin . 20 & 21. Anonymous user: by using anonymous username and any password the client access only /var/ftp directory contains.hotmail.yahoo. After that Copy line no 2524 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line http_access allow manager localhost http_access allow p1 Note: Here we allow p1 Network add. 2.  FTP client uses “get” command for downloading and uses “put” command for uploading.

 FTP client always uses FTP Server user’s & cerate a communication channel between client & server.conf :set nu -> no. FTP Server Working Switch FTP Server. At client side we uses following command #ftp IP of Server Login:Pass:ftp >  At server site “vsftpd” demon should be running properly. before lines Comment out all following lines and edit as we want 12 anonymous_enable=YES 15 local_enable=YES 18 write_enable=YES 22 local_umask=022 27 anon_upload_enable=YES 31 anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES . 172.24. all user’s define here Linux Client #ftp IP of Server Login:Pass:ftp > Windows Client FTP Server Configuration Step 1: search package #rpm -qa vsftp* result: 1 package Step 2: open following file #vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.0.10. vsftpd running properly.

FTP Authentication  How to deny a simple user to access by FTP Client M/C?  Open file . Where you want to download that file #ftp 172.0.0.10 ftp://g1@172.  Make files and dir.24. #service vsftpd restart #adduser g1 #passwd g1  FTP Client : #ftp 172.0.0.10  In graphical ftp://172.10 ftp > put f4 ftp > quit  Anonymous : only upload in /var/ftp/* dir.46 chown_uploads=YES 47 chown_username=daemon 48 anon_umask=022 Note : we have to change in line no 47 add “daemon” remove other entry and we have to add line no. in /var/ftp for uploading and downloading.0.10 FTP Client  Downloading of a file: First come to destination dir.10 Login: Password : ftp > cd / ftp > get file name ftp > quit Uploading a file:Simple User: simple user can upload only in it’s home dir.24.24.24. Go to the source add. then #ftp 172.24. 48.

Mutt  IMAP-SSL Intro of Mail Server  Mail Server is used to store mails. Mozila Mail Mail Server Working .#vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers Insert name of the user in this file after that #service vsftpd restart  How to allow root user to be access by FTP Client?  Open file #vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers remove root user entry after that open another file #vi /etc/vsftpd/user_list remove root user entry from this file too after that #service vsftpd restart SESSION 29 & 30  Sendmail Server  IMAP-POP3 Server :.  Send Mail uses TCP protocol & port no. check mail etc. (Internet Message Access Protocol/Post Office Protocol 3)  IMAP use port no 143 and POP3 use 110 port no.(Mail Transport Agent)  MUA (Mail User Agent) MUA is used to create new mails. edit.  In Linux we use “dovecot” software as IMAP/POP3 Server and “send mail” software used as Mail Server.  Send Mail also known as MTA.  All user fetch mails from Mail Server for fetching mails from the Mail Server we use IMAP/POP3 Server. forward.  Mail Server has all user mails with Inbox. Sent Items & Outbox. 25. Windows : MS Outlook Linux : Mutt.

mc  We have to comment line no.cf  After that #service sendmail restart .cf” file by using “macro” #m4 /etc/mail/sendmail. Mail Server + NIS Server Mail Server + NIS Server TP SM MTA SMTP MUA Inbox Outbox Sent Mail Do Inbox ve co tS Outbox /W Sent Mail MUA IMAP/POP3 Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa dovecot* result: 1 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/dovecot.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.24.1 143/110 Mail Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa sendmail* result: 4 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/mail/sendmail.0. 116 with the help of “dnl #”  Now we put all changes into “sendmail.conf  We have to remove 17 no line comment after that #service dovecot restart #chkconfig dovecot on  How to check IMAP/POP3 server. For Mail Server DNS Server should be running properly. #telnet 172.

 Add a new user #adduser k1 #passwd k1  For sending mail we have to write following file #mutt Mail Server Authentication  How to deny a node or a domain to send a mail on Mail Server.org Mail Forwarding  Mail Forwarding: For Example we want to forward all mails of t1 user to t2 user.3 y1@my133t.25 Connect:10. t2 #newaliases IMAP-SSL Server  IMAP-SSL is stands for Internet Message Access Protocol-Secure Socket Layer.  Open a file #vi /etc/mail/access 172. For this we have to open #vi /etc/aliases Go to bottom of the file and add one line t1: t1.pem  Define entries according to question.0.  After saving the file write down a command REJECT RELAY REJECT OK REJECT . IMAP-SSL Configuration  Go to the following destination add.pem #rm dovecot.pem #make dovecot.example. #cd /etc/pki/tls/certs #openssl x509 -subject -noout < dovecot.com 172.2 *.  For IMAP-SSL we have to create a certificate.  By using IMAP-SSL a user can access any other user account securely.24.

example. 87 & 88 enter destination add of the certificate and save the file. Shared Printer 2. Two type of printer we have. Working of Printer Server:- .com}  By above command login user can access t1 user mail account. 1.  Network Printer : This type of printer directly connected with HUB & Switch each have a unique IP Add.#vi /etc/dovecot. Network Printer  Shared Printer: A printer directly attach with a pc & shared through out network by that pc is called Shared Printer.conf IMAP-SSL Client  Now made changes in line no. SESSION 31  Printer Server & Printer Client  Syslog Server  VNC Server Intro of Printer Server  Printer is a combination of print devices & it’s driver software. & Port no. After that #service dovecot restart  On Client Side: #mutt -f {t1@station1.

#system-config-printer Printer Server Configuration  Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)-> Forward->select “LPT #1”>Forward->select “Makes” of the printer->Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Printer Client  Checking Tools: #lpq-> show default printer status  Printing Command: #lpr kk-> print file name  Remove Job: #lprm 5-> remove id no.Switch Printer Server Linux Client Windows Client Unix Client Shared Printer: In GUI mode write down following command on terminal. job Printer Client:  Case 1: If Printer Server Linux & Clients are also Linux #system-config-printer Printer Server Configuration .

 Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “LPD/LPR Host or Printer” ->enter Hostname/IP->enter Printer name (Pre.) -> Forward->select “Makes” of the printer ->Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver ->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on  Case 2: Linux Printer Server & Client Windows We share Printer by using Samba Server.  Case 3: when Server is Windows & Client are Linux #system-config-printer Shared Server  Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any) ->Forward->select “Windows Printer via SAMBA”->enter IP of Server/printer name ->Forward->select “Makes” of the printer -> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver>Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Network Printer #system-config-printer Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “AppSoceket/HP jet Direct” ->enter IP of Server/printer name->Forward->select “Makes” of the printer-> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Printer Client Configuration according to exam #system-config-printer Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “IPP”->enter printer name-> Forward->select “Generic” of the printer-> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply Checking Printer Server  Click on Print Test Page after it Open web browser in add. Bar http://server3.example.com/Printers Result Station3 #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on 14k bytes received

Log Server  Log files is used to store user authentication information, service related information, booting related information etc.  Log file define in “/var” directory.  Main Log file of the Linux is “/var/log/message” #tail -f /var/log/message #vi /var/log/secure  In above file we know the login time of the user.  All log file details define in “vi/etc/syslog.conf” file VNC Server  VNC stands for Virtual Name Computing.  By using VNC we can access remote desktop.  How to allow VNC settings. System->Preference->Remote Desktop Now check mark on allow other user then ok.  How to access Remote Access M/C. #vncviewer IP of the Remote Access M/C

SESSION 32  Tcp_Wrappers - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny  PAM – Pluggable Authentication Module  Ipv6 Configuration, RADVD Server TCP Wrappers Authentication  TCP Wrappers provides service based security.  TCP Wrapper control by two files #vi /etc/host.allow #vi /etc/host.deny

 Deny only pc1 to access Telnet Server. #vi /etc/host.deny Service : 172.24.0.1 in.telnetd : 172.24.0.1  By the help of this file we can manage following services in.telnetd, vsftpd, sshd and nfsd.  Allow only pc one to access Telnet Server. in.telnetd : ALL EXCEPT 172.24.0.1  Deny all nodes to access SSH Server sshd : ALL  Deny all members of my133t.org domain but allow example.com to access FTP Server. vsftpd : ALL EXCEPT 172.24.0.0/16 Or vsftpd : .my133t.org EXCEPT .example.com  Note: In TCP Wrappers we have to use one file at a time, we can’t use both files simultaneously. PAM  PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication Module.  PAM provides user based security.  Deny all simple user to access a system. For this just write down following command #touch /etc/nologin  Deny root user to access a system. For this #mkdir /etc/nologin

 IP format is following 0000:F8b:0011:06AB:BA00:A80:BCAD:0001  In Linux IPV6 defines by using prefix and MAC add. IPV6  IPV6 use 128 bits for addressing. Add previously file created address. Allow Jane user to access your SSH server Create a file #vi /etc/ssh_access  In this file enter user name which want to allow Open file #vi /etc/pam.  Linux Client fetches prefix from Router Advanced Demon Server RADVD Server Configuration  Step 1: Search Package #rpm -qa radv* result: 1 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/radvd.d/sshd now change in pasted line First change the sense=allow/deny and change file destination add. of LAN Card.d/vsftpd Copy 3rd line of the file And inset this in the following file #vi /etc/pam.conf we have to uncomment all the lines in this file #service radvd restart we have to open following file #cd /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all #vi forwarding For changing 0(zero) into 1 we have to write following command #echo “1” > forwarding Client Side: first we have to open following file .

.#vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 In file we have to add following IPV6INIT=Yes IPV6-AOTOCONF=yes #service network restart  For check the IPV6 we have following tools #ip -6 addr show #ping6 IP no. of the M/C #ipconfig -a Session 33  IP Forwarding .conf  Firewall – Iptables  Basic About SELINUX (Security Enhanced Linux) IP Forwarding  How to enable IP Forwarding Permanently./etc/sysctl. of the M/C #ifconfig IP no.

Firewall Working  Packet header information always check with the topmost rule of a Firewall.  If packet information header match with topmost rule then define operation perform on that packets and further no matching take place. IPTABLES:  Iptables is command line firewall also known as packet filtering firewall. -I :.  In Linux we use Iptables software as a firewall.Append a rule -L :.  Iptables use’s Network Layer In Iptables we have to know some following characters.  By using Firewall we can stop un-authorizes package but can’t stop virus attack.List all rules . After this we have to write #service network restart # chkconfig network on Firewall  Firewall is a single security point of the network that filters un wanted packets.  If the packet header information don’t match with top most rule then packet skip first rule & match with next rule.  Iptables is a command line firewall. By this we can enable IP Forwarding.  Iptables uses Network Layer.Insert a rule -A :.Open following file #vi /etc/sysctl.conf In line no 6 we have to change 0 into 1. until a match is made.  If packet header info don’t match with any given rule then Linux firewall by default allow the packet.

24.  SELINUX define either restricted control or un-confined control.24.-D :.  SELINUX has set of rules called policies that determine how strike the control.REJECT/ACCEPT/DROP  Allow only members of example.0.  We have to write following for this type of limitation #iptable -I INPUT -s ! 172.Delete a rule -F :. For this we have to write following #iptable -I INPUT -s 172.24.Source port no.24.1 -d 172.0.Source IP Address -d :.Destination port no.10 -p tcp --dport 23 -REJECT/DROP  How to restore rules.24.0. #iptable -I INPUT -s 172.Flash a rule Chains :INPUT OUTPUT FORWARD -s :. -j :.com to access IMAP & POP3 Server and deny member of my133t.10 -p icmp -j REJECT/DROP  Deny pc1 to access Telnet Server.Destination IP Address -p :.0.1 -d 172.org domain. . --dport :.0. #iptable-restore < /etc/sysconfig/iptables SELINUX  SELINUX stands for Security Enhanced Linux.10 -p tcp --dport 143 -j REJECT #service iptable save # chkconfig iptable on  Deny pc1 to Ping Telnet Server.0/16 -d 172.24.0.Protocol --sport :.

#system-config-securitylevel  SELINUX define following levels user : role : type : sensitivity : category #ls -z -> to check Security levels #getenforce -> to check SELINUX unable/disable #setenforce 1 -> for set Enable #system-config-securitylevels -> in GUI mode  How to change the context of a directory? #chcon -t var_t zzz #restorecon zzz Note: for running the Iptables properly we have to write down following command after saving the Iptables #restorecon -R /etc/sysconfig  Boolean Value : we have to change Boolean Value when SELINUX is in Enforcing mode And we want to run specific services. Permissive and Disable.. #getsebool -a | grep smbd #setseboot service name on/off  When SELINUX is in enforcing mode we have to set following services Samba Home Dir. SELINUX define three level of control Enforcing. Anon Ftp Upload. NIS client .

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