RHCE Session 1  RHCE Certification Level  History of Unix, Features of Unix & Distribution  History of Linux, Features of Linux & Flavors

 About GNU, FSF & GPL  Difference B/W Unix-Linux  RHCE Course Details Session 2  Linux Architecture ( Kernel, Shell)  Difference B/W Linux & Windows  Types of Red Hat Linux  Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  Types of Linux Installation • • Session 3 & 4  HDD Basic, Types of HDD Partitions  Boot loader & MBR  Types of Boot loader In Linux  Types of File Systems In Linux & Windows  Difference B/W ext2-ext3, Fat-Ntfs  Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Practical Installation ( LAB ) Through CDROM – Text & GUI Mode Through Network – Text & GUI

Session 5  Linux & Windows File Structure  All Linux System Directories Under /  Installation According to RHCE EXAM  Types of Modes in Linux – 1) TUI 2) GUI  Types of User – 1) System 2) Non-System  Types of Desktop – 1) GNOME 2) KDE 3) TWM  Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Session 6  Basic Commands In Linux pwd, cd, fdisk, df, du, hostname, dnsdomainname, ls, mkdir, rmdir, rm, touch, cat, ifconfig, man, info, --help, cp, mv, cal, Date, logout, exit Shutting Down Command – init 0, poweroff, halt, shutdown Restarting Command – init 6, reboot, shutdown, ctrl+alt+del Session 7  Vi Editor & Its Operations – Copy, Cut, Paste, Delete, Undo, Redo, Search in forward-Reverse, Set numbers & Others   Mounting & Un mounting of CDROM, USB, Floppy & Windows Partitions Hostname Setting, IP Address Setting, ifup, ifdown Session 8  Types of Runlevel, Single User Mode, /etc/inittab file  switchdesk & startx Command, Access GNOME, KDE, TWM  Compressions-Decompressions, Archiving

Session 9  About Inodes, Soft & Hard Links  After installation Partition Creation Creation of Ext3 Partitions Creation of Vfat Partitions Creation of Swap Partitions Session 10  Package Installation in Text & Graphical Mode ( RPM )  Package Installation Through YUM Session 11 & 12  User & Group Administration  Permission Bits ( rwx ), Suid, Sgid & Sticky Bits  Access Control List (ACL) Session 13  User Quota  Job Scheduler – Crontab Session 14  Process Management  RAID – RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5  How to Create RAID during Installation & after Installation

Session 15  LVM ( Logical Volume Manager )  How to Create LVM during Installation & after Installation  Resize of LVM  LVM Snapshot, Backup & Restore Session 16 & 17  Imp Files In Linux /etc/inittab, /etc/fstab, /etc/mtab, /etc/grub.conf, /etc/passwd, /etc/group, /etc/shadow, /etc/gshadow, /etc/securetty, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts, /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny, /etc/sysconfig/network, /etc/pam.d/login  Basic shell Scripting Session 18, 19 & 20  Minor & Major Troubleshooting  Rescue Mode Problems  EXAM 1 Session 21  RHCE Lab Setup  Telnet Server & Telnet Client  Security of Telnet Server (Th :-Xinetd)  SSH Server (Secure Shell) & SSH Client, SCP, Slogin Session 22

 DHCP Server & DHCP Client (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)  NFS Server & NFS Client (Network File System) Session 23  DNS Server & DNS Client (Domain name Service)  Local DNS Configuration /etc/hosts file Session 24  Samba Server & Samba Client  Samba Server Configuration in Windows  Share File & Directory B/W Windows & Linux Session 25  NIS Server & NIS Client (Network Information Service)  NTP Server & Client (Network Time Protocol) Session 26  Web Server & Web Client, Secure Web Server  Web Site Accessing in TUI & GUI Session 27 & 28  Squid Proxy Server  Allow & Deny Web Sites

 VSFTP Server & VSFTP Server (Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  Uploading & Downloading Through System or Non System User & Anonymous User Session 29 & 30  Sendmail Server  IMAP-POP3 Server :- Mutt  IMAP-SSL Session 31  Printer Server & Printer Client  Syslog Server  VNC Server Session 32  Tcp_Wrappers - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny  PAM – Pluggable Authentication Module  Ipv6 Configuration, RADVD Server Session 33  IP Forwarding - /etc/sysctl.conf  Firewall – Iptables  Basic About SELINUX (Security Enhanced Linux) Session 34

ADSL Setup ( KPPP )  Mp3 Songs. GEdit. Graphical Tools  How to Create & Run C. Movie Player Installation  CD Writing & Acrobat Reader  Open Office. XEN With Virtualization :Installation of Packages. Installation of Virtual Operating System Session 35  Modem Installation. Defining Default Boot Loader. JAVA & SHELL Program  EXAM 2 .

Features of Unix & Distribution  History of Linux. FSF & GPL  Difference B/W Unix-Linux  RHCE Course Details Redhat Linux Certification RHCA RHCSS RHCE RHCT RHCE Course Modules ARCHITECT SECURITY SPECIALIST ENGINEER TECNICIAN .SESSION 1  RHCE Certification Level  History of Unix. Features of Linux & Flavors  About GNU.

S/W = OS OPERATING SYSTEM AIX HP/UX SUN SOLARIS . Redhat Linux Basic (RH 033)  Redhat Linux System Administration (RH 133)  Redhat Linux Network & Security Admin (RH 253) History of Unix  1969 BELL LAB’S DEVELOP A “PLATEFORM INDEPENDENT “ OPERATING SYSTEM THAT IS KNOWN AS “UNIX” Features of Unix  PLATEFORM INDEPENDENT  OPEN SOURCE BUT NOT FREEWARE  SMALL & SIMPLE PROGRAMME TO USE  ALL HARDWARE DEFINE IN FORM OF FILES  EXECUTION OF MULTIPLE COMMAND IS POSSIBLE BY USING PIPE ( | ) SYMBOL Distribution of Unix COMPANY  IBM  HP  SUN MICROSYSTEM History of Linux  IN 1991 A STUDENT LINUS TORVALDS DEVELOP A KERNEL WITH THE HELP OF UNIX PROGRAMMER THAT IS KNOWN AS “LINUX” KERNEL + SHELL + APPL.

OPERATING SYSTEM RHEL SUSE MANDRAK YELLOW DOG OPEN LINUX GNU FSF (FREE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION) GPL (GENERAL PUBLIC LICENCE) UNIX V/S LINUX .Features of Linux  PLATFORM INDEPENDENT  OPEN SOURCE & FREEWARE  SMALL & SIMPLE PROGRAMME TO USE  EVERYTHING DEFINE IN FORM OF FILE  WE CAN EXECUTE MULTIPAL COMMAND Distribution of Linux COMPANY  REDHAT  NOVEL  MANDRAKE  YELLOW DOG  OPEN How Linux Become Free  IN 1992 LINUS TORVALDS SUBMITS HIS PROJECT IN AN ORGANIZATION WHICH KNOWN AS “GNU”.

Shell)  Difference B/W Linux & Windows  Types of Red Hat Linux  Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  Types of Linux Installation • • Through CDROM – Text & GUI Mode Through Network – Text & GUI Linux Architecture HARDWARE KERNEL COMPILERS COMMANDS & TOOL APP.UNIX LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM KERNEL OPEN SOURCE BUT NOT FREEWAREOPEN SOURCE &FREEWARE SESSION 2  Linux Architecture ( Kernel. S/W DATABASE PACKAGE SHELL USER What Is Kernel & Shell .

0 3) RHEL RHEL 3.0 Redhat Linux 9.0 a) AS b) WS c) ES Feodra 7.0 Redhat Linux 6.Shell is a text based program.0 a) Server b) Client . WINDOWS V/S LINUX LINUX KERNEL WINDOWS OPRATING SYSTEM OPEN SOURCE & FREEWARE N/A VIRUS PROOF MULTIPLE DESKTOP INBUILT APP.0 Redhat Linux 8.0 Redhat Linux 4.  Shell . HDD etc & used to manage Processes.0 Feodra 5.0 RHEL 5. Users can only interact with shell.0 - Feodra 3.0 Feodra 6.0 Redhat Linux 7.0 Redhat Linux 5. manage I/O devices.0 RHEL 4. Kernel is used to interact with hardware. RAM. Kernel ..S. S/W NO SINGLE DESKTOP NO Type of Redhat Linux 1) Redhat Linux Redhat Linux 3. then shell interacts with kernel & finally kernel can interact with hardware.0 2) Fedora Feodra 4. manage resources like CPU.Kernel is main part of an O.

Hardware Requirements for Linux Installation  PIII .Any  RAM .10 GB  CDROM Types of Linux Installation  Installation through CDROM (All Linux CD’s required)  Installation through Network (Only Linux 1st CD required) • • • NFS .Min 800 Mhz  PIV .Network File System FTP .boot: Press Enter b) For TUI Installation -.File Transfer Protocol HTTP .256 MB (512 MB)  HDD .Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Installation through CDROM  Insert Linux CD 1st & set cdrom 1st boot device • • a) For GUI Installation -.boot: linux text  Create Following Partition Manually through fdisk • •  a) / (ext3)  b) swap (swap) 5000MB 2*RAM Size A) Minimal Installation Method .

24. Nameserver.boot: linux text askmethod  Select Installation Method (NFS)  Define Local m/c IP address information IP Address : 172.254.24.0.24.X Subnet Mask : 255.0 Primary Nameserver : 172. Subnet Mask.0.254.254 Default Gateway : 172.boot: linux askmethod b) For TUI Installation -.254  Define IP address of NFS Server & directory name .255. Gateway & FQDN Information  Define Time Zone (Aisa/calculta)  Define root user password  Select Packages for installation • After it installation starts & changes CD’s Installation through Network  Insert Linux CD 1st & set cdrom 1st boot device • • For GUI Installation -. (B) Advanced Installation Method  a) /boot b) / c) /usr d) /home e) /var f) swap (ext3) 100MB (ext3) 1000MB (ext3) 5000MB (ext3) 500MB (ext3) 500MB (swap) 2*RAM Size  Define IP Address.

 Create Following Partition Manually through fdisk • A) Minimal Installation Method a) / b) swap (ext3) 5000MB (swap) 2*RAM Size (B) Advanced Installation Method a) /boot b) / c) /usr d) /home e) /var f) swap (ext3) 100MB (ext3) 1000MB (ext3) 5000MB (ext3) 500MB (ext3) 500MB (swap) 2*RAM Size  Define IP Address.24.  Gateway & FQDN Information  Define Time Zone (Aisa/calculta)  Define root user password  Select Packages for installation Now no need to change CD’s. client automatically fetches data from server. if server is ready then client connects to server m/c & fetches all data from server directory. Subnet Mask.Server : 172. .254.254 or Name of Server Path : /var/ftp/pub  Then press ok Now Client M/C contact with server m/c. Nameserver.

Primary Master hdb . sdd for SATA.Secondary Master hdd . hab. Fat-Ntfs  Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Practical Installation ( LAB ) HDD Basic  hda.Primary Slave hdc . SCSI & USB drive. • • • • hda .secondary Slave . hdd for IDE or PATA HDD. Types of HDD Partitions  Boot loader & MBR  Types of Boot loader In Linux  Types of File Systems In Linux & Windows  Difference B/W ext2-ext3. sdc.  Sda. sdb.SESSION 3 & 4  HDD Basic. hdc.

of tracks.In Linux 1 to 4 numbers are reserved for primary & extended partitions & logical always starts from 5.In a HDD we can create max.  Example: hda1.In a HDD we can create maximum 1 extended partition.Types of HDD Partitions  Primary Partition (Booting Partitions)  Extended Partitions (Define Space for logical partitions)  Logical Partitions under Extended Partitions (Used for data storage)  Note . MBR is used to store bootloader & booting files information. File system is used to define no. MBR is the zero or first sector of a HDD. 4 primary partitions but after that we can’t create extended & logical partitions. hda5. we format the HDD drive. hda6 means 2 primary.. sectors. bootloader installed into MBR. heads etc.0) LILO . hda3.Linux Loader File System & Types of File system in Windows & Linux  File System is known as indexing.  Note . hda2.  Bootloader is a software that is used to define list of all installed O. 1 extended & 2 logical partition MBR & Bootloader  MBR stand for Master Boot Record. Bootloader in Linux GRUB . cylinder. Types of HDD Partitions  Note . Windows Linux .S. For defining file system.Grant Universal Boot Loader (Default in RHEL 5.

   FAT 16 FAT 32 NTFS RAID VFAT EXT2. EXT3 Swap LVM Difference B/W ext2-ext3 EXT2 EXT3 JOURLANING FEATURES DYNAMIC INODES FILE SYSTEM RECOVERY ADVANCED FILE SYSTEM Difference B/W NTFS-FAT32 NTFS DISK QUOTA FAT32 .

. represented by a lone / (forward slash) character. File system begins at the root directory.COMPRESSION & DECOMPRESSION ENCRYPTION SECURE Minimum Partitions Required For Linux  Minimum 2 partition required for Linux • • / (ext3) swap (swap) 5000MB 2*RAM Size Practical Lab Setup Installation of Linux in GUI & TUI SESSION 5  Linux & Windows File Structure  All Linux System Directories Under /  Installation According to RHCE EXAM  Types of Modes in Linux – 1) TUI 2) GUI  Types of User – 1) System 2) Non-System  Types of Desktop – 1) GNOME 2) KDE 3) TWM  Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Linux File Structure Concept  Files and directories are organized into a single-rooted inverted tree structure.

These _les are essential for the system to function properly  The /lib Directory The /lib directory should contain only those libraries that are needed to execute the binaries in /bin and /sbin. /usr/bin. These shared library images are . /srv System Information: /proc.• • Names are case-sensitive Paths are delimited by / Linux File Structure Concept  Example of some System Directories • • • • Home Directories: /root. /usr/sbin. /usr/lib. /usr/local/lib Configuration: /etc Temporary Files: /tmp /usr/local/bin /usr/local/sbin All Linux System Directories Under /  The /dev Directory The /dev directory contains _le system entries which represent devices that are attached to the system. /sys Shared Libraries: /lib. /mnt • • Linux File Structure Concept  Example of More System Directories • • • • Kernels and Bootloader: /boot Server Data: /var./home/username User Executables: /bin. System Executables: /sbin. Other Mountpoints: /media.

*. administrative and logging data. This includes spool directories and _les. lilo.  The /etc Directory The /etc directory is reserved for system & network Configuration files.. clock. an entire chapter has been devoted to the subject. grub.mkfs. shutdown. and it should be mountable read-only.particularly important for booting the system and executing commands within the root _le system. At a minimum. halt. any programs that write log _les or need spool or lock directories should write them to the /var directory." .  The /sbin Directory The /sbin directory is for executables used only by the root user.  The /var Directory Since the FHS requires that you be able to mount /usr read-only.*.init.fsck. route.  The /opt Directory The /opt directory provides an area for third party packages  The /proc Directory The /proc directory contains special "files" that either extract information from or send information to the kernel. The /usr directory usually has its own partition.reboot.. The FHS states /var is for: ". the following programs should be in /sbin: arp. mkswap. such as CD-ROMs and floppy disks. swapoff. Due to the great variety of data available within /proc and the many ways this directory can be used to communicate with the kernel.  The /media Directory The /media directory is for temporarily mounted file systems. and transient and temporary _les.getty. ifconfig. update  The /usr Directory The /usr directory is for files that can be shared across a whole site. fdisk.variable data _les.swapon.

Here “Station1” is Host Name And “ ~ ” is Home Directory of Root User or a Simple User Types of Desktop  The X Window System is Linux's graphical subsystem.[root@station1 ~]# 2) Simple User ($) ex :.[r1@station1 ~]$ Note :.Types of Modes in Linux  A typical Linux system will run six virtual consoles and one graphical console Server systems often have only virtual consoles Desktops and workstations typically have both Switch among virtual consoles by typing: Ctrl-Alt-F[1-6] Access the graphical console by typing Ctrl-Alt-F7 Types of User  Two type of User in the Linux 1) System User or Root User (#) ex :. Open source implementation of X Look and behavior largely controlled by the desktop environment.  Three desktop environments provided by Red Hat  GNOME: the default desktop environment – GNU Network Model Environment  KDE: an alternate desktop environment.K Desktop Environment  TWM – Tab Window Manager Fully Qualified Domain Name .

dnsdomainname. rmdir. ctrl+alt+del Basic Commands In Linux  Commands have the following syntax: command options arguments Each item is separated by a space Options modify a command's behavior . ls. cp. mv. cat.com SESSION 6  Basic Commands In Linux pwd. info. du. halt. mkdir. shutdown Restarting Command – init 6. FQDN – Fully qualified domain name  Host+domainname = FQDN • EX. exit • • Shutting Down Command – init 0. ifconfig.example.com = station1. cal. rm. poweroff. Station1+ example. reboot. fdisk. logout. touch. man. shutdown. df. Date. --help. cd. hostname.

displays a calendar  The Pwd Command [root@station1 ~]# pwd (show present working directory) Result = /root . Single-letter options usually preceded by “ .“ Can be passed as -a -b -c or -abc  Full-word options usually preceded by “ -.“ Example: --help  [root@station1 ~]# date (display date and time) Mon Nov 26 07:26:49 IST 2007  [root@station1 ~]# cal (display calendar) November 2007 Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  The whatis Command • • • Displays short descriptions of commands Uses a database that is updated nightly Often not available immediately after install [root@station1 ~]# whatis cal cal (1) .

9729 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Start End Blocks Id System 83 Linux /dev/hda2 1913 1925 104422+ /dev/hda3 1926 4475 20482875 83 Linux  The df Command . 80026361856 bytes 255 heads..[root@station1 etc]# pwd Result = /etc  The cd Command • • Ex:cd (changes directories) To an absolute or relative path: [root@station1 etc]# cd /home/ram/work • To a directory one level up: [root@station1 etc]# cd .0 GB. 63 sectors/track. • To your home directory: [root@station1 etc]# cd • To your previous working directory: [root@station1 etc]# cd –  The fdisk Command [root@station1 ~]# fdisk –l (Show all hdd partition information) Disk /dev/hda: 80.

com  The dnsdomainname Command [root@server1 home]# dnsdomainname example.com  The nisdomainname Command [root@server1 home]# nisdomainname notexample  The ls Command .[root@station1 ~]# df –h (Show all mounted Partition information) Filesystem /dev/hda3 /dev/hda2 tmpfs Size 19G 99M 1009M Used Avail 12G 0 6.Show dir usage space) 12K 237K 11M /boot/lost+found /boot/grub /boot/  The hostname Command [root@server1 home]# hostname server1.example.3G 17M 78M Use% 66% 18% Mounted on / /boot /dev/shm 1009M 0%  The du Command [root@server1 home]# du -h /boot/ (disk usages.

2 s1 s1 4096 Aug 11 19:03 s1 drwx-----. . guests ram s1 t1  The ifconfig Command [root@server1 ~]# ifconfig (This Command is use for viewing information about LAN card & IP Address)  The who & w Command [root@server1 ~]# who [root@server1 ~]# w (Both Command’s show that how many user login..3 t1 t1 4096 Sep 3 12:28 t1 [root@server1 home]# ls -a (Show hidden file also) .[root@server1 home]# ls s2 s1 t1 [root@server1 home]# ll (Details in list form ) total 3 drwx-----.2 s2 s2 4096 Aug 30 12:35 s2 drwx-----. commands ex :. on which time.  The man Command Provides documentation for commands . or set the system date.$ date –help Display the current time in the given FORMAT. on which terminal)  The --help Option Displays usage summary and argument list Used by most. but not all.

copy files and directories Usage: [root@station1 etc]# cp [options] file destination More than one file may be copied at a time if the destination is a directory: [root@station1 etc]# cp [options] file1 file2 destination  Moving and Renaming Files and Directories (mv command) mv .move and/or rename files and directories Usage: [root@station1 etc]# mv [options] file destination More than one file may be moved at a time if the destination is a directory: [root@station1 etc]# mv [options] file1 file2 destination Destination works like cp .Almost every command has a man "page“ Pages are grouped into "chapters" Collectively referred to as the Linux Manual  The info Command Similar to man. but often more in-depth Run info without arguments to list all age info pages are structured like a web site Each page is divided into "nodes" Links to nodes are preceded by *  Copying Files and Directories (cp command) cp .

create empty files or update file timestamps [root@station1 etc]# rm . Ex: [root@station1 etc]# rm -r directory(recursive) [root@station1 etc]# rm -f file (force)  Creating and Removing Directories [root@station1 etc]# mkdir creates directories [root@station1 etc]# rmdir removes empty directories [root@station1 etc]# rm -r recursively removes directory trees  Command for shutting down [root@station1 etc]# init 0 [root@station1 etc]# poweroff [root@station1 etc]# halt [root@station1 etc]# shutdown –h now  Command for restart [root@station1 etc]# init 6 [root@station1 etc]# reboot .remove files [root@station1 etc]# rm [options] <file>.. Creating and Removing Files [root@station1 etc]# touch .

Floppy & Windows Partitions  Hostname Setting. Redo & Others  Mounting & Un mounting of CDROM. Delete. USB. Undo.[root@station1 etc]# ctrl+alt+del [root@station1 etc]# shutdown –r now SESSION 7  Vi Editor & Its Operations – Copy. Paste. VI Editor . IP Address Setting. Cut.

insert. the file is opened and the contents are displayed If the file does not exist. set numbers before the line etc. VI Editor is used to create a new file. For creating new file we write down #vi file name/destination add. with file name Ex: #vi training or /home/ram/training For edit existing file #vi existing file name or with add file name #cd /etc after that #vi fstab # vi /etc/fstab Vi Editor Modes  Keystroke behavior is dependent upon vi "mode"  Three main modes: Command Mode (default): Move cursor. vi creates it when the edits are saved for the first time . quit. copy. edit in existing file. change mode Insert Mode: Modify text Ex Mode: Save. delete.Esc always returns to command mode Vi Editor  Opening a file in vim To start vi: vim filename If the file exists. etc Esc exits current mode Note:. paste. cut. cut/paste text.

5dd delete 5 lines yy for copy a line. wq! write forcefully :q! quits. 5yy copy 5 lines p for paste a line What Is Mounting . even if changes are lost  Undoing Changes Command Mode u undo most recent change U undo all changes to the current line since the cursor landed on the line Ctrl-r redo last "undone" change  Cut/Copy/Paste Command Mode dd for delete a line. Modifying a File Insert Mode i begins insert mode at the cursor  Saving a File and Exiting vim Execution Mode Enter Ex Mode with “ : “ Creates a command prompt at bottom-left of screen Common write/quit commands: :w writes (saves) the file to disk :wq writes and quits.

dvd. media must be mounted  Before removing.  Before accessing. First we have to insert a line in “/etc/fstab” file. floppy. etc)  Mountpoints are usually under /media Mounting of CDROM  Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE. /dev/hdb /media/cdrom udf. media must be unmounted  By default. usb.iso 9660 defaults 00  CD/DVD Reader mount /media/cdrom  Un mounts and ejects eject Mounting USB Media  Mounting USB Media Detected by the kernel as SCSI devices /dev/sdaX or /dev/sdbX or similar Automatically mounted in Gnome/KDE Icon created in Computer window Mounted under /media/Device ID Device ID is built into device by vendor Mounting Floppy Disks  Must be manually mounted and un mounted . Mounting means making a foreign filesystem look like part of the main tree.Otherwise. non-root users may only mount certain devices (cd. must be manually mounted.

We write following command #netconfig or #system-config-network #service network restart . we only mount FAT32 partition in Linux. IP Address settings  Setting up new IP add.example.mount /media/floppy umount /media/floppy DOS floppies can be accessed with mtools Mounts and unmounts device transparently Uses DOS naming conventions mdir a: mcopy /home/file. for Permanente Mounting we have to enter details in “/etc/fstab” file like we enter for cdrom Hostname Setting  Temporary change: For temp.com  Permanente change: For this we open “#vi /etc/sysconfig/network” file and change host name when we restart our pc we find new hostname.this is temporary mounting.txt a: Mounting Windows Partitions  For Mounting windows partition we have to write down following command #mount -t vfat /dev/hdc1 /media/partition1  Note:. change we write down following command #hostname station100.

 Note: if above command not run then we open a file “#vi /etc/sysconfig/network-script/ifcfg-eth0” and write IPADDR=. with N/W support  Init 6 = reboot Runlevel setting  For set a default Runlevel Open .  In Linux there are 7 type of runlevels from 0-6  These runlevels control by ”init” command. Archiving Intro of Runlevels  Runlevels is system software of the operating system that defines no of process exist for a level. GATEWAY=. Single User Mode  switchdesk & startx Command.  Init is the first process of the system and the process id is 1 Types of Runlevels  Init 0 = for shutdown  Init 1 = for single user mode / troubleshooting  Init 2 = multi user. SESSION 8  Types of Runlevel. Access GNOME. text mode with N/W support  Init 4 = unused  Init 5 = multi user. KDE. text + gui mode. NETMASK=. text mode without N/W support  Init 3 = multi user. TWM  Compressions-Decompressions.

 For check the current Runlevel #runlevel Single User Mode  For access single user mode  At the booting time press “e” on Linux boot loader line  Come at second line or on kernel line again press “e”  Go last of the line press “spacebar” then press “s or 1” then enter. store.“#vi /etc/inittab” file. and transfer tar . change line in the file “ld:3: initdefault” in place of 3 we enter 5 for GUI + Text support  After that reboot pc. We can change any file of the system. Press “b” for booting  Now system starts in single user mode without username & password.standard Linux archiving command Archives are commonly compressed Algorithm applied that compresses file Uncompressing restores the original file tar natively supports compression using gzip and bzip2 . Accessing GUI directly from Runlevel 3  For accessing GUI directly we run following command #switchdesk gnome  For run GUI #startx  Note : For run the switchdesk command we have to check switchdesk package is installed or not Archiving  Archiving places many files into one target file Easier to back up.

tar files name Ex: #tar cvf s1.tar Result: f1.tar.tar f1.bz2 first by using following SESSION 9 .gz  For decompression  #gunzip f1.tar contain) #tar xvf f1.tar s2 s4 s5 s6 #tar tvf f1.tar.gz Result: f1.tar (for check the . #tar cvf f1.tar.tar (for extracting .tar or #bunzip2 f1.Archiving Configuration  For compress some files we have to archive them command.tar file) Compressions-Decompressions  First we archive file and directories the use following command for compression  #gzip f1.bz2 or or #bzip2 f1.tar.

Other data about the file. Directories  The computer's reference for a file is the Inode number  The human way to reference a file is by file name  A directory is a mapping between the human name for the file and the computer's Inode number  cp and inodes The cp command: Allocates a free inode number. permissions. including: File type.The file's size and various time stamps. The link count (count of path names pointing to this file). containing information about a file (the metadata). placing a new entry in the inode table. Creates a dentry in the directory. GID. About Inodes. Pointers to the file's data blocks on disk. UID. Creation of Ext3 Partitions Creation of Vfat Partitions Creation of Swap Partitions . Soft & Hard Links  After installation Partition Creation • • • Inodes  An inode table contains a list of all files in an ext2 or ext3 filesystem  An inode (index node) is an entry in the table.  mv and inodes If the destination of the mv command is on the same file system as the source. associating a name with the inode number Copies data into the new file.

Places data blocks on the free list. but will be overwritten when the data blocks are used by another file. Removes the directory entry.Creates a new directory entry with the new file name. Deletes the old directory entry with the old file name. thus freeing the inode number to be reused. Has no impact on the inode table (except for a time stamp) or the location of data on the disk: no data is moved! If the destination is a different filesystem. Increments the link count The rm command decrements the link count File exists as long as at least one link remains When the link count is zero. Data is not actually removed. Soft & Hard Links  A hard link adds an additional pathname to reference a single file One physical file on the filesystem Each directory references the same inode number. the file is removed Cannot span drives or partitions ln filename [linkname]  A symbolic link points to another file ls -l displays the link name and the referenced file “lrwxrwxrwx 1 joe joe 11 Sep 25 18:02 pf > /etc/passwd” File type: l for symbolic link The content of a symbolic link is the name of the file that it references Syntax: ln -s filename linkname Partition Creation . mv acts as a copy and remove  rm and inodes Decrements the link count.

creation) (here we suppose that hdd is primary master) :n = create new partition :d = delete a partition :l = list all file system ID :t = change the file system :w = write partition table & quite :q = quite without save :p = show partition table Ext3 Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n : press enter : +100M :w (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (write & quit) #partprobe or reboot (for refreshing the table) Format partition . Fundamental of fdisk utility  Before creating partition we have to know what is the basic command of “fdisk” • #fdisk /dev/hda (step 1 of the par. We can create following type of Partition 1. By the help of this utility we can done many task’s like partition type change etc. ext3 (Linux data partition) vfat (fat 32 type) swap (virtual memory partition) For creating partition in Linux we use “fdisk” utility. 2. 3.

ext3 /dev/hda10 Ext3 Partition Mounting #mkdir /media/newpartition Now open “#vi /etc/fstab” & enter new partition details /dev/hda10 /media/newpartition ext3 defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a (mount all partition which in the fstab file) Vfat Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n :press enter : +100M :t New id = d :w (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (for change the file system) (new file system id which know th l) (write & quit) Partition no.#mkfs. [1-11] #partprobe or reboot (refreshing table) Format partition #mkfs.vfat /dev/hda11 Vfat Partition Mounting #mkdir /media/newpartition2 Now open “#vi /etc/fstab” & enter new partition details .

[1-11] New id = 82 (new file system id which know th l) :w (write & quit) #partprobe or reboot (refreshing table) Format partition #mkswap /dev/hda12 Swap Partition On/Off  For Enable Swap space #swapon /dev/hda12 #free (for checking space of swap partition)  For Disable Swap space #swapoff /dev/hda12 SESSION 10 ./dev/hda10 /media/newpartition2 vfat defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a (mount all partition which in the fstab file) Swap Partition Creation #fdisk /dev/hda :n : press enter : +100M :t (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (for change the file system) Partition no.

 Package Installation in Text & Graphical Mode ( RPM )  Package Installation Through YUM Redhat Package Manager  In this section we learn how to install. Installation thro. and erase the packages. update.search.rpm files In Redhat Linux all packages extension is . Windows supports . Then write following command. RPM  How to install a package through cdrom or through dump?  First mount your cdrom with a dir.exe files and Redhat support . #cd /media/cdrom/Server #rpm -ivh package name #rpm -ivh --force package name #rpm -ivh --nodeps package name .rpm RPM Management  How to search all install packages? #rpm -qa #rpm -qa | less (page wise)  How to search a specific package? #rpm -qa telnet* #rpm -qa | grep telnet*  How to Erase a package? #rpm -e package name* #rpm -e --nodeps pack. Name .

 We have to create repositories either server site or locally for yum.d/server1.  We can use ftp and http methods for installing. RPM  How to upgrade a package? First go to the destination of the packages. We don’t want to remember dependencies name’s.0 by this we can install packages and also with dependencies. erasing through yum.repo In file [Server] name= any name baseurl = ftp://172. Configuration of YUM  First search yum package through rpm #rpm -qa yum* if the package is installed then open #vi /etc/yum.24.Updation thro.  In graphical mode we write following command #system-config-package YUM  YUM is a new software in RHEL5.254. After that write down following command #rpm -Uvh package name Note : here “U” is in capital form and all command in small form.repos.254/pub/Server enabled = 1 (we create this file) .  By the help of this we can remove and update the packages.

gpgcheck = 0 Working of YUM  Now YUM is ready to install. search. By the help of following command we can done the described process #yum install package name* #yum remove package name* #yum update package name* #yum search package name* . update and also for remove the packages.

 GIDs are stored in /etc/group.  When user accounts are created.  User's new files affiliated with this group.  All users in a group can share files that belong to the group.  Each group is assigned a unique Group ID number (gid).  Users are assigned to groups. write or execute each others files without permission.  Users are assigned to this private group. The commands is following .  Users' names and UIDs are stored in “/etc/passwd“  Users are assigned a home directory and a program that is run when they log in.  Each user is given their own private group Can be added to other groups for additional access. (usually a shell)  Users cannot read. SGID & Stricky Bit  Access Control List (ACL) User & Group  Every user is assigned a unique User ID number (UID).  UID 0 identifies root.SESSION 11 & 12  User & Group Administration  Permission Bits ( rwx ). a private group is also created with the same name.  Advantage: Prevents new files from belonging to a “public” group  Disadvantage: May encourage making files “world-accessible User Administration  How to add a User?  There is two types to add a User. SUID.

Group (s1) . User (s1) 2.#useradd user name #adduser user name  How we secure a user?  By giving a password we secure a user. The command is following #passwd username  How to Delete a User?  For deleting the user we have following command #userdel user name  Note: By above command we can only delete user not his directories if we want that then we write down following command #userdel -r user name Group Administration  How to add a Group?  The commands is following #groupadd group name  How to Delete a group?  For deleting the group we have following command #groupdel group name  Note: we can’t delete a Primary Group User & Group Administration  A New User always create following 1.

group(s1. #useradd -G p1 p3 . gid(500). #useradd -g p1 p2  Create a user p3 with Secondary Group p1. #useradd -u 5000 p1  Cerate a User p2 with Primary Group p1. r1) User & Group Information file: #vi /etc/passwd (this file store user info.) #vi /etc/shadow (user password info. System User: 0-499 (range of UID & GID) Non System User: 500-65535 (range of id)  What is the ID of the User?  The command is following #id user name result: uid(500).) #vi /etc/group (this file store group info.3.) #vi /etc/gshadow (group info. Directories (/home/s1)  User Id (UID) & Group Id (GID)  All User & group have a unique identification which known as UID & GID. In encryption)  In GUI mode we have to write following command for accessing User & Group Administration #system-config-user  Some Important question related to User & Group Administration  Create a User p1 with User ID 5000.

#useradd -G p1. Some question for existing Users.= file c = character devices (Modem. p3 p4  Create a User p5 & define Dire. Printer) b = block devices (Hard Disk. Create a User p4 with Secondary Group p1. #usermod -G h2 h1  How to add a Primary group in a User. #useradd -s /sbin/nologin /p6 Note: we use service through this user but doesn’t login th.p3. # usermod -g h2 h1 Permission Bits  In Linux each file & directories has 10 permissions bits. CDROM) Permission Bits for user . this.--.--. By using “#ll” command we see that .--First bit is for d = directories .  How to add a Secondary group in a User. Location /p5. #useradd -d /p5 p5  Create a User p6 without login prompt.

--. x = execute (1) Note: if we give “x” permission to a file then white color change into green. If we give “x” to group that means group members execute that file or dir. r = Read (4). w (Write) = If we give “w” to user then user write that file of dir.--. If we give “x” to others that means other user’s also execute that file & dir. r = Read (4). w = Write (2). If we give “w” to others that means other user’s also write that file & dir. w = Write (2). Permission Bits Details Description of “rwx” : r (Read) = If we give “r” to user then user read that file of dir. x (Execute) = If we give “x” to user then user execute that file of dir. . w = Write (2).--After 3 bites are for Other.--After 3 bites are for Group.--. r = Read (4).. by the help of this we can give permission to Other that they access the file or not.--.--.--. by the help of this we can give permission to user that they access the file or not. If we give “w” to group that means group members write that file or dir. by the help of this we can give permission to Group that they access the file or not. If we give “r” to group that means group members read that file or dir.--After 3 bites are for user. x = execute (1) Permission Bits for group . x = execute (1) Permission Bits for other . If we give “r” to others that means other user’s also read that file & dir.

1. group = r-x. other r. execute. But when we create a file or dir we find permission 644 or 755. group = r-x. umask is differ for system & non system user. other = --#chmod ug+rx Defaults Permission Bits  Defaults Permission Bit’s  Maximum permission of a dir is 777 & a file 666. Value Method: (r.Permission Bits Setting  How to change the Permission Bits?  We have two type of method to change the Permission Bits. Ex: p1 = user = rx. Numerical Method: (4. write. means 022 less from the permission of the file & dir.) .w. group.. o = for user. g.x) = for delete permission + = for add a permission u.1) Ex: p1 = user = rwx. It’s change because default umask is 022.w. UMASK  For know the umask value we run following command #umask #umask 002 (this line change umask temp.x = for read. 2. other = --#chmod 750 p1 .2.

 If you want to change permanently then open #vi /etc/bashrc Note:In this file we have first simple user umask. Normally users with write permissions to a directory can delete any file in that directory regardless of that file's permissions or ownership with the sticky bit set on a directory. files created in a directory belong to the user's the default group When a file is created in a directory with the SGID bit set. only the owner of a file can delete the file Access Control List  ACL is process by using we can define more then one user & group on a directories and file. Second root user umask. SUID.  Now we remount /home dir. SGID & Stricky Bit  Normally processes started by a user run under the user and group security context of that user.acl /home ACL Configuration  Create a file or dir and check the permission by the help of following command #getfacl /home/ram  Cerate a new user  Now we set user & group permission on a file #setfacl -m u:s1:rwx /home/ram . it belongs to the same group as the directory.  For using this feature we have to mount /home directories with a partition.  SUID and/or SGID bits set on an executable file cause it to run under the user and/or group security context of the file's owner and/or group  Used to create a collaborative directory Normally. when group & others are not allowed through permission bit’s. with ACL option #mount -o remount.

 After hard limit “write operation fail” message appears.  In Linux User Quota service can provides two type of limitations 1. Number of files used by user  These two limitation can define soft & hard limit  If a user cross soft limit then a warning message appear & a grace period starts  But that user can used up to hard limit.  For use this function we have to create a partition and mount with the /home dir. Number of blocks used by a user 2. Remove the assign permission #setfacl -x u:s1 /home/ram SESSION 13  User Quota  Job Scheduler – Crontab User Quota  User Quota service is used to provides a fixed amount of space to users. ” (comma) User Quota Configuration #mount -o remount /home (This command is remount home dir with new operation) #quotackeck -cvu /home .  In “/etc/fstab” we have to add “usrquota” with defaults by the help of “ .

month & day of week. date.  In Linux “ CRONTAB” is used as Job Scheduler. .  How to schedule a job through “Crontab”? #crontab -e Min Hour Date (1-31) Month (1-12) Day of week (0-6/1-7) job/comment poweroff (0-59) (0-23) #service crond restart #chkconfig crond on Crontab Configuration  How to check all schedule job.(For checking no. hours. of files & dir in /home ) #quotaon /home (For enable the quota) #repquota -a (For check the quota status) #edquota user name (For edit quota) #quotaoff /home (For disable the quota) #edquota -t (For changing the grace period) Note: create quota problem for simple user “dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/kk/somefile bs=1024 count=30” Job Scheduler – Crontab  Job scheduler is used to scheduling a job previously base on minute.

#crontab –l  How to remove all schedule job. #crontab –e Min Hour Date Month Day of week job/comment 30 9 * * * echo “Hello” | wall #service crond restart  Schedule a crontab that display a message “shut down” on terminal 5 daily at evening 6. #crontab –e Min Hour Date Month Day of week job/comment 30 18 * * * echo “shut down” > /dev/tty5 #service crond restart other user.30. . #crontab –r  How to view other user schedule through #crontab -u username -e Crontab Question  Schedule a crontab that display a message hello on login terminal daily 9.30 pm.

#ps (show process) #ps -aef (show back & fore ground process) #ps -aef | grep service name (filter for service) #kill 3458 (process id) .  In Linux “init” is the first process of the system & process id 1  Each process has a process id & a parent process id. RAID 1. RAID 5  How to Create RAID during Installation & after Installation Process Management  A program in execution condition is known as process.  Foreground Process  Background Process (deamon)  Foreground Process use the terminal.  There are two type of process.SESSION 14  Process Management  RAID – RAID 0.  Background Process doesn’t use the terminal.

/dev/md1.provides the administration interface to software RAID. 1 and 5. /dev/md3 and so on.  Spare disks add extra redundancy  RAID devices are named.ext3 /dev/md0  mdadm allows you to check the status of your RAID devices .  mdadm .  Many "RAID Levels" supported. /dev/md0. /dev/md2. including RAID O. redundancy or both. RAID Configuration  Create and define RAID devices using mdadm mdadm -C /dev/md0 l 1 n 2 /dev/sda12 /dev/sda13  Format each RAID device with a filesystem mkfs.#pstree (list of all process tree) #top (all current process show with time)  How to access task manager in GUI Mode. #gnome-system-monitor #kpm (k process manager) RAID  Multiple disks grouped together into "arrays" to provide better performance.

Including resizing of file systems.  One or more Physical Volumes are used to create a Volume Group  Physical Volumes are defined with Physical Extents of a fixed size.mdadm --detail /dev/md0  Software RAID Testing and Recovery Simulating disk failures mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda1  Recovering from a software RAID disk failure replace the failed hard drive and power on reconstruct partitions on the replacement drive mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda1 mdadm.  Allows reorganization of file systems across multiple physical devices. /proc/mdstat. .  Devices are designated as Physical Volumes. Backup & Restore Logical Volume Manager  A layer of abstraction that allows easy manipulation of volumes.  File systems may be created on Logical Volumes. and syslog messages SESSION 15  LVM ( Logical Volume Manager )  How to Create LVM during Installation & after Installation  Resize of LVM  LVM Snapshot.  Logical Volumes are created on Physical Volumes and are composed of Physical Extents.

ext3 /dev/vg0/data #mkdir /lvm | mount /dev/vg0/data /lvm  Resizing Logical Volumes  Growing Volumes #lvextend -L +50M /dev/vg0/data #resize2fs /dev/vg0/data  How to check the volumes? #pvdisplay (for physical volume) #vgdisplay (for volume group) .LVM Configuration  Creating Logical Volumes  Create physical volumes #pvcreate /dev/hda3  Assign physical volumes to volume groups #vgcreate vg0 /dev/hda3  Create logical volumes from volume groups #lvcreate -L +256M -n data /dev/vg0 #mkfs.

#dump -0u .  Snapshots are perfect for backups and other operations where a temporary copy of an existing dataset is needed.  Snapshots contain only data that has changed on the original Logical Volume or the Snapshot since the Snapshot was created. LVM Snapshots Configuration  Create Snapshot of existing Logical Volume # lvcreate -L 10 -s -n databack /dev/vg0/data  Mount Snapshot # mkdir /mnt/databack # mount /dev/vg0/databack /mnt/databack  Remove Snapshot # umount /mnt/databackup # lvremove /dev/vg0/databackup Back up and restore ext2/3 file systems.  When data is changed on the original Logical Volume the older data is copied to the Snapshot.#lvdisplay (for logical volume) Logical Volume Manager Snapshots  Snapshots are special Logical Volumes that are an exact copy of an existing Logical Volume at the time the snapshot is created.f /tmp/data /dev/vg0/databack #umount /mnt/databack .Does not work with other file systems.  Snapshots are allocated space at creation but do not use it until changes are made to the original Logical Volume or the Snapshot.  Snapshots only consume space where they are different from the original Logical Volume.

/etc/gshadow. /etc/hosts.conf.deny./etc/inittab Line 1: id:5:initdefault:  By using this file we can change the run level permanently  In place of the 5 we placed 3 for running Runlevel 3 at booting time Line 2: si::sysinit:/etc/rc. /etc/shadow. /etc/mtab.allow.ext3 /dev/vg0/data #mount /dev/vg0/data /lvm #cd /lvm #restore -rf /dev/data SESSION 16 & 17  Imp Files In Linux /etc/inittab.#lvremove /dev/vg0/databack #umount /lvm #mkfs. /etc/group. /etc/hosts. /etc/grub. /etc/pam. /etc/sysconfig/network.conf. /etc/fstab. /etc/securetty.d/rc.sysini .d/login  Basic shell Scripting INITTAB  inittab : Location :. /etc/passwd. /etc/hosts. /etc/resolv.

/etc/grub.conf  Original location :.d/rc 0  Which script run on the booting time Line 4: ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now #ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now  Most important we can disable “ctrl+alt+delete” command on server site or any side so no one can restart that pc by using above command. For this we have to changes made in the place of the 5.conf :.conf  This file contain the boot loader configuration Line 1: default=0  By this file we can change the default booting operating system Line 2: timeout=5 . For this we have to commented following line Line 5: 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1  We increase and decrease the terminals.CONF  Grub. This file know about where is our system initialize Line 3: l0:0:wait:/etc/rc. GRUB. Line 6: x:5:respawn:/etc/X11/prefdm –nodaemon  Also change that in which run level graphics starts./boot/grub/grub.Location :. After increment & decrement the GUI mode automatically change on to higher or lower level of the function key.

8)  If the boot partition separately mount then the /dev/hdc9 is /boot.18-8. in line no 8 we write down the name which we want in place of “Other”  Line no 9 and Line no 10 help us to start other OS when our Linux boot loader is corrupt.6)/grub/splash. Line 8: title Other title Windows  And also change the other OS name.xpm.18-8.gz  Know the location of the splash image Line 4: title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server(2.img  Define initrd image.el5. Change the time of waiting Line 3: splashimage=(hd0. Otherwise /dev/hdc9 represents “/ ”. Line 6: kernel /vmlinuz-2.el5 ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet  We know kernel name and root label Line 7: initrd /initrd-2.  We can secure our Linux by applying password .0) Line 10: chainloader +1  And also change the other OS name.  How we secure our Linux to unauthorized access in single user mode.18-8.6. Line 8: title Other Line 9: rootnoverify (hd0.el5) title LINUX  We customize the OS name Line 5: root (hd0.6.6.

By this we can apply password on the entry of simple user mode. LABEL=/1 / ext3 ext3 Defaults Defaults 11 12 LABEL=/boot /boot . timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0. enable dump command and set file system checking order. CDROM and Network Services mounting.  We can secure our Linux by applying password  Write down “password = ” after the title line. features of the file system. Write down “password = ” after the splash image line.6)/grub/splash. destination location./etc/fstab Backup File: /etc/mtab  This file is used for HDD. file system..xpm. By this we can apply password on the entry of single user mode. title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server password = Redhat FSTAB  Fstab: Location :.gz Password =  How we secure our Linux to unauthorized access in also simple mode.  By the help of this file we can define partition no.

 We define as a following /home  In the 3rd column we have to define partition or drive file system. CD-Rom. and other network services info.  We define as a following /dev/hdc12 Or LABLE =/ram  In the 2nd column we have to define mounting position where we want that partition or drive..  We define as a following .fsck  In the 1st column we have to define HDD Partition no. CDrom. 2 3 4 5 6 Define mounting Define file Features position system type of file system Dump freq.  We define as a following ext3 vfat swap  In the 4th column we have to define features of the file system.Devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5. Floppy Drive and other Network Service Information.mode=620 0 0 tmpfs proc sysfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults /proc /sys proc sysfs defaults defaults 00 00 00 1 Defines HDD.

example. Successfully ping server1.  We define as a following 0 -> never check 1 -> check first on booting time 2 -> 2nd preference on checking We define up to 7.org . SESSION 18.com Successfully dig server1. Set your mode as graphical mode. 3.my133t. Login Through root user & redhat Password. 2.defaults -> assign defaults feature ro -> for read only rw -> for read and write usrquota -> for user quota unable acl -> for access control list  In the 6th column we have to define file system checking order by this we define that which file system check first. 4. 19 & 20  Minor & Major Troubleshooting  Rescue Mode Problems  EXAM 1 Minor Troubleshooting 1.

Set Userquota Problem. Resize LVM (Logical volume size) – max. We can change any file of the system. dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=30 But can not run this command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile Minor Troubleshooting Solution  For solving the question of minor troubleshooting we have to enter in single user mode by the help of following lines. User jane can Successfully run Following Command . 7. Successfully run showmount –e localhost command for /data directory. Login Through root user & redhat Password. Create a LVM Snapshot of 10MB. Create a 100 MB partition of ext3 File System & mount permanent under /mnt/new directory 6. #chattr -ia /etc/shadow #chattr -ia /etc/passwd bs=1024 count=70 8.  If we find “ia” attribute we have to remove that one by using following command.  At the booting time press “e” on Linux boot loader line Come at second line or on kernel line again press “e” Go last of the line press “spacebar” then press “s or 1” then enter.5. 1. In single user mode  For solving this problem we have take 7 steps.  Step1: Check attributes of “shadow” and “passwd” files. up to 300MB (280/320) LVM Mount under /home dir. For checking the attributes we have following command #lsattr /etc/shadow #lsattr /etc/passwd See that “ia” is here in attributes. Press “b” for booting now system starts in single user mode without username & password. Solve NFS Server problem.

group.so We have to check both underline words. Check information by following command. Set your mode as graphical mode. #chage -l root For changing the age of root user a/c we have to write following command #chage root Step 4: Check “/etc/securetty” file.” with “ + ”. Step 5: Open “/etc/pam.  For solving this problem we have to open following file. If we didn’t delete “nologin” directory we can’t use Root user for login. For add this attributes we just replace “ . gshadow etc. Step 2: Change Root user password by using following command #passwd Step 3: Check Root User A/C expiration information. file it . All important files like shadow. have the backup files Step 7: We have to find “nologin” directory in the “/etc”. 2.d/login” file and check the following line auth [user_unknown=ignore success=ok ignore=ignore default=bad] pam_securetty. Step 6: Check #vi /etc/passwd file if the file is missing then we have to copy “/etc/passwd-” file and rename it as “/etc/passwd”. If we find this directory then we have to delete this directory. We find following entries in this file Console Vc/1 to Vc/11 Tty/1 to Tty/11 Check that the all entries is proper after this we have to check permission of the should be 600.

24.example.conf In this file we have to enter following information “nameserver 172. it may be 172.  To create the partition we have to follow below steps .254.254. Successfully dig server1. Successfully ping server1.org  Both question solve simultaneously.my133t. we have to run following command # netconfig In this command we have to enter “Default Gateway IP” and “Namesever IP” add.24.254” 5.  If the commands not working then we have to manually enter in the files.  Now we open following file #vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 In this file we enter “GATEWAY= 172.254”. 1.254.254. After this run following command #service xfs restart #chkconfig xfs on Also check #system-config-display 3.com 4.#vi /etc/inittab Now we change 3 into 5 in line no.24. Create a 100 MB partition of ext3 File System & mount permanent under /mnt/new directory. for solving. The files are following #vi /etc/resolve.

 For this we have to write down following command.ext3 /dev/hda10 #mkdir /mnt/new #vi /etc/fstab enter new partition details /dev/hda10 /mnt/new ext3 defaults 0 0 :wq (save & quite) #mount -a 6. Solve NFS Server problem.#fdisk /dev/hda :n : : +100M :w Format partition #mkfs. Create a LVM Snapshot of 10MB. Successfully run showmount –e localhost command for /data directory. #lvextend -L +50M /dev/vg0/data #resize2fs /dev/vg0/data For checking #lvdisplay #df -h  Now we create snapshoot by using following command (new partition) (enter the stating cylinder no) (enter size of partition) (write & quit) # partprobe or reboot . Resize LVM (Logical volume size) – max. up to 300MB (280/320) LVM Mount under /home dir.  For this we have to open “#vi /etc/exports” If we find space between IP & permission then just delete the space. #service nfs restart #service portmap restart #chkconfig nfs on #chkconfig portmap on 7.

 Now we check quota status again and find that how many block size increase. Problems in /etc/fstab & /etc/grub. User jane can Successfully run Following Command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=30 But can not run this command dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/jane/somefile bs=1024 count=70  For solving the above problem we have to write following commands #repquota -a (For check the quota status)  Now we login through jane user and create a dir.  Now 30 kb file created but 70 kb file show writing operation file message which we want.85  Means when we create 30kb file it takes 60 block and previous block is 20 then total is 80. Set Userquota Problem. Now we enter soft & hard limit for the jane user by following command #edquota jane  For example if the size of dir.  First we have to know what we define in the file and how we define. LABEL=/1 LABEL=/boot / ext3 Defaults Defaults 11 12 /boot ext3 .80 Hard limit :. Major Troubleshooting 1.# lvcreate -L +10M -s -n databack /dev/vg0/data # mkdir /mnt/databack # mount /dev/vg0/databack /mnt/databack 8.conf solve that. Is 1kb and 2 block increase and used total used block is 20 then we define following limit Soft limit :. And check the size of the dir.

 Follow the steps for solving this problem  First insert 1 CD of RHEL 5.conf #vi /mnt/redhat/boot/grub/grub. Step 7: mount /dev/hdc9 /mnt/redhat/boot  Now we mount boot in new location to solve the grub.  when we start our pc it shows “kernel panic error”. in rescue mode “/” mounted under /mnt/sysimage.) Step 3: e2label /dev/hdc9 /boot1 (by using command we can change the label) Step 4: mkdir /mnt/redhat Step 5: mount /dev/hdc10 /mnt/redhat Step 6: open fstab file #vi /mnt/redhat/etc/fstab Check the label and correct it after that save it.  Now system start into rescue mode. .  If this command doesn't execute we follow these step Step 1: fdisk -l (show partition info.  Now we change the original position of the root with the following command. normally they delete underline words which called labels.conf.  To solve this problem we used “rescue mode”.) Step 2: e2lable /dev/hdc9 (check label of part. Now we have to know what is the common problem occur in this file. #chroot /mnt/sysimage  If this command successfully run then we can solve all problem by checking fstab & grub.0 after that write “Linux rescue askmethod”.conf Now open the file and edit it.

SESSION 21  RHCE Lab Setup  Telnet Server & Telnet Client  Security of Telnet Server (Th :-Xinetd)  SSH Server (Secure Shell) & SSH Client. Slogin RHCE Lab Setup . SCP.

2 station2. Linux to Windows & windows to windows.  In Linux.0.example.24.24.0 Server1.  Telnet based on TCP protocol & has port no 23.com IP 172.3 station3.example.254.com IP 172.  Telnet provides user authentication process.1 station1. Working of Telnet .254 SM 255.Switch IP 172.example.example.24.0.255.  Telnet is possible between Linux to Linux.com TELNET  Telnet is used for remote login but only in text mode.0. Xinetd daemon should be running properly.com IP 172.24.0. client always use server user for the authentication.

3.  Step 2: open file #vi /etc/xinetd.10 172.0/255.0 no_access = 172.0.Switch Forwarding Request Request for accessing IP 172.24. we have to open following file #vi /etc/xinetd.d/telnet in file change “disable = no”  Step 3: #service xinetd restart  Step 4: #chkconfig xinetd on (for run level 2.0.24. 5) Telnet Client side configuration : Just search package of the Telnet on client side.20 .0.10 All user define here.24.d/telnet  In this file we have to enter following lines with in the brackets only_from = 172.24. Xinetd running properly.0. If your system have the packages then write down following #telnet IP address of the server machine Login : user name of the server side Password : user password Advanced Telnet Server Configuration  For advanced conf.10 Login : Password : Authentication Configuration of Telnet  Step 1: search Telnet package rpm -qa telnet*  Result: 2 packages should be there.0.255.0. #telnet 172.24.

no-access : The define IP address m/c can’t access telnet server. # service xinetd restart Access thro. . SSH Server Configuration  Configuration :  Step 1: Search for package #rpm -qa openss* result: 2 packages  Step 2: restart the service #service sshd restart #chkconfig sshd on SSH Client Side  Client side : #ssh IP of the server #ssh y5@172. Now we can use root user in telnet. SSH Server  SSH are stands for secure shell server.  SSH is based on TCP protocol and use port no. Access-time :Time limitation for client m/c.per_source = 4 access_times = 08:00-10:00 Details of the entered lines : only-from : Member of define Network Address can access telnet server. Telnet Server  How to allow root user to be used by telnet client m/c. Step 1 : Open file “#vi /etc/securetty” Step 2 : Now enter in last of the file “pts/0” “pts/1”.0.3 Slogin Server/ Client  Slogin also use for remote login like SSH. 22. per-source : Maximum connection allowed from a client m/c.24.  SSH is used for remote login but supports only Linux to Linux.

0.0.0.4:/boot SCP for Directories : #scp -r hh 172.24.0.24. For accessing it we have to write following #slogin 172.24.24.  SCP is used to copy files & directory form one m/c to another m/c securely.5:/data .3 # slogin y2@172.1  SCP stands for secure copy server. SCP for Files : #scp f11 172.

SESSION 22  DHCP Server & DHCP Client (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)  NFS Server & NFS Client (Network File System) Intro. running properly. Switch DHCP Server. of DHCP Server  DHCP is stand for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.  By using “netconfig” command we manually assign IP address to all system’s.  In a Local Network we can select maximum 1  At server side DHCPD demon should be  Both DHCP client and Server performs  DHCP server has two type of database static database dynamic database DHCP Server Working DHCP Server. Dhcpd running Static: ip combine with mac address Dynamic: range 1-20 #netconfig Select DHCP #service network restart or #dhclient .  DHCP based on broadcasting technology.  DHCP is used to assign static & dynamic IP address to client machine. Broadcasting operation.

255. fixed-address 207.0.0.conf sample /etc/dhcpd.0. max-lease-time 43200.0.conf  Change in this file subnet 192.DHCP Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa dhcp* result: 3 package  Step 2: Go to the specific location #cd /usr/share/doc/dhcp-3.0 { # --.org". 192. 255.conf  Step 3: open following file #vi/etc/dhcpd.255.168.com. -18000.redhat.168.175.255.1. 192.1.168. default-lease-time 21600.42.255.168. 192. # we want the nameserver to appear at a fixed address host ns { next-server marvin.1.254.5 #cp dhcpd.default gateway option routers option subnet-mask option nis-domain option domain-name option domain-name-servers option time-offset #option ntp-servers #option netbios-name-servers # option netbios-node-type 2.1. 192.128 192. } }  For Dynamic IP we have to change following lines .0 netmask 255.0.org".1.0.168. "domain.168. "domain.254.168. range dynamic-bootp 192.1.1. hardware ethernet 12:34:56:78:AB:CD.

This IP is different to our range.0.255.254.com".24.0 netmask 255. range dynamic-bootp 172. . }  First we have to change ns into system name.com.30 172.redhat.42.50  After saving the file we have to write down #service dhcpd restart  For static IP assign. of the LAN card. fixed-address 207.  Forth now we assign a unique IP to the system.24. We have to change the following lines host ns { next-server marvin.  For check the machine add.0 option domain-name “example.24. hardware ethernet 12:34:56:78:AB:CD. add.0.com  Third we change hardware Ethernet.0.subnet 172.  Second we change next-server into stationx.example. we have to write “ifconfig” and write down the mac. DHCP Client  Client Side Configuration :#netconfig select DHCP #service network restart or #system-config-network select DHCP #service network restart or #dhclient Intro of NFS Server  NFS stands for Network File Service.0.175.

 Portmap: Manage port no.com(rw.example.255. after that make the “data” directory.rmount. rpc.0. rpc.24. /data /data NFS Server Save the file.mountd  Nfsd: Manage NFS Server. NFS is used for directory sharing between Linux to Linux. rpc. of all services.  Rpc.rqoutad Portmap: portmap mount process NFS Server Configuration  Step 1: Search NFS Package #rpm -qa nfs* result: 2 packages  Step 2: open file “#vi /etc/exports” add in Ex: shared dir.  NFS based on UDP Protocol & uses port no.  Shared directories are listed in /etc/exports Working NFS Server Switch without authenticatio n permission NFS Server Nfs: nfsd.  NFS provides no authentication processor.  At client side we used mount command to access server shared directory.rquotad.mountd: Manage mounting & un-mounting of NFS Server shared directory. portmap.sync) *.0(rw. Client IP/ N/A Permission .  NFS is a Remote Processor Call (RPC) based service. 2049.0/255. Linux to Unix and Unix to Linux.  At Server side following demons should be running properly nfsd.0. rpc.  Rpc.sync) this file.rqoutad: Manage quota of NFS Server shared directory. 172.

24.0.  In this file if we find space between IP & the Permission then just remove the space. On the given IP add.24.0.#mkdir /data #service nfs restart #service portmap restart #exportfs -a (refresh the exports file) #exportfs (show the shared dir.0.24.7:/data /p1  Permanent Mount #vi /etc/fstab 172. After save the file #service nfs restart #service portmap restart .7:/data /p1 nfs defaults 0 0 Q: Run #showmount -e localhost Ans:  For this we have to check “/etc/exports” file.) #chkconfig nfs on # chkconfig portmap on NFS access on Client side #showmount -e 172.7 (by the help of this command we can see the shared dir. M/C) NFS Client:  Temporary Mounting #mount 172.

 Samba Server uses SMB Protocol. Windows to Linux.  At Linux samba Server side following demons should be running properly. Windows to Linux. then a client m/c can access server shared directory user home directory.  But in case of Linux Server & Windows client. #smbclient #mount Samba Server Working .  Samba Server provides authentication.Linux to Windows  At client side (Linux M/C) we uses following command to access Samba Server shared Directories.Linux to Linux nmbd :. smbd :.SESSION 24  Samba Server & Samba Client  Samba Server Configuration in Windows  Share File & Directory B/W Windows & Linux Samba Server  Samba Server is used for directory shearing between Linux to Linux.(Server Message Blocks)  In case of Linux Samba Server and Linux client M/C then a Client M/C can access only Server share directories. Printer & Fax m/c of server.

 In “Myshare” section we have to change following contains.0.24.  We have to change the “writeable” permission by this client write in that directory. info. Which we want to share with others.  First we change “samba share name” we define this within a [] brackets.conf” in this file we find 4 type of section. Myshared  In “Global” section we have to change following contents Workgroup = Name of the group Hostallow = 172. Global 2. Printer 4. one can archive from client side. Add. Source dir. No. smbd. 172.  Now we copy last example of “Myshared” section and paste it in the last of the file.Switch SAMBA Server. Home 3.10.  After that we change the “path” actual dir. /data.  We don’t want to made change’s in “Home” ”Printer” directory.  We have to define ”valid user” by the help of these users we can access the samba server from client side.24. . 1. all user’s define here Linux Client Windows Client Unix Client ] Samba Server Configuration Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa samba result: 3 packages Step 2: open file “#vi /etc/samba/smb. nmbd running properly.

Through IE or not.24.24. We have to know that actual dir.  After that create new user & also assign password. After that enter username and password.0.0.9/redhat /mnt/ -0 username=k1  Samba Client (Windows M/C):  In windows client m/c click on my network place now right click and click on search computer. Samba Server / Client  Window Samba Server & Linux Client .  After that we change “browseable” option we assign that client access shared dir. After that we change the “createmask” value by this we can assign default umask value for creation by client. We have to write #smbclient //172. #smbpasswd -a k1 Now enter password.  After that we save the file.  For check the Samba Server we have following Checking tools: #testparm #smbclient -L Samba Server IP Samba Client  Samba Client (Linux M/C):  For checking share dir we have to write #smbclient -L Samba Server IP  For accessing the share dir.9/redhat -U k1 #mount -t cifs //172. #useradd k1 # passwd k1  Restart service now #service smb restart #chkconfig smb on  Now we convert simple user into samba user. Should be on destination add.  At last we change “write_list” option by this we can assign that which group or group members access that directories.  Enter the samba server IP add.

. yppasswd: NIS user password info.20 #smbclient //172.  NIS is a centralize user authentication server & centralize user database server.  At server side following demons should be running properly.  NIS is possible between Linux to Linux.20/c /mnt/ -0 username = administrator #password = redhat SESSION 25  NIS Server & NIS Client (Network Information Service)  NTP Server & Client (Network Time Protocol) Intro of NIS Server  NIS stands for Network Information Server. ypbind: used to attach with NIS & NFS server autofs: used to auto mount user home dir.0.24.0.  At client side following demons should be running properly. On windows so its automatically become Samba Server #smbclient -L 192.24. ypserv: start and manage NIS & NFS. Linux to Unix and Unix to Linux.24.20/c -U administrator #mount -t cifs //172. manager  All demons of the NFS Server.  NIS known as “YP” but “YP” is the tread mark of the yellow pages that’s why it name change in to NIS.  NIS client login at local M/C but uses server user’s. Share dir.0.

10. 172.24.rmountd. NISdomain= CCNA all user’s define here #setup [ ] NIS Nisdomain= CCNA IP = 172. only members of NIS domain name can access server user’s.  Slave NIS server has a backup database of Master Server and has a connection with Master Server.10 autofs NIS Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa yp* result: 3 packages  Step 2: How to set NIS domain name.0.  Tamp. rpc.  Type of NIS server Master NIS Server Slave NIS Server  Master NIS server has main database of user. NIS Server Working Switch NIS Server. nfsd. rpc.24. yppasswdd.rquotad. Setting: #nisdomainname (for searching) #nisdomainname CCNA  Permanent setting: open following file #vi /etc/sysconfig/network In file NISDOMAIN = CCNA  Now we cerate new user .0. ypserv. portmap running properly. In NIS we define a NIS domain name.

Rather then three words.0/255.#useradd h1 #passwd h1  Now we bind user database with NIS domain name. By NFS server.24. #cd /usr/lib/yp # .24. next .255.10 ok  Now our M/C become NIS Client & member of NIS domain name. but at client side a user can’t access it’s home dir.sync) #service nfs restart # service portmap restart NIS Client  On the Client side we have to write down following command.0(rw.0./ypinit -m After that press “Ctrl+D” then “Y” #service ypserv restart #service yppasswdd restart  Now we share /home dir.0. #setup Authentication Use NIS Domain Name 172. 109 all : Passwd group  Note: Erase all info.0. #vi /etc/exports In this file we have to write following /home 172. To access home dir we use Autofs Service.  After saving the file we write #make  Now we set current M/C NIS Master Server. #cd /var/yp #vi Makefile (:set nu: for set number before line) Change in line no.

NTP ceases to work.  Now we enter following command on the terminal #service-config-date  Now select “Enable network time protocol” clock add is the Server IP add.master in file add a line /home /etc/auto.0.0. In this case the clock must be reset manually with ntpdate.8:/home/* #service autofs restart  How to check available user on server?  By using following command we know available user name. NTP Server Configuration  For NTP Server we have to login through GUI Mode.24.Autofs configuration : Open file #vi /etc/auto.misc Add a line G1 -fstype = nfs 172. Thus the time difference is reduced gently without disturbing other applications. .misc (this file define server details) After that open other file #vi /etc/auto.24. #ntpdate -u 172.10 #service ntpd restart  After saving the file we have to write down following line. #ypcat passwd #getent passwd NTP Server  Network Time Protocol :  Workstation hardware clocks tend to drift over time without correction  Many application require accurate timing  Time synchronization makes system logs easier to analyze  NTP counters the drift by manipulating the length of a second  If the system's time is behind the average of the time servers the second is made shorter so that the system clock races towards the correct time.  However if the time differs to greatly.

IE. hyperlinks etc.  What is Web site?  Collections of the web pages with some database is called web site.  Web browser convert programming language into human readable format. Multiple case’s for virtual web hosting : .  Web server uses HTTP protocol & port no 80.asp etc. Secure Web Server  Web Site Accessing in TUI & GUI Intro of Web Server  What is Webpage?  Webpage is a collection of the text.  We can host multiple websites on a single web server that is known as virtual web hosting.  Each web site has a home page for example index.  For Web Server DNS Server or local database server should be running properly. objects.SESSION 26  Web Server & Web Client. manage a web site & manage database of that web site. images.  At client site we use web browser to access a site like windows :. Linux :.  What is Web server?  Web server is a M/C that is used to host a website. video. audio.links. index.html.

com DocumentRoot /www/docs/host.24.0.5 eth0:1 172.24. 971 “Name Virtual Host” after this we have to write our system IP address or DNS IP address. Ex: 172. Case 1: In this case we host one site on Web Server and assign IP address with hostname. #<VirtualHost *:80> <VirtualHost yahoo. eth0:0 172.example.com-error_log CustomLog logs/com-access_log common  Now paste it in the last of the file.24.0.com ErrorLog logs/host.example.0.10 yahoo.24. Web Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa http* result: 2 packages  Case 1:  Step 2: open following file #vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.example.7 eth0:2 172.0.8 eth0:3 172.1 site 1 site 2 site 3 site 4 site 5 etc.example.example.com> #</VirtualHost .com ServerName dummy-host.24. By this we can assign different IP’s to multiple site’s and host multiple site on a Web Server. now made following changes in pasted lines.example.0.conf :set nu -> set number before line Edit line no.  After that we have to copy last 7 lines.24.0. #<VirtualHost *:80> # # # # # ServerAdmin webmaster@host.9  Aliases: Aliases is a process where we virtually convert one LAN card into multiple LAN cards.com  Case 2: In this case we host multiple site on Web Server and assign different IP address to all site with the help of aliases. Ex: eth0 172.

conf Apply comment on “Name Virtual Host” by using #.0.10 yahoo. Note : remove comment and enter your site name like above example # DocumentRoot /www/docs/host.0.example.example.com station10 “172.com DocumentRoot /var/www/html  Note : remove comment and enter your site destination add.com  Case 2: open following file #vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.  Now we go to the destination of the site which given in the file and made following file #cd /var/www/html #vi index. # ServerName dummy-host.com ServerName station10. This we do for local database management by doing this we can access above site in a network. Made 2 more website and apply different IP’s in the place of the site name.html (:wq in this file) Now open #vi /etc/hosts (for local database server) write down following lines in above file 172.example.0. #</VirtualHost> </VirtualHost>  Note : remove comment and complete the web server configuration.example. After that #service httpd restart  For accessing the site we have to write down #links yahoo.com station10”  Means of line that the 172.10 yahoo..24.0.com> <VirtualHost 172.24.com  Note : remove comment and enter your hosted.example. like <VirtualHost yahoo.example. always made your site in the “/var/www” directories.24.7> system hostname in which web site .10 is a site IP address and site address is yahoo.example.com and station10 is for system where site hosted.24.example.

allow and deny websites & can allow & deny nodes to access Proxy Server. server name remain same. Windows -> IE . to Private IP add. of a proxy server in a web browser.Also change the destination add. 3128. on the duplicate LAN card by using #netconfig command.  Proxy Server uses TCP protocol & Port no. Translate into Public IP add.  At client side we define IP address & port no. After that #service httpd restart SESSION 27 & 28  Squid Proxy Server  Allow & Deny Web Sites  VSFTP Server (Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  Uploading & Downloading Through System or Non System User & Anonymous User Intro of Proxy Server  Proxy Server is used for internet connection sharing & provides security. Proxy Server Working . Linux -> Links. And Public IP add. Mozila  Proxy Server also known as NAT.  By Proxy Server we can limit bandwidth for client M/C.  In Linux “squid” software is used as Proxy Server.  How we create aliases? For creating aliases we have to write down following command #netconfig -d eth0:0 After that apply new IP add. this process call NAT. Now open #vi /etc/hosts and change the IP of the sites. (Network Address Translator)  By using Proxy Server Private IP add.

73 http_port 3128  How to set Cache Memory? Edit line no 738 Cache_mem 50MB  How to allow a domain to access Proxy Server? Copy line no 2396 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line acl localhost src 127. before line  How to set Proxy Port No Edit line no.0. .1/255.Public IP (Real IP) Req. Forward Switch Internet conn.0.0/255.255.0 Note: here p1 is a group name which have allow Network add. squid running properly.255. PROXY Server. 255 acl p1 src 172.0. port no 3128 yahoo Rediff hotmail Private IP Proxy Server Configuration Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa squid* result: 1 package Step 2: Open following file #vi /etc/squid/squid.24.255.0.conf :set nu -> set no.

2.  FTP client uses “get” command for downloading and uses “put” command for uploading. System or Non system user: by using above type user’s user name & password then client access complete system.0/8 acl p2 dstdomin .0. to access the internet connection. After that Copy line no 2524 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line http_access allow manager localhost http_access allow p1 Note: Here we allow p1 Network add.  FTP connection possible between Linux to Linux. Linux to Windows and Windows to Linux.  In Linux we VSFTP software as a FTP Server.  How to deny Website for Proxy Client? Copy line no 2398 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line acl to_localhost dst 127.hotmail.com  Note: Here p2 is group of deny domain name  After that Copy line no 2524 and paste it after that line and edit pasted line http_access deny manager http_access deny p2  Note: we have to write this line before the allow line  Now restart the service #service squid restart  Squid testing tool: #squid -z Intro of FTP Server  FTP is stands for File Transfer Protocol. 20 & 21.0. Anonymous user: by using anonymous username and any password the client access only /var/ftp directory contains. .yahoo.com .(Very Secure File Transfer Protocol)  FTP use TCP Protocol & Port no. FTP Client M/C can uses following type users 1.  FTP is used for file downloading & uploading files and directories.

 FTP client always uses FTP Server user’s & cerate a communication channel between client & server.24. all user’s define here Linux Client #ftp IP of Server Login:Pass:ftp > Windows Client FTP Server Configuration Step 1: search package #rpm -qa vsftp* result: 1 package Step 2: open following file #vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.0. 172. At client side we uses following command #ftp IP of Server Login:Pass:ftp >  At server site “vsftpd” demon should be running properly.10.conf :set nu -> no. vsftpd running properly. before lines Comment out all following lines and edit as we want 12 anonymous_enable=YES 15 local_enable=YES 18 write_enable=YES 22 local_umask=022 27 anon_upload_enable=YES 31 anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES . FTP Server Working Switch FTP Server.

24.0.24. Go to the source add.0. #service vsftpd restart #adduser g1 #passwd g1  FTP Client : #ftp 172. 48. Where you want to download that file #ftp 172.10 FTP Client  Downloading of a file: First come to destination dir.  Make files and dir. in /var/ftp for uploading and downloading.10 Login: Password : ftp > cd / ftp > get file name ftp > quit Uploading a file:Simple User: simple user can upload only in it’s home dir.0.10  In graphical ftp://172.10 ftp://g1@172.24.24. then #ftp 172.0. FTP Authentication  How to deny a simple user to access by FTP Client M/C?  Open file .46 chown_uploads=YES 47 chown_username=daemon 48 anon_umask=022 Note : we have to change in line no 47 add “daemon” remove other entry and we have to add line no.10 ftp > put f4 ftp > quit  Anonymous : only upload in /var/ftp/* dir.24.0.

check mail etc.  All user fetch mails from Mail Server for fetching mails from the Mail Server we use IMAP/POP3 Server. Mozila Mail Mail Server Working .(Mail Transport Agent)  MUA (Mail User Agent) MUA is used to create new mails.  Send Mail also known as MTA.  Mail Server has all user mails with Inbox.  In Linux we use “dovecot” software as IMAP/POP3 Server and “send mail” software used as Mail Server.  Send Mail uses TCP protocol & port no.Mutt  IMAP-SSL Intro of Mail Server  Mail Server is used to store mails. (Internet Message Access Protocol/Post Office Protocol 3)  IMAP use port no 143 and POP3 use 110 port no.#vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers Insert name of the user in this file after that #service vsftpd restart  How to allow root user to be access by FTP Client?  Open file #vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers remove root user entry after that open another file #vi /etc/vsftpd/user_list remove root user entry from this file too after that #service vsftpd restart SESSION 29 & 30  Sendmail Server  IMAP-POP3 Server :. edit. Sent Items & Outbox. forward. 25. Windows : MS Outlook Linux : Mutt.

conf  We have to remove 17 no line comment after that #service dovecot restart #chkconfig dovecot on  How to check IMAP/POP3 server. For Mail Server DNS Server should be running properly.24. Mail Server + NIS Server Mail Server + NIS Server TP SM MTA SMTP MUA Inbox Outbox Sent Mail Do Inbox ve co tS Outbox /W Sent Mail MUA IMAP/POP3 Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa dovecot* result: 1 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/dovecot.mc  We have to comment line no.cf” file by using “macro” #m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.cf  After that #service sendmail restart . 116 with the help of “dnl #”  Now we put all changes into “sendmail. #telnet 172.1 143/110 Mail Server Configuration  Step 1: Search package #rpm -qa sendmail* result: 4 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/mail/sendmail.0.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.

For this we have to open #vi /etc/aliases Go to bottom of the file and add one line t1: t1.  Open a file #vi /etc/mail/access 172. Add a new user #adduser k1 #passwd k1  For sending mail we have to write following file #mutt Mail Server Authentication  How to deny a node or a domain to send a mail on Mail Server.pem #rm dovecot.3 y1@my133t.25 Connect:10.  For IMAP-SSL we have to create a certificate. #cd /etc/pki/tls/certs #openssl x509 -subject -noout < dovecot.  By using IMAP-SSL a user can access any other user account securely. IMAP-SSL Configuration  Go to the following destination add.0.org Mail Forwarding  Mail Forwarding: For Example we want to forward all mails of t1 user to t2 user.example.pem #make dovecot.  After saving the file write down a command REJECT RELAY REJECT OK REJECT .pem  Define entries according to question.com 172.2 *.24. t2 #newaliases IMAP-SSL Server  IMAP-SSL is stands for Internet Message Access Protocol-Secure Socket Layer.

1. Shared Printer 2. & Port no.  Network Printer : This type of printer directly connected with HUB & Switch each have a unique IP Add. 87 & 88 enter destination add of the certificate and save the file.example.com}  By above command login user can access t1 user mail account. Two type of printer we have. After that #service dovecot restart  On Client Side: #mutt -f {t1@station1. SESSION 31  Printer Server & Printer Client  Syslog Server  VNC Server Intro of Printer Server  Printer is a combination of print devices & it’s driver software. Working of Printer Server:- . Network Printer  Shared Printer: A printer directly attach with a pc & shared through out network by that pc is called Shared Printer.#vi /etc/dovecot.conf IMAP-SSL Client  Now made changes in line no.

Switch Printer Server Linux Client Windows Client Unix Client Shared Printer: In GUI mode write down following command on terminal. job Printer Client:  Case 1: If Printer Server Linux & Clients are also Linux #system-config-printer Printer Server Configuration . #system-config-printer Printer Server Configuration  Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)-> Forward->select “LPT #1”>Forward->select “Makes” of the printer->Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Printer Client  Checking Tools: #lpq-> show default printer status  Printing Command: #lpr kk-> print file name  Remove Job: #lprm 5-> remove id no.

 Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “LPD/LPR Host or Printer” ->enter Hostname/IP->enter Printer name (Pre.) -> Forward->select “Makes” of the printer ->Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver ->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on  Case 2: Linux Printer Server & Client Windows We share Printer by using Samba Server.  Case 3: when Server is Windows & Client are Linux #system-config-printer Shared Server  Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any) ->Forward->select “Windows Printer via SAMBA”->enter IP of Server/printer name ->Forward->select “Makes” of the printer -> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver>Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Network Printer #system-config-printer Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “AppSoceket/HP jet Direct” ->enter IP of Server/printer name->Forward->select “Makes” of the printer-> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on Printer Client Configuration according to exam #system-config-printer Click on “New Printer”->Printer Name (any)->Forward->select “IPP”->enter printer name-> Forward->select “Generic” of the printer-> Forward->select Model & Recommended Driver->Forward->Apply Checking Printer Server  Click on Print Test Page after it Open web browser in add. Bar http://server3.example.com/Printers Result Station3 #service cups restart #chkconfig cups on 14k bytes received

Log Server  Log files is used to store user authentication information, service related information, booting related information etc.  Log file define in “/var” directory.  Main Log file of the Linux is “/var/log/message” #tail -f /var/log/message #vi /var/log/secure  In above file we know the login time of the user.  All log file details define in “vi/etc/syslog.conf” file VNC Server  VNC stands for Virtual Name Computing.  By using VNC we can access remote desktop.  How to allow VNC settings. System->Preference->Remote Desktop Now check mark on allow other user then ok.  How to access Remote Access M/C. #vncviewer IP of the Remote Access M/C

SESSION 32  Tcp_Wrappers - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny  PAM – Pluggable Authentication Module  Ipv6 Configuration, RADVD Server TCP Wrappers Authentication  TCP Wrappers provides service based security.  TCP Wrapper control by two files #vi /etc/host.allow #vi /etc/host.deny

 Deny only pc1 to access Telnet Server. #vi /etc/host.deny Service : 172.24.0.1 in.telnetd : 172.24.0.1  By the help of this file we can manage following services in.telnetd, vsftpd, sshd and nfsd.  Allow only pc one to access Telnet Server. in.telnetd : ALL EXCEPT 172.24.0.1  Deny all nodes to access SSH Server sshd : ALL  Deny all members of my133t.org domain but allow example.com to access FTP Server. vsftpd : ALL EXCEPT 172.24.0.0/16 Or vsftpd : .my133t.org EXCEPT .example.com  Note: In TCP Wrappers we have to use one file at a time, we can’t use both files simultaneously. PAM  PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication Module.  PAM provides user based security.  Deny all simple user to access a system. For this just write down following command #touch /etc/nologin  Deny root user to access a system. For this #mkdir /etc/nologin

Add previously file created address.d/sshd now change in pasted line First change the sense=allow/deny and change file destination add.  Linux Client fetches prefix from Router Advanced Demon Server RADVD Server Configuration  Step 1: Search Package #rpm -qa radv* result: 1 package  Step 2: Open file #vi /etc/radvd. of LAN Card.conf we have to uncomment all the lines in this file #service radvd restart we have to open following file #cd /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all #vi forwarding For changing 0(zero) into 1 we have to write following command #echo “1” > forwarding Client Side: first we have to open following file . IPV6  IPV6 use 128 bits for addressing. Allow Jane user to access your SSH server Create a file #vi /etc/ssh_access  In this file enter user name which want to allow Open file #vi /etc/pam.  IP format is following 0000:F8b:0011:06AB:BA00:A80:BCAD:0001  In Linux IPV6 defines by using prefix and MAC add.d/vsftpd Copy 3rd line of the file And inset this in the following file #vi /etc/pam.

of the M/C #ifconfig IP no./etc/sysctl. of the M/C #ipconfig -a Session 33  IP Forwarding . .conf  Firewall – Iptables  Basic About SELINUX (Security Enhanced Linux) IP Forwarding  How to enable IP Forwarding Permanently.#vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 In file we have to add following IPV6INIT=Yes IPV6-AOTOCONF=yes #service network restart  For check the IPV6 we have following tools #ip -6 addr show #ping6 IP no.

 Iptables uses Network Layer.Append a rule -L :.  Iptables use’s Network Layer In Iptables we have to know some following characters.Open following file #vi /etc/sysctl. IPTABLES:  Iptables is command line firewall also known as packet filtering firewall.Insert a rule -A :.  By using Firewall we can stop un-authorizes package but can’t stop virus attack.List all rules .  If packet information header match with topmost rule then define operation perform on that packets and further no matching take place.  If the packet header information don’t match with top most rule then packet skip first rule & match with next rule.  If packet header info don’t match with any given rule then Linux firewall by default allow the packet.  Iptables is a command line firewall. -I :. By this we can enable IP Forwarding.conf In line no 6 we have to change 0 into 1. After this we have to write #service network restart # chkconfig network on Firewall  Firewall is a single security point of the network that filters un wanted packets. Firewall Working  Packet header information always check with the topmost rule of a Firewall.  In Linux we use Iptables software as a firewall. until a match is made.

--dport :.0/16 -d 172.Protocol --sport :.Destination IP Address -p :.Destination port no.-D :.0.1 -d 172.  SELINUX has set of rules called policies that determine how strike the control.0.  SELINUX define either restricted control or un-confined control.0.24.REJECT/ACCEPT/DROP  Allow only members of example.  We have to write following for this type of limitation #iptable -I INPUT -s ! 172. For this we have to write following #iptable -I INPUT -s 172.org domain.24.Source IP Address -d :.10 -p tcp --dport 143 -j REJECT #service iptable save # chkconfig iptable on  Deny pc1 to Ping Telnet Server. -j :.com to access IMAP & POP3 Server and deny member of my133t.0.Delete a rule -F :. #iptable -I INPUT -s 172.0.24.24.24. #iptable-restore < /etc/sysconfig/iptables SELINUX  SELINUX stands for Security Enhanced Linux.0.1 -d 172.Flash a rule Chains :INPUT OUTPUT FORWARD -s :. .10 -p icmp -j REJECT/DROP  Deny pc1 to access Telnet Server.10 -p tcp --dport 23 -REJECT/DROP  How to restore rules.Source port no.24.

NIS client . Anon Ftp Upload.. #getsebool -a | grep smbd #setseboot service name on/off  When SELINUX is in enforcing mode we have to set following services Samba Home Dir. Permissive and Disable. #system-config-securitylevel  SELINUX define following levels user : role : type : sensitivity : category #ls -z -> to check Security levels #getenforce -> to check SELINUX unable/disable #setenforce 1 -> for set Enable #system-config-securitylevels -> in GUI mode  How to change the context of a directory? #chcon -t var_t zzz #restorecon zzz Note: for running the Iptables properly we have to write down following command after saving the Iptables #restorecon -R /etc/sysconfig  Boolean Value : we have to change Boolean Value when SELINUX is in Enforcing mode And we want to run specific services. SELINUX define three level of control Enforcing.

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