FHSST Authors

The Free High School Science Texts: Textbooks for High School Students Studying the Sciences Chemistry Grades 10 - 12

Version 0 November 9, 2008

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FHSST Core Team
Mark Horner ; Samuel Halliday ; Sarah Blyth ; Rory Adams ; Spencer Wheaton

FHSST Editors
Jaynie Padayachee ; Joanne Boulle ; Diana Mulcahy ; Annette Nell ; Ren´ Toerien ; Donovan e Whitfield

FHSST Contributors
Rory Adams ; Prashant Arora ; Richard Baxter ; Dr. Sarah Blyth ; Sebastian Bodenstein ; Graeme Broster ; Richard Case ; Brett Cocks ; Tim Crombie ; Dr. Anne Dabrowski ; Laura Daniels ; Sean Dobbs ; Fernando Durrell ; Dr. Dan Dwyer ; Frans van Eeden ; Giovanni Franzoni ; Ingrid von Glehn ; Tamara von Glehn ; Lindsay Glesener ; Dr. Vanessa Godfrey ; Dr. Johan Gonzalez ; Hemant Gopal ; Umeshree Govender ; Heather Gray ; Lynn Greeff ; Dr. Tom Gutierrez ; Brooke Haag ; Kate Hadley ; Dr. Sam Halliday ; Asheena Hanuman ; Neil Hart ; Nicholas Hatcher ; Dr. Mark Horner ; Robert Hovden ; Mfandaidza Hove ; Jennifer Hsieh ; Clare Johnson ; Luke Jordan ; Tana Joseph ; Dr. Jennifer Klay ; Lara Kruger ; Sihle Kubheka ; Andrew Kubik ; Dr. Marco van Leeuwen ; Dr. Anton Machacek ; Dr. Komal Maheshwari ; Kosma von Maltitz ; Nicole Masureik ; John Mathew ; JoEllen McBride ; Nikolai Meures ; Riana Meyer ; Jenny Miller ; Abdul Mirza ; Asogan Moodaly ; Jothi Moodley ; Nolene Naidu ; Tyrone Negus ; Thomas O’Donnell ; Dr. Markus Oldenburg ; Dr. Jaynie Padayachee ; Nicolette Pekeur ; Sirika Pillay ; Jacques Plaut ; Andrea Prinsloo ; Joseph Raimondo ; Sanya Rajani ; Prof. Sergey Rakityansky ; Alastair Ramlakan ; Razvan Remsing ; Max Richter ; Sean Riddle ; Evan Robinson ; Dr. Andrew Rose ; Bianca Ruddy ; Katie Russell ; Duncan Scott ; Helen Seals ; Ian Sherratt ; Roger Sieloff ; Bradley Smith ; Greg Solomon ; Mike Stringer ; Shen Tian ; Robert Torregrosa ; Jimmy Tseng ; Helen Waugh ; Dr. Dawn Webber ; Michelle Wen ; Dr. Alexander Wetzler ; Dr. Spencer Wheaton ; Vivian White ; Dr. Gerald Wigger ; Harry Wiggins ; Wendy Williams ; Julie Wilson ; Andrew Wood ; Emma Wormauld ; Sahal Yacoob ; Jean Youssef Contributors and editors have made a sincere effort to produce an accurate and useful resource. Should you have suggestions, find mistakes or be prepared to donate material for inclusion, please don’t hesitate to contact us. We intend to work with all who are willing to help make this a continuously evolving resource!

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iii

iv

Contents
I II Introduction Matter and Materials 1 3
5 5 6 6 7 9 9 9

1 Classification of Matter - Grade 10 1.1 Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 Heterogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homogeneous mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Separating mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 1.4

Giving names and formulae to substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Metals, Semi-metals and Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Non-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Semi-metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Thermal Conductors and Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 21

2 What are the objects around us made of? - Grade 10 2.1 2.2

Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.1 Representing molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Intramolecular and intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 The Kinetic Theory of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 The Properties of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 35

3 The Atom - Grade 10 3.1

Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.1.1 3.1.2 The Plum Pudding Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Rutherford’s model of the atom v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

CONTENTS 3.1.3 3.2

CONTENTS The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2.1 3.2.2 How heavy is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 How big is an atom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.3

Atomic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.3.1 3.3.2 The Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.4 3.5

Atomic number and atomic mass number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.1 3.5.2 What is an isotope? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Relative atomic mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.6

Energy quantisation and electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.5 The energy of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Energy quantisation and line emission spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Electron configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Core and valence electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 The importance of understanding electron configuration . . . . . . . . . 51

3.7

Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.7.1 3.7.2 Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Ionisation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

3.8

The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.8.1 3.8.2 Groups in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Periods in the periodic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

3.9

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 63

4 Atomic Combinations - Grade 11 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Why do atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Energy and bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 What happens when atoms bond? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.4.1 The nature of the covalent bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.5 4.6

Lewis notation and molecular structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Electronegativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.6.1 4.6.2 Non-polar and polar covalent bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Polar molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4.7

Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 The nature of the ionic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Properties of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

4.8

Metallic bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.8.1 4.8.2 The nature of the metallic bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 The properties of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 vi

CONTENTS 4.9 Writing chemical formulae 4.9.1 4.9.2

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

The formulae of covalent compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 The formulae of ionic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

4.10 The Shape of Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.10.1 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.10.2 Determining the shape of a molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.11 Oxidation numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5 Intermolecular Forces - Grade 11 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 91

Types of Intermolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Understanding intermolecular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Intermolecular forces in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 101

6 Solutions and solubility - Grade 11 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Types of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Forces and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 107

7 Atomic Nuclei - Grade 11 7.1 7.2 7.3

Nuclear structure and stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 The Discovery of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Radioactivity and Types of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 Alpha (α) particles and alpha decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Beta (β) particles and beta decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Gamma (γ) rays and gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Natural background radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Man-made sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

7.4

Sources of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 7.4.1 7.4.2

7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8

The ’half-life’ of an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 The Dangers of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 The Uses of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Nuclear Fission 7.8.1 7.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 The Atomic bomb - an abuse of nuclear fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Nuclear power - harnessing energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

7.9

Nuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 7.10.1 Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s - 103 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 7.10.2 Age of Ions (103 s - 1013 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.10.3 Age of Atoms (1013 s - 1015 s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 7.10.4 Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

7.10 Nucleosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

7.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 vii

CONTENTS 8 Thermal Properties and Ideal Gases - Grade 11 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9

CONTENTS 125

A review of the kinetic theory of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed gas . . . . . . . . . . . 132 The relationship between temperature and pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 The general gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The ideal gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Molar volume of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 151

9 Organic Molecules - Grade 12 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

What is organic chemistry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Sources of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Unique properties of carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Representing organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 Molecular formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Condensed structural formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.5 9.6 9.7

Isomerism in organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Functional groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 The Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 9.7.1 9.7.2 9.7.3 9.7.4 9.7.5 9.7.6 9.7.7 9.7.8 9.7.9 The Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Naming the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Properties of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Reactions of the alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 The alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Naming the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 The properties of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Reactions of the alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

The Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

9.7.10 Naming the alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 9.8 The Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 9.8.1 9.8.2 9.9 Naming the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

Carboxylic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 9.9.1 9.9.2 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

9.10 The Amino Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.11 The Carbonyl Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 9.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 viii

CONTENTS 10 Organic Macromolecules - Grade 12

CONTENTS 185

10.1 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 10.2 How do polymers form? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.1 Addition polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 10.3 The chemical properties of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 10.4 Types of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 10.5.1 The uses of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 10.5.3 Plastics and the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10.6 Biological Macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 10.6.1 Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 10.6.2 Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 10.6.3 Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

III

Chemical Change

209
211

11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10

11.1 Physical changes in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 11.2.1 Decomposition reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 11.2.2 Synthesis reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 11.5 Law of constant composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.6 Volume relationships in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 11.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 12 Representing Chemical Change - Grade 10 223

12.1 Chemical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 12.2 Writing chemical formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

12.3 Balancing chemical equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

12.4 State symbols and other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change - Grade 11 233

13.1 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 13.2 Molar Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions . . . . . . . . . . 237 ix

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 16. .4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions . . . . . . . . . .2 Defining acids and bases .1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? . . . . 249 13. . . . . . . 280 15. . . . . . . . . .1 What are acids and bases? . . .7 The equilibrium constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Conjugate acid-base pairs . . . . . . . . 246 13. . . 303 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions . . . . . . .6 Molar Volumes of Gases . . . . .2 Redox reactions . . . .1 Oxidation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 287 16. 267 15. . . . . . 255 14. . . . . . . . . . 255 14. . . . . . . . . . .3 The heat of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Elimination reactions . . . . 239 13. . . . .4 Molecules and compounds CONTENTS . . . . . . . . 260 14. 267 15. . .4 Measuring Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Stoichiometric calculations . . . . 261 14. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . 287 16. . . 289 16. . . . . . . . . .3 Addition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Substitution reactions . . . . . . . . . . . 282 15. . . . . . . .6 Activation energy and the activated complex . . . . . . . . . . .7 Molar concentrations in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Acid-base reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 277 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 270 15. . . . . . . 278 15. .1 Addition reactions . . . . . . .6. .7 Summary . . .1 Acid-base reactions . .3. .1. . . . . . substitution and elimination reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Summary . . . 257 14. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 15 Types of Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Open and closed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 16 Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 15. . . . . 302 16. .1. . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 13. . . . . .1. . . . . . 274 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 x . . . . . . 276 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions . . .3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3 Reaction rates and collision theory . . .5 The Composition of Substances . . . . . . . 259 14. . . . . . 242 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 267 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 16. . . . . .6. . . . 281 15. . . . . 280 15. . . . . . . .2 Factors affecting reaction rates . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Summary . 247 13. . . . . .6 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . .2 Reversible reactions . .5 Acid-carbonate reactions . . . . . . 295 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .Grade 11 255 14. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 319 17. . . . . . . . . . . . 333 17. . . 328 17. . . . . . . . 324 17. . . . . . . . . . . .1 The effect of concentration on equilibrium . . . . . 348 17. . . . . . . .4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The electrolysis of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 IV Chemical Systems 353 355 18 The Water Cycle . . . 306 16. . . . . . . 349 17. . . . . . 330 17. . . .2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . .3 The Galvanic cell . . . .7. . . . . . . .1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate . . . . . . . .7 Summary . . . . . 326 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 17 Electrochemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 328 17. . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . .3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Galvanic Cell . . . . . 342 17. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 323 17. . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 16. . . . . 327 17. . . . . . . . . . 325 17. . . . . 347 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 10 18. . . . . . . .5 Balancing redox reactions . . . .2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Calculating the equilibrium constant . . . .3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electroplating . 322 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . .10Summary .8. .3. . . . . . . . .2 The importance of water . . .2. . .5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . .9 Industrial applications . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The different reactivities of metals . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 17. . . . . .2 The meaning of kc values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16. .4. .8 Le Chatelier’s principle . . 310 16. . . 337 17. . . . . . . . .4. . . .7 Uses of standard electrode potential . 329 17. . . . 359 xi .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The effect of temperature on equilibrium . . .1 Introduction . 319 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell . . . 329 17. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 338 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . 305 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 18. . . . . . . . . .3 The effect of pressure on equilibrium . . . . . . . .4 The microscopic structure of water . . .6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . .6. . .4. .1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell . . . . . . . . . . 355 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18. . . 320 17. . . 347 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 16. . . . . . . . . . . 315 16. . . .3 The Electrolytic cell . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17. . . . . . . . .3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18. . . . .6. . .2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 378 20. . . . 377 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . 389 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Ions in aqueous solution . . .4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . .6 Electrolytes. . . . . . 387 20. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Test for a carbonate . 392 20. . . . . . . . . . 372 19. . . . . . . . 391 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 21. . . . . . . . . . . 374 20 The Hydrosphere . 382 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20. .2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . .2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . 366 19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 10 369 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19. . . . . . . .1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . 369 19. . 394 21 The Lithosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 18. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20. . . . . . . . .3 Nitrification . .8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . 400 xii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 397 21. . . . . . .5. . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . 377 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . .3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . 391 20. . . . . . . . . . . .2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 397 21. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 20. . .2 Ions and water hardness . . . 372 19. . .3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . 379 20. . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . .9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 20. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . 371 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20. . . . . .5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle .4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . 382 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20. . . . . .3 The pH scale . .1 Introduction . . . . . .10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . .3 A brief history of mineral use .Grade 10 377 20. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 21. . . . . . ionisation and conductivity . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .11Summary . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22. . . . .3 The mesosphere . . . . .3 Iron in South Africa . 422 22. . .8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . .8. . .1 How oil is formed . . . . .5. . . . . 422 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21. . . . . . . . 414 21. . . .6. . . . 407 21. . . . 431 xiii . . 414 21. . . . 406 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The troposphere .6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . 424 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Types of iron . . 402 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21. 409 21. 404 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . 421 22. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . 409 21. . . . . . . 422 22. . . . . .4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .2 The greenhouse gases and global warming . . . 401 21. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 412 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . 412 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . .5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . .1 The formation of coal .2. .4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . .5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . .8. . . . . . . . . . 415 21. . . . . . . . . . . 401 21. . . . . . . . . . .2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .9. . . . . . . . . . . 414 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The stratosphere . 411 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mining phosphates .3 Other oil products . .1 The composition of the atmosphere . . .4 Taking action to combat global warming . 411 21. .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 408 21. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Extracting oil . . . . . . .Grade 11 421 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.5. . . . . . . . . .3 Greenhouse gases and global warming .4 The thermosphere . . . . 406 21. . . . . . . . . . . 426 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Summary . . . . . . . . .4 Characteristics and uses of gold .8. . . . . 413 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . .3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . 415 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 22 The Atmosphere . . . . . . . . 430 22. .5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . .2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction .5. . . . . . . .3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The structure of the atmosphere . .2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The consequences of global warming . . . 426 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 21.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sasol and the environment .1 Sasol today: Technology and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Role of fertilisers . . 450 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Soaps and Detergents . . . . .5. .2. . . . .4 The zinc-carbon dry cell . . . . . . 435 23. 442 23. .Grade 12 CONTENTS 435 23. . . . . . . . . .5. . . 459 23. . . . . . . . . . . 456 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 23. . . . .5 Electrochemistry and batteries . . . 454 23. . . . .4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication . . . . 456 23. . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . 457 23. . . . . . . . . .2 Sasol . 457 23. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 23. 450 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Environmental considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 460 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 A GNU Free Documentation License 467 xiv . .2.3 The Chloralkali Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .2 Battery capacity and energy . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 23. .4 The Fertiliser Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 23. .3 Lead-acid batteries . .1 The value of nutrients . . 450 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . . . . 442 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 23 The Chemical Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 How batteries work . .6 Summary . . . . . . . . . .

Part I Introduction 1 .

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Part II Matter and Materials 3 .

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for example according to whether they are good electrical conductors. Matter makes up the air we breathe. In this chapter. so that we can use them in our homes. are made of a material that is waterproof. MATTER MIXTURES Homogeneous Heterogeneous Metals Magnetic PURE SUBSTANCES Elements Compounds Non-metals Non-magnetic Figure 1. A stew. we will be looking at different types of materials and their properties. the strength of the wood and metals make the cupboard strong and durable. are made of matter. salt and other substances. the raincoats that you wear during bad weather. As you read further in this chapter. sea water is a mixture of water. 5 . The diagram below shows one way in which matter can be classified (grouped) according to its different properties. or materials.1 Mixtures We see mixtures all the time in our everyday lives. for example. oxygen and nitrogen. nails and hinges (the materials). is a mixture of different foods such as meat and vegetables. Even our own human bodies are made of matter! Different objects can be made of different types of matter.1: The classification of matter 1. a cupboard (an object) is made of wood. in industry and in other applications. The electrical wires in your home are made of metal because metals are a type of material that is able to conduct electricity. the food we eat and the animals and plants that live around us. you will see that there are also other ways of classifying materials. The properties of the materials will affect the properties of the object. and air is a mixture of gases such as carbon dioxide. In the same way. In the example of the cupboard.Grade 10 All the objects that we see in the world around us.Chapter 1 Classification of Matter . the ground we walk on. For example. It is very important to understand the properties of materials.

Each slice will probably be slightly different from the next because the toppings like the mushrooms and peppers are not evenly distributed. platelets and plasma). 40 g. that is a mixture of cheese. mushrooms and peppers. Another example is a mixture of oil and water. it won’t matter whether they take a sip from the top 6 . means that there is no chemical process involved. a type of rock. in other words they are not exactly the same throughout. Although you may add one substance to the other. neither of these substances has changed in any way when they are mixed together. Even though the sand is in water. the different parts cannot be seen. The carat of the gold gives an idea of how much gold is in the item. Think also of a powdered drink that you mix with water. • can be separated by mechanical means To separate something by ’mechanical means’. 1. We can group mixtures further by dividing them into those that are heterogeneous and those that are homogeneous. the drink will have the same sweet taste for anyone who drinks it.1. and specific properties.1. 100 g or any other mass of sand to the water. But these minerals are not spread evenly through the rock and so some parts of the rock may have more quartz than others. steel (a mixture of iron and other materials) and the gold that is used to make jewellery. • keep their physical properties In the example we used of the sand and water. they will stay separate in the mixture.GRADE 10 Definition: Mixture A mixture is a combination of more than one substance. Definition: Heterogeneous mixture A heterogeneous mixture is one that is non-uniform. It doesn’t matter whether you add 20 g. it still has the same properties as when it was out of the water. In a mixture. the substances that make up the mixture: • are not in a fixed ratio Imagine. rather than something chemical. Granite is made up of lots of different mineral substances including quartz and feldspar.1 Heterogeneous mixtures A heterogeneous mixture does not have a definite composition. In our sand and water example. that you have a 250 ml beaker of water. Something physical is done to the mixture. Provided you give the container a good shake after you have added the powder to the water. When the salt dissolves. tomato. We say that these heterogeneous mixtures are non-uniform. 1. Some other examples of mixtures include blood (a mixture of blood cells.1 CHAPTER 1.1. Another example would be granite. it is possible to separate the mixture by simply pouring the water through a filter. and you can no longer see the salt as being separate from the water. and where the different components of the mixture can be seen.2 Homogeneous mixtures A homogeneous mixture has a definite composition. The gold in jewellery is not pure gold but is a mixture of metals. A solution of salt dissolved in water is an example of a homogeneous mixture. it will spread evenly through the water so that all parts of the solution are the same. Think of a pizza. for example. In a homogeneous mixture. it will still be called a mixture of sand and water. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . where these substances are not bonded to each other.

When a person Interesting Fact Fact has renal failure. The air we breathe is another example of a homogeneous mixture since it is made up of different gases which are in a constant ratio. at least one of which is a metal. A semi-permeable membrane is a barrier that lets some things move across it. and this can be lifethreatening. This process is very important for people whose kidneys are not functioning properly. When the test tubes that hold the blood are spun round in the machine. Dialysis works using a process called diffusion. Diffusion takes place when one substance in a mixture moves from an area where it has a high concentration to an area where its concentration is lower. the blood of the patient flows on one side of a semi-permeable membrane.GRADE 10 1.1 or from the bottom. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . This movement takes place across a semi-permeable membrane. This process is used to separate the cells and plasma in blood. is much stronger than iron. an illness called renal failure. and which can’t be distinguished from each other. their kidneys cannot do this any more. leaving the other part of the mixture behind. the heavier cells sink to the bottom of the test tube. On the other side there will be a fluid that has no waste products but lots of other important substances such as potassium ions (K + ) that the person will need. • Centrifugation This is a laboratory process which uses the centrifugal force of spinning objects to separate out the heavier substances from a mixture. Through this process. Waste products from the blood diffuse from where their concentration is high (i. waste products are taken out of the blood so that the person stays healthy. and where the different components of the mixture cannot be seen. An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements.1. but not others. teresting Normally. These are some examples: • Filtration A piece of filter paper in a funnel can be used to separate a mixture of sand and water. 7 . Steel for example. where the resulting material has metallic properties. You can try this using a salt solution.e. which is its main component. in the person’s blood) into the ’clean’ fluid on the other side of the membrane. heating a solution causes the water to evaporate. There are lots of different ways to do this. Alloys are usually made to improve on the properties of the elements that make them up. • Heating / evaporation Sometimes.3 Separating mixtures Sometimes it is important to be able to separate a mixture.CHAPTER 1. Definition: Homogeneous mixture A homogeneous mixture is one that is uniform. healthy kidneys remove waste products from the blood. Using dialysis. The potassium ions will move in the opposite direction from the fluid into the blood. 1. Can you think of a reason why it might be important to have a way of separating blood in this way? • Dialysis This is an interesting way of separating a mixture because it can be used in some important applications.

2.1 CHAPTER 1.GRADE 10 Activity :: Investigation : The separation of a salt solution Aim: To demonstrate that a homogeneous salt solution can be separated using physical methods. Watch the beaker until all the water has evaporated. 8 . This is now called a salt solution. Conclusion: The sodium chloride solution. Activity :: Discussion : Separating mixtures Work in groups of 3-4 Imagine that you have been given a container which holds a mixture of sand. What do you see in the beaker? salt solution stand bunsen burner H2 O water evaporates when the solution is heated salt crystals remain at the bottom of the beaker Results: The water evaporates from the beaker and tiny grains of salt remain at the bottom. discuss how you would go about separating this mixture into the four materials that it contains. Method: 1. iron filings (small pieces of iron metal). Measure a teaspoon of salt and pour this into the water. 4. bunsen burner. Apparatus: glass beaker. which was a homogeneous mixture of salt and water. Stir until the salt dissolves completely. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . salt and small stones of different sizes. Place the beaker on a retort stand over a bunsen burner and heat gently. Is this a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? In your group.1. retort stand. 3. salt. You should increase the heat until the water almost boils. 5. has been separated using heating and evaporation. water. This salt solution is a homogeneous mixture. Pour a small amount of water (about 20 ml) into a beaker.

The element iron. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER .2.GRADE 10 Exercise: Mixtures 1. say whether the mixture is homogeneous or heterogeneous 1. This is because the elements were originally given Latin names. mixture and compound. It is much more difficult to break down pure substances into their parts. On the Periodic Table you will notice that some of the abbreviations do not seem to match the elements they represent. Water (H2 O). The smallest unit of an element is the atom. Iron has the abbreviation Fe because its Latin name is ’ferrum’. The elements we know are represented in the Periodic Table of the Elements. sodium’s Latin name is ’natrium’ (Na) and gold’s is ’aurum’ (Au). is called a pure substance. oxygen (O) and carbon (C). Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a compound made up of one sodium atom for every chlorine atom. and complex chemical methods are needed to do this. they 9 . for example. 1. An important characteristic of a compound is that it has a chemical formula.2. In each of the examples above. hydrogen (H). is a compound that is made up of two hydrogen atoms for every one oxygen atom. Examples of elements are magnesium (Mg). 1. Which of the following subtances are mixtures? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) tap water brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) concrete aluminium Coca cola distilled water 1. Most of these are natural. Pure substances include elements and compounds. Diagram 1. has the chemical formula Fe.2 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds Any material that is not a mixture. In the same way.2 2.2 Compounds A compound is a chemical substance that forms when two or more elements combine in a fixed ratio.CHAPTER 1. When they are added together. Definition: Compound A substance made up of two or more elements that are joined together in a fixed ratio. There are 109 known elements.1 Elements An element is a chemical substance that can’t be divided or changed into other chemical substances by any ordinary chemical means. Iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) are two elements. for example. where each element is abbreviated to a chemical symbol.2 might help you to understand the difference between the terms element. Definition: Element An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances through chemical means. which describes the ratio in which the atoms of each element in the compound occur. but some are man-made.

a mixture or a compound. But how are compounds named? In the example of iron sulfide that was used earlier. In this compound. the iron and sulfur are joined to each other in a ratio of 1:1. Exercise: Elements. In the following table. also say whether it is a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture.3 Giving names and formulae to substances It is easy to describe elements and mixtures. the ending is -ide)? The following are some guidelines for naming compounds: 10 Fe S Fe Fe S S S An atom of the element sulfur (S) Fe Fe S S S .GRADE 10 Fe Fe S Fe An atom of the element iron (Fe) S Fe S Fe Fe Fe S S A mixture of iron and sulfur The compound iron sulfide (FeS) Figure 1.3 CHAPTER 1. and which ’ending’ is given to the compound name (in this case. However. a new compound is formed. which is called iron sulfide (FeS). say whether the substance is an element. In each of the following cases. In other words. if the mixture is heated. The iron and sulfur are not joined together. one atom of iron is joined to one atom of sulfur in the compound iron sulfide. tick whether each of the substances listed is a mixture or a pure substance. If it is a mixture. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Cu iron and sulfur Al H2 SO4 SO3 1.1.2: Understanding the difference between a mixture and a compound form a mixture or iron and sulfur. which element is named first. mixtures and compounds 1. Substance Mixture or pure Homogeneous heterogeneous mixture or fizzy colddrink steel oxygen iron filings smoke limestone (CaCO3 ) 2. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER .

e. there is one atom of iron for every atom of sulfur in the compound. FeS. is a negative ion. You would have seen this in some of the examples we have used so far. they are written below the element symbol). In the example of NaCl..ite. while chlorine is in group 7 on the right of the table. SO4 is sulphate and PO4 is phosphate. this tells us how many atoms of that element there are in relation to other elements in the compound. 3. When there are only two elements in the compound. For example. sodium sulphite (Na2 SO3 ). sodium is a group 1 element on the left hand side of the table. In these three examples. e. ’di’ (two) and ’tri’ (three). In a compound.g. the ratio of the elements in each compound is 1:1.3 1.. is used first when naming the compound. For example in nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) there are two oxygen atoms for every one atom of nitrogen.CHAPTER 1. The same is true for FeS and KBr. The NO− anion 3 has the name nitrate.There are three atoms of oxygen for every one atom of sulfur Important: When numbers are written as ’subscripts’ in compounds (i. Name of compound ion Carbonate sulphate Hydroxide Ammonium Nitrate Hydrogen carbonate Phosphate Chlorate Cyanide Chromate Permanganate formula CO3 2− SO4 2− OH− NH4 + NO3 − HCO3 − PO4 3− ClO3 − CN− CrO4 2− MnO4 − 5.There is one atom of oxygen for every one atom of carbon • N O2 (nitrogen dioxide) .g. then the suffix of the name will be . The compound name will always include the names of the elements that are part of it. 2H2 O means that there are two molecules of water. when we start looking at chemical equations. the element that is to the left and lower down on the Periodic Table. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER .There are two atoms of oxygen for every one atom of nitrogen • SO3 (sulfur trioxide) .. Sodium therefore comes first in the compound name. You should know the following prefixes: ’mono’ (one). So. the compound is often given a suffix (ending) of -ide. which may combine with 3 a cation such as hydrogen (HNO3 ) or a metal like potassium (KNO3 ). • CO (carbon monoxide) . NaCl and KBr. and that in each molecule there are two hydrogen atoms for every one oxygen atom. for FeS. there are three oxygen atoms for every one atom of sulfur in the compound. The symbols of the elements can be used to represent compounds e. you will notice that sometimes there are numbers before the compound name. NO− for example.GRADE 10 1. SO3 in a formula is sulphite. In sulfur trioxide (SO3 ). Prefixes can be used to describe the ratio of the elements that are in the compound.. 6. • A compound of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) is iron sulf ide (FeS) • A compound of potassium (K) and bromine (S) is potassium bromide (KBr) • A compound of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) is sodium chlor ide (NaCl) 2. These are called chemical formulae.ate or . 4. 11 . Later. When a non-metal is combined with oxygen to form a negative ion (anion) which then combines with a positive ion (cation) from hydrogen or a metal. A compound may contain compound ions. Some of the more common compound ions and their names are shown below.

Refer to the diagram below.GRADE 10 Exercise: Naming compounds 1. (a) Is calcium carbonate a mixture or a compound? Give a reason for your answer. The picture shows a mixture of an element and a compound ii. (b) What is the ratio of Ca:C:O atoms in the formula? 2. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the picture? i. Give the chemical formula for each of the following compounds. Give the name of each of the following substances. The picture shows two compounds that have been chemically bonded to each other 5. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . The picture shows a mixture of two compounds iii. What is the formula of this molecule? H H H C H A B C D C6 H2 O C2 H6 O 2C6HO 2 CH6 O C H O H 12 .3 CHAPTER 1. 4.1. The formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3 . and then answer the questions that follow. (a) (b) (c) (d) What is the chemical formula for water? What is the chemical formula for sodium chloride? Label the water and sodium chloride in the diagram. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) KBr HCl KMnO4 NO2 NH4 OH Na2 SO4 potassium nitrate sodium iodide barium sulphate nitrogen dioxide sodium monosulphate 3. showing sodium chloride and water.

1 Metals Examples of metals include copper (Cu).CHAPTER 1. which can then be used to conduct electricity. This means that they can be bent into shape without breaking. There are a large number of elements that are metals. Discuss why you think metal was used to make each object. zinc (Zn). What is the function of each of these objects? 4. semi-metals and non-metals all have their own specific properties. the metals are on the left of the zig-zag line. 13 .4 Metals. • Melting point Metals usually have a high melting point and can therefore be used to make cooking pots and other equipment that needs to become very hot. Activity :: Group Work : Looking at metals 1. On the right hand side of the Periodic Table is a dark ’zigzag’ line.4 1. Metals can stretched into thin wires such as copper. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . Some examples are listed below: • • • • • • hammer electrical wiring cooking pots jewellery burglar bars coins 2. You can see how the properties of metals make them very useful in certain applications. On the Periodic Table.4. gold (Au) and silver (Ag). semi-metals or non-metals. You should consider the properties of metals when you answer this question.GRADE 10 1. and non-metals are those on the right. Semi-metals and Non-metals The elements in the Periodic Table can also be divided according to whether they are metals. and are therefore used in electrical conducting wires. Metals are found on the left of the line. • Electrical conductors Metals are good conductors of electricity. Collect a number of metal items from your home or school. without being damaged. 1. In groups of 3-4. This line separates all the elements that are metals from those that are non-metals. The following are some of the properties of metals: • Thermal conductors Metals are good conductors of heat and are therefore used in cooking utensils such as pots and pans. 3. combine your collection of metal objects. Metals. • Shiny metallic lustre • Malleable • Ductile Metals have a characteristic shiny appearance and are often used to make jewellery.

aluminium can. nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O). Definition: Conductors and insulators A conductor allows the easy movement or flow of something such as heat or electrical charge through it. Corrosion is when a material starts to deteriorate at the surface because of its reactions with the surroundings. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . not because it is a particularly good conductor.GRADE 10 1. In the overhead power lines that we see above us. The elements silicon and germanium are examples of semiconductors. metal magnet. sound etc through them. chalk). non-metals are poor thermal conductors. Examples of insulators would be plastic and wood.1. Insulators are the opposite to conductors because they inhibit or reduce the flow of heat. Copper is one of the best electrical conductors. electrical charge.2 Non-metals In contrast to metals. This is the opposite of what happens in metals. Notice where these elements are positioned in the Periodic Table. Occasionally gold is used to make wire.4. The non-metals are found on the right hand side of the Periodic Table. but non-metals can also be good conductors. and this is why it is used to make conducting wire. Many electrical conductors are metals. metal pencil sharpener. wood. An insulator is a non-conducting material that does not carry any charge.g. for example oxygen and water in the air. and include elements such as sulfur (S). but because it is very resistant to surface corrosion. 1.5 CHAPTER 1. Activity :: Experiment : Electrical conductivity Aim: To investigate the electrical conductivity of a number of substances Apparatus: • two or three cells • light bulb • crocodile clips • wire leads • a selection of test substances (e. silver actually has an even higher electrical conductivity than copper. but because silver is so expensive. phosphorus (P). The aluminium usually surrounds a steel core which adds tensile strength to the metal so that it doesn’t break when it is stretched across distances.5 Electrical conductors. The semi-metals include elements such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). it is not practical to use it for electrical wiring because such large amounts are needed.3 Semi-metals Semi-metals have mostly non-metallic properties. 14 . good electrical insulators (meaning that they do not conduct electrical charge) and are neither malleable nor ductile. and like conductors when they are hot. aluminium is used. a piece of plastic. In reality. Do you understand now why electrical wires are normally covered with plastic insulation? Semi-conductors behave like insulators when they are cold.4. 1. semi-conductors and insulators An electrical conductor is a substance that allows an electrical current to pass through it. One of their distinguishing characteristics is that their conductivity increases as their temperature increases.

Activity :: Demonstration : Thermal conductivity Aim: To demonstrate the ability of different substances to conduct heat.6 Thermal Conductors and Insulators A thermal conductor is a material that allows energy in the form of heat. 2. 1. Results: Record your results in the table below: Test substance Metal/non-metal Does glow? bulb Conductor or insulator Conclusions: In the substances that were tested. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER .GRADE 10 battery 1. so that the test substance is held between the two crocodile clips. Metals are good electrical conductors and non-metals are not. Set up the circuit as shown above. Apparatus: 15 . without any movement of the material itself. Place the test substances one by one between the crocodile clips and see what happens to the light bulb. to be transferred within the material.CHAPTER 1. the metals were able to conduct electricity and the non-metals were not. An easy way to understand this concept is through a simple demonstration.6 light bulb test substance X crocodile clip Method: 1. The wire leads should be connected to the cells and the light bulb should also be connected into the circuit.

Wetsuits help to preserve body heat by trapping a layer of water against the skin. In this way a person in a wetsuit is able to keep their body temperature much higher than they would otherwise. but the handle is made from a poor thermal conductor so that the heat does not burn the hand of the person who is cooking. A person who is not wearing a wetsuit.1. Method: • Pour boiling water into the two cups so that they are about half full. Wetsuits are made out of closed-cell. Activity :: Investigation : A closer look at thermal conductivity Look at the table below. but the plastic does not. will lose heat very quickly to the water around them and can be vulnerable to hypothermia. and then answer the questions that follow. This explains why cooking pots are metal. • At the same time. An insulator is a material that does not allow a transfer of electricity or energy. This water is then warmed by body heat and acts as an insulator. will also lose heat more quickly than an insulating material. the metal conducts heat well. place a metal spoon into one cup and a plastic spoon in the other. Materials that are poor thermal conductors can also be described as being good insulators. the better the material is at conducting heat (i. In other words. Nitrogen gas has very low thermal conductivity. foam neoprene.g. • Note which spoon heats up more quickly Results: The metal spoon heats up more quickly than the plastic spoon. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . Remember that a material that conducts heat efficiently.e. The higher the number in the second column.6 CHAPTER 1.GRADE 10 You will need two cups (made from the same material e. which shows the thermal conductivity of a number of different materials. Neoprene is a synthetic rubber that contains small bubbles of nitrogen gas when made for use as wetsuit material. so it does not allow heat from the body (or the water trapped between the body and the wetsuit) to be lost to the water outside of the wetsuit. 16 . teresting Water is a better thermal conductor than air and conducts heat away from the Interesting Fact Fact body about 20 times more efficiently than air. Conclusion: Metal is a good thermal conductor. a metal spoon and a plastic spoon. it is a good thermal conductor). plastic). but their handles are often plastic or wooden. The pot itself must be metal so that heat from the cooking surface can heat up the pot to cook the food inside it. while plastic is a poor thermal conductor.

even in freezing conditions. Two building materials that are being used more and more worldwide. industrial and home environments.7 Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials We have now looked at a number of ways in which matter can be grouped. Remember that concepts such as conductivity and insulation are not only relevant in the building. (c) igloos (homes made from snow) are so good at maintaining warm temperatures. Polystyrene is also a good insulator and is able to keep cool things cool and hot things hot! It has the added advantage of being resistant to moisture.CHAPTER 1. teresting It is a known fact that well-insulated buildings need less energy for heating than Interesting Fact Fact do buildings that have no insulation. mould and mildew. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER .9 .58 0. Definition: Magnetism Magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert attractive or repulsive forces on other materials.0.69 0. semi-metals and non-metals. 1. electrical conductors and insulators. This is known as thermoregulation. such as into metals. are mineral wool and polystyrene. but also act as an insulator to help the animal to keep its body temperature at the right level. is to divide them into those that are magnetic and those that are non-magnetic. Name two materials that are good thermal conductors. In very cold environments.5 . this helps to keep energy within the building.25 0. Since air is a poor conductor and a good insulator. Mineral wool is a good insulator because it holds air still in the matrix of the wool so that heat is not lost. One way in which we can further group metals. Explain why: (a) cooler boxes are often made of polystyrene (b) homes that are made from wood need less internal heating during the winter months.024 1.12 0. fat and blubber not only provide protection. 17 . 3. Name two materials that are good insulators.04 . and thermal conductors and insulators.0.2 0.7 Use this information to answer the following questions: 1. Think for example of the layer of blubber or fat that we find in animals.GRADE 10 Material Silver Stainless steel Standard glass Concrete Red brick Water Snow Wood Polystyrene Air Thermal Conductivity (W/m/K) 429 16 1.05 0. 2.03 0.

Iron loses its magnetism quite quickly if it is taken away from the magnet. then it too is magnetic. discuss how our knowledge of the properties of materials has allowed society to: • develop advanced computer technology • provide homes with electricity • find ways to conserve energy 1. as well as in generators and electric motors. If the object is attracted to the magnet. • The main characteristics of mixtures are that the substances that make them up are not in a fixed ratio. • A mixture is a combination of one or more substances that are not chemically bonded to each other. it may happen that its own electrical field will be induced and the object becomes magnetic. 18 . in the magnetic strips of video tapes and ATM cards where information must be stored.e. in computers and TV’s. Steel on the other hand will stay magnetic for a longer time. platelets and plasma). Activity :: Investigation : Magnetism You can test whether an object is magnetic or not by holding another magnet close to it. Some metals keep their magnetism for longer than others. Examples of mixtures are air (a mixture of different gases) and blood (a mixture of cells. in compasses to find direction. • This matter can be classified according to whether it is a mixture or a pure substance. made into a magnet).1. Then complete the table below: Object Magnetic magnetic or non- Activity :: Group Discussion : Properties of materials In groups of 4-5. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER .8 Summary • All the objects and substances that we see in the world are made of matter.GRADE 10 A metal is said to be ferromagnetic if it can be magnetised (i.8 CHAPTER 1. they keep their individual properties and they can be separated from each other using mechanical means. Magnets are used to sort the metals in a scrap yard. If you hold a magnet very close to a metal object. Look at iron and steel for example. Find some objects in your classroom or your home and test whether they are magnetic or not. Steel is often used to make permanent magnets that can be used for a variety of purposes.

Examples are iron (Fe). A Which of the following can be classified as a mixture: i.8 • A heterogeneous mixture is non-uniform and the different parts of the mixture can be seen. • A homogeneous mixture is uniform. semi-conductors and insulators. sulfur (S).CHAPTER 1. choose one correct answer from the list provided. centrifugation and dialysis. it is important to know the elements that are in the compound. jewellery and many other applications. table salt iii. An example would be a mixture of sand and salt. sulfur. cotton material and ceramic. Each element has its own chemical symbol. • An element is a substance that can’t be broken down into simpler substances through chemical means.GRADE 10 1.g. A number of rules can then be followed to name the compound. They are interspersed between the water molecules. Examples of compounds are sodium chloride (NaCl). evaporation. • Another way of classifying matter is into metals (e. An example would be a salt solution. and the different components of the mixture can’t be seen. copper). Exercise: Summary 1. • Mixtures can be separated using a number of methods such as filtration. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . • When naming compounds and writing their chemical formula. semi-metals (e. These properties make metals very useful in electrical wires. • Metals are good electrical and thermal conductors. • A compound is a substance that is made up of two or more elements that are chemically bonded to each other in a fixed ratio. Another example is a metal alloy such as steel. • An electrical conductor allows an electrical current to pass through it. and they have a high melting point. how many atoms of each of these elements will combine in the compound and where the elements are in the Periodic Table. calcium (Ca). magnesium (Mg) and fluorine (F). Examples are plastic. calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) and water (H2 O). they are malleable and ductile. cooking utensils. air iv. iron. • Materials may also be either magnetic or non-magnetic. silicon and germanium) and non-metals (e. The salt dissolves in the water. phosphorus and nitrogen). sugar ii. heating. • All the elements are recorded in the Periodic Table of the Elements. they have a shiny lustre. meaning that you can’t see the individual salt particles. Iron B An element can be defined as: 19 .g.g. • Materials may also be classified as thermal conductors or thermal insulators depending on whether or not they are able to conduct heat. • An electrical insulator is not able to carry an electrical current. Most metals are good electrical conductors. iron sulfide (FeS). • Pure substances can be further divided into elements and compounds. For each of the following multiple choice questions. wood. A salt solution is a mixture of salt and water. gold. • A further way of classifying matter is into electrical conductors.

soil. In the first column (A) is a list of substances. carbon dioxide. Give the names of each of the following compounds: a NaBr b BaSO4 c SO2 7. in definite proportion by weight iv. gold and bronze 3. Classify each of the following substances as an element. a Suggest one method that you could use to separate the iron filings from the sulfur. Match up the substance in Column A with the description in Column B. salt water. A substance with constant composition iii. or a heterogeneous mixture: salt.8 CHAPTER 1. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER . In the second column (B) is a description of the group that each of these substances belongs in.1. For each of the following materials.GRADE 10 i. pure air. Look at the table below. pure water. b What property of metals allows you to do this? 5. A substance that cannot be separated into two or more substances by ordinary chemical (or physical) means ii. say what properties of the material make it important in carrying out its particular function. a b c d e f tar on roads iron burglar bars plastic furniture metal jewellery clay for building cotton clothing 20 . A uniform substance 2. You are given a test tube that contains a mixture of iron filings and sulfur. write the chemical formula for each of the following substances: a silver metal b a compound that contains only potassium and bromine c a gas that contains the elements carbon and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2 6. Column A iron H2 S sugar solution sand and stones steel Column B a compound containing 2 elements a heterogeneous mixture a metal alloy an element a homogeneous mixture 4. a solution(homogeneous mixture). A substance that contains two or more substances. You are asked to weigh the amount of iron in the sample. Given the following descriptions. a compound.

and the way in which they are arranged in a material. It is only in the noble gases (e. and metals.g. Water is made up of molecules. some are electrical or thermal conductors. Oxygen is a molecule that is made up of two oxygen atoms that are joined to one another. Giant molecules are those where there may be millions of atoms per molecule. they can be used in lots of useful applications. atoms are bonded to other atoms to form compounds or molecules. we may decide to simply represent a molecule using its chemical formula or its written name. Depending on the properties of these materials. It is the type of atoms. Some materials are metals and some are non-metals. but at other times. neon and argon) that atoms are found individually and are not bonded to other atoms. Examples of giant molecules are diamonds. 21 . Sometimes it is easiest to show what a molecule looks like by using different types of diagrams. what would we find? And how is it that a material’s microscopic structure is able to give it all these different properties? The answer lies in the smallest building block of matter: the atom. each of which has two hydrogen atoms joined to one oxygen atom. if we were to break down a material into the parts that make it up.Grade 10 2. which are made up of millions of metal atoms bonded to each other. which are made up of millions of carbon atoms bonded to each other. Normally. while others are not. helium. All of these are known as small molecules because there are only a few atoms in each molecule. hydrogen and oxygen that are joined to one another in different ways.1 Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter We have now seen that different materials have different properties. But what is it exactly that makes up these materials? In other words. We will look at the reasons for this in a later chapter.Chapter 2 What are the objects around us made of? . 2. It is not often that substances are found in atomic form.1 Representing molecules The structure of a molecule can be shown in many different ways. 2. Even the food that we eat is made up of molecules that contain atoms of elements such as carbon. that affects the properties of that substance.2 Molecules Definition: Molecule A molecule is a group of two or more atoms that are attracted to each other by relatively strong forces or bonds Almost everything around us is made up of molecules.2.

The molecular formula gives the exact number of each type of atom in the molecule. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . twelve hydrogen atoms and six oxygen atoms. Using diagrams to show the structure of a molecule Diagrams of molecules are very useful because they give us an idea of the space that is occupied by the molecule. we saw how chemical compounds can be represented using element symbols from the Periodic Table. Since giant molecules may consist of millions of atoms. we would simply write Cu. It makes sense then to represent these molecules using their empirical formula. Another useful way of representing molecules is to use diagrams. there are six carbon atoms. the chemical formula for a molecule of carbon dioxide is: CO2 The formula above is called the molecular formula of that compound. we would simply write NaCl. but rather the simplest ratio of the atoms in the compound. there is one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. 2. Another type of formula that can be used to describe a molecule is its structural formula. The formula tells us that in one molecule of carbon dioxide. in other words its shape. or some other chemical substance. and their ratio in that molecule. We can simplify this ratio to write 1:2:1. In chapter 1. The ratio of carbon:hydrogen:oxygen is 6:12:6. This is called the empirical formula of the molecule.1). Using formulae to show the structure of a molecule A chemical formula is an abbreviated (shortened) way of describing a molecule. or if we were to represent a molecule of sodium chloride. it is impossible to say exactly how many atoms are in each molecule. A molecule of glucose has the molecular formula: C6 H12 O6 In each glucose molecule. A structural formula uses a graphical representation to show a molecule’s structure (figure 2. the formula would be written as CH2 O. Definition: Molecular formula A concise way of expressing information about the atoms that make up a particular chemical compound. the empirical formula does not show the exact number of atoms. In most cases. So. The ratio of carbon atoms to oxygen atoms is 1:2. The empirical formula is useful when we want to write the formula for a giant molecule. but they don’t give us any idea of what the molecule actually looks like. in the case of a metal such as copper. Chemical formulae therefore tell us something about the types of atoms that are in a molecule and the ratio in which these atoms occur in the molecule. Definition: Empirical formula This is a way of expressing the relative number of each type of atom in a chemical compound. For example.GRADE 10 1.2. A chemical formula can also tell us the number of atoms of each element that are in a molecule. or if we were to use the element symbols. There are two types of diagrams that are commonly used: 22 . and they also help us to picture how the atoms are arranged in the molecule.2 CHAPTER 2.

about 80% of mined diamonds are unsuitable for use as gemstones and are therefore used in industry because of their strength and hardness.GRADE 10 CH3 (a) C4 H10 (b) C2 H5 CH3 CH CH3 2. and each line represents the bond between two carbon atoms.2: A ball and stick model of a water molecule • Space-filling model This is also a 3-dimensional molecular model.5 shows the bonds between the carbon atoms in diamond. and this pattern repeats itself until a complex lattice structure is formed. Figure 2. Each carbon atom is joined to four others. oxygen atom hydrogen atom Figure 2. teresting Diamonds are most often thought of in terms of their use in the jewellery industry. These 23 .4.3: A space-filling model and structural formula of a water molecule. The centres of the atoms (the balls) are connected by straight lines which represent the bonds between them. Each molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms that are attached to one oxygen atom. (b) the empirical and (c) the structural formula of isobutane • Ball and stick models This is a 3-dimensional molecular model that uses ’balls’ to represent atoms and ’sticks’ to represent the bonds between them.2.4 are some examples of simple molecules that are represented in different ways. A simplified example is shown in figure 2. Interesting Fact Fact However.3 and 2. Figures 2. Each black ball in the diagram represents a carbon atom.2 Figure 2. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . oxygen atom hydrogen atoms H O H Figure 2.CHAPTER 2.3 and 2. Space-filling models of water and ammonia are shown in figures 2. which is a giant molecule. The atoms are represented by multicoloured spheres.1: Diagram showing (a) the molecular. This is a simple molecule.

2 CHAPTER 2. grinding. and polishing. simple molecules or giant molecules. properties of diamonds are due to the strong covalent bonds betwene the carbon atoms in diamond. Diamond is a giant molecule. (a) ammonia gas (NH3 ) (b) zinc metal (Zn) (c) graphite (C) (d) nitric acid (HNO3 ) (e) neon gas (Ne2 ) 2. say whether the chemical substance is made up of single atoms. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . The diagram on the right shows how each carbon atom in the lattice is joined to four others. In each of the following.4: A space-filling model and structural formula of a molecule of ammonia. Exercise: Atoms and molecules 1. The diagram on the left shows part of a diamond lattice. Refer to the diagram below and then answer the questions that follow: 24 .5: Diagrams showing the microscopic structure of diamond. Each molecule is made up of one nitrogen atom and three hydrogen atoms. made up of numerous carbon atoms.2. The most common uses for diamonds in industry are in cutting. This is a simple molecule. drilling. Figure 2. This forms the basis of the lattice structure.GRADE 10 nitrogen atom hydrogen atom H H N H Figure 2.

The strength of the intermolecular forces increases as the size of the molecule increases.g. they are held together by chemical bonds. 25 . the stronger the intermolecular forces. (a) H2 (b) NH3 (c) sulfur dioxide 2. There are covalent bonds between the carbon and oxygen atoms in a molecule of carbon dioxide. There are ionic bonds between the sodium and chlorine atoms in a molecule of sodium chloride. • Covalent bond Covalent bonds exist between non-metal atoms e. the higher the melting point and boiling point for that substance. and the strength of the bond. (b) Write the molecular formula for the molecule. • Metallic bond Metallic bonds join metal atoms e. Represent each of the following molecules using its chemical formula.3 Intramolecular and intermolecular forces When atoms join to form molecules. structural formula and ball and stick model. (c) Is the molecule a simple or giant molecule? 3. contains many molecules of water.g. A glass of water for example. The type of bond. These molecules are held together by intermolecular forces.g.3 O C O (a) Identify the molecule. which holds them together. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . These bonds are called intramolecular forces because they are bonding forces inside a molecule (’intra’ means ’within’ or ’inside’). For example. There are metallic bonds between copper atoms in a piece of copper metal.CHAPTER 2. These will be looked at in more detail in chapter 4. Definition: Intramolecular force The force between the atoms of a molecule. • Ionic bond Ionic bonds occur between non-metal and metal atoms e. Sometimes we simply call these intramolecular forces chemical bonds. The strength of the intermolecular forces is important because they affect properties such as melting point and boiling point. Examples of the types of chemical bonds that can exist between atoms inside a molecule are shown below.GRADE 10 2. Intermolecular forces are those bonds that hold molecules together. depends on the atoms that are involved.

It is important to realise that what we will go on to describe is only a theory. these forces are very important because they affect many of the properties of matter such as boiling point. It should be clearer now that there are two types of forces that hold matter together. The kinetic theory of matter also helps us to understand other properties of matter. it is important that we first take a look at the Kinetic Theory of Matter..6: Two representations showing the intermolecular and intramolecular forces in water: space-filling model and structural formula. There are also intramolecular forces between each of these water molecules.GRADE 10 Definition: Intermolecular force A force between molecules.6 may help you to understand the difference between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces. It cannot be proved beyond doubt. Using ammonia gas as an example. which holds them together. the Kinetic Theory of Matter says that: 26 . and how matter can change from one phase to the next.e.4 The Kinetic Theory of Matter The kinetic theory of matter is used to explain why matter exists in different phases (i. Broadly. Diagram 2.4 CHAPTER 2. In the case of water. 2. intermolecular forces intramolecular forces O H O H O O O H O Figure 2. there are intramolecular forces that hold the two hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom in each molecule of water. Why is it important to understand the types of forces that exist between atoms and between molecules? Try to use some practical examples in your answer. suggests that it probably is more than just a theory. 3. Exercise: Intramolecular and intermolecular forces 1.2. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . (b) Explain what is meant by an intermolecular force. 2. but the fact that it helps us to explain our observations of changes in phase. melting point and a number of other properties. show where the intramolecular and intermolecular forces are. (a) Explain what is meant by an intramolecular force or chemical bond. and other properties of matter. solid. liquid and gas). Draw a diagram showing three molecules of carbon dioxide. Before we go on to look at some of these examples. As mentioned earlier.. On the diagram.

Table 2. When the particles are extremely close. Property of matter Gas Liquid Gas Particles Atoms or molecules Atoms or molecules Atoms or molecules Energy and move. ice). These attractive forces will either be intramolecular forces (if the particles are atoms) or intermolecular forces (if the particles are molecules).g.Weak forces because Stronger forces than Very strong forces. liquids and gases.1: Table summarising the general features of solids. closer together so that the attractive forces become stronger. The molecules are held close together in a regular pattern called a lattice. It temperature is incooled. Particles are tightly packed together Attractive forces be.GRADE 10 • Matter is made up of particles that are constantly moving.uids or gases if their or solid when it is ture is increased.Large spaces be. water (liquid) and water vapour (gas).4 • All particles have energy. • There are attractive forces between particles and these become stronger as the particles move closer together. but the energy varies depending on whether the substance is a solid.energy than in the cles vibrate around a stantly moving gas phase fixed point Spaces between par. Changes in phase In general a gas A liquid becomes a Solids become liqbecomes a liquid gas if its tempera. volume.Smaller spaces than Very little space ticles cause of high energy in gases between particles. have less energy its temperature deand therefore move creases. Table 2. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . • The temperature of a substance is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles.1 summarises the characteristics of the particles that are in each phase of matter. • A change in phase may occur when the energy of the particles is changed.CHAPTER 2. tween particles of the large distance in gas. Particles becomes a solid if creased. solid liquid Figure 2. the water molecules have very little energy and can’t move away from each other.7: The three phases of matter gas In a solid (e. Solid particles have the least energy and gas particles have the most amount of energy. • There are spaces between the particles of matter. and the gas becomes a liquid or a solid Let’s look at an example that involves the three phases of water: ice (solid). 2.partiment of particles energy and are con. Liquids can Solids have a fixed between particles be poured.Particles have high Particles have less Low energy . repulsive forces start to act. liquid or gas. If the ice is 27 .

8 shows the changes in phase that may occur in matter. the intermolecular forces between molecular solids are weaker than those between ionic and metallic solids. 2. the liquid water will become water vapour. Gas particles have lots of energy and are far away from each other. Melting point Definition: Melting point The temperature at which a solid changes its phase or state to become a liquid. Figure 2.GRADE 10 heated. The reverse process (change in phase from liquid to solid) is called freezing. Boiling point Definition: Boiling point The temperature at which a liquid changes its phase to become a gas. 1. In the examples we have looked at. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . because more energy (heat) is needed to break the bonds. and the molecules move further apart to form liquid water. Generally. 28 . ionic solids and some atomic lattices (e.8: Changes in phase co n eva dens p o a ti o rat n io n Solid 2. It makes sense then that a solid which is held together by strong bonds will have a higher melting point than one where the bonds are weak.5 CHAPTER 2. graphite) are much lower.5 The Properties of Matter Let us now look at what we have learned about chemical bonds. the energy of the molecules increases.blim su Liquid freezing melting Figure 2. If the molecules are heated further. because the molecules are more free to move than they were in the solid lattice. metals.g. and see whether this can help us to understand some of the macroscopic properties of materials.2. whereas the melting points for molecular solids and other atomic lattices (e. which is a gas. intermolecular forces and the kinetic theory of matter. In order for a solid to melt. This is why liquid water is able to flow. This means that some of the water molecules are able to overcome the intermolecular forces that are holding them together.g. and the names that describe these processes. Gas on a ti lim o n s u b a ti re. the energy of the particles must increase enough to overcome the bonds that are holding the particles together. diamond) have high melting points. That is why it is difficult to keep a gas in a specific area! The attractive forces between the particles are very weak and they are only loosely held together.

and sodium chloride and mercury have the strongest. In other words.2: The melting and boiling points for a number of substances You will have seen that substances such as ethanol. so for now.CHAPTER 2. and they are able to overcome the bonding forces that are holding them in the liquid.5 Pentane C5 H12 36. while substances with stronger intermolecular forces such as sodium chloride and mercury. must be heated much more if the particles are to have enough energy to overcome the forces that are holding them together in the liquid or solid phase. have the lowest boiling point. the energy of the particles is too great for them to be held in a liquid anymore. Exercise: Forces and boiling point The table below gives the molecular formula and the boiling point for a number of organic compounds called alkanes. the higher the boiling point needs to be in order to break these bonds. Not all of the substances in the table are solids at room temperature. Organic compound Molecular formula Boiling point (0 C) Methane CH2 -161.6 Propane C3 H8 -45 Butane C4 H10 -0. The density of a solid is generally higher than that of a liquid because the particles are hold much more closely 29 . the average kinetic energy of the particles also increases.5 When the temperature of a liquid increases. ethanol has the weakest intermolecular forces. What do you notice? Substance Ethanol (C2 H6 O) Water Mercury Sodium chloride Melting point (0 C) -114. The data in table 2. (d) Why was it enough for us to use ’number of carbon atoms’ as a measure of the molecular weight of the molecules? 3. and its boiling point (Number of carbon atoms will go on the x-axis and boiling point on the y-axis). let’s just focus on the boiling points for each of these substances.83 801 Boiling point (0 C) 78.2 below may help you to understand some of the concepts we have explained. Density and viscosity Density is a measure of the mass of a substance per unit volume.3 0 -38.GRADE 10 2. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . (c) Suggest a reason for what you have observed. The stronger the bonds within a liquid.wikipedia.52 Data from: http://www.6 Ethane C2 H6 -88. Of the substances listed. evaporation takes place and some particles in the liquid become a gas. (b) Describe what you see. Metallic and ionic compounds have high boiling points while the boiling point for molecular liquids is lower.73 1465 Table 2. When boiling point is reached.42 Octane C8 H18 125. Refer to the table and then answer the questions that follow.com (a) Draw a graph to show the relationship between the number of carbon atoms in each alkane.4 100 356. with relatively weak intermolecular forces.1 Hexane C6 H14 69 Heptane C7 H16 98.

Method: Determine the density of irregular solids as follows: 30 . It should be clear now that we can explain a lot of the macroscopic properties of matter (i. will have a different density. Repeat the above steps for the other two liquids you have.e. Record the volume of distilled water in the cylinder 5. The equation for density is: Density = Mass/Volume Discussion questions: To calculate the density of liquids and solids. thread.5 CHAPTER 2. Method: Determine the density of the distilled water and two liquids as follows: 1. In other words. 10 ml and 100 ml graduated cylinders. Empty. think about the following questions: • How would you determine the mass of a liquid? • How would you determine the volume of an irregular solid? Apparatus: Laboratory mass balance. two different liquids. distilled water. density increases as the strength of the intermolecular forces increases. Liquid Distilled water Liquid 1 Liquid 2 Mass (g) Volume (ml) Density (g/ml) Activity :: Investigation : Determining the density of irregular solids: Apparatus: Use the same materials and equpiment as before (for the liquids). there is a greater mass of the substance in a particular volume. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . Measure and record the combined mass of the water and cylinder. 7. Also find a number of solids that have an irregular shape. Once again. depending on the elements that make it up. In general. 2. the stronger the intermolecular forces in the liquid. clean and dry the graduated cylinder. Now compare this to how easy it is to pour water. Viscosity is also sometimes described as the ’thickness’ of a fluid. Every material. The viscosity of syrup is greater than the viscosity of water. Activity :: Investigation : Determining the density of liquids: Density is a very important property because it helps us to identify different materials.2. 6. Viscosity is a measure of how resistant a liquid is to changing its form. Pour an amount of distilled water into the cylinder.GRADE 10 together and therefore there are more particles packed together in a particular volume. Measure and record the mass of a 10 ml graduated cyclinder. Complete the table below. the characteristics we can see or observe) by understanding their microscopic structure and the way in which the atoms and molecules that make up matter are held together. As a group. Think for example of syrup and how slowly it pours from one container into another. the greater its viscosity. and the arrangement of its atoms. we need to be able to first determine their mass and volume. 3. 4.

6 2. Record the combined volume of the solid and the water. • In a molecule. 4. There are spaces between the particles. using the symbols for the elements in the molecule.6 Summary • The smallest unit of matter is the atom. 3. There are two types of chemical formulae: molecular and empirical formula. Measure and record the mass of one of the irregular solids. • Intermolecular forces are the bonds that hold molecules together. Pour some water into a 100 ml graduated cylinder and record the volume. Gently lower the solid into the water. Repeat these steps for the second object. Dtermine the volume of the solid by subtracting the combined volume from the original volume of the water only. 6. • The structure of a molecule can be represented in a number of ways. • A ball and stick diagram is a 3-dimensional molecular model that uses ’balls’ to represent atoms and ’sticks’ to represent the bonds between them. 7. • The kinetic theory of matter attempts to explain the behaviour of matter in different phases. and also attractive forces between particles when they come close together. • A molecule is a group of two or more atoms that are attracted to each other by chemical bonds. A giant molecule consists of millions of atoms per molecule. The atoms are represented by multi-coloured spheres. Covalent bonds. Complete the table below. ionic bonds and metallic bonds are examples of chemical bonds. Tie a piece of thread around the solid. • The empirical formula of a molecule gives the relative number of atoms of each element in the molecule. Atoms can combine to form molecules. keeping hold of the thread. • A small molecule consists of a few atoms per molecule. • The theory says that all matter is composed of particles which have a certain amount of energy which allows them to move at different speeds depending on the temperature (energy). • A space-filling model is also a 3-dimensional molecular model. 5. An ionic bond exists between nonmetal and metal atoms. • The chemical formula of a molecule is an abbreviated way of showing a molecule. 31 . atoms are held together by chemical bonds or intramolecular forces. 2. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? . • A covalent bond exists between non-metal atoms.GRADE 10 1.CHAPTER 2. for example metals and diamonds. Solid Solid 1 Solid 2 Solid 3 Mass (g) Volume (ml) Density (g/ml) 2. • The molecular formula of a molecule gives the exact number of atoms of each element that are in the molecule. • Molecules can also be represented using diagrams. and a metallic bond exists between metal atoms.

. 4.4 3500 -272 112.6 CHAPTER 2. is a colourless gas ii. The reverse process (change in phase from liquid to solid) is called freezing. The stronger the chemical bonds and intermolecular forces in a substance. can help to explain many of the macroscopic properties of matter. • Viscosity is a measure of how resistant a liquid is to changing its form. a Define ’boiling point’. • Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid changes phase to become a gas.8 32 Boiling point (0 C) 2567 1107 -183 4827 -268.2.6 . (c) A composition of two or more atoms that act as a unit. i. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? .. the higher the boiling point will be. 2. intermolecular forces and the kinetic theory of matter. A will be a liquid at room temperature. (b) The change in phase from liquid to gas.chemicalelements. Boiling point is an important concept to understand. Exercise: Summary exercise 1.. • Melting point is the temperature at which a solid changes its phase to become a liquid. has the formula N3 H B If one substance A has a melting point that is lower than the melting point of substance B. is not a compound iii. (d) Chemical formula that gives the relative number of atoms of each element that are in a molecule. The stronger the chemical bonds and intermolecular forces in a substance. 3. iii..com) Element copper magnesium oxygen carbon helium sulfur Melting point 1083 650 -218. For each of the following questions. (Data from http://www. b What change in phase takes place when a liquid reaches its boiling point? c What is the boiling point of water? d Use the kinetic theory of matter and your knowledge of intermolecular forces. this suggests that. cannot be an element iv. This means that ammonia. Give one word or term for each of the following descriptions. • Density is a measure of the mass of a substance per unit volume. i. to explain why water changes phase at this temperature.GRADE 10 • Understanding chemical bonds. an ingredient in household cleaners. ii. The chemical bonds in substance A are stronger than those in substance B. the higher the melting point will be. B will be a gas at room temperature. choose the one correct answer from the list provided. A Ammonia. and then answer the questions that follow. (a) The property that determines how easily a liquid flows. can be broken down to form one part nitrogen (N) and three parts hydrogen (H). Refer to the table below which gives the melting and boiling points of a number of elements.6 444. iv. The chemical bonds in substance A are weaker than those in substance B.

c Which of these elements has the weakest forces between its atoms? Give a reason for your answer. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? .CHAPTER 2.GRADE 10 a What state of matter (i.e. 2.6 33 . solid. liquid or gas) will each of these elements be in at room temperature? b Which of these elements has the strongest forces between its atoms? Give a reason for your answer.

WHAT ARE THE OBJECTS AROUND US MADE OF? .2.6 CHAPTER 2.GRADE 10 34 .

in the past. In 1906. We are going to look at how our modern understanding of the atom has evolved over time. Democritus and Leucippus in the fifth century BC. the air we breathe. In this model. The planets. Thomson in 1897. the atom is made up of negative electrons that float in a soup of positive charge. the atomic nucleus had not been discovered yet.J. grass and trees. we know that atoms are made up of a positively charged nucleus in the centre surrounded by negatively charged electrons. with one person building on the ideas of someone else. 3. However. For example. However. Atoms are the basis of all the structures and organisms in the universe. the sun.Chapter 3 The Atom .1.1). scientists came up with lots of different models or pictures to describe what atoms look like. Definition: Model A model is a representation of a system in the real world. However. This is often how scientific knowledge develops. 35 . before the structure of the atom was properly understood. people realised that atoms were made up of even smaller particles than they had previously thought. an atomic model represents what the structure of an atom could look like. and we have investigated some of the ways that materials are classified.Grade 10 We have now looked at many examples of the types of matter and materials that exist around us. Nowadays. the atom. Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in this field.1 Models of the Atom It is important to realise that a lot of what we know about the structure of atoms has been developed over a long period of time. It is not necessarily a true picture of the exact structure of an atom. The idea of atoms was invented by two Greek philosophers. 3. there was still no understanding of how these electrons in the atom were arranged.1 The Plum Pudding Model After the electron was discovered by J. and so the ’plum pudding model’ was put forward in 1904. based on what we know about how atoms behave. even with the Plum Pudding Model. and people are all made up of different combinations of atoms. we need to take a closer look at the building block of matter. Models help us to understand systems and their properties. The Greek word ατ oµoν (atom) means indivisible because they believed that atoms could not be broken into smaller pieces. But what is it that makes up these materials? And what makes one material different from another? In order to understand this. much like plums in a pudding or raisins in a fruit cake (figure 3.

A simplified diagram of his experiment is shown in figure 3.1: A schematic diagram to show what the atom looked like according to the Plum Pudding model The discovery of radiation was the next step along the path to building an accurate picture of atomic structure.GRADE 10 - - - electrons - - ’soup’ of positive charge Figure 3. In the early twentieth century. in 1911.2 Rutherford’s model of the atom Radioactive elements emit different types of particles. Behind the gold sheets. Marie Curie and her husband discovered that some elements (the radioactive elements) emit particles. Figure (b) shows the arrangement of atoms in the gold sheets. Some of these are positively charged alpha (α) particles. and the path of the α particles in relation to this. This screen allowed Rutherford to see where the alpha particles were landing. because the mass of an electron is so much smaller than that of a proton. He reasoned that the positively charged protons would be the ones to repel the positively charged alpha particles and alter their path. It was Ernest Rutherford who.2: Rutherford’s gold foil experiment.3. Rutherford set up his experiment so that a beam of alpha particles was directed at the gold sheets. Figure (a) shows the path of the α particles after they hit the gold sheet.1. THE ATOM .2. to try to get a better understanding of where the positive charge in the atom was. was a screen made of zinc sulfide.1 CHAPTER 3. used this discovery to revise the model of the atom. C B gold sheet A α particles A α particles A radioactive substance B C (a) B C screen (b) nucleus of gold atom Figure 3. which are able to pass through matter in a similar way to X-rays (read more about this in chapter 7). Rutherford carried out a series of experiments where he bombarded sheets of gold foil with these particles. 36 . 3. Rutherford knew that the electrons in the gold atoms would not really affect the path of the alpha particles.

3: Rutherford’s model of the atom 3.1. then light is emitted from the atom. The fact that most particles passed straight through suggested that the positive charge was concentrated in one part of the atom only. is distributed throughout the atom. Another way of thinking about this model was that the atom was seen to be like a mini solar system where the electrons orbit the nucleus like planets orbiting around the sun. Some of the particles ended up being slightly deflected onto other parts of the screen (B).6. some problems with this model: for example it could not explain the very interesting observation that atoms only emit light at certain wavelengths or frequencies. Rutherford’s work led to a change in ideas around the atom. dense. Helium for example. The energy of the light emitted is the same as the gap in the energy between the two energy levels. then Rutherford would have expected much more repulsion since the positive charge.3 The Bohr Model There were. teresting Light has the properties of both a particle and a wave! Einstein discovered that Interesting Fact Fact light comes in energy packets which are called photons. and could be detected on the screen directly behind the foil (A). His new model described the atom as a tiny. surrounded by lighter. has different energy levels to Carbon. however. This photon has the same energy as the difference between the two electron energy levels. positively charged core called a nucleus.3. When an electron in an atom changes energy levels. The exact energies of the orbitals in each energy level depends on the type of atom. 37 . But this was not the case. Niels Bohr solved this problem by proposing that the electrons could only orbit the nucleus in certain special orbits at different energy levels around the nucleus. electron orbiting the nucleus nucleus (containing protons and neutrons) Figure 3. A simplified picture of this is shown in figure 3. negatively charged electrons. You can read more about this in section 3.1 What he discovered was that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil undisturbed.CHAPTER 3. If an electron jumps down from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. THE ATOM . If the Plum Pudding model of the atom were true. a photon of light is emitted.GRADE 10 3. The distance between the nucleus and the electron in the lowest energy level of a hydrogen atom is known as the Bohr radius. But what was even more interesting was that some of the particles were deflected straight back in the direction from where they had come (C)! These were the particles that had been repelled by the positive protons in the gold atoms. according to that model.

So far.2.2 CHAPTER 3. we have discussed that atoms are made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. the diameter of an atom ranges from 100 pm (Helium) to 670 pm (Caesium). Let us now take a closer look at the microscopic structure of the atom.3 Atomic structure As a result of the models that we discussed in section 3. This knowledge is important because it helps us to understand things like why materials have different properties and why some materials bond with others. then the mass of an atom of hydrogen will be 1 u.1 How heavy is an atom? It is possible to determine the mass of a single atom in kilograms. The mass of a carbon atom. Atomic mass units are therefore not giving us the actual mass of an atom. Table 3. and 1 Angstrom = 10−10 m.99 x 10−26 kg. and the values you would get would be very clumsy and difficult to use. If you do this calculation. or its mass.67 x 10−27 kg. the diameter of an atom ranges from 0. because we cannot see them. But to do this.0000000010 m to 0.GRADE 10 3.0000000010 m or that 100 pm = 0. is about 1.67 x 10−27 kg. you will see that the mass of a carbon atom is twelve times greater than the mass of a hydrogen atom. 38 . Looking at these very small numbers makes it difficult to compare how much bigger the mass of one atom is when compared to another.2. 3.2 How big is an atom? It is difficult sometimes to imagine the size of an atom.0000000010 m! In other words. These electrons orbit the nucleus.3. while the mass of an atom of hydrogen is about 1. but rather its mass relative to the mass of other atoms in the Periodic Table.67 x 10−24 g or 1. When we use atomic mass units instead of kilograms.1: The atomic mass of a number of elements Element Atomic mass (u) Nitrogen (N) 14 Bromine (Br) 80 Magnesium (Mg) 24 Potassium (K) 39 Calcium (Ca) 40 Oxygen (O) 16 The actual value of 1 atomic mass unit is 1. This is a very tiny mass! 3. If we give carbon an atomic mass of 12 u. 3. you would need very modern mass spectrometers. 1 pm = 10−12 m How big is an atom? Atomic diameter also varies depending on the element. That is the same as saying that 1 Angstrom = 0. and also because we are not used to working with such small measurements. This unit is called the atomic mass unit (amu). The atomic masses of some elements are shown in table 3. Using different units. This is very small indeed.1.1 below.2 pm stands for picometres. 100 pm = 1 Angstrom. scientists now have a good idea of what an atom looks like. it becomes easier to see this. We can abbreviate (shorten) this unit to just ’u’. On average. You can check this by dividing the mass of a carbon atom in kilograms (see above) by the mass of a hydrogen atom in kilograms (you will need to use a calculator for this!). for example. THE ATOM . scientists use a different unit of mass when they are describing the mass of an atom.0000000067 m. To make the situation simpler.

It has a mass of 9.6 x 10−19 Table 3.2 The Nucleus Unlike the electron.6749 x 10−27 kg (slightly heavier than the proton). the protons and neutrons are called nucleons. do not carry any extra charge. the proton and neutron can be divided. The Neutron The neutron is electrically neutral i. The total positive charge of a nucleus is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. this particle would have to be neutral itself.e. 3.3.2: Summary of the particles inside the atom teresting Unlike the electron which is thought to be a point particle and unable to be Interesting Fact Fact broken up into smaller pieces.e. 39 .11 x 10−31 kg. we are mostly referring to the combined mass of the protons and neutrons.CHAPTER 3. The electron also carries one unit of negative electric charge which is the same as 1. then it should break into bits because of the repulsive forces between the like-charged protons! Also. However. Together.6726 x 10−27 +1 1.3 3. In 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron and measured its mass. then a helium nucleus (atomic number 2) would have two protons and therefore only twice the mass of hydrogen.6726 x 10−27 kg. then the number of protons in an atom has to be the same as the number of electrons to balance out the positive and negative charge to zero. i. it is much heavier than the electron and its mass is 1.3. Since we know that atoms are electrically neutral. The proton is much heavier than the electron (10 000 times heavier!) and has a mass of 1.1 The Electron The electron is a very light particle. The proton and neutron are made up of 3 quarks each.11 x 10−31 -1 -1. i. He predicted this because if there were only positively charged protons in the nucleus. Mass (kg) Units of charge Charge (C) proton 1.GRADE 10 3. When we talk about the atomic mass of an atom. THE ATOM . Like the proton.e.6 x 10−19 neutron 1. To make sure that the atom stays electrically neutral. if protons were the only particles in the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are built up of smaller particles called quarks. it is actually four times heavier than hydrogen.6 x 10−19 C (Coulombs).6749 x 10−27 0 0 electron 9. the nucleons. The Proton Each proton carries one unit of positive electric charge. teresting Rutherford predicted (in 1920) that another kind of particle must be present in Interesting Fact Fact the nucleus along with the proton. Scientists believe that the electron can be treated as a point particle or elementary particle meaning that it can’t be broken down into anything smaller. This suggested that there must be something else inside the nucleus as well as the protons. it carries no charge at all. the nucleus can be broken up into smaller building blocks called protons and neutrons.

the total number of protons plus neutrons.e.GRADE 10 3. THE ATOM . The number of nucleons. Definition: Atomic mass number (A) The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Standard notation shows the chemical symbol. 40 . is called the atomic mass number and is denoted by the letter A.4 CHAPTER 3. Definition: Atomic number (Z) The number of protons in an atom The mass of an atom depends on how many nucleons its nucleus contains. is denoted as 56 26 Fe . by the number of protons. where the total nuclear charge is Z = 26 and the mass number A = 56. the iron nucleus which has 26 protons and 30 neutrons. i.4 Atomic number and atomic mass number The chemical properties of an element are determined by the charge of its nucleus. i. This number is called the atomic number and is denoted by the letter Z. The number of neutrons is simply the difference N = A − Z.3.e. the atomic mass number and the atomic number of an element as follows: number of nucleons A ZX number of protons chemical symbol For example.

with the way this information appears on the Periodic Table.. will have a mass approximately equal to n u. . Exercise: The structure of the atom 1. you can round off to the nearest whole number. Generally. in the atom.. This will be explained later. The reason is that a C-12 atom has 6 protons.e. with the protons and neutrons having about the same mass and the electron mass being negligible in comparison.4 Important: Don’t confuse the notation we have used above.of neutons trons trons Mg 24 12 O 8 17 Ni 28 40 20 Zn 0 C 12 6 3.CHAPTER 3. For now. For the element (a) protons (b) neutrons (c) electrons . The example of iron is used again below.) Element Atomic Atomic Number Number Number mass number of pro. This will be explained in section 3. The number below the element’s symbol is its relative atomic mass. the atomic number usually appears in the top lefthand corner of the block or immediately above the element’s symbol. THE ATOM . On the Periodic Table. give the number of . 6 neutrons and 6 electrons. Explain the meaning of each of the following terms: (a) nucleus (b) electron (c) atomic mass 2. This is not exactly the same as the atomic mass number.5.. 41 35 17 Cl. Use standard notation to represent the following elements: (a) potassium (b) copper (c) chlorine 4.GRADE 10 3.of elec. an atom that contains n protons and neutrons (i. Complete the following table: (Note: You will see that the atomic masses on the Periodic Table are not whole numbers.85 You will notice in the example of iron that the atomic mass number is more or less the same as its atomic mass. Z = n). 26 Fe 55..

(a) 40 X 18 (b) x Ca 20 (c) 31 P x 7. Complete the following table: A 235 92 U 238 92 U Z N In these two different forms of Uranium. Note that if an element is written for example as C-12. In each of the following cases. For example. the chemical properties of the atom will stay the same because its charge is still the same. 3. but they might vary in how stable their nucleus is. the chemical properties of an element depend on the number of protons inside the atom. but a different number of neutrons. are called isotopes. no matter how many neutrons we add or subtract from a nucleus with 6 protons.5 3.. 42 .5. are called isotopes.5.GRADE 10 5. “same place” reads as `σoς τ oπoς (isos topos). The different isotopes of an element have the same atomic number Z but different mass numbers A because they have a different number of neutrons N . but different numbers of neutrons. (a) What is the same? (b) What is different? Uranium can occur in different forms. Definition: Isotope The isotope of a particular element. is made up of atoms which have the same number of protons as the atoms in the orginal element. called isotopes. teresting In Greek.. THE ATOM . Cl-35 has an atomic mass of 35 u. This means that such an atom should remain in the same place in the Periodic table. that element will always be called carbon and have the element symbol C (see the Table of Elements). So. the ’12’ is the atomic mass of that atom. The chemical properties of the different isotopes of an element are the same. give the number or the element symbol represented by ’X’.1 Isotopes What is an isotope? If a few neutrons are added to or removed from a nucleus. but a different number of neutrons. They are in the same place on the Periodic Table! The following worked examples will help you to understand the concept of an isotope better.5 CHAPTER 3. You will learn more about isotopes in section 3.3. Atoms which have the same number of protons. Which of the following atoms has 7 electrons? (a) 5 He 2 (b) 13 C 6 (c) 7 Li 3 (d) 15 N 7 6. while Cl-37 has an atomic mass of 37 u. This is why atoms Interesting ι ` Fact Fact which have the same number of protons. Therefore.

they have a different number of neutrons. use standard notation to describe: 1. The only element is 12 Ca. Step 2 : Determine which of the elements listed fits the definition of an isotope. THE ATOM .5 Worked Example 1: Isotopes Question: For the element 234 92 U (uranium). we can write down the atomic number: 92 U Now. However. What is different is that there are 20 2 more neutrons than in the original element. then we take the Following the steps above. the isotope with 4 more neutrons Answer Step 1 : Go over the definition of isotope We know that isotopes of any element have the same number of protons (same atomic number) in each atom which means that they have the same chemical symbol. the isotope with 2 fewer neutrons 2. which gives: 232 92 U 234 92 U.CHAPTER 3. any isotope of uranium will have the symbol: U Also. 43 . if the isotope we want has 2 fewer neutrons than original mass number and subtract 2. since the number of protons in uranium isotopes is always the same. we can write the isotope with 4 more neutrons as: 238 92 U Worked Example 2: Isotopes Question: Which of the following are isotopes of • • • 40 19 K 42 20 Ca 40 18 Ar 40 20 Ca? Answer Step 1 : Go over the definition of isotope: We know that isotopes have the same atomic number but different mass numbers. You need to look for the element that has the same atomic number but a different atomic mass number. Step 2 : Rewrite the notation for the isotopes Therefore. and therefore a different mass number.GRADE 10 3.

Atom A has 5 protons and 5 neutrons. and atom B has 6 protons and 5 neutrons. Step 3 : Determine the number of electrons The atom is neutral. 16 16 (a) protons (b) nucleons (c) electrons (d) neutrons 3. (a) allotropes (b) isotopes (c) isomers (d) atoms of different elements 2. therefore the number of nucleons is 33 (answer to (b)).. Z = 16.. THE ATOM . A = 33. Exercise: Isotopes 1. 4. Z... give the number of.GRADE 10 Worked Example 3: Isotopes Question: For the sulfur isotope 1. 2. For the sulfur isotopes. 3. These atoms are. Step 4 : Calculate the number of neutrons N = A − Z = 33 − 16 = 17 The number of neutrons is 17 (answer to (d)). protons nucleons electrons neutrons 33 16 S. The number of electrons is 16 (answer to (c)).. Answer Step 1 : Determine the number of protons by looking at the atomic number. Which of the following are isotopes of Cl35 ? (a) 17 Cl 35 (b) 35 Cl 17 (c) 37 Cl 17 4. therefore the number of protons is 16 (answer to (a)). Which of the following are isotopes of U-235? (X represents an element symbol) (a) 238 X 92 (b) 238 X 90 (c) 235 X 92 44 . Step 2 : Determine the number of nucleons by looking at the atomic mass number. A.. 32 S and 34 S. and therefore the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons.3.5 CHAPTER 3. give the number of.

2 Relative atomic mass It is important to realise that the atomic mass of isotopes of the same element will be different because they have a different number of nucleons. the relative atomic mass that is shown is not a whole number. Neither of these are absolutely true since the mass varies depending on the form in which the element occurs.5. expressed in atomic mass units.CHAPTER 3. the average relative atomic mass for chlorine is 35. while chlorine-37 has an atomic mass of 37 u.25 u = 35. both of these isotopes occur naturally. chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. In the world around us. The abundance of these isotopes when they occur naturally is 75% chlorine-35 and 25% chlorine-37. THE ATOM .25 u Step 2 : Calculate the contribution of chlorine-37 to the average relative atomic mass Contribution of Cl-37 = (25/100 x 37) = 9. Exercise: Isotopes You are given a sample that contains carbon-12 and carbon-14. Complete the table below: 45 . Chlorine-35 has an atomic mass of 35 u.GRADE 10 3. or that it has an atomic mass of 37 u.5 3. Answer Step 1 : Calculate the mass contribution of chlorine-35 to the average relative atomic mass Contribution of Cl-35 = (75/100 x 35) = 26. Chlorine. has two common isotopes which are chlorine-35 and chlorine-37.25 u Step 3 : Add the two values to arrive at the average relative atomic mass of chlorine Relative atomic mass of chlorine = 26. You should now understand that this number is the average relative atomic mass for those elements that have naturally occurring isotopes. for example. You will notice that for many elements. We need to look at how much more common one is than the other in order to calculate the relative atomic mass for the element chlorine. Definition: Relative atomic mass Relative atomic mass is the average mass of one atom of all the naturally occurring isotopes of a particular chemical element.25 u + 9. It doesn’t make sense to say that the element chlorine has an atomic mass of 35 u. Worked Example 4: The relative atomic mass of an isotopic element Question: The element chlorine has two isotopes. Calculate the average relative atomic mass for chlorine. This is then the number that will appear on the Periodic Table.5 u. If you look on the periodic table. 1.5 u.

6.5% Cl-37 and 77. calculate the relative atomic mass of an atom in that sample. we saw how peoples’ understanding of atomic structure changed as more information was gathered about the atom.. • Present your ideas to the rest of the class.. you need to learn to be open to new ideas and not to become stuck in what you believe is right. THE ATOM .5% Cl-35.3. these changes in scientific thinking can be very controversial because they disturb what people have come to know and accept. There are many more examples like this one in the field of science. The same is true in science.6 3. 3. discuss some of the things that would need to be done to check whether a new idea or theory was worth listening to. 3. An important part of being a scientist is to be a critical thinker. It is important that we realise that what we know now about science may also change. Calculate the relative atomic mass of an atom in that sample. Although 46 . and other scientists. or about the particle and wave nature of light. This means that you need to question information that you are given and decide whether it is accurate and whether it can be accepted as true. about our knowledge of the solar system and the origin of the universe. there might just be something new waiting around the corner that you have not thought about! In groups of 4-5. know what to believe and what not to? How do we know when new ideas are ’good’ science or ’bad’ science? In your groups. If the sample you have contains 90% carbon-12 and 10% carbon-14. In another sample. discuss the following questions: • Think about some other examples where scientific knowledge has changed because of new ideas and discoveries: – – – – What were these new ideas? Were they controversial? If so. and that this nucleus is surrounded by electrons.GRADE 10 Protons Neutrons Electrons 2. Activity :: Group Discussion : The changing nature of scientific knowledge Scientific knowledge is not static: it changes and evolves over time as scientists build on the ideas of others to come up with revised (and often improved) theories and ideas. Often. Think for example. At the same time. you have 22. why? What role (if any) did technology play in developing these new ideas? How have these ideas affected the way we understand the world? • Many people come up with their own ideas about how the world works. or whether it was not. that an atom is made up of a central nucleus. So how do we. In this chapter for example. which contains protons and neutrons.6 Isotope Carbon-12 Carbon-14 Chlorine-35 Chlorine-37 Z A CHAPTER 3.1 Energy quantisation and electron configuration The energy of electrons You will remember from our earlier discussions.

and an electron will only be found in the second energy level once the first energy level is full.CHAPTER 3. for each element. Fluorine Fluorine (F) has an atomic number of 9. THE ATOM . Lithium Lithium (Li) has an atomic number of 3. It releases energy by emitting light. there would be a continuous spread of light frequencies emitted. The first two electrons are found in the first energy level. The energy of the light released when an electron drops down from a higher energy level to a lower energy level is the same as the difference in energy between the two levels. You will need to learn the following rules: • The 1st energy level can hold a maximum of 2 electrons • The 2nd energy level can hold a maximum of 8 electrons • The 3rd energy level can hold a maximum of 8 electrons • If the number of electrons in the atom is greater than 18. This is called quantisation of energy because there are only certain quantities of energy that an electron can have in an atom. the sharp lines we see mean that there are only certain particular energies that an electron can be excited to. are found further away. The first 2 electrons are found in the first energy level. and so on. If you lift your foot too low you’ll bump into the step and be stuck on the ground level.6. or can lose. You can think of this like going up a flight of steps: you can’t lift your foot by any amount to go from the ground to the first step. it needs to release energy. each electron in an atom has a different amount of energy. Instead of a smooth continuum of frequencies. the number of electrons will also be 3. will have the lowest energy and those further away will have a higher energy. 1. while the third electron is found in the second energy level (figure 3. 47 . The same goes for electrons and the amount of energy they can have. However.6 these electrons all have the same charge and the same mass.2 Energy quantisation and line emission spectra If the energy of an atom is increased (for example when a substance is heated). You have to lift your foot just the right amount (the height of the step) to go to the next step. In the following examples.11). Electrons that are in the energy level that is closest to the nucleus. the energy levels are shown as concentric circles around the central nucleus. Each energy level can only hold a certain number of electrons. Like steps. and which are able to overcome the attractive force of the nucleus. while the other 7 are found in the second energy level (figure 3. Electrons that have the lowest energy are found closest to the nucleus where the attractive force of the positively charged nucleus is the greatest. we see lines (called emission lines) at particular frequencies. light is emitted only at certain frequencies (or wavelengths).3 Electron configuration Electrons are arranged in energy levels around the nucleus of an atom.12). the energy of the electrons inside the atom can be increased (when an electron has a higher energy than normal it is said to be ”excited”). For the excited electron to go back to its original energy (called the ground state). Those electrons that have higher energy.GRADE 10 3. they will need to move to the 4th energy level. meaning that in a neutral atom. meaning that a neutral atom also has 9 electrons. These frequencies correspond to the energy of the emitted light. 3. 3. If electrons could be excited to any energy and lose any amount of energy. The same rule applies for the higher energy levels. 2. If one heats up different elements. one will see that for each element.6. we can think of these quantities as energy levels in the atom.

but we will be dealing with only two.5: The arrangement of electrons in a fluorine atom.4: The arrangement of electrons in a lithium atom. Figure 3. Figure 3. we need to remember the following principles: 48 . This arrangement is shown in figure 3. containing 3 protons and 4 neutrons Figure 3. THE ATOM .6: The arrangement of electrons in an argon atom. Within each energy level. the next 8 are found in the second energy level. Definition: Atomic orbital An atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. and the last 8 are found in the third energy level (figure 3. These are the ’s’ and ’p’ orbitals (there are also ’d’ and ’f’ orbitals). When we want to show how electrons are arranged in an atom.GRADE 10 second energy level electrons first energy level nucleus. 3.3. The first 2 electrons are found in the first energy level. Within each energy level. There are different orbital shapes. Argon Argon has an atomic number of 18. An orbital defines the spaces or regions where electrons move.6 CHAPTER 3.6). the electrons move in orbitals. The first energy level contains only one ’s’ orbital.7. the second energy level contains one ’s’ orbital and three ’p’ orbitals and the third energy level also contains one ’s’ orbital and three ’p’ orbitals. But the situation is slightly more complicated than this. meaning that a neutral atom also has 18 electrons. the ’s’ orbital is at a lower energy than the ’p’ orbitals.

49 .7: The positions of the first ten orbits of an atom on an energy diagram.GRADE 10 3. THE ATOM .CHAPTER 3. Note that each block is able to hold two electrons.6 4s 3p 3s Third main energy level 2p Second main energy level E N E R G Y 2s First main energy level 1s Figure 3.

2s 1s Figure 3. 4. Carry on in this way through each of the successive energy levels until all the electrons have been drawn. Using standard notation.6 CHAPTER 3. Aufbau diagrams for the elements fluorine and argon are shown in figures 3. electrons will fill an ’s’ orbital before starting to fill ’p’ orbitals.GRADE 10 • Each orbital can only hold two electrons. the electron configuration of lithium is 1s2 2s1 . These electrons spin in opposite directions around their own axes. An Aufbau diagram for the element Lithium is shown in figure 3. the electrons are called an electron pair. Fill the ’s’ orbital in the second energy level (the 2s orbital) with the second two electrons.9 and 3. go back and place a second electron in each of the 2p orbitals to complete the electron pairs. An Aufbau diagram uses arrows to represent electrons. orbitals and the number of electrons in each. 3. shown on an Aufbau diagram A special type of notation is used to show an atom’s electron configuration. The way that electrons are arranged in an atom is called its electron configuration. For example. THE ATOM . • An electron will occupy an orbital on its own. and then if there are still electrons remaining. before occupying a higher energy orbital. 2. The notation describes the energy levels.10 respectively. An electron would also rather occupy a lower energy orbital with another electron. Definition: Electron configuration Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom. the electron configuration of fluorine is 1s2 2s2 2p5 and the electron configuration of argon is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 . rather than share an orbital with another electron. this electron is said to be an unpaired electron. 50 .8: The electron configuration of Lithium. Electrons that occur together in an orbital are called an electron pair. The number and letter describe the energy level and orbital. within one energy level. This is because when two electrons occupy the same orbital. 5.8. An element’s electron configuration can be represented using Aufbau diagrams or energy level diagrams. or other physical structure. Put one electron in each of the three ’p’ orbitals in the second energy level (the 2p orbitals). Electron pairs are shown with arrows in opposite directions. Fill the ’s’ orbital in the first energy level (the 1s orbital) with the first two electrons. • An electron will always try to enter an orbital with the lowest possible energy. You can use the following steps to help you to draw an Aufbau diagram: 1. and the number above the orbital shows how many electrons are in that orbital.3. Determine the number of electrons that the atom has. If the orbital only has one electron. Important: When there are two electrons in an orbital. they spin in opposite directions on their axes. molecule. In other words.

Definition: Valence electrons The electrons in the outer energy level of an atom Definition: Core electrons All the electrons in an atom.5 The importance of understanding electron configuration By this stage. excluding the valence electrons. THE ATOM . Core electrons are all the electrons in an atom. An element that has its valence energy level full is more stable and less likely to react than other elements with a valence energy level that is not full. excluding the valence electrons 3.6. More specifically.4 Core and valence electrons Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom are called valence electrons.GRADE 10 3. The electrons that are in the energy shells closer to the nucleus are called core electrons. it is the valence electrons of the atoms that will determine how they 51 .9: An Aufbau diagram showing the electron configuration of fluorine 3. it is the electrons of these atoms that will interact first. you may well be wondering why it is important for you to understand how electrons are arranged around the nucleus of an atom. when atoms come into contact with one another.CHAPTER 3. Remember that during chemical reactions.6 4s 3p 3s 2p E N E R G Y 2s 1s Fluorine Figure 3.6.

This will make more sense when we go on to look at chemical bonding in a later chapter. an atom is least stable (and therefore most reactive) when its valence electron orbitals are not full. On the other hand. Exercise: Energy diagrams and electrons 1.10: An Aufbau diagram showing the electron configuration of argon react with one another. To take this a step further.6 4s CHAPTER 3. Draw Aufbau diagrams to show the electron configuration of each of the following elements: (a) magnesium (b) potassium (c) sulfur (d) neon (e) nitrogen 2. Use the Aufbau diagrams you drew to help you complete the following table: 52 .3. an atom is at its most stable (and therefore unreactive) when all its orbitals are full. and elements that have the same number of valence electrons often have similar chemical properties.GRADE 10 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Argon Figure 3. To put it simply. the valence electrons are largely responsible for an element’s chemical behaviour. THE ATOM .

we talked about different ’models’ of the atom. They give you a good idea of what a real car looks like. what parts make it up? how big is it?) • What materials can I use to represent these parts of the atom as accurately as I can? • How will I put all these different parts together in my model? As a group. In a neutral atom. discuss the following questions: • Does our model give a good idea of what the atom actually looks like? • In what ways is our model inaccurate? For example. but they are much smaller and much simpler. In the case of the atom. The small toy cars that you may have played with as a child are models.7 3.g. But what 53 . Give reasons for the order you give. of valence electrons Electron configuration (standard notation) 3. the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons. A model cannot always be absolutely accurate and it is important that we realise this so that we don’t build up a false idea about something. Rank the elements used above in order of increasing reactivity. Models are often simplified. Before you start. Once you have built your model. 3. one of the uses of models is that they can help us to understand the structure of something that we can’t see.7 Mg K S Ne N 3. of energy levels No. Activity :: Group work : Building a model of an atom Earlier in this chapter. In groups of 4-5. but in your model.CHAPTER 3. think about these questions: • What information do I know about the structure of the atom? (e. share your ideas and then plan how you will build your model. models help us to build a picture in our heads of what the atom looks like. • Are there any ways in which our model could be improved? Now look at what other groups have done. of core electrons No. we focused our attention on the electron configuration of neutral atoms. we know that electrons move around the atom’s nucleus. you are going to build a model of an atom. it might not have been possible for you to show this. Discuss the same questions for each of the models you see and record your answers.GRADE 10 Element No. In science.1 Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table Ions In the previous section.7. THE ATOM .

A positively charged ion is called a cation e. Notice the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom. and a negatively charged ion is called an anion e. N a+ . and the final charge of the ion that is formed. then the atom will become more negative. the charge of the atom will change. The atom that is formed in either of these cases is called an ion.11: The arrangement of electrons in a lithium ion.g. Fluorine A fluorine atom gains one electron to form a negative ion (figure 3. Look at the following examples. the number of electrons that are lost or gained. If electrons are taken away.3. 1 electron lost Li Li atom with 3 electrons Li+ Li+ ion with only 2 electrons Figure 3.GRADE 10 happens if an atom gains or loses electrons? Does it mean that the atom will still be part of the same element? A change in the number of electrons of an atom does not change the type of atom that it is. In this example. 1 electron gained F F− Figure 3.7 CHAPTER 3. Lithium A lithium atoms loses one electrons to form a positive ion (figure 3.12: The arrangement of electrons in a fluorine ion. Activity :: Investigation : The formation of ions 54 .g. F − . an ion is a charged atom. Put simply. If electrons are added. THE ATOM . Definition: Ion An ion is a charged atom. However. the lithium atom loses an electron to form the cation Li+ . The charge on an ion depends on the number of electrons that have been lost or gained.11).12). then the atom will become more positive.

On the Periodic Table of the Elements. THE ATOM . The ionisation energy will be different for different atoms. there are six valence electrons. it becomes more and more difficult to remove an electron and the ionisation energy increases. you will see that in a neutral atom. We will look at this in more detail in the next section. and a period is a horizontal row. Exercise: The formation of ions Match the information in column A with the information in column B by writing only the letter (A to I) next to the question number (1 to 7) 55 . ionisation energy increases across a period. a group is a vertical column of the elements.7. To fill the valence energy level. The lower the ionisation energy. this electron will be lost. In the periodic table. and therefore a more stable state for the atom.CHAPTER 3. and so on. In order to achieve an empty valence level.GRADE 10 1.2 Ionisation Energy Ionisation energy is the energy that is needed to remove one electron from an atom. • If you look at an energy level diagram for sodium (Na). the more reactive the element will be because there is a greater chance of electrons being involved in chemical reactions. • In the case of oxygen (O). Do you notice anything interesting about the charge on each of these ions? Hint: Look at the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom and the charge on the final ion. you should notice that: • In each case the number of electrons that is either gained or lost. is the same as the number of electrons that are needed for the atoms to achieve a full or an empty valence energy level. The second ionisation energy is the energy that is needed to remove a second electron from an atom. A negative ion is formed. 3.7 Observations: Once you have completed the activity. As an energy level becomes more full. there is only one valence electron. 3. it makes more sense for this atom to gain two electrons. but decreases as you move down a group. Use the diagram for lithium as a guide and draw similar diagrams to show how each of the following ions is formed: (a) Mg2+ (b) Na+ (c) Cl− (d) O2− 2.

Each row was referred to as a period. The cation that is formed from a magnesium atom 5. The anion that is formed when bromine gains an electron 4. Br− 3. group number 1 H Group Li 2 Be 3 B Al Ti V 4 C Si 5 N P 6 O S 7 F Cl Br 8 He Ne Ar Kr Na Mg K Ca Sc Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Period Figure 3. called groups.1 Groups in the periodic table A group is a vertical column in the periodic table.8 The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table The periodic table of the elements is a tabular method of showing the chemical elements. and is considered to be the most important way of classifying the elements. An example of a compound ion 6. Many of these elements were indeed discovered and Mendeleev’s predictions were proved to be correct. Most of the work that was done to arrive at the periodic table that we know. K+ G. CO2− 3 D. An ion that has 1 more electron than its neutral atom 3. can be attributed to a man called Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869.13: A simplified diagram showing part of the Periodic Table 3. he even left gaps for those elements that he thought were ’missing’. Cl− C. Using the trends he observed. To show the recurring properties that he had observed.8. A positive ion with the electron configuration of argon 7. A positive ion that has 3 less electrons than its neutral atom 2. He even predicted the properties that he thought the missing elements would have when they were discovered. A negative ion with the electron configuration of neon A.8 CHAPTER 3. The rest of the elements are metals. Mg2+ B. with the exception of hydrogen which occurs in the first block of the table despite being a non-metal. you will see the groups numbered 56 . If you look at a periodic table. Mendeleev began new rows in his table so that elements with similar properties were in the same vertical columns.3. O2− I. THE ATOM . Al3+ E.GRADE 10 1. One important feature to note in the periodic table is that all the non-metals are to the right of the zig-zag line drawn under the element boron. Mg+ H. Br2− F. Mendeleev was a Russian chemist who designed the table in such a way that recurring (”periodic”) trends in the properties of the elements could be shown.

Hydrogen Lithium Sodium Potassium Figure 3. 1. In some periodic tables. and the groups are even given separate names to identify them. • Group 1: These elements are known as the alkali metals and they are very reactive.8 at the top of each column. These numbers are normally represented using roman numerals. 2. rather than losing them. then an open space which contains the transition elements. The groups are numbered from left to right as follows: 1. • Transition metals: The differences between groups in the transition metals are not usually dramatic. • Group 2: These elements are known as the alkali earth metals. the elements display very similar chemical properties. THE ATOM . followed by groups 3 to 8. the group 2 elements tend to lose these electrons so that the energy shells are complete. All of the energy shells of the halogens are full. • Group 7: These elements are known as the halogens.CHAPTER 3.14. Group 3 elements have three valence electrons. Each element only has two valence electrons and so in chemical reactions. Use a Periodic Table to help you to complete the last two diagrams for sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Explain why elements from group 1 are more reactive than elements from group 2 on the periodic table (Hint: Think back to ’ionisation energy’). • Group 8: These elements are the noble gases. and so these elements are very unreactive. These elements tend to gain electrons to fill this shell.GRADE 10 3. 2. 57 . Each element is missing just one electron from its outer energy shell. In some groups. The characteristics of each group are mostly determined by the electron configuration of the atoms of the element. all the groups are numbered from left to right from number 1 to number 18.14: Electron diagrams for some of the Group 1 elements Activity :: Investigation : The properties of elements Refer to figure 3. These elements are less reactive than those in group 1 because it is more difficult to lose two electrons than it is to lose one. What do you notice about the number of electrons in the valence energy level in each case? 3. Important: The number of valence electrons of an element corresponds to its group number on the periodic table.

Because these electrons are not being held to the nucleus as strongly. the atomic diameter of the elements increases as you move down the group. If the period increases. the diameter of atoms decreases as one moves from left to right across a period. Some of the trends that can be observed within a period are highlighted below: • As you move from one group to the next within a period.GRADE 10 Helium Lithium Figure 3. Exercise: Trends in ionisation energy Refer to the data table below which gives the ionisation energy (in kJ/mol) and atomic number (Z) for a number of elements in the periodic table: 58 . The opposite is true when you move down a group in the table because more energy shells are being added. It is worth noting that in each of the groups described above. it is easier for them to be removed and the ionisation energy decreases. helium (He) and neon (Ne). The electrons that are closer to the nucleus ’shield’ the outer electrons from the attractive force of the positive nucleus. while the number of valence electrons is the same in each element.2 Periods in the periodic table A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table of the elements. As the valence electron shell moves closer to being full. As the number of protons increases.15: Electron diagrams for two of the noble gases. the reactivity of the elements decreases from left to right across a period. • Ionisation energy increases as one moves from left to right across a period. • In general. As you move across a period.3.8 CHAPTER 3. Consider the attractive force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons in an atom.8. The number of electrons also increases. 3. • Within a single period. the number of valence electrons increases by one each time. the number of core electrons increases as one moves down the group. This is because. it becomes more difficult to remove electrons. • In general. but these electrons will still be in the same energy shell. the number of protons in each atom increases. the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons will increase and the atomic diameter will decrease. all the valence electrons occur in the same energy shell. so does the energy shell in which the valence electrons occur. THE ATOM .

Draw a line graph to show the relationship between atomic number (on the x-axis) and ionisation energy (y-axis). has all its energy orbitals full 10. Calcium (Ca).CHAPTER 3.9 Summary • Much of what we know today about the atom. contains electrons in the 4th energy level 8. 2. Magnesium (Mg).GRADE 10 Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ionisation energy 1310 2360 517 895 797 1087 1397 1307 1673 Z 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Ionisation energy 2072 494 734 575 783 1051 994 1250 1540 3.9 1. is an alkali metal 5. Explain why. Describe any trends that you observe. is a halogen 3. Chlorine (Cl). has an atomic number of 12 6. will form positive ions 3. belongs to Group 1 2. Neon (Ne)... THE ATOM . will have chemical properties that are most similar 11. has been the result of the work of a number of scientists who have added to each other’s work to give us a good understanding of atomic structure. 59 . has only one valence electron 9. has 4 neutrons in the nucleus of its atoms 7. (a) the ionisation energy for Z=2 is higher than for Z=1 (b) the ionisation energy for Z=3 is lower than for Z=2 (c) the ionisation energy increases between Z=5 and Z=7 Exercise: Elements in the Periodic Table Refer to the elements listed below: Lithium (Li). 3. Oxygen (O). Carbon (C) Which of the elements listed above: 1. is a noble gas 4.

• Atoms whose outermost energy level is full. are less chemically reactive and therefore more stable. • The atomic mass number (A) is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. which led to the Plum Pudding Model of the atom). • The standard notation that is used to write an element. • Ionisation energy decreases down a group in the Periodic Table. their mass in measured in atomic mass units (u). is A X. • The electrons that are not valence electrons are called core electrons.3. where X is the element Z symbol.Thomson (discovery of the electron. Write down only the word/term for each of the following descriptions. • An ion is a charged atom. There are different orbital shapes.67 × 10−24 g.GRADE 10 • Some of the important scientific contributors include J. • The electrons in the outermost energy level are called valence electrons. Exercise: Summary 1. p. expressed in atomic mass units. A cation is a positively charged ion and an anion is a negatively charged ion. THE ATOM . surrounded by electrons. • The isotope of a particular element is made up of atoms which have the same number of protons as the atoms in the original element. • Energy diagrams such as Aufbau diagrams are used to show the electron configuration of atoms. • The relative atomic mass of an element is the average mass of one atom of all the naturally occurring isotopes of a particular chemical element. Ernest Rutherford (discovery that positive charge is concentrated in the centre of the atom) and Niels Bohr (the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus in energy levels). This means that not all atoms of an element will have the same atomic mass. Electrons occur in specific energy levels around an atom’s nucleus. • Ionisation energy increases across a period in the Periodic Table. • An atom is made up of a central nucleus (containing protons and neutrons). than those atoms whose outer energy level is not full. • Within each energy level. • The energy of electrons in an atom is quantised.J.9 CHAPTER 3. d and f orbitals. 1 u = 1. An orbital defines the space in which an electron is most likely to be found. The relative atomic mass is written under the elements’ symbol on the Periodic Table. including s. • Because of the very small mass of atoms. • The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in an atom. (a) The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom 60 . • An element’s ionisation energy is the energy that is needed to remove one electron from an atom. but a different number of neutrons. • When forming an ion. A is the atomic mass number and Z is the atomic number. an atom will lose or gain the number of electrons that will make its valence energy level full. an electron may move within a particular shape of orbital.

deuterium. 61 . 1s2 2s2 2p5 4. 10 10 (b) The atomic mass of any atom of a particular element is always the same.. have given the same results (d) Consider the isotope 234 U. For each of the following. (a) The three basic components of an atom are: i. (a) 20 Ne and 22 Ne each have 10 protons. (c) It is safer to use helium gas rather than hydrogen gas in balloons. neutrons. Period 1 Element H He Li Be B C N O F Ne First ionisation energy (kJ. positive ii. protons.CHAPTER 3. Multiple choice questions: In each of the following. where an electron is most likely to be found 2. (d) Group 1 elements readily form negative ions. and electrons iii. say whether the statement is True or False. THE ATOM .. The element is an isotope of 234 Pu 94 ii.. 1s2 2s8 3s7 ii. (c) Which TWO elements exert the strongest attractive forces on their electrons? Use the data in the table to give a reason for your answer. neutral iii. choose the one correct answer. The following table shows the first ionisation energies for the elements of period 1 and 2. the neutrons would. The element has the same electron configuration as 238 U 92 iv. The element contains 234 neutrons iii. have deflected more often iii. protons. neutrinos. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 iv. and tritium (b) The charge of an atom is. and ions ii. have been attracted to the nucleus easily iv. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 iii. 3.9 2 (a) What is the meaning of the term first ionisation energy ? (b) Identify the pattern of first ionisation energies in a period. and ions iv. negative (c) If Rutherford had used neutrons instead of alpha particles in his scattering experiment. not deflect because they have no charge ii. i. re-write the statement correctly. neutrons. i.mol−1 ) 1312 2372 520 899 801 1086 1402 1314 1681 2081 3. The element has an atomic mass number of 92 (e) The electron configuration of an atom of chlorine can be represented using the following notation: i.GRADE 10 (b) The defined space around an atom’s nucleus.. protium. 12 electrons and 12 neutrons. If it is False. Which of the following statements is true? 92 i. protons.

3. THE ATOM .GRADE 10 (d) Draw Aufbau diagrams for the TWO elements you listed in the previous question and explain why these elements are so stable. 62 . Is this statement correct? Explain your answer by referring to the table. Which property of helium makes it a safer option? (f) ’Group 1 elements readily form positive ions’.9 CHAPTER 3. (e) It is safer to use helium gas than hydrogen gas in balloons.

This is called chemical bonding. You will remember from these earlier discussions of electrons and energy levels in the atom. They include elements like neon (Ne). that electrons always try to occupy the lowest possible energy level. the outer energy level of the atom contains the maximum number of electrons that it can.Chapter 4 Atomic Combinations . 4. This is the maximum that it can hold and so neon is very stable and unreactive. These forces are shown in figure 4. surrounded by electrons that are arranged in fixed energy levels (also sometimes called shells). More often. Within each energy level. Other atoms. The noble gases in Group 8 of the Periodic Table.2 Energy and bonding Let’s start by imagining that there are two hydrogen atoms approaching one another. This explains why the noble gases are unreactive and why they exist as atoms. This model of the atom is useful in trying to understand how different types of bonding take place between atoms.1 Why do atoms bond? As we begin this section. the atom is made up of a central nucleus. and is unlikely to bond with other atoms. whose valence energy levels are not full. You will remember from section 3. helium (He) and argon (Ar). rather than as molecules. The important question then is. however.Grade 11 When you look at the matter around you. an atom also prefers to exist at the lowest possible energy state so that it is most stable. are more likely to bond in order to become more stable. some atoms that do exist on their own. The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom are called the valence electrons. why do some atoms bond but others do not? 4. you will realise that atoms seldom exist on their own. Chemical bonding is one of the most important processes in chemistry because it allows all sorts of different molecules and combinations of atoms to form. There are. An atom is most stable when all its valence electron orbitals are full. electrons move in orbitals of different shapes. that is based on a particular model of the atom. the things around us are made up of different atoms that have been joined together. there are three forces that act on the atoms at the same time. A stable atom is also an unreactive one. In other words.1 that a model is a representation of what is happening in reality. In the same way. In the model of the atom that has been used so far. Neon has eight valence electrons in its valence energy shell. We are going to look a bit more closely at some of the energy changes that take place when atoms bond. behave in this way.1 and are described below: 63 . Look for example at the electron configuration of neon (1s2 2s2 3p6 ). As they move closer together. it’s important to remember that what we will go on to discuss is a model of bonding. and which do not bond with others. which then make up the objects in the complex world around us. and will not form new bonds.

+ P Energy 0 Distance between atomic nuclei A Q - X Figure 4. when the energy is at a minimum. attractive forces dominate and the atoms are pulled towards each other. the energy of the system is zero when the atoms are far apart (point A). ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .e. When the atoms are closer together.2: Graph showing the change in energy that takes place as atoms move closer together In the example of the two hydrogen atoms.GRADE 11 (1) (2) + (3) + Figure 4. 1. that bonding takes place. 64 . where the resultant force between them is attraction.2 CHAPTER 4. and the energy of the system is at its minimum (point X). attractive force between the nucleus of one atom and the electrons of another 3. (2) attraction between protons and electrons and (3) repulsion between protons. repulsive force between the two positively-charged nuclei Now look at figure 4. the potential energy of the system decreases because energy would now need to be supplied to the system in order to move the atoms apart. repulsive force between the electrons of the atoms. as the atoms move closer together (i. the attractive and repulsive effects are balanced. because there is no interaction between the atoms. since like charges repel 2. As this happens.4. At some point. However.1: Forces acting on two approaching atoms: (1) repulsion between electrons.2 to understand the energy changes that take place when the two atoms move towards each other. repulsive forces start to dominate and this causes the potential energy of the system to rise again. left along the horizontal axis of the graph). It is at this point.

or when electrons are exchanged between the atoms that are involved in the bond. Definition: Covalent bond Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding where pairs of electrons are shared between atoms.4.3 What happens when atoms bond? A chemical bond is formed when atoms are held together by attractive forces. the shorter the bond length.GRADE 11 4. there is an attraction between these negatively charged electrons and the positively charged nuclei. The type of bond that is formed depends on the elements that are involved. in other words one atom gains an electron while the other loses an electron.1 Covalent Bonding The nature of the covalent bond Covalent bonding occurs between the atoms of non-metals. the outer energy shells of all the bonding atoms are filled. Below are a few examples. i. The greater the number of bonds between atoms. ’Q’ represents the bond energy i.4 4.3 The distance marked ’P’ is the bond length. Circles and crosses represent electrons in different atoms. This attraction occurs when electrons are shared between atoms. 4. the stronger the bond between the atoms. the amount of energy that must be added to the system to break the bonds that have formed. The sharing or exchange of electrons takes place so that the outer energy levels of the atoms involved are filled and the atoms are more stable. If an electron is exchanged it means that it is transferred from one atom to another. the greater will be the bond strength. Worked Example 5: Covalent bonding 65 .CHAPTER 4. and held together in more stable chemical compounds. The shared electrons move in the orbitals around both atoms. The strength of a bond is related to the bond length.e. In general. By overlapping orbitals. the stronger the bond. the distance between the nuclei of the atoms when they bond. As they move. 4. and the smaller the atoms involved. and this force holds the atoms together in a covalent bond. Definition: Chemical bond A chemical bond is the physical process that causes atoms and molecules to be attracted to each other. Remember that it is only the valence electrons that are involved in bonding. ionic and metallic bonding. the size of the bonded atoms and the number of bonds between the atoms. In this section. it means that it will spend its time moving in the electron orbitals around both atoms. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Bond strength means how strongly one atom attracts and is held to another.e. You need to remember that it is the valence electrons that are involved in bonding and that atoms will try to fill their outer energy levels so that they are more stable. it is only these electrons that are shown. If an electron is shared. we will be looking at three types of chemical bonding: covalent. The outermost orbitals of the atoms overlap so that unpaired electrons in each of the bonding atoms can be shared. and so when diagrams are drawn to show what is happening during bonding.

and an electron configuration of 1s1 . The hydrogen electron will spend some of its time orbiting the chlorine atom so that chlorine’s valence shell is also full. Hydrogen has 1 valence electron and it is unpaired. The hydrogen atom needs one more electron to complete its valence shell. and an electron configuration of 1s1 . A chlorine atom has 17 electrons. Notice the shared electron pair in the overlapping orbitals.3: Covalent bonding in a molecule of hydrogen chloride Worked Example 6: Covalent bonding involving multiple bonds Question: How do nitrogen and hydrogen atoms bond to form a molecule of ammonia (NH3 )? Answer Step 1 : Determine the electron configuration of each of the bonding atoms. one electron from the chlorine atom will spend some of its time orbiting the hydrogen atom so that hydrogen’s valence shell is full. Step 3 : Look to see how the electrons can be shared between the atoms so that the outer energy shells of all atoms are full. A molecule of hydrogen chloride is formed (figure 4. and an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 . Step 2 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom. Therefore one pair of electrons must be shared between the two atoms. and an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p3 . A hydrogen atom has only 1 electron.4 CHAPTER 4. The chlorine atom also needs one more electron to complete its shell. A nitrogen atom has 7 electrons. paired electrons in valence energy level xx H + xx x x H x Cl xx overlap of electron orbitals and sharing of electron pair x Cl xx x x unpaired electrons Figure 4. and how many of the electrons are paired or unpaired. and how many of the electrons are paired or unpaired. Step 3 : Look to see how the electrons can be shared between the atoms so that the outermost energy levels of both atoms are full. Hydrogen has 1 valence electron and it is unpaired. Step 2 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom.GRADE 11 Question: How do hydrogen and chlorine atoms bond covalently in a molecule of hydrogen chloride? Answer Step 1 : Determine the electron configuration of each of the bonding atoms.3). ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons meaning that 3 electrons are unpaired. One of these electrons is unpaired. In other words. Chlorine has 7 valence electrons. A hydrogen atom has only 1 electron.4. 66 .

Each oxygen atom needs two more electrons to complete its valence energy shell. 4. this is called a double bond. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .4: Covalent bonding in a molecule of ammonia The above examples all show single covalent bonds. The nitrogen atom will share three of its electrons so that each of the hydrogen atoms now has a complete valence shell. 67 . where only one pair of electrons is shared between the same two atoms. Therefore three pairs of electrons must be shared between the four atoms involved. Step 3 : Look to see how the electrons can be shared between atoms so that the outer energy shells of all the atoms are full. If two pairs of electrons are shared between the same two atoms. Notice that the two electron pairs are being shared between the same two atoms. Each oxygen atom has 6 valence electrons. The nitrogen atom needs three more electrons to complete its valence energy shell. We say that the valency of the atoms is different. Therefore two pairs of electrons must be shared between the two oxygen atoms so that both valence shells are full.4 xx 3 H + xx x H x N x H x H x N x Figure 4.CHAPTER 4. Definition: Valency The number of electrons in an atom which are used to form a bond. A triple bond is formed if three pairs of electrons are shared. meaning that each atom has 2 unpaired electrons.4). You will have noticed in the above examples that the number of electrons that are involved in bonding varies between atoms.5).GRADE 11 Each hydrogen atom needs one more electron to complete its valence energy shell. and their electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4 . Each oxygen atom has 8 electrons. Step 2 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom and how many of these electrons are paired and unpaired. and so we call this a double bond (figure 4. Each of the hydrogen atoms will share its electron with the nitrogen atom to complete its valence shell (figure 4. Worked Example 7: Covalent bonding involving a double bond Question: How do oxygen atoms bond covalently to form an oxygen molecule? Answer Step 1 : Determine the electron configuration of the bonding atoms.

2. therefore there is a single covalent bond between these two atoms. Exercise: Covalent bonding and valency 1. Important: There is a relationship between the valency of an element and its position on the Periodic Table. This means that three hydrogen atoms will need to bond with a single nitrogen atom. the valency of fluorine (group 7) is 8-7=1. of valence electrons No. Since there is only one other atom in a molecule of O2 . Complete the table below by filling in the number of valence electrons and the valency for each of the elements shown: Element No. For example. a double covalent bond is formed between these two atoms. the valency of oxygen is two. Explain the difference between the valence electrons and the valency of an element. so you always need to be careful when you are writing a chemical formula. means that in this molecule carbon has a valency of 4. In the second example. the valency of both hydrogen and chlorine is one. Some elements have more than one possible valency.g. For the elements in groups 1 to 4. This means that each oxygen atom will form two bonds with another atom.4. the valency is the same as the group number. Often.4 CHAPTER 4. For elements in groups 5 to 7. of electrons needed to fill outer shell Valency Mg K F Ar C N O 3. In the third example. the valency will be written in a bracket after the element symbol e.GRADE 11 xx x x O x x+ O x x xx O x x O Figure 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . carbon (iv) oxide. Draw simple diagrams to show how electrons are arranged in the following covalent molecules: (a) Calcium oxide (CaO) (b) Water (H2 O) (c) Chlorine (Cl2 ) 68 . There are three single covalent bonds in a molecule of ammonia. nitrogen has a valency of three and hydrogen has a valency of one. the valency is calculated by subtracting the group number from 8.5: A double covalent bond in an oxygen molecule In the first example. while the valency of calcium (group 2) is 2.

represent the pair of electrons that are shared in the covalent bond. which is unpaired. there are other forms of notation that can be used. So. The electron configuration of hydrogen is 1s1 and the electron configuration for oxygen is 1s2 2s2 2p4 . H O ו H 69 ×× ×× ×× ×× ×× ×× ×× × ×• ו × .CHAPTER 4. The water molecule is represented below. Each hydrogen atom has one valence electron. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . The chemical symbol of the element is used to represent the nucleus and the core electrons of the atom. Worked Example 8: Lewis notation: Simple molecules Question: Represent the molecule H2 O using Lewis notation Answer Step 1 : For each atom. such as Lewis notation and Couper notation.5 4. for example.GRADE 11 4. determine the number of valence electrons in the atom. and represent these using dots and crosses. and the oxygen atom has six valence electrons with two unpaired.5 Lewis notation and molecular structure Although we have used diagrams to show the structure of molecules. 2H• O × Step 2 : Arrange the electrons so that the outermost energy level of each atom is full. Lewis notation uses dots and crosses to represent the valence electrons on different atoms. a hydrogen atom would be represented like this: H A chlorine atom would look like this: • ×× Cl A molecule of hydrogen chloride would be shown like this: ×× H ×× Cl The dot and cross inbetween the two atoms.

the valency of sulfur must be two. Hydrogen has an electron configuration of 1s1 and sulfur has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 .GRADE 11 Worked Example 9: Lewis notation: Molecules with multiple bonds Question: Represent the molecule HCN using Lewis notation Answer Step 1 : For each atom. The H2 S molecule is represented below. Although sulfur has a variable valency. ×× ×× ×• H ו S H 70 ×× •• • •• ×× × × ×• × N • . In this case. 2H• S × Step 2 : Arrange the atoms in the molecule so that the outermost energy level in each atom is full.4. The electron configuration of hydrogen is 1s1 . all of which are unpaired. and sulfur has six valence electrons. the electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2p3 and for carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2 . H• C × × • Step 2 : Arrange the electrons in the HCN molecule so that the outermost energy level in each atom is full. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . this is a triple bond. Each hydrogen atom has one valence electron which is unpaired. and nitrogen has five valence electrons. determine the number of valence electrons that the atom has from its electron configuration. This means that hydrogen has one valence electron which is unpaired. three of which are unpaired. ××× ••• H C N Worked Example 10: Lewis notation: Atoms with variable valencies Question: Represent the molecule H2 S using Lewis notation Answer Step 1 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom. carbon has four valence electrons. The HCN molecule is represented below. we know that the sulfur will be able to form 2 bonds with the hydrogen atoms. Because these three covalent bonds are between the same two atoms. Notice the three electron pairs between the nitrogen and carbon atom.5 CHAPTER 4.

and therefore the electrons that are in the bond that forms between this ion and the nitrogen atom. This happens when a Lewis base (an electron donor) donates a pair of electrons to a Lewis acid (an electron acceptor). come only from the nitrogen.6: A water molecule represented using Couper notation H C N Figure 4.6 and 4. a molecule of water and a molecule of HCN would be represented as shown in figures 4. Represent each of the following molecules using Lewis notation: (a) bromine gas (Br2 ) 71 ×× ×× H ×× ×• . Using Couper notation.CHAPTER 4. ×× H N H + [H]+ ו ו H N H ו H H Exercise: Atomic bonding and Lewis notation 1. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . A line is used for each covalent bond. Lewis acids and bases will be discussed in section 15. H O H Figure 4.GRADE 11 4. One example of a molecule that contains a dative covalent bond is the ammonium ion (NH+ ) shown in the figure below.7 below. Represent each of the following atoms using Lewis notation: (a) beryllium (b) calcium (c) lithium 2. The hydrogen ion H+ does not contain any 4 electrons. In this case.1 in chapter 15. only the electrons that are involved in the bond between the atoms are shown.5 Another way of representing molecules is using Couper notation.7: A molecule of HCN represented using Couper notation Extension: Dative covalent bonds A dative covalent bond (also known as a coordinate covalent bond) is a description of covalent bonding between two atoms in which both electrons shared in the bond come from the same atom.

8) is higher than that of hydrogen (2. The table below shows the electronegativities of a number of elements: Table 4. • nitrogen and hydrogen react to form ammonia • carbon and hydrogen bond to form a molecule of methane (CH4 ) the the the the valency of each of the atoms involved in the reaction Lewis structure of the product that is formed chemical formula of the product name of the product ×× For each reaction.2 Calcium (Ca) 1. 4. For example. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .1: Table of electronegativities for selected elements Element Electronegativity Hydrogen (H) 2. Two chemical reactions are described below.0 Bromine (Br) 2.9 Magnesium (Mg) 1. give: (a) (b) (c) (d) 5. Which of the three molecules listed above contains a double bond? 4.1). in a molecule of hydrogen bromide (HBr).0 Chlorine (Cl) 3. and so the shared electrons will spend more of their time closer to the bromine atom. In a molecule like hydrogen (H2 ) where the electronegativities of the atoms in the molecule are the same.8 Definition: Electronegativity Electronegativity is a chemical property which describes the power of an atom to attract electrons towards itself. A chemical compound has the following Lewis notation: X (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ו Y H How many valence electrons does element Y have? What is the valency of element Y? What is the valency of element X? How many covalent bonds are in the molecule? Suggest a name for the elements X and Y. the electronegativity of bromine (2. The greater the electronegativity of an element. and hydrogen will have a slightly positive charge.6 CHAPTER 4. both atoms have a neutral charge.GRADE 11 (b) calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) (c) carbon dioxide (CO2 ) 3. the stronger its attractive pull on electrons. Bromine will have a slightly negative charge. 72 ×× ×• .4.6 Electronegativity Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly an atom pulls a shared electron pair towards it.1 Sodium (Na) 0.

An example is CO2 . if two different non-metal atoms bond then the shared electron pair will be pulled more strongly by the atom with the highest electronegativity. Because the two atoms have the same electronegativity. The polarity of molecules affects properties such as solubility. However. he published a book called ’The Nature of the Chemical Bond’. So. (a) What is the electronegativity of hydrogen (b) What is the electronegativity of chlorine? (c) Which atom will have a slightly positive charge and which will have a slightly negative charge in the molecule? (d) Is the bond a non-polar or polar covalent bond? (e) Is the molecule polar or non-polar? 73 . He also received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his campaign against aboveground nuclear testing.g.1 Non-polar and polar covalent bonds Electronegativity can be used to explain the difference between two types of covalent bonds.GRADE 11 4. H2 . e. A non-polar molecule is one where the charge is equally spread across the molecule. Non-polar covalent bonds occur between two identical non-metal atoms. Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. which became one of the most influential chemistry books ever published. In a molecule of hydrogen chloride (HCl). hydrogen is H δ − and chlorine is Clδ . and one end with a slightly negative charge. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .2 Polar molecules Some molecules with polar covalent bonds are polar molecules. the electron pair in the covalent bond is shared equally between them. in a molecule such as hydrogen chloride (HCl). Cl2 and O2 .6. Although CO2 has two polar covalent bonds (between C+ atom and the two O− atoms). the molecule itself is not polar. This is represented using the symbols δ + (slightly positive) + and δ − (slightly negative). For this work. But not all molecules with polar covalent bonds are polar. e. So there is no difference in charge between the two ends of the molecule. melting points and boiling points. H2 O.CHAPTER 4. In 1939. 4.6 teresting The concept of electronegativity was introduced by Linus Pauling in 1932. 4. Interesting Fact Fact and this became very useful in predicting the nature of bonds between atoms in molecules. Definition: Polar and non-polar molecules A polar molecule is one that has one end with a slightly positive charge. The reason is that CO2 is a linear molecule and is therefore symmetrical. As a result.g. a polar covalent bond is formed where one atom will have a slightly negative charge and the other a slightly positive charge.6. Exercise: Electronegativity 1.

1. When ionic bonds form.1 Ionic Bonding The nature of the ionic bond You will remember that when atoms bond. Sodium has lost an electron and forms a N a+ ion. This usually happens when a metal atom bonds with a non-metal atom. and therefore readily gains electrons to form negative ions or anions. while oxygen has six valence electrons and an electronegativity of 3.7. This electron from sodium is transferred to chlorine. The two or more ions are then attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.7 4.7. Sodium has only one valence electron.7 CHAPTER 4. while chlorine has seven.5. Since oxygen has 74 . This is called ionic bonding. due to a low electronegativity. In covalent bonding. where electrons are transferred from one atom to another. chlorine will attract the valence electron in the sodium atom very strongly. Example 1: In the case of NaCl. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Because the electronegativity of chlorine is higher than the electronegativity of sodium. Definition: Ionic bond An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond based on the electrostatic forces between two oppositely-charged ions. Chlorine gains an electron and forms a Cl− ion. The non-metal atom has a high electronegativity. The attractive force between the positive and negative ion is what holds the molecule together. Magnesium has two valence electrons and an electronegativity of 1.2. causing electrons to be transferred from one atom to the other. There is another type of bonding. Ionic bonding takes place when the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms is more than 1.GRADE 11 2. The balanced equation for the reaction is: N a + Cl → N aCl This can be represented using Lewis notation: Example 2: Another example of ionic bonding takes place between magnesium (Mg) and oxygen (O) to form magnesium oxide (MgO). electrons are shared between the atoms. one atom will attract the shared electron pair much more strongly than the other. to form a positive ion or cation. a metal donates an electron. electrons are either shared or they are transferred between the atoms that are bonding.4. When the difference in electronegativity is large. the difference in electronegativity is 2. Complete the table below: Molecule Difference in electronegativity between atoms H2 O HBr NO2 F2 CH4 Non-polar/polar covalent bond Polar/non-polar molecule 4.

Draw Lewis diagrams to represent the following ionic compounds: (a) sodium iodide (NaI) (b) calcium bromide (CaBr2 ) (c) potassium chloride (KCl) 75 . and oxygen gains two electrons to form O2− . is the same as the valency of that element Exercise: Ionic compounds 1. it attracts the two valence electrons from the magnesium atom and these electrons are transferred from the magnesium atom to the oxygen atom. 2. Explain the difference between a covalent and an ionic bond. 3.GRADE 11 ×× ×× ×× 4.9: Ionic bonding in magnesium oxide Important: Notice that the number of electrons that is either lost or gained by an atom during ionic bonding. Magnesium loses two electrons to form M g 2+ .CHAPTER 4. (a) What is the difference in electronegativity between these two elements? (b) Give the chemical formula for: • a magnesium ion • a choride ion • the ionic compound that is produced during this reaction (c) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction that takes place.8: Ionic bonding in sodium chloride a higher electronegativity. The attractive force between the oppositely charged ions is what holds the molecule together. • ×× ×× • × Mg • × two electrons transferred from Mg to O O × × × [Mg] 2+ [ O × ]2− × × • Figure 4. The balanced equation for the reaction is: 2M g + O2 → 2M gO Because oxygen is a diatomic molecule. two magnesium atoms will be needed to combine with two oxygen atoms to produce two molecules of magnesium oxide (MgO). ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .7 Na • +× electron transer from sodium to chlorine Cl× × × × [Na] [ Cl ×]− × × • + Figure 4. Magnesium and chlorine react to form magnesium chloride.

The arrangement of ions in a regular. atom of element 1 (e. but ionic solutions do 4. So in fact NaCl does not contain one Na and one Cl ion.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds have a number of properties: • Ions are arranged in a lattice structure • Ionic solids are crystalline at room temperature • The ionic bond is a strong electrical attraction. and bonds are broken along planes when the compound is stressed • Solid crystals don’t conduct electricity.7.g.2 The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds Ionic substances are actually a combination of lots of ions bonded together into a giant molecule. In a metal bond.8. This means that ionic compounds are often hard and have high melting and boiling points • Ionic compounds are brittle.7. geometric structure is called a crystal lattice. meaning that an atom’s electrons do not stay around that one nucleus.8 4. 76 .1 Metallic bonds The nature of the metallic bond The structure of a metallic bond is quite different from covalent and ionic bonds. The structure of a crystal lattice is shown in figure 4. but rather a lot of these two ions arranged in a crystal lattice where the ratio of Na to Cl ions is 1:1.10.10: The crystal lattice arrangement in an ionic compound (e.g. the positive atomic nuclei (sometimes called the ’atomic kernels’) are surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons which are attracted to the nuclei (figure 4.g. Definition: Metallic bond Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei of metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal.11). ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .GRADE 11 4. NaCl) 4.4. Na) atom of element 2 (e. In a metallic bond. Cl) ionic bonds hold atoms together in the lattice structure Figure 4. the valence electrons are delocalised.8 CHAPTER 4.

• Melting point Metals usually have a high melting point and can therefore be used to make cooking pots and other equipment that needs to become very hot. The loosely bound electrons are able to move easily and to transfer charge from one part of the material to another. making metals look polished and shiny. without being damaged. mould or draw into threads. The high melting point is due to the high strength of metallic bonds. • Density Metals have a high density because their atoms are packed closely together. Because the electrons are loosely bound and are able to move.2 The properties of metals Metals have several unique properties as a result of this arrangement: • Thermal conductors Metals are good conductors of heat and are therefore used in cooking utensils such as pots and pans. The loosely bound electrons are able to absorb and reflect light at all frequencies.8 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Figure 4.8. (a) covalent bonds (b) ionic bonds 77 . • Shiny metallic lustre Metals have a characteristic shiny appearance and are often used to make jewellery. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .. they can transport heat energy from one part of the material to another. Because the bonds are not fixed in a particular direction. which can then be used to conduct electricity. • Electrical conductors Metals are good conductors of electricity.GRADE 11 4.11: Positive atomic nuclei (+) surrounded by delocalised electrons (•) 4. Exercise: Chemical bonding 1. atoms can slide easily over one another.CHAPTER 4. • Malleable and ductile This means that they can be bent into shape without breaking (malleable) and can be stretched into thin wires (ductile) such as copper. Give two examples of everyday objects that contain. and are therefore used in electrical conducting wires. making metals easy to shape.

78 .e.4. (b) Most jewellery items are made from metals. A molecule of water contains the elements hydrogen and oxygen. Which of these substances will conduct electricity most effectively? Give a reason for your answer. The following are some examples where this information is used to write the chemical formula of a compound.1 Writing chemical formulae The formulae of covalent compounds To work out the formulae of covalent compounds. Complete the table below by identifying the type of bond (covalent. where there is lightning) can be very dangerous. This means that oxygen can form two bonds with other elements and each of the hydrogen atoms can form one. ionic or metallic) in each of the compounds: Molecular formula H2 SO4 FeS NaI MgCl2 Zn Type of bond Ionic Metallic 4.9.9 (c) metallic bonds CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . This is because the valency tells us how many bonds each atom can form.9 4. 4. we need to use the valency of the atoms in the compound. Step 2 : Determine the valency of each element The valency of hydrogen is 1 and the valency of oxygen is 2. Worked Example 11: Formulae of covalent compounds Question: Write the chemical formula for water Answer Step 1 : Write down the elements that make up the compound. and therefore what its formula is. Use your knowledge of the different types of bonding to explain the following statements: (a) Swimming during an electric thunderstorm (i. This in turn can help to work out how many atoms of each element are in the compound. Complete the table which compares the different types of bonding: Covalent Types of atoms involved Nature of bond between atoms Melting Point (high/low) Conducts electricity? (yes/no) Other properties 3. 5.GRADE 11 2. (c) Plastics are good insulators.

two hydrogen atoms will combine with one oxygen atom. In a molecule of magnesium oxide. Step 3 : Write the chemical formula The chemical formula for magnesium oxide is therefore: MgO Worked Example 13: Formulae of covalent compounds Question: Write the chemical formula for copper (II) chloride. Step 2 : Determine the valency of each element The valency of magnesium is 2. Step 2 : Determine the valency of each element The valency of copper is 2. we know that in a single water molecule. two atoms of chlorine will combine with one atom of copper. In a molecule of copper (II) chloride.9 Worked Example 12: Formulae of covalent compounds Question: Write the chemical formula for magnesium oxide Answer Step 1 : Write down the elements that make up the compound. Step 3 : Write the chemical formula The chemical formula for copper (II) chloride is therefore: CuCl2 79 . Answer Step 1 : Write down the elements that make up the compound. A molecule of copper (II) chloride contains the elements copper and chlorine. while the valency of oxygen is also 2. one atom of magnesium will combine with one atom of oxygen. 4. A molecule of magnesium oxide contains the elements magnesium and oxygen. The chemical formula for water is therefore: H2 O. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .CHAPTER 4. while the valency of chlorine is 1.GRADE 11 Step 3 : Write the chemical formula Using the valencies of hydrogen and oxygen.

The following are some examples: Worked Example 14: Formulae of ionic compounds Question: Write the chemical formula for potassium iodide.2 Table 4. The charges balance (+1-1=0) and therefore the ionic compound is neutral. charge = +1) and I− (valency = 1. one atom of potassium will be needed for every one atom of iodine. Again.GRADE 11 4. In MgO. and these are called compound ions. In order to balance the charge in a single molecule. Positive ions are called cations and negative ions are called anions.4. charge = -1). It is a good idea to learn the compound ions that are shown in table 4. Step 3 : Write the chemical formula The chemical formula for potassium iodide is therefore: KI 80 .2: Table showing common compound ions and their formulae Name of compound ion Carbonate sulphate Hydroxide Ammonium Nitrate Hydrogen carbonate Phosphate Chlorate Cyanide Chromate Permanganate formula CO3 2− SO4 2− OH− NH4 + NO3 − HCO3 − PO4 3− ClO3 − CN− CrO4 2− MnO4 − In the case of ionic compounds. the valency of an ion is the same as its charge (Note: valency is always expressed as a positive number e.9.9 CHAPTER 4. the charges balance and the compound is neutral. In the case of NaCl for example. the positive charges in the compound must balance out the negative. Potassium iodide contains potassium and iodide ions. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Step 2 : Determine the valency and charge of each ion. Answer Step 1 : Write down the ions that make up the compound. We can use this information to work out what the chemical formula of an ionic compound is if we know the charge on the individual ions. Potassium iodide contains the ions K+ (valency = 1. magnesium has a charge of +2 and oxygen has a charge of -2. valency of the chloride ion is 1 and not -1). Since an ionic compound is always neutral.2 The formulae of ionic compounds The overall charge of an ionic compound will always be zero and so the negative and positive charge must be the same size.g. Some ions are made up of groups of atoms. the charge on the sodium is +1 and the charge on the chlorine is -1.

Step 3 : Write the chemical formula. In order to balance the charge in a single molecule. charge = +1) and SO4 2− (valency = 2. Sodium sulphate contains sodium ions and sulphate ions. charge = -2).GRADE 11 4. Answer Step 1 : Write down the ions that make up the compound. Two sodium ions will be needed to balance the charge of the sulphate ion. Step 2 : Determine the valency and charge of each ion. Step 3 : Write the chemical formula. Copy and complete the table below: Compound potassium bromide NH+ 4 potassium chromate PbI potassium permanganate calcium phosphate 81 Cation Na+ Anion Cl− Br− Cl− Formula . The chemical formula for calcium hydroxide is therefore: Ca(OH)2 Exercise: Chemical formulae 1.9 Worked Example 15: Formulae of ionic compounds Question: Write the chemical formula for sodium sulphate. two hydroxide ions will be needed for every ion of calcium. The chemical formula for sodium sulphate is therefore: Na2 SO4 2− Worked Example 16: Formulae of ionic compounds Question: Write the chemical formula for calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide contains the ions Ca2+ (charge = +2) and OH− (charge = -1).CHAPTER 4. Calcium hydroxide contains calcium ions and hydroxide ions. Step 2 : Determine the valency and charge of each ion. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Answer Step 1 : Write down the ions that make up the compound. Na+ (valency = 1.

Depending on the number of electron pairs in the molecule. For example. VSEPR theory says that the electron pairs in a molecule will arrange themselves around the central atom of the molecule so that the repulsion between their negative charges is as small as possible. Definition: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) is a model in chemistry.GRADE 11 2. Step 3: Determine the basic geometry of the molecule using the table below.4. This is a model in chemistry that tries to predict the shapes of molecules. based upon the extent of their electron-pair repulsion. which is used to predict the shape of individual molecules. The pairs of electrons may be bonding or non-bonding (also called lone pairs). ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Only valence electrons of the central atom influence the molecular shape in a meaningful way. it will have a different shape.1 The Shape of Molecules Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory The shape of a covalent molecule can be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Step 2: Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom. the electron pairs arrange themselves so that they are as far apart as they can be.10. and one with four electron pairs around the central atom would have a tetrahedral shape. Very simply.10 4. a molecule with two electron pairs around the central atom has a linear shape. follow these steps: Step 1: Draw the molecule using Lewis notation.2 Determining the shape of a molecule To predict the shape of a covalent molecule. Make sure that you draw all the electrons around the molecule’s central atom. Write the chemical formula for each of the following compounds: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) hydrogen cyanide carbon dioxide sodium carbonate ammonium hydroxide barium sulphate potassium permanganate 4. The situation is actually more 82 .10 CHAPTER 4. 4. VSEPR theory is based on the idea that the geometry of a molecule is mostly determined by repulsion among the pairs of electrons around a central atom.10. In other words.

CHAPTER 4. but this will be discussed later in this section. Remember that the shapes are 3-dimensional. Step 3 : Determine the basic geometry of the molecule Since there are two electron pairs.12 shows each of these shapes. the shaded part represents those parts of the molecule that are ’in front’.GRADE 11 Table 4. the molecule must be linear.10 complicated than this.3: The effect of electron pairs in determining the shape of molecules Number of electron pairs Geometry 2 linear 3 trigonal planar 4 tetrahedral 5 trigonal bipyramidal 6 octahedral 4. and so you need to try to imagine them in this way. Figure 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . 180◦ 120◦ linear trigonal planar tetrahedral 90◦ 90◦ 109◦ trigonal hipyramidal octahedral Figure 4.12: Some common molecular shapes Worked Example 17: The shapes of molecules Question: Determine the shape of a molecule of O2 Answer Step 1 : Draw the molecule using Lewis notation ×× •• ×× 83 Step 2 : Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom There are two electron pairs. In the diagrams. ×× O O •• •• . while the dashed lines represent those parts that are ’at the back’ of the molecule.

which are not involved in bonding but which are also around the central atom. Step 3 : Determine the basic geometry of the molecule Since there are three electron pairs. are called lone pairs.4. the molecule must be trigonal planar.GRADE 11 Worked Example 18: The shapes of molecules Question: Determine the shape of a molecule of BF3 Answer Step 1 : Draw the molecule using Lewis notation •• ו •• F B •• F Step 2 : Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom There are three electron pairs. But there are also other electron pairs in the molecules. 84 ו •• •• •× F •• •• •• ו •• ו . These electrons. The worked example below will give you an indea of how these lone pairs can affect the shape of the molecule. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Worked Example 19: Advanced Question: Determine the shape of a molecule of N H3 Answer Step 1 : Draw the molecule using Lewis notation lone pair of electrons ×× ×• H N H H Step 2 : Count the number of electron pairs around the central atom There are four electron pairs. In the examples we have used above. we looked only at the number of bonding electron pairs when we were trying to decide on the molecules’ shape. Extension: More about molecular shapes Determining the shape of a molecule can be a bit more complicated.10 CHAPTER 4.

It doesn’t matter if it is not 100% accurate. 85 . 4. the toothpicks will hold the atoms (marshmallows) in the molecule together. 4. and toothpicks to represent the bonds between the atoms. must be balanced by a gain of electrons in another part of the reaction. Step 4 : Determine how many lone pairs are around the central atom There is one lone pair of electrons and this will affect the shape of the molecule. HBr and NH3 For each molecule. rather than the usual 109 degrees of a tetrahedral molecule. H2 O. • Adjust the position of the atoms so that the bonding pairs are further away from the lone pairs. This exercise is only to help you to visualise the 3-dimensional shapes of molecules. The bond angles between the hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the molecule become 106 degrees. Step 5 : Determine the final shape of the molecule The lone pair needs more space than the bonding pairs.GRADE 11 Step 3 : Determine the basic geometry of the molecule Since there are four electron pairs. CH4 . it is possible to keep track of whether that element is losing or gaining electrons during a chemical reaction.11 Oxidation numbers When reactions occur. By giving elements an oxidation number. Oxidation is the loss of electrons from an atom. you need to: • Determine the basic geometry of the molecule • Build your model so that the atoms are as far apart from each other as possible (remember that the electrons around the central atom will try to avoid the repulsions between them). the molecule must be tetrahedral. Try to use different coloured marshmallows to represent different elements. Definition: Oxidation number A simplified way of understanding an oxidation number is to say that it is the charge an atom would have if it was in a compound composed of ions. you are going to build a number of molecules using marshmallows to represent the atoms in the molecule.CHAPTER 4.11 Activity :: Group work : Building molecular models In groups. an exchange of electrons takes place. and therefore pushes the three hydrogen atoms together a little more. In other words. • How has the shape of the molecule changed? • Draw a simple diagram to show the shape of the molecule. You will build models of the following molecules: HCl. The loss of electrons in one part of the reaction. Do the models help you to have a clearer picture of what the molecules look like? Try to build some more models for other molecules you can think of. while reduction is the gain of electrons by an atom. The shape of the molecule is trigonal pyramidal. • Decide whether this shape is accurate for that molecule or whether there are any lone pairs that may influence it. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS .

and the magnesium ion M g 2+ has an oxidation number of +2. Rule 6: An oxygen atom usually has an oxidation number of -2. oxygen has a higher electronegativity so it must be negative because it attracts electrons more strongly. 7. although there are some cases where its oxidation number is -1. N a + Cl → N aCl Answer Step 1 : Determine which atom will have a positive or negative oxidation number Sodium will have a positive oxidation number and chlorine will have a negative oxidation number. Step 2 : Determine the oxidation number for each atom Sodium (group 1) will have an oxidation number of +1. Rule 3: Monatomic ions have an oxidation number that is equal to the charge on the ion. Rule 8: In most compounds. For example. you will soon start to understand! 1.4. 6. The chloride ion Cl− has an oxidation number of -1. Whether an oxidation number os positive or negative. Rule 7: The oxidation number of hydrogen is usually +1. This is correct since NaCl is neutral. an atom that is part of a molecule will have an oxidation number that has the same numerical value as its valency. Chlorine (group 7) will have an oxidation number of -1.GRADE 11 There are a number of rules that you need to know about oxidation numbers. is determined by the electronegativities of the atoms involved. 5. but once you have worked through some examples. This means that. Important: You will notice that the oxidation number of an atom is the same as its valency. and these are listed below. the oxidation number of the halogens is -1. in a molecule of water. It will have a negative oxidation number (-2). the oxidation numbers of hydrogen and bromine on the left hand side of the equation are both zero. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . There are some exceptions where its oxidation number is -1. 3. unless the molecule has a charge. In the reaction H2 + Br2 → 2HBr. since it is neutral. These will probably not make much sense at first. the overall charge on the NaCl molecule is +1-1=0.11 CHAPTER 4. 4. Step 3 : Check whether the oxidation numbers add up to the charge on the molecule In the equation N a + Cl → N aCl. Hydrogen will have a positive oxidation number (+1). 8. Rule 2: In most cases. 2. Rule 5: Use a table of electronegativities to determine whether an atom has a positive or a negative oxidation number. in a molecule of NaCl. sodium has an oxidation number of +1 and chlorine has an oxidation number of -1. Worked Example 20: Oxidation numbers Question: Give the oxidation numbers for all the atoms in the reaction between sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride. the oxidation number for the whole molecule will be zero. 86 . Rule 1: An element always has an oxidation number of zero. Rule 4: In a molecule. in which case the oxidation number is equal to the charge.

then the oxidation number of sulfur must be +6.CHAPTER 4. Step 2 : Determine the oxidation number for each atom Oxygen (group 6) will have an oxidation number of -2. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . the total charge of the oxygen is -8. the sum of the oxidation numbers must be -2. The unbalanced equation is shown below: H2 + O2 → H2 O Answer Step 1 : Determine which atom will have a positive or negative oxidation number Hydrogen will have a positive oxidation number and oxygen will have a negative oxidation number. Therefore. The oxidation number of sulfur at this stage is uncertain. Step 2 : Determine the oxidation number for each atom Hydrogen (group 1) will have an oxidation number of +1. Worked Example 22: Oxidation numbers 2− Question: Give the oxidation number of sulfur in a sulphate (SO4 ) ion Answer Step 1 : Determine which atom will have a positive or negative oxidation number Sulfur has a positive oxidation number and oxygen will have a negative oxidation number. If the overall charge of the ion is -2. hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 and oxygen has an oxidation number of -2. the sum of the oxidation numbers is 2(+1)-2=0. This is correct since the oxidation number of water is zero. 87 . Since there are four oxygen atoms in the ion. Oxygen (group 6) will have an oxidation number of -2. Step 3 : Check whether the oxidation numbers add up to the charge on the molecule In the reaction H2 + O2 → H2 O.11 Worked Example 21: Oxidation numbers Question: Give the oxidation numbers for all the atoms in the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Step 3 : Determine the oxidation number of sulfur by using the fact that the oxidation numbers of the atoms must add up to the charge on the molecule 2− In the polyatomic SO4 ion. in water.GRADE 11 4. the oxidation numbers for hydrogen and oxygen (on the left hand side of the equation) are zero since these are elements. In the water molecule.

• There are a number of forces that act between atoms: attractive forces between the positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons of another. • A dative covalent bond is a bond between two atoms in which both the electrons that are shared in the bond come from the same atom. In Lewis notation. • A double or triple bond occurs if there are two or three electron pairs that are shared between the same two atoms. • When atoms bond. • Electronegativity measures how strongly an atom draws electrons to it. 88 . Atoms are less reactive when these outer orbitals contain the maximum number of electrons. repulsive forces between like-charged electrons. • Chemical bonding occurs when the energy of the system is at its lowest.12 CHAPTER 4. • Bond length is the distance between the nuclei of the atoms when they bond. and repulsion between like-charged nuclei.12 Summary • A chemical bond is the physical process that causes atoms and molecules to be attracted together and to be bound in new compounds. dots and crosses are used to represent the valence electrons around the central atom. Give the oxidation numbers for each element in the following chemical compounds: (a) NO2 (b) BaCl2 (c) H2 SO4 2.GRADE 11 Exercise: Oxidation numbers 1. This explains why the noble gases do not combine to form molecules. • Atoms are more reactive. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . • Lewis and Couper notation are two ways of representing molecular structure. An exchange of electrons takes place and the atoms are held together by the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely-charged ions. • The valency of an atom is the number of bonds that it can form with other atoms.4. • An ionic bond occurs between atoms where the difference in electronegativity is greater than 2. electrons are either shared or exchanged. when their outer electron orbitals are not full. • Bond energy is the energy that must be added to the system for the bonds to break. Give the oxidation numbers for the reactants and products in each of the following reactions: (a) C + O2 → CO2 (b) N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 (c) Magnesium metal burns in oxygen 4. and therefore more likely to bond. In Couper notation. • Covalent bonding occurs between the atoms of non-metals and involves a sharing of electrons so that the orbitals of the outermost energy levels in the atoms are filled. lines are used to represent the bonds between atoms. • Electronegativity can be used to explain the difference between two types of covalent bonds: polar covalent bonds (between non-identical atoms) and non-polar covalent bonds (between identical atoms). • Ionic solids are arranged in a crystal lattice structure.1.

the arrangement of solids in a lattice structure and the ability of ionic solutions to conduct electricity.. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . • The shape of molecules can be predicted using the VSEPR theory. brittle nature. Exercise: Summary exercise 1. • A metallic bond is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nuclei of metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal. Explain the meaning of each of the following terms: (a) valency (b) bond energy (c) covalent bond 4. X (a) What is the valency of X? ו Y X 89 ו ×× ×• X . where X and Y each represent a different element. 2. • The valency of atoms. their metallic lustre. Which of the following reactions will not take place? Explain your answer.. Given the following Lewis structure. and their high melting point and density. (c) A measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons to it. Which ONE of the following best describes the bond formed between an H+ ion and the NH3 molecule? (a) (b) (c) (d) Covalent bond Dative covalent (coordinate covalent) bond Ionic Bond Hydrogen Bond 3. • Oxidation numbers are used to determine whether an atom has gained or lost electrons during a chemical reaction. (a) H + H → H2 (b) Ne + Ne → Ne2 (c) I + I → I2 (a) (b) (c) (d) 5. (a) The distance between two atoms in a molecule (b) A type of chemical bond that involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. including their ability to conduct heat and electricity. which uses the arrangement of electrons around the central atom to determine the most likely shape of the molecule.CHAPTER 4. including their high melting and boiling points. Give one word/term for each of the following descriptions. and the way they bond. Draw the Lewis structure for each of the following: calcium iodine hydrogen bromide (HBr) nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) 6. the fact that they are both malleable and ductile. • Metals also have a number of properties.GRADE 11 4.12 • Ionic compounds have a number of specific properties. can be used to determine the chemical formulae of compounds.

4.12 CHAPTER 4. Potassium dichromate is dissolved in water. 90 . ATOMIC COMBINATIONS . Which of the following diagrams (Couper notation) accurately represents this molecule? (a) H H C H H C H H (b) H H C H C H H (c) H H C H H C H H 8.GRADE 11 (b) What is the valency of Y? (c) Which elements could X and Y represent? 7. (a) Give the name and chemical formula for each of the ions in solution. A molecule of ethane has the formula C2 H6 . (b) What is the chemical formula for potassium dichromate? (c) Give the oxidation number for each element in potassium dichromate.

These forces are known as intermolecular forces. This is important in explaining the properties of the substance.Grade 11 In the previous chapter. and this will 91 . the positive pole of the one molecule will be attracted to the negative pole of the other. When atoms are joined to one another they form molecules.2). such that the shared electron pair spends more time close to the atom that attracts it more strongly.1 to refresh your memory! 5. The molecule is said to be a dipole. Van der Waals forces These intermolecular forces are named after a Dutch physicist called Johannes van der Waals (1837 -1923). and can be divided into three types: (a) Dipole-dipole forces Figure 5. the molecule itself may not necessarily be polar. The shape of the molecule may also affect its polarity. When one dipole molecule comes into contact with another dipole molecule. who recognised that there were weak attractive and repulsive forces between the molecules of a gas. and that these forces caused gases to deviate from ’ideal gas’ behaviour. and we are going to look at them in more detail in this next section. Examples of molecules that are held together by dipole-dipole forces are HCl. A polar molecule is one in which there is a difference in electronegativity between the atoms in the molecule. You will remember that an ion is a charged atom.Chapter 5 Intermolecular Forces . it is important to remember that just because the bonds within a molecule are polar. we discussed the different forces that exist between atoms (intramolecular forces). with one end slightly positive and the other slightly negative. You will also remember from the previous chapter. and the molecules will be held together in this way (figure 5. and the other end will have a slightly negative charge (δ + ). this type of intermolecular force exists between an ion and a dipole molecule. 1.1 shows a simplified dipole molecule. and these molecules in turn have forces that bind them together. SO2 and NO2 . Van der Waals forces are weak intermolecular forces. that we can describe molecules as being either polar or non-polar. A few examples are shown in table 5.1 Types of Intermolecular Forces It is important to be able to recognise whether the molecules in a substance are polar or nonpolar because this will determine what type of inermolecular forces there are. However. (b) Ion-dipole forces As the name suggests. KBr. Definition: Intermolecular forces Intermolecular forces are forces that act between stable molecules. The result is that one end of the molecule will have a slightly positive charge (δ + ). FeS.

while the negative chloride ion (Cl− ) is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen atom.induced dipole’ or ’momentary dipole’ forces. and yet we know that there are also intermolecular forces between non-polar molecules such as carbon dioxide.2: Two dipole molecules are held together by the attractive force between their oppositely charged poles be attracted to one of the charged ends of the polar molecule. This can be seen when sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water. The positive sodium ion (Na+ ) will be attracted to the slightly negative oxygen atoms in the water molecule. while a negative ion will be attracted to the positive pole of the polar molecule. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . (c) London forces These intermolecular forces are also sometimes called ’dipole.3).1: A simplified diagram of a dipole molecule δ+ δ− δ+ δ− Figure 5.GRADE 11 Table 5.5.1: Polarity in molecules with different atomic bonds and molecular shapes Molecule Chemical formula H2 Hydrogen Bond between atoms Covalent Shape of molecule Polarity of molecule Non-polar Linear molecule H H Linear molecule Hδ + Hydrogen ride chlo- HCl Polar covalent Polar covalent Polar Clδ − Carbon tetrafluoromethane CF4 Tetrahedral molecule Fδ − Non-polar Fδ − Cδ + Fδ − Fδ − δ+ δ− Figure 5. A positive ion will be attracted to the negative pole of the polar molecule. These intermolecular forces weaken the ionic bonds between the sodium and chloride ions so that the sodium chloride dissolves in the water (figure 5.1 CHAPTER 5. In 92 . Not all molecules are polar.

the electrons might not be evenly distributed. such as oxygen. are held together by hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and the oxygen atom of another (figure 5. It is important to note however.CHAPTER 5. molecules that are next to each other attract each other very weakly. this type of intermolecular bond involves a hydrogen atom. that both van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds are weaker than the covalent and ionic bonds that exist between atoms. In other words. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . the noble gases (e. each end of the molecules has a slight charge.4: Two representations showing the hydrogen bonds between water molecules: spacefilling model and structural formula.3: Ion-dipole forces in a sodium chloride solution non-polar molecules the electronic charge is evenly distributed but it is possible that at a particular moment in time. 2. Hydrogen bonds are stronger than van der Waals forces.1 Cl− δ+ H2 O δ− Cl− δ + H2 O δ − N a+ δ − H2 O δ + Cl− δ− H2 O δ+ Cl− Figure 5. Hydrogen bonds As the name implies.g.GRADE 11 5. The molecule will have a temporary dipole.g. The hydrogen must be attached to another atom that is strongly electronegative. When this happens. Ne and Ar) and in other non-polar molecules such as carbon dioxide and methane. Water molecules for example.4). either positive or negative. 93 . hydrogen bonds atomic bonds O H O H O O O H O Figure 5. F2 and I2 ). These London forces are found in the halogens (e. nitrogen or fluorine.

if you think back to the kinetic theory of matter. the particles are held closely together in a solid structure. Remember also that the temperature of a material affects the energy of its particles. Now look at the data in table 5. Definition: Boiling point The temperature at which a material will change from being a liquid to being a gas.5. 94 . give us information about the phase of the substance at room temperature. Complete the following table by placing a tick to show which type of intermolecular force occurs in each substance: Formula DipoleMomentary Ion-dipole hydrogen dipole dipole bond HCl CO2 I2 H2 O KI(aq) NH3 2. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES .2 CHAPTER 5.2 Understanding intermolecular forces The types of intermolecular forces that occur in a substance will affect its properties. Formula He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 NH3 H2 O HF Formula mass 4 20 40 38 71 160 17 18 20 Melting point (0 C) -270 -249 -189 -220 -101 -7 -78 0 -83 Boiling point (0 C) at 1 atm -269 -246 -186 -188 -35 58 -33 100 20 Table 5.. that the phase of a substance is determined by how strong the forces are between its particles. If the forces are very strong. The weaker the forces. and the strength of the intermolecular forces. the more likely they are to be able to overcome the forces that are holding them together.2. (a) strongest (b) weakest 5. The examples below will help to explain this.GRADE 11 Exercise: Types of intermolecular forces 1. melting point and boiling point.2: Melting point and boiling point of a number of chemical substances The melting point and boiling point of a substance. Definition: Melting point The temperature at which a material will change from being a solid to being a liquid. such as its phase. In which of the substances above are the intermolecular forces.. You should remember. This can cause a change in phase. The more energy the particles have. the more likely the substance is to exist as a gas because the particles are far apart.

fluorine exists as a gas. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . This means that for any temperature that is greater than -1880C. In other words.GRADE 11 Example 1: Fluorine (F2 ) Phase at room temperature 5.CHAPTER 5. even though they both contain hydrogen bonds 95 . Strength of intermolecular forces What does this tell us about the intermolecular forces in hydrogen fluoride? The forces are stronger than those in fluorine.2 and then use your knowledge of different types of intermolecular forces to explain the following statements: • • • • The boiling point of F2 is much lower than the boiling point of NH3 At room temperature. which are stronger than van der Waals forces. Between -830 C and 200 C. because more energy is needed for fluorine to change into the gaseous phase. At temperatures below -2200C. more energy is needed for the intermolecular forces to be overcome so that the molecules can move further apart. it will become a gas. Imagine if water were like ammonia (NH3 ).2 Fluorine (F2 ) has a melting point of -2200 C and a boiling point of -1880C. these forces must be very weak for it to exist as a gas at room temperature. Exercise: Applying your knowledge of intermolecular forces Refer to the data in table 5. These are hydrogen bonds. This will be discussed more in chapter ?? deals with this in more detail. You should also note that the strength of the intermolecular forces increases with an increase in formula mass. it exists as a liquid. fluorine would be a solid. What do you notice about water? Luckily for us. Example 2: Hydrogen fluoride (HF) Phase at room temperature For temperatures below -830 C. and if the temperature is increased above 200 C. The intermolecular forces in fluorine are very weak van der Waals forces because the molecules are non-polar. at room temperature. This can be seen by the increasing melting and boiling points of substances as formula mass increases. The hydrogen bonds in water are particularly strong and this gives water unique qualities when compared to other molecules with hydrogen bonds. which is a gas above a temperature of -330 C! There would be no liquid water on the planet. many elements exist naturally as gases The boiling point of HF is higher than the boiling point of Cl2 The boiling point of water is much higher than HF. Strength of intermolecular forces What does this information tell us about the intermolecular forces in fluorine? In fluorine. Only at temperatures below -1880 C will the molecules have a low enough energy that they will come close enough to each other for forces of attraction to act between the molecules. water behaves quite differently from the rest of the halides. and that would mean that no life would be able to survive here. hydrogen fluoride is a solid. fluorine will be a gas. and at any temperature inbetween these two. Intermolecular forces will exist between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and the fluorine atom of another. fluorine will be a liquid. So.

5: Surface tension in a liquid • Capillarity Activity :: Investigation : Capillarity Half fill a beaker with water and hold a hollow glass tube in the centre as shown below. and look carefully at the shape of the air-water interface in the tube. where the water appears to dip in the centre. the water molecules at the surface are held more closely together. For molecules at the surface there are no upward forces. so the molecules are closer together. However. Figure 5. This causes the water to be held more closely to the glass. This is called surface tension. In the glass tube. Capillarity is the surface tension that occurs in liquids that are inside tubes. so these forces are exerted in all directions.3 Intermolecular forces in liquids Intermolecular forces affect a number of properties in liquids: • Surface tension You may have noticed how some insects are able to walk across a water surface. you will notice a meniscus. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . molecules at the surface do not have any water molecules above them to pull them upwards. For molecules in the centre of the liquid.GRADE 11 5.5. Molecules in the centre of the liquid are completely surrounded by other molecules. Because they are only pulled sideways and downwards. In water. the attractive forces between the glass and the water are stronger than the intermolecular forces between the water molecules. What do you notice? meniscus water At the air-water interface.3 CHAPTER 5. Mark the level of the water in the glass tube. 96 . and how leaves float in water. and a meniscus forms. The forces between the glass and the water also mean that the water can be ’pulled up’ higher when it is in the tube than when it is in teh beaker. each molecule is held to the surrounding molecules by strong hydrogen bonds. the intermolecular forces act in all directions. This is because of surface tension.

if a plant loses too much water. the harder the solid is likely to be. Non-polar molecules have an equal distribution of charge. which reduces water loss. Interesting Fact Fact this is called transpiration. This is called evaporation. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . teresting Transpiration in plants . You should note that a liquid doesn’t necessarily have to reach boiling point before evaporation can occur. they also affect the properties of solids. Plants that live in very hot. When you exercise. We therefore refer to the average kinetic energy of the molecules when we describe the liquid.4 In a liquid. must be specially adapted to reduce the amount of water that transpires (evaporates) from their leaf surface. This means that the average kinetic energy of the remaining molecules will decrease. For example. Some plants are even able to close their stomata during the day when temperatures (and therefore transpiration) are highest. You will see this if you leave a glass of water outside in the sun.GRADE 11 • Evaporation 5. your body temperature increases and you begin to release moisture (sweat) through the pores in your skin. Although this water loss is important in the survival of a plant. but some particles will have more energy than others. and a plant will lose water through spaces in the leaf surface called stomata. 5. When the liquid is heated. which reflect sunlight so that the temperature is not as high as it would be. and will become a gas. will depend on the nature of the molecules. and the higher its melting point is likely to be. Evaporation takes place all the time. 97 . the stronger the intermolecular forces between the particles that make up the solid. each particle has kinetic energy. A similar process takes place when a person sweats during exercise.Did you know that plants also ’sweat’ ? In plants. those particles which have the highest energy will be able to overcome the intermolecular forces holding them in the liquid phase. meaning that one part of the molecule is slightly positive and the other part is slightly negative. while others have a thin waxy layer covering their leaves. and so will the temperature of the liquid. This helps to keep your body temperature at a level that is suitable forit to function properly.CHAPTER 5. • Polar molecules have an unequal distribution of charge. dry places such as deserts. The sweat quickly evaporates and causes the temperature of your skin to drop. Important: In the same way that intermolecular forces affect the properties of liquids. the higher the temperature of the molecules will have to be for it to become a gas. What happens then to the molecules of water that remain in the liquid? Remember that it was the molecules with the highest energy that left the liquid. Slowly the water level will drop over a period of time.4 Summary • Intermolecular forces are the forces that act between stable molecules. The stronger the intermolecular forces in a liquid. Evaporation occurs when a liquid changes to a gas. it will die. • The type of intermolecular force in a substance. Desert plants have some amazing adaptations to deal with this problem! Some have hairs on their leaves.

Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. For example.GRADE 11 • There are three types of Van der Waal’s forces. the stronger the intermolecular forces. Give one word or term for each of the following descriptions: (a) The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract bonding electrons. capillarity and evaporation are the result of intermolecular forces. where at some point there is an uequal distribution of charge in the molecule. At room temperature N2 is usually a liquid 98 . INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . • Ion-dipole forces exist between ions and dipole molecules. for example. • In liquids. For example. • Intermolecular forces affect the properties of substances. These are dipole-dipole. HF Select the true statement from the list below: i. ion-dipole and London forces (momentary dipole). NH3 and H2 S (IEB Paper 2. 2003) (b) Refer to the list of substances below: HCl. nitrogen and fluorine. properties such as surface tension. • Momentary dipole forces occur between two non-polar molecules. The hydrogen atom in one molecule will be attracted to the nitrogen atom in another molecule. choose the one correct answer from the list provided. there are London forces between two molecules of carbon dioxide. For each of the following questions. HI and NH3 only iv. An example of this is when an ionic solid such as sodium chloride dissolves in water. 2. (a) The following table gives the melting points of various hydrides: Hydride Melting point (0 C) HI -50 NH3 -78 H2 S -83 CH4 -184 In which of these hydrides does hydrogen bonding occur? i. HI. Its boiling point will also be higher. (c) A charged atom. the higher the melting point of that substance. There are hydrogen bonds between water molecules and between ammonia molecules.5. for example between two molecules of hydrogen chloride. H2 O. • Hydrogen bonds occur between hydrogen atoms and other atoms that have a high electronegativity such as oxygen. NH3 is a non-polar molecule ii. Ion-dipole forces exist between molecules of HF iv. NH3 only iii. and the more likely that substance is to exist as a solid or liquid. HI only ii. The ion is attracted to the part of the molecule that has an opposite charge to its own.4 CHAPTER 5. Cl2 . N2 . The melting point of NH3 will be higher than for Cl2 iii. (b) A molecule that has an unequal distribution of charge. • Dipole-dipole forces exist between two polar molecules. NH3 .

CHAPTER 5. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . (IEB Paper 2. 2002) 5. (c) The shapes of the molecules of hydrogen sulphide and water are similar. The respective boiling points for four chemical substances are given below: Hydrogen sulphide -600 C Ammonia -330 C Hydrogen fluoride 200 C Water 1000 C (a) Which one of the substances exhibits the strongest forces of attraction between its molecules in the liquid state? (b) Give the name of the force responsible for the relatively high boiling points of ammonia and water and explain how this force originates. yet their boiling points differ.4 99 . Explain.GRADE 11 3.

5.4 CHAPTER 5.GRADE 11 100 . INTERMOLECULAR FORCES .

Chapter 6 Solutions and solubility . carbon dioxide dissolved in water (fizzy drinks) or oxygen dissolved in water (aquatic ecosystems). • A gas solute dissolved in a liquid solvent e. A solute can be a solid. • A solid solute in a solid solvent e. liquid or gas. In the case of the NaCl solution.g. A solution then is a homogeneous mixture of a solute and a solvent. In the case of a salt (NaCl) solution. the sand does not dissolve in the water. Definition: Solutes and solvents A solute is a substance that is dissolved in another substance. or gaseous solute. 101 .Grade 11 We are surrounded by different types of solutions in our daily lives. sodium chloride dissolved in water. there is always more of the solvent than there is of the solute in a solution. In most cases. the homogeneous mixture of gases in the air that we breathe. A solvent is the substance in which the solute dissolves. When you mix salt and water.1 Types of solutions When a solute is mixed with a solvent. Any solution is made up of a solute and a solvent. the resulting mixture is homogeneous because the solute has dissolved in the solvent. While there are many different types of solutions. the solvent would be the water. Definition: Solution In chemistry.g. This is a heterogeneous mixture. a solution is a homogeneous mixture that consists of a solute that has been dissolved in a solvent.g. liquid. Examples of solutions are: • A solid solute dissolved in a liquid solvent e. a mixture is formed. metal alloys. • A liquid solute dissolved in a liquid solvent e.g. 6. ethanol in water. and this may be either heterogeneous or homogeneous. • A gas solute in a gas solvent e. A solvent is the liquid that dissolves a solid. most of those we will be discussing are liquids. the salt crystals are the solute.g. A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solvent. If you mix sand and water for example.

Mix half a teaspoon of salt in 100cm3 of water 2. the solute will dissolve in the solvent. while in other cases it does not. ethanol Method: 1. An easy way to remember this is that ’like dissolves like’.g. There are also weak van der Waals forces between ether molecules.2 CHAPTER 6. while non-polar solutes dissolve well in non-polar solvents. polar and ionic solutes dissolve well in polar solvents. 102 . non-polar or ionic solute Solvent Ethanol Water Water Water Polar. vinegar. in other words. There are also strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules. there is a high possibility that dissolution will occur.g. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY . salt and water) There are strong electrostatic forces between the ions of a salt such as sodium chloride. The answer lies in understanding the interaction between the intramolecular and intermolecular forces between the solute and solvent particles. and the forces between the molecules are weak van der Waals forces. Because the intermolecular forces in both the solute and the solvent are similar. the solute dissolves in the solvent. Conclusions: In general.2 Forces and solutions An important question to ask is why some solutes dissolve in certain solvents and not in others.GRADE 11 6.6. Because the strength of the intermolecular forces in the solute and solvent are similar. The solute dissolves in the solvent. non-polar or ionic solvent Does solute dissolve? You should have noticed that in some cases. iodine and ether) Iodine molecules are non-polar. Apparatus: Salt. Mix a few grains of iodine in 100cm3 of water Results: Record your observations in the table below: Solute Iodine Iodine Vinegar Salt Polar. allowing the solute to move into the spaces between the molecules of the solvent. Mix a few grains of iodine in ethanol 4. • Non-polar solutes and non-polar solvents (e. This will be explained in more detail below. it is easy for these to be broken in the solute. • Polar solutes and polar solvents (e. Activity :: Experiment : Solubility Aim: To investigate the solubility of solutes in different solvents. iodine. if the solute and the solvent have similar intermolecular forces. Mix half a teaspoon of vinegar (acetic acid) in 100cm3 of water 3.

Continue to increase the temperature as many times as possible and record your results. the solute. Results: Record your results in the table below: Temp (0 C) Amount of solute that dissolves in 100 cm3 of water (g) 103 . that could otherwise be taken by the solute itself • the strength of the forces between particles of the solute. and the strength of forces between particles of the solvent Activity :: Experiment : Factors affecting solubility Aim: To determine the effect of temperature on solubility Method: 1. Slowly pour the salt into the beaker with the water. it means that lots of the solute is able to dissolve in the solvent. Measure 100cm3 of water into a beaker 2. So what factors affect solubility? Below are some of the factors that affect solubility: • the quantity of solute and solvent in the solution • the temperature of the solution • other compounds in the solvent affect solubility because they take up some of the spaces between molecules of the solvent. it will initially dissolve. but then appears not to be able to dissolve any further when you keep adding more solute to the solvent. You will need to start again with new salt and water! 7.3 Solubility You may have noticed sometimes that. Record the amount of salt that has been added to the water and the temperature of the solution.3 6. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY . Solubility refers to the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a solvent under certain conditions. This is called the solubility of the solution. 5. Repeat the steps above so that you obtain the solubility limit of salt at this higher temperature. 4. If a substance has a high solubility. stirring it as you add. if you try to dissolve salt (or some other solute) in a small amount of water. 6.CHAPTER 6. Now increase the temperature of the water by heating it over a bunsen burner. Keep adding salt until you notice that the salt is not dissolving anymore. to dissolve in a solvent.GRADE 11 6. Definition: Solubility Solubility is the ability of a given substance. Measure 100 g of salt and place into another beaker 3.

wish to separately investigate the solubility of potassium chloride at room temperature. Write an equation to show how each of the following salts ionises in water: (a) KNO3 (b) K2 SO4 4.0 13. using the apparatus that has been given to them: Method: 1. They follow the list of instructions shown below. Look at the data and then answer the questions that follow.7 9.5 16. draw line graphs to show how the solubility of the three salts changes with an increase in temperature. so does the amount of salt that will dissolve. Exercise: Experiments and solubility Two grade 10 learners. Determine the mass of an empty. The beakers are heated over a bunsen burner until the temperature of their solutions is 600 C.8 36.2 14.3 61.5 106.2 37.1 36. Describe what happens to salt solubility as temperature increases. The solubility of sodium chloride increases as the temperature increases.4 35. 5 g K2 SO4 is added to beaker 2 and 5 g NaCl is added to beaker 3.0 Solubility (g salt per 100 g H2 O) K2 SO4 NaCl 7. 3.3 CHAPTER 6.9 21.8 11. 2.8 18.0 36. Suggest a reason why this happens. Temp (0 C) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 KNO3 13. 104 . 5 g KNO3 is added to beaker 1. You are given three beakers. are you able to dissolve more or less salt? Conclusions: As the temperature of the solution increases.5 36. Exercise: Investigating the solubility of salts The data table below gives the solubility (measured in grams of salt per 100 g water) of a number of different salts at various temperatures.GRADE 11 As you increase the temperature of the water.2 31.3 1. Pour 50 ml water into a 250 ml beaker. On the same set of axes. Siphiwe and Ann. each containing the same amount of water. dry evaporating basin using an electronic balance and record the mass.6. 2.6 45. (a) Which salt solution will have the highest conductivity under these conditions? (b) Explain your answer. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY .4 83.3 35.

3 g. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY . 23. potassium chloride mass is 20. (c) Choose an appropriate scale and plot a graph of these results. Repeat the addition of potassium chloride (steps a and b) until no more salt dissolves and some salt remains undissolved. (b) Identify the dependent and independent variables in their investigation. Carefully heat the filtrate in the evaporating basin until the salt is dry.GRADE 11 3. 9. 11. (c) Give a reason why you think each obtained results different from each other and the value in the reference book. 12. Filter the solution into the evaporating basin. They investigate the solubility of potassium chloride at different temperatures but also the solubility of copper (II) sulphate at these same temperatures.4 g and 55.0 g per 100 ml of water at 250 C. Stir the solution until the salt dissolves.0 g respectively.5 g. 2. Record the temperature of the potassium chloride solution. determine: i. 15. We found the following masses of substance dissolved in the 50 ml of water. (a) From the record of data provided above. At 00 C.CHAPTER 6. draw up a neat table to record Siphiwe and Ann’s results.6 g and 17. 4. 5. using the data recorded by (a) Siphiwe (b) Ann A reference book lists the solubility of potassium chloride as 35. the temperature at which the solubility of copper sulphate is 50 g per 50 ml of water. 8. They collect and write up their results as follows: In each experiment we used 50 ml of water in the beaker. 2006) 105 .75 6. the maximum number of grams of potassium chloride which will dissolve in 100 ml of water at 700 C. 6. ii.1 g and 40.2 g and copper sulphate is 28.32 Mass of evaporating basin + salt (g) 81. (d) From the graph. Calculate the solubility of potassium chloride. the masses were 26. At 200 C.7 g respectively. Determine the mass of the evaporating basin containing the solution that has passed through the filter (the filtrate) on the electronic balance and record the mass.3 1. Siphiwe and Ann now expand their investigation and work together. At 400 C.0 g and copper sulphate is 14.4 g respectively. at 600 C. On completion of the experiment. Determine the mass of the evaporating basin containing the dry cool salt on the electronic balance and record the mass.32 Ann’s results 26 67. At 100 C.0 g and lastly at 800 C.32 Mass of evaporating basin + salt solution (g) 125.3 g and 20. their results were as follows: Siphiwe’s results Temperature (0 C) 15 Mass of evaporating basin (g) 65. (IEB Exemplar Paper 2.55 85. Ignite the Bunsen burner. 7. Place the evaporating basin in the desiccator (a large glass container in which there is a dehydrating agent like calcium sulphate that absorbs water) until it reaches room temperature. Add potassium chloride crystals to the water in the beaker in small portions. 17. 10. mass of potassium chloride is 14.55 137.

metal alloys. liquid or gas.6. choose the one correct answer from the list provided. • A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solute. • Examples of solutions include salt solutions. A Which one of the following will readily dissolve in water? i. • Solubility is the extent to which a solute is able to dissolve in a solvent under certain conditions. • Factors that affect solubility are the quantity of solute and solvent. Briefly explain in terms of intermolecular forces why solid iodine does not dissolve in pure water. A solvent can also be a solid. SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY . • Not all solutes will dissolve in all solvents. For each of the following questions. the air we breathe and gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in water. 2005) b In which of the following pairs of substances will the dissolving process happen most readily? Solute Solvent A S8 H2 O B KCl CCl4 C KNO3 H2 O D NH4 Cl CCl4 (IEB Paper 2. the intermolecular forces in the solute and solvent and other substances that may be in the solvent.GRADE 11 6. temperature. liquid or gas. A general rule is the like dissolves like. CCl4 (l) iv. 2002) 106 . (IEB Paper 2. Which one of the following three substances is the most soluble in pure water at room temperature? Hydrogen sulphide. A solute can be a solid. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. while non-polar solutes will be more likely to dissolve in polar solvents. a solution is a homogenous mixture of a solute in a solvent. Solutes and solvents that have similar intermolecular forces are more likely to dissolve. NaI(s) iii. ammonia and hydrogen fluoride 4. (c) Forces between the molecules in a substance.4 CHAPTER 6. • A solvent is a substance in which a solute dissolves. BaSO4 (s) (IEB Paper 2. 2004) 3. I2 (s) ii. yet it dissolves in xylene. an organic liquid at room temperature.4 Summary • In chemistry. • Polar and ionic solutes will be more likely to dissolve in polar solvents. 2. (b) A measure of how much solute is dissolved in a solution. Give one word or term for each of the following descriptions: (a) A type of mixture where the solute has completely dissolved in the solvent.

The strong nuclear force acts to hold all the protons and neutrons close together. these forces are trying to produce opposite effects in the nucleus. This force is most powerful when the nucleus is small. the strong nuclear force overpowers the electromagnetic force. The electromagnetic force causes the repulsion between like-charged (positive) protons.Chapter 7 Atomic Nuclei . while the electrons are found in energy orbitals around the nucleus. some scientists focus their attention on looking at the particles inside the nucleus and understanding how they interact. He happened to place some uranium crystals on black paper that he had used to cover a piece of film. The strong nuclear force is the force between two or more nucleons. because an electron has a very small mass when compared with a proton or a neutron. 7. and that this did not happen when other elements were placed on the paper.Grade 11 Nuclear physics is the branch of physics which deals with the nucleus of the atom. he noticed that the film had lots of patches on it. This detailed knowledge of the nucleus makes it possible for technological advances to be made. In atoms where the nuclei are small. When he looked more carefully. The particles and energy that a nucleus releases are referred to as radiation. while others classify and interpret the properties of nuclei. It is the nucleus that makes up most of an atom’s atomic mass. Marie and Pierre were 107 . and the nucleons are close together. In 1903. In these nuclei. We are going to look at these concepts in more detail in the next few sections. However. He eventually concluded that some rays must be coming out of the uranium crystals to produce this effect. while the electromagnetic force acts to push protons further apart. Within the nucleus. we are going to touch on each of these different areas within the field of nuclear physics. as the nucleus gets bigger (in elements with a higher number of nucleons). 7. and the atom is said to be radioactive.2 The Discovery of Radiation Radioactivity was first discovered in 1896 by a French scientist called Henri Becquerel while he was working on phosphorescent materials. These nuclei are called unstable. In this next chapter. Within this field. In a way then. The nucleus is the part of the atom that contains the protons and the neutrons. and this force binds protons and neutrons together inside the nucleus. who increased our knowledge of radioactive elements. The protons and neutrons together are called nucleons.1 Nuclear structure and stability You will remember from an earlier chapter that an atom is made up of different types of particles: protons (positive charge) neutrons (neutral) and electrons (negative charge). it becomes possible for particles and energy to be ejected from the nucleus. there are different forces which act between the particles. His observations were taken further by the Polish scientist Marie Curie and her husband Pierre. the electromagnetic force becomes greater than the strong nuclear force. Henri.

which they named polonium (Po) after Marie’s home country.7. Unfortunately it was only later in her life that the full dangers of radiation were realised.GRADE 11 awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on radioactive elements. This award made Marie the first woman ever to receive a Nobel Prize. 7. Definition: Radioactive decay Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting particles or electromagnetic waves. Marie Curie and her husband went on to discover two new elements. and she was known to carry test tubes full of radioactive isotopes in her pockets and to store them in her desk drawers.3 CHAPTER 7. and are described below. which was almost certainly partly Interesting Fact Fact due to her massive exposure to radiation during her lifetime. This is called radioactive decay. making her one of very few people to receive two Nobel Prizes. alpha (α) beta (β) gamma (γ) paper aluminium lead Figure 7. Marie was awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911. Radiation is the name for the emitted particles or electromagnetic waves. Even the rocks around us emit radiation! However some elements are far more radioactive than others. it emits radiation and the nucleus is called radioactive. and radium (Ra) after its highly radioactive characteristics.1: Types of radiation 108 . These are shown in figure 7. but her hands had become badly deformed due to their constant exposure to radiation. For these dicoveries. teresting Marie Curie died in 1934 from aplastic anemia. ATOMIC NUCLEI .1.3 Radioactivity and Types of Radiation In section 7. Isotopes tend to be less stable because they contain a larger number of nucleons than ’non-isotopes’ of the same element. Radiation can be emitted in different forms. There are three main types of radiation: alpha. These radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes. When a nucleus undergoes radioactive decay. We are exposed to small amounts of radiation all the time. not only was she very ill. Most of her work was carried out in a shed without safety measures. By the end of her life. beta and gamma radiation.1. we discussed that when a nucleus is unstable it can emit particles and energy.

hence the overall charge of +2. The atom now has only 93 protons (Z = 93). the number of neutrons in the atom decreases by one. because it has the same structure as a Helium atom (two neutrons and two protons) which is missing its two electrons.2: β decay in a hydrogen atom During beta decay. Because alpha particles have a low penetration power. 109 Helium-3 An electron and a neutrino are released .e. Therefore. This can be seen in the decay of Americium (Am) to Neptunium (Np). The atomic mass of the neptunium atom is 237 (A = 237) because 4 nucleons (2 protons and 2 neutrons) were emitted from the atom of Americium.CHAPTER 7.3. the Americium atom has become a Neptunium atom. Since the number of protons before and after the decay is different. Penetration power describes how easily the particles can pass through another material. Beta particles have a higher penetration power than alpha particles and are able to pass through thicker materials such as paper. An alpha particle is sometimes represented using the chemical symbol He2+ . This type of radiation has a positive charge. the nucleus emits an α particle. Alpha particles have very low penetration power. Example: 241 95 Am →237 Np + αparticle 93 Let’s take a closer look at what has happened during this reaction.1 Alpha (α) particles and alpha decay An alpha particle is made up of two protons and two neutrons bound together.GRADE 11 7. To try to reduce this repulsion. The diagram below shows what happens during β decay: One of the neutrons from H-3 is converted to a proton Atomic nucleus electron (β particle) neutrino (¯) ν Hydrogen-3 = one proton = one neutron Figure 7.3 7. it means that even something as thin as a piece of paper or the outside layer of the human skin. On the periodic table. ATOMIC NUCLEI .2 Beta (β) particles and beta decay In certain types of radioactive nuclei that have too many neutrons. 7. a neutron may be converted into a proton. 2 protons and 2 neutrons). and the number of protons increases by one. will absorb these particles so that they can’t go any further.3. Alpha decay occurs because the nucleus has too many protons. an electron and another particle (called a neutrino). and this causes a lot of repulsion between these like charges. the element which has 93 protons (Z = 93) is called Neptunium. Americium (Z = 95. A = 241) undergoes α decay and releases one alpha particle (i. The high energy electrons that are released in this way are called beta particles.

and interact only very weakly. The atomic number and atomic mass remain unchanged. Since gamma rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma radiation has no mass or charge. have little or no mass. This energy can leave the nucleus in the form of waves of electromagnetic energy called gamma rays. also had to be involved in the decay. In figure 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI .1 summarises and compares the three types of radioactive decay that have been discussed. 241 95 Pb undergoes radioactive decay and loses two alpha 110 . Table 7.3 CHAPTER 7. Table 7. Therefore in gamma decay. protons and electrons Interesting Fact Fact involved in β-decays.GRADE 11 the atom has changed into a different element.7. However. Gamma decay occurs if the nucleus is at too high an energy level. We know that energy is always conserved. This type of radiation is able to penetrate most common substances. making it very hard to find experimentally! The neutrino was finally identified experimentally about 25 years after Pauli first thought of it. which led Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to come up with the idea that another particle. they noticed that there was always some energy missing. The only substances that can absorb this radiation are thick lead and concrete.3 Gamma (γ) rays and gamma decay When particles inside the nucleus collide during radioactive decay.2. they can be thought of as waves or particles. because he knew it had to be neutral. Gamma radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. we can think of a ray or a particle (called a photon) being released. beta and gamma decay Type of decay Particle/ray released Change in element Alpha (α) α particle (2 protons and 2 neutrons) Yes Beta (β) β particle (electron) Yes Gamma (γ) γ ray (electromagnetic energy) No Penetration power Low Medium High Worked Example 23: Radioactive decay Question: The isotope particles. Hydrogen has become Helium. energy is released. each 1 cm2 patch of the earth receives 70 billion (70×109) neutrinos each second! Luckily neutrinos only interact very weakly so they do not harm our bodies when billions of them pass through us every second. including metals.3. which was not detected yet. The beta decay of the Hydrogen-3 atom can be represented as follows: 3 1H →3 He + βparticle + ν ¯ 2 teresting When scientists added up all the energy from the neutrons. just like visible light. 7. humans cannot see gamma rays because they are at a higher frequency and a higher energy. He called this particle the neutrino (Italian for ”little neutral one”). Due to the radioactive processes inside the sun. unlike visible light.1: A comparison of alpha.

ATOMIC NUCLEI . 2. Step 4 : Write the symbol for the element that has formed as a result of radioactive decay. The element that has Z = 91 is Protactinium (Pa).CHAPTER 7. Answer Step 1 : Work out the number of protons and/or neutrons that the radioisotope loses during radioactive decay One α particle consists of two protons and two neutrons. discuss the following questions: • Which of the three types of radiation is most dangerous to living creatures (including humans!) 111 . 237 91 Pa Step 5 : Write an equation for the decay process. Step 2 : Calculate the atomic number (Z) and atomic mass number (A) of the element that is formed.3: γ decay in a helium atom 1. Since two α particles are released. 241 95 P b →237 P a + 2 protons + 2 neutrons 91 Activity :: Discussion : Radiation In groups of 3-4. Write the chemical formula of the element that is produced as a result of the decay. Write an equation for this decay process. the total number of protons lost is four and the total number of neutrons lost is also four. Z = 95 − 4 = 91 A = 241 − 4 = 237 Step 3 : Refer to the periodic table to see which element has the atomic number that you have calculated.3 photon (γ particle) Helium-3 Helium-3 Figure 7.GRADE 11 7.

7.4

CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11 • What can happen to people if they are exposed to high levels of radiation? • What can be done to protect yourself from radiation (Hint: Think of what the radiologist does when you go for an X-ray)?

Exercise: Radiation and radioactive elements 1. There are two main forces inside an atomic nucleus: (a) Name these two forces. (b) Explain why atoms that contain a greater number of nucleons are more likely to be radioactive. 2. The isotope 241 Pb undergoes radioactive decay and loses three alpha particles. 95 (a) Write the chemical formula of the element that is produced as a result of the decay. (b) How many nucleons does this element contain? 3. Complete the following equation:
210 82 Am

4. Radium-228 decays by emitting a beta particle. Write an equation for this decay process. 5. Describe how gamma decay differs from alpha and beta decay.

→ (alpha decay)

7.4

Sources of radiation

The sources of radiation can be either natural or man-made.

7.4.1

Natural background radiation

• Cosmic radiation

The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from space. Charged particles from the sun and stars interact with the Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field to produce a shower of radiation, mostly beta and gamma radiation. The amount of cosmic radiation varies in different parts of the world because of differences in elevation and also the effects of the Earth’s magnetic field. Radioactive material is found throughout nature. It occurs naturally in the soil, water, and vegetation. The major isotopes that are of concern are uranium and the decay products of uranium, such as thorium, radium, and radon. Low levels of uranium, thorium, and their decay products are found everywhere. Some of these materials are ingested (taken in) with food and water, while others are breathed in. The dose of radiation from terrestrial sources varies in different parts of the world.

• Terrestrial Radiation

teresting Cosmic and terrestrial radiation are not the only natural sources. All people Interesting Fact Fact have radioactive potassium-40, carbon-14, lead-210 and other isotopes inside their bodies from birth.

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7.5

7.4.2

Man-made sources of radiation

Although all living things are exposed to natural background radiation, there are other sources of radiation. Some of these will affect most members of the public, while others will only affect those people who are exposed to radiation through their work. • Members of the Public

Man-made radiation sources that affect members of the public include televisions, tobacco (polonium-210), combustible fuels, smoke detectors (americium), luminous watches (tritium) and building materials. By far, the most significant source of man-made radiation exposure to the public is from medical procedures, such as diagnostic x-rays, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. Some of the major isotopes involved are I-131, Tc-99m, Co-60, Ir-192, and Cs-137. The production of nuclear fuel using uranium is also a source of radiation for the public, as is fallout from nuclear weapons testing or use.

• Individuals who are exposed through their work

Any people who work in the following environments are exposed to radiation at some time: radiology (X-ray) departments, nuclear power plants, nuclear medicine departments and radiation oncology (the study of cancer) departments. Some of the isotopes that are of concern are cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, and others.

teresting Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) uses ionising radiation as part of cancer Interesting Fact Fact treatment to control malignant cells. In cancer, a malignant cell is one that divides very rapidly to produce many more cells. These groups of dividing cells can form a growth or tumour. The malignant cells in the tumour can take nutrition away from other healthy body cells, causing them to die, or can increase the pressure in parts of the body because of the space that they take up. Radiation therapy uses radiation to try to target these malignant cells and kill them. However, the radiation can also damage other, healthy cells in the body. To stop this from happening, shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles to intersect at the tumour, so that the radiation dose here is much higher than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. But even doing this doesn’t protect all the healthy cells, and that is why people have side-effects to this treatment.
Note that radiation therapy is different from chemotherapy, which uses chemicals, rather than radiation, to destroy malignant cells. Generally, the side effects of chemotherapy are greater because the treatment is not as localised as it is with radiation therapy. The chemicals travel throughout the body, affecting many healthy cells.

7.5

The ’half-life’ of an element

Definition: Half-life The half-life of an element is the time it takes for half the atoms of a radioisotope to decay into other atoms. Table 7.2 gives some examples of the half-lives of different elements. 113

7.5

CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11 Table 7.2: Table showing the half-life of Radioisotope Chemical symbol Polonium-212 Po-212 Sodium-24 Na-24 Strontium-90 Sr-90 Cobalt-60 Co-60 Caesium-137 Cs-137 Carbon-14 C-14 Calcium Ca Beryllium Be Uranium-235 U-235 a number of elements Half-life 0.16 seconds 15 hours 28 days 5.3 years 30 years 5 760 years 100 000 years 2 700 000 years 7.1 billion years

So, in the case of Sr-90, it will take 28 days for half of the atoms to decay into other atoms. It will take another 28 days for half of the remaining atoms to decay. Let’s assume that we have a sample of strontium that weighs 8g. After the first 28 days there will be: 1/2 x 8 = 4 g Sr-90 left After 56 days, there will be: 1/2 x 4 g = 2 g Sr-90 left After 84 days, there will be: 1/2 x 2 g = 1 g Sr-90 left If we convert these amounts to a fraction of the original sample, then after 28 days 1/2 of the sample remains undecayed. After 56 days 1/4 is undecayed and after 84 days, 1/8 and so on.

Activity :: Group work : Understanding half-life Work in groups of 4-5 You will need: 16 sheets of A4 paper per group, scissors, 2 boxes per group, a marking pen and timer/stopwatch. What to do: • Your group should have two boxes. Label one ’decayed’ and the other ’radioactive’. • Take the A4 pages and cut each into 4 pieces of the same size. You should now have 64 pieces of paper. Stack these neatly and place them in the ’radioactive’ box. The paper is going to represent some radioactive material. • Set the timer for one minute. After one minute, remove half the sheets of paper from the radioactive box and put them in the ’decayed’ box. • Set the timer for another minute and repeat the previous step, again removing half the pieces of paper that are left in the radioactive box and putting them in the decayed box. • Repeat this process until 8 minutes have passed. You may need to start cutting your pieces of paper into even smaller pieces as you progress. Questions: 1. How many pages were left in the radioactive box after... (a) 1 minute (b) 3 minutes 114

CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11 (c) 5 minutes 2. What percentage (%) of the pages were left in the radioactive box after... (a) 2 minutes (b) 4 minutes 3. After how many minutes is there 1/128 of radioactive material remaining? 4. What is the half-life of the ’radioactive’ material in this exercise?

7.5

Worked Example 24: Half-life 1

Question: A 100 g sample of Cs-137 is allowed to decay. Calculate the mass of Cs-137 that will be left after 90 years Answer Step 1 : You need to know the half-life of Cs-137 The half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years. Step 2 : Determine how many times the quantity of sample will be halved in 90 years. If the half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years, and the sample is left to decay for 90 years, then the number of times the quantity of sample will be halved is 90/30 = 3. Step 3 : Calculate the quantity that will be left by halving the mass of Cs-137 three times 1. After 30 years, the mass left is 100 g × 1/2 = 50 g 2. After 60 years, the mass left is 50 g × 1/2 = 25 g 3. After 90 years, the mass left is 25 g × 1/2 = 12.5 g Note that a quicker way to do this calculation is as follows: Mass left after 90 years = (1/2)3 × 100 g = 12.5 g (The exponent is the number of times the quantity is halved)

Worked Example 25: Half-life 2

Question: An 80 g sample of Po-212 decays until only 10 g is left. How long did it take for this decay to take place? Answer Step 1 : Calculate the fraction of the original sample that is left after decay Fraction remaining = 10 g/80 g = 1/8 Step 2 : Calculate how many half-life periods of decay (x) must have taken place for 1/8 of the original sample to be left 1 1 ( )x = 2 8 115

7.6 Therefore, x = 3

CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11

Step 3 : Use the half-life of Po-212 to calculate how long the sample was left to decay The half-life of Po-212 is 0.16 seconds. Therefore if there were three periods of decay, then the total time is 0.16 × 3. The time that the sample was left to decay is 0.48 seconds.

Exercise: Looking at half life 1. Imagine that you have 100 g of Na-24. (a) What is the half life of Na-24? (b) How much of this isotope will be left after 45 hours? (c) What percentage of the original sample will be left after 60 hours? 2. A sample of Sr-90 is allowed to decay. After 84 days, 10 g of the sample remains. (a) What is the half life of Sr-90? (b) How much Sr-90 was in the original sample? (c) How much Sr-90 will be left after 112 days?

7.6

The Dangers of Radiation

Natural radiation comes from a variety of sources such as the rocks, sun and from space. However, when we are exposed to large amounts of radiation, this can cause damage to cells. γ radiation is particularly dangerous because it is able to penetrate the body, unlike α and β particles whose penetration power is less. Some of the dangers of radiation are listed below: • Damage to cells Radiation is able to penetrate the body, and also to penetrate the membranes of the cells within our bodies, causing massive damage. Radiation poisoning occurs when a person is exposed to large amounts of this type of radiation. Radiation poisoning damages tissues within the body, causing symptoms such as diarrhoea, vomiting, loss of hair and convulsions. • Genetic abnormalities When radiation penetrates cell membranes, it can damage chromosomes within the nucleus of the cell. The chromosomes contain all the genetic information for that person. If the chromosomes are changed, this may lead to genetic abnormalities in any children that are born to the person who has been exposed to radiation. Long after the nuclear disaster of Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, babies were born with defects such as missing limbs and abnormal growths. • Cancer Small amounts of radiation can cause cancers such as leukemia (cancer of the blood) 116

CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11

7.7

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The Uses of Radiation

However, despite the many dangers of radiation, it does have many powerful uses, some of which are listed below: • Medical Field

Radioactive chemical tracers emitting γ rays can give information about a person’s internal anatomy and the functioning of specific organs. The radioactive material may be injected into the patient, from where it will target specific areas such as bones or tumours. As the material decays and releases radiation, this can be seen using a special type of camera or other instrument. The radioactive material that is used for this purpose must have a short half-life so that the radiation can be detected quickly and also so that the material is quickly removed from the patient’s body. Using radioactive materials for this purpose can mean that a tumour or cancer may be diagnosed long before these would have been detected using other methods such as X-rays. Radiation may also be used to sterilise medical equipment.

Activity :: Research Project : The medical uses of radioisotopes Carry out your own research to find out more about the radioisotopes that are used to diagnose diseases in the following parts of the body: – thyroid gland – kidneys – brain In each case, try to find out... 1. which radioisotope is used 2. what the sources of this radioisotope are 3. how the radioisotope enters the patient’s body and how it is monitored

• Biochemistry and Genetics

Radioisotopes may be used as tracers to label molecules so that chemical processes such as DNA replication or amino acid transport can be traced. Irradiation of food can stop vegetables or plants from sprouting after they have been harvested. It also kills bacteria and parasites, and controls the ripening of fruits. Radioisotopes can be used to trace and analyse pollutants. Natural radioisotopes such as C-14 can be used to determine the age of organic remains. All living organisms (e.g. trees, humans) contain carbon. Carbon is taken in by plants and trees through the process of photosynthesis in the form of carbon dioxide and is then converted into organic molecules. When animals feed on plants, they also obtain carbon through these organic compounds. Some of the carbon in carbon dioxide is the radioactive C-14, while the rest is a non-radioactive form of carbon. When an organism dies, no more carbon is taken in and there is a limited amount of C-14 in the body. From this point onwards, C-14 begins its radioactive decay. When scientists uncover remains, they are able to estimate the age of the remains by seeing how much C-14 is left in the body relative to the amount of non-radioactive carbon. The less C-14 there is, the older the remains because radioactive decay must have been taking place for a long time. Because scientists know the exact rate of decay of C-14, they can calculate a very accurate estimate of the age of the remains. Carbon dating has been a very important tool in building up accurate historical records. 117

• Food preservation

• Environment

• Archaeology and Carbon dating

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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11

Activity :: Case Study : Using radiocarbon dating Radiocarbon dating has played an important role in uncovering many aspects of South Africa’s history. Read the following extract from an article that appeared in Afrol news on 10th February 2007 and then answer the questions that follow. The world famous rock art in South Africa’s uKhahlamba-Drakensberg, a World Heritage Site, is three times older than previously thought, archaeologists conclude in a new study. The more than 40,000 paintings were made by the San people some 3000 years ago, a new analysis had shown. Previous work on the age of the rock art in uKhahlamba-Drakensberg concluded it is less than 1,000 years old. But the new study - headed by a South African archaeologist leading a team from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK) and Australian National University in Canberra - estimates the panels were created up to 3,000 years ago. They used the latest radio-carbon dating technology. The findings, published in the current edition of the academic journal ’South African Humanities’, have ”major implications for our understanding of how the rock artists lived and the social changes that were taking place over the last three millennia,” according to a press release from the British university. Questions: 1. What is the half-life of carbon-14? 2. In the news article, what role did radiocarbon dating play in increasing our knowledge of South Africa’s history? 3. Radiocarbon dating can also be used to analyse the remains of once-living organisms. Imagine that a set of bones are found between layers of sediment and rock in a remote area. A group of archaeologists carries out a series of tests to try to estimate the age of the bones. They calculate that the bones are approximately 23 040 years old. What percentage of the original carbon-14 must have been left in the bones for them to arrive at this estimate?

7.8

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission is a process where the nucleus of an atom is split into two or more smaller nuclei, known as fission products. The fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction and huge amounts of energy are released in the process. This energy can be used to produce nuclear power or to make nuclear weapons, both of which we will discuss a little later.

Definition: Nuclear fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus

Below is a diagram showing the nuclear fission of Uranium-235. An atom of Uranium-235 is bombarded with a neutron to initiate the fission process. This neutron is absorbed by Uranium235, to become Uranium-236. Uranium-236 is highly unstable and breaks down into a number of lighter elements, releasing energy in the process. Free neutrons are also produced during this process, and these are then available to bombard other fissionable elements. This process is known as a fission chain reaction, and occurs when one nuclear reaction starts off another, which then also starts off another one so that there is a rapid increase in the number of nuclear reactions that are taking place. 118

CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11

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Massive release of energy during nuclear fission

Neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of the U-235 atom to form U-236 The elements and number of neutrons produced in the process, is random.

U-235 neutron

U-236

U-236 splits into lighter elements called fission products and free neutrons

7.8.1

The Atomic bomb - an abuse of nuclear fission

A nuclear chain reaction can happen very quickly, releasing vast amounts of energy in the process. In 1939, it was discovered that Uranium could undergo nuclear fission. In fact, it was uranium that was used in the first atomic bomb. The bomb contained huge amounts of Uranium-235, enough to start a runaway nuclear fission chain reaction. Because the process was uncontrolled, the energy from the fission reactions was released in a matter of seconds, resulting in the massive explosion of that first bomb. Since then, more atomic bombs have been dropped, causing massive destruction and loss of life.

Activity :: Discussion : Nuclear weapons testing - an ongoing issue Read the article below which has been adapted from one that appeared in ’The Globe’ in Washington on 10th October 2006, and then answer the questions that follow. US officials and arms control specialists warned yesterday that North Korea’s test of a small nuclear device could start an arms race in the region and threaten the landmark global treaty designed nearly four decades ago to halt the spread of nuclear weapons. US officials expressed concern that North Korea’s neighbors, including Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea, could eventually decide to develop weapons of their own. They also fear that North Korea’s moves could embolden Iran, and that this in turn could encourage Saudi Arabia or other neighbours in the volatile Middle East to one day seek nuclear deterrents, analysts say. North Korea is the first country to conduct a nuclear test after pulling out of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The treaty, which was created in 1968, now includes 185 nations (nearly every country in the world). Under the treaty, the five declared nuclear powers at the time (United States, the Soviet Union, France, China, and Great Britain) agreed to reduce their supplies of nuclear weapons. The treaty has also helped to limit the number of new nuclear weapons nations. But there have also been serious setbacks. India and Pakistan, which never signed the treaty, became new nuclear powers, shocking the world with test explosions in 1998. The current issue of nuclear weapons testing in North Korea, is another such setback and a blow to the treaty. Group discussion questions: 1. Discuss what is meant by an ’arms race’ and a ’treaty’. 119

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CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC NUCLEI - GRADE 11 2. Do you think it is important to have such treaties in place to control the testing and use of nuclear weapons? Explain your answer. 3. Discuss some of the reasons why countries might not agree to be part of a nuclear weapons treaty. 4. How would you feel if South Africa decided to develop its own nuclear weapons?

7.8.2

Nuclear power - harnessing energy

However, nuclear fission can also be carried out in a controlled way in a nuclear reactor. A nuclear reactor is a piece of equpiment where nuclear chain reactions can be started in a controlled and sustained way. This is different from a nuclear explosion where the chain reaction occurs in seconds. The most important use of nuclear reactors at the moment is to produce electrical power, and most of these nuclear reactors use nuclear fission. A nuclear fuel is a chemical isotope that can keep a fission chain reaction going. The most common isotopes that are used are Uranium-235 and Plutonium-239. The amount of free energy that is in nuclear fuels is far greater than the energy in a similar amount of other fuels such as gasoline. In many countries, nuclear power is seen as a relatively environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels, which release large amounts of greenhouse gases, and are also non-renewable resources. However, one of the concerns around the use of nuclear power, is the production of nuclear waste which contains radioactive chemical elements.

Activity :: Debate : Nuclear Power The use of nuclear power as a source of energy has been a subject of much debate. There are many advantages of nuclear power over other energy sources. These include the large amount of energy that can be produced at a small plant, little atmospheric pollution and the small quantity of waste. However there are also disadvantages. These include the expense of maintaining nuclear power stations, the huge impact that an accident could have as well as the disposal of dangerous nuclear waste. Use these ideas as a starting point for a class debate. Nuclear power - An energy alternative or environmental hazard? Your teacher will divide the class into teams. Some of the teams will be ’pro’ nuclear power while the others will be ’anti’ nuclear power.

7.9

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear fusion is the joining together of the nuclei of two atoms to form a heavier nucleus. If the atoms involved are small, this process is accompanied by the release of energy. It is the nuclear fusion of elements that causes stars to shine and hydrogen bombs to explode. As with nuclear fission then, there are both positive and negative uses of nuclear fusion.

Definition: Nuclear fusion The joining together of the nuclei of two atoms. 120

This happened between 10 and 14 billion years ago. So. the quarks started binding together to form protons and neutrons (together called nucleons). in order to bring two nuclei together.CHAPTER 7. the Helium-4 nucleus (also called an alpha particle) can be formed in the following ways: H + n → 3H deuteron + neutron → triton then: 2 3 triton + proton → Helium4 (alpha particle) or 121 H+p → 4 He . more nuclei can be formed as shown below. If two nuclei can be brought close enough together however. According to this theory. Inside the cores of stars. the protons and neutrons started binding together to form simple nuclei. If this happens. As the universe expanded. Astronomers can measure the light coming from distant galaxies using telescopes. the universe started off at the beginning of time as a point which then exploded and expanded into the universe we live in today. ATOMIC NUCLEI .10.10 Nucleosynthesis An astronomer named Edwin Hubble discovered in the 1920’s that the universe is expanding. It also led to the Big Bang hypothesis. the faster they are moving. The helium that is produced is not radioactive or poisonous and does not carry the dangers of nuclear fission. One of the huge advantages of nuclear fusion. the electrostatic force is overwhelmed by the more powerful strong nuclear force which only operates over short distances. the temperature is high enough for hydrogen fusion to take place but scientists have so far been unsuccessful in making it work in the laboratory. Using protons and neutrons as building blocks. Extension: What are galaxies? Galaxies are huge clusters of stars and matter in the universe. they form the deuteron. These observations led people to see that the universe is expanding.10 You will remember that nuclei naturally repel one another because of the electrostatic force between their positively charged protons.103 s) About 225 s after the Big Bang. and the further away they are. it was very hot and was made up of quarks and leptons (an example of a lepton is the electron). Just after the Big Bang. when the universe was only 10−43 s old. (∼ 10−2 s) and cooled. Edwin Hubble was also able to measure the velocities of galaxies. The earth is part of the Milky Way galaxy which is shaped like a very large spiral. 7. For example. The deuteron is like a hydrogen nucleus (which is just a proton) with a neutron added to it so it can be written as 2 H. nuclear fusion can take place.1 Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s . if it could be made to happen. The ’Big Bang’ hypothesis is an idea about how the universe may have started. a lot of energy must be supplied if fusion is to take place. He measured that far-away galaxies are moving away from the earth at great speed. The process of forming nuclei is called nucleosynthesis. is that it is a relatively environmentally friendly source of energy. When a proton and a neutron bind together. 7.GRADE 11 7.

To make heavier nuclei. the hydrogen and helium along with the electrons. greater than 4 He) are very short-lived and would have decayed almost immediately after being formed. the densities and temperatures are high enough for fusion reactions to occur. the universe moved through a stage called the Age of Ions when it consisted of free positively charged H+ ions and 4 He ions.11 CHAPTER 7. both the hydrogen and helium ions were positively charged which meant that they repelled each other (electrostatically).1015 s) As the universe expanded further. This is also how all the nuclei formed inside stars get ”recycled” in the universe to become part of new stars and planets.4 Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today) Inside the core of stars.3 Age of Atoms (1013 s . Earlier. The process has three steps and results in four hydrogen atoms being formed into a helium atom with (among other things) two photons (light!) being released. which evetually formed stars. Therefore. 7. the first stage of thermonuclear reactions inside stars involves hydrogen and is called hydrogen burning. These nuclei are most likely formed when huge amounts of energy are released. All these reactions release a large amount of energy and heat the star which causes heavier and heavier nuclei to fuse into nuclei with higher and higher atomic numbers. Since stars are mostly composed of hydrogen.2 Age of Ions (103 s . 7. and negatively charged electrons not yet bound into atoms. ATOMIC NUCLEI .10. Also.10.1013 s) However. The next stage is helium burning which results in the formation of carbon. He + n → 4 He 7. which is the most strongly bound nucleus. were in the form of atoms which are electrically neutral and so they no longer repelled each other and instead pulled together under gravity to form clouds of gas. during the Age of Ions.7.11 Summary • Nuclear physics is the branch of physics that deals with the nucleus of an atom.e. Most of the heavier nuclei that exist today were formed inside stars from thermonuclear reactions! (It’s interesting to think that the atoms that we are made of were actually manufactured inside stars!). it cooled down until the electrons were able to bind to the hydrogen and helium nuclei to form hydrogen and helium atoms.GRADE 11 2 deuteron + proton → Helium3 then: H+p → 3 He 3 Helium3 + neutron → Helium4 (alpha particle) Some 7 Li nuclei could also have been formed by the fusion of 4 He and 3 H. for example when stars explode (an exploding star is called a supernova). even higher energies are needed than is possible inside normal stars. 7.10. 122 . the nuclei with mass numbers greater than 4 (i. During the Age of Atoms. at this time the universe was still very hot and the electrons still had too much energy to become bound to the alpha particles to form helium atoms. The process stops with the formation of 56 Fe.

• During gamma decay. biochemistry and genetics. ATOMIC NUCLEI . This was very important in helping to form the universe as we know it. an electron and a neutrino. • Nuclear fusion is the joining together of the nuclei of two atoms to form a heavier nucleus. • Radioactivity was first discovered by Marie Curie and her husband Pierre.11 • There are two forces between the particles of the nucleus. • In atoms with large nuclei. an alpha particle is released. Some of natural and others are man-made. Explain each of the following terms: (a) electromagnetic force (b) radioactive decay (c) radiocarbon dating 123 . X-rays and radiation therapy. • Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes. • During beta decay. • There are many sources of radiation. • There are three types of radiation from radioactive decay: alpha (α). The strong nuclear force is an attractive force between the neutrons and the electromagnetic force is the repulsive force between like-charged protons. fusion reactions involve the joining of hydrogen atoms to form helium atoms. beta (β) and gamma (γ) radiation. • Nucleosynthesis is the process of forming nuclei. a neutron is converted to a proton. Some of the negative impacts of radiation exposure include damage to cells. Nuclear fission produces large amounts of energy. • During alpha decay. • Radiation can be very damaging. • However. Alpha radiation has low penetration power. Exercise: Summary exercise 1. In stars. • The half-life of an element is the time it takes for half the atoms of a radioisotope to decay into other atoms.g. use in food preservation. the electromagnetic force becomes greater than the strong nuclear force and particles or energy may be released from the nucleus. Gamma radiation has the highest penetration power of the three radiation types. Beta radiation has greater penetration power than alpha radiation. electromagnetic energy is released as gamma rays. radiation can also have many positive uses. the environment and in archaeology. a beta particle is released. These include use in the medical field (e. • Radioactive decay occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting particles or electromagnetic waves. • Man-made sources of radiation include televisions. genetic abnormalities and cancer. and to make nuclear weapons.GRADE 11 7. • Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller fission products. smoke detectors. An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons bound together. which can be used to produce nuclear power. • Natural sources of radiation include cosmic and terrestrial radiation. chemical tracers). • The particles and energy released are called radiation and the atom is said to be radioactive. During beta decay. A beta particle is the electron that is released.CHAPTER 7.

entire atom (b) The radio-isotope Po-212 undergoes alpha decay. neutrons ii.. Which of the following statements is true? i. The number of protons in the element remains unchanged. nucleus iii. electrons iv. iv. Calculate the percentage of the original sample that remains after 60 hours. (a) Outline some of the ways in which nuclear physics has been used in negative ways.. ATOMIC NUCLEI . Nuclear physics can be controversial. The number of protons in the element after decay is 82. 4. Others would argue that the benefits of nuclear physics far outweigh the negative things that have come from it. 3. ii. 20 g of sodium-24 undergoes radoactive decay. iii.7. 124 . For each of the following questions. (b) Outline some of the benefits that have come from nuclear physics. i.GRADE 11 2. choose the one correct answer: (a) The part of the atom that undergoes radioactive decay is the.11 CHAPTER 7. Many people argue that studying the nucleus has led to devastation and huge loss of life. The number of nucleons after decay is 212. The end product after decay is Po-208.

except at high pressures and low temperatures. atoms or molecules) • These particles are constantly moving because they have kinetic energy.g. we are going to try to understand more about gases. This will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. The atoms or molecules in an ideal gas would also undergo elastic collisions with the walls of their container. The space in which the particles move is the volume of the gas. This theory is very important in understanding how gases behave. colliding with each other or with the sides of the container if the gas is enclosed.Grade 11 We are surrounded by gases in our atmosphere which support and protect life on this planet. 125 . including gases. with no intermolecular forces between them. In other words. The kinetic theory of matter was discussed in chapter 2. an ideal gas would have identical particles of zero volume. If the gas is heated. The kinetic theory applies to all matter. so does their energy. and learn how to predict how they will behave under different conditions. • There are spaces between the particles • There are attractive forces between particles and these become stronger as the particles move closer together.Chapter 8 Thermal Properties and Ideal Gases . • All particles have energy. the particles are far apart and have a high kinetic energy. In a gas. The pressure of a gas is a measure of the frequency of collisions of the gas particles with each other and with the sides of the container that they are in. The temperature of a substance is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles. If the energy of the particles decreases significantly. • A change in phase may occur when the energy of the particles is changed. 8. the gas liquifies. They move around freely. the average kinetic energy of the gas particles will increase and if the temperature is decreased. In this chapter. A real gas behaves like an ideal gas. Definition: Ideal gas An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic theory of matter. An ideal gas is one that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic theory of matter.1 A review of the kinetic theory of matter The main assumptions of the kinetic theory of matter are as follows: • Matter is made up of particles (e.

and with the other pull the plunger out towards you so that the syringe is now full of air. If the volume of the gas increases. did you have to apply more or less pressure to the plunger as the volume of air in the syringe decreased? As the volume of air in the syringe decreases. mℓ 10 5 Method: 1. Conclusion: If the volume of the gas decreases. you will have seen Boyle’s Law in action! This will now be demonstrated using a 10 ml syringe.8. Apparatus: You will only need a syringe for this demonstration.2 CHAPTER 8. 126 . Aim: To demonstrate Boyle’s law. 8.1. 2. the volume of the gas decreased when the pressure increased. It will be easy to make sense of these laws if you understand the kinetic theory of gases that was discussed above. Seal the opening of the syringe with your finger so that no air can escape the syringe. These results support Boyle’s law. Slowly push the plunger in. the pressure decreases. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . This is called an inverse relationship.GRADE 11 Definition: Real gas Real gases behave more or less like ideal gases except under certain conditions e. There are a number of laws that describe how gases behave. 3. and notice whether it becomes more or less difficult to push the plunger in. In the previous demonstration. The pressure of the gas inside the syringe pushing back on the plunger is greater.g. the pressure of that gas increases. the pressure of the gas increases. high pressures and low temperatures. Results: What did you notice when you pushed the plunger in? What happens to the volume of air inside the syringe? Did it become more or less difficult to push the plunger in as the volume of the air in the syringe decreased? In other words. Hold the syringe in one hand. The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is shown in figure 8. Another way of saying this is that as the volume of the gas in the syringe decreases. and the volume increased when the pressure decreased. you have to apply more pressure to the plunger to keep forcing it down.2 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas Activity :: Demonstration : Boyle’s Law If you have ever tried to force in the plunger of a syringe or a bicycle pump while sealing the opening with a finger.

The opposite is true if the volume of the gas is increased. This can be seen when a graph of pressure against the inverse of volume is plotted.GRADE 11 8. Definition: Boyle’s Law The pressure of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to the volume it occupies so long as the temperature remains constant. This shows that pressure and volume are exactly inversely proportional. You may remember from earlier that we said that pressure is a measure of the frequency of collisions of gas particles with each other and with the sides of the container they are in.2.2: The graph of pressure plotted against the inverse of volume. So. Pressure 1/Volume Figure 8. the gas particles collide less frequently and the pressure will decrease. this means that the same number of gas particles are now going to come into contact with each other and with the sides of the container much more often. It was an Englishman named Robert Boyle who was able to take very accurate measurements of gas pressures and volumes using excellent vacuum pumps. 127 .2 Pressure Volume Figure 8. He discovered the startlingly simple fact that the pressure and volume of a gas are not just vaguely inversely related. produces a straight line. This relationship is shown in figure 8. the graph is a straight line.CHAPTER 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . but are exactly inversely proportional. When the values are plotted. Now.1: Graph showing the inverse relationship between pressure and volume Can you use the kinetic theory of gases to explain this inverse relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas? Let’s think about it. If you decrease the volume of a gas. if the volume decreases. the pressure will naturally increase.

If you divide each distance value by the time the car has been driving. The shorter the driving time. For this example. We will look at two examples to show the difference between directly proportional and inversely proportional. They are directly proportional because both values are increasing. In other words. the terms directly proportional and inversely proportional will be used a lot. you will find that the answer is always 6000. we should always get the same number. For example. x is time and k is the proportionality constant. as the driving time increases. you will always get 2. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . or if they have a constant ratio.2 CHAPTER 8. so does the distance covered. Two quantities are said to be proportional if they vary in such a way that one of the quantities is a constant multiple of the other. In other words. 1. Speed (km/h) 100 80 60 40 Time (mins) 60 75 100 150 According to our definition.8. 100 = 6000 1/60 128 If you repeat this using the other values.GRADE 11 Important: Proportionality During this chapter. the two variables are inversely proportional is one variable is directly proportional to the inverse of the other. The same is true if the values decrease. y∝ or y= 1 x k x This means that as one value gets bigger. Note that this is the equation for a straight line graph! The symbol ∝ is also used to show a directly proportional relationship. The variables are inversely proportional to each other. This relationship can be described mathematically as: y = kx where y is distance. Time (mins) 10 20 30 40 Distance (km) 20 40 60 80 What you will notice is that the two quantities shown are constant multiples of each other. assume that the distance of the journey is 100 km. and it is important that you understand their meaning. the other value will get smaller. if we divide one of the variables by the inverse of the other. 2. In other words. the time taken for a journey is inversely proportional to the speed of travel. . For example. Directly proportional A car travels at a constant speed of 120 km/h. This shows that the values are proportional to each other. The time and the distance covered are shown in the table below. Look at the table below to check this for yourself. the smaller the distance covered. Inversely proportional Two variables are inversely proportional if one of the variables is directly proportional to the multiplicative inverse of the other. which in this case is 2.

THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . it would expand and force you to apply a greater force to keep the plunger at a given position. However. to make things a bit easier for you. So. the proportionality would be broken. Note that the volume is given in terms of arbitrary marks (evenly made). if you were to heat up the gas in the syringe. We can write this relationship symbolically as p∝ This equation can also be written as follows: p= k V 1 V where k is a proportionality constant. 1. 129 . In our original syringe demonstration. multiplying any pressure and volume values for a fixed amount of gas will always give the same value. k is a ”variable constant”. This means that k is constant in a particular set of situations. p1 V1 = k and p2 V2 = k. Clearly. the amount of gas must stay constant. Second.2 We know now that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas. the pressure data have been converted to a unit that is more familiar. the temperature must stay constant. and the inverse proportion relationship is broken. Activity :: Investigation : Boyle’s Law Here are some of Boyle’s original data. assuming the temperature is constant. From this. First. Note that pressure would originally have been measured using a mercury manometer and the units for pressure would have been millimetres mercury or mm Hg. we can say that: pV = k This equation means that. Plot a graph of pressure (p) against volume (V). Again. for example. the pressure of the gas will decrease along with the volume. where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to two pairs of pressure and volume readings for the same mass of gas at the same temperature. If we rearrange this equation. Cooling or heating matter generally causes it to contract or expand.CHAPTER 8. Describe the relationship that you see. if you let a little of the air escape from the container in which it is enclosed. Volume will be on the x-axis and pressure on the y-axis. but in two different sets of situations it has different constant values. Volume (graduation mark) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Pressure (kPa) 398 340 298 264 239 217 199 184 Volume (graduation mark) 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Pressure (kPa) 170 159 150 141 133 125 120 In the gas equations.GRADE 11 8. we can then say that: p1 V1 = p2 V2 Important: Remember that Boyle’s Law requires two conditions. provided the temperature stays the same.

Plot a graph of p against 1/V . Because the temperature of the gas stays the same.8. When the lung volume increases. the following equation can be used: p1 V1 = p2 V2 If the equation is rearranged. Worked Example 26: Boyle’s Law 1 Question: A sample of helium occupies a volume of 160 cm3 at 100 kPa and 25 ◦ C. V2 = 100 × 160 = 200cm3 80 The volume occupied by the gas at a pressure of 80kPa. Calculate the unknown variable. Do your results support Boyle’s Law? Explain your answer. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . the pressure in the lungs decreases (Boyle’s law). and the air that was in the lungs will be forced out towards the lower air pressure outside the body. What volume will it occupy if the pressure is adjusted to 80 kPa and if the temperature remains unchanged? Answer Step 4 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.GRADE 11 2. The pressure in the lungs will increase. Now. Describe the relationship that you see. air will now be drawn into the lungs because the air pressure outside the body is higher than the pressure in the lungs. the diaphragm moves upwards and causes the volume of the lungs to decrease. the diaphragm moves down and becomes more ’flattened’ so that the volume of the lungs can increase. teresting Did you know that the mechanisms involved in breathing also relate to Boyle’s Interesting Fact Fact Law? Just below the lungs is a muscle called the diaphragm. is 200 cm3 130 . Since air always moves from areas of high pressure to areas of lower pressure. making sure that the units for each variable are the same. When a person breathes in. V1 = 160 cm3 and V2 = ? p1 = 100 kPa and p2 = 80 kPa Step 1 : Use an appropriate gas law equation to calculate the unknown variable. then V2 = p1 V1 p2 Step 2 : Substitute the known values into the equation. The opposite process happens when a person breathes out. 3.2 CHAPTER 8.

p1 V1 = p2 V2 Therefore.CHAPTER 8. If the volume is increased to 1. If you were to change the units in the above equation. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . 131 . where SI units must be used.GRADE 11 8. V1 = 2.2 Worked Example 27: Boyle’s Law 2 Question: The pressure on a 2. This is not true for some of the calculations we will do at a later stage. What is the volume of the air in the syringe? 4. During an investigation to find the relationship between the pressure and volume of an enclosed gas at constant temperature. and so the conversions cancel each other out. However. A bicycle pump contains 250 cm3 of air at a pressure of 90 kPa. this would involve multiplication on both sides of the equation. the following results were obtained. V2 = 695 × 2. If the end of the syringe is sealed and the plunger is pushed down. what will the pressure now be? 2. although SI units don’t have to be used. the pressure increases to 120 kPa. If the air is compressed.5 = 2. Exercise: Boyle’s Law 1.5 l and V2 = ? p1 = 695 Pa and p2 = 755 Pa Step 2 : Choose a relevant gas law equation to calculate the unknown variable. V2 = p1 V1 p2 Step 3 : Substitute the known values into the equation. The air inside a syringe occupies a volume of 10 cm3 and exerts a pressure of 100 kPa.5 l volume of gas is increased from 695 Pa to 755 Pa while a constant temperature is maintained.3l 755 Important: It is not necessary to convert to Standard International (SI) units in the examples we have used above. you must make sure that for each variable you use the same units throughout the equation. What is the volume of the gas under these pressure conditions? Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.5 L. the volume is reduced to 200 cm3 . Changing pressure and volume into different units involves multiplication. At constant temperature. An unknown gas has an initial pressure of 150 kPa and a volume of 1 L. What is the pressure of the air inside the pump? 3. Calculate the unknown variable. making sure that the units for each variable are the same.

The law was first published by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802. Show on your graph how you arrived at your answer. retort stand Method: 1. Another way of saying this is that temperature and volume are directly proportional (figure ??). empty glass coke bottle). 2.7 200. 132 . the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in kelvin) increases or decreases. (IEB 2004 Paper 2 ) 8.0 (a) For the results given in the above table. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . deduce the relationship between the pressure and volume of an enclosed gas at constant temperature. WARNING: Be careful when handling the heated bottle. You may need to wear gloves for protection. This is because Charles Interesting Fact Fact did not publish his discovery. plot a graph of pressure (y-axis) against the inverse of volume (x-axis).0 166. (b) From the graph. but he referenced unpublished work by Jacques Charles from around 1787. Apparatus: glass bottle (e. Observe what happens to the balloon.GRADE 11 Volume (cm3 ) 40 30 25 Pressure (kPa) 125. Place the balloon over the opening of the empty bottle. and it was rediscovered independently by another French Chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac some years later. Definition: Charles’s Law The volume of an enclosed sample of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature provided the pressure is kept constant.8. Place the bottle on the retort stand over the bunsen burner and allow it to heat up. This law states that at constant pressure. balloon. bunsen burner. Activity :: Demonstration : Charles’s Law Aim: To demonstrate Charles’s Law using simple materials.3 CHAPTER 8. (c) Use the graph to predict what the volume of the gas would be at a pressure of 40 kPa. teresting Charles’s Law is also known as Gay-Lussac’s Law.3 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed gas Charles’s law describes the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.g.

Volume 0 Temperature (K) Figure 8. Conclusion: The temperature and volume of the gas are directly related to each other. V =k T and. However. When the volume is zero. As one increases. provided the pressure of the gas is constant. causing it to expand. following the same logic that was used for Boyle’s law: V2 V1 = T1 T2 The equation relating volume and temperature produces a straight line graph (refer back to the notes on proportionality if this is unclear). Since zero on the Celsius scale corresponds with a Kelvin temperature of -273. A new temperature scale. it can be said that: Kelvin temperature (T) = Celsius temperature (t) + 273.3 Mathematically.4. 8.CHAPTER 8.3: The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature. Since the volume of the glass bottle can’t increase. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . As the air inside the bottle is heated. so does the other. the temperature is actually -273.150C (figure 8.GRADE 11 Results: You should see that the balloon starts to expand. the relationship between temperature and pressure can be represented as follows: V ∝T or V = kT If the equation is rearranged.. the zero point of temperature doesn’t correspond to the zero point of volume. the air moves into the balloon. then.3.. if this graph is plotted on a celsius temperature scale.15 133 .150C. This relationship is shown in figure 8. the Kelvin scale must be used instead. causing the volume to increase. the pressure also increases.

1 -57.8. These collisions will push back the walls.0 1.GRADE 11 -273◦ C 0K Volume (kPa) 0◦ C 273 K Temperature Figure 8.6 50.5 3.7 45. the gas pushed out the balloon instead.8 680. Volume (l) 0 0.25 0.4 -3. draw graphs to show the relationship between temperature and volume for each of the gases.3 CHAPTER 8.4 -113.1 937.4 -245.2 1.7 204. If you extrapolate the graphs (in other words.2 1846. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES .5 0. What is significant about this temperature? 134 .9 H2 -271.2 1240.1 521.4: The relationship between volume and temperature. Because the glass bottle couldn’t expand. 3. On the same set of axes. extend the graph line even though you may not have the exact data points).3 N2 O -275.1 179.5 He -272.6 331. 2. At school level.0 3. shown on a Celsius temperature scale.2 103.9 -111. you can simplify this slightly and convert between the two temperature scales as follows: T = t + 273 or t = T .8 -192.273 Can you explain Charles’s law in terms of the kinetic theory of gases? When the temperature of a gas increases.2 1543.5 28.5 2 2.1 -33. The molecules collide with the walls of the container more often and with greater impact.75 1.8 -164. so that the gas occupies a greater volume than it did at the start.0 -123. Describe the relationship you observe.5 -218. so does the average speed of its molecules.1 634. We saw this in the first demonstration. at what temperature do they intersect? 4.4 363. Exercise: Charles’s law The table below gives the temperature (in 0 C) of a number of gases under different volumes at a constant pressure.6 839.6 -191.

What will be the volume reading after the syringe has been left in the bath for a good while (assume the plunger moves completely freely)? Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas. unknown variable. Here. What volume will the gas occupy if its temperature is reduced to 273 K? Answer 135 . THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . not multiplication by a fixed conversion ratio (as is the case with pressure and volume.CHAPTER 8. therefore: T1 = 32 + 273 = 305 K T2 = 7 + 273 = 280 K Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable. a certain amount of CO2 gas occupies a volume of 6 l. This gas is allowed to come to room temperature which is 32◦ C. V2 V1 = T1 T2 Therefore.) Worked Example 29: Charles’s Law 2 Question: At a temperature of 298 K. The volume of the ammonia is found to be 122 ml.GRADE 11 8.3 Worked Example 28: Charles’s Law 1 Question: Ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide are allowed to react. temperature must be converted into Kelvin. V2 = 122 × 280 = 112ml 305 Important: Note that here the temperature must be converted to Kelvin (SI) since the change from degrees Celcius involves addition. The ammonia that is released in the reaction is collected in a gas syringe and sealed in. V1 = 122 ml and V2 = ? T1 = 320 C and T2 = 70 C Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary. V2 = V1 × T2 T1 Calculate the Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. It is now placed in a water bath set at 7◦ C.

and so no conversions are necessary. Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable. The pressure of the gas will decrease if its temperature decreases. V2 V1 = T1 T2 Therefore. Temperature data is already in Kelvin. This causes them to move more rapidly and to collide with each other and with the side of the container more often.GRADE 11 Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.5l 298 8. V2 = V1 × T2 T1 Calculate the Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. therefore p = kT We can also say that: p =k T 136 . so does the energy of the particles. unknown variable. V2 = 6 × 273 = 5. we can describe the relationship between temperature and pressure using symbols. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES .5).5: The relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas In the same way that we have done for the other gas laws. When the temperature of a gas increases.4 The relationship between temperature and pressure The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature.8.4 CHAPTER 8. Pressure 0 Temperature (K) Figure 8. V1 = 6 l and V2 = ? T1 = 298 K and T2 = 273 K Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary. the pressure of the gas increases with an increase in temperature. Since pressure is a measure of these collisions. as follows: T ∝ p. if the volume is kept constant (figure 8.

. what will the temperature of the gas be in Kelvin? (b) Has the temperature increased or decreased? (c) Explain this change. Since this is unlikely to be the case most times.GRADE 11 and that.. we get p ∝ T V T If we introduce the proportionality constant k. we get p = k V or. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES .CHAPTER 8. p1 p2 = T1 T2 8. When a cylinder has been placed in sunlight. When the temperature of the gas is increased to 100◦ C.5 The general gas equation All the gas laws we have described so far rely on the fact that at least one variable (T. the volume is found to be 5. What was the initial volume of the gas? 2.5 L..5 Exercise: More gas laws 1. using the kinetic theory of matter. A cylinder of propane gas at a temperature of 20◦ C exerts a pressure of 8 atm. What is the pressure of the gas inside the cylinder at this temperature? 8. 3. rearranging the equation. (a) If the volume is reduced to 1500 mL. These relationships are as follows: Boyle’s law: p ∝ 1 V (constant T) Relationship between p and T: p ∝ T (constant V) If we combine these relationships.. 137 . we can also say that: p2 V2 p1 V1 = T1 T2 In the above equation. it is useful to combine the relationships into one equation. p or V) remains constant. This is known as the general gas equation. A gas of unknown volume has a temperature of 14◦ C. the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to two pressure and volume readings for the same mass of gas under different conditions. A gas has an initial volume of 2600 mL and a temperature of 350 K. pV = kT We can also rewrite this relationship as follows: pV =k T Provided the mass of the gas stays the same. provided the amount of gas stays the same. its temperature increases to 25◦ C.

p1 = 7 atm and p2 = ? 138 . Important: Remember that the general gas equation only applies if the mass of the gas is fixed. therefore: T1 = 16 + 273 = 289 K T2 = 40 + 273 = 313 K Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES .8.1 to see what an ’atm’ is. Worked Example 30: General Gas Equation 1 Question: At the beginning of a journey. By the end of the trip. If the temperature of the cylinder increases to 250 C. Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas. What is the tyre pressure at the end of the journey? Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.5 CHAPTER 8. p2 = p1 × V1 × T2 T1 × V2 Calculate the Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. temperature must be converted into Kelvin. The temperature of the tyre is 160 C. Here. what pressure does the gas now exert? (Refer to table 8. the volume of the tyre has increased to 32 dm3 and the temperature of the air inside the tyre is 350 C. 170 × 30 × 313 = 173kP a 289 × 32 The pressure of the tyre at the end of the journey is 173 kPa. p1 = 170 kPa and p2 = ? V1 = 30 dm3 and V2 = 32 dm3 T1 = 160 C and T2 = 400 C Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.GRADE 11 Temperature is always in kelvin and the units used for pressure and volume must be the same on both sides of the equation. Use the general gas equation to solve this problem: p1 × V1 p2 × V2 = T1 T2 Therefore. a truck tyre has a volume of 30 dm3 and an internal pressure of 170 kPa. p2 = Worked Example 31: General Gas Equation 2 Question: A cylinder that contains methane gas is kept at a temperature of 150 C and exerts a pressure of 7 atm. unknown variable.

p1 = 100 kPa and p2 = 130 kPa T1 = 150 C and T2 = ? Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.5 Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. therefore: T1 = 15 + 273 = 288 K T2 = 25 + 273 = 298 K Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable. 7 × 298 = 7. Assuming that the volume of the gas in the container stays the same. we can write: p1 p2 = T1 T2 Therefore.GRADE 11 T1 = 150 C and T2 = 250 C Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary. p1 1 = T2 T 1 × p2 T 1 × p2 p1 139 Therefore. at what temperature will the container start to leak if the gas exerts a pressure of 100 kPa at 150 C? Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas. T2 = . Since the volume of the cylinder is constant.24atm 288 The pressure of the gas is 7. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . we can write: p1 p2 = T1 T2 Therefore.CHAPTER 8. temperature must be converted into Kelvin. p2 = Worked Example 32: General Gas Equation 3 Question: A gas container can withstand a pressure of 130 kPa before it will start to leak. p2 = p1 × T 2 T1 Calculate the 8. temperature must be converted into Kelvin. unknown variable. therefore: T1 = 15 + 273 = 288 K Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable. Here. Since the volume of the container is constant. Here.24 atm.

Amedeo Avogadro hypothesised that if you have samples of different gases. where n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas constant. the gas occupies a volume of 5 L. In other words.8. A closed gas system initially has a volume of 8 L and a temperature of 100◦ C.K−1 . The following table may help you when you convert to SI units. As the balloon rises. You will remember from an earlier section. the volume of the balloon increases by a factor of 1. that we combined different gas law equations to get one that included temperature. 25 cm3 of gas at 1 atm has a temperature of 20◦ C. then k = nR.40 C 100 Calculate the Exercise: The general gas equation 1. what was the initial pressure of the gas? 2.e. Calculate the final pressure of the gas.K−1 . The value of R is the same for all gases 2.2 atm.3 J. SI units must be used throughout the equation. In this equation. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . If we were to measure the amount of gas in moles. we get the following ideal gas equation.6 and the temperature decreases to 15◦ C. What is the final pressure of the gas (assuming none has escaped)? 3. at a fixed temperature and pressure.GRADE 11 Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. unknown variable.6 The ideal gas equation In the early 1800’s.6 CHAPTER 8. volume and pressure. atoms or molecules).0 atm. The value of R is 8. 8. The pressure of the gas is unknown. the value of k is different for different masses of gas. Definition: Avogadro’s Law Equal volumes of gases. All quantities in the equation pV = nRT must be in the same units as the value of R. pV = kT.4K = 101. When the gas is compressed to 20 cm3 .3143 J. the temperature of the gas increases to 28◦ C. if we replace k in the general gas equation. So. at the same temperature and pressure. If the pressure of the gas under these conditions is 1. of the same volume. 8. A balloon is filled with helium gas at 27◦ C and a pressure of 1. or for most calculations. T2 = 288 × 130 = 374. then the samples must contain the same number of freely moving particles (i. 140 . pV = nRT Important: 1. If the temperature of the gas decreases to 50◦ C. contain the same number of molecules.

GRADE 11 8. p = 2 × 8. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . pressure and temperature. The pressure of the gas is 105 kPa at a temperature of 200 C.1: Conversion table showing different units of measurement for volume. Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.025m3 1000 T = 40 + 273 = 313K Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable. p= nRT V Calculate the Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation.8kP a Worked Example 34: Ideal gas equation 2 Question: Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas is produced as a result of the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.K−1 temperature (K) kelvin (K) K = 0C + 273 Worked Example 33: Ideal gas equation 1 Question: Two moles of oxygen (O2 ) gas occupy a volume of 25 dm3 at a temperature of 400 C. pV = nRT Therefore. The gas that is produced is collected in a 20 dm3 container.3 × 3130. V = 25 = 0. Calculate the pressure of the gas under these conditions. Variable SI unit Other units and conversions Pressure (p) Pascals (Pa) 760 mm Hg = 1 atm = 101325 Pa = 101. unknown variable.325 kPa Volume (V) m3 1 m3 = 1000000 cm3 = 1000 dm3 = 1000 litres moles (n) mol universal gas constant (R) J. p=? V = 25 dm3 n=2 T = 400 C Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.CHAPTER 8.mol.025 = 207832P a = 207. 141 .6 Table 8.

pV = nRT Therefore.02m3 1000 Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable.02 = 0.6 CHAPTER 8.3 × 293 m M Step 5 : Calculate mass from moles n= Therefore. n= pV RT Calculate the Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. unknown variable. m=n×M The molar mass of CO2 is calculated as follows: M = 12 + (2 × 16) = 44g. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . p = 105 kPa V = 20 dm3 T = 200 C Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.mol−1 Therefore.8. n= 105000 × 0.86 × 44 = 37.GRADE 11 What mass of carbon dioxide was produced? Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas. p = 105 × 1000 = 105000P a T = 20 + 273 = 293K V = 20 = 0.86moles 8. m = 0.84g Worked Example 35: Ideal gas equation 3 Question: 1 mole of nitrogen (N2 ) reacts with hydrogen (H2 ) according to the following equation: N2 + 3H2 → 2N H3 142 .

p= 2 × 8.GRADE 11 The ammonia (NH3 ) gas is collected in a separate gas cylinder which has a volume of 25 dm3 .89kP a 0. which is 1:2) T = 220 C Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary.025m3 1000 8.3 × 295 = 195880P a = 195. p = 98 × 1000 = 98000P a T = 23 + 273 = 296K Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES .025 Worked Example 36: Ideal gas equation 4 Question: Calculate the number of air particles in a 10 m by 7 m by 2 m classroom on a day when the temperature is 23◦ C and the air pressure is 98 kPa. pV = nRT 143 . unknown variable. V = 25 dm3 n = 2 (Calculate this by looking at the mole ratio of nitrogen to ammonia. V = 25 = 0.6 T = 22 + 273 = 295K Step 3 : Choose a relevant gas law equation that will allow you to calculate the unknown variable.CHAPTER 8. Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas. p= nRT V Calculate the Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. pV = nRT Therefore. Calculate the pressure of the gas inside the cylinder. The temperature of the gas is 220 C. V = 10 m × 7 m × 2m = 140 m3 p = 98 kPa T = 230 C Step 2 : Convert the known values to SI units if necessary. Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information that you know about the gas.

5mol 8. n= 98000 × 140 = 5584. Answer Step 1 : Look at the information you have been given. temperature and pressure. CHAPTER 8. Here you are given the volume. Describe. This is important because a typical car collision lasts about 0.31 Step 3 : Write out the Ideal Gas formula pV = nRT Step 4 : Solve for the required quantity using symbols n= pV RT Step 5 : Solve by substituting numbers into the equation to solve for ’n’. In reality the above reaction is exothermic. Assume the gas temperature remains constant during the reaction.125 s. 2.05 s. An airbag will completely inflate in 0. if at all.31 × (273 + 25) Step 6 : Convert the number of moles to number of grams 144 .6 Therefore.3 × 103 Pa Volume: 65 × 10−3 m3 Temperature: (273 + 25) K Gas Constant: 8. unknown variable. n= 99.3 × 103 × 65 × 10−3 8.8. as the gas temperature returns to 25 ◦ C.3 kPa.I. The following reaction of sodium azide (a compound found in airbags) is activated by an electrical signal: 2N aN3 (s) → 2N a(s) + 3N2 (g) 1.3 × 296 Worked Example 37: Applying the gas laws Question: Most modern cars are equipped with airbags for both the driver and the passenger. units Pressure: 93. Step 2 : Check that all the units are S. You are required to work out the mass of N2 . in terms of the kinetic molecular theory. Calculate the mass of N2 (g) needed to inflate a sample airbag to a volume of 65 dm3 at 25 ◦ C and 99.GRADE 11 n= pV RT Calculate the Step 4 : Substitute the known values into the equation. how the pressure in the sample airbag will change. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . and the information you still need.

nRV T 1. correcting the mistakes to arrive at the right answer. (b) Are the units of the final answer correct? (c) Rewrite the solution. An unknown gas has pressure. 1. 4.0g Step 7 : Theory Question When the temperature decreases the intensity of collisions with the walls of the airbag and between particles decreases.7 m m m = = = n×M 2.CHAPTER 8. 8 L and 120◦ C respectively.3 J.61 × 28 73.K−1 . Assuming that air in your lungs is at 37◦ C and 1.mol−1 T = 37 + 273 = 310 K p = nRT. Exercise: The ideal gas equation 1.5 moles of nitrogen gas in a container with a volume of 20 dm3 at a temperature of 37◦ C.3 × 20 310 8. How many moles of gas are present? 2. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES .002 m3 at a temperature of 26◦ C.9 atm.0 L after exhalation.0 atm.5 × 8.5 L of air after inhalation and about 3. What is the pressure of the gas under these conditions? 3. volume and temperature of 0.5 mol R = 8. Write down the ideal gas equation 145 .7 Molar volume of gases It is possible to calculate the volume of a mole of gas at STP using what we now know about gases. determine the number of moles of air in a typical breath. The learner writes the solution as follows: V = 20 dm3 n = 1. An average pair of human lungs contains about 3. Therefore pressure decreases.GRADE 11 8. therefore p= = = 0.8 kPa (a) Identify 2 mistakes the learner has made in the calculation. 6 g of chlorine (Cl2 ) occupies a volume of 0. A learner is asked to calculate the answer to the problem below: Calculate the pressure exerted by 1.

THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . These are as follows: p = 101. and are called ideal gases.8.4 × 10−3 m3 = 22. Calculate the volume of 1 mole of gas under these conditions The volume of 1 mole of gas at STP is 22. 8. V = nRT p V = 1mol × 8.8 Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour In looking at the behaviour of gases to arrive at the Ideal Gas Law.3J.K −1 . So what is happening at these two extremes? Earlier when we discussed the kinetic theory of gases. This means that the total volume available for the gas molecules to move is reduced and collisions become more frequent.K−1 .8 CHAPTER 8. but there are deviations at high pressures and low temperatures.3 J. we have limited our examination to a small range of temperature and pressure. therefore V = nRT p 2.6). 146 . Substitute these values into the original equation.mol−1 T = 273 K 3.GRADE 11 pV = nRT. Volume rea i de al ga lg as s Pressure Figure 8.3 kPa = 101300 Pa n = 1 mole R = 8. making sure that they are in SI units You know that the gas is under STP conditions. Most gases do obey these laws most of the time. We now need to look at two of these again because they affect how gases behave either when pressures are high or when temperatures are low.4 dm3 . we made a number of assumptions about the behaviour of gases. their volume becomes significant. 1. Record the values that you know.mol−1 × 273K 101300P a 4.6: Gases deviate from ideal gas behaviour at high pressure. Molecules do occupy volume This means that when pressures are very high and the molecules are compressed. This causes the pressure of the gas to be higher than what would normally have been predicted by Boyle’s law (figure 8.

• In the above equations. • The temperature of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its pressure. • Boyle’s law states that the pressure of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume. as long as the temperature stays the same.9 At low temperatures.9 Summary • The kinetic theory of matter helps to explain the behaviour of gases under different conditions. Pressure ea id re a lg Temperature p1 V1 = p2 V2 . Forces of attraction do exist between molecules 8. a real gas will liquify. V1 V2 = T1 T2 p1 p2 = T1 T2 147 Figure 8. the intermolecular forces become more apparent. if the volume is constant. • An ideal gas is one that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic theory. Temperature in degrees Celsius (temperature = t) can be converted to temperature in Kelvin (temperature = T) using the following equation: T = t + 273 lg as as . THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES .GRADE 11 2. In other words. If the temperature is low enough or the pressure high enough. when the speed of the molecules decreases and they move closer together. temperature must be written in Kelvin. except at high pressures and low temperatures. Under these conditions. As the attraction between molecules increases. as long as the pressure stays the same. their movement decreases and there are fewer collisions between them. The pressure of the gas at low temperatures is therefore lower than what would have been expected for an ideal gas (figure 8. • A real gas behaves like an ideal gas. In other words. the forces between molecules become significant and the gas will liquify.7: Gases deviate from ideal gas behaviour at low temperatures 8. In other words.7.CHAPTER 8. pV = k or • Charles’s law states that the volume of an enclosed sample of gas is directly proportional to its temperature.

4 dm3 . volume (IEB 2003 Paper 2 ) (b) Three containers of EQUAL VOLUME are filled with EQUAL MASSES of helium. what is the new Kelvin temperature of the gas? i. gives the general gas equation. All three gases will be at the same pressure ii. Volume (m3 ). s Exercise: Summary exercise 1. pressure (Pa) and temperature (K). SI units must be used. (a) Which one of the following properties of a fixed quantity of a gas must be kept constant during a Boyle’s law investigation? i. (a) Real gases behave like ideal gases. • The volume of one mole of gas under STP is 22. which applies as long as the amount of gas remains constant. The nitrogen will be at the greatest pressure iv. In this equation. which is 8. For each of the following multiple choice questions. 2T √ iii. 2. or p1 V1 p2 V2 = T1 T2 • Because the mass of gas is not always constant. except at low pressures and low temperatures. 2T 148 . pressure iii. choose the one correct answer. Which one of the following statements is correct regarding the pressure of the gases? i. temperature iv. If the statement is false. The ideal gas equation can be written as pV = nRT where n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas constant.3 J. rewrite the statement correctly. another equation is needed for these situations. If the average speed of the gas particles is doubled.GRADE 11 • Combining Boyle’s law and the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas. regardless of the volume of the gas. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . For each of the following.K−1 . (c) The temperature of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its pressure. say whether the statement is true or false. density ii.mol−1 .9 CHAPTER 8. The helium will be at the greatest pressure iii. The general gas equation is pV = kT.8. The carbon dioxide will be at the greatest pressure (IEB 2004 Paper 2 ) (c) One mole of an ideal gas is stored at a temperature T (in Kelvin) in a rigid gas tank. The gases in the three containers are all at the same TEMPERATURE. nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas respectively. This is called the molar gas volume. (b) The volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure it exerts. 4T ii.

(b) If the gradient of the above graph is measured to be 0. Calculate the pressure of the gas (in kPa) in cylinder A.GRADE 11 iv.9 Volume (m3 ) 0 Temperature (K) (a) On the axes.45 mol He gas at standard pressure. she draws the graph below: pressure (kPa) 300 10 20 temperature (0 C) (a) Under the conditions of this investigation. (a) It is dangerous to put an aerosol can near heat. (IEB 2002 Paper 2) 5. have a volume of 0. 149 .CHAPTER 8.20 m3 respectively. 2007 ) 3. 4.K−1 . The ratio of the Kelvin temperatures A:B is 1. A learner investigates the relationship between the Celsius temperature and the pressure of a fixed amount of helium gas in a 500 cm3 closed container.80:1. (c) The volume of a car tyre increases after a trip on a hot road. Use your knowledge of the gas laws to explain the following statements. helium gas behaves like an ideal gas. Explain briefly why this is so. calculate the pressure that 0. (IEB 2002 Paper 2 ) 6.5 T (IEB 2002 Paper 2 ) (d) The ideal gas equation is given by pV = nRT. Cylinder A contains 1. A and B. (b) A pressure vessel that is poorly designed and made can be a serious safety hazard (a pressure vessel is a closed. Which one of the following conditions is true according to Avogadro’s hypothesis? a p ∝ 1/V (T = constant) b V∝T (p = constant) c V∝n (p. 0. Copy the following set of labelled axes and answer the questions that follow: 8. Two gas cylinders. rigi container that is used to hold gases at a pressure that is higher than the normal air pressure). From the results of the investigation. using a solid line.008 m3 .25 mol He gas at pressure p and cylinder B contains 2.15 m3 and 0. T = constant) d p∝T (n = constant) (DoE Exemplar paper 2.00. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . draw the graph that would be obtained for a fixed mass of an ideal gas if the pressure is kept constant.3 mol of this gas would exert.

A straight-line graph passing through the origin is essential to obtain a mathematical relationship between pressure and temperature. (e) How would the gradient of the graph be affected (if at all) if a larger mass of the gas is used? Write down ONLY increases.GRADE 11 (b) From the shape of the graph. Is her conclusion correct? Briefly explain your answer. Indicate on your graph how you obtained this value.5 80 250 138 100 250 (a) Draw a straight-line graph of pressure (on the dependent. and the temperature of the gas mixture rises to 140◦C. (IEB 2003 Paper 2 ) 7. the relationship between pressure and Kelvin temperature. Plot the points. THERMAL PROPERTIES AND IDEAL GASES . 8.8. before compression contains 450 cm3 of a mixture of air and petrol in the gaseous phase. calculate the pressure now exerted by the gas mixture.9 CHAPTER 8. a group of learners obtained the following results: Pressure (kPa) Temperature (0 C) Total gas volume (cm3 ) 101 0 250 120 50 250 130. (c) Calculate the pressure of the helium gas at 0 ◦ C. (b) Extrapolate (extend) your graph and determine the temperature (in 0 C) at which the graph will pass through the temperature axis. (DoE Exemplar Paper 2. the learner concludes that the pressure of the helium gas is directly proportional to the Celcius temperature. y-axis) versus temperature (on the independent. in words. (c) Write down. determine the pressure (in kPa) at 173 K. Give your graph a suitable heading. (d) Calculate the mass of helium gas in the container. 2007 ) 150 . One of the cylinders of a motor car engine. (d) From your graph. In an experiment to determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas. x-axis) on a piece of graph paper. decreases or stays the same. at a temperature of 30◦ C and a pressure of 100 kPa. If the volume of the cylinder after compression decreases to one tenth of the original volume.

had only been found in animals.1 What is organic chemistry? Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules. dyes. An organic molecule is one which contains carbon. The properties of organic compounds are not due to a ’vital force’ but to the unique properties of the carbon atom itself. until that point. Plants are therefore able to make their own organic compounds through photosynthesis. scientists believed that organic compounds would not follow the normal physical and chemical laws that applied to other inorganic compounds because the very ’force of life’ made them different. 151 . A few years later a student of Wohler’s. oxygen (O). other elements such as hydrogen (H). nitrogen (N). He also suggested that the laws that governed how organic compounds formed. along with a list of other items. Hermann Kolbe. By this stage it was acknowledged that organic compounds are governed by exactly the same laws that apply to inorganic compounds. were different from those for inorganic compounds. From this. In other words. Organic compounds are also used to make products such as medicines. sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) are also common in these molecules. an organic compound in the urine of animals which. Until the early nineteenth century. they are in the food we eat and in the clothes we wear. It was around this time that a Swedish chemist called Jons Jakob Berzelius suggested that compounds found only in living organisms (the organic compounds) should be grouped separately from those found in the non-living world (the inorganic compounds). plastics.2 Sources of carbon The main source of the carbon in organic compounds is carbon dioxide in the air. chemists had managed to make many simple compounds in the laboratory. the idea developed that there was a ’vital force’ in organic compounds.Chapter 9 Organic Molecules . They make up a big part of our own bodies. who successfully prepared urea. Organic compounds are very important in daily life. washing powders. but were still unable to produce the complex molecules that they found in living organisms.Grade 12 9. 9. made the organic compound acetic acid from inorganic compounds. and these molecules can range in size from simple molecules to complex structures containing thousands of atoms! Although the main element in organic compounds is carbon. while animals feed on plants or plant products so that they gain the organic compounds that they need to survive. This idea of a mystical ’vital force’ in organic compounds was weakened when scientists began to manufacture organic compounds in the laboratory from non-living materials. One of the first to do this was Friedrich Wohler in 1828. Plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds through the process of photosynthesis.

petroleum and natural gas. We will use the example of a molecule called 2-methylpropane to help explain the difference between each. This is because fossil fuels are themselves formed from the decaying remains of dead organisms (refer to chapter 21 for more information on fossil fuels). 9. organic compounds can be very complex.5) and hydrogen (2. The number of each atom is written as a subscript after the atomic symbol. C C C C Figure 9. Because of the number of bonds that carbon can form with other atoms. long chain structures can form. This affects some of the properties of organic compounds.GRADE 12 Another important source of carbon is fossil fuels such as coal.9.4 Representing organic compounds There are a number of ways to represent organic compounds. Because of this.2: A branched carbon chain • Because of its position on the Periodic Table. ORGANIC MOLECULES . These chains can either be unbranched (figure 9. the difference in electronegativity between carbon (2.3 CHAPTER 9.1: An unbranched carbon chain C C C C C C C Figure 9.2).1) is so small that C-H bonds are almost purely covalent. The difference in electronegativity between the two atoms is zero.1) or branched (figure 9. Think for example of a C-C bond. 9. In the case of a C-H bond. so this is a pure covalent bond.1 Molecular formula The molecular formula of a compound shows how many atoms of each type are in a molecule.4. There are three main ways of representing a compound. It is useful to know all of these so that you can recognise a molecule however it is shown. The result of this is that most organic compounds are non-polar.3 Unique properties of carbon Carbon has a number of unique properties which influence how it behaves and how it bonds with other atoms: • Carbon has four valence electrons which means that each carbon atom can form bonds with four other atoms. most of the bonds that carbon forms with other atoms are covalent. The molecular formula of 2-methylpropane is: 152 . 9.

H H H H C H C H C H H C H H Figure 9.3: The structural formula of 2-methylpropane 9. The structural formula of 2-methylpropane is shown in figure 9. each carbon atom and the hydrogen atoms that are bonded directly to it are listed as a molecular formula.4. H H C H (a) H C H C H C H H 153 . You can check this by looking at the structural formula in figure ??.2 Structural formula The structural formula of an organic compound shows every bond between every atom in the molecule. The condensed structural formula below shows that in 2-methylpropane.4. there is a branched chain attached to the second carbon atom of the main chain. CH3 CH(CH3 )CH3 Exercise: Representing organic compounds 1. Branched groups are shown in brackets after the carbon atom to which they are bonded. Each bond is represented by a line.3 Condensed structural formula When a compound is represented using its condensed structural formula.3. followed by a similar molecular formula for the neighbouring carbon atom. ORGANIC MOLECULES . For each of the following organic compounds.4 9.GRADE 12 C4 H10 9. give the condensed structural formula and the molecular formula.CHAPTER 9.

4.GRADE 12 H H H C H (b) C C C H H C H H H H 2.5 Isomerism in organic compounds It is possible for two organic compounds to have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula. Definition: Isomer In chemistry. (a) CH3 CH2 CH3 (b) CH3 CH2 CH(CH3 )CH3 (c) C2 H6 3. Such compounds are called isomers.9. For each of the following.5 CHAPTER 9. ORGANIC MOLECULES . Give two possible structural formulae for the compound with a molecular formula of C4 H10 . isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms.4: Isomers of a 4-carbon organic compound If you were to count the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each compound. but their structure is different and so are their properties. 9. Exercise: Isomers Match the organic compound in Column A with its isomer Column B: 154 . you would find that they are the same. They both have the same molecular formula (C4 H10 ). give the structural formula and the molecular formula. H H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H H C H H C H C H H C H Figure 9. but in which the atoms are arranged differently. Look for example at the two organic compounds that are shown in figure 9.

1 summarises some of the common functional groups.6 9. a functional group is a specific group of atoms within molecules. ORGANIC MOLECULES . the single. that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. Cyclic compounds include structures such as the benzene ring. These molecules only contain carbon and hydrogen. This group is important in determining how a compound will react. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of. 9. Figure 9. The hydrocarbons that we are going to look at are called aliphatic compounds. double and triple bonds of the alkanes.6 shows a molecule of ethane which is a saturated hydrocarbon. elkenes and alkynes are examples of functional groups. All alcohols will contain an oxygen and a hydrogen atom bonded together in some part of the molecule. those that contain double bonds (alkenes) and those that contain triple bonds (alkynes). 155 .6 Functional groups All organic compounds have a particular bond or group of atoms which we call its functional group. The aliphatic compounds are divided into acyclic compounds (chain structures) and cyclic compounds (ring structures). We will look at these in more detail later in this chapter. In one group of organic compounds called the hydrocarbons. Table 9. The chain structures are further divided into structures that contain only single bonds (alkanes). the alcohols. Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds are called saturated hydrocarbons because each carbon atom is bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible.GRADE 12 Column A CH3 CH(CH3 )OH H H C H CH3 H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C3 H7 OH H C H H H H C H Column B CH3 CH(CH3 )CH3 H C H CH3 C H H 9. an oxygen and a hydrogen atom that are bonded to each other form the functional group for those compounds. Definition: Functional group In organic chemistry. In another group.CHAPTER 9.5 summarises the classification of the hydrocarbons.7 The Hydrocarbons Let us first look at a group of organic compounds known as the hydrocarbons. Figure 9.

7 Name of group CHAPTER 9.GRADE 12 Functional group Example Diagram H C C H C H H C H H C H C H H Alkane Ethane H C C Alkene Ethene C Alkyne C Ethyne (acetylene) H C C H H C X CH3 C H (X=F. Figure 9. If you compare the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms 156 .I) Halo-alkane Chloroethane H C OH H C H Alcohol/ alkanol O C Carboxylic acid OH ethanoic acid CH3 C CH3 Ethanol O C H H OH X O H R Amine N H Glycine OH C H C H N H H Table 9.9.7 shows a molecule of ethene which is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.1: Some functional groups of organic compounds Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple bonds are called unsaturated hydrocarbons because they don’t contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible.Cl. ORGANIC MOLECULES .Br.

6: A saturated hydrocarbon in a molecule of ethane and a molecule of ethene. and palm kernel oil.7 Aliphatic hydrocarbons Acyclic compounds (chain structures) Cyclic compounds (ring structures e. lard.7: An unsaturated hydrocarbon teresting Fat that occurs naturally in living matter such as animals and plants is used as Interesting Fact Fact food for human consumption and contains varying proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat. The process is called hydrogenation 157 . coconut oil. benzene ring) Alkanes (single bonds) Alkenes (contain double bonds) Alkynes (contain triple bonds) Figure 9.CHAPTER 9.g. you will see that the number of hydrogen atoms in ethene is less than the number of hydrogen atoms in ethane despite the fact that they both contain two carbon atoms. In order for an unsaturated compound to become saturated. tallow. Vegetable oils contain unsaturated fats and can be hardened to form margarine by adding hydrogen on to some of the carbon=carbon double bonds using a nickel catalyst. ghee. Diets high in saturated fat are correlated with an increased incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease according to a number of studies. cottonseed oil. and some prepared foods. a double bond has to be broken.5: The classification of the aliphatic hydrocarbons H H C H H C H H Figure 9. H C H C H H Figure 9. suet. dairy products (especially cream and cheese). and another two hydrogen atoms added for each double bond that is replaced by a single bond.GRADE 12 9. Foods that contain a high proportion of saturated fat are butter. ORGANIC MOLECULES . meat.

10).g. you should notice a pattern developing.GRADE 12 We will now go on to look at each of the hydrocarbon groups in more detail. This molecule is shown in figure 9.8. an important component of petrol). and this can cause problems for aircraft in tropical areas! 158 . H (b) CH4 H (a) H C H H C H H (b) C2 H6 Figure 9. H (a) H C H Figure 9.7 CHAPTER 9.1 The Alkanes The alkanes are hydrocarbons that only contain single covalent bonds between their carbon atoms. the alkenes and the alkynes. The alkanes have the general formula Cn H2n+2 . For each carbon atom that is added to the molecule. methane and ethane). One fungus AmorInteresting Fact Fact photheca resinae prefers the alkanes used in aviation fuel. octane.8: The structural (a) and molecular formula (b) for methane The second alkane in the series has two carbon atoms and is called ethane. 9. Some are gases (e. H (a) H C H H C H H C H H (b) C3 H8 Figure 9. teresting Some fungi use alkanes as a source of carbon and energy. These groups are the alkanes. This is called a homologous series.10: The structural (a) and molecular formula (b) for propane When you look at the molecular formula for each of the alkanes. while others are liquid fuels (e.g. This is shown in figure 9. two hydrogen atoms are added. ORGANIC MOLECULES .9: The structural (a) and molecular formula (b) for ethane The third alkane in the series has three carbon atoms and is called propane (Figure 9. each molecule differs from the one before it by CH2 .7.9. The simplest alkane has only one carbon atom and is called methane.9. This means that they are saturated compounds and are quite unreactive. In other words. The alkanes are the most important source of fuel in the world and are used extensively in the chemical industry.

Worked Example 38: Naming the alkanes Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: Note: The numbers attached to the carbon atoms would not normally be shown. It is an alkane and will have a suffix of -ane. For example. this step can be left out. STEP 4: Look for any branched groups and name them.7 9. 1. The atoms have been numbered to help you to name the compound. STEP 2: Find the longest continuous carbon chain (it won’t always be a straight chain) and count the number of carbon atoms in this chain.GRADE 12 9.CHAPTER 9. ORGANIC MOLECULES .2: The prefix of a compound’s name is determined by the number of carbon atoms in the longest chain 3. the suffix will be -ane. These prefixes are shown in table 9. This will determine the suffix (the ’end’) of the name. the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature is used. Carbon atoms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 prefix meth(ane) eth(ane) prop(ane) but(ane) pent(ane) hex(ane) hept(ane) oct(ane) non(ane) dec(ane) Table 9.2 Naming the alkanes In order to give compounds a name. This number will determine the prefix (the ’beginning’) of the compound’s name. name ending according to the functional group and its position along the longest carbon chain. When naming organic compounds. for example. STEP 5: Combine the elements of the name into a single word in the following order: branched groups. Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The compound is a hydrocarbon with single bonds between the carbon atoms. if the compound is an alcohol the suffix will be -ol. If there are no branched groups. 2. if the compound is an alkene the suffix will be -ene. Also give them a number to show their position on the carbon chain. you need to start numbering so that the bond is at the carbon with the lowest number. certain rules must be followed. We will first look at some of the steps that need to be followed when naming a compound. Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain 159 . if the compound is an alkane. So.2. an alkane that has 3 carbon atoms will have the suffix prop and the compound’s name will be propane. 5. and then try to apply these rules to some specific examples.7. 4. STEP 3: Number the carbons in the longest carbon chain (Important: If there is a double or triple bond. prefix. and so on. STEP 1: Recognise the functional group in the compound.

7 CHAPTER 9. methyl). Step 3 : Number the carbons in the carbon chain If we start at the carbon on the left.e. However.9. ORGANIC MOLECULES . The prefix of the compound will be ’but’. it is given the suffix -yl (i. The position of the methyl group comes just 160 . The prefix for this compound is -prop. Step 5 : Combine the elements of the name into a single word The name of the compound is butane. name them and give their position on the carbon chain There are no branched groups in this compound. because it is not part of the main chain. Step 4 : Look for any branched groups. Worked Example 39: Naming the alkanes Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: H H C H H C H H C H C H H H Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The compound is an alkane and will have the suffix -ane. Step 3 : Number the carbons in the longest chain In this case. This group has the formula CH3 which is methane. name them and give their position on the carbon chain There is a branched group attached to the second carbon atom.GRADE 12 H H C(1) H H C(2) H H C(3) H H C(4) H H There are four carbon atoms in the longest chain. we can number the atoms as shown below: Step 4 : Look for any branched groups. Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain There are three carbons in the longest chain. The carbons are numbered from left to right. it is easy. from one to four.

ORGANIC MOLECULES .CHAPTER 9. The prefix for this compound is -but. name ending according to the functional group. The compound’s name is 2-methylpropane. Step 4 : Number the carbons in the carbon chain If we start at the carbon on the left.) Answer Step 1 : Draw the compound from its condensed structural formula The structural formula of the compound is: H H C(1) H CH3 CH3 C(2) H C(3) H H C(4) H H Step 2 : Identify the functional group The compound is an alkane and will have the suffix -ane. Step 5 : Combine the elements of the compound’s name into a single word in the order of branched groups. Step 3 : Find the longest carbon chain There are four carbons in the longest chain. prefix. carbon atoms are numbered as shown in the diagram above. A second way that the carbons could be numbered is: H H C(1) H CH3 CH3(4) C(2) H 161 C(3) H H C H H .7 H H C(1) H H H C(2) H C(3) H H C H H before its name (see next step).GRADE 12 9. Worked Example 40: Naming the alkanes Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: CH3 CH(CH3 )CH(CH3 )CH3 (Remember that the side groups are shown in brackets after the carbon atom to which they are attached.

9. Notice that in this example it does not matter how you have chosen to number the carbons in the main chain. Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain and number the carbons in the longest chain. prefix. name them and give their position on the carbon chain There are two methyl groups attached to the main chain. 162 .GRADE 12 Step 5 : Look for any branched groups.3-dimethyl-pentane. The prefix for the compound is -pent. The first one is attached to the second carbon atom and the second methyl group is attached to the third carbon atom. The compound’s name is 2. Step 4 : Combine the elements of the compound’s name into a single word in the order of branched groups. The first one is attached to the first carbon atom and the second methyl group is attached to the third carbon atom.7 CHAPTER 9. Worked Example 41: Naming the alkanes Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: CH3 H C H H C H H C CH2 CH3 Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The compound is an alkane and will have the suffix -ane. name ending according to the functional group.3-dimethyl-butane. name ending according to the functional group. The compound’s name is 1. prefix. ORGANIC MOLECULES . Step 6 : Combine the elements of the compound’s name into a single word in the order of branched groups. CH3 H C(1) H H C(2) H C(3) H C H H H C H H H CH2(4) CH3(5) Step 3 : Look for any branched groups. name them and give their position on the carbon chain There are two methyl groups attached to the main chain. the methyl groups are still attached to the second and third carbons and so the naming of the compound is not affected. There are five carbons in the longest chain if they are numbered as shown below.

CHAPTER 9. Br or I) (figure 9.5 36 69 302 Phase at room temperature gas gas gas gas liquid liquid solid Table 9.7. H H H (a) (b) CH3 CH2 CH(CH3 )CH2 CH3 (c) CH3 CH(CH3 )CH2 CH(CH3 )CH3 9. Cl.11). when the molecular mass of the alkanes is low (i. The product is called a halo-alkane. The melting point also increases as the number of carbon atoms in the molecule increases.3: Properties of some of the alkanes You will also notice that.3.e. The more carbon atoms there are in an alkane. As the number of carbon atoms and the molecular mass increases. Give the structural formula for each of the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) Octane CH3 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH(CH3 )CH3 3-ethyl-pentane H H C H C CH3 C H 2. the organic compounds are gases because the intermolecular forces are weak. This can be seen in the data in table 9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes We have already mentioned that the alkanes are relatively unreactive because of their stable C-C and C-H bonds.GRADE 12 9. Since alkanes are not very reactive. 1. 9. Give the IUPAC name for each of the following organic compounds. the compounds are more likely to be liquids or solids because the intermolecular forces are stronger. Substitution reactions Substitution reactions involve the removal of a hydrogen atom which is replaced by an atom of another element. such as a halogen (F. there are few carbon atoms).4 Reactions of the alkanes There are three types of reactions that can occur in saturated compounds such as the alkanes. heat or light are needed for this 163 .7 Exercise: Naming the alkanes 1. and their surface area. Formula CH4 C2 H6 C3 H8 C4 H10 C5 H12 C6 H14 C17 H36 Name methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptadecane Melting point (0 C) -183 -182 -187 -138 -130 -95 22 Boiling point (0 C) -162 -88 -45 -0. the greater the surface area and therefore the higher the boiling point. ORGANIC MOLECULES . The boiling point and melting point of these molecules is determined by their molecular structure.

9.g.13). Elimination reactions Saturated compounds can also undergo elimination reactions to become unsaturated (figure 9.13: An elimination reaction 3. also known as ’chloroform’ (figure 9.GRADE 12 H + HBr H C H Figure 9. e. e.g. This is called an oxidation or combustion reaction. CH2 =CH2 + HBr → CH3 -CH2 -Br (halo-alkane) H C H Br Halo-alkanes (also sometimes called alkyl halides) that contain methane and chlorine are substances that can be used as anaesthetics during operations. H C Cl Cl Cl CHCl3 Figure 9. they react with the oxygen in air and heat is produced. e. CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2 O + heat Exercise: The Alkanes 164 .11: A substitution reaction reaction to take place.12). Carbon dioxide and water are given off as products.12: Trichloromethane 2. CH2 Cl − CH2 Cl → CH2 = CHCl + HCl H H C Cl H C Cl H H H C H C Cl + HCl Figure 9. Oxidation reactions When alkanes are burnt in air. In the example below. Heat is also released during the reaction. The burning of alkanes provides most of the energy that is used by man. One example is trichloromethane.7 H H C H C H CHAPTER 9. an atom of hydrogen and chlorine are eliminated from the original compound to form an unsaturated halo-alkene. ORGANIC MOLECULES .g.

The isomer of C8 H18 referred to in the ’octane rating’ is in fact not octane but 2. Give the structural formula for each of the following compounds: (a) octane (b) 3-methyl-hexane 3. Methane-forming bacteria then convert these acids into biogases such as methane and ammonia.GRADE 12 1. ORGANIC MOLECULES . is that it produces more energy but with lower carbon dioxide emissions. (c) Define the term structural isomer.2. (a) Write an unbalanced equation for the chemical reaction which takes place when petrol (C8 H18 ) burns in excess oxygen. (d) Use the information given in this question and your knowledge of naming organic compounds to deduce and draw the full structural formula for 2. The simplified reaction is shown below: Organic matter → Simple organic acids → Biogas The organic matter could be carbohydrates. animal manure and decaying material) are broken down by bacteria under conditions that are anaerobic (there is no oxygen). natural gas and permafrost. Methane is one of the simplest alkanes and yet it is an important fuel source. (c) What type of reaction has taken place in this example? 5. The ’octane rating’ of petrol refers to the percentage of the petrol which is C8 H18 . is that methane itself is a greenhouse gas and has a much higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide.g. (c) Explain what is meant by the statement that methane ’has a greater global warming potential than carbon dioxide’. methane can also be produced when organic wastes (e. Chlorine and ethane react to form chloroethane and hydrogen chloride.CHAPTER 9. (a) What is the structural formula of methane? (b) Write an equation to show the reaction that takes place when methane is burned as a fuel. (b) Write the general formula of the alkanes. One of the advantages of methane over other fuels like coal. Methane occurs naturally in wetlands. The production of methane in this way is very important because methane can be used as a fuel source. So.4-trimethylpentane. Petrol (C8 H18 ) is in fact not pure C8 H18 but a mixture of various alkanes.2. producing methane may in fact have an even more dangerous impact on the environment.7 H (b) (c) CH3 CH3 2. (b) Give the structural formula of chloroethane. (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. 93 octane fuel contains 93% C8 H18 and 7% other alkanes. Give the IUPAC name for each of the following alkanes: (a) C6 H14 H H H H C C H C H H C H H C H H 9.4-trimethylpentane. However. proteins or fats which are broken down by acid-forming bacteria into simple organic acids such as acetic acid or formic acid. 4. (IEB pg 25) 165 . The problem however. For example. using molecular formulae.

it is called a diene and if it has three double bonds it is called a triene. The simplest alkene is ethene (also known as ethylene). there is at least one double bond between two carbon atoms. They have the general formula Cn H2n .5 The alkenes In the alkenes. which is shown in figure 9. (b) condensed structural and (c) molecular structure representations of propene The elkenes have a variety of uses. This means that they are unsaturated and are more reactive than the alkanes. the elkenes also form a homologous series. This molecule is known as propene (figure 9.6 Naming the alkenes Similar rules will apply in naming the alkenes.14: The (a) structural.9. ORGANIC MOLECULES . H (a) H C C H (b) H CH2 CH2 (c) C2 H4 Figure 9. It is used as a monomer to make polypropylene and is also used as a fuel gas for other industrial processes. Propene is an important compound in the petrochemicals industry.15). (b) condensed structural and (c) molecular structure representations of ethene As with the alkanes. as for the alkanes.15: The (a) structural. H (a) H C H H C C H (b) CH3 CHCH2 H (c) C3 H6 Figure 9.GRADE 12 9.7. Ethylene for example is a hormone in plants that stimulates the ripening of fruits and the opening of flowers. Worked Example 42: Naming the alkenes Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: 166 .7.14.7 CHAPTER 9. Note that if an alkene has two double bonds. 9. The second alkene in the series would therefore be C3 H6 .

the carbon atoms must be numbered so that the double or triple bond is at the lowest numbered carbon. There is no number immediately before the suffix which means that the double bond must be at the first carbon in the chain. ORGANIC MOLECULES . or from the right to left.7 H H C(1) H H C(2) H C(3) H C(4) H H Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The compound is an alkene and will have the suffix -ene. Step 3 : Look for any branched groups There is a methyl group at the third carbon atom in the chain. Step 5 : Name the compound The name of this compound is but-2-ene. The position of the bond will come just before the suffix in the compound’s name. Step 4 : Combine this information to draw the structural formula for this molecule. The double bond will still fall between C2 and C3 . In this case. it doesn’t matter whether we number the carbons from the left to right. Step 4 : Look for any branched groups. 167 . Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain There are four carbon atoms in the longest chain and so the prefix for this compound will be ’but’. Step 2 : Determine the number of carbons in the longest chain The prefix for the compound is ’but’ so there must be four carbons in the longest chain. Worked Example 43: Naming the alkenes Question: Draw the structural formula for the organic compound 3-methyl-butene Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The suffix -ene means that this compound is an alkene and there must be a double bond in the molecule. Step 3 : Number the carbon atoms Remember that when there is a double or triple bond.GRADE 12 9. name them and give their position on the carbon chain There are no branched groups in this molecule.CHAPTER 9.

There is a double bond between the first and second carbons and also between the third and forth carbons. The organic compound is therefore a ’diene’. The carbon atoms are numbered 1 to 4 in the diagram above.2-ethyl-1.3 diene.GRADE 12 H H H C H C C H C H H C H H H Worked Example 44: Naming the alkenes Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: CH3 H H C(1) CH2 C(2) H C(3) H C(4) H Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The compound is an alkene and will have the suffix -ene. C5 H10 2. CH3 CHCHCH3 168 . name them and give their position on the carbon chain There is a methyl group on the first carbon and an ethyl group on the second carbon. Step 4 : Name the compound The name of this compound is 1-methyl.9. Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain and number the carbon atoms There are four carbon atoms in the longest chain and so the prefix for this compound will be ’but’. Exercise: Naming the alkenes Give the IUPAC name for each of the following alkenes: 1. ORGANIC MOLECULES . Step 3 : Look for any branched groups. Remember that the main carbon chain must contain both the double bonds.7 CHAPTER 9.

As with the alkanes. saturated bond is formed. Halogenation reactions CH2 = CH2 + HBr → CH3 − CH2 − Br (figure 9.7 9.16: A hydrogenation reaction 2. while those with five or more carbon atoms are liquids. except that the alkenes are more reactive because they are unsaturated.17) H H C H C H + HBr H H C H Figure 9. Hydrogenation reactions A catalyst such as platinum is normally needed for these reactions CH2 = CH2 + H2 → CH3 − CH3 (figure 9. ORGANIC MOLECULES .7 The properties of the alkenes The properties of the alkenes are very similar to those of the alkanes.CHAPTER 9. The double bond is broken and a single. C C H C H C H H 9. water and the halogens. 9.16) H H C H C H + H2 H H C H Figure 9.7.18) H C H Br H C H H 169 .7.GRADE 12 H H 3. The formation of alcohols CH2 = CH2 + H2 O → CH3 − CH2 − OH (figure 9. The following are some examples: 1.8 Reactions of the alkenes Alkenes can undergo addition reactions because they are unsaturated.17: A halogenation reaction 3. compounds that have four or less carbon atoms are gases at room temperature. They readily react with hydrogen. A new group is then added to one or both of the carbon atoms that previously made up the double bond.

18: The formation of an alcohol Exercise: The Alkenes 1. is more reactive? Explain your answer. Describe what happens to the melting point and boiling point as the number of carbon atoms in the compound increases. ORGANIC MOLECULES . Refer to the data table below which shows the melting point and boiling point for a number of different organic compounds. hexane or hexene. (b) What is the name of the product? (c) What type of reaction is this? 170 . The following reaction takes place: CH3 CHCH2 + H2 → CH3 CH2 CH3 (a) Give the name of the organic compound in the reactants. Formula C4 H10 C5 H12 C6 H14 C4 H8 C5 H10 C6 H12 Name Butane Pentane Hexane Butene Pentene Hexene Melting point (0 C) -138 -130 -95 -185 -138 -140 Boiling point (0 C) -0.5 36 69 -6 30 63 (a) At room temperature (approx. Explain why this is the case.9. How do their melting points and boiling points compare? ii. (c) If you look at an alkane and an alkene that have the same number of carbon atoms. i..GRADE 12 H H C H C H + H2 O H H C H H C H OH Figure 9... i.. 3. gases ii. liquids (b) In the alkanes. ii. Give the IUPAC name for each of the following organic compounds: H H C H C H C H H (a) (b) CH3 CHCH2 H C H C H H 2.7 CHAPTER 9. 250 C). which of the organic compounds in the table are: i. Can you explain why their melting points and boiling points are different? (d) Which of the compounds.

The simplest alkyne is ethyne (figure 9.7. Acetylene can be produced through the following reactions: CaO + 3C → CaC2 + CO CaCO3 → CaO CaC2 + 2H2 O → Ca(OH)2 + C2 H2 An important use of acetylene is in oxyacetylene gas welding. and this is enough to melt metal. Worked Example 45: Naming the alkynes Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: CH3 CH CH3 CH2 C C CH3 Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group 171 . also known as acetylene.19).GRADE 12 (d) Which compound in the reaction is a saturated hydrocarbon? 9.7.CHAPTER 9.10 Naming the alkynes The same rules will apply as for the alkanes and alkenes. H C C H Figure 9. An incredibly high heat is produced. ORGANIC MOLECULES . except that the suffix of the name will now be -yne. The fuel gas burns with oxygen in a torch. 9.7 9. there is at least one triple bond between two of the carbon atoms. Their general formula is Cn H2n−2 .19: Ethyne (acetylene) teresting The raw materials that are needed to make acetylene are calcium carbonate and Interesting Fact Fact coal. They are unsaturated compounds and are therefore highly reactive.9 The Alkynes In the alkynes. Many of the alkynes are used to synthesise other chemical products.

Exercise: The alkynes Give the IUPAC name for each of the following organic compounds. Step 3 : Number the carbons in the longest chain In this example. name them and show the number of the carbon atom to which the group is attached There is a methyl (CH3 ) group attached to the fifth carbon (remember we have numbered the carbon atoms from right to left). The triple bond is at the second carbon. Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain and give the compound the correct prefix If we count the carbons in a straight line.GRADE 12 There is a triple bond between two of the carbon atoms.9.20). The prefix of the compound’s name will be ’hex’. The suffix will be -yne.8 The Alcohols An alcohol is any organic compound where there is a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) bound to a carbon atom. C2 H2 3. 2. If we follow this order.8 CHAPTER 9. you will need to number the carbons from right to left so that the triple bond is between carbon atoms with the lowest numbers. ORGANIC MOLECULES . The general formula for a simple alcohol is Cn H2n+1 OH. H H C H 1. The simplest and most commonly used alcohols are methanol and ethanol (figure 9. so the suffix will in fact be 2-yne. CH3 CH2 CCH CH3 C H C C H 9. the name of the compound is 5-methyl-hex-2-yne. there are six. prefix. The alcohols have a number of different uses: • methylated spirits (surgical spirits) is a form of ethanol where methanol has been added • ethanol is used in alcoholic drinks • ethanol is used as an industrial solvent 172 . name ending according to the functional group and its position along the longest carbon chain. Step 4 : Look for any branched groups. Step 5 : Combine the elements of the name into a single word in the following order: branched groups. so this compound is an alkyne.

beer and yoghurt. When this hormone is not secreted in the right quantities. ethanol reduces the secretion of a hormone Interesting Fact Fact called antidiuretic hormone (ADH).8. The process of fermentation produces items such as wine. it can cause dehyration because too much water is lost from the body in the urine.8 OH C H H C H OH C H H Figure 9.GRADE 12 (a) H (b) H H 9. The effects of drinking too much alcohol can be reduced by drinking lots of water. 9. The role of ADH is to control the amount of water that the body retains. This is why people who drink too much alcohol can become dehydrated. To make wine. ORGANIC MOLECULES . In humans.) • ethanol is used as a solvent in medical drugs. and lethargy. grape juice is fermented to produce alcohol. dry mouth. This reaction is shown below: C6 H12 O6 → 2CO2 + 2C2 H5 OH + energy teresting Ethanol is a diuretic. and experience symptoms such as headaches.CHAPTER 9. 173 .1 Naming the alcohols The rules used to name the alcohols are similar to those already discussed for the other compounds. Part of the reason for the headaches is that dehydration causes the brain to shrink away from the skull slightly.20: (a) methanol and (b) ethanol • methanol and ethanol can both be used as a fuel and they burn more cleanly than gasoline or diesel (refer to chapter 21 for more information on biofuels as an alternative energy resource. except that the suffix of the name will be different because the compound is an alcohol. perfumes and vegetable essences • ethanol is an antiseptic teresting Interesting Fact Fact ’Fermentation’ refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast (a fungus).

The compound will have the suffix -ol. Worked Example 47: Naming alcohols 2 Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: OH H C1 H OH C2 H H C3 H H C4 H H 174 . ORGANIC MOLECULES .GRADE 12 H H C1 H OH C2 H H C3 H H Worked Example 46: Naming alcohols 1 Question: Give the IUPAC name for the following organic compound Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The compound has an -OH (hydroxyl) functional group and is therefore an alcohol. Step 5 : Combine the elements of the compound’s name into a single word in the order of branched groups. prefix. Step 3 : Number the carbons in the carbon chain In this case. it doesn’t matter whether you start numbering from the left or right. Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain There are three carbons in the longest chain. The hydroxyl group will still be attached to the middle carbon atom. name them and give their position on the carbon chain. the suffix becomes ’propan’ (similar to the alkane ’propane’). The compound’s name is propan-2-ol. numbered ’2’. Step 4 : Look for any branched groups.8 CHAPTER 9. but you still need to indicate the position of the hydroxyl group on the second carbon. name ending according to the functional group.9. The suffix will be -2-ol because the hydroxyl group is attached to the second carbon. There are no branched groups in this compound. The prefix for this compound will be ’prop’. Since there are only single bonds between the carbon atoms.

CHAPTER 9. The suffix will therefore become 1. name them and give their position on the carbon chain. The prefix for this compound will be ’butan’.2-diol. the carbon chain resists solubility. The hydroxyl group generally makes the alcohol molecule polar and therefore more likely to be soluble in water. Step 5 : Combine the elements of the compound’s name into a single word in the order of branched groups. There are two hydroxyl groups in the compound.8 Exercise: Naming the alcohols 1.GRADE 12 Answer Step 1 : Identify the functional group The compound has an -OH (hydroxyl) functional group and is therefore an alcohol. prefix. Alcohols with shorter carbon chains are usually more soluble than those with longer carbon chains. 9.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols The hydroxyl group affects the solubility of the alcohols. so there are two opposing trends in the alcohols. 175 .2-diol. There are no branched groups in this compound. Step 4 : Look for any branched groups. Step 3 : Number the carbons in the carbon chain The carbons will be numbered from left to right so that the two hydroxyl groups are attached to carbon atoms with the lowest numbers. Alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than the hydrocarbons because of the strong hydrogen bond between hydrogen and oxygen atoms. However.8.3-diol (c) 2-methyl-propanol 2. name ending according to the functional group. Step 2 : Find the longest carbon chain There are four carbons in the longest chain. Give the structural formula of each of the following organic compounds: (a) pentan-3-ol (b) butan-2. but you still need to indicate the position of the hydroxyl groups on the first and second carbon atoms. so the suffix will be -diol. ORGANIC MOLECULES . The compound’s name is butan-1. Give the IUPAC name for each of the following: (a) CH3 CH2 CH(OH)CH3 H CH3 (b) C OH CH2 CH2 CH3 9.

Benzoic acid (C6 H5 COOH) for example. The simplest carboxylic acid.GRADE 12 Alcohols can show either acidic or basic properties because of the hydroxyl group. in other words it is used to make other things such as methanal (formaldehyde).21. is shown in figure 9. Most methanol is used as an industrial feedstock. or in mixtures with petrol. Ethanol is also used as a solvent in many perfumes and cosmetics. ORGANIC MOLECULES .9 CHAPTER 9. is used as a food preservative. Give the structural formula for propan-2-ol. Write a balanced chemical equation for the combustion reaction of ethanol. or acetic acid. which is used in a variety of applications as a solvent. water and energy and can therefore be used as a fuel on its own. and they have a variety of uses. Explain why the alcohols are good solvents. which is also bonded to a hydroxyl group. ethanoic acid and methyl esters. ketones and carboxylic acids.9 Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are organic acids that are characterised by having a carboxyl group. this is a useful way for countries without an oil industry to reduce imports of petrol. or more commonly written as -COOH. these are then turned into other products. Propan-2-ol is another important alcohol. More complex organic acids also have a variety of different functions. 3. Our most common use of the word ’alcohol’ is with reference to alcoholic drinks. In a carboxyl group. O C H OH Figure 9. Because ethanol can be produced through fermentation. is the main component of vinegar. Methanoic acid (also known as formic acid) has the formula HCOOH and is found in insect stings. They also undergo oxidation reactions to form aldehydes. 9. Activity :: Case Study : The uses of the alcohols Read the extract below and then answer the questions that follow: The alcohols are a very important group of organic compounds. Questions 1. which has the formula -(C=O)-OH. Ethanoic acid (CH3 COOH). Methanol can also be used as a fuel. In most cases. methanoic acid. it produces carbon dioxide.9. teresting Interesting Fact Fact 176 . 2. The alcohol in drinks is in fact ethanol. But ethanol has many more uses apart from alcoholic drinks! When ethanol burns in air. an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom.21: Methanoic acid Carboxylic acids are widespread in nature. or as a petrol additive to improve combustion.

In other words. (d) Draw a graph to show the relationship between molecular mass (on the x-axis) and boiling point (on the y-axis) 177 .GRADE 12 9. (b) Draw the structural formula for butyric acid.9 A certain type of ant. the hydrogen tends to separate itself from the oxygen atom. the carboxyl group becomes a source of positivelycharged hydrogen ions (H+ ). 9.4 acid ethanoic 16. common name or IUPAC name. ORGANIC MOLECULES .22.6 acid propanoic -20. called formicine ants. (c) Give the molecular formula for caprylic acid. manufacture and secrete formic acid.8 acid -5.9.5 acid -4 -7.5 16.22: The dissociation of a carboxylic acid Exercise: Carboxylic acids 1.5 pentanoic -34. H H C C OH H H C C O− Hydrogen ion O O + H+ H Acetic acid H Acetate ion Figure 9. Why does the carboxyl group have acidic properties? In the carboxyl group. and then answer the questions that follow. Formula Common Source name formic acid CH3 CO2 H propionic acid CH3 (CH2 )2 CO2 H butyric acid valeric acid CH3 (CH2 )4 CO2 H caproic acid enanthic acid CH3 (CH2 )6 CO2 H caprylic acid ants vinegar milk butter valerian root goats vines goats IUPAC name melting point (0 C) methanoic 8.CHAPTER 9.1 Physical Properties Carboxylic acids are weak acids.3 boiling point (0 C) 101 118 141 164 186 205 223 239 (a) Fill in the missing spaces in the table by writing the formula. Refer to the table below which gives information about a number of carboxylic acids. in other words they only dissociate partially. which is used to defend themselves against other organisms that might try to eat them. This is shown in figure 9.

178 .23: The formation of an ester from an alcohol and carboxylic acid 9. H H C H methanol O H + H O O C H H H C H O O C H + H2 O methanoic acid methyl methanoate Figure 9. the organic compound is called a ketone. H C OH C H N H O H Figure 9. The simplest ketone is acetone. A new bond is formed between what remains of the alcohol and acid. If the functional group is on the end of the carbon chain. Suggest a reason for this trend. The suffix for an ester is -oate.10 CHAPTER 9. In the reaction. which contains three carbon atoms. Describe the trend you see. The name of the ester is a combination of the names of the alcohol and carboxylic acid. An example is shown in figure 9. form a molecule of water.24: A molecule of glycine 9. Glycine belongs to a group of organic compounds called amino acids. and an OH from the carboxlic acid. Most esters have a characteristic and pleasant smell.GRADE 12 i.9. One example is glycine. which are the building blocks of proteins. an ester is formed. the hydrogen atom from the hydroxyl group. ORGANIC MOLECULES . 9. ii. Organic compounds that contain this functional group are called amines.23.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters When an alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid.11 The Carbonyl Group The carbonyl group (-CO) consists of a carbon atom that is joined to an oxygen by a double bond. and to the carbon skeleton.10 The Amino Group The amino group has the formula -NH2 and consists of a nitrogen atom that is bonded to two hydrogen atoms. A ketone has the ending ’one’ in its IUPAC name.

it means that they have the same molecular formulae but different structural formulae. • A hydrocarbon is said to be saturated if it contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms for that molecule. based on the type of bonds between the carbon atoms. using its molecular formula. so it can bond with many other atoms. • All living organisms contain carbon. (a) What type of organic compound is ethyl methanoate? (b) Name the two reactants in this chemical reaction. The alkanes are all saturated compounds. • A functional group is a particular group of atoms within a molecule. Plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide in the air into organic compounds through the process of photosynthesis. amine or ketone. alkenes and alkynes. meaning that most organic molecules are non-polar. • It is the unique properties of the carbon atom that give organic compounds certain properties. often resulting in long chain structures.12 Summary • Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with organic molecules. 2. ester. (c) Give the structural formula of ethyl methanoate. It also forms mostly covalent bonds with the atoms that it bonds to. They can be further divided into the alkanes. structural formula or condensed structural formula. An organic molecule is one that contains carbon. Look at the list of organic compounds in the table below: Organic compound CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH NH2 CH2 COOH propyl ethanoate CH3 CHO Type of compound 9. esters. • The alkenes have at least one double bond between two of their carbon atoms. • The carbon atom has four valence electrons. Organic compounds can be grouped according to their functional group.GRADE 12 Exercise: Carboxylic acids. 179 .CHAPTER 9. Fossil fuels are another important source of carbon. (b) Give the name of the compounds that have been written as condensed structural formulae. amines and ketones 1. Animals and other organisms then feed on plants to obtain their own organic compounds. 9. • If two compounds are isomers. which give it certain reaction characteristics. • The alkanes have only single bonds between their carbon atoms and are unreactive. ORGANIC MOLECULES . They are the most reactive of the three groups. • The hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.12 (a) Complete the table by identifying each compound as either a carboxylic acid. They are more reactive than the alkanes. A chemical reaction takes place and ethyl methanoate is formed. • An organic compound can be represented in different ways. • The alkynes have at least one triple bond between two of their carbon atoms.

Those with shorter carbon chains are generally more soluble. • Many of the properties of the hydrocarbons are determined by their molecular structure.12 CHAPTER 9. Give one word for each of the following descriptions: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The The The The The group of hydrocarbons to which 2-methyl-propene belongs. • An ester is formed when an alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid. for medicinal purposes and in alcoholic drinks. Exercise: Summary exercise 1. The IUPAC rules for nomenclature are used in the naming of organic molecules. • The carboxylic acids have weak acidic properties because the hydrogen atom is able to dissociate from the carboxyl group. In a carboxyl group.GRADE 12 • A hydrocarbon is unsaturated if it does not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms for that molecule. If a double or triple bond is broken. which are the building blocks of proteins. which consists of an oxygen atom that is double-bonded to a carbon atom. name of the functional group that gives alcohols their properties. • The melting point and boiling point of the hydrocarbons increases as their number of carbon atoms increases. • The alcohols have a number of different uses including their use as a solvent. • There are three types of reactions that occur in the alkanes: substitution. ORGANIC MOLECULES . group of organic compounds that have acidic properties. • The amines are organic compounds that contain an amino functional group. The strong hydrogen bond between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the hydroxyl group gives alcohols a higher melting point and boiling point than other organic compounds. 180 . The hydroxyl group affects the solubility of the alcohols. In a ketone. • The alcohols share a number of properties because of the hydroxyl group. elimination and oxidation reactions. name of the organic compound that is found in alcoholic beverages. name of the organic compound that is found in vinegar. • An alcohol is an organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group (OH). The hydroxyl group also gives the alcohols both acidic and basic properties. • The molecular mass of the hydrocarbons determines whether they will be in the gaseous.9. the carbonyl group is on the end of the carbon chain. and their surface area. the bonds between atoms and molecules. Some amines belong to the amino acid group. • The carboxylic acids are organic acids that contain a carboxyl group with the formula COOH. • Organic compounds are named according to their functional group and its position in the molecule. which has the formula NH2 . and those with longer chains are less soluble. an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom. the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and the position of any double and triple bonds. liquid or solid phase at certain temperatures. • The alkenes undergo addition reactions because they are unsaturated. more hydrogen atoms can be added to the molecule. The alkenes and alkynes are examples of unsaturated molecules. • The ketones are a group of compounds that contain a carbonyl group. which is also bonded to a hydroxyl group.

What is responsible for this large difference in boiling point? (e) Give the IUPAC name and the structural formula of an isomer of butane.2-diol propan-1.2-trichlorobutane 1-chloro-2. The table below gives the boiling point of ten organic compounds. 1. (a) To which homologous series do the following compounds belong? i.2 and 3 ii.2.2.. (a) When 1-propanol is oxidised by acidified potassium permanganate. In each of the following questions.GRADE 12 2. Compounds 1.CHAPTER 9.3-triol is much higher than the boiling point of propan-1-ol.2. propanoic acid iii. iv. ii.12 (IEB 2003) 3. ORGANIC MOLECULES . propyl methanoate (IEB 2004) (b) What is the IUPAC name for the compound represented by the following structural formula? Cl H C H Cl C Cl H C H i. Write balanced equations for the following reactions: (a) Ethene reacts with bromine (b) Ethyne gas burns in an excess of oxygen (c) Ethanoic acid ionises in water 4.2-trichloro-3-methylpropane 1-chloro-2. methyl propanol iv. the possible product formed is.9 and 10 is the same. propane ii. iii.7 and 8 (b) Which of the above compounds are gases at room temperature? (c) What causes the trend of increasing boiling points of compounds 1 to 5? (d) Despite the fact that the length of the carbon chain in compounds 8.3-triol Formula CH4 C2 H6 C3 H8 C4 H10 C5 H12 CH3 OH C2 H5 OH C3 H7 OH CH3 CHOHCH2 OH CH2 OHCHOHCH2 OH Boiling Point (0 C) -164 -88 -42 0 36 65 78 98 189 290 The following questions refer to the compounds shown in the above table. Compounds 6.2-dichloro-3-methylpropane H H C H 9.2-dichlorobutane 1.. i. 181 . choose the one correct answer from the list provided.2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compound methane ethane propane butane pentane methanol ethanol propan-1-ol propan-1. the boiling point of propan-1.

give an equation for the reaction which takes place. 182 . esters ii.12 CHAPTER 9. aldehydes iv. 1. compound 1 ii. (IEB 2004 ) 5. 4.GRADE 12 (f) Which one of the above substances is used as a reactant in the preparation of the ester ethylmethanoate? (g) Using structural formulae. write an equation for the reaction which produces ethylmethanoate. ethylmethanoate iii. compound 4 (b) To which one of the following homologous series does compound 1 belong? i. compound 3 iv. methylpropanoate IEB 2005 6. Answer the following questions: (a) What is a homologous series? (b) A mixture of ethanoic acid and methanol is warmed in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid... Refer to the numbered diagrams below and then answer the questions that follow. propanoic acid ii. Using structural formulae. carboxylic acids (c) The correct IUPAC name for compound 3 is. 1 HO O C H C H H C H H C H H 2 HO H C H H C H H 3 H C C H C H Br C Br H 4 H H C H O C O H C H H (a) Which one of the above compounds is produced from the fermentation of starches and sugars in plant matter? i. i. 4. alcohols iii. compound 2 iii.4-dibromo-1-butyne iii.9.4-dibromo-1-butyne iv.4-dibromo-1-propyne (d) What is the correct IUPAC name for compound 4? i. i. methylethanoate iv.1-dibromo-3-butyne ii. ORGANIC MOLECULES . 2.

ORGANIC MOLECULES . Consider the organic compounds labelled A to E. Write down the structural formula for compound B. Write down the structural formula of an isomer of compound A that has only FOUR carbon atoms in the longest chain. CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 B. A. Give the balanced equation for the combustion of this compound in excess oxygen. What is the IUPAC name of the organic compound formed in this reaction? (c) Consider the following unsaturated hydrocarbon: 9. 183 . (IEB Paper 2. Give the IUPAC name for this compound. Methylamine E H H H H C H H H C C C C H H C H H H O C H C H H (a) (b) (c) (d) H Write a balanced chemical equation for the preparation of compound C using an alkane as one of the reactants.GRADE 12 ii. Write down the IUPAC name for compound E. C6 H6 C. ii.CHAPTER 9.12 H H C H C H C H C H H i. CH3 -Cl D. 2003) 7.

ORGANIC MOLECULES .GRADE 12 184 .9.12 CHAPTER 9.

A polymer can also be inorganic. The structural formula of ethene is is shown in figure 10. Ethene is the monomer which. When lots of similar monomers are joined together by covalent bonds. or monomers. a polymer called polyethene is formed. In this chapter. (a) H C H C H H (b) H C H H C H H C H H C H Figure 10. The examples shown below will help to make these concepts clearer. In an organic polymer. The key feature that makes a polymer different from other macromolecules. connected by covalent chemical bonds.1. To put it more simply. Polyethene is a cheap plastic that is used to make plastic bags and bottles. is the repetition of identical or similar monomers in the polymer chain. a macromolecule is a large molecule that forms when lots of smaller molecules are joined together.1 Polymers Some macromolecules are made up of lots of repeating structural units called monomers. 10.Grade 12 As its name suggests.Chapter 10 Organic Macromolecules .1: (a) Ethene monomer and (b) polyethene polymer 185 . a monomer is like a building block. Definition: Polymer Polymer is a term used to describe large molecules consisting of repeating structural units. forms the polymer polyethene. they form a polymer. 1. One example is the molecule ethene. in which case there may be atoms such as silicon in the place of carbon atoms. the monomers would be joined by the carbon atoms of the polymer ’backbone’. When lots of ethene molecules bond together. Polyethene Chapter 9 looked at the structure of a group of hydrocarbons called the alkenes. when joined to other ethene molecules. we will be taking a closer look at the structure and properties of different macromolecules. and at how they form.

Definition: Polymerisation In chemistry.2 How do polymers form? Polymers are formed through a process called polymerisation. after an addition reaction. monomer molecules are added to a growing polymer chain one at a time. H n C H H C H Figure 10. the monomer is an unsaturated compound which.1). Polypropene Another example of a polymer is polypropene (fig 10. The monomer is enclosed in brackets and the ’n’ represents the number of ethene molecules in the polymer. When molecules of ethene are joined to each other. polymerisation is a process of bonding monomers. but is stronger than polyethene and is used to make crates. fibres and ropes. Polypropene is also a plastic. and so it is impossible to draw the entire polymer. No small molecules are eliminated in the process. the only thing that changes is that the double bond between the carbon atoms in each ethene monomer is replaced by a single bond so that a new carbon-carbon bond can be formed with the next monomer in the chain. 186 . In other words. What this shows is that the ethene monomer is repeated an indefinite number of times in a molecule of polyethene. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . where ’n’ is any whole number.10. the structure of a polymer can be condensed and represented as shown in figure 10. An example of this type of reaction is the formation of polyethene from ethene (fig 10.GRADE 12 A polymer may be a chain of thousands of monomers. Rather. In this polymer.1 Addition polymerisation In this type of reaction. the monomer is the alkene called propene.2. where monomer molecules react together to form a polymer chain.2.2: A simplified representation of a polyethene molecule 2. (a) CH3 C H C H (b) CH3 C H C H CH3 C H H C H or n CH3 C H H C H H H Figure 10.2 CHAPTER 10.3: (a) Propene monomer and (b) polypropene polymer 10. becomes a saturated compound.3). Two types of polymerisation reactions are addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation. or single units together through a variety of reaction mechanisms to form longer chains called polymers. 10.

g. What type of polymerisation reaction has taken place to join these monomers to form the polymer? Answer Step 1 : Look at the structure of the repeating unit in the polymer to determine the monomer. unsaturated monomers combine to form a saturated polymer. In other words. 1. Cl or CH3 . it is the reactive end groups of the polymer chain that react in each propagation step. 2. Worked Example 48: Polymerisation reactions Question: A polymerisation reaction takes place and the following polymer is formed: W n C Y X C Z Note: W. The monomer must be an alkene. In this example. Chain propagation is the part where monomers are continually added to form a longer and longer polymer chain. They are simply added to each other. The monomer has a double bond between two carbon atoms. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES .2 There are three stages in the process of addition polymerisation. This is an addition reaction. propagation and termination 10. Initiation refers to a chemical reaction that triggers off another reaction. F. The monomer is: W C Y X C Z Step 2 : Look at the atoms and bonds in the monomer to determine which group of organic compounds it belongs to. 187 . No atoms are lost or gained for the bonds between monomers to form. H. To what group of organic compounds does this monomer belong? 3. During chain propagation. Step 3 : Determine the type of polymerisation reaction. Y and Z could represent a number of different atoms or combinations of atoms e.CHAPTER 10.GRADE 12 Extension: Initiation. to add a new monomer to the chain. Termination refers to a chemical reaction that destroys the reactive part of the polymer chain so that propagation stops. initiation is the starting point of the polymerisation reaction. the reactive part of the polymer is now in this last monomer unit so that propagation will continue. X. Once a monomer has been added. Give the structural formula of the monomer of this polymer.

Nylon replaced silk. Nylon Nylon was the first polymer to be commercially successful. sheets. 2.2 Condensation polymerisation In this type of reaction. Nearly all biological reactions are of this type. they are easily washed and dry quickly. The reaction is shown in figure 10. Polyethylene terephthalate is in fact a plastic Interesting Fact Fact which can also be used to make plastic drink bottles.4: An acid and an alcohol monomer react (a) to form a molecule of the polyester ’polyethylene terephthalate’ (b). and they are resistant to mildew. guitar strings and machine parts to name 188 . It is for these reasons that polyesters are being used more and more in textiles.2 CHAPTER 10. In the home.GRADE 12 10.4. PET is made from ethylene glycol (an alcohol) and terephthalic acid (an acid). and was used to make parachutes during World War 2.10. Polyester Polyesters are a group of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain. shoes. Together these form one water molecule which is lost during condensation reactions. a hydrogen atom is lost from the alcohol. Nylon is very strong and resistant. teresting Polyester is not just a textile. In the reaction. 1. This bond is called an ester linkage. the term polyester usually refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). A new bond is formed between an oxygen and a carbon atom. and a hydroxyl group is lost from the carboxylic acid. curtains. Polyesters have a number of characteristics which make them very useful. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . Polyester and nylon are examples of polymers that form through condensation polymerisation. Polyesters are stretched out into fibres and can then be made into fabric and articles of clothing. (a) HO CH2 CH2 ethylene glycol H2 O molecule lost OH + HO O C terephthalic acid O C OH (b) HO CH2 CH2 O ester linkage O C O C OH Figure 10. polyesters are used to make clothing. pillows and upholstery. They are resistant to stretching and shrinking. Many drink bottles are recycled by being reheated and turned into polyester fibres. and is used in fishing line. Although there are many forms of polyesters.2. carpets. This type of recycling helps to reduce disposal problems. toothbrush bristles. two monomer molecules form a covalent bond and a small molecule such as water is lost in the bonding process.

CHAPTER 10. teresting Nylon was first introduced around 1939 and was in high demand to make stockInteresting Fact Fact ings. when manufacturers were able to shift their focus from parachutes back to stockings. The following monomer is a reactant in a polymerisation reaction: H C H CH3 C CH3 (a) What is the IUPAC name of this monomer? (b) Give the structural formula of the polymer that is formed in this polymerisation reaction. In one of the worst disturbances. and so stockings became more difficult to buy.5). After the war.GRADE 12 10. as World War 2 progressed. (a) H H N (CH2 )4 H N H + HO O C (CH2 )4 O C OH H2 O molecule is lost (b) H H N (CH2 )4 H N O C (CH2 )4 O C OH amide linkage Figure 10. The bond that forms between the two monomers is called an amide linkage. nylon was used more and more to make parachutes.2 just a few. 40 000 women queued up for 13 000 pairs of stockings.5: An amine and an acid monomer (a) combine to form a section of a nylon polymer (b). (c) Is the reaction an addition or condensation reaction? 189 . However.6-diaminohexane) and an acid monomer (adipic acid) (figure 10. which led to fights breaking out! Exercise: Polymers 1. Nylon is formed from the reaction of an amine (1. a number of riots took place as women queued to get stockings. An amide linkage forms between a nitrogen atom in the amine monomer and the carbonyl group in the carboxylic acid. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES .

6. Below are some examples: • Hydrogen bonds between adjacent chains Polymers that contain amide or carbonyl groups can form hydrogen bonds between adjacent chains.GRADE 12 2.10. the product of the reaction (b) What is the name of the product? (Hint: The product is an ester) 10. Because polymer chains are so long.. The structural formula for urea is shown in figure 10.3 The chemical properties of polymers The attractive forces between polymer chains play a large part in determining a polymer’s properties. the greater will be the tensile strength and melting point of the polymer. The greater the strength of the intermolecular forces. Dipole bonding is not as strong as hydrogen bonding. A condensation reaction takes place between methanol and methanoic acid. methanol ii. Polymers that contain urea linkages would fall into this category. H C H Cl C H H C H Cl C H H C H Cl C H (a) (b) (c) (d) Give the structural formula of the monomer in this polymer. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . methanoic acid iii. It is usually the side groups on the polymer that determine what types of intermolecular forces will exist. The positive hydrogen atoms in the N-H groups of one chain are strongly attracted to the oxygen atoms in the C=O groups on another.3 CHAPTER 10. O C H2 N NH2 Figure 10..6: The structural formula for urea • Dipole-dipole bonds between adjacent chains Polyesters have dipole-dipole bonding between their polymer chains. these interchain forces are very important. Polymers that contain urea linkages have high tensile strength and a high melting point. (a) Give the structural formula for. The polymer below is the product of a polymerisation reaction. Has this polymer been formed through an addition or condensation polymerisation reaction? 3. i. so a polyester’s melting point and strength are lower 190 . What is the name of the monomer? Draw the abbreviated structural formula for the polymer.

the weaker bonds between the chains means that polyesters have greater flexibility. Examples of natural organic polymers include waxes from plants. Both of these groups of polymers play a very important role in our lives. in other words their shape can be changed and moulded. The greater the flexibility of a polymer. 10. fishing line to plumbing pipes. After this. We are going to take a look at two groups of organic polymers: plastics. which are usually synthetic or semi-synthetic and biological macromolecules which are natural polymers. where their properties of insulation and heat resistance are very important. An important use of rubber now is in vehicle tyres. Plastics may contain other substances to improve their performance.e. cellulose (a plant polymer used in fibres and ropes) and natural rubber from rubber trees. 10. the more likely it is to be moulded or stretched into fibres. is sensitive to temperature and becomes sticky and smelly in hot weather and brittle in cold weather. independently discovered that adding sulfur to raw rubber helped to stop the material from becoming sticky. while others are inorganic. It was only in the nineteenth century that it was discovered that plastics could be made by chemically changing natural polymers. Friedrich Ludersdorf of Germany and Nathaniel Hayward of the US. Their name comes from the fact that they are ’malleable’. strong and durable plastic. Definition: Plastic Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic polymers.4 than those of the polymers where there are hydrogen bonds between the chains. From cellphones to food packaging. Some are organic. But in many cases. a cheap.GRADE 12 10. Polyethene therefore has a lower melting point than many other polymers.4 Types of polymers There are many different types of polymers. For centuries before this. Their name comes from the fact that many of them are malleable. more elastic and much less sensitive to temperature. 191 . compact discs to electronic equipment. What these inventors had done was to improve the properties of a natural polymer so that it could be used in new ways. However.5 Plastics In today’s world. one that was not based on any material found in Interesting Fact Fact nature) was Bakelite. Organic polymers can be broadly grouped into either synthetic/semi-synthetic (artificial) or biological (natural) polymers. • Weak van der Waal’s forces Other molecules such as ethene do not have a permanent dipole and so the attractive forces between polyethene chains arise from weak van der Waals forces. in other words they have the property of plasticity. we can hardly imagine life without plastic. teresting The first true plastic (i. ”Plastics” cover a range of synthetic and semi-synthetic organic polymers. Natural rubber for example. Charles Goodyear discovered that heating this modified rubber made it more resistant to abrasion. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . where these properties of rubber are critically important. plastics have become a very important part of our daily lives. In 1834 two inventors. Some of these plastics are still used for example in electronic circuit boards.CHAPTER 10. these natural organic polymers didn’t have the characteristics that were needed for them to be used in specific ways. only natural organic polymers had been used.

8: Polyvinyl chloride teresting Interesting Fact Fact Many vinyl products have other chemicals added to them to give them particular properties. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES .5.1 The uses of plastics There is such a variety of different plastics available. which was produced in a variety of forms. a liquid hydrocarbon that is manufactured from petroleum. In the polystyrene polymer. Not only were worldwide natural rubber supplies limited. The side chains of PVC contain chlorine atoms. gutters. In PVC. • Synthetic rubber Another plastic that was critical to the World War 2 effort was synthetic rubber.8) is used in plumbing. Because many baby toys are made from PVC.7: The polymerisation of a styrene monomer to form a polystyrene polymer • Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (figure 10. called additives. • Polystyrene Polystyrene (figure 15. can leach out of the vinyl products. disposable eating utensils and a variety of other products.10. each having their own specific properties and uses. plasticizers are used to make PVC more flexible. electronic equipment.5 CHAPTER 10. H n H C C H Cl Figure 10. which give it its particular characteristics. Some of these chemicals.GRADE 12 10. 192 . most companies have stopped making PVC toys. In the USA. There are also concerns that some of the plasticizers added to PVC may cause a number of health conditions including cancer. the monomer is styrene. there is concern that some of these products may leach into the mouths of the babies that are chewing on them. wires and food packaging.2) is a common plastic that is used in model kits. CH2 CH2 CH CH CH2 CH CH2 CH polymerisation etc Figure 10. The following are just a few examples.

solid Exercise: Plastics 1. bottles and toys carpets and upholstery pipes.1 summarises the formulae. containers and car fittings. synthetic rubber also played an important part in the space race and nuclear arms race. smooth. One of the most well known polyethylene products is ’Tupperware’.5 but most rubber-producing areas were under Japanese control. The resulting polymer is called a copolymer.1: A summary of the formulae. properties and uses of some common plastics Name Polyethene (low density) Polyethene (high density) Polypropene Formula -(CH2 -CH2 )n -(CH2 -CH2 )n -[CH2 -CH(CH3 )]n Monomer CH2 =CH2 CH2 =CH2 CH2 =CHCH3 Properties soft.9) is more commonly known as ’Teflon’ and is most well known for its use in non-stick frying pans. and answer the questions that follow: 193 . It is a cheap. rigid CF2 =CF2 resistant. packaging non-stick surfaces. F C F F C F n F C F F C F Figure 10. Rubber was needed for tyres and parts of war machinery. Refer to the table below which shows a number of different copolymers of rubber. • Polyethene/polyethylene (PE) Polyethylene (figure 10. flooring toys.1) was discovered in 1933. Table 10. waxy solid rigid different grades: some are soft and others hard strong.GRADE 12 10. the sealable food containers designed by Earl Tupper and promoted through a network of housewives! • Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polytetrafluoroethylene (figure 10.CHAPTER 10. It is possible for macromolecules to be composed of more than one type of repeating monomer. After the war. Teflon is also used to make the breathable fabric Gore-Tex. electrical insulation Polyvinylchloride -(CH2 -CHCl)n (PVC) Polystyrene -[CH2 -CH(C6 H5 )]n Polytetrafluoroethylene -(CF2 -CF2 )n - CH2 =CHCl CH2 =CHC6 H5 hard.9: A tetra fluoroethylene monomer and polytetrafluoroethylene polymer Table 10. is one way of controlling the properties of the resulting material. flexible and durable plastic and is used to make films and packaging materials. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . Varying the monomers that combine to form a polymer. rigid Uses film wrap and plastic bags electrical insulation. properties and uses of some of the most common plastics.

Thermosetting plastics are generally stronger than thermoplastics and are better suited to being used in situations where there are high temperatures. melanine (used to make furniture). In your home. such as plants. Thermosetting plastics have strong covalent bonds between chains and this makes them very strong.10. They are not able to be recycled. coal and natural gas. Together. Bring them to school and show them to your group. Our whole world seems to be wrapped in plastic.5. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . Activity :: Case Study : Biodegradable plastics Read the article below and then answer the questions that follow. (c) In what ways would you expect the properties of SBR to be different from nitrile rubber? (d) Suggest a reason why the properties of these polymers are different. (b) Give the structural formula of the copolymer viton. most of the food we eat and many of the liquids we drink come encased in plastic. glassy state when it is cooled enough. In an effort to overcome these problems. Another problem is that traditional plastics are manufactured from non-renewable resources . find as many examples of different types of plastics that you can. vulcanised rubber.oil. This also means that these plastics can be easily stretched or moulded into any shape. Examples of thermoplastics include nylon.5 Monomer A H2 C=CHCl H2 C=CHC6 H5 CHAPTER 10. Examples include bakelite. polystyrene. it is cheap to manufacture and seems to last forever. Almost every product we buy. Plastic packaging provides excellent protection for the product. however.GRADE 12 Monomer B H2 C=CCl2 H2 C=C-CH=CH2 Copolymer Saran SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) Nitrile rubber Butyl rubber Viton Uses films and fibres tyres H2 C=CHCN H2 C=C(CH3 )2 F2 C=CF(CF3 ) H2 C=C-CH=CH2 H2 C=C-CH=CH2 H2 C=CHF adhesives and hoses inner tubes gaskets (a) Give the structural formula for each of the monomers of nitrile rubber. Lasting forever. polypropylene and PVC. is proving to be a major environmental problem. Thermosetting plastics differ from thermoplastics because once they have been formed. 2. 194 . These properties of thermoplastics are mostly due to the fact that the forces between chains are weak.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics A thermoplastic is a plastic that can be melted to a liquid when it is heated and freezes to a brittle. use your examples to complete the following table: Object Type of plastic Properties Uses 10. polyethylene. Thermoplastics are more easily recyclable than some other plastics. they cannot be remelted or remoulded. and many glues. researchers and engineers have been trying to develop biodegradable plastics that are made from renewable resources.

The following are just some of the ways in which plastics can cause damage to the environment. Recycling It is very difficult to recycle plastics because each type of plastic has different properties and so different recycling methods may be needed for each plastic. 2.CHAPTER 10. Waste disposal Plastics are not easily broken down by micro-organisms and therefore most are not easily biodegradeable. the lactic acid is chemically treated to cause the molecules of lactic acid to link up into long chains or polymers. Finally. 2. plastics based on natural plant polymers that come from wheat or corn starch have molecules that can be more easily broken down by microbes. because PLA is much more expensive than normal plastics. The reason most plastics are not biodegradable is because their long polymer molecules are too large and too tightly bonded together to be broken apart and used by decomposer organisms. 4. What do you think could be done to make biodegradable plastics more popular with consumers? 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . there is also an environmental price that has to be paid for their use.GRADE 12 The term biodegradable means that a substance can be broken down into simpler substances by the activities of living organisms. and certain blends have proved successful in medical implants. sutures and drug delivery systems because they are able to dissolve away over time. it has not become as popular as one would have hoped. attempts are being made to find ways of recycling plastics more effectively. Air pollution When plastics burn. In your own words. would you choose to buy a biodegradable plastic rather than another? Explain your answer. then microorganisms transform it into lactic acid. PLA can be used for products such as plant pots and disposable nappies. However. Explain why lactic acid is a more useful monomer than starch. 5. because it is soluble in water. Starch is a natural polymer. and this limits its use. granular carbohydrate produced by plants during photosynthesis and it serves as the plant’s energy store. This leads to waste dispoal problems. 195 . a monomer. articles made from starch will swell and deform when exposed to moisture. Questions 1. while others can be ground up and used as a filler. wheat or potatoes. However. they can produce toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. If you were a consumer (shopper). Many plants contain large amounts of starch. explain what is meant by a ’biodegradable plastic’. and therefore is unlikely to remain in the environment.5. Starch can be processed directly into a bioplastic but. starch is harvested from corn. 3. It has been commercially available in some countries since 1990. It is a white. However. Some plastics can be remelted and re-used.5 10. First. when making a biodegradable plastic. 3. Using your knowledge of chemical bonding. This problem can be overcome by changing starch into a different polymer.3 Plastics and the environment Although plastics have had a huge impact globally. explain why some polymers are biodegradable and others are not. hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride (particularly from PVC and other plastics that contain chlorine and nitrogen). which bond together to form a plastic called polylactide (PLA). 1. However.

10. Beginning on Friday. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES .” South Africa is awash in plastic pollution. It is difficult sometimes to imagine exactly how much waste is produced in our country every year.6 CHAPTER 10. Do you think this has helped the situation? 4. Plastic bags are such a common eyesore that they are dubbed ”roadside daisies” and referred to as the national flower. plastics should be re-used. plastic shopping bags used in the country must be both thicker and more recyclable. This process is difficult to do with machinery. 196 . What has South Africa done to try to reduce the number of plastic bags that are produced? 3. In many countries. Where does all of this go to? You are going to do some simple calculations to try to estimate the volume of plastic packets that is produced in South Africa every year. Activity :: Case Study : Plastic pollution in South Africa Read the following extract. breadth and depth of your squashed plastic bag. Take a plastic shopping packet and squash it into a tight ball. shoppers must now pay for plastic bags. What can you do to reduce the amount of plastic that you throw away? 10. and then answer the questions that follow. a move officials hope will stop people from simply tossing them away. (b) Calculate the approximate volume that is occupied by the packet.” said Phindile Makwakwa.6 Biological Macromolecules A biological macromolecule is one that is found in living organisms. how many clasrooms would be filled if all of these bags were thrown away and not re-used? 2. proteins and nucleic acids. Biological macromolecules include molecules such as carbohydrates. and therefore needs a lot of labour. breadth and height. This encourages people to collect and re-use the bags they already have. Lipids are also biological macromolecules. spokeswoman for the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. (c) Now calculate the approximate volume of your classroom by measuring its length. Alternatively. ”But this is mostly about changing people’s mindsets about the environment. They are essential for all forms of life to survive. taken from ’Planet Ark’ (September 2003). Bill Naude of the Plastics Federation of South Africa said the country used about eight billion plastic bags annually. (a) Measure the approximate length. a figure which could drop by 50 percent if the new law works. (d) Calculate the number of squashed plastic packets that would fit into a classroom of this volume. including South Africa. 1. ”Government has targeted plastic bags because they are the most visible kind of waste. South Africa launches a programme this week to exterminate its ”national flower” .the millions of used plastic bags that litter the landscape. (e) If South Africa produces an average of 8 billion plastic bags each year.GRADE 12 one of the problems with recycling plastics is that they have to be sorted according to plastic type.

During photosynthesis. In the carbohydrate monomers. hydrogen and oxygen. glucose and oxygen react to produce carbon dioxide. water and ATP energy. and also for the other animals and organisms that may feed on it. every carbon except one has a hydroxyl group attached to it. 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES .1 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include the sugars and their polymers. The reaction for cellular respiration is as follows: 6C6 H12 O6 + 602 → 6CO2 + 6H2 O + ATP (cell energy) 197 . which takes place in plants. (a) O C1 H OH C2 H H C3 OH OH C4 H OH C5 H OH C6 H H CH2 OH (b) H C5 H C4 OH OH C3 H O C1 OH H H C2 OH Figure 10. water and carbon dioxide are involved in a chemical reaction that produces glucose and oxygen. ATP is a type of energy that can be used by the body’s cells so that they can function normally. The photosynthesis reaction is as follows: 6CO2 + 6H2 O + sunlight → C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 Glucose is an important source of energy for both the plant itself. During this reaction. which is a chemical reaction that occurs in the cells of all living organisms.10). The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form.6. sunlight (solar energy). These molecules are essential to the survival of life. One of the most important monomers in the carbohydrates is glucose (figure 10. One key characteristic of the carbohydrates is that they contain only the elements carbon. Glucose plays a critical role in cellular respiration. The purpose of eating then.GRADE 12 10. is to obtain glucose which the body can then convert into the ATP energy it needs to be able to survive.6 Definition: Biological macromolecule A biological macromolecule is a polymer that occurs naturally in living organisms. This glucose is stored in various ways in the plant. and the remaining carbon atom is double bonded to an oxygen atom to form a carbonyl group.CHAPTER 10.10: The open chain (a) and cyclic (b) structure of a glucose molecule Glucose is produced during photosynthesis.

This is why potatoes are such a good source of energy.6 CHAPTER 10. (a) H CH2 OH C5 H C4 OH OH C3 H O C OH H + OH H CH2 OH C5 H C4 OH C3 H O C OH H H C2 OH H C2 OH (b) H CH2 OH C5 C4 OH H H C3 H C2 OH O C H O H CH2 OH C5 O C H + H2 O OH H C4 OH C3 H H C2 OH Figure 10. Starch and cellulose are two example of carbohydrates that are polymers composed of glucose monomers. However.10. • Cellulose Cellulose is also made up of chains of glucose molecules. use these organisms to break cellulose down into glucose. More often. rather than as starch. we eat complex carbohydrates that our bodies have to break down into individual glucose molecules before they can be used in cellular respiration.11). Animals are also able to store glucose. fungi and some protozoa are able to break down cellulose.11: Two glucose monomers (a) undergo a condensation reaction to produce a section of a carbohydrate polymer (b). ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . which they can then use more easily. Many animals. including termites and cows. teresting It is very difficult for animals to digest the cellulose in plants that they Interesting Fact Fact may have been feeding on. but in this case it is stored as a compound called glycogen. 198 .GRADE 12 We don’t often eat glucose in its simple form. Cellulose is found in the cell walls of plants and is used by plants as a building material. but the bonding between the polymers is slightly different from that in starch. One molecule of water is produced for every two monomers that react. which form through condensation polymerisation reactions (figure 10. These complex carbohydrates are polymers. Potatoes are made up almost entirely of starch. and consists of long chains of glucose monomers. • Starch Starch is used by plants to store excess glucose.

while serine has a polar side chain. and they carry out a number of functions such as support. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . the side chain consists only of a hydrogen atom. alanine and serine Although each of these amino acids has the same basic structure. If the side chain is polar. The amino group therefore attracts the hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group. then the amino acid is hydrophilic.12: Three amino acids: glycine.6 10. Amongst other things. Carboxyl group H H2 N Amino group C H C OH Side chain (’R’) glycine alanine O H2 N H C CH3 C OH O H H2 N C CH2 OH serine C O OH Figure 10. The carboxyl group from which the hydrogen ion has been taken then has a charge of -1.GRADE 12 10.OH. 199 .6. storage and transport within the body.CHAPTER 10. while alanine has a methyl side chain. Glycine and alanine both have non-polar side chains. their side chains (’R’ groups) are different.2 Proteins Proteins are an incredibly important part of any cell. and ends up having a charge of +1. In the amino acid glycine. The monomers of proteins are called amino acids. Extension: Charged regions in an amino acid In an amino acid. the amino group acts as a base because the nitrogen atom has a pair of unpaired electrons which it can use to bond to a hydrogen ion. and is sometimes simply represented by the letter ’R’ in a molecule’s structural formula. An amino acid is an organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group. The carbon side chain varies from one amino acid to the next. Figure 10. the side chains affect whether the amino acid is hydrophilic (attracted to water) or hydrophobic (repelled by water). but if the side chain is non-polar then the amino acid is hydrophobic.12 shows some examples of different amino acids. The ’R’ group in serine is CH2 . The amino acid glycine can therefore also be represented as shown in the figure below. as well as a carbon side chain.

this seems like a very small number. especially considering the huge number of different 200 . This results in even more irregular contortions of the protein. Polypeptides can vary in length from a few amino acids to a thousand or more.13) to form a polypeptide chain. (a) H2 N H C H C O + OH Peptide bond H2 N H C CH3 C O OH (b) H2 N H C H O C N H H C CH3 C O + H2 O OH Figure 10. As the chain grows in size. The reaction is a condensation reaction.GRADE 12 H H3 N+ C H glycine C O O− When two amino acid monomers are close together. . The different parts of the polypeptide are held together by hydrogen bonds. At first. they may be joined to each other by peptide bonds (figure 10. which form between hydrogen atoms in one part of the chain and oxygen or nitrogen atoms in another part of the chain. This is known as the secondary structure of the protein. in this coiled helical structure. All cells. curl and fold upon itself. bonds may form between the side chains (R groups) of the amino acids. It is the sequence of the amino acids in the polymer that gives a protein its particular properties.6 CHAPTER 10. both plant and Interesting Fact Fact animal.13: Two amino acids (glycine and alanine) combine to form part of a polypeptide chain. The amino acids are joined by a peptide bond between a carbon atom of one amino acid and a nitrogen atom of the other amino acid.10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . Sometimes. The sequence of the amino acids in the chain is known as the protein’s primary structure. teresting There are twenty different amino acids that exist. The polpeptide chains are then joined to each other in different ways to form a protein. it begins to twist. build their proteins from only twenty amino acids. This is called the tertiary structure of the protein.

Enzymes play an important role in all cellular reactions such as respiration. Most food packaging has a label that provides this information. is a protein that contains iron. In an effort to lose weight. Haemoglobin has an affinity (attraction) for oxygen and so this is how oxygen is transported around the body in the blood. In order to keep our bodies healthy. Look at the list of diets below: • Vegetarian diet • Low fat diet • Atkin’s diet 201 . proteins and fats. photosynthesis and many others.6 The functions of proteins Proteins have a number of functions in living organisms. Plants store proteins in their seeds to provide energy for the new growing plant. 2. Activity :: Research Project : Macromolecules in our daily diet 1. • Structural proteins such as collagen in animal connective tissue and keratin in hair. Haemoglobin in the blood for example. Our bodies also need certain essential vitamins and minerals. horns and feather quills. 10. Digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase in your saliva. is a hormonal protein that controls the sugar levels in the blood. • Enzymes are chemical catalysts and speed up chemical reactions. • Transport proteins transport other substances in the body. Look at the food label for each. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . many people choose to diet. if you consider that most proteins are made up of polypeptide chains that contain at least 100 amino acids. help to break down polymers in food. Fats are an important source of energy. • Storage proteins such as albumin in egg white provide a source of energy. There are many diets on offer. and they also provide a protective layer around many vital organs. they provide insulation for the body.CHAPTER 10. Insulin for example. all provide support. Choose a number of different food items that you eat. • Hormonal proteins coordinate the body’s activities. it is important that we eat a balanced diet with the right amounts of carbohydrates. However. you will start to realise the endless possible combinations of amino acids that are available. each of which is based on particular theories about how to lose weight most effectively.GRADE 12 proteins that exist. and then complete the following table: Food Carbohydrates Proteins (%) Fats (%) (%) (a) Which food type contains the largest proportion of protein? (b) Which food type contains the largest proportion of carbohydrates? (c) Which of the food types you have listed would you consider to be the ’healthiest’ ? Give a reason for your answer.

consisting of three glucose molecules. DNA is the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents.6. But what controls how the amino acids arrange themselves to form the specific proteins that are needed by an organism? This task is for the gene. (c) What is the chemical formula for the carbon side chain in the second monomer? (d) Name the bond that forms between the monomers of the polypeptide. The following polypeptide is the end product of a polymerisation reaction: H H2 N C CH3 O C N H H C CH2 SH O C N H H C H C O OH (a) Give the structural formula of the monomers that make up the polypeptide. 10.GRADE 12 • Weight Watchers For each of these diets. label the amino group and the carboxyl group. Give the structural formula for each of the following: (a) A polymer chain. Write balanced equations to show the polymerisation reactions that produce the polymers described above. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . (b) On the structural formula of the first monomer. 3. a phosphate and a nitrogenous base.10. answer the following questions: (a) What theory of weight loss does each type of diet propose? (b) What are the benefits of the diet? (c) What are the potential problems with the diet? Exercise: Carbohydrates and proteins 1. 202 .6 CHAPTER 10. Another nucleic acid is RNA (ribonucleic acid).3 Nucleic Acids You will remember that we mentioned earlier that each protein is different because of its unique sequence of amino acids. The diagram in figure 10. It is DNA that provides the genetic coding that is needed to form the specific proteins that an organism needs. 2. The DNA polymer is made up of monomers called nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three parts: a sugar. (b) A polypeptide chain. consisting of two molecules of alanine and one molecule of serine. A gene contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which is a polymer that belongs to a class of compounds called the nucleic acids.14 may help you to understand this better.

the body produces a protein called sickle haemoglobin. So. Because of one wrong nucletide in the genetic code.6 nucleotide DNA polymer made up of four nucleotides Figure 10. Table 10. teresting A single defect in even one nucleotide. Exercise: Nucleic acids 203 . if the nitrogenous bases on three nucleotides are uracil. can’t get to the tissues where they are needed. When sickle haemoglobin is produced. for example. whcih are carrying oxygen. This process damages the red blood cell membrane. This can cause serious organ damage. This then means that the red blood cells. it is easy to see how important nucleic acids are as the starting point of this process.2 shows some other examples of genetic coding for different amino acids. It is the sequence of the nitrogenous bases in a DNA polymer that will determine the genetic code for that organism. Three consecutive nitrogenous bases provide the coding for one amino acid. Haemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that helps to transport oxygen around the body. thymine (T) and uracil (U). Individuals who have sickle cell anaemia generally have a lower life expectancy. Interesting Fact Fact One example of this is a disease called sickle cell anaemia. can be devastating to an organism.14: Nucleotide monomers make up the DNA polymer There are five different nitrogenous bases: adenine (A). The polypeptide chain is built up in this way until it is long enough (and with the right amino acid sequence) to be a protein. cytosine and uracil (in that order). Since proteins control much of what happens in living organisms. the red blood cells change shape.GRADE 12 phosphate sugar nitrogenous base 10. and can cause the cells to become stuck in blood vessels. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . one serine amino acid will become part of the polypeptide chain. cytosine (C). guanine (G).CHAPTER 10.

• Polymers form through a process called polymerisation.2: Nitrogenouse base sequences and the corresponding amino acid Nitrogenous base sequence Amino acid UUU Phenylalanine CUU Leucine UCU Serine UAU Tyrosine UGU Cysteine GUU Valine GCU Alanine GGU Glycine 1. means that a bond can form with the next monomer. say whether the statement is true or false. • Polymers that contain carbon atoms in the main chain are called organic polymers. Give the structural formula of the polypeptide. • The polymer polyethene for example. write down the amino acid/s that will be part of the polypeptide chain. (e) A polypeptide that consists of five amino acids. give a reason for your answer.g. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . The breaking of a double bond between carbon atoms in the monomer. If the statement is false. natural rubber) or synthetic organic polymers (e.g.10. polystyrene). alkenes) are added to each other one by one. The sequence of nitrogenous bases in the nucleotides of the DNA is GCUGGUGCU. 2. (a) UUU (b) UCUUUU (c) GGUUAUGUUGGU 3. 204 .7 Summary • A polymer is a macromolecule that is made up of many repeating structural units called monomers which are joined by covalent bonds. For each of the following. 10. and therefore what characteristics they will have. The polymer polyethene is formed through an addition reaction.7 CHAPTER 10. (d) An amino acid is a protein monomer. For each of the following sequences of nitrogenous bases. • An addition reaction occurs when unsaturated monomers (e. (b) Thymine and uracil are examples of nucleotides.GRADE 12 Table 10.g. will also contain five nucleotides. (c) A person’s DNA will determine what proteins their body will produce. (a) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an example of a polymer and a nucleotide is an example of a monomer. • Two examples of polymerisation reactions are addition and condensation reactions. is made up of many ethene monomers that have been joined into a polymer chain. A polypeptide chain consists of three amino acids. • Organic polymers can be divided into natural organic polymers (e.

Polystyrene is used a lot in packaging.g. and is made up of monomers called nucleotides. • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) consists of vinyl chloride monomers. plastic bags. • Proteins have a number of important functions. is made from ethene monomers. • Examples of biological macromolecules include carbohydrates and proteins. PVC is used to make pipes and flooring. • One group of synthetic organic polymers. glycogen and cellulose.7 • In a condensation reaction. • Each nucleotide consists of a sugar. • An amino acid is an organic molecule.CHAPTER 10. and by the strength of the bonds between adjacent polymer chains. secondary and tertiary structure. which are joined by peptide bonds. The water molecule is made up of atoms that have been lost from each of the monomers. are the plastics. and the higher its melting point. transport. • Polytetrafluoroethylene is used in non-stick frying pans and electrical insulation. The stronger the bonds. • DNA is a nucleic acid. a phosphate and a nitrogenous base. storage. the greater the strength of the polymer. and are an important source of energy in living organisms. • Polyethene. • Glucose is a carbohydrate monomer. Examples of thermoset plastics are vulcanised rubber and melanine. It freezes to a brittle. hormonal proteins and enzymes. • The chemical properties of polymers (e. made up of a carboxyl and an amino group. Glucose is the molecule that is needed for photosynthesis in plants. tensile strength and melting point) are determined by the types of atoms in the polymer. DNA is a polymer. air pollution and recycling. • A thermoset plastic cannot be melted or re-shaped once formed. It is the sequence of the nitrogenous bases that provides the ’code’ for the arrangement of the amino acids in a protein. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . • A biological macromolecule is a polymer that occurs naturally in living organisms. and so they create environmental problems. as well as a carbon side chain of varying lengths. • Some of these environmental problems include issues of waste disposal. electrical insulation and bottles. glassy state when cooled very quickly. Polyesters and nylon are polymers that are produced through a condensation reaction. both of which are essential for life to survive. • A protein has a primary. or polyethylene. Examples of thermoplastics are polyethene and PVC. • Carbohydrates include the sugars and their polymers. • It is the DNA of an organism that determines the order in which amino acids combine to make a protein. • The glucose monomer is also a building block for carbohydrate polymers such as starch.GRADE 12 10. • It is not easy to recycle all plastics. Polyethene is used to make film wrapping. • A protein consists of monomers called amino acids. • Polystyrene is a plastic that is made up of styrene monomers. 205 . • A thermoplastic can be heated and melted to a liquid. a molecule of water is released as a product of the reaction. • It is the sequence of amino acids that determines the nature of the protein. These include their roles in structures.

(f) The monomer of DNA.. iv. 2. Suggest a reason why the melting point of PVC is higher than the melting point for polyethene. -(CH2 -CHCN)n iii. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . Give one word for each of the following descriptions: (a) A chain of monomers joined by covalent bonds. The polymer contains an ester linkage. Plastic Polyethene PVC Polyester Melting point (0 C) 105 . each of which has the formula CH2 =CHCN. The polymer contains an amide linkage.10. -(CH3 -CHCN)n (b) A polymer has the formula -[CO(CH2 )4 CO-NH(CH2 )6NH]n -. which determines the sequence of amino acids that will make up a protein. is the monomer of starch iv.115 212 260 206 . iii. The following monomers are involved in a polymerisation reaction: H H2 N C H O C OH + H2 N H C H O C OH (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Give the structural formula of the polymer that is produced. (e) A six-carbon sugar monomer. Which of the following statements is true? i. but lower than that for polyester. is a sugar polymer iii. (c) The bond that forms between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid monomer during a polymerisation reaction. (b) A polymerisation reaction that produces a molecule of water for every two monomers that bond. Is the reaction an addition or condensation reaction? To what group of organic compounds do the two monomers belong? What is the name of the monomers? What type of bond forms between the monomers in the final polymer? 4. The table below shows the melting point for three plastics.. (d) The name given to a protein monomer. choose the one correct answer from the list provided. -(CH2 =CHCN)n ii. ii. i. -(CH-CHCN)n iv.7 CHAPTER 10. is a polymer produced during photosynthesis 3. The formula of the polymer is: i. The polymer is a polyester. is a monomer that is produced during cellular respiration ii. The polymer is the product of an addition reaction. (c) Glucose. (a) A polymer is made up of monomers.GRADE 12 Exercise: Summary exercise 1. For each of the following questions.

CHAPTER 10. (a) Give the structural formula of this amino acid. An amino acid has the formula H2 NCH(CH2 CH2 SCH3 )COOH. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES . (b) What is the chemical formula of the carbon side chain in this molecule? (c) Are there any peptide bonds in this molecule? Give a reason for your answer.7 207 .GRADE 12 5. 10.

10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES .7 CHAPTER 10.GRADE 12 208 .

Part III Chemical Change 209 .

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H2 O(s) → H2 O(l) 211 . the form of matter may change. In this chapter. H2 O(l) → H2 O(g) Conduction (the transfer of energy through a material) is another example of a physical change. Once again. The same would be true if ice were to melt. During a physical change. the particles (e. In the solid phase. the particles have re-arranged themselves. some kind of change has taken place. the energy of each material is changed. The desks we sit at. It can change in many different ways. 11. are all examples of matter. As energy is transferred from one material to another. we are going to take a closer look at physical and chemical changes that occur in matter. the temperature and energy of the water molecules increases and the liquid water evaporates to form water vapour.Chapter 11 Physical and Chemical Change Grade 10 Matter is all around us. but not its identity. A change in temperature is an example of a physical change. the air we breathe and the water we drink. But matter doesn’t always stay the same. In the example of evaporation that we used earlier. There are some important things to remember about physical changes in matter: • Arrangement of particles When a physical change occurs. When this happens.1 Physical changes in matter A physical change is one where the particles of the substances that are involved in the change are not broken up in any way. Definition: Physical change A change that can be seen or felt. atoms. Dissolving one substance in another is also a physical change. but that doesn’t involve the break up of the particles in the reaction. but when the ice is heated. When water is heated for example. the molecules overcome the forces holding them together and they move apart. the water molecules move further apart as their temperature (and therefore energy) increases. but not its chemical makeup. This is an example of a physical change.g. water molecules are packed close together in a very ordered way. but have not broken up. molecules) may re-arrange themselves without actually breaking up in any way. but the molecular structure of the water has not changed.

11. Cl Cu Cl Cu + Cl Cl CuCl2 → Cu + Cl2 Figure 11. A simplified diagram of this reaction is shown in figure 11.2. Liquid water can be changed into ice by simply increasing the temperature. The breakdown of copper(II) chloride to form copper and chlorine is an example of chemical change. once the reaction is complete. There are some important things to remember about chemical changes: • Arrangement of particles 212 . but these energy changes are normally smaller than the energy changes that take place during a chemical change. One type of matter is changed into something different. new substances are formed in a chemical reaction. the water molecule itself stays the same. Water vapour for example. but the way the molecules are arranged has changed. These new products may have very different properties from the substances that were there at the start of the reaction.1 shows this more clearly. • Energy changes Energy changes may take place when there is a physical change in matter.2 Chemical Changes in Matter When a chemical change takes place.1: The arrangement of water molecules in the three phases of matter Figure 11. can be changed back to liquid water if the temperature is lowered. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE . the number of atoms and the number of molecules will always stay the same. In this reaction. the initial substance is copper(II) chloride but. the total mass. In each phase of water. • Reversibility Physical changes in matter are usually easier to reverse than chemical changes.2 CHAPTER 11. In a physical change. and so on. 11.2: The decomposition of copper(II) chloride to form copper and chlorine Definition: Chemical change The formation of new substances in a chemical reaction.GRADE 10 solid liquid gas Figure 11. the products are copper and chlorine.

However. This will be discussed in more detail in section ??.3) to form hydrogen and oxygen according to the following equation: 2H2 O2 → 2H2 O + O2 H O O H H O O H H O H H O H + O O Figure 11. Note: Because this experiment involves mercury. as does the total mass of the atoms.2.3: The decomposition of H2 O2 to form H2 O and O2 The decomposition of mercury (II) oxide is another example. The generalised equation for a decomposition reaction is: AB → A + B One example of such a reaction is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (figure 11. Apparatus: Mercury (II) oxide (an orange-red product). The number of particles will change because each one CuCl2 molecule breaks down into one copper atom (Cu) and one chlorine molecule (Cl2 ). PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE . 11. Bunsen burner.GRADE 10 11. wooden splinter. and then energy is released when the new product is formed.1 Decomposition reactions A decomposition reaction occurs when a chemical compound is broken down into elements or smaller compounds. • Energy changes The energy changes that take place during a chemical reaction are much greater than those that take place during a physical change in matter. a large beaker. what you should have noticed.2 During a chemical change. the particles themselves are changed in some way. is that the number of atoms of each element stays the same.CHAPTER 11. energy is used up in order to break bonds. 213 . which is a poisonous substance. it should be done in a fume cupboard. During a chemical reaction. the CuCl2 molecules were split up into their component atoms. This will be discussed in more detail in a later section. • Reversibility Chemical changes are far more difficult to reverse than physical changes. stopper and delivery tube. Two types of chemical reactions are decomposition reactions and synthesis reactions. two test tubes. Activity :: Experiment : The decomposition of mercury (II) oxide Aim: To observe the decomposition of mercury (II) oxide when it is heated. In the example of copper (II) chloride that was used earlier. and all the products of the reaction must be very carefully disposed of.

Conclusions: When mercury is heated. Then allow it to cool.11. a new product is formed from smaller elements or compounds.2 Synthesis reactions During a synthesis reaction. Put a small amount of mercury (II) oxide in a test tube and heat it gently over a Bunsen burner. the only change that took place was a change in colour from orange-red to black and then back to its original colour. Heat the test tube again. and note what happens. Test for the presence of oxygen using a glowing splinter. The generalised equation for a synthesis reaction is as follows: A + B → AB 214 . The chemical decomposition reaction that takes place can be written as follows: 2HgO → 2Hg + O2 11. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE . Results: • During the first heating of mercury (II) oxide.2. meaning that oxygen is present. Do you notice anything on the walls of the test tube? Record these observations. • When the test tube was heated again. What do you notice about the colour of the mercury (II) oxide? 2. it decomposes to form mercury and oxygen. What colour is this mercury? • The glowing splinter burst into flame when it was placed in the test tube. deposits of mercury formed on the inner surface of the test tube.GRADE 10 delivery tube rubber stopper bubbles of oxygen gas collecting in second test tube mercury (II) oxide water bunsen burner Method: 1.2 CHAPTER 11. 3.

Heat the test tube containing the mixture over the Bunsen burner. bunsen burner Method: 1. you will need to remove the test tube from the flame. Apparatus: 5.6 g iron filings and 3. 215 .GRADE 10 11.2 One example of a synthesis reaction is the burning of magnesium in oxygen to form magnesium oxide.4 shows the chemical changes that take place at a microscopic level during this chemical reaction. The equation for the reaction is: 2M g + O2 → 2M gO Figure 11. The test tube should be about 1/3 full. Once the reaction begins. 3. 4. 2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE . Before you carry out the experiment. Measure the quantity of iron and sulfur that you need and mix them in a porcelain dish.CHAPTER 11. write a balanced equation for the reaction you expect will take place. Record your observations. Mg Mg + O O Mg O Mg O Figure 11. test tube. Take some of this mixture and place it in the test tube.2 g powdered sulfur. porcelain dish. This reaction should ideally take place in a fume cupboard.4: The synthesis of magnesium oxide (MgO) from magnesium and oxygen Activity :: Experiment : Chemical reactions involving iron and sulfur Aim: To demonstrate the synthesis of iron sulfide from iron and sulfur. Increase the heat if no reaction takes place.

NaCl (table salt). 3. 2. if you run a magnet along the outside of the test tube? 6. iron sulfide. Test each substance with a magnet. Add a small spatula of NaCl to 5 ml water in a test tube and shake. NOTE: Be very careful when you handle this acid because it can cause major burns. magnet. and run a magnet alongside the outside of the test tube.5 g iron filings and 0. 0. 4 test tubes. Record your answers in the table below: Description Physical chemical change or Reason melting candle wax dissolving NaCl mixing NaCl with AgNO3 tearing magnesium ribbon adding HCl to magnesium ribbon mixing iron and sulfur heating iron and sulfur 216 . • The product. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE .5 g sulfur. sulfur.GRADE 10 5. 4. Make sure that the test tube is rolled in paper before you do this. the magnetism of iron)? Results: • After you removed the test tube from the flame. otherwise the glass will shatter everywhere and you may be hurt. 6. Now heat the test tube that contains the iron and sulfur. 5. Method: 1. It is an entirely new product. the mixture glowed a bright red colour. In each of the above cases. Place two of these pieces into a test tube and add a few drops of 6M HCl. Leave it to cool.2 CHAPTER 11. Conclusions: A synthesis reaction has taken place.11. Then use the pipette to add 10 drops of AgNO3 to the sodium chloride solution. is a dark colour and does not share any of the properties of the original reactants. Wait for the product to cool before breaking the test tube with a hammer. Questions: Decide whether each of the following changes are physical or chemical and give a reason for your answer in each case. small spatula. Mix the two samples in a test tube. What changes do you see? What happens now. pipette. 6M HCl. a birthday candle. iron filings. The equation for the reaction is: F e + S → F eS Activity :: Investigation : Physical or chemical change? Apparatus: Bunsen burner. The reaction is exothermic and produces energy.g. record your observations. Place a small amount of wax from a birthday candle into a test tube and heat it over the bunsen burner until it melts. magnesium ribbon.1M AgNO3 . Take about 0. a test tube rack and a test tube holder. What does the product look like? Does it look anything like the original reactants? Does it have any of the properties of the reactants (e. Take a 5 cm piece of magnesium ribbon and tear it into 1 cm pieces.

is a sudden increase in volume and release of energy when high temperatures are generated and gases are released. the change in energy is much smaller than in chemical reactions.CHAPTER 11. Definition: Conservation of energy principle Energy cannot be created or destroyed. is less than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. In the earlier part of this chapter. in the reaction. Despite all the energy changes that seem to take place during reactions. More simply. the energy of the water molecules increases. and energy is released when the product (MgO) forms. For bonds to break. the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants. An explosion.Total energy released when new bonds form So. the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants. although these may be arranged differently in the products. Energy that enters a system will have come from the surrounding environment. and energy that leaves a system will again become part of that environment. NH4 NO3 can be heated to generate nitrous oxide. This means that in the overall reaction. This is known as the law of conservation of mass.GRADE 10 11. Under these conditions. We will use two of our earlier examples of chemical reactions to demonstrate this: 217 .3 Energy changes in chemical reactions All reactions involve some change in energy. The total number of atoms of each element also remains the same during a reaction. However. energy must be absorbed from the surroundings.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions The total mass of all the substances taking part in a chemical reaction is conserved during a chemical reaction. and heating was needed for the reaction to occur. is more than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall reaction. In some reactions. Energy changes in chemical reactions result from the breaking and forming of bonds. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE . changes.. This type of reaction is known as an endothermic reaction. energy is released.3 11. it is highly sensitive and can detonate easily in an explosive exothermic reaction. and often violent. In other reactions. During a physical change in matter. for example.. it is important to remember that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Chemical reactions may produce some very visible. for example. meaning that energy was given off in the form of heat or light. most decomposition reactions were endothermic. Most of the synthesis reactions were exothermic. This type of reaction is known as an exothermic reaction. When new bonds form. we can describe the energy changes that take place during a chemical reaction as: Total energy absorbed to break bonds . energy must be absorbed. 2M g + O2 → 2M gO Energy is needed to break the O-O bonds in the oxygen molecule so that new Mg-O bonds can be formed. energy will be released because the new product has a lower energy than the ’inbetween’ stage of the reaction when the bonds in the reactants have just been broken. This principle is known as the principle of conservation of energy. some bonds will break. 11. When a chemical reaction occurs. such as the evaporation of liquid water to water vapour. For example. while new bonds may form. It can only be changed from one form to another.

GRADE 10 • The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen 2H2 O2 → 2H2 O + O2 H O O H H O O H H O H H O H + O O Left hand side of the equation Number of atoms of each element = (4 × H) + (4 × O) Right hand side of the equation Total atomic mass = (4 × 1) + (2 × 16) + (2 × 16) = 68 u Number of atoms of each element = (4 × H) + (4 × O) Total atomic mass = (4 × 1) + (4 × 16) = 68 u Both the atomic mass and the number of atoms of each element are conserved in the reaction.4 CHAPTER 11.3) + (2 × 16) = 80.11. Activity :: Demonstration : The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions Materials: • Coloured marbles or small balls to represent atoms. Each colour will represent a different element.6 u Number of atoms of each element = (2 × Mg) + (2 × O) Both the atomic mass and the number of atoms of each element are conserved in the reaction.3) + (2 × 16) = 80. 218 .6 u Number of atoms of each element = (2 × Mg) + (2 × O) Right hand side of the equation Total atomic mass = (2 × 24. • The synthesis of magnesium and oxygen to form magnesium oxide 2M g + O2 → 2M gO Mg Mg + O O Mg O Mg O Left hand side of the equation Total atomic mass = (2 × 24. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE .

This relationship is also known as Gay-Lussac’s Law. we see that 94% of the mass of a water molecule is accounted for by oxygen.6 Volume relationships in gases In a chemical reaction between gases. If we look at the relative masses of oxygen and hydrogen in a water molecule. 4. you will also see that the molecules in the reactants and products is not the same. 11. and the remaining 6% is the mass of hydrogen. use marbles to make the product molecules and place these on the other side of the table. 11. For example. What do you notice? 5. 219 . This mass proportion will be the same for any water molecule. the relative volumes of the gases in the reaction are present in a ratio of small whole numbers if all the gases are at the same temperature and pressure. in any particular chemical compound.5 Law of constant composition In any given chemical compound. In H2 O2 . Stick marbles together to represent the reactants and put these on one side of your table. in the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. The number of atoms is conserved during the reaction. In this example you may for example join one red marble (calcium). the H:O ratio is 1:1 and the mass ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 1:16. Now count the number of atoms on each side of the table. two volumes of H2 react with 1 volume of O2 to produce 2 volumes of H2 O.5 11. Multiple proportions are possible. This does not mean that hydrogen and oxygen always combine in a 2:1 ratio to form H2 O. The arrangement of atoms is not conserved during the reaction. For example. This is the law of constant proportions. 3. Observe whether there is any difference between the molecules in the reactants and the molecules in the products. To help to explain this activity. all samples of that compound will be made up of the same elements in the same proportion or ratio. The law of constant composition says that.GRADE 10 • Prestik Method: 1. For example. However. we will use the decomposition reaction of calcium carbonate to produce carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. any water molecule is always made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom in a 2:1 ratio. hydrogen and oxygen may combine in different proportions to form H2 O2 rather than H2 O. the elements always combine in the same proportion with each other. Leaving your reactants on the table.CHAPTER 11. Choose a reaction from any that have been used in this chapter or any other balanced chemical reaction that you can think of. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE . This will be the same for any molecule of hydrogen peroxide. Discussion You should have noticed that the number of atoms in the reactants is the same as the number of atoms in the product. CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO 2. one green marble (carbon) and three yellow marbles (oxygen) together to form the molecule calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ).

For example. one volume of nitrogen gas reacts with three volumes of hydrogen gas to produce two volumes of ammonia gas. • A chemical change occurs when one form of matter changes into something else. and are easily reversible. A chemical reaction involves the formation of new substances with different properties. If the energy released is less than the energy absorbed. the relative volumes of the gases in the reaction are present in a ratio of small whole numbers if all the gases are at the same temperature and pressure. energy is needed to break bonds in the reactants.GRADE 10 2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O In the reaction to produce ammonia. the energy and the arrangement of water molecules will change. and energy is released when new products form. • Physical changes involve small changes in energy. • Gay-Lussac’s Law states that in a chemical reaction between gases. It may undergo physical or chemical changes • A physical change means that the form of matter may change. These chemical reactions are not easily reversible. If the energy released is greater than the energy absorbed. Complete the following table by saying whether each of the descriptions is an example of a physical or chemical change: 220 . the arrangement of particles may change but the mass. all samples of that compound will be made up of the same elements in the same proportion or ratio. • The law of constant composition states that in any particular compound. number of atoms and number of molecules will stay the same. • During a physical change. CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 • A chemical change may involve a decomposition or synthesis reaction.7 Summary • Matter does not stay the same. but the number of molecules is not always the same. it can only change from one form to another. then the reaction is endothermic. • Chemical reactions involve larger changes in energy. N2 + 3H2 → 2N H3 This relationship will also be true for all other chemical reactions. For example.7 CHAPTER 11. carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid.11. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE . During a reaction. but not the structure of the water molecule itself. when water evaporates. • The conservation of energy principle states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. • The law of conservation of mass states that the total mass of all the substances taking part in a chemical reaction is conserved and the number of atoms of each element in the reaction does not change when a new product is formed. then the reaction is exothermic. the mass and number of atoms is conserved. but not its identity. • Decomposition reactions are usually endothermic and synthesis reactions are usually exothermic. 11. Exercise: Summary exercise 1. During chemical change.

CHAPTER 11. Physical chemical or 11. say whether it is an example of a synthesis or decomposition reaction: (a) (b) (c) (d) (N H4 )2 CO3 → 2N H3 + CO2 + H2 O 4F e + 3O2 → 2F e2 O3 N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) → 2N H3 CaCO3 (s) → CaO + CO2 CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO Show that the ’law of conservation of mass’ applies.GRADE 10 Description hot and cold water mix together milk turns sour a car starts to rust food digests in the stomach alcohol disappears when it is placed on your skin warming food in a microwave separating sand and gravel fireworks exploding 2. For the following equation: 221 . For each of the following reactions. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE .7 3.

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE .7 CHAPTER 11.11.GRADE 10 222 .

Know the state symbols for the equation We will look at each of these steps separately in the next sections.1 Chemical symbols It is very important to know the chemical symbols for common elements in the Periodic Table so that you are able to write chemical equations and to recognise different compounds. there are a number of important things that need to be done: 1. the reactants are ammonia and oxygen. we could represent these changes either in words or using chemical symbols: iron + sulfur → iron sulfide or F e + S → F eS Another example would be: ammonia + oxygen → nitric oxide + water or 4N H3 + 5O2 → 4N O + 6H2 O Compounds on the left of the arrow are called the reactants and these are needed for the reaction to take place. Know the chemical symbols for the elements involved in the reaction 2. The compounds on the right are called the products and these are what is formed from the reaction. For example. One way of representing these changes is through balanced chemical equations. A chemical equation describes a chemical reaction by using symbols for the elements involved. In order to be able to write a balanced chemical equation. if we look at the reaction between iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) to form iron sulfide (FeS). 223 . a number of changes can occur when elements react with one another. In this equation.Chapter 12 Representing Chemical Change Grade 10 As we have already mentioned. These changes may either be physical or chemical. 12. Balance chemical equations by understanding the laws that govern chemical change 4. Be able to write the chemical formulae for different reactants and products 3.

you may know that sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) react to form sodium chloride. • Spend some time. • Write a short test for someone else in the class and then exchange tests with them so that you each have the chance to answer one. A chemical formula shows each element by its symbol. REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE .GRADE 10 Exercise: Revising common chemical symbols • Write down the chemical symbols and names of all the elements that you know. 12. For now. but doesn’t tell us anything about how these atoms are arranged. for example. learning the symbols for at least the first twenty elements in the periodic table.2 CHAPTER 12. but how do you know that in each molecule of sodium chloride there is only one atom of sodium for every one atom of chlorine? It all comes down to the valency of an atom or group of atoms. The slightly tricky part of writing chemical formulae comes when you have to work out the ratio in which the elements combine. each carbon atom in the ethane molecule is bonded to three hydrogen atoms.2 Writing chemical formulae A chemical formula is a concise way of giving information about the atoms that make up a particular chemical compound. and also shows how many atoms of each element are found in that compound. The number of atoms of each element has not changed. Valency is the number of bonds that an element can form with another element.3. 224 .3 12. Another way of writing the formula for ethane is CH3 CH3 . will be covered in chapter 4. but this formula gives us more information about how the atoms are arranged in relation to each other. either in class or at home. This formula tells us how many atoms of each element are in the molecule. For example. we will use formulae that you already know. • Compare your list with another learner and add any symbols and names that you don’t have. Working out the chemical formulae of chemical compounds using their valency. You should also learn the symbols for other common elements that are not in the first twenty. it is important to understand the law of conservation of mass. In fact.12. The number of atoms (if greater than one) is shown as a subscript. 12. A molecule of ethane.1 Balancing chemical equations The law of conservation of mass In order to balance a chemical equation. Examples: CH4 (methane) Number of atoms: (1 x carbon) + (4 x hydrogen) = 5 atoms in one methane molecule H2 SO4 (sulfuric acid) Number of atoms: (2 x hydrogen) + (1 x sulfur) + (4 x oxygen) = 7 atoms in one molecule of sulfuric acid A chemical formula may also give information about how the atoms are arranged in a molecule if it is written in a particular way. has the chemical formula C2 H6 .

GRADE 10 12. REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE .1 u = 87. For any chemical process in a closed system. and since there are more oxygen atoms in the reactants than there are in the product. we say that the equation is balanced. but cannot be created or destroyed. Example 2: H2 + O2 → H2 O H H + O O H O H Reactants Atomic mass of reactants = (1 + 1) + (16 + 16) = 34 u Number of atoms of each element in the reactants: (2 × H) and (2 × O) Product Atomic mass of product = (1 + 1 + 16) = 18 u Number of atoms of each element in the products: (2 × H) and (1 × O) Since the total atomic mass of the reactants and the products is not the same. In order to make sure that this is the case.9 u Number of atoms of each element in the reactants: (1 × Fe) and (1 × S) Products Atomic mass of product = 55. the equation is not balanced.8 u + 32.8 u + 32. the mass of the reactants must equal the mass of the products. In a chemical equation then.CHAPTER 12. 225 . Matter can change form. Some examples are shown below: Example 1: F e + S → F eS Fe + S Fe S Reactants Atomic mass of reactants = 55.9 u Number of atoms of each element in the products: (1 × Fe) and (1 × S) Since the number of atoms of each element is the same in the reactants and in the products. the number of atoms of each element in the reactants must be equal to the number of atoms of those same elements in the products. regardless of the processes acting inside the system.1 u = 87.3 Definition: The law of conservation of mass The mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant. the mass of the reactants must be equal to the mass of the products.

• STEP 1: Identify the reactants and the products in the reaction. this means that there are 2 molecules of water. there are a number of steps that need to be followed.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation When balancing a chemical equation. and write their chemical formulae. if you write 2H2 O. • STEP 5: Check that the atoms are in fact balanced. • STEP 6 (we will look at this a little later): Add any extra details to the equation e. In other words there are 3 hydrogen atoms and 3 chlorine atoms in total. For example. 12. that number applies to the whole molecule. We now need to find a way to balance those equations that are not balanced so that the number of atoms of each element in the reactants is the same as that for the products.3 Example 3: CHAPTER 12. phase. If we write 3HCl. Important: Coefficients Remember that if you put a number in front of a molecule. In the first example. change the coefficients of the molecules until the number of atoms of each element on either side of the equation balance. and the products on the right.GRADE 10 N aOH + HCl → N aCl + H2 O Na O H + H Cl Na Cl + H O H Reactants Atomic mass of reactants = (23 + 16 + 1) + (1 + 35.4) = 76.3. this means that there are 3 molecules of HCl. • STEP 3: Count the number of atoms of each element in the reactants and the number of atoms of each element in the products.g. we say that the equation is balanced. This can be done by changing the coefficients of the molecules until the atoms on each side of the arrow are balanced. • STEP 2: Write the equation by putting the reactants on the left of the arrow. REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE . 226 . • STEP 4: If the equation is not balanced. there are 4 hydrogen atoms and 2 oxygen atoms. In other words. 2 is the coefficient and in the second example. They also tell us about the volume relationship between gases in the reactants and products.4) + (1 + 1 + 16) = 76. 3 is the coefficient. You will see later in chapter 13 that these coefficients tell us something about the mole ratio in which substances react.4 u Number of atoms of each element in the products: (1 × Na) + (1 × O) + (2 × H) + (1 × Cl) Since the number of atoms of each element is the same in the reactants and in the products.4 u Number of atoms of each element in the reactants: (1 × Na) + (1 × O) + (2 × H) + (1 × Cl) Products Atomic mass of products = (23 + 35.12.

H = 2 atoms and Cl = 2 atoms Step 2 : Balance the equation The equation is not balanced since there are 2 chlorine atoms in the product and only 1 in the reactants. we find that the number of atoms of each element in the reactants is the same as the number in the products. O = 2 Products: C = 1. H = 4. O = 3 Step 2 : Balance the equation If we add a coefficient of 2 to H2 O. CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2 O 227 . REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE . The final equation is: M g + 2HCl → M gCl2 + H2 M g + 2HCl → M gCl2 + H2 M g + HCl → M gCl2 + H2 Worked Example 50: Balancing chemical equations 2 Question: Balance the following equation: Answer Step 1 : Count the number of atoms of each element in the reactants and products Reactants: C = 1.3 Worked Example 49: Balancing chemical equations 1 Question: Balance the following equation: Answer Step 1 : Because the equation has been written for you. If we add a coefficient of 2 to the HCl to increase the number of H and Cl atoms in the reactants. The new equation is: CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2 O When we check the number of atoms again. you can move straight on to counting the number of atoms of each element in the reactants and products Reactants: Mg = 1 atom.GRADE 10 12. You now need to repeat the previous step. Cl = 2 The equation is balanced. then we will increase the number of oxygen atoms in the reactants by 2. H = 2. we find the following: Reactants: Mg = 1. O = 2 Products: C = 1. The equation will be: CH4 + O2 → CO2 + 2H2 O Step 3 : Check that the atoms balance Reactants: C = 1. which is the same as for the reactants. H = 4. H = 4. H = 2.CHAPTER 12. H = 1 atom and Cl = 1 atom Products: Mg = 1 atom. H = 2. The equation is now balanced. the equation will look like this: Step 3 : Check that the atoms are balanced If we count the atoms on each side of the equation. If we put a coefficient of 2 in front of O2 . then the number of hydrogen atoms in the reactants will be 4. there are more oxygen atoms in the products. although the number of hydrogen atoms now balances. Cl = 2 Products: Mg = 1. O = 4 You will see that.

REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE . H = 2 Products: N = 1. sugar (C6 H12 O6 ) reacts with the oxygen we breathe in to produce carbon dioxide. and the products on the right C6 H12 O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2 O Step 3 : Count the number of atoms of each element in the reactants and the number of atoms of each element in the products 228 . Answer Step 1 : Identify the reactants and the products.3 CHAPTER 12. we could rewrite the equation as: N2 + H2 → 2N H3 Step 5 : Check that the atoms are balanced In the above equation. Answer Step 1 : Identify the reactants and products in the reaction. Step 2 : Write the equation so that the reactants are on the left and products on the right of the arrow The equation is as follows: N 2 + H2 → N H 3 Step 3 : Count the atoms of each element in the reactants and products Reactants: N = 2. the nitrogen atoms now balance. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. water and energy. and write their chemical formulae The reactants are nitrogen (N2 ) and hydrogen (H2 ). and the product is ammonia (NH3 ).12. then the hydrogen atoms and the nitrogen atoms balance. Write the balanced equation for this reaction.GRADE 10 Worked Example 51: Balancing chemical equations 3 Question: Nitrogen gas reacts with hydrogen gas to form ammonia. and write their chemical formulae. H = 3 Step 4 : Balance the equation In order to balance the number of nitrogen atoms. Reactants: sugar (C6 H12 O6 ) and oxygen (O2 ) Products: carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and water (H2 O) Step 2 : Write the equation by putting the reactants on the left of the arrow. If we put a coefficient of 3 in front of the hydrogen (H2 ). The final equation is: N2 + 3H2 → 2N H3 Worked Example 52: Balancing chemical equations 4 Question: In our bodies. but the hydrogen atoms don’t (there are 2 hydrogen atoms in the reactants and 6 in the product).

The synthesis of ammonia (NH3 ). H=12. 5. Step 6 : Now we just need to balance the oxygen atoms. Products: C=1.GRADE 10 Reactants: C=6. 4. If we add a 6 in front of CO2 . Ammonium carbonate is often used as a smelling salt. O=8.CHAPTER 12. O=18. O=8. 8. 10. is one of the most important reactions in the chemical industry. H=12. H=2. Let’s try to get the number of hydrogens the same this time. 12. Products: C=6. H=12. O=13. Many of these cells work by reacting hydrogen and oxygen gases together to form water. Step 5 : Change the coefficients again to try to balance the equation. N2 (g) + H2 (g) → N H3 (g) H2 (g) + O2 (g) → H2 O(l) 229 . It is easier to start with carbon as it only appears once on each side. the equation looks like this: C6 H12 O6 + O2 → 6CO2 + H2 O Reactants: C=6. Products: C=6. Balance the following reaction for the decomposition of ammonium carbonate: (N H4 )2 CO3 (s) → N H3 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2 O(l) 3. H=2. Balance the following equation: 2. H=12. O=3. H=12.3 Exercise: Balancing simple chemical equations Balance the following equations: 1. O=8. O=18. a reaction which also produces electricity. O=18. 6. Step 4 : Change the coefficents of the molecules until the number of atoms of each element on either side of the equation balance. H=12. Ethane (C2 H6 ) reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and steam. Balance the following equation used to produce ammonia: M g + P4 → M g3 P2 Ca + H2 O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 CuCO3 + H2 SO4 → CuSO4 + H2 O + CO2 CaCl2 + N a2 CO3 → CaCO3 + N aCl C12 H22 O11 + O2 → CO2 + H2 O Barium chloride reacts with sulphuric acid to produce barium sulphate and hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen fuel cells are extremely important in the development of alternative energy sources. 7. REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE . made famous by the German chemist Fritz Haber in the early 20th century. Products: C=6. 9. C6 H12 O6 + O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2 O Reactants: C=6. C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2 O Reactants: C=6.

Since there are two chlorine atoms on the right and only one on the left. you will see that all the atoms are now balanced.4 CHAPTER 12. (g) for gaseous compounds 2. Zn + HCl → ZnCl2 + H2 Step 3 : Balance the equation You will notice that the zinc atoms balance but the chlorine and hydrogen atoms don’t.4 State symbols and other information The state (phase) of the compounds can be expressed in the chemical equation. Step 2 : Place the reactants on the left of the equation and the products on the right hand side of the arrow. The products are zinc chloride (ZnCl2 ) and hydrogen (H2 ). REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE . Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2 Step 4 : Check that all the atoms balance When you look at the equation again. and in an endothermic reaction. In a chemical equation. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the reaction without undergoing any change to itself. Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) 230 . this is shown by using the symbol of the catalyst above the arrow in the equation. ∆H is greater than zero. a Greek delta (∆) is placed above the arrow in the same way as the catalyst.GRADE 10 12. you were told that zinc was a metal. a catalyst is added to the reaction.12. This value is often written at the end of a chemical equation. In an exothermic reaction. This is done by placing the correct label on the right hand side of the formula. To show that heat was needed for the reaction. Worked Example 53: Balancing chemical equations 4 Question: Solid zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to form an aqueous solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 )and hydrogen gas. hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride were in aqueous solutions and hydrogen was a gas. ∆H is less than zero. (s) for solid compounds 4. (aq) for an aqueous (water) solution Occasionally. There are only four labels that can be used: 1. we will give HCl a coefficient of 2 so that there will be two chlorine atoms on each side of the equation. Answer Step 1 : Identify the reactants and products and their chemical formulae The reactants are zinc (Zn) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). (l) for liquids 3. Write a balanced equation for this reaction.g. state symbols) are added In the initial description. Step 5 : Ensure all details (e. Important: You may remember from chapter 11 that energy cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction but it may change form.

N and S atoms.4 Worked Example 54: Balancing chemical equations 5 (advanced) Question: Balance the following equation: (N H4 )2 SO4 + N aOH → N H3 + H2 O + N a2 SO4 In this example. but O and H atoms do not. 231 . There are two N atoms on the left and one on the right. Exercise: Balancing more advanced chemical equations Write balanced equations for each of the following reactions: 1. When calcium chloride solution is mixed with silver nitrate solution. aluminium reacts with solid copper oxide to produce copper metal and aluminium oxide (Al2 O3 ). Na. Al2 O3 (s) + H2 SO4 (aq) → Al2 (SO4 )3 (aq) + 3H2 O(l) 2. There are six O atoms and ten H atoms on the left. Answer Step 1 : Balance the equation With a complex equation. we will start with Na and N atoms. REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE . the first two steps are not necessary because the reactants and products have already been given.e. Lead(ll)nitrate solution reacts with potassium iodide solution. The equation now looks as follows: (N H4 )2 SO4 + 2N aOH → 2N H3 + H2 O + N a2 SO4 Step 2 : Check that all atoms balance N. There are two Na atoms on the right and one on the left. We now need to check the equation again: (N H4 )2 SO4 + 2N aOH → 2N H3 + 2H2 O + N a2 SO4 The equation is now balanced.CHAPTER 12.GRADE 10 12. Na and S atoms balance. a white precipitate (solid) of silver chloride appears. This is done by adding another H2 O molecule on the right hand side. We will add a second Na atom by giving NaOH a coefficient of two. it is always best to start with atoms that appear only once on each side i. When heated. Calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3 )2 ) is also produced in the solution. and five O atoms and eight H atoms on the right. To balance the N atoms. NH3 will be given a coefficient of two. Since the S atoms already balance. We need to add one O atom and two H atoms on the right to balance the equation. 5. M g(OH)2 (aq) + HN O3 (aq) → M g(N O3 )2 (aq) + 2H2 O(l) 3. 4.

(c) Name the product formed during this reaction.5 Summary • A chemical equation uses symbols to describe a chemical reaction. 3. Give a reason for your answer. then the equation is not balanced. Aspartame. • In a chemical equation. • In any chemical reaction. • In order to balance an equation. liquid H2 O. (e) Classify the reaction as a sythesis or decomposition reaction. Write the balanced equation for its combustion (reaction with O2 ) to form CO2 gas. This also means that the number of atoms of each element in the reactants must be the same as the number of atoms of each element in the product.5 CHAPTER 12. N H4 + H2 O → N H4 OH 2. a very reactive allotrope of phosphorus. Phosphorus burns vigorously in oxygen. F e2 (SO4 )3 + K(SCN ) → K3 F e(SCN )6 + K2 SO4 6. chlorine and hydrogen. and N2 gas. all chemicals that release suffocating and poisonous gases are not to be used as weapons. • If the number of atoms of each element in the reactants is the same as the number of atoms of each element in the product. has the formula C14 H18 N2 O5 . Balance the following equation for the combustion of propane: 4. The equation for this spontaneous reaction is: P4 (s) + O2 (g) → P2 O5 (s) C3 H8 (l) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2 O(l) (a) Balance the chemical equation. This means that the total atomic mass of the reactants must be the same as the total atomic mass of the products. (b) Prove that the law of conservation of mass is obeyed during this chemical reaction.GRADE 10 12. was recently used during a military attack. REPRESENTING CHEMICAL CHANGE . Chemical weapons were banned by the Geneva Protocol in 1925. (DoE Exemplar Paper 2 2007) 232 . then the equation is balanced. Many people got severe burns and some died as a result. (d) Classify the reaction as endothermic or exothermic. coefficients can be placed in front of the reactants and products until the number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides of the equation. the law of conservation of mass applies.12. reactants are written on the left hand side of the equation. White phosphorus. • If the number of atoms of each element in the reactants is not the same as the number of atoms of each element in the product. • When representing chemical change. Propane is a fuel that is commonly used as a heat source for engines and homes. Give a reason for your answer. According to this protocol. an artificial sweetener. 5. The arrow is used to show the direction of the reaction. it is important to be able to write the chemical formula of a compound. Sodium chloride and water react to form sodium hydroxide. Exercise: Summary exercise Balance each of the following chemical equations: 1. and the products on the right.

and it also tells us the ratio in which the reactants combine to form products. How will you know how many atoms of iron are in this sample? And how many atoms of sulfur will you need for the reaction to use up all the iron you have? Is there a way of knowing what mass of iron sulfide will be produced at the end of the reaction? These are all very important questions. every atom of iron (Fe) will react with a single atom of sulfur (S) to form one molecule of iron sulfide (FeS). that we have a sample of 12g carbon. 13. or what quantity of a substance is needed for a chemical reaction to take place.Chapter 13 Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change . and the quantity of product that will be formed. is twelve times greater than the mass of an atom of hydrogen. describes the mass of an atom of that element relative to the mass of an atom of carbon-12. How can this information be used to help us to know what mass of each element will be needed if we want to end up with the same number of atoms of carbon and hydrogen? Let’s say for example. Surely then.g. especially when the reaction is an industrial one. is the quantities or the amount of each substance that is involved. we will only need 1g of hydrogen for the number of atoms in the two samples to be the same? You will notice that the number of particles (in this case. 233 . You may for example be given a small sample of iron for the reaction. which has a relative atomic mass of 1 u. atoms) in the two substances is the same when the ratio of their sample masses (12g carbon: 1g hydrogen = 12:1) is the same as the ratio of their relative atomic masses (12 u: 1 u = 12:1). What mass of hydrogen will contain the same number of atoms as 12 g carbon? We know that each atom of carbon weighs twelve times more than an atom of hydrogen. It tells us what the reactants and the products are in the reaction. atoms or molecules) are in a sample of a substance. You will remember from chapter 3 that the relative atomic mass of an element. Look at the equation below: F e + S → F eS In this reaction. So the mass of an atom of carbon (relative atomic mass is 12 u) for example. where it is important to know the quantities of reactants that are needed. what the equation doesn’t tell us. This chapter will look at how to quantify the changes that take place in chemical reactions. However.Grade 11 An equation for a chemical reaction can provide us with a lot of useful information.1 The Mole Sometimes it is important to know exactly how many particles (e.

13. molecules or other particle units) as there are atoms in 12 g carbon. 24.1: Table showing the relationship between the sample mass.023 x 1023 Carbon (C) 12.01 6. for a number of elements. This is known as Avogadro’s number. the relative atomic mass and the number of atoms in a sample.023 x 1023 . teresting The original hypothesis that was proposed by Amadeo Avogadro was that ’equal Interesting Fact Fact volumes of gases.01 6.07 32. if you were to weigh out samples of a number of elements so that the mass of the sample was the same as the relative atomic mass of that element. while 40. Definition: Avogadro constant The number of particles in a mole.023 x 1023 .07 6.023 x 1023 Magnesium (Mg) 24.01 12. the number of particles in one mole was named Avogadro’s number.31 g of magnesium (relative atomic mass = 24.GRADE 11 To take this a step further.08 g of calcium (relative atomic mass = 40.31 6. that his original hypothesis was accepted and that it became known as ’Avogadro’s Law’.1 below for a number of different elements. In one mole of any substance.1 CHAPTER 13. It is defined as an amount of substance that contains the same number of particles (atoms. has the same number of atoms as 40.31 u) for example. equal to 6.023 x 1023 Calcium (Ca) 40. A mole of any substance always contains the same number of particles. Complete the following table: 234 . In the examples that were used earlier. there are 6. you would find that the number of particles in each sample is 6.023 x 1023 Sulfur (S) 32.023 x 1023 This result is so important that scientists decided to use a special unit of measurement to define this quantity: the mole or ’mol’. Exercise: Moles and mass 1.08 u). So.023 x 1023 particles. contain the same number of molecules’. His ideas were not accepted by the scientific community and it was only four years after his death. Table 13.01 1. A mole is defined as being an amount of a substance which contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon. It is also sometimes referred to as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12. These results are shown in table 13.08 6. Element Relative atomic mass (u) Sample mass (g) Atoms in sample Hydrogen (H) 1.31 24.31 g magnesium is one mole of magnesium.08 40. Definition: Mole The mole (abbreviation ’n’) is the SI (Standard International) unit for ’amount of substance’. 24. at the same temperature and pressure. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .08 g of calcium is one mole of calcium. In honour of his contribution to science.

Table 13.01 24.45 Sample mass (g) 1.31 12.94 16 14. The mass of one mole of the element. 2. of an element is equal to its relative atomic mass.01 55.2: The relationship between relative atomic mass. You will remember that when the mass.94 16 14. in grams.CHAPTER 13.GRADE 11 Element Relative atomic mass (u) 1.mol−1 . How many atoms are there in. the relative atomic mass that is shown can be interpreted in two ways.2 Hydrogen Magnesium Carbon Chlorine Nitrogen 2.02 g of carbon 13.85 Magnesium Lithium Oxygen Nitrogen Iron 235 ..85 Mass of one mole of the element (g) 24. the sample contains one mole of that element.94 16 14.1.31 6. average atom of that element relative to the mass of an atom of carbon. The unit for molar mass is grams per mole or g. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . The mass of a single.9 42.mol−1 ) 24.02 70.2 Molar Mass Definition: Molar mass Molar mass (M) is the mass of 1 mole of a chemical substance. (a) 1 mole of a substance (b) 2 moles of calcium (c) 5 moles of phosphorus (d) 24.01 55.31 g of magnesium (e) 24.01 35. This mass is called the molar mass of that element. This second use is the molar mass of the element.31 6. It is worth remembering the following: On the Periodic Table. Element Relative atomic mass (u) 24. molar mass and the mass of one mole for a number of elements.08 Number of moles in the sample 13.31 6.31 24.. 1. Refer to table 13.01 55.85 Molar mass (g.01 24.

we see that the molar mass of iron is 55. meaning that 1 mole of zinc has a mass of 65. then 5 moles of zinc has a mass of: 65.023 × 1023 = 30. 5 × 6.62 g of boron (B) 236 . Give the molar mass of each of the following elements: (a) hydrogen (b) nitrogen (c) bromine 2.9 g (answer to a) Step 3 : Use the number of moles of zinc and Avogadro’s number to calculate the number of zinc atoms in the sample.7g = 2mol 55.115 × 1023 Exercise: Moles and molar mass 1.38 g. How many atoms of zinc are in the sample? Answer Step 1 : Find the molar mass of zinc Molar mass of zinc is 65.mol−1 .38 g.2 CHAPTER 13.85 g. What is the mass of the zinc in the sample? 2.38 g x 5 mol = 326.GRADE 11 Worked Example 55: Calculating the number of moles from mass Question: Calculate the number of moles of iron (Fe) in a 111.7 g sample. Worked Example 56: Calculating mass from moles Question: You have a sample that contains 5 moles of zinc. Step 2 : Use the molar mass and sample mass to calculate the number of moles of iron If 1 mole of iron has a mass of 55.7 g must be: 111.13. Answer Step 1 : Find the molar mass of iron If we look at the periodic table.38 g.85 g. 1. then: the number of moles of iron in 111. using moles and molar mass. Step 2 : Calculate the mass of zinc.mol−1 There are 2 moles of iron in the sample. This means that 1 mole of iron will have a mass of 55. If 1 mole of zinc has a mass of 65. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . Calculate the number of moles in each of the following samples: (a) 21.mol−1 .85g.85 g.

for example. using the following equations: m=n×M and M= m n The following diagram may help to remember the relationship between these three variables. if you want to calculate ’M’. So.mol−1 ).GRADE 11 (b) 54. m n M 237 .3 13.94 g of manganese (Mn) (c) 100. ’m’ will be the numerator and ’n’ will be the denominator.3 g of mercury (Hg) (d) 50 g of barium (Ba) (e) 40 g of lead (Pb) 13. the mass is always in grams (g) and molar mass is in grams per mol (g. then the remaining two letters in the triangle are ’m’ and ’n’ and ’m’ is above ’n’ with a division sign between them. The equation can also be used to calculate mass and molar mass. You need to imagine that the horizontal line is like a ’division’ sign and that the vertical line is like a ’multiplication’ sign. can be made much simpler by using the following equation: n (number of moles) = m (mass of substance in g) M (molar mass of substance in g · mol−1 ) Important: Remember that when you use the equation n = m/M. In your calculation then.CHAPTER 13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical reactions The calculations that have been used so far. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .

023 × 1023 There are 18. Number of atoms in 3 mol aluminium = 3 × 6.99 g.3 CHAPTER 13.99 = 114.95g The sample of sodium has a mass of 114. 238 .95 g.94 g. What mass of sodium is in the sample? Answer Step 1 : Write the equation to calculate the sample mass. m=n×M Step 2 : Substitute values into the equation.mol−1 Therefore. Answer Step 1 : Write the equation to calculate the number of moles n= m M Step 2 : Substitute numbers into the equation 127 =2 63. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . MN a = 22. Worked Example 59: Calculating atoms from mass Question: Calculate the number of atoms there are in a sample of aluminium that weighs 80.13. n= m 80. n= Worked Example 58: Calculating mass from moles Question: You are given a 5 mol sample of sodium. Answer Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of aluminium in the sample.94 = = 3moles M 26.069 × 1023 aluminium atoms in a sample of 80. m = 5 × 22.98 Step 2 : Use Avogadro’s number to calculate the number of atoms in the sample.94 g.55 There are 2 moles of copper in the sample.GRADE 11 Worked Example 57: Calculating moles from mass Question: Calculate the number of moles of copper there are in a sample that weighs 127 g.

mass and molar mass in relation to elements.4 Molecules and compounds So far. For example. A lead sinker has a mass of 5 g.5 × 1025 atoms of silica 13. If there are no numbers in front of the element symbol.g. Calculate the number of moles in each of the following samples: (a) 5.07 g. Answer Step 1 : Use the periodic table to find the molar mass for each element in the molecule. N2 + 3H2 → 2N H3 In this reaction. the number that is written in front of the element or compound. you need to remember that all your calculations will apply to the whole molecule. the number of moles will also apply to the whole molecule.mol−1 239 . we have only discussed moles. In a balanced chemical equation. (b) How many lead atoms are in the sinker? 3.4 Exercise: Some simple calculations 1.023 × 1023 atoms of hydrogen. (a) Calculate the number of moles of lead the sinker contains. However.023 x 1023 molecules of nitric acid in the sample. Worked Example 60: Calculating molar mass Question: Calculate the molar mass of H2 SO4 . Calculate the mass of each of the following samples: (a) 2. But what happens if we are dealing with a molecule or some other chemical compound? Do the same concepts and rules apply? The answer is ’yes’. Also. Oxygen = 16 g.5 mol magnesium (b) 12 g lithium (c) 4. e. This also means that there are 6. if you have one mole of nitric acid (HNO3 ).CHAPTER 13. when you calculate the molar mass of a molecule.023 × 1023 atoms of nitrogen and (3 × 6. So.mol−1 . you will need to add the molar mass of each atom in that compound. it means you have 6.GRADE 11 13.mol−1 .02 g of manganese (c) 40 g of aluminium 2.6 g of calcium (b) 0. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . this means the number is ’1’. Sulfur = 32.023 × 1023 ) atoms of oxygen in the sample. shows the mole ratio in which the reactants combine to form a product.008 g. Hydrogen = 1. 1 mole of nitrogen reacts with 3 moles of hydrogen to produce 2 moles of ammonia. 6.

mol−1 Worked Example 61: Calculating moles from mass Question: Calculate the number of moles there are in 1kg of MgCl2 .21 There are 10. M(MgCl2 ) = 24. n= m M Step 2 : Calculate the values that you will need. 1..0096mol M 208.4 CHAPTER 13.. Convert mass into grams m = 1kg × 1000 = 1000g 2.5 moles of magnesium chloride in a 1 kg sample. n= Worked Example 62: Calculating the mass of reactants and products Question: Barium chloride and sulfuric acid react according to the following equation to produce barium sulphate and hydrochloric acid.09g.13. to substitute into the equation 1. BaCl2 + H2 SO4 → BaSO4 + 2HCl If you have 2 g of BaCl2 . Calculate the molar mass of MgCl2 . n= 2 m = = 0.5mol 95. Answer Step 1 : Write the equation for calculating the number of moles in the sample.24 240 .31 + (2 × 35.GRADE 11 Step 2 : Add the molar masses of each atom in the molecule M(H2 SO4 ) = (2 × 1.45) = 95.008) + (32. What mass of HCl is produced during the reaction? Answer Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of BaCl2 that react.mol−1 Step 3 : Substitute values into the equation 1000 = 10. What quantity (in g) of H2 SO4 will you need for the reaction so that all the barium chloride is used up? 2. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .21g.07) + (4 × 16) = 98.

Step 5 : Calculate the mass of HCl. Therefore. 2. You have a 56 g sample of iron sulfide (FeS) (a) How many moles of FeS are there in the sample? (b) How many molecules of FeS are there in the sample? (c) What is the difference between a mole and a molecule? 3. Exercise: More advanced calculations 1. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .0096 moles of BaCl2 react.4 Activity :: Group work : Understanding moles. How many moles are present in: (a) 10 g of Na2 SO4 (b) 34 g of Ca(OH)2 (c) 2. What are the units of the mole? Hint: Check the definition of the mole. Calculate the molar mass of the following chemical compounds: (a) KOH (b) FeCl3 (c) Mg(OH)2 2.086 = 0.73 = 0. if 0.0096). The exact size of Avogadro’s number is sometimes difficult to imagine.GRADE 11 Step 2 : Determine how many moles of H2 SO4 are needed for the reaction According to the balanced equation. m = n × M = 0. which equals 0.0192 moles. 1 mole of BaCl2 will react with 1 mole of H2 SO4 .0192 × 35. (b) How long would it take to count to Avogadro’s number? You can assume that you can count two numbers in each second.0096 × 98. According to the balanced equation. molecules and Avogadro’s number Divide into groups of three and spend about 20 minutes answering the following questions together: 1. 2 moles of HCl are produced for every 1 mole of the two reactants. Step 3 : Calculate the mass of H2 SO4 that is needed. m = n × M = 0.CHAPTER 13.69g (answer to 2) 13. Therefore the number of moles of HCl produced is (2 × 0.94g (answer to 1) Step 4 : Determine the number of moles of HCl produced.45 x 1023 molecules of CH4 ? 241 . then there must be the same number of moles of H2 SO4 that react because their mole ratio is 1:1. (a) Write down Avogadro’s number without using scientific notation.

calculate.5 CHAPTER 13. (a) the number of moles of K+ ions (b) the number of moles of Br− ions 4. You have a sample containing 3 moles of calcium chloride. the empirical formula for this compound is CH2 O. In contrast. Definition: Molecular formula The molecular formula of a chemical compound gives the exact number of atoms of each element in one molecule of that compound. The compound ethanoic acid for example. The empirical formula contains the smallest whole number ratio of the elements that make up a compound. Definition: Empirical formula The empirical formula of a chemical compound gives the relative number of each type of atom in it. Calcium chloride reacts with carbonic acid to produce calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid according to the following equation: CaCl2 + H2 CO3 → CaCO3 + 2HCl If you want to produce 10 g of calcium carbonate through this chemical reaction.. Knowing the composition of a substance can help you to determine its formula. For a sample of 0. Calculate the mass of: (a) 3 moles of NH4 OH (b) 4. if all the sulfur is to be used up? (b) What mass of zinc sulfide will this reaction produce? 7.GRADE 11 3. there are two carbon atoms. four hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. what quantity (in g) of calcium chloride will you need at the start of the reaction? Zn + S → ZnS 13. (a) What is the chemical formula of calcium chloride? (b) How many calcium atoms are in the sample? 5. Knowing either the empirical or molecular formula of a compound. There are three different types of composition problems that you might come across: 242 .13. has the molecular formula CH3 COOH or simply C2 H4 O2 .2 moles of Ca(NO3 )2 6. Therefore. The ratio of atoms in the compound is 2:4:2. 96. In one molecule of this acid.2 g sulfur reacts with an unknown quantity of zinc according to the following equation: (a) What mass of zinc will you need for the reaction.5 The Composition of Substances The empirical formula of a chemical compound is a simple expression of the relative number of each type of atom in it. The opposite is also true. can help to determine its composition in more detail. the molecular formula of a chemical compound gives the actual number of atoms of each element found in a molecule of that compound.. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .2 moles of potassium bromide (KBr). which can be simplified to 1:2:1.

5 1.016 × 100% = 2.GRADE 11 13.07 + 64 = 98. 3. Hydrogen = 1. Problems where you will be given the products of a chemical reaction and asked to calculate the formula of one of the reactants.09 (You should check at the end that these percentages add up to 100%!) In other words. 2.07 u Oxygen = 4 × 16 = 64 u Step 2 : Calculate the molecular mass of sulfuric acid. Problems where you will be given the formula of the substance and asked to calculate the percentage by mass of each element in the substance. 243 .09 Oxygen 64 × 100% = 65.016 + 32.016 u Sulfur = 32. These are usually referred to as combustion analysis problems.25%.09u Step 3 : Convert the mass of each element to a percentage of the total mass of the compound Use the equation: Percentage by mass = atomic mass / molecular mass of H2 SO4 × 100% Hydrogen 2.06% of the mass of the compound. Answer Step 1 : Write down the relative atomic mass of each element in the compound.06% 98. hydrogen makes up 2. M ass = 2.69% and oxygen makes up 65.07 × 100% = 32. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .CHAPTER 13.69% 98. sulfur makes up 32.008 × 2 = 2. Worked Example 63: Calculating the percentage by mass of elements in a compound Question: Calculate the percentage that each element contributes to the overall mass of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ). Use the calculations in the previous step to calculate the molecular mass of sulfuric acid.09 Sulfur 32. in one molecule of sulfuric acid.25% 98. Problems where you will be given the percentage composition and asked to calculate the formula.

8 g Step 2 : Convert the mass of each element into number of moles n= Therefore. hydrogen = 13 g and oxygen = 34.5 CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . n(carbon) = n(hydrogen) = n(oxygen) = 52.2% carbon (C). Use this information to work out the formula of the lead oxide (Relative atomic masses: Pb = 207 u and O = 16 u).008 m M 34. Carbon 4. Answer Step 1 : Calculate the mass of oxygen in the reactants 239 − 207 = 32g 244 . 13. Do you recognise this compound? Worked Example 65: Determining the formula of a compound Question: 207 g of lead combines with oxygen to form 239 g of a lead oxide.8% oxygen (O).18 Oxygen 2.90mol 1.18 =1 2.18. Carbon = 52.90 =6 2.35mol 12.2 g.13.0% hydrogen (H) and 34.01 13 = 12. Therefore..GRADE 11 Worked Example 64: Determining the empirical formula of a compound Question: A compound contains 52. Determine its empirical formula. the smallest number of moles is 2.18 Therefore the empirical formula of this substance is: C2 H6 O. Answer Step 1 : If we assume that we have 100 g of this substance.18mol 16 Step 3 : Convert these numbers to the simplest mole ratio by dividing by the smallest number of moles In this case.2 = 4.8 = 2. then we can convert each element percentage into a mass in grams..18 Hydrogen 12.35 =2 2.

the empirical formula) in acetic acid. Empirical formula is CH2 O Step 4 : Calculate the molecular formula. Therefore the actual number of moles of each element must be double what it is in the emprical formula. Determine the molecular formula of acetic acid if the molar mass of acetic acid is 60g/mol. In 100g of acetic acid. 6. m n= M nC nH nO = = = 39.7 mol 1 53.7% hyrogen and 53.34 mol 16 Step 3 : Divide the number of moles of each element by the lowest number to get the simplest mole ratio of the elements (i. is a dilute form of acetic acid. which means that for every atom of lead. there is 39.GRADE 11 Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of lead and oxygen in the reactants.5 Worked Example 66: Empirical and molecular formula Question: Vinegar.7 = 6. Determine the empirical formula of acetic acid. m M 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . Answer Step 1 : Calculate the mass of each element in 100 g of acetic acid.4% oxygen. The formula of the compound is PbO2 .9% carbon.9 g C.4 = 3.4 g O Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of each element in 100 g of acetic acid.33 mol 12 6.9 = 3.7 g H and 53. using the molar mass of acetic acid.CHAPTER 13. n= Lead 207 = 1mol 207 Oxygen 32 = 2mol 16 Step 3 : Deduce the formula of the compound The mole ratio of Pb:O in the product is 1:2. The molar mass of acetic acid using the empirical formula is 30 g/mol. The molecular formula is therefore C2 H4 O2 or CH3 COOH 245 . A sample of acetic acid has the following percentage composition: 39. 1. 6. 2.e. there will be two atoms of oxygen. which is used in our homes.

6 Molar Volumes of Gases It is possible to calculate the volume of a mole of gas at STP using what we now know about gases.mol−1 T = 273 K 3. Calculate the volume of 1 mole of gas under these conditions The volume of 1 mole of gas at STP is 22. Record the values that you know. Substitute these values into the original equation.5% sulphur and 47.GRADE 11 Exercise: Moles and empirical formulae 1. A chlorinated hydrocarbon compound when analysed.K −1 .K−1 . making sure that they are in SI units You know that the gas is under STP conditions.3 kPa = 101300 Pa n = 1 mole R = 8. consisted of 24. 4. Calculate the empirical formula of the mineral. 23.72% chlorine. what is the mass of calcium in the sample? (d) How many moles of calcium chloride are in the sample? 2. (a) What is the formula of calcium chloride? (b) What percentage does each of the elements contribute to the mass of a molecule of calcium chloride? (c) If the sample contains 5 g of calcium chloride. Write down the ideal gas equation pV = nRT. The molecular mass was found to be 99 from another experiment.24% carbon. therefore V = nRT p 2.04% hydrogen.4 dm3 . 13g of zinc combines with 6.4 × 10−3 m3 = 22. 13. 71. 246 .mol−1 × 273K 101300P a 4. These are as follows: p = 101. Deduce the empirical and molecular formula. 3.4g of sulfur.6 CHAPTER 13. 1.3J. 4. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .4% calcium.What is the empirical formula of zinc sulfide? (a) What mass of zinc sulfide will be produced? (b) What percentage does each of the elements in zinc sulfide contribute to its mass? (c) Determine the formula of zinc sulfide. Calcium chloride is produced as the product of a chemical reaction.3 J. V = nRT p V = 1mol × 8.1% oxygen by mass.13. A calcium mineral consisted of 29.

Calculate the number of moles of gas that are present in the container. The pressure of the gas is 50 kPa. You check the pressure of your tyres and find that the pressure is 190 kPa.02 m3 . Worked Example 67: Ideal Gas Question: A sample of gas occupies a volume of 20 dm3 .1 = = 0. 247 . n= 105 × 0.8 Exercise: Using the combined gas law 1. An enclosed gas has a volume of 300 cm3 and a temperature of 300 K. Mathematically. What is the volume of the gas inside? 13. concentration (C) is defined as moles of solute (n) per unit volume (V) of solution.02 2.0009moles 8. What pressure will 3 mol gaseous nitrogen exert if it is pumped into a container that has a volume of 25 dm3 at a temperature of 29 0 C? 3. 2. The volume of air inside a tyre is 19 litres and the temperature is 290 K. How many moles of air are present in the tyre? 4. Step 2 : Write the equation for calculating the number of moles in a gas. Remember also that 1000cm3 = 1dm3 and 1000dm3 = 1m3 . V = 0. V in m3 and T in K.GRADE 11 13. We know that pV = nRT Therefore.7 Important: The standard units used for this equation are P in Pa. Compressed carbon dioxide is contained within a gas cylinder at a pressure of 700 kPa. The amount of substance that is dissolved in a given volume of liquid is known as the concentration of the liquid. Answer Step 1 : Convert all values into SI units The only value that is not in SI units is volume.31 × 280 2326. The temperature of the gas in the cylinder is 310 K and the number of moles of gas is 13 moles carbon dioxide.CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . Calculate the number of moles of gas that are present in the sample. has a temperature of 280 K and has a pressure of 105 Pa.7 Molar concentrations in liquids A typical solution is made by dissolving some solid substance in a liquid. n= pV RT Step 3 : Substitute values into the equation to calculate the number of moles of the gas.

035 V 2.7 CHAPTER 13.2 M? Answer Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of KMnO4 needed. the unit of concentration is mol. Molarity is the most common expression for concentration.2 × 158.5 = = 0.dm−3 or 0.61g The mass of KMnO4 that is needed is 31.dm−3 it is known as the molarity (M) of the solution.035 mol. C= therefore n = C × V = 0. It is measured in mol.dm−3 .5 dm3 of water.dm−3 ? Answer Step 1 : Convert the mass of NaOH into moles m 3. Another term that is used for concentration is molarity (M) Worked Example 68: Concentration Calculations 1 Question: If 3. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .5 The concentration of the solution is 0. what is the concentration of the solution in mol.0875 = = 0.13.dm−3 .5 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is dissolved in 2. the units for volume are dm3 . What mass of KMnO4 is needed to make a solution with a concentration of 0.2 × 1 = 0. n= C= n 0.04 = 31. Therefore.035 M Worked Example 69: Concentration Calculations 2 Question: You have a 1 dm3 container in which to prepare a solution of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ).2mol Step 2 : Convert the number of moles of KMnO4 to mass. n V 248 . When concentration is expressed in mol.0875mol M 40 Step 2 : Calculate the concentration of the solution. Definition: Concentration Concentration is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given volume of liquid. m = n × M = 0.GRADE 11 n V C= For this equation.61 g.

What mass (g) of hydrogen chloride (HCl) is needed to make up 1000 cm3 of a solution of concentration 1 mol. Calculate its molarity. 100 g of sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved in 450 cm3 of water.01 × 0. What mass of sodium chloride would need to be added for the concentration to become 5. n = C × V = 0.8 Worked Example 70: Concentration Calculations 3 Question: How much sodium chloride (in g) will one need to prepare 500 cm3 of solution with a concentration of 0. it is possible to use stoichiometry to calculate the amount of reactants and products that are involved in the reaction.8M sulphuric acid solution? What mass of acid is in this solution? 13.5dm3 1000 Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of sodium chloride needed.95g of potassium bromide was dissolved in 400cm3 of water.dm−3 ? 3. Some examples are shown below.dm−3 ? 5.29 g Exercise: Molarity and the concentration of solutions 1.5 = 0. V = 500 = 0. By knowing the ratios of substances in a reaction. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . 249 . How many moles of H2 SO4 are there in 250 cm3 of a 0.GRADE 11 13. 2. 5.01 M? Answer Step 1 : Convert all quantities into the correct units for this equation. m = n × M = 0. (a) (b) (c) (d) How many moles of NaCl are present in solution? What is the volume of water (in dm3 )? Calculate the concentration of the solution. What is the molarity of the solution formed by dissolving 80 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 500 cm3 of water? 4.8 Stoichiometric calculations Stoichiometry is the study and calculation of relationships between reactants and products of chemical reactions.005mol Step 3 : Convert moles of KMnO4 to mass.45 = 0. Chapter 12 showed how to write balanced chemical equations.29g The mass of sodium chloride needed is 0.CHAPTER 13.005 × 58.7 mol.

6 g? Would more FeS be produced? In fact.6 g of iron is completely reacted with sulfur? Answer Step 1 : Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. therefore 2 dm3 of propane will need 10 dm3 of oxygen for the reaction to proceed to completion.85 Step 3 : Determine the number of moles of FeS produced.T.79 g. The amount of sulfur that is needed in the reactants is 3. Step 3 : Determine the volume of oxygen needed for the reaction. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . Therefore. is needed for the complete combustion of 2dm3 of propane (C3 H8 )? (Hint: CO2 and H2 O are the products in this reaction) Answer Step 1 : Write a balanced equation for the reaction. the amount of iron(II) sulfide produced remains the same. No matter how much sulfur is added to the system.13. In this example. From the balanced equation.1mol M 55. the iron is called the limiting reagent.8 CHAPTER 13. Important: A closer look at the previous worked example shows that 5.2 g. Because there is more sulfur than can be used up in the reaction.P. the amount of iron (II) sulfide will not increase because there is not enough iron to react with the additional sulfur in the reactants to produce more FeS.1 moles of iron in the reactants will give 0.911 = 8. n= 5.79g The mass of iron (II) sulfide that is produced during this reaction is 8.6 g of iron is needed to produce 8. What would happen if the amount of sulfur in the reactants was increased to 6.79 g of iron (II) sulphide. C3 H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) → 3CO2 (g) + 4H2 O(g) Step 2 : Determine the ratio of oxygen to propane that is needed for the reaction. Worked Example 72: Stoichiometric calculation 2 Question: What mass of iron (II) sulphide is formed when 5. F e(s) + S(s) → F eS(s) Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of iron that react.GRADE 11 Worked Example 71: Stoichiometric calculation 1 Question: What volume of oxygen at S. From the equation 1 mole of Fe gives 1 mole of FeS.6 m = = 0. Step 4 : Calculate the mass of iron sulfide formed m = n × M = 0. 1 volume of propane needs 5 volumes of oxygen. it is called the excess reagent. 0. When all the iron is used up the reaction stops.1 × 87.1 moles of iron sulfide in the product.4 g but the amount of iron was still 5. 250 . the ratio of oxygen to propane in the reactants is 5:1.

20. Step 3 : Calculate the maximum amount of ammonium sulphate that can be produced Again from the equation. Diborane. From the balanced chemical equation.0 kg of sulfuric acid and 1.39 moles of H2 SO4 need to react with 40. was once considered for use as a rocket fuel. how many grams of water would we expect to produce? 2. Exercise: Stoichiometry 1. NH3 is in excess and H2 SO4 is the limiting reagent.694 kg.37 grams of diborane. how many moles of nitrogen gas would we expect to produce? 251 .4 grams of sodium azide are reacted.GRADE 11 13. The maximum mass of ammonium sulphate that can be produced is calculated as follows: m = n × M = 20. 1 mole of H2 SO4 reacts with 2 moles of NH3 to give 1 mole of (NH4 )2 SO4 .78 moles of NH3 . B2 H6 . it has the following reaction: 2N aN3 (s) → 2N a(s) + 3N2 (g) If 23. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE .8 Worked Example 73: Industrial reaction to produce fertiliser Question: Sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) reacts with ammonia (NH3 ) to produce the fertiliser ammonium sulphate ((NH4 )2 SO4 ) according to the following equation: H2 SO4 (aq) + 2N H3 (g) → (N H4 )2 SO4 (aq) What is the maximum mass of ammonium sulphate that can be obtained from 2. When triggered.03g/mol n(N H3 ) = Step 2 : Use the balanced equation to determine which of the reactants is limiting. Sodium azide is a commonly used compound in airbags. Therefore 20.078g/mol 1000g = 58.72mol 17.41mol × 132g/mol = 2694g The maximum amount of ammonium sulphate that can be produced is 2.39mol M 98. The combustion reaction for diborane is: B2 H6 (g) + 3O2 (l) → 2HBO2 (g) + 2H2 O(l) If we react 2.0 kg of ammonia? Answer Step 1 : Convert the mass of sulfuric acid and ammonia into moles n(H2 SO4 ) = 2000g m = = 20. the mole ratio of H2 SO4 in the reactants to (NH4 )2 SO4 in the product is 1:1. In this example.39 moles of H2 SO4 will produce 20. Therefore.CHAPTER 13.39 moles of (NH4 )2 SO4 .

the number in front of the chemical symbols describes the mole ratio of the reactants and products. • Molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solution. These particles could be atoms. • The molecular formula of a compound describes the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound.GRADE 11 3.13. the molar mass has the same numerical value as the molecular mass of that compound. plants and bacteria convert carbon dioxide gas. (b) Balance the equation.9 CHAPTER 13. • Stoichiometry.dm−3 .9 Summary • It is important to be able to quantify the changes that take place during a chemical reaction. mass in grams (m) and molar mass (M) is defined by the following equation: m n= M • In a balanced chemical equation. n is the number of moles of solute dissolved in the solution and V is the volume of the solution (in dm3 ).dm−3 ).023 × 1023 .mol−1 . (a) Write down the equation for the photosynthesis reaction. depending on the substance. • One mole of gas occupies a volume of 22. and light into glucose (C6 H12 O6 ) and oxygen gas. (c) If 3 moles of carbon dioxide are used up in the photosynthesis reaction. what mass of glucose will be produced? 13. can be used to determine the quantities of reactants and products that are involved in chemical reactions. • The molar mass (M) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is measured in grams per mole or g. 252 . molecules or other particle units. • The formula of a substance can be used to calculate the percentage by mass that each element contributes to the compound. The numerical value of an element’s molar mass is the same as its relative atomic mass. • The percentage composition of a substance can be used to deduce its chemical formula. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . • The concentration of a solution can be calculated using the following equation. During photosynthesis. the study of the relationships between reactants and products. • The number of particles in a mole is called the Avogadro constant and its value is 6. • The relationship between moles (n). and its units are mol.4 dm3 . • The empirical formula of a compound is an expression of the relative number of each type of atom in the compound. liquid water. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that is vital to the existence of life on Earth. For a compound. C= n V where C is the concentration (in mol. • The mole (n) is a SI unit that is used to describe an amount of substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon.

oxygen makes up x% of the mass of the compound. This gas is also harmful to humans. which is seen over most urban areas.. 4 iv. the atomic ratio of Mg atoms to Cl atoms in the product is 1:1 B 2 moles of oxygen gas react with hydrogen. a Write down a balanced equation for the reaction which takes place when these two solutions are mixed. 64 g iv.9 • A limiting reagent is the chemical that is used up first in a reaction.dm−3 solution of sodium hydroxide.dm−3 solution of sulfuric acid is added to 200 cm3 of a 0. A 5 g of magnesium chloride is formed as the product of a chemical reaction.5 mol. 300 cm3 of a 0. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1.125 g iii. 0. Once the reaction is complete. containing 5 g of NaCl is.6023 × 1023 iii. i.08 moles of magnesium chloride are formed in the reaction ii. Ozone (O3 ) reacts with nitrogen monoxide gas (NO) to produce NO2 gas. 0.57 M iv. 0. Select the true statement from the answers below: i.GRADE 11 13. b Calculate the number of moles of sulfuric acid which were added to the sodium hydroxide solution.CHAPTER 13. 0. The NO2 gas also causes the brown smog (smoke and fog). c Is the number of moles of sulfuric acid enough to fully neutralise the sodium hydroxide solution? Support your answer by showing all relevant calculations. x = . the number of atoms of Mg is 0. 36. there will still be some of this chemical that has not been used up. 0.. • An excess reagent is a chemical that is in greater quantity than the limiting reagent in the reaction. as it causes breathing (respiratory) problems.8 ii.. 0.03 M 3. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . i. (IEB Paper 2 2004) 4.2 iii. The following equation indicates the reaction between ozone and nitrogen monoxide: 253 . What is the mass of oxygen in the reactants? i.063 g C In the compound potassium sulphate (K2 SO4 ). and which therefore determines how far the reaction will go before it has to stop.09 M ii.1 mol. 32 g ii. the number of atoms of Cl in the product is approximately 0.05 iv. Write only the word/term for each of the following descriptions: (a) the mass of one mole of a substance (b) the number of particles in one mole of a substance 2. 5.3 D The molarity of a 150 cm3 solution. The NO gas forms largely as a result of emissions from the exhausts of motor vehicles and from certain jet planes..7 × 10−4 M iii. 9. 18. Multiple choice: Choose the one correct answer from those given.

67 g NO. a Calculate the number of moles of O3 and of NO present at the start of the reaction. A learner is asked to make 200 cm3 of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution of concentration 0.74 g of O3 reacts with 0. b Using an accurate balance the learner accurately measures the correct mass of the NaOH pellets. (IEB Paper 2.dm−3 solution of NaOH at 250 C.dm−3 .dm−3 solution of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) is added to 200 cm3 of a 0. Will his solution have the correct concentration? Explain your answer. (DoE Exemplar Paper 2. 2007) 5. c Write down a balanced equation for the reaction which takes place when these two solutions are mixed. 2004) 254 . d Calculate the number of moles of H2 SO4 which were added to the NaOH solution.5 mol.5 mol. 300 cm3 of a 0. c Calculate the mass of NO2 produced from the reaction.13.1 mol. e Is the number of moles of H2 SO4 calculated in the previous question enough to fully neutralise the NaOH solution? Support your answer by showing all the relevant calculations.9 CHAPTER 13. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE . a Determine the mass of sodium hydroxide pellets he needs to use to do this. To the pellets he now adds exactly 200 cm3 of pure water. b Identify the limiting reagent in the reaction and justify your answer.GRADE 11 O3 (g) + N O(g) → O2 (g) + N O2 (g) In one such reaction 0.

The following example may help to explain this. It is the amount of energy (in kJ. the bond between the two hydrogen atoms in the H2 molecule will break. the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants. bonds in the reactants break. This means that in the overall reaction. energy must be absorbed. When new bonds form. we are able to see these energy changes by either an increase or a decrease in the overall energy of the system. We can represent this using the following general formula: Reactants → Product + Energy 255 . while new bonds form in the product. In some reactions. This type of reaction is called an exothermic reaction.Chapter 14 Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions . according to the following equation: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O In this reaction. New bonds will form between the two hydrogen atoms and the single oxygen atom in the water molecule that is formed as the product. 14. 14. because energy has been released during the reaction.Grade 11 All chemical reactions involve energy changes. energy is released as either heat or light. is less than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. Bond energies are measured in units of kJ.mol−1 ) that is needed to break the chemical bond between two atoms. Another way of describing an exothermic reaction is that it is one in which the energy of the product is less than the energy of the reactants. Definition: Bond energy Bond energy is a measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reactions? When a chemical reaction occurs. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water.mol−1 .2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions In some reactions. as will the bond between the oxygen atoms in the O2 molecule. The energy that is needed to break a bond is called the bond energy or bond dissociation energy. energy is released. For bonds to break.

glass stirring rod and a pair of scissors. cover the beaker with its ’lid’ and record the temperature of the solution. sodium bicarbonate. Another way of describing an endothermic reaction is that it is one in which the energy of the product is greater than the energy of the reactants.2 CHAPTER 14. Time (mins) Temperature (0 C) 0 2 4 6 The equation for the reaction that takes place is: H3 C6 H5 O7 (aq) + 3N aHCO3 (s) → 3CO2 (g) + 3H2 O(l) + N aC6 H5 O7 (aq) Results: • Plot your temperature results on a graph of temperature against time. This can be represented by the following formula: Reactants + Energy → Product Definition: Endothermic reaction An endothermic reaction is one that absorbs energy in the form of heat. 2. a glass beaker. The difference in energy (E) between the reactants and the products is known as the heat of the reaction. Cut a piece of plastic from the ice-cream container lid that will be big enough to cover the top of the beaker. Pour some citric acid (H3 C6 H5 O7 ) into the glass beaker. energy must be absorbed from the surroundings. the baking ingredient that helps cakes to rise. Sodium bicarbonate is actually bicarbonate of soda (baking soda). then cover the beaker again. 4. • Suggest another container that could have been used and give reasons for your choice.14. Record your results in a table like the one below. Activity :: Demonstration : Endothermic and exothermic reactions 1 Apparatus and materials: You will need citric acid.GRADE 11 Definition: Exothermic reaction An exothermic reaction is one that releases energy in the form of heat or light. It is also sometimes referred to as the enthalpy change of the system. Immediately record the temperature. and then take a temperature reading every two minutes after that. Method: 1. Note that citric acid is found in citrus fruits such as lemons. 3. This means that in the overall reaction. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS . Cut a small hole in the centre of this piece of plastic and place the thermometer through it.the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants. Stir in the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). the lid of an icecream container. thermometer. What happens to the temperature during this reaction? • Is this an exothermic or an endothermic reaction? • Why was it important to keep the beaker covered with a lid? • Do you think a glass beaker is the best thing to use for this experiment? Explain your answer. is more than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. It might help you to look back to chapter ?? for some ideas! 256 . This type of reaction is known as an endothermic reaction. In other reactions. because energy has been absorbed during the reaction.

H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl ∆H = -183 kJ • In an endothermic reaction. 2. steel wool. Wrap the steel wool around the thermometer and place it (still wrapped round the thermometer) back into the jar. Method: 1. The vinegar removes the protective coating from the steel wool so that the metal is exposed to oxygen. Conclusion: The reaction between oxygen and the exposed metal in the steel wool. C + H2 O → CO + H2 ∆H = +131 kJ Some of the information relating to exothermic and endothermic reactions is summarised in table 14.GRADE 11 14. where: ∆H = Eprod − Ereact • In an exothermic reaction. 5. 14. thermometer. Record your observations.3 The heat of reaction The heat of the reaction is represented by the symbol ∆H. Put the thermometer through the plastic lid. Take the thermometer out of the jar. Results: You should notice that the temperature increases when the steel wool is wrapped around the thermometer. The jar is automatically sealed when you do this because the thermometer is through the top of the lid. which means that energy is released and the temperature increases. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS . ∆H is less than zero because the energy of the reactants is greater than the energy of the product. cover the beaker and record the temperature in the empty beaker.CHAPTER 14. ∆H is greater than zero because the energy of the reactants is less than the energy of the product. Leave the steel wool in the beaker for about 5 minutes and then record the temperature. Soak a piece of steel wool in vinegar for about a minute. is exothermic. 4.1. remove it and squeeze out any vinegar that is still on the wool. 3. 257 . After the steel wool has been in the vinegar.3 Activity :: Demonstration : Endothermic and exothermic reactions 2 Apparatus and materials: Vinegar. You will need to leave the thermometer in the beaker for about 5 minutes in order to get an accurate reading. For example. glass beaker and plastic lid (from previous demonstration). For example.

3. C(s) + H2 O(g) → H2 (g) + CO(g). concentrated sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ).Released Absorbed leased Relative energy of reac. 5.Energy of reactants greater Energy of reactants less tants and products than energy of product than energy of product Sign of ∆H Negative Positive Definition: Enthalpy Enthalpy is the heat content of a chemical system. Method: 1. Results: • When BaCl2 and KNO3 dissolve in water. Units can also be written as kJ.mol−1 → CO + H2 The units for ∆H are kJ.3 CHAPTER 14. 4. • When CaCl2 and NaOH dissolve in water. Wait a few minutes and then add NaOH to the H2 SO4 . The dissolution of these salts is endothermic. 258 . thermometer. we can write: C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) ∆H = -393 kJ. NaOH. Activity :: Investigation : Endothermic and exothermic reactions Apparatus and materials: Approximately 2 g each of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ). ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS . Observe whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. they take in heat from the surroundings.mol−1 or C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 393 kJ. KNO3 and BaCl2 . which then gives the total amount of energy that is released or absorbed when the product forms. The process is exothermic. heat is released. In other words. and is given the symbol ’H’. the ∆H value gives the amount of energy that is absorbed or released per mole of product that is formed.1: A comparison of exothermic and endothermic reactions Type of reaction Exothermic Endothermic Energy absorbed or re. Observe any energy changes. or using a thermometer.GRADE 11 Table 14. Important: Writing equations using ∆H There are two ways to write the heat of the reaction in an equation For the exothermic reaction C(s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g). either by feeling whether the side of the test tube gets hot or cold. 5 test tubes. Dissolve about 1 g of each of the following substances in 5-10 cm3 of water in a test tube: CaCl2 . Record which of the above reactions are endothermic and which are exothermic. sodium hydroxide (NaOH). we can write: C(s) + H2 O(g) → H2 (g) + CO(g) ∆H = +131 kJ.14.mol−1 .mol−1 For the endothermic reaction. potassium nitrate (KNO3 ) and barium chloride (BaCl2 ). 2. Dilute 3 cm3 of concentrated H2 SO4 in 10 cm3 of water in the fifth test tube and observe whether the temperature changes.mol−1 or C(s) + H2 O(g) + 131 kJ.

4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions There are many examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions that occur around us all the time. The equation for this reaction is: 6CO2 + 12H2 O + energy → C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 + 6H2 O Photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction because it will not happen without an external source of energy. The chemical reaction that takes place when fuels burn therefore has both positive and negative consequences. The energy that is produced allows the cell to carry out its functions efficiently. Can you see now why you are always told that you must eat food to get energy? It is not the food itself that provides you with energy. which uses energy from the sun to change carbon dioxide and water into food that the plant needs to survive.GRADE 11 • The reaction of H2 SO4 and NaOH is also exothermic. • Respiration Respiration is the chemical reaction that happens in our bodies to produce energy for our cells. 1. the limestone must be heated in a kiln at a temperature of over 9000 C before the decomposition reaction will take place. You should also note that carbon dioxide is produced during this reaction. Later we will discuss some of the negative impacts of CO2 on the environment. The equation below describes what happens during this reaction: C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2 O + energy In the reaction above. Endothermic reactions • Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the chemical reaction that takes place in plants. to form carbon dioxide (which we breathe out). ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS . However.The burning of fuel is an example of a combustion reaction. which in this case is sunlight. and which other organisms (such as humans and other animals) can eat so that they too can survive. the breakdown of limestone into quicklime and carbon dioxide is very important. glucose (a type of carbohydrate in the food we eat) reacts with oxygen from the air that we breathe in. and we as humans rely heavily on this process for our energy requirements. The following are just a few examples. but the exothermic reaction that takes place when compounds within the food react with the oxygen you have breathed in! 259 . because the chemical changes that take place during the reaction release huge amounts of energy.4 14. The following equations describe the combustion of a hydrocarbon such as methane (CH4 ): Fuel + Oxygen → Heat + Water + CarbonDioxide CH4 + 2O2 → Heat + H2 O + CO2 This is why we burn fuels for energy. • The thermal decomposition of limestone In industry. water and energy. Exothermic reactions • Combustion reactions . The equation for the reaction is shown below: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 2. 14. which we then use for things like power and electricity. Quicklime can be used to make steel from iron and also to neutralise soils that are too acid.CHAPTER 14.

ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS . To activate a lightstick. (a) evaporation (b) the combustion reaction in a car engine (c) bomb explosions (d) melting ice (e) digestion of food (f) condensation 14. the temperature of the flask drops by approximately 20C.14. causing the lightstick to glow! Exercise: Endothermic and exothermic reactions 1. say whether the process is endothermic or exothermic and give a reason for your answer.GRADE 11 teresting Lightsticks or glowsticks are used by divers. you bend the plastic stick. and for decoration and Interesting Fact Fact fun.5 CHAPTER 14. A lightstick is a plastic tube with a glass vial inside it. and give a reason for your answer. For each of the following descriptions. campers.8H2 O + 2N H4 N O3 → Ba(N O3 )2 + 2N H3 + 10H2 O Within a few minutes. say whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. which breaks the glass vial. In each of the following reactions. (d) N a + Cl2 → 2N aCl ∆H = -411 kJ (e) C + O2 → CO2 2.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions Activity :: Demonstration : Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions Apparatus and materials: A length of magnesium ribbon. thick copper wire and a bunsen burner 260 . This allows the chemicals that are inside the glass to mix with the chemicals in the plastic tube. These two chemicals react and release energy. (a) H2 + I2 → 2HI + 21kJ (b) CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2 O ∆ H = -802 kJ (c) The following reaction takes place in a flask: Ba(OH)2 . Another part of a lightstick is a fluorescent dye which changes this energy into light.

This was the case when copper reacted with oxygen. They need energy to initiate the reaction. If the reaction stops. in a non-luminous flame. it should be clear that most reactions will not take place until the system has some minimum amount of energy added 261 . it may then carry on spontaneously. Now try adding a solution of dilute sulfuric acid with a solution of sodium hydroxide. Even after the magnesium was removed from the flame. Definition: Spontaneous reaction A spontaneous reaction is a physical or chemical change that occurs without the addition of energy.GRADE 11 14. 2. the reaction stopped. and the reaction between copper and oxygen are both non-spontaneous. In the demonstration above. As soon as the copper was removed from the flame. Observe whether any chemical reaction takes place. After the reaction has started. 14. Other reactions will not carry on unless there is a constant addition of energy. Scrape the length of magnesium ribbon and copper wire clean. the reaction between magnesium and oxygen. Results: • Did any reaction take place before the metals were heated? • Did either of the reactions continue after they were removed from the flame? • Write a balanced equation for each of the chemical reactions that takes place.CHAPTER 14. no reaction was observed. 3. Before the metals were held over the bunsen burner.6 Activation energy and the activated complex From the demonstrations of spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions. return the metal to the bunsen flame and continue to heat it. Remove the metals from the flame and observe whether the reaction stops. Heat each piece of metal over the bunsen burner. This is what happened when the magnesium reacted with oxygen.6 magnesium ribbon Method: 1. the reaction continued. What do you observe? This is an example of a spontaneous reaction because the reaction takes place without any energy being added. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS .

The compound that is formed in this transition state is called the activated complex. Let’s consider an example: H2 (g) + F2 (g) → 2HF (g) [H2 F2 ] (activated complex) activation energy Potential energy H2 + F2 reactants ∆H = −268 k. The transition state lasts for only a very short time. This energy is called the activation energy. and this is the activation energy. Notice that the activation energy for the endothermic reaction is much greater than for the exothermic reaction. An energy diagram is shown below (figure 14.6 CHAPTER 14.J. Definition: Activated complex The activated complex is a transitional structure in a chemical reaction that results from the effective collisions between reactant molecules. In endothermic reactions. The reaction is exothermic and ∆H is negative. temporary state is reached where the two reactants combine to give H2 F2 . Definition: Activation energy Activation energy or ’threshold energy’ is the energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to occur. the activated complex has the formula XYZ.mol−1 2HF products Time Figure 14. This state is sometimes called a transition state and the energy that is needed to reach this state is equal to the activation energy for the reaction. 262 . ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS .2) for the endothermic reaction XY + Z → X + Y Z. Once the reaction has started.GRADE 11 to it. the final products have a higher energy than the reactants. an in-between. teresting The reaction between H and F was considered by NASA (National Aeronautics Interesting Fact Fact and Space Administration) as a fuel system for rocket boosters because of the energy that is released during this exothermic reaction.1) needs energy in order to proceed. In this example. and which remains while old bonds break and new bonds form. the final product is HF and it has a lower energy than the reactants. Activation energy is the ’threshold energy’ or the energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to occur. In this example. after which either the original bonds reform.14. or the bonds are broken and a new product forms.1: The energy changes that take place during an exothermic reaction The reaction between H2 (g) and F2 (g) (figure 14. It is possible to draw an energy diagram to show the energy changes that take place during a particular reaction.

2.2: The energy changes that take place during an endothermic reaction Important: Enzymes and activation energy An enzyme is a catalyst that helps to speed up the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy of a reaction. without which lots of important reactions would never take place.GRADE 11 14. You will learn more about catalysts in chapter ??.CHAPTER 14. Carbon reacts with water according to the following equation: C + H2 O ⇔ CO + H2 ∆H > 0 (a) Is this reaction endothermic or exothermic? (b) Give a reason for your answer. Refer to the graph below and then answer the questions that follow: 25 Potential energy (kJ) 0 -15 Time 263 . There are many enzymes in the human body. Exercise: Energy and reactions 1. Cellular respiration is one example of a reaction that is catalysed by enzymes.6 [XYZ] Potential energy activation energy X + YZ products ∆H > 0 XY + Z reactants Time Figure 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS .

• In an endothermic reaction. some minimum energy must be overcome before the reaction will proceed.7 Summary • When a reaction occurs. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. energy is released. are called non-spontaneous reactions. ∆H will be negative. 264 . The energy of the product is greater than the energy of the reactants. and in an exothermic reaction. then the reaction is endothermic. (a) Energy is released in all chemical reactions. • When bonds break. This is called the activation energy of the reaction. ∆H is a positive number. • Combustion reactions and respiration are both examples of exothermic reactions. • If the energy that is needed to break the bonds is less than the energy that is released when new bonds form. • In any reaction. give a reason for your answer. • The bond energy is the amount of energy that is needed to break the chemical bond between two atoms. • The difference in energy between the reactants and the product is called the heat of reaction and has the symbol ∆H. • If the energy that is needed to break the bonds is greater than the energy that is released when new bonds form. The energy of the product is less than the energy of the reactants. For each of the following. • An endothermic reaction is one that absorbs energy in the form of heat.14. (b) The condensation of water vapour is an example of an endothermic reaction. say whether the statement is true or false. energy is absorbed and when new bonds form. • The activated complex is the transitional product that is formed during a chemical reaction while old bonds break and new bonds form. These changes involve energy. is called a spontaneous reaction. If it is false.GRADE 11 What is the energy of the reactants? What is the energy of the products? Calculate ∆H. while an exothermic reaction is one that releases energy in the form of heat and light. • A reaction which proceeds without additional energy being added. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS . What is the activation energy for this reaction? 14. then the reaction is exothermic.7 (a) (b) (c) (d) CHAPTER 14. are all examples of endothermic reactions. • Photosynthesis. • Reactions where energy must be supplied for the activation energy to be overcome. evaporation and the thermal decomposition of limestone. some bonds break and new bonds form.

The cellular respiration reaction is catalysed by enzymes. What important chemical reaction produces glucose? (e) Is the reaction in your answer above an endothermic or an exothermic one? Explain your answer. choose the one correct answer. The overall energy of the system increases during the reaction. All non-spontaneous reactions are endothermic. The reaction is non-spontaneous. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS . iv. (c) What role do enzymes play in this reaction? (d) Glucose is one of the reactants in cellular respiration. For the following reaction: A + B ⇔ AB ∆H = -129 kJ. The energy of the reactants is less than the energy of the product.7 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 3. 265 . (b) Consider the following chemical equilibrium: 2NO2 ⇔ N2 O4 Which one of the following graphs best represents the changes in potential energy that take place during the production of N2 O4 ? 14.GRADE 11 (c) (d) 2. The energy of the product is less than the energy of the reactants. The equation for the reaction is: C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2 O The change in potential energy during this reaction is shown below: activation energy Potential energy C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 ∆H 6CO2 + 6H2 O Time (a) Will the value of ∆H be positive or negative? Give a reason for your answer. (f) Explain why proper nutrition and regular exercise are important in maintaining a healthy body.CHAPTER 14. ii. (b) Explain what is meant by ’activation energy’. iii.mol−1 i. For (a) In an exothermic reaction ∆H is less than zero. each of the following.

14.GRADE 11 266 .7 CHAPTER 14. ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS .

Chapter 15 Types of Reactions . One of the earliest was the Arrhenius definition. It is important to be able to have a definition for acids and bases so that they can be correctly identified in reactions. ammonium hydroxide and ammonia. In this chapter. In the home. Some common acids and bases. Arrhenius (1887) noticed that water dissociates (splits up) into hydronium (H3 O+ ) and hydroxide (OH− ) ions according to the following equation: H2 O ⇔ H3 O+ + OH− 267 . and most bases also share similar characteristics. elimination and substitution reactions. while hydrochloric acid.1 15. vinegar (acetic acid). Hydrochloric acid is also found in the gastric juices in the stomach.1 Acid-base reactions What are acids and bases? In our daily lives. plastics and petroleum refining industries. redox reactions and addition. Table 15. lemon juice (citric acid) and tartaric acid (the main acid found in wine) are common. Even fizzy drinks contain acid (carbonic acid). as do tea and wine (tannic acid)! Bases that you may have heard of include sodium hydroxide (caustic soda).1.Grade 11 There are many different types of chemical reactions that can take place. we encounter many examples of acids and bases. sulfuric acid and nitric acid are examples of acids that are more likely to be found in laboratories and industry.1: Some common acids and Acid Formula Hydrochoric acid HCl Sulfuric acid H2 SO4 Nitric acid HNO3 Acetic (ethanoic) acid CH3 COOH Carbonic acid H2 CO3 Sulfurous acid H2 SO3 Phosphoric acid H3 PO4 bases and their chemical Base Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium carbonate Calcium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Ammonia Sodium bicarbonate formulae Formula NaOH KOH Na2 CO3 Ca(OH)2 Mg(OH)2 NH3 NaHCO3 Most acids share certain characteristics.1. we will be looking at a few of the more common reaction types: acid-base and acid-carbonate reactions. Some of these are found in household cleaning products. are shown in table 15. 15.1. and their chemical formulae. Acids and bases are also important commercial products in the fertiliser. 15.2 Defining acids and bases A number of definitions for acids and bases have developed over the years.

It was important to come up with a much broader definition for acids and bases. Definition: Acids and bases According to the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. 3. However. CH3 COOH + H2 O → H3 O+ + CH3 COO− The reaction can be broken down as follows: CH3 COOH → CH3 COO− + H+ and H2 O + H+ → H3 O+ In this reaction. The Bronsted-Lowry model defines acids and bases in terms of their ability to donate or accept protons. and is therefore called a proton donor. NH3 + H2 O → NH+ + OH− 4 The reaction can be broken down as follows: 268 . and is therefore called a proton acceptor. CH3 COOH (acetic acid) is a proton donor and is therefore the acid. Below are some examples: 1. we need to look at what happens to each reactant. and that NH3 is a proton acceptor and is therefore a base. HCl + H2 O → H3 O+ + Cl− For more information on dissociation. A base is a substance that takes up protons. this definition could only be used for acids and bases in water. refer to chapter 20. and a base as a compound that increases the concentration of OH− ions in a solution. an acid is a substance that gives away protons (H+ ). Look at the following examples showing the dissociation of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide (a base) respectively: 1. NaOH + H2 O → Na+ + OH− Sodium hydroxide in water increases the concentration of OH− ions and is therefore a base. Hydrochloric acid in water increases the concentration of H3 O+ ions and is therefore an acid. TYPES OF REACTIONS . water acts as a base because it accepts a proton to form H3 O+ .15.1 CHAPTER 15. It was Lowry and Bronsted (1923) who took the work of Arrhenius further to develop a broader definition for acids and bases. 2. it is clear that HCl is a proton donor and is therefore an acid. 2. In this case. HCl(g) + NH3 (g) → NH4+ + Cl− In order to decide which substance is a proton donor and which is a proton acceptor. The reaction can be broken down as follows: HCl → Cl− + H+ and NH3 + H+ → NH+ 4 From these reactions.GRADE 11 Arrhenius described an acid as a compound that increases the concentration of H3 O+ ions in solution.

This is also true of other substances.CHAPTER 15. Ammonia accepts the proton and is therefore the base.1. Notice that in the previous equation. In the reverse reaction. the reaction that proceeds from left to right). Examples of amphoteric substances include water. TYPES OF REACTIONS . Definition: Amphoteric An amphoteric substance is one that can react as either an acid or base. conjugate pair HCl + NH3 acid1 base2 NH+ + Cl− 4 acid2 base1 conjugate pair The reaction between ammonia and water can also be used as an example: 269 . the changes that take place can be shown as follows: HCl → Cl− + H+ and NH3 + H+ → NH+ 4 Looking at the reverse reaction (i. the changes that take place are as follows: NH+ → NH3 + H+ and 4 Cl− + H+ → HCl In the forward reaction.e.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs Look at the reaction between hydrochloric acid and ammonia to form ammonium and chloride ions: HCl + NH3 ⇔ NH+ + Cl− 4 Looking firstly at the forward reaction (i.1 NH3 + H+ → NH+ 4 In this reaction. Water can act as both an acid and a base depending on the reaction. the chloride ion is the proton acceptor (base) and NH+ is the proton 4 donor (acid). the reaction that proceeds from right to left). The conjugate acid-base pairs for the above reaction are shown below. water acted as a base and that in this equation it acts as an acid.GRADE 11 H2 O → OH− + H+ and 15. 15. water donates a proton and is therefore an acid in this reaction. These substances are called ampholytes and are said to be amphoteric. zinc oxide and beryllium hydroxide.e. A conjugate acid-base pair is two compounds in a reaction that change into each other through the loss or gain of a proton. HCl is a proton donor (acid) and NH3 is a proton acceptor (base).

GRADE 11 conjugate pair H2 O + NH3 acid1 base2 NH+ + OH− 4 acid2 base1 conjugate pair Definition: Conjugate acid-base pair The term refers to two compounds that transform into each other by the gain or loss of a proton. they neutralise each other to form a salt. Sodium chloride is made up of Na+ cations from the base (NaOH) and Cl− anions from the acid (HCl). HBr + KOH → H2 O + KBr 270 . they neutralise each other.15. In each of the following reactions. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride (the salt) and water. Potassium bromide is made up of K+ cations from the base (KOH) and Br− anions from the acid (HBr). identify (1) the acid and the base in the reactants and (2) the salt in the product. Exercise: Acids and bases 1. If the base contains hydroxide (OH− ) ions.4 Acid-base reactions When an acid and a base react. the acid becomes less acidic and the base becomes less basic. then water will also be formed.1 CHAPTER 15. Hydrogen bromide reacts with potassium hydroxide to form potassium bromide (the salt) and water. In other words. TYPES OF REACTIONS . In the following reactions.1. The word salt is a general term which applies to the products of all acid-base reactions. HCl + NaOH → H2 O + NaCl 2. H2 SO4 + H2 O ⇔ H3 O+ + HSO− 4 NH+ + F− ⇔ HF + NH3 4 H2 O + CH3 COO− ⇔ CH3 COOH + OH− H2 SO4 + Cl− ⇔ HCl + HSO− 4 15. (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) H2 SO4 + Ca(OH)2 → CaSO4 + 2H2 O CuO + H2 SO4 → CuSO4 + H2 O H2 O + C6 H5 OH → H3 O+ + C6 H5 O− HBr + C5 H5 N → (C5 H5 NH+ )Br− 2. A salt is a product that is made up of the cation from a base and the anion from an acid. When an acid reacts with a base. Look at the following examples: 1. label the conjugate acid-base pairs.

Sodium chloride is made up of Na+ cations from the base (NaHCO3 ) and Cl− anions from the acid (HCl). despite not having OH− ions. Antacids are taken to neutralise the acids so that they don’t burn as much. NaCl (table salt) and KBr are both salts. or when there is too much acid in the stomach. Antacids are bases which neutralise the acid. Bicarbonate of soda can also be used. A salt is still formed as one of the products. but no water is produced. HCl + NaHCO3 → H2 CO3 + NaCl You should notice that in the first two examples. These substances can also be used on a larger scale in farming and also in rivers. They can be soothed Interesting Fact Fact by using substances such as calomine lotion.1 3. Powdered limestone (CaCO3 ) can also be used but its action is much slower and less effective. magnesium hydroxide (’milk of magnesia’) and sodium bicarbonate (’bicarbonate of soda’). these acids can cause a lot of pain. the base contained OH− ions. and therefore the products were a salt and water. It is important to realise how important these neutralisation reactions are. Antacids can also be used to relieve heartburn. Both alkalis help to neutralise the acidic bee sting and relieve some of the itchiness! 271 . Below are some examples: • Domestic uses Calcium oxide (CaO) is put on soil that is too acid. NaHCO3 also acts as a base.g. • Biological uses Acids in the stomach (e. • Industrial uses Alkaline calcium hydroxide (limewater) can be used to absorb harmful SO2 gas that is released from power stations and from the burning of fossil fuels.GRADE 11 15. which is a mild alkali based on zinc oxide. However. Examples of antacids are aluminium hydroxide. TYPES OF REACTIONS . In the third example. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydrocarbonate to form sodium chloride (the salt) and hydrogen carbonate. when a person has a stomach ulcer.5. teresting Bee stings are acidic and have a pH between 5 and 5. hydrochloric acid) play an important role in helping to digest food.CHAPTER 15.

At the end point of the reaction. Step 4: At some point. chemically equivalent amounts of acid and base have reacted with each other. therefore dividing cm3 by 1000 will give you an answer in dm3 . • Moles = molarity (mol.dm−3 . the bromothymol blue would originally have coloured the solution blue. So how exactly can a titration be carried out to determine an unknown concentration? Look at the following steps to help you to understand the process. For example. This type of calculation is called volumetric analysis.GRADE 11 The neutralisation reaction between an acid and a base can be very useful. TYPES OF REACTIONS . is called a titration. The symbol for molarity is M. adding one more drop will change the colour of the unknown solution. you will need to remember the following: 1dm3 = 1 litre = 1000ml = 1000cm3. Important: Titration calculations When you are busy with these calculations. It is possible to do this because. it is possible to calculate the exact concentration of the unknown solution. adding one more drop of acid will change the colour of the basic solution from blue to yellow. A worked example is shown below. If an acidic solution of known concentration (a standard solution) is added to an alkaline solution until the solution is exactly neutralised (i. Step 2: A suitable indicator is added to this solution (bromothymol blue and phenolpthalein are common indicators). Yellow shows that the solution is now acidic.e.dm−3 ) = mol / volume 272 . Step 6: Use the information you have gathered to calculate the exact concentration of the unknown solution. Step 5: Record the volume of standard solution that has been added up to this point. it has neither acidic nor basic properties). at the exact point where the solution is neutralised. and the point of neutralisation is called the end point of the reaction.1 Important: Acid-base titrations CHAPTER 15. drop by drop. and is measured in mol. Refer to chapter 13 for more information on molarity. Some other terms and equations which will be useful to remember are shown below: • Molarity is a term used to describe the concentration of a solution.15. Step 3: A volume of the standard solution is put into a burette and is slowly added to the solution in the flask. if the solution is basic and bromothymol blue is being used as the indicator in the titration. The process where an acid solution and a basic solution are added to each other for this purpose. Step 1: A measured volume of the solution with unknown concentration is put into a flask.dm−3 ) x volume (dm3 ) • Molarity (mol.

2mol.GRADE 11 15. Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide. Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of HCl that react according to this equation.dm3 or 0. Then continue with the calculation.003 moles of HCl react. V = 0.025 The molarity of the NaOH solution is 0.12 M Worked Example 75: Titration calculation Question: 4.12 V 0. it was found that 20 cm3 of this solution was 273 . n(HCl) = M × V (make sure that all the units are correct!) M= M = 0. Therefore. Answer Step 1 : Write down all the information you know about the reaction.015dm3 Therefore n(HCl) = 0. NaOH: V = 25 cm3 HCl: V = 15 cm3 . Step 4 : Calculate the molarity of the sodium hydroxide First convert the volume into dm3 .1 Worked Example 74: Titration calculation Question: Given the equation: NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2 O 25cm3 of a sodium hydroxide solution was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with 0.015 = 0.003 There are 0.dm−3 V = 15cm3 = 0. if 0.025 dm3 . C = 0.003 moles of HCl that react Step 3 : Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide in the reaction Look at the equation for the reaction. and make sure that the equation is balanced. M= 0.12 mol. n V Therefore. it was found that 15cm3 of acid was needed to neutralise the alkali. we can conclude that the same quantity of NaOH is needed for the reaction.CHAPTER 15.003.2 × 0.003 n = = 0. Using a suitable indicator.9 g of sulfuric acid is dissolved in water and the final solution has a volume of 220 cm3 . Using titration. The number of moles of NaOH in the reaction is 0.2M hydrochloric acid. TYPES OF REACTIONS .2 M The equation is already balanced. For every mole of HCl there is one mole of NaOH that is involved in the reaction.

23mol.02 = 0. Step 5 : Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. a delivery tube. Remember that only 20 cm3 of the sulfuric acid solution is used.05mols = M 98g. Therefore. lime water.mol−1 n= Therefore.15.0046mol Step 4 : Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide that were neutralised. According to the balanced chemical equation. two rubber stoppers for the test tubes. the number of moles of NaOH that are neutralised is 0. H2 SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2 SO4 + 2H2 O Step 2 : Calculate the molarity of the sulfuric acid solution.GRADE 11 able to completely neutralise 10 cm3 of a sodium hydroxide solution. hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. TYPES OF REACTIONS .0046 × 2 = 0.1 CHAPTER 15.92M V 0.1.dm−3 .5 Acid-carbonate reactions Activity :: Demonstration : The reaction of acids with carbonates Apparatus and materials: Small amounts of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate (both in powder form).9g m = 0.0092 mols. retort stand.22 Step 3 : Calculate the moles of sulfuric acid that were used in the neutralisation reaction.01 15. M= 0. M = n/V V = 220 cm3 = 0.23 × 0.22 dm3 4.05 = 0. M = n/V.0092 n = = 0. two test tubes. M= 0. The demonstration should be set up as shown below. Answer Step 1 : Write a balanced equation for the titration reaction. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide in mol. 274 . therefore n = M × V n = 0.dm−3 0. the mole ratio of H2 SO4 to NaOH is 1:2.

carbon dioxide and water are formed.6 g of baking soda. H2 SO4 + CaCO3 → CaSO4 + CO2 + H2 O • Hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium chloride. Look at the following examples: • Nitric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form sodium nitrate.bouchon=true. TYPES OF REACTIONS . 2. to bake a cake. carbon dioxide and water.niveauLiquide1=30] [glassType=tube. Observations: The clear lime water turns milky meaning that carbon dioxide has been produced.CHAPTER 15. When an acid reacts with a carbonate a salt. 4. The compound NaHCO3 is commonly known as baking soda. Add a small amount of sodium carbonate to the acid and seal the test tube with the rubber stopper. A recipe requires 1. 2HNO3 + Na2 CO3 → 2NaNO3 + CO2 + H2 O • Sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate to form calcium sulphate. Pour a small amount of hydrochloric acid into the remaining test tube. carbon dioxide and water. 6. 5.1 delivery tube rubber stopper rubber stopper [glassType=tube. 2HCl + CaCO3 → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2 O Exercise: Acids and bases 1. Pour limewater into one of the test tubes and seal with a rubber stopper. mixed with other ingredients. 275 . Observe what happens to the colour of the limewater. 3.bouchon=true.GRADE 11 15. carbon dioxide and water. Connect the two test tubes with a delivery tube. Repeat the above steps.niveauLiquide1=60] sodium carbonate & hydrochloric acid limewater Method: 1. this time using sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate.

(DoE Grade 11 Paper 2. 2007) 2. To do this. (d) Use the above equation to explain why the cake rises during this baking process. (e) During the titration he finds that 15 cm3 of the KOH solution neutralises 20 cm3 of the H2 SO4 solution.dm−3 . It is used to neutralise the excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach. 2007) 4. (a) What is a standard solution? (b) Calculate the mass of KOH which he must use to make 300 cm3 of a 0.dm−3 KOH solution. oxalic acid (COOH)2 2H2 O for use in a titration. as shown by the reaction equation below: HCO− (aq) + H+ (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2 O(l) 3 (c) Identify the reactant which acts as the Bronsted-Lowry base in this reaction.2 mol.2 mol.0 mol. A learner is asked to prepare a standard solution of the weak acid. (a) Calculate the mass of oxalic acid which the learner has to dissolve to make up the required standard solution.dm−3 KOH solution (assume standard temperature). (b) Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. (IEB Paper 2.2 mol.15. Calculate the concentration of the H2 SO4 solution. He wants to determine the concentration of the sulphuric acid solution. (b) How many atoms of oxygen are there in the 1.2 CHAPTER 15. (c) Calculate the pH of the 0.GRADE 11 (a) Calculate the number of moles of NaHCO3 used to bake the cake. (d) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between H2 SO4 and KOH. A learner finds some sulfuric acid solution in a bottle labelled ’dilute sulfuric acid’. Give a reason for your answer. TYPES OF REACTIONS . Calculate the volume of the hydrochloric acid that can be neutralised by the antacid tablet. A certain antacid tablet contains 22. The balanced equation for the reaction is: NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2 O + CO2 The hydrochloric acid in the stomach has a concentration of 1.0 g of baking soda (NaHCO3 ). Label the acid-base conjugate pairs in the following equation: HCO− + H2 O ⇔ CO2− + H3 O+ 3 3 3.2 Redox reactions A second type of reaction is the redox reaction. The volume of the solution must be 500 cm3 and the concentration 0. 276 . The leaner titrates this 0. 5. 2003) 15.dm−3 .dm−3 oxalic acid solution against a solution of sodium hydroxide. baking soda reacts with an acid to produce carbon dioxide and water. He finds that 40 cm3 of the oxalic acid solution exactlt neutralises 35 cm3 of the sodium hydroxide solution.6 g of baking soda? During the baking process. (DoE Grade 11 Paper 2. in which both oxidation and reduction take place.2 mol. he decides to titrate the sulphuric acid against a standard potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution.

2. Each chlorine atom has gained an electron and the element has therefore been reduced. This means that the charge on two oxygen atoms is -4. The atom of manganese must therefore have an oxidation number of +7 in order to make the molecule neutral. By looking at how the oxidation number of an element changes during a reaction.2.2 15. during a chemical reaction. The half-reaction for this change is: Mg → Mg2+ + 2e− As a reactant. therefore the carbon atom must have an oxidation number of +4. Below are some examples to refresh your memory before we carry on with this section! Examples: 1. The half-reaction for this change is: Cl2 + 2e− → 2Cl− Definition: Half-reaction A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction part of a redox reaction. Definition: Oxidation and reduction Oxidation is the loses of an electron by a molecule. This can be written as a half-reaction. then the sum of the oxidation numbers equals +1+(-2x4)= -7. atom or ion. TYPES OF REACTIONS . If we exclude the atom of manganese (Mn). this molecule has a neutral charge. we can easily see whether that element is being oxidised or reduced. Refer back to section 4.11 if you can’t remember the rules that are used to give an oxidation number to an element. Using oxidation numbers is one way of tracking what is happening to these electrons in a reaction. CO2 Each oxygen atom has an oxidation number of -2.1 Oxidation and reduction If you look back to chapter 4. Reduction is the gain of an electron by a molecule. 277 .CHAPTER 15. magnesium has an oxidation number of zero. an exchange of electrons takes place between the elements that are involved. We know that the molecule of CO2 is neutral. the element has an oxidation number of +2. meaning that the sum of the oxidation numbers of the elements in the molecule must equal zero.GRADE 11 15. but as part of the product magnesium chloride. chlorine has an oxidation number of zero. Potassium (K) has an oxidation number of +1. while oxygen (O) has an oxidation number of -2. Magnesium has lost two electrons and has therefore been oxidised. atom or ion. A half reaction is obtained by considering the change in oxidation states of the individual substances that are involved in the redox reaction. KMnO4 Overall. Example: Mg + Cl2 → MgCl2 As a reactant. you will remember that we discussed how. the element has an oxidation number of -1. but as part of the product magnesium chloride.

glass beaker. . 15. What happens to the zinc granules? What happens to the colour of the solution? Results: • Zinc becomes covered in a layer that looks like copper. where there is always a change in the oxidation numbers of the elements involved. TYPES OF REACTIONS .2 Redox reactions Definition: Redox reaction A redox reaction is one involving oxidation and reduction. 278 • The blue copper sulphate solution becomes clearer. Cu2+ ions from the CuSO4 solution are reduced to form copper metal. Activity :: Demonstration : Redox reactions Materials: A few granules of zinc.Oxidation Is Loss of electrons.2. The equation for this reaction is: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− The overall reaction is: Cu2+ (aq) + Zn(s) → Cu(s) + Zn2+ (aq) Conclusion: A redox reaction has taken place. zinc granules copper sulphate solution Method: Add the zinc granules to the copper sulphate solution and observe what happens. 15 ml copper (II) sulphate solution (blue colour). This is what you saw on the zinc crystals.GRADE 11 Important: Oxidation and reduction made easy! An easy way to think about oxidation and reduction is to remember: ’OILRIG’ . The reduction of the copper ions (in other words. An element that is oxidised is called a reducing agent.2 CHAPTER 15. their removal from the copper sulphate solution). Cu2+ ions are reduced and the zinc is oxidised.15. The equation for this reaction is: Cu2+ + 2e− → Cu Zinc is oxidised to form Zn2+ ions which are clear in the solution. Reduction Is Gain of electrons. while an element that is reduced is called an oxidising agent. also explains the change in colour of the solution.

you will go on to look at electrochemical reactions. 4H+ (aq) + O2 (g) + 4e− → 2H2 O(l) Which one of the following statements is correct? (a) (b) (c) (d) Fe Fe Fe Fe is is is is oxidised and H+ is reduced reduced and O2 is oxidised oxidised and O2 is reduced reduced and H+ is oxidised (DoE Grade 11 Paper 2. 2. Fe(s) → Fe2+ (aq) + 2e− 2. 2007) 3. O2 (b) Does the hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) act as an oxidising agent or a reducing agent or both. H2 O iii. can be written as two half-reactions: Cl2 + 2e− → 2Cl− (reduction) and 2I− → I2 + 2e− (oxidation) In Grade 12. Consider the following chemical equations: 1. Exercise: Redox Reactions 1.GRADE 11 15. H2 O2 ii. TYPES OF REACTIONS . Look at the following reaction: 2H2 O2 (l) → 2H2 O(l) + O2 (g) (a) What is the oxidation number of the oxygen atom in each of the following compounds? i.2 Below are some further examples of redox reactions: • H2 + F2 → 2HF can be re-written as two half-reactions: H2 → 2H+ + 2e− (oxidation) and F2 + 2e− → 2F− (reduction) • Cl2 + 2KI → 2KCl + I2 or Cl2 + 2I− → 2Cl− + I2 . in the above reaction? Give a reason for your answer. Which one of the following reactions is a redox reaction? (a) (b) (c) (d) HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2 O AgNO3 + NaI → AgI + NaNO3 2FeCl3 + 2H2 O + SO2 → H2 SO4 + 2HCl + 2FeCl2 BaCl2 + MgSO4 → MgCl2 + BaSO4 279 .CHAPTER 15. and the role that electron transfer plays in this type of reaction.

CH2 CH CH CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 polymerisation etc Figure 15.2: The polymerisation of a styrene monomer to form a polystyrene polymer 280 . The following is a general equation for this type of reaction: A+B → C Notice that C is the final product with no A or B remaining as a residue.3 15.1: The reaction between ethene and bromine is an example of an addition reaction 2.2-dibromoethane (figure 15. ’Polymerisation’ refers to the addition reactions that eventually help to form the polystyrene polymer.3 CHAPTER 15. Polystyrene is made up of lots of styrene monomers which are joined through addition reactions (figure 15. A polymer is made up of lots of smaller units called monomers. while polystyrene is an important packaging and insulating material. making polymers is very important. This product will contain all the atoms that were present in the reactants. TYPES OF REACTIONS .2).3. Polymerisation reactions In industry.15.GRADE 11 15.1).1 Addition. PVC is often used to make piping. C2 H4 + Br2 → C2 H4 Br2 H C H C H + H Br Br H H C Br H C Br H Figure 15. The following are some examples. When these monomers are added together. substitution and elimination reactions Addition reactions An addition reaction occurs when two or more reactants combine to form a final product. they form a polymer. The reaction between ethene and bromine to form 1. 1. Examples of polymers are polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polystyrene.

It contains a double bond between two of the carbon atoms. Ethanol (CH3 CH2 OH) can be made from alkenes such as ethene (C2 H4 ). this double bond is broken. CH3 CH2 Br + KOH → CH2 CH2 + KBr + H2 O H H C H Br C H 281 H + KOH H C H H C + KBr H + H2 O . If this bond is broken. RCHCH2 + H2 → RCH2 CH3 4. Note that the ’R’ represents any side-chain. CH3 CH2 OH → CH2 CH2 + H2 O H H C H H C OH H H C H C H + H H O H H 2. The dehydration of an alcohol is one example. 15. The production of the alcohol ethanol from ethene. An alkene is an organic compound composed of carbon and hydrogen.3. A side-chain is simply any combination of atoms that are attached to the central part of the molecule. and more hydrogen atoms are added to the molecule. it means that more hydrogen atoms can attach themselves to the carbon atoms. Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are eliminated and a molecule of water is formed as a second product in the reaction. A hydration reaction is one where water is added to the reactants.GRADE 11 15.3 3. TYPES OF REACTIONS . The general form of the equation is as follows: A→B+C The examples below will help to explain this: 1. The reaction that takes place is shown below. through a hydration reaction like the one below. The elimination of potassium bromide from a bromoalkane. C2 H4 + H2 O → CH3 CH2 OH A catalyst is needed for this reaction to take place. Hydrogenation involves adding hydrogen (H2 ) to an alkene. along with an alkene.CHAPTER 15. The hydrogenation of vegetable oils to form margarine is another example of an addition reaction. During hydrogenation. The catalyst that is most commonly used is phosphoric acid.2 Elimination reactions An elimination reaction occurs when a reactant is broken up into two products.

The following diagram shows the reactants in an addition reaction. Ethane cracking is an important industrial process used by SASOL and other petrochemical industries. The equation for the cracking of ethane looks like this: C2 H6 → C2 H4 + H2 15.15. (c) What type of compound is the reactant marked (i)? 2. Ethene is then used to produce other products such as polyethylene. TYPES OF REACTIONS .3 CHAPTER 15. The following reaction takes place: 282 .3 Substitution reactions A substitution reaction occurs when an exchange of reactants takes place. elimination or addition? (b) Give a reason for your answer above. Refer to the diagram below and then answer the questions that follow: H H (i) C H Cl C H H + KOH H C H H C + KCl H + H2 O (a) Is this reaction an example of substitution. The initial reactants are transformed or ’swopped around’ to give a final product. You will learn more about these compounds in chapter 23.GRADE 11 3. Cu(H2 O)2+ + 4Cl− ⇔ Cu(Cl)2− + 4H2 O 4 4 Exercise: Addition.3. H C H H C + HCl H (a) Draw the final product in this reaction. Hydrogen is eliminated from ethane (C2 H6 ) to produce an alkene called ethene (C2 H4 ). a chorine atom and a hydrogen atom are exchanged to create a new product. substitution and elimination reactions 1. A simple example of a reaction like this is shown below: AB + CD → AC + BD Some simple examples of substitution reactions are shown below: CH4 + Cl2 → CH3 Cl + HCl In this example. (b) What is the chemical formula of the product? 3.

an acid and a carbonate react to form a salt. redox. An acid is a substance that donates protons and a base is a substance that accepts protons. 4. • A redox reaction is one where there is always a change in the oxidation numbers of the elements that are involved in the reaction. These substances are called ampholytes and are said to be amphoteric. they form a salt and water. • Oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons. • In different reactions. 283 . • A conjugate acid-base pair refers to two compounds in a reaction that change into other through the loss or gain of a proton.4 Summary • There are many different types of reactions that can take place. carbon dioxide and water. The salt is made up of a cation from the base and an anion from the acid. which is the product of the reaction between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl).CHAPTER 15. addition or dehydration reaction? Give a reason for your answer. • The reaction between an acid and a base is a neutralisation reaction. • In an acid-carbonate reaction. • The Bronsted-Lowry definition is a much broader one. acid-carbonate.GRADE 11 H H C H OH C H H H2 SO4 H C H H C + H2 O H 15. Consider the following reaction: Ca(OH)2 (s) + 2NH4 Cl(s) → CaCl2 (s) + 2NH3 (g) + 2H2 O(g) Which one of the following best describes the type of reaction which takes place? (a) Redox reaction (b) Acid-base reaction (c) Dehydration reaction 15. substitution and elimination reactions. • The Arrhenius definition of acids and bases defines an acid as a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+ or H3 O+ ) in a solution. The concentration of the other reacting substance must be known. certain substances can act as both an acid and a base.4 Is this reaction a substitution. TYPES OF REACTIONS . Water is an example of an amphoteric substance. However this definition only applies to substances that are in water. • When an acid and a base react. addition. An example of a salt is sodium chloride (NaCl). • Titrations are reactions between an acid and a base that are used to calculate the concentration of one of the reacting substances. These include acid-base. A base is a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH− ) in a solution.

Examples of addition reactions include the reaction between ethene and bromine. 1 × 102 iii. (a) The conjugate base of NH+ is NH3 . Which one of the following statements concerning this reaction is correct? i. • A substitution reaction is one where the reactants are transformed or swopped around to form the final product. Cl− is the oxidising agent (IEB Paper 2. polymerisation reactions and hydrogenation reactions. 2005) C When chlorine water is added to a solution of potassium bromide. 1 × 10−12 (IEB Paper 2. If the statement is false. donates protons iii. is called an elimination reaction. 4 (b) The reactions C + O2 → CO2 and 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2 are examples of redox reactions. which contains hydrochloric acid. Give one word/term for each of the following descriptions: (a) A chemical reaction during which electrons are transferred (b) The addition of hydrogen across a double bond (c) The removal of hydrogen and halogen atoms from an alkane to form an elkene 2. i.. For each of the following. Alcohol dehydration and ethane cracking are examples of elimination reactions. 1 × 10−2 iv. then this is an addition reaction. re-write the statement correctly. • A reaction where the reactant is broken down into one or more product. Cl2 is oxidised iii. accepts protons ii.GRADE 11 • When two or more reactants combine to form a product that contains all the atoms that were in the reactants. A The following chemical equation represents the formation of the hydronium ion: H+ (aq) + H2 O(l) → H3 O+ (aq) In this reaction. TYPES OF REACTIONS . say whether the statement is true or false. water acts as a Lewis base because it. 3.. bromine is produced. 284 . Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. accepts electrons iv. The stomach secretes gastric juice. leading to heartburn or indigestion. Milk of magnesia is only slightly soluble in water and has the chemical formula Mg(OH)2 . donates electrons B What is the concentration (in mol.4 CHAPTER 15.15. such as milk of magnesia. choose the one correct statement from the list provided. Br− is oxidised ii. Sometimes there is an overproduction of acid. 1 × 1012 ii. The gastric juice helps with digestion. Br− is the oxidising agent iv. For each of the following questions. Antacids. can be taken to neutralise the excess acid.dm−3 ) of H3 O+ ions in a NaOH solution which has a pH of 12 at 250 C? i. 2005) 4.

2007) 15. Briefly explain why the dosages are different.0 cm3 of a standard solution of sodium carbonate of concentration 0. whereas adults can take two teaspoons of the antacid. d Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.CHAPTER 15. e Calculate the concentration of the acid.4 285 .dm−3 was used to neutralise 35.GRADE 11 a Write a balanced chemical equation to show how the antacid reacts with the acid. 25. TYPES OF REACTIONS . (DoE Grade 11 Exemplar.1 mol. In an experiment.0 cm3 of a solution of hydrochloric acid. b The directions on the bottle recommend that children under the age of 12 years take one teaspoon of milk of magnesia. c Why is it not advisable to take an overdose of the antacid in the stomach? Refer to the hydrochloric acid concentration in the stomach in your answer.

4 CHAPTER 15. TYPES OF REACTIONS .GRADE 11 286 .15.

limestone rocks being weathered by water) 1. How fast is each of these reactions? Rank them in order from the fastest to the slowest. How fast or slow is each of these reactions. it might be useful to think about some different types of reactions and how quickly or slowly they occur.1 Introduction Before we begin this section. Alternatively.Chapter 16 Reaction Rates . For each of the reactions above. 3. 2. For example. compared with those listed earlier? In a chemical reaction. one could see how quickly the iron sulfide product forms. the substances that are undergoing the reaction are called the reactants.g. Since iron sulfide looks very different from either of its reactants. Try to think of some other examples of chemical reactions. In other words. The reaction rate describes how quickly or slowly the reaction takes place. In another example: 287 . while the substances that form as a result of the reaction are called the products.Grade 12 16. this is easy to do. Exercise: Thinking about reaction rates Think about each of the following reactions: • rusting of metals • photosynthesis • combustion • weathering of rocks (e. write a chemical equation for the reaction that takes place. So how do we know whether a reaction is slow or fast? One way of knowing is to look either at how quickly the reactants are used up during the reaction or at how quickly the product forms. the reactants have been used up. How did you decide which reaction was the fastest and which was the slowest? 4. we can see the speed of the reaction by observing how long it takes before there is no iron or sulfur left in the reaction vessel. iron and sulfur react according to the following equation: F e + S → F eS In this reaction.

The units used are: moles per second (mols/second or mol. or the speed at which the product (magnesium oxide) is formed. Definition: Reaction rate The rate of a reaction describes how quickly reactants are used up or how quickly products are formed during a chemical reaction. Using the magnesium reaction shown earlier: Average reaction rate = or moles O2 used reaction time (s) moles M g used reaction time (s) Average reaction rate = or Average reaction rate = moles M gO produced reaction time (s) Worked Example 76: Reaction rates Question: The following reaction takes place: 4Li + O2 → 2Li2 O After two minutes .58 moles of Lithium used = = 0. divided by the total reaction time. The average rate of a reaction is expressed as the number of moles of reactant used up. Rate of reaction = 0. or as the number of moles of product formed. REACTION RATES . Calculate the rate of the reaction.GRADE 12 2M g(s) + O2 → 2M gO(s) In this case.005 mol. t = 2 × 60 = 120s Step 3 : Calculate the rate of the reaction.16. n= 4 m = = 0.s−1 288 . Answer Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of Lithium that are used up in the reaction.1 CHAPTER 16. the reaction rate depends on the speed at which the reactants (solid magnesium and oxygen gas) are used up.005 time 120 The rate of the reaction is 0.s−1 ).94 Step 2 : Calculate the time (in seconds) for the reaction. divided by the reaction time.58mols M 6. 4 g of Lithium has been used up.

2. i. (c) Assuming that the second reaction also proceeds at the same rate. so that productivity can be maximised. using the amount of product that is produced. 289 . It is important to know these factors so that reaction rates can be controlled. This is particularly important when it comes to industrial reactions. 16. ii. 2 g of MgCl2 have been produced in the first reaction. (b) Which is the fastest reaction? (c) Which is the slowest reaction? 2. Two reactions occur simultaneously in separate reaction vessels. the mass (in g) of sodium that is needed for this reaction to take place. 4.. (a) How many moles of MgCl2 are produced after 1 minute? (b) Calculate the rate of the reaction. A number of different reactions take place.5 mins 30 secs Reaction rate (a) Complete the table by calculating the rate of each reaction. The reactions are as follows: M g + Cl2 → M gCl2 2N a + Cl2 → 2N aCl After 1 minute. Temperature If the temperature of the reaction increases. Reaction 1 2 3 4 5 Mols used up 2 5 1 3. The table below shows the number of moles of reactant that are used up in a particular time for each reaction.2 Factors affecting reaction rates Several factors affect the rate of a reaction.5 mins 1. the number of moles of NaCl produced after 1 minute. so does the reaction rate. so does the rate of the reaction. Concentration (or pressure in the case of gases) As the concentration of the reactants increases.2 Exercise: Reaction rates 1. 3.9 Time 30 secs 2 mins 1. calculate.GRADE 12 16. Catalyst Adding a catalyst increases the reaction rate. The following are some of the factors that affect the rate of a reaction. REACTION RATES ..2 5. Nature of reactants Substances have different chemical properties and therefore react differently and at different rates.CHAPTER 16. 1.

covalent bonds between carbon and oxygen atoms must be broken first. and never the other way around. Conclusions: The nature of the reactants can affect the rate of a reaction. H2 SO4 KMnO4 H2 SO4 KMnO4 Test tube 1 Iron (II) sulphate solution Method: Test tube 2 Oxalic acid solution 1. test tubes. concentrated sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ). 3. 5. In the case of the oxalate ions. Remember always to add the acid to the water.g. In the first test tube. 4 It is clear that the Fe2+ ions act much more quickly than the C2 O2− ions. In the second test tube. Apparatus: Oxalic acid ((COOH)2 ). • It is the oxalate ions (C2 O2− ) and the Fe2+ ions that cause the discolouration. 290 . add a few drops of potassium permanganate to the two test tubes. The 4 reason for this is that there are no covalent bonds to be broken in the ions before the reaction can take place. Results: • You should have seen that the oxalic acid solution discolours the potassium permanganate much more slowly than the iron(II) sulphate. Using the medicine dropper. Surface area of solid reactants CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES . prepare a solution of oxalic acid in the same way. Once you have done this. spatula. prepare an iron (II) sulphate solution by dissolving about two spatula points of iron (II) sulphate in 10 cm3 of water.16. Prepare a solution of sulfuric acid by adding 1 cm3 of the concentrated acid to about 4 cm3 of water. medicine dropper. 4. observe how quickly each solution discolours the potassium permanganate solution. Aim: To determine the effect of the nature of reactants on the rate of a reaction.2 5. glass beaker and glass rod. if a solid reactant is finely broken up) will increase the reaction rate. Activity :: Experiment : The nature of reactants. Add 2 cm3 of the sulfuric acid solution to the iron(II) and oxalic acid solutions respectively. potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ).GRADE 12 Increasing the surface area of the reactants (e. iron(II) sulphate (FeSO4 ). 2.

The leaves of the tea plant (Camellia Interesting Fact Fact sinensis) contain very high concentrations of oxalic acid relative to other plants. the faster the reaction rate will be. 2. two test tubes.2 teresting Oxalic acids are abundant in many plants. chocolate. Oxalic acid irritates the lining of the gut when it is eaten. The smaller the pieces of marble are. nuts and berries. Place the marble chips and powdered marble into separate test tubes. beaker containing dilute hydrochloric acid Test tube 1 marble chips Method: Test tube 2 powdered marble 1. 2 g powdered marble. 291 . Apparatus: 2 g marble chips. Marble (CaCO3 ) reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form calcium chloride. hydrochloric acid. REACTION RATES . Prepare a solution of hydrochloric acid in the beaker by adding 2 cm3 of the concentrated solution to 20 cm3 of water. the greater the surface area for the reaction to take place. and can be fatal in very large doses. Results: • Which reaction proceeds the fastest? • Can you explain this? Conclusions: The reaction with powdered marble is the fastest.GRADE 12 16. water and carbon dioxide gas according to the following equation: CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2 O + CO2 Aim: To determine the effect of the surface area of reactants on the rate of the reaction. Add 10 cm3 of the dilute hydrochloric acid to each of the test tubes and observe the rate at which carbon dioxide gas is produced. The greater the surface area of the reactants. Activity :: Experiment : Surface area and reaction rates. Oxalic acid also occurs in small amounts in foods such as parsley. beaker.CHAPTER 16. 3.

two test tubes. • How can you measure the rate of this reaction? • What is the gas that is given off? • Why was it important that the same length of magnesium ribbon was used for each reaction? Conclusions: The 1:10 solution is more concentrated and this reaction therefore proceeds faster. you will need to add 20 cm3 of water. Mg ribbon Mg ribbon Test tube A 1:10 HCl solution Test tube B 1:20 HCl solution The equation for the reaction is: 2HCl + M g → M gCl2 + H2 Results: • Which of the two solutions is more concentrated. the 1:10 or 1:20 hydrochloric acid solution? • In which of the test tubes is the reaction the fastest? Suggest a reason for this. Pour 10cm3 of this 1:20 solution into a second test tube and mark it ’B’.2 CHAPTER 16. In the same way. put one piece of magnesium ribbon into test tube A and the other into test tube B. if you pour 2 cm3 of concentrated acid into a beaker. and observe closely what happens.16. Apparatus: Concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). and not the other way around. 2. Take two pieces of magnesium ribbon of the same length. if you measure 1 cm3 of concentrated acid in a measuring cylinder and pour it into a beaker. Pour 10 cm3 of the 1:10 solution into a test tube and mark it ’A’. magnesium ribbon. 292 . Prepare a second solution of dilute hydrochloric acid by diluting 1 part concentrated acid with 20 parts water. Prepare a solution of dilute hydrochloric acid in one of the beakers by diluting 1 part concentrated acid with 10 parts water. 3. For example. The greater the concentration of the reactants. you will need to add 10 cm3 of water to the beaker as well. At the same time. Both of these are 1:10 solutions. measuring cylinder. Remember to add the acid to the water. The rate of the reaction can be measured by the rate at which hydrogen gas is produced. REACTION RATES . the faster the rate of the reaction. Method: 1.GRADE 12 Activity :: Experiment : Reactant concentration and reaction rate. two beakers. Aim: To determine the effect of reactant concentration on reaction rate.

This is because only a small number of the molecules have enough energy and the right orientation at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds. What can you conclude from your experiment? 16. 293 . In the same way.CHAPTER 16. During your group discussion. They are therefore more likely to collide with one another (Figure 16.GRADE 12 16. Present your experiment ideas to the rest of the class.5).3 Reaction rates and collision theory It should be clear now that the rate of a reaction varies depending on a number of factors. But how can we explain why reactions take place at different speeds under different conditions? Why. When the temperature of the reaction increases. For a reaction to occur. These are called ’successful’ collisions. for example. there is also a greater chance that successful collisions will occur. but that only a certain fraction of the total collisions. the particles that are reacting must collide with one another.3 Activity :: Group work : The effect of temperature on reaction rate 1. you should think about the following: • What equipment will you need? • How will you conduct the experiment to make sure that you are able to compare the results for different temperatures? • How will you record your results? • What safety precautions will you need to take when you carry out this experiment? 2. In groups of 4-6. In other words. the chance that reactant particles will collide with each other also increases because there are more particles in that space. When there is an increase in the concentration of reactants. and give them a chance to comment on what you have done. the average kinetic energy of the reactant particles increases and they will move around much more actively. if the surface area of the reactants increases. does an increase in the surface area of the reactants also increase the rate of the reaction? One way to explain this is to use collision theory. The theory assumes that for a reaction to occur the reactant particles must collide. Only a fraction of all the collisions that take place actually cause a chemical change. design an experiment that will help you to see the effect of temperature on the reaction time of 2 cm of magnesium ribbon and 20 ml of vinegar. 4. Definition: Collision theory Collision theory is a theory that explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions. the collision frequency of the reactants increases. carry out the experiment and record your results. the effective collisions. The number of successful collisions will therefore also increase. 3. REACTION RATES . and so will the rate of the reaction.1). Increasing the temperature also increases the number of particles whose energy will be greater than the activation energy for the reaction (refer section 16. actually cause the reactant molecules to change into products. Once you have received feedback.

If the experiment was repeated using a more concentrated hydrochloric acid solution. over a period of 10 minutes.. 4. At which of the following times is the reaction fastest? Time = 1 minute. After what time do you think the reaction will stop? 6. REACTION RATES . Use the data in the table to draw a graph showing the volume of gas that is produced in the reaction. 2.16. Time (mins) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Volume of CO2 produced (cm3 ) 14 26 36 44 50 58 65 70 74 77 Note: On a graph of production against time.1: An increase in the temperature of a reaction increases the chances that the reactant particles (A and B) will collide because the particles have more energy and move around more. (a) would the rate of the reaction increase or decrease from the one shown in the graph? (b) draw a rough line on the graph to show how you would expect the reaction to proceed with a more concentrated HCl solution. 5. it is the gradient of the graph that shows the rate of the reaction. Suggest a reason why the reaction slows down over time.. The results are shown in the table below.3 CHAPTER 16. time = 6 minutes or time = 8 minutes. A A A B A B B B A A High Temperature 294 .GRADE 12 B A B A B B B B A B B A A A Low Temperature Figure 16. 3. Questions: 1. Exercise: Rates of reaction Hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate react according to the following equation: CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2 O + CO2 The volume of carbon dioxide that is produced during the reaction is measured at different times. Use the graph to estimate the volume of gas that will have been produced after 11 minutes.

For example. magnesium reacts with sulfuric acid to produce magnesium sulphate and hydrogen. hydrogen gas is produced.niveauLiquide1=40. when sodium thiosulphate reacts with an acid. The volume of oxygen produced can be measured using the gas syringe method (figure 16. 2H2 O2 (aq) → 2H2 O(l) + O2 (g) Gas Syringe System Reactants Figure 16. For example. The reaction is as follows: N a2 S2 O3 (aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2N aCl(aq) + SO2 (aq) + H2 O(l) + S(s) 295 Gas [glassType=erlen. This is the test for the presence of carbon dioxide.2: Gas Syringe Method • Precipitate reactions: In reactions where a precipitate is formed. the amount of precipitate formed in a period of time can be used as a measure of the reaction rate. and what product forms. For example.GRADE 12 16. pushing out against the plunger. The volume of gas that has been produced can be read from the markings on the syringe.tubeCoude] . carbon dioxide gas is produced.4 16. hydrogen peroxide decomposes in the presence of a manganese(IV) oxide catalyst to produce oxygen and water. A lit splint can be used to test for hydrogen.CHAPTER 16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction How the rate of a reaction is measured will depend on what the reaction is. Look back to the reactions that have been discussed so far. The ’pop’ sound shows that hydrogen is present. how was the rate of the reaction measured? The following examples will give you some ideas about other ways to measure the rate of a reaction: • Reactions that produce hydrogen gas: When a metal dissolves in an acid. In each case. CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2 (aq) + H2 O(l) + CO2 (g) • Reactions that produce gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide: Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to produce oxygen. M g(s) + H2 SO4 → M gSO4 + H2 • Reactions that produce carbon dioxide: When a carbonate dissolves in an acid. The gas collects in the syringe. water and carbon dioxide. REACTION RATES . a yellow precipitate of sulfur is formed. calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce calcium chloride. When carbon dioxide is passes through limewater. For example.2). it turns the limewater milky.

However. • 300 cm3 of water • 100 cm3 of 1:10 dilute hydrochloric acid. when no precipitate has been formed.3). 296 . [glassType=erlen. • Changes in mass: The rate of a reaction that produces a gas can also be measured by calculating the mass loss as the gas is formed and escapes from the reaction flask. because it is very soluble in water. the cross will gradually become less clear and will eventually disappear altogether.3: At the beginning of the reaction beteen sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Noting the time that it takes for this to happen will give an idea of the reaction rate. Note that it is not possible to collect the SO2 gas that is produced in the reaction. This is solution ’A’.4 CHAPTER 16. the cross will be clearly visible when you look into the flask (figure 16.niveauLiquide1=40] Figure 16.GRADE 12 One way to estimate the rate of this reaction is to carry out the investigation in a conical flask and to place a piece of paper with a black cross underneath the bottom of the flask.16. This method can be used for reactions that produce carbon dioxide or oxygen. Prepare a solution of sodium thiosulphate by adding 12 g of Na2 S2 O3 to 300 cm3 of water. • Six 100 cm3 glass beakers • Measuring cylinders • Paper and marking pen • Stopwatch or timer Method: One way to measure the rate of this reaction is to place a piece of paper with a cross underneath the reaction beaker to see how quickly the cross is made invisible by the formation of the sulfur precipitate. REACTION RATES . as the reaction progresses and more precipitate is formed. At the beginning of the reaction. Apparatus: • 300 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate (Na2 S2 O3 ) solution. Measuring changes in mass may also be suitable for other types of reactions. the cross at the bottom of the conical flask can be clearly seen. This is solution ’B’. but are not very accurate for reactions that give off hydrogen because the mass is too low for accuracy. Activity :: Experiment : Measuring reaction rates Aim: To measure the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction.

The minimum energy that is needed for a reaction to take place is called the activation energy. To this second beaker. Concentration will be on the x-axis and reaction rate on the y-axis. REACTION RATES . Using a stopwatch with seconds. Pour 60 cm3 solution A into the first beaker and add 20 cm3 of water 3. The rate of the reaction is fastest when the concentration of the reactants was the highest. 297 . and only a small fraction of the particles will have enough energy to actually break bonds so that a chemical reaction can take place. refer to chapter 14. Beaker 1 2 3 4 5 6 Solution (cm3 ) 60 50 40 30 20 10 A Water (cm3 ) 20 30 40 50 60 70 Solution (cm3 ) 10 10 10 10 10 10 B Time (s) 16. • Why was it important to keep the volume of HCl constant? Conclusions: • Describe the relationship between concentration and reaction rate. This can be done using the following equation: Rate of reaction = 1 time • Represent your results on a graph. This is because the reactant particles have a wide range of kinetic energy. Set up six beakers on a flat surface and mark them from 1 to 6. 5. 2.5 The equation for the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid is: N a2 S2 O3 (aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2N aCl(aq) + SO2 (aq) + H2 O(l) + S(s) Results: • Calculate the reaction rate in each beaker. 6. Use the measuring cylinder to measure 10 cm3 HCl.GRADE 12 1. record the time it takes for the precipitate that forms to block out the cross. Now measure 50 cm3 of solution A into the second beaker and add 30 cm3 of water. Note that the original volume of Na2 S2 O3 can be used as a measure of concentration. 4. For more information on the energy of reactions. Now add this HCl to the solution that is already in the first beaker (NB: Make sure that you always clean out the measuring cylinder you have used before using it for another chemical). Under each beaker you will need to place a piece of paper with a large black cross.CHAPTER 16. add 10 cm3 HCl. 16. Continue the experiment by diluting solution A as shown below.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis Earlier it was mentioned that it is the collision of particles that causes reactions to occur and that only some of these collisions are ’successful’. time the reaction and record the results as you did before.

This is shown in figure 16. copper and iron can act as catalysts in certain reactions. so that it needs less energy. Step 1: A + C → AC Step 2: B + AC → ABC Step 3: ABC → CD Step 4: CD → C + D In the above. Increasing the reaction temperature has the effect of increasing the number of particles with enough energy to take part in the reaction.g. ABC represents the intermediate chemical. The function of a catalyst is to lower the activation energy so that more particles now have enough energy to react. enzymes are catalysts that help to speed up biological reactions. REACTION RATES . Definition: Catalyst A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction. platinum. 298 . C represents the catalyst. so that the overall reaction is as follows: A+B+C→D+C You can see from this that the catalyst is released at the end of the reaction. The chemical intermediate is sometimes called the activated complex.16. it is later produced again by reaction 4. Probability of particle with that KE Average KE Kinetic Energy of Particle (KE) Figure 16. depending on the activation energy for that reaction.4.4: The distribution of particle kinetic energies at a fixed temperature A catalyst functions slightly differently.5 CHAPTER 16.GRADE 12 Definition: Activation energy The energy that is needed to break the bonds in reactant molecules so that a chemical reaction can proceed. completely unchanged. Even at a fixed temperature. The distribution of particle kinetic energies at a fixed temperature. meaning that only some of them will have enough energy to be part of the chemical reaction. In our own human bodies. without being altered in any way. Although the catalyst (C) is consumed by reaction 1. A and B are reactants and D is the product of the reaction of A and B. and so the reaction rate increases. Some metals e. The following is an example of how a reaction that involves a catalyst might proceed. the energy of the particles varies. but simply provides an alternative pathway for the reaction. It increases the reaction rate by lowering the activation energy for a reaction. Catalysts generally react with one or more of the reactants to form a chemical intermediate which then reacts to form the final product. The catalyst itself is not changed during the reaction.

CHAPTER 16. copper pieces. Now add the copper pieces to the same test tube. activated complex activation energy Potential energy products activation energy with a catalyst reactants Time Figure 16. one test tube and a glass beaker. 2.GRADE 12 16. Has the mass of the copper changed since the start of the experiment? Results: During the reaction. rinse them in water and alcohol and then weigh them again. It speeds up the rate of the reaction. The mass of the copper does not change during the reaction. Take note of how quickly or slowly this gas is released. The rate at which the hydrogen is produced increases when the copper pieces (the catalyst) are added. Place a few of the zinc granules in the test tube. but is not changed in any way itself. REACTION RATES .1 M hydrochloric acid. You will see that a gas is released. Measure the mass of a few pieces of copper and keep them separate from the rest of the copper. Add about 20 cm3 of HCl to the test tube. Conclusions: The copper acts as a catalyst during the reaction. the gas that is released is hydrogen. What happens to the rate at which the gas is produced? 5. Carefully remove the copper pieces from the test tube (do not get HCl on your hands). Write a balanced equation for the chemical reaction that takes place. 4. Catalysts decrease the activation energy required for a reaction to proceed (shown by the smaller ’hump’ on the energy diagram in figure 16. 3. Method: 1.5).5 Energy diagrams are useful to illustrate the effect of a catalyst on reaction rates.5: The effect of a catalyst on the activation energy of a reaction Activity :: Experiment : Catalysts and reaction rates Aim: To determine the effect of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction Apparatus: Zinc granules. and therefore increase the reaction rate. 299 . 0.

REACTION RATES . 2. Does a reaction always proceed in the same direction or can it be reversible? In other words.1 mol.dm−3 solution of hydrochloric acid. or is it possible that sometimes. Conduct your own research to find the names of common enzymes in the human body and which chemical reactions they play a role in. (b) Increasing the temperature of a reaction has the effect of increasing the number of reactant particles that have more energy that the activation energy. but there does not seem to be any further change taking place in the reaction? The following demonstration might help to explain this. For each of the following. this time using 5 g of granulated zinc and 600 cm3 of 0.dm−3 hydrochloric acid.6 Chemical equilibrium Having looked at factors that affect the rate of a reaction. To investigate the rate of the reaction.16. How will this influence the rate of the reaction? (c) The experiment is repeated once more. 300 . this time using 5 g of powdered zinc instead of granulated zinc.1 mol. 4. a lump of calcium carbonate of the same mass is used ii. 5 g of calcium carbonate powder reacts with 20 cm3 of a 0.dm−3 hydrochloric acid is used 16.5 mol.dm−3 hydrochloric acid. is it always true that a reaction proceeds from reactants to products. How does the rate of this reaction compare to the original reaction rate? (d) What effect would a catalyst have on the rate of this reaction? (IEB Paper 2 2003) 3. or can a reaction reach a point where reactants are still present. 40 cm3 of 0. (c) A catalyst does not become part of the final product in a chemical reaction. If it is false. The gas that is produced at a temperature of 250 C is collected in a gas syringe. (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.6 CHAPTER 16.5 mol. Enzymes are catalysts. The reaction which takes place is given by the following equation: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) (a) Why is there a decrease in mass during the reaction? (b) The experiment is repeated. (b) The rate of the reaction is determined by measuring the volume of gas thas is produced in the first minute of the reaction. The reading on the balance shows that there is a decrease in mass during the reaction. we now need to ask some important questions.GRADE 12 Exercise: Reaction rates 1. the change in the mass of the flask containing the zinc and the acid was measured by placing the flask on a direct reading balance. the reaction will reverse and the products will be changed back into the reactants? And does a reaction always run its full course so that all the reactants are used up. (a) A catalyst increases the energy of reactant molecules so that a chemical reaction can take place. re-write the statement correctly. say whether the statement is true or false. 5 g of zinc granules are added to 400 cm3 of 0. How would the rate of the reaction be affected if: i.

In a closed system it is possible for reactions to be reversible. and there will be no change in the water level in the beaker. REACTION RATES . there is an initial drop in the water level. In one direction there is a change in phase from liquid to vapour. the reaction (in this case. However. observe how the water level in the two beakers changes. In this case. In the beaker that is covered. a change in the phase of water) can proceed in either direction. liquid water becomes water vapour as a result of evaporation and the water level drops. Leave the beakers and. the vapour comes into contact with the surface of the bell jar and it cools and condenses to form liquid water again. 301 . What do you notice? Note: You could speed up this demonstration by placing the two beakers over a bunsen burner to heat the water. In a closed system. in this case. evaporation also takes place.GRADE 12 Activity :: Demonstration : Liquid-vapour phase equilibrium Apparatus and materials: 2 beakers. 3. when vapour condenses to form water again. In the second beaker. bell jar Method: 1. over the course of a day or two. it may be easier to cover the second beaker with a glass cover. such as in the demonstration above.6 Discussion: In the first beaker. the rate at which water is lost from the beaker will start to decrease. water. Cover one of the beakers with a bell jar.CHAPTER 16. but after a while evaporation appears to stop and the water level in this beaker is higher than that in the one that is open. Observations: You should notice that in the beaker that is uncovered. the water level drops quickly because of evaporation. it is also possible for a chemical reaction to reach equilibrium. Once condensation has begun. bell jar = condensation = evaporation 16. Note that the diagram below shows the situation ate time=0. This water is returned to the beaker. At some point. We will discuss these concepts in more detail. This can be represented as follows: liquid ⇔ vapour In this example. Half fill two beakers with water and mark the level of the water in each case. 2. the rate of evaporation will be equal to the rate of condensation above the beaker. But the reverse can also take place.

1 Open and closed systems An open system is one in which matter or energy can flow into or out of the system.GRADE 12 16. the products react to form reactants again. Condensation changes the vapour to liquid and returns it to the beaker. A special double-headed arrow is used to show this type of reversible reaction: XY + Z ⇔ X + Y Z So. and water vapour (the matter ) could evaporate from the beaker. 3. In the liquid-vapour demonstration we used. but not matter. Definition: Open and closed systems An open system is one whose borders allow the movement of energy and matter into and out of the system. REACTION RATES . Method and observations: 1. place a few pieces of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) and cover the pieces with dilute hydrochloric acid. but water vapour cannot leave the system because the bell jar is a barrier. A closed system is one in which energy can enter or leave. A closed system is one in which only energy can be exchanged. Seal the test tube with a rubber stopper and delivery tube. This is called the reverse reaction. hydrochloric acid. The reverse reaction is 2HI(g) → H2 (g) + I2 (g). The equation for the reaction that takes place is: 302 . retort stand and clamp. the first beaker was an example of an open system because the beaker could be heated or cooled (a change in energy ).2 Reversible reactions Some reactions can take place in two directions. Observe what happens to the appearance of the lime water. the reactant and product of one reaction may reverse roles. The beaker can still be heated or cooled. Definition: A reversible reaction A reversible reaction is a chemical reaction that can proceed in both the forward and reverse directions. delivery tube. calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ). 16. In other words.16. This is called the forward reaction.6.6. but matter cannot. 2. In other words. The second beaker covered by the bell jar is an example of a closed system. bunsen burner. Place the other end of the delivery tube into the test tube containing the lime water so that the carbon dioxide that is produced from the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid passes through the lime water.6 CHAPTER 16. In one direction the reactants combine to form the products. In another test tube. in the following reversible reaction: H2 (g) + I2 (g) ⇔ 2HI(g) The forward reaction is H2 (g) + I2 (g) → 2HI(g). In the other. 2 test tubes with rubber stoppers. there is no loss of matter from the system. Half-fill a test tube with clear lime water (Ca(OH)2 ). Activity :: Demonstration : The reversibility of chemical reactions Apparatus and materials: Lime water (Ca(OH)2 ).

Heat the solution in the test tube over a bunsen burner.CHAPTER 16. calcium carbonate becomes one of the reactants to produce hydrogen carbonate (Ca(HCO3 )2 ) and so the solution becomes clear again. 4. What do you notice? The equation for the reaction that takes place is: CaCO3 (s) + H2 O + CO2 → Ca(HCO3 )2 In this reaction.niveauLiquide1=30] [glassType=tube.6 rubber stopper rubber stopper [glassType=tube. In other words.3 Chemical equilibrium Using the same reversible reaction that we used in an earlier example: H2 (g) + I2 (g) ⇔ 2HI(g) The forward reaction is: H2 + I2 → 2HI 303 . changing the temperature of a reaction can change its direction.GRADE 12 Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2 O CaCO3 is insoluble and it turns the limewater milky. REACTION RATES .bouchon=true.6.niveauLiquide1=60] calcium carbonate & hydrochloric acid limewater Discussion: • If you look at the last two equations you will see that the one is the reverse of the other. Allow the reaction to proceed for a while so that carbon dioxide continues to pass through the limewater. The reaction that has taken place is: Ca(HCO3 )2 → CaCO3 (s) + H2 O + CO2 delivery tube 16.bouchon=true. 16. Sometimes. What do you observe? You should see bubbles of carbon dioxide appear and the limewater turns milky again. 5. this is a reversible reaction and can be written as follows: CaCO3 (s) + H2 O + CO2 ⇔ Ca(HCO3 )2 • Is the forward reaction endothermic or exothermic? Is the reverse reaction endothermic or exothermic? You should have noticed that the reverse reaction only took place when the solution was heated.

This state is called dynamic equilibrium. Figure 16.7 The equilibrium constant Definition: Equilibrium constant The equilibrium constant (Kc ).GRADE 12 2HI → H2 + I2 When the rate of the forward reaction and the reverse reaction are equal. Changing the concentration. 16. the temperature or the pressure of a reaction can affect equilibrium. Usually. Rate of Reaction H2 +I2 →2HI equilibrium 2HI→H2 +I2 Time Figure 16.7 The reverse reaction is: CHAPTER 16. 304 . It can be calculated if the equilibrium concentration of each reactant and product in a reaction at equilibrium is known. this does not mean that the reaction has stopped. the system is said to be in equilbrium.16. This is called equilibrium. the rate of the forward reaction decreases and the rate of the reverse reaction increases. These factors will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. REACTION RATES . a number of factors that can change the chemical equilibrium of a reaction. In the liquid-vapour phase equilibrium demonstration.6 shows this. Although it is not always possible to observe any macroscopic changes. Initially (time = 0). As the reaction proceeds. until both occur at the same rate. relates to a chemical reaction at equilibrium. Definition: Chemical equilibrium Chemical equilibrium is the state of a chemical reaction.6: The change in rate of forward and reverse reactions in a closed system There are. where the concentrations of the reactants and products have no net change over time. the rate of the forward reaction is high and the rate of the reverse reaction is low. The forward and reverse reactions continue to take place and so microscopic changes still occur in the system. however. this state results when the forward chemical reactions proceed at the same rate as their reverse reactions. dynamic equilibrium was reached when there was no observable change in the level of the water in the second beaker even though evaporation and condensation continued to take place.

Therefore. b. as the concentration of the reactants increases. the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.2 that the rate of the forward reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants. the rate of the reverse reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the products. A more general formula for calculating the equilibrium constant is therefore: kc = [C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b It is important to note that if a reactant or a product in a chemical reaction is in either the liquid or solid phase. if the constants k1 and k2 are simplified to a single constant. in the following reaction: C(s) + H2 O(g) ⇔ CO(g) + H2 (g) 305 . the concentration stays constant during the reaction. C and D are products and a. these values can be left out of the equation to calculate kc . and d are the coefficients of the respective reactants and products. c.7. This can be shown using the following equation: Rate of reverse reaction ∝ [C][D] or Rate of reverse reaction = k2 [C][D] At equilibrium.GRADE 12 16. REACTION RATES .CHAPTER 16. This can be shown using the following equation: Rate of forward reaction ∝ [A][B] or Rate of forward reaction = k1 [A][B] Similarly. For example. In other words. so does the rate of the forward reaction.7 16.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant Consider the following generalised reaction which takes place in a closed container at a constant temperature: A+B ⇔C +D We know from section 16. the equation becomes: kc = [C][D] [A][B] A more general form of the equation for a reaction at chemical equilibrium is: aA + bB ⇔ cC + dD where A and B are reactants. This can be shown using the following equation: k1 [A][B] = k2 [C][D] or k1 [C][D] = k2 [A][B] or.

it sometimes helps to draw up a table like the one below and fill in the mole values that you know or those you can calculate. 2.7 CHAPTER 16.7. The equilibrium for the reaction lies far to the left. REACTION RATES .GRADE 12 kc = [CO][H2 ] [H2 O] Important: 1. So a high kc value means that the concentration of products is high and the reaction has a high yield. The opposite is true for a low kc value.16. the following tips may help: 1. If you look at the equation. 2. When you are doing more complicated calculations. Make sure that you always read the question carefully to be sure of what you are being asked to calculate. at equilibrium. make sure that the concentrations you use are the concentrations at equilibrium. 16. Important: Calculations made easy When you are busy with calculations that involve the equilibrium constant. The constant kc is affected by temperature and so. We can also say that the equilibrium lies far to the right. kc values do not have units. and not the concentrations or quantities that are present at some other time in the reaction. A low kc value means that. This will give you a clear picture of what is happening in the reaction and will make sure that you use the right values in your calculations. If the equilibrium constant is involved. it is important that all the reactions have taken place at the same temperature. there are more reactants than products and therefore the yield is low. Reactant 1 Start of reaction Used up Produced Equilibrium Reactant 2 Product 1 Worked Example 77: Calculating kc Question: For the reaction: SO2 (g) + N O2 (g) → N O(g) + SO3 (g) 306 . the units all cancel each other out.2 The meaning of kc values The formula for kc has the concentration of the products in the numerator and the concentration of reactants in the denominator. if the values of k c are being compared for different reactions.

dm−3 [SO2 ] = 0. Write an equation for the equilibrium constant.4 mol.2 × 0.dm−3 = 0.4 moles of NH3 (g) is introduced into a sealed 2.dm−3 at equilibrium.1) Worked Example 78: Calculating reagent concentration Question: For the reaction: S(s) + O2 (g) ⇔ SO2 (g) 1.2 mol. REACTION RATES .dm−3 [NO] = 0. Answer Step 1 : Write the equation for kc kc = [N O][SO3 ] [SO2 ][N O2 ] 16.dm−3 [NO2 ] = 0.0 dm−3 reaction vessel.4 × 0.2 mol. 2. The ammonia decomposes when the temperature is increased to 600K and reaches equilibrium as follows: 307 .5mol.2) =4 (0.7 Step 2 : Fill in the values you know for this equation and calculate kc kc = (0.GRADE 12 the concentration of the reagents is as follows: [SO3 ] = 0. Answer Step 1 : Write the equation for kc kc = [SO2 ] [O2 ] (Sulfur is left out of the equation because it is a solid and its concentration stays constant during the reaction) Step 2 : Re-arrange the equation so that oxygen is on its own on one side of the equation [O2 ] = [SO2 ] kc Step 3 : Fill in the values you know and calculate [O2 ] [O2 ] = 3mol.1 mol.CHAPTER 16.dm−3 6 Worked Example 79: Equilibrium calculations Question: Initially 1. Calculate the equilibrium concentration of O2 if Kc=6 and [SO2 ] = 3mol.dm−3 Calculate the value of kc .

6mol Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of ammonia that react (are ’used up’) in the reaction. c= Therefore.2 moles of hydrogen are produced. In this case. the equilibrium mixture is found to contain 0. Therefore. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 900 K.6 N2 0 0 0. if 0.4 H2 0 0 1.48 [N H3 ]2 (0.3 mol.2 n V Step 5 : Using the values in the table. Answer Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of NH3 at equilibrium. Remember to use the mole ratio of reactants to products to do this.dm−3 1. Step 4 : Complete the following table Start of reaction Used up Produced Equilibrium NH3 1. 2.GRADE 12 2N H3 (g) ⇔ N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) When the equilibrium mixture is analysed.2 = = 0. calculate [N2 ] and [H2 ] [N2 ] = [H2 ] = Step 6 : Calculate kc kc = (0. then 0.7 CHAPTER 16.6)3 (0. Moles used up = 1.4 n = = 0. 308 .dm−3 V 2 Worked Example 80: Calculating kc Question: Hydrogen and iodine gas react according to the following equation: H2 (g) + I2 (g) ⇔ 2HI(g) When 0.8 moles Step 3 : Calculate the number of moles of product that are formed.2 mol.4 0.8 0 0.6 mol. REACTION RATES .dm−3 V 2 n 1.6 = 0. the concentration of NH3 (g) is 0.496 mol H2 and 0.3 × 2 = 0. Calculate the concentration of N2 (g) and H2 (g) in the equilibrium mixture.181 mol I2 are heated at 450oC in a 1 dm3 container.16.0. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 450o C.4 moles of nitrogen are produced and 1.2 1. the ratio of NH3 :N2 :H2 = 2:1:3.00749 mol I2 .3)2 0. n = c × V = 0.2) [H2 ]3 [N2 ] = = 0.4 0.8 moles of ammonia are used up in the reaction.4 .

95 × 10−4 mol. 0. the table can be filled in as follows: Start of reaction Used up Produced Equilibrium H2 (g) 0.181 0.347 0.dm−3 c= Step 5 : Calculate kc kc = [HI] 0.1735 0 0. So far.181 .1735 0 0.0.0075 mol. The mole ratio of H2 :I2 :HI = 1:1:2. therefore 0. therefore the number of moles of HI produced is 0.GRADE 12 Answer Step 1 : Calculate the number of moles of iodine used in the reaction.3225 I2 0.347 16.5 mols of ethanol. Moles of iodine used = 0.1735 × 2 = 0.dm−3 . 3.3225 mol.47 [H2 ][I2 ] 0. The mole ratio of hydrogen:iodine = 1:1.7 Step 4 : Calculate the concentration of each of the reactants and products at equilibrium.496 0.0075 2HI 0 0 0. Write the equilibrium constant expression.dm−3 [I2 ] = 0.5 mols of ethanoic acid and 0. The reaction is: CH3 COOH + CH3 CH2 OH → CH3 COOCH2 CH3 + H2 O At the beginning of the reaction. The volume of the reaction container is 2 dm3 . Calculate the value of Kc . the concentration of FeCl− is 0.dm−3 and the concentration of free iron (Fe3+ ) 4 is 0.1735 moles of hydrogen must also be used up in the reaction.347 mol.2 mol. 309 . n V Therefore the equilibrium concentrations are as follows: [H2 ] = 0. At equilibrium.1735 mol Step 2 : Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen that are used up in the reaction. Ethanoic acid (CH3 COOH) reacts with ethanol (CH3 CH2 OH) to produce ethyl ethanoate and water. Calculate the concentration of chloride ions at equilibrium. there are 0.CHAPTER 16.347 mol. REACTION RATES .0075 Exercise: The equilibrium constant 1.347 = = 143.dm−3 [HI] = 0.5 × 10−2 mol. The following reaction takes place: Fe3+ (aq) + 4Cl− ⇔ FeCl− (aq) 4 Kc for the reaction is 7. Step 3 : Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen iodide that are produced.00749 = 0.3 mols of ethanoic acid was left unreacted.dm−3 . At equilibrium.3225 × 0. Kc for the following reactions: (a) 2NO(g) + Cl2 (g) ⇔ 2NOCl (b) H2 (g) + I2 (g) ⇔ 2HI(g) 2.

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Le Chatelier’s principle

A number of factors can influence the equilibrium of a reaction. These are: 1. concentration 2. temperature 3. pressure Le Chatelier’s Principle helps to predict what a change in temperature, concentration or pressure will have on the position of the equilibrium in a chemical reaction. This is very important, particularly in industrial applications, where yields must be accurately predicted and maximised. Definition: Le Chatelier’s Principle If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration, temperature or total pressure the equilibrium will shift in order to minimise that change.

16.8.1

The effect of concentration on equilibrium

If the concentration of a substance is increased, the equilibrium will shift so that this concentration decreases. So for example, if the concentration of a reactant was increased, the equilibrium would shift in the direction of the reaction that uses up the reactants, so that the reactant concentration decreases and equilibrium is restored. In the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia: N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) ⇔ 2N H3 (g) • If the nitrogen or hydrogen concentration was increased, Le Chatelier’s principle predicts that equilibrium will shift to favour the forward reaction so that the excess nitrogen and hydrogen are used up to produce ammonia. Equilibrium shifts to the right. • If the nitrogen or hydrogen concentration was decreased, the reverse reaction would be favoured so that some of the ammonia would change back to nitrogen and hydrogen to restore equilibrium. • The same would be true if the concentration of the product (NH3 ) was changed. If [NH3 ] decreases, the forward reaction is favoured and if [NH3 ] increases, the reverse reaction is favoured.

16.8.2

The effect of temperature on equilibrium

If the temperature of a reaction mixture is increased, the equilibrium will shift to decrease the temperature. So it will favour the reaction which will use up heat energy, in other words the endothermic reaction. The opposite is true if the temperature is decreased. In this case, the reaction that produces heat energy will be favoured, in other words, the exothermic reaction. The reaction shown below is exothermic (shown by the negative value for ∆ H). This means that the forward reaction, where nitrogen and hydrogen react to form ammonia, gives off heat. In the reverse reaction, where ammonia is broken down into hydrogen and nitrogen gas, heat is used up and so this reaction is endothermic.

e.g. N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) ⇔ 2N H3 (g) and ∆H = −92kJ An increase in temperature favours the reaction that is endothermic (the reverse reaction) because it uses up energy. If the temperature is increased, then the yield of ammonia (NH3 ) 310

CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES - GRADE 12 decreases.

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A decrease in temperature favours the reaction that is exothermic (the forward reaction) because it produces energy. Therefore, if the temperature is decreased, then the yield of NH3 increases.

Activity :: Experiment : Le Chatelier’s Principle Aim: To determine the effect of a change in concentration and temperature on chemical equilibrium Apparatus: 0.2 M CoCl2 solution, concentrated HCl, water, test tube, bunsen burner Method: 1. Put 4-5 drops of 0.2M CoCl2 solution into a test tube. 2. Add 20-25 drops of concentrated HCl. 3. Add 10-12 drops of water. 4. Heat the solution for 1-2 minutes. 5. Cool the solution for 1 minute under a tap. 6. Observe and record the colour changes that take place during the reaction. The equation for the reaction that takes place is:
2− e.g. CoCl4 + 6H2 O ⇔ Co(H2 O)2+ + 4Cl− 6 blue pink

Results: Complete your observations in the table below, showing the colour changes that take place, and also indicating whether the concentration of each of the ions in solution increases or decreases. Initial colour Add Cl− Add H2 O Increase temp. Decrease temp. Conclusions: Use your knowledge of equilibrium principles to explain the changes that you recorded in the table above. Draw a conclusion about the effect of a change in concentration of either the reactants or products on the equilibrium position. Also draw a conclusion about the effect of a change in temperature on the equilibrium position. Final colour [Co2+ ] [Cl− ] [CoCl2− ] 4

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16.8.3

The effect of pressure on equilibrium

In the case of gases, we refer to pressure instead of concentration. Similar principles apply as those that were described before for concentration. When the pressure of a system increases, there are more particles in a particular space. The equilibrium will shift in a direction that reduces the number of gas particles so that the pressure is also reduced. To predict what will happen in a reaction, we need to look at the number of moles of gas that are in the reactants and products. Look at the example below:

e.g. 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) ⇔ 2SO3 (g) In this reaction, two moles of product are formed for every three moles of reactants. If we increase the pressure on the closed system, the equilibrium will shift to the right because the forward reaction reduces the number of moles of gas that are present. This means that the yield of SO3 will increase. The opposite will apply if the pressure on the system decreases. the equilibrium will shift to the left, and the concentration of SO2 and O2 will increase. Important: The following rules will help in predicting the changes that take place in equilibrium reactions: 1. If the forward reaction that forms the product is endothermic, then an increase in temperature will favour this reaction and the yield of product will increase. Lowering the temperature will decrease the product yield. 2. If the forward reaction that forms the product is exothermic, then a decrease in temperature will favour this reaction and the product yield will increase. Increasing the temperature will decrease the product yield. 3. Increasing the pressure favours the side of the equilibrium with the least number of gas molecules. This is shown in the balanced symbol equation. This rule applies in reactions with one or more gaseous reactants or products. 4. Decreasing the pressure favours the side of the equilibrium with the most number of gas molecules. This rule applies in reactions with one or more gaseous reactants or products. 5. If the concentration of a reactant (on the left) is increased, then some of it must change to the products (on the right) for equilibrium to be maintained. The equilibrium position will shift to the right. 6. If the concentration of a reactant (on the left) is decreased, then some of the products (on the right) must change back to reactants for equilibrium to be maintained. The equilibrium position will shift to the left. 7. A catalyst does not affect the equilibrium position of a reaction. It only influences the rate of the reaction, in other words, how quickly equilibrium is reached.

Worked Example 81: Reaction Rates 1 Question: 2N O2 (g) ⇔ 2N O(g) + O2 (g) and ∆H > 0 How will the rate of the reverse reaction be affected by: 1. a decrease in temperature? 2. the addition of a catalyst? 3. the addition of more NO gas? Answer 312

CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES - GRADE 12 1. The rate of the forward reaction will increase since it is the forward reaction that is exothermix and therefore produces energy to balance the loss of energy from the decrease in temperature. The rate of the reverse reaction will decrease. 2. The rate of the reverse and the forward reaction will increase. 3. The rate of the reverse reaction will increase so that the extra NO gas is converted into NO2 gas.

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Worked Example 82: Reaction Rates 2 Question: 1. Write a balanced equation for the exothermic reaction between Zn(s) and HCl. 2. Name 3 ways to increase the reaction rate between hydrochloric acid and zinc metal. Answer 1. Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ⇔ ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) 2. A catalyst could be added, the zinc solid could be ground into a fine powder to increase its surface area, the HCl concentration could be increased or the reaction temperature could be increased.

Exercise: Reaction rates and equilibrium 1. The following reaction reaches equilibrium in a closed container: CaCO3 (s) ⇔ CaO(s) + CO2 (g) The pressure of the system is increased by decreasing the volume of the container. How will the number of moles and the concentration of the CO2 (g) have changed when a new equilibrium is reached at the same temperature? A B C D (IEB Paper 2, 2003) 2. The following reaction has reached equilibrium in a closed container: C(s) + H2 O(g) ⇔ CO(g) + H2 (g) ∆H ¿ 0 The pressure of the system is then decreased by increasing the volume of the container. How will the concentration of the H2 (g) and the value of Kc be affected when the new equilibrium is established? Assume that the temperature of the system remains unchanged. A B C D [H2 ] increases increases unchanged decreases 313 Kc increases unchanged unchanged unchanged moles of CO2 decreased increased decreased decreased [CO2 ] decreased increased stays the same increased

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CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES - GRADE 12 (IEB Paper 2, 2004) 3. During a classroom experiment copper metal reacts with concentrated nitric acid to produce NO2 gas, which is collected in a gas syringe. When enough gas has collected in the syringe, the delivery tube is clamped so that no gas can escape. The brown NO2 gas collected reaches an equilibrium with colourless N2 O4 gas as represented by the following equation: 2N O2 (g) ⇔ N2 O4 (g) Once this equilibrium has been established, there are 0.01 moles of NO2 gas and 0.03 moles of N2 O4 gas present in the syringe. (a) A learner, noticing that the colour of the gas mixture in the syringe is no longer changing, comments that all chemical reactions in the syringe must have stopped. Is this assumption correct? Explain. (b) The gas in the syringe is cooled. The volume of the gas is kept constant during the cooling process. Will the gas be lighter or darker at the lower temperature? Explain your answer. (c) The volume of the syringe is now reduced to 75 cm3 by pushing the plunger in and holding it in the new position. There are 0.032 moles of N2 O4 gas present once the equilibrium has been re-established at the reduced volume (75 cm3 ). Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for this equilibrium. (IEB Paper 2, 2004) 4. Consider the following reaction, which takes place in a closed container: A(s) + B(g) → AB(g) ∆H < 0 If you wanted to increase the rate of the reaction, which of the following would you do? (a) decrease the concentration of B (b) decrease the temperature of A (c) grind A into a fine powder (d) decrease the pressure (IEB Paper 2, 2002) 5. Gases X and Y are pumped into a 2 dm3 container. When the container is sealed, 4 moles of gas X and 4 moles of gas Y are present. The following equilibrium is established: 2X(g) + 3Y(g) ⇔ X2 Y3 The graph below shows the number of moles of gas X and gas X2 Y3 that are present from the time the container is sealed.

4 number of moles

0,5 30 70 time (s) 100

314

CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES - GRADE 12 (a) How many moles of gas X2 Y3 are formed by the time the reaction reaches equilibrium at 30 seconds? (b) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant at t = 50 s. (c) At 70 s the temperature is increased. Is the forward reaction endothermic or exothermic? Explain in terms of Le Chatelier’s Principle. (d) How will this increase in temperature affect the value of the equilibrium constant?

16.9

16.9

Industrial applications

The Haber process is a good example of an industrial process which uses the equilibrium principles that have been discussed. The equation for the process is as follows: N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) ⇔ 2N H3 (g) + energy Since the reaction is exothermic, the forward reaction is favoured at low temperatures, and the reverse reaction at high temperatures. If the purpose of the Haber process is to produce ammonia, then the temperature must be maintained at a level that is low enough to ensure that the reaction continues in the forward direction. The forward reaction is also favoured by high pressures because there are four moles of reactant for every two moles of product formed. The k value for this reaction will be calculated as follows: k= [N H3 ]2 [N2 ][H2 ]3

Exercise: Applying equilibrium principles Look at the values of k calculated for the Haber process reaction at different temperatures, and then answer the questions that follow: T oC 25 200 300 400 500 k 6.4 4.4 4.3 1.6 1.5

x x x x x

102 10−1 10−3 10−4 10−5

1. What happens to the value of k as the temperature increases? 2. Which reaction is being favoured when the temperature is 300 degrees celsius? 3. According to this table, which temperature would be best if you wanted to produce as much ammonia as possible? Explain.

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CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES - GRADE 12

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Summary

• The rate of a reaction describes how quickly reactants are used up, or how quickly products form. The units used are moles per second. • A number of factors can affect the rate of a reaction. These include the nature of the reactants, the concentration of reactants, temperature of the reaction, the presence or absence of a catalyst and the surface area of the reactants. • Collision theory provides one way of explaining why each of these factors can affect the rate of a reaction. For example, higher temperatures mean increased reaction rates because the reactant particles have more energy and are more likely to collide successfully with each other. • Different methods can be used to measure the rate of a reaction. The method used will depend on the nature of the product. Reactions that produce gases can be measured by collecting the gas in a syringe. Reactions that produce a precipitate are also easy to measure because the precipitate is easily visible. • For any reaction to occur, a minimum amount of energy is needed so that bonds in the reactants can break, and new bonds can form in the products. The minimum energy that is required is called the activation energy of a reaction. • In reactions where the particles do not have enough energy to overcome this activation energy, one of two methods can be used to facilitate a reaction to take place: increase the temperature of the reaction or add a catalyst. • Increasing the temperature of a reaction means that the average energy of the reactant particles increases and they are more likely to have enough energy to overcome the activation energy. • A catalyst is used to lower the activation energy so that the reaction is more likely to take place. A catalyst does this by providing an alternative, lower energy pathway, for the reaction. • A catalyst therefore speeds up a reaction but does not become part of the reaction in any way. • Chemical equilibrium is the state of a reaction, where the concentrations of the reactants and the products have no net change over time. Usually this occurs when the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the rate of the reverse reaction. • The equilibrium constant relates to reactions at equilibrium, and can be calculated using the following equation: kc = [C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b

where A and B are reactants, C and D are products and a, b, c, and d are the coefficients of the respective reactants and products. • A high kc value means that the concentration of products at equilibrium is high and the reaction has a high yield. A low kc value means that the concentration of products at equilibrium is low and the reaction has a low yield. • Le Chatelier’s Principle states that if a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration, temperature or total pressure the equilibrium will shift in order to minimise that change. For example, if the pressure of a gaseous system at eqilibrium was increased, the equilibrium would shift to favour the reaction that produces the lowest quantity of the gas. If the temperature of the same system was to increase, the equilibrium would shift to favour the endothermic reaction. Similar principles apply for changes in concentration of the reactants or products in a reaction. • The principles of equilibrium are very important in industrial applications such as the Haber process, so that productivity can be maximised. 316

CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES - GRADE 12

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Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct answer from the list provided. (a) Consider the following reaction that has reached equilibrium after some time in a sealed 1 dm3 flask: P Cl5 (g) ⇔ P Cl3 (g) + Cl2 (g); ∆H is positive Which one of the following reaction conditions applied to the system would decrease the rate of the reverse reaction? i. ii. iii. iv. increase the pressure increase the reaction temperature continually remove Cl2 (g) from the flask addition of a suitable catalyst

(IEB Paper 2, 2001) (b) The following equilibrium constant expression is given for a particular reaction: Kc = [H2 O]4 [CO2 ]3 /[C3 H8 ][O2 ]5 For which one of the following reactions is the above expression of Kc is correct? i. ii. iii. iv. C3 H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) ⇔ 4H2 O(g) + 3CO2 (g) 4H2 O(g) + 3CO2 (g) ⇔ C3 H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) 2C3 H8 (g) + 7O2 (g) ⇔ 6CO(g) + 8H2 O(g) C3 H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) ⇔ 4H2 O(l) + 3CO2 (g)

(IEB Paper 2, 2001)

2. 10 g of magnesium ribbon reacts with a 0.15 mol.dm−3 solution of hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 250 C. (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (b) State two ways of increasing the rate of production of H2 (g). (c) A table of the results is given below: Time elapsed (min) Vol of H2 (g) (cm3 ) 0 0 0.5 17 1.0 25 1.5 30 2.0 33 2.5 35 3.0 35 i. Plot a graph of volume versus time for these results. ii. Explain the shape of the graph during the following two time intervals: t = 0 to t = 2.0 min and then t = 2.5 and t = 3.0 min by referring to the volume of H2 (g) produced. (IEB Paper 2, 2001) 3. Cobalt chloride crystals are dissolved in a beaker containing ethanol and then a few drops of water are added. After a period of time, the reaction reaches equilibrium as follows:
2− CoCl4 (blue) +6H2 O ⇔ Co(H2 O)2+ (pink) +4Cl− 6

The solution, which is now just blue, is poured into three test tubes. State, in each case, what colour changes will be observed (if any) if the following are added in turn to each test tube: (a) 1 cm3 of distilled water (b) A few crystals of sodium chloride 317

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CHAPTER 16. REACTION RATES - GRADE 12 (c) The addition of dilute hydrochloric acid to the third test tube causes the solution to turn pink. Explain why this occurs. (IEB Paper 2, 2001)

318

Chapter 17 Electrochemical Reactions . In each of the following equations. Which one of the substances listed below acts as the oxidising agent in the following reaction? 2− 2− 3SO2 + Cr2 O7 + 2H + → 3SO4 + 2Cr3+ + H2 O (a) (b) (c) (d) H+ Cr3+ SO2 Cr2 O2− 7 319 . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) F e → F e2+ + 2e− F e3+ + e− → F e2+ F e2 O3 → F e F e2+ → F e3+ + e− F e2 O3 + 2Al → Al2 3. Exercise: Oxidation and reduction 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) CuO(s) + H2 (g) → Cu(s) + H2 O(g) 2N O(g) + 2CO(g) → N2 (g) + 2CO2 (g) M g(s) + F eSO4 (aq) → M gSO4 (aq) + F e(s) Zn(s) + 2AgN O3 (aq) → 2Ag + Zn(N O3 )2 (aq) 4. reduction and redox reactions. In each of the following reactions say whether the iron in the reactants is oxidised or reduced.Grade 12 17. 2.1 Introduction Chapter 15 in Grade 11 discussed oxidation. Oxidation involves a loss of electrons and reduction involves a gain of electrons. say which elements in the reactants are oxidised and which are reduced. What is common to all of these processes is that they involve a transfer of electrons and a change in the oxidation state of the elements that are involved. Define the terms oxidation and reduction. A redox reaction is a reaction where both oxidation and reduction take place.

2. An electrochemical reaction can also be the reverse of this process. the Cu2+ ions from the copper(II) sulphate solution were reduced to copper metal. we will be looking more closely at different types of electrochemical reactions. measuring balance.dm−3 ). an experiment was carried out to see what happened when zinc granules are added to a solution of copper(II) sulphate. and how these can be used in different ways. can we use a chemical reaction where there is an exchange of electrons. in other words if an electrical current causes a chemical reaction to take place. Method: 1. copper sulphate (CuSO4 ) solution (1 mol. to produce electricity? And if this is possible. or if a voltage is caused by a chemical reaction. cotton wool. In the experiment. Measure the mass of the copper and zinc plates and record your findings. The half reactions are as follows: Cu2+ (aq) + 2e− → Cu(s) (reduction half reaction) Zn(s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e− (oxidation half reaction) The overall redox reaction is: Cu2+ (aq) + Zn → Cu(s) + Zn2+ (aq) There was an increase in the temperature of the reaction when you carried out this experiment. Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies these electrochemical reactions.17. Fill the U-tube with the Na2 SO4 solution and seal the ends of the tubes with the cotton wool. it is an electrochemical reaction. In this chapter. ammeter. what would happen if an electrical current was supplied to cause some type of chemical reaction to take place? An electrochemical reaction is a chemical reaction that produces a voltage. zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 ) solution (1 mol. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . Pour about 200 ml of the copper sulphate solution into the second beaker and place the copper plate into it.2 CHAPTER 17. 3. Na2 SO4 solution. This will stop the solution from flowing out when the U-tube is turned upside down.dm−3 ). The zinc atoms were oxidised to form Zn2+ ions in the solution. and therefore a flow of electrical current. 17. copper plate.GRADE 12 In Grade 11. which was then deposited in a layer on the zinc granules. Pour about 200 ml of the zinc sulphate solution into a beaker and put the zinc plate into it. 4. two 250 ml beakers. Is it possible that this heat energy could be converted into electrical energy? In other words. Definition: Electrochemical reaction If a chemical reaction is caused by an external voltage. 320 . U-tube. connecting wire.2 The Galvanic Cell Activity :: Experiment : Electrochemical reactions Aim: To investigate the reactions that take place in a zinc-copper cell Apparatus: zinc plate.

The decrease in mass of the zinc plate suggests that the zinc metal has been oxidised.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell The experiment above demonstrated a zinc-copper cell. • When the U-tube was connected. Place the U-tube so that one end is in the copper sulphate solution and the other end is in the zinc sulphate solution. then with alcohol and finally with ether. 321 . The mass of the zinc plate decreased. Is there a reading on the ammeter? In which direction is the current flowing? 7.2 A + salt bridge + Cu Zn CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) Results: During the experiment. you should have noticed the following: • When the U-tube containing the Na2 SO4 solution was absent. remove the two plates and rinse them first with distilled water. 9. This was made up of a zinc half cell and a copper half cell. Weigh the zinc and copper plates and record their mass.2. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . there was a change in their mass. The increase in mass of the copper plate suggests that reduction has occurred here to produce more copper metal. Conclusions: When a zinc sulphate solution containing a zinc plate is connected by a U-tube to a copper sulphate solution containing a copper plate. A voltmeter will measure the potential difference across the cell. electron flow 17. • The direction of electron flow is from the zinc plate towards the copper plate. Has the mass of the plates changed from the original measurements? Note: A voltmeter can also be used in place of the ammeter. Dry the plates using a hair dryer. while the mass of the copper plate increased.CHAPTER 17. After a day. a reading was recorded on the ammeter.GRADE 12 5. • After the plates had been connected directly to each other and left for a day. Leave to stand for about one day. 6. Take the ammeter away and connect the copper and zinc plates to each other directly using copper wire. 8. 17. reactions occur in both solutions. there was no reading on the ammeter. This will be explained in detail below. Connect the zinc and copper plates to the ammeter and observe whether the ammeter records a reading.

and the electrode where reduction takes place is called the cathode.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell In the zinc-copper cell. the zinc plate is the anode and the copper plate is the cathode. • Zinc plate At the zinc plate. In the Zn-Cu electrochemical cell. and the reduction half-reaction at the cathode is written on the right. if we cancel the electrons: Zn + Cu2+ → Zn2+ + Cu For this electrochemical cell. The electrode where oxidation occurs is called the anode.17. The half-reaction that takes place at the zinc plate is: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− (Oxidation half reaction) The shortened way to represent the zinc half-cell is Zn/Zn2+ . The overall reaction is: Zn + Cu2+ + 2e− → Zn2+ + Cu + 2e− or. there was an increase in mass. The half-reaction that takes place at the copper plate is: Cu2+ + 2e− → Cu (Reduction half reaction) Another shortened way to represent this copper half-cell is Cu2+ /Cu. the direction of current flow in the external circuit is from the zinc electrode (where there has been a build up of electrons) to the copper electrode. The cathode is the electrode where reduction takes place. the standard notation is: Zn|Zn2+ ||Cu2+ |Cu where | = || = a phase boundary (solid/aqueous) the salt bridge In the notation used above. In the zinc-copper cell. 17. a zinc half cell could consist of a zinc metal plate (the electrode) in a zinc sulphate solution (the electrolyte). How do we explain what has just been observed in the zinc-copper cell? • Copper plate At the copper plate.GRADE 12 Definition: Half cell A half cell is a structure that consists of a conductive electrode surrounded by a conductive electrolyte. This means that some of the zinc goes into solution as Z2+ ions. 322 . For example. there was a decrease in mass. This means that Cu2+ ions from the copper sulphate solution were deposited onto the plate as atoms of copper metal.2 CHAPTER 17. The anode is the electrode where oxidation takes place. giving it a negative charge. The electrons remain on the zinc plate. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . the oxidation half-reaction at the anode is written on the left. Definition: Electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor that is used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit. the copper and zinc plates are called the electrodes.2.

It was the work of these two men that paved the way for all electrical batteries. Definition: Galvanic cell A galvanic (voltaic) cell is an electrochemical cell that uses a chemical reaction between two dissimilar electrodes dipped in an electrolyte. While many scientists accepted his ideas. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . In this type of cell. The metal ’dissolves’ when it loses electrons to form positive metal ions. there is a decrease in the positive charge because electrons are gained through reduction. A galvanic cell (which is also sometimes referred to as a voltaic or electrochemical cell) consists of two metals that are connected by a salt bridge between the individual half-cells.CHAPTER 17. In the Zn/Zn2+ half-cell. These are called galvanic cells. teresting It was the Italian physician and anatomist Luigi Galvani who marked the birth Interesting Fact Fact of electrochemistry by making a link between chemical reactions and electricity. In the Cu2+ /Cu halfcell. another scientist. which was very similar to the galvanic cell. and the result is a flow of current through the wire that connects the electrodes. A galvanic cell generates electricity using the reactions that take place at these two metals. they made the leg contract. Without this. This causes a movement of SO2− ions into the beaker where there are too many positive ions. The salt bridge acts as a transfer medium that allows ions to flow through without allowing the different solutions to mix and react. 4 in order to neutralise the solution. These electrons are then transferred through the connecting wire in the outer circuit. 17. When two metals with different reaction potentials are used in a galvanic cell. in electrochemistry. The U-tube is called the salt bridge. did not. Alessandro Volta.3 The Galvanic cell In the zinc-copper cell the important thing to notice is that the chemical reactions that take place at the two electrodes cause an electric current to flow through the outer circuit. The zinc-copper cell is one example of a galvanic cell. In 1780. So what is meant by the ’reaction potential’ of a substance? Every metal has a different half reaction and different dissolving rates. a potential difference is set up between the two electrodes. He called this ”animal electricity”. the flow of electrons in the outer circuit stops completely. 323 .2. Definition: Salt bridge A salt bridge. zinc has a higher reaction potential than copper and therefore dissolves more readily into solution. is a laboratory device that is used to connect the oxidation and reduction half-cells of a galvanic cell. In the zinc-copper cell. The U-tube also plays a very important role in the cell. each of which has a different reaction potential. 17.2 Definition: Electrolyte An electrolyte is a substance that contains free ions and which therefore behaves as an electrical conductor. because of his professional disagreement over the galvanic response that had been suggested by Luigi Galvani. there is a build up of positive charge because of the release of electrons through oxidation. chemical energy is converted to electrical energy. Volta developed the voltaic pile.GRADE 12 The zinc sulphate and copper sulphate solutions are called the electrolyte solutions. to generate an electric current. Galvani discovered that when two different metals (copper and zinc for example) were connected together and then both touched to different parts of a nerve of a frog leg at the same time. In 1800.

electrical appliances (long-life alkaline batteries). it can be for aesthetic reasons for example in the production of jewellery. Sometimes. The overall equation therefore becomes: Zn + Ag+ + e− → Zn2+ + 2e− + Ag Note that this equation is not balanced. This will be discussed later in the chapter. 324 .2 CHAPTER 17. At other times.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell The principles of the galvanic cell are used to make electrical batteries. When you combine the two half-reactions. digital watches (mercury battery) and military applications (thermal battery). Give the anode and cathode half-reactions. Refer to chapter 23 for more information on batteries. 2. a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . So. the oxidation reaction is written on the left and the reduction reaction on the right.GRADE 12 Worked Example 83: Understanding galvanic cells Question: For the following cell: Zn|Zn2+ ||Ag + |Ag 1.2. in this cell. 3. The galvanic cell can also be used for electroplating. Answer Step 1 : Identify the oxidation and reduction reactions In the standard notation format. Write the overall equation for the chemical reaction. electroplating is used to give a metal particular properties such as corrosion protection or wear resistance. Electroplating occurs when an electrically conductive object is coated with a layer of metal using electrical current. Step 2 : Write the two half reactions Oxidation half-reaction: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− Reduction half-reaction: Ag + + e− → Ag Step 3 : Combine the half-reactions to get the overall equation. In science and technology. zinc is oxidised and silver ions are reduced. Batteries are made of electrochemical devices such as one or more galvanic cells. Batteries have many uses including in torches. Current will therefore flow from the zinc electrode to the silver electrode. hearing aids (silver-oxide battery). Give the direction of the current in the external circuit. 17.17. This is at the zinc electrode. all the reactants must go on the left side of the equation and the products must go on the right side of the equation. This will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Step 4 : Determine the direction of current flow A build up of electrons occurs where oxidation takes place. fuel cells or flow cells. digital cameras (lithium battery).

In other words.3 The Electrolytic cell In section 17. Give the overall equation for the electrochemical cell. Suggest two electrolytes for this electrochemical cell.CHAPTER 17. Definition: Electrolytic cell An electrolytic cell is a type of cell that uses electricity to drive a non-spontaneous reaction. What metals could be used for the electrodes in this electrochemical cell. For the following cell: Sn|Sn2+ ||Ag + |Ag (a) (b) (c) (d) Give the cathode half-reaction. we are going to see whether the ’reverse’ process applies. Give the anode half-reaction. Give the anode half-reaction. 2. This process is called electrolysis. Use standard notation to represent this electrochemical cell. Give the overall equation for the electrochemical cell. 17.GRADE 12 17. 325 . is it possible to use an electric current to force a particular chemical reaction to occur. electrolysis is a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. Name one reducing agent. can be used to produce an electric current. Definition: Electrolysis In chemistry and manufacturing. is called an electrolytic cell.2. The following half-reactions take place in an electrochemical cell: Fe → Fe3+ + 3e− Fe2+ + 2e− → Fe (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Which is the oxidation half-reaction? Which is the reduction half-reaction? Name one oxidising agent. we saw that a chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons.3 Exercise: Galvanic cells 1. 3. which would otherwise not take place? The answer is ’yes’. and the type of cell that is used to do this. In this section. An electrolytic cell is activated by applying an electrical potential across the anode and cathode to force an internal chemical reaction between the ions that are in the electrolyte solution. Draw a simple sketch of the complete cell. For the following cell: M g|M g 2+||M n2+ |M n (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Give the cathode half-reaction. In which direction will the current flow? Draw a simple sketch of the complete cell. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .

copper chromate (green brown) negative ions positive ions + - + - + start of reaction + after 20 minutes The current is then switched on and allowed to run for about 20 minutes.17. The colour of this solution is initially green-brown. 17. A line of copper chromate solution is placed in the centre of the filter paper. so that one of the electrodes is positive and the other is negative. • The chromate (CrO2− ) ions in the copper chromate solution are attracted 4 to the positive electrode. Similar principles apply in the electrolytic cell. Conclusion: The movement of ions occurs because the electric current in the outer circuit sets up a potential difference between the two electrodes. 326 . while the Cu2+ ions are attracted to the negative electrode. which seem to have separated out from the first band of copper chromate. the central coloured band disappears and is replaced by two bands. Activity :: Demonstration : The electrolysis of copper sulphate Two copper electrodes are placed in a solution of blue copper sulphate and are connected to a source of electrical current as shown in the diagram below. The filter paper is then connected to a supply of electric current using crocodile clips and connecting wire as shown in the diagram below. After this time.GRADE 12 Activity :: Demonstration : The movement of coloured ions A piece of filter paper is soaked in an ammonia-ammonium chloride solution and placed on a microscope slide.3 CHAPTER 17.3. one yellow and the other blue. The electrolysis of copper sulphate is just one. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . where substances that are made of ions can be broken down into simpler substances through electrolysis.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate There are a number of examples of electrolysis. Explanation: • The cell that is used to supply an electric current sets up a potential difference across the circuit. The current is turned on and the reaction is left for a period of time.

The number of Cu2+ ions in the solution therefore remains almost the same and the blue colour of the solution is unchanged. This is why it appears that some of the copper has dissolved from the electrode. The reduction half-reaction that takes place at the cathode is as follows: 327 .3 + – positive anode copper electrode negative cathode copper electrode SO2− 4 Cu2+ CuSO4 solution Observations: • The initial blue colour of the solution remains unchanged. The electrolytic cell for this reaction consists of two electrodes (normally platinum metal). Cu2+ and SO2− . These ions gain electrons and are reduced to form copper metal.2 The electrolysis of water Water can also undergo electrolysis to form hydrogen gas and oxygen gas according to the following reaction: 2H2 O(l) → 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) This reaction is very important because hydrogen gas has the potential to be used as an energy source.3.GRADE 12 + – 17. positively charged Cu2+ ions are attracted to the negatively charged electrode. Conclusion: In this demonstration. Explanation: • At the negative cathode.CHAPTER 17. This process is called electrolysis. submerged in an electrolyte and connected to a source of electric current. The half-reaction that takes place is as follows: Cu2+ (aq) + 2e− → Cu(s) (reduction half reaction) • At the positive anode. • It appears that copper has been deposited on one of the electrodes but dissolved from the other. which is deposited on the electrode. an electric current was used to split CuSO4 into its component ions. 4 17. The half-reaction that takes place is as follows: Cu(s) → Cu2+ (aq) + 2e− (oxidation half reaction) • The amount of copper that is deposited at one electrode is approximately the same as the amount of copper that is dissolved from the other. copper metal is oxidised to form Cu2+ ions. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .

4 CHAPTER 17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials If a voltmeter is connected in the circuit of an electrochemical cell.17. we are going to look at this in more detail to try to understand more about the electrode potentials of each of the electrodes in the cell.3.1: A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells Exercise: Electrolyis 1. there is a potential difference between the two half cells. show the direction in which current flows. We are going to break this section down so that you build up your understanding gradually.g. Make sure that you understand each subsection fully before moving on. electroplating Electrolytic cell The same metal can be used for both the cathode and the anode positive negative The cathode and anode are in the same electrolyte Charge of the anode Charge of the cathode The electrolyte solution/s Energy changes An external supply of electrical energy causes a chemical reaction to occur Electrolysis e. (a) Draw a simple diagram of the electrolytic cell. (c) On your diagram.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells It should be much clearer now that there are a number of differences between a galvanic and an electrolytic cell. of water. In this section.GRADE 12 2H2 O(l) + 2e− → H2 (g) + 2OH − (aq) The oxidation half-reaction that takes place at the anode is as follows: 2H2 O(l) → O2 (g) + 4H + (aq) + 4e− 17. Some of these differences have been summarised in table 17. NaCl Applications Table 17. otherwise it might get confusing! 328 . Item Metals used for electrode Galvanic cell Two metals with different reaction potentials are used as electrodes negative positive The electrolyte solutions are kept separate from one another. a reading is obtained. 2. In other words. and include these in the diagram. (b) Give the equation for the oxidation half-reacion. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .1. 17. connected to a source of current. and are connected only by a salt bridge Chemical potential energy from chemical reactions is converted to electrical energy Run batteries. An electrolytic cell consists of two electrodes in a silver chloride (AgCl) solution. (a) Give the equation for the reduction half-reaction. A current is passed through the solution and Ag+ ions are reduced to a silver metal deposit on one of the electrodes. (b) Give equations for the half-reactions that take place at the anode and cathode. Electrolysis takes place in a solution of molten lead bromide (PbBr) to produce lead atoms.

2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells Let’s think back to the Zn-Cu electrochemical cell. 17. This cell is made up of two half cells and the reactions that take place at each of the electrodes are as follows: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− Cu2+ + 2e− → Cu At the zinc electrode. will gain their electrons again and will form zinc metal. --2+ - zinc metal concentration of electrons on metal surface 2+ 2+ Zn2+ ions in solution .4.4 17. We can also say that the zinc is oxidised and that it is a strong reducing agent.1.2).-- 2+ 2+ Figure 17. But some metals do this more easily than others. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . The equilibrium reaction is represented like this: Zn2+ (aq) + 2e− ⇔ Zn(s) (NOTE: By convention. A dynamic equilibrium is set up between the zinc metal and the Zn2+ ions in solution when the rate at which ions are leaving the metal is equal to the rate at which they are joining it again. a similar process takes place. the equilibrium lies far to the left because the zinc loses electrons easily to form Zn2+ ions. But some of the ions will be attracted back to the negatively charged metal. The difference though is that copper is not as reactive as zinc and so it does not form ions as easily. Look at the following two half reactions: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− Cu → Cu2+ + 2e− Of these two metals. than is copper. The electrons accumulate on the metal surface. they give away electrons and form positive ions.1 The different reactivities of metals All metals have different reactivities.CHAPTER 17.4. This means that the build up of electrons on the copper electrode is less (figure 17. At the copper electrode. The situation looks something like the diagram in figure 17. When metals react.1: Zinc loses electrons to form positive ions in solution.GRADE 12 17. The equilibrium reaction is shown like this: 329 . the zinc metal loses electrons and forms Zn2+ ions. The electrons are concentrated on the zinc metal while the Zn2+ ions are in solution. zinc is more reactive and is more likely to give away electrons to form Zn2+ ions in solution. the ions are written on the left hand side of the equation) In the zinc half cell.

But what we can do is to try to describe the electrode potential of a metal relative to another substance. We need to use a standard reference electrode for this. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . and therefore current.4 CHAPTER 17. then it is difficult to calculate the potential difference between them. And if the exact electrode potential of each of the electrodes involved can’t be measured. This means we cannot measure the exact electrode potential (Eo V) of a particular metal. we would need to connect a voltmeter to both the metal and the solution. 17.co. Important: Understanding the ideas behind a reference electrode Adapted from www. to flow from the more negative electrode to the less negative electrode.2: Zinc loses electrons to form positive ions in solution. which is not possible. the Cu2+ ions are reduced.4. It is the potential difference (recorded as a voltage) between the two electrodes that causes electrons.3 Measuring electrode potential If we put the two half cells together.17.uk 330 .GRADE 12 - - copper metal concentration of electrons on metal surface Cu2+ ions in solution -2+ 2+ Figure 17. Refer to the Tip box on ’Understanding the ideas behind a reference electrode’ before you read further. To do this. The problem though is that we cannot measure the potential difference (voltage) between a metal and its surrounding solution in the cell.4. a potential difference is set up in two places in the Zn-Cu cell: 1. it may be useful to have some more understanding of the ideas behind a ’reference electrode’. The electrode potential describes the ability of a metal to give up electrons. The electrons accumulate on the metal surface. 2. 17. Cu2+ (aq) + 2e− ⇔ Cu(s) The equation lies far to the right because most of the copper is present as copper metal rather than as Cu2+ ions.chemguide. There is a potential difference between the Zn and Cu electrodes because one is more negative than the other.4 The standard hydrogen electrode Before we look at the standard hydrogen electrode. In this half reaction. There is a potential difference between the metal and the solution surrounding it because one is more negative than the other.

For example. Unfortunately.44 0. but its standard electrode potential is said to be zero at all temperatures so that it can be used as for comparison with other electrodes. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . person C is 25 cm taller than A and 40 cm taller than B. You could repeat this for a number of other people (B and C). You want to use this to find out how tall a particular person is.CHAPTER 17. what you can do is to measure their height relative to the post next to them. but we can use a reference electrode (similar to the ’post’ in the Tip box example) that we use to calculate relative electrode potentials for these substances. an equilibrium is set up between hydrogen molecules and hydrogen ions in solution. and do some very simple sums to work out exactly how much taller one is than another.dm−3 . it is difficult to measure the absolute electrode potential of a particular substance. you can rank them in order.3). you can’t see their feet because they are standing in long grass.GRADE 12 17. As mentioned earlier.g. The actual electrode potential of the hydrogen electrode is estimated to be 4.02 V at 250 C. The reference elctrode that is used is the standard hydrogen electrode (figure 17. H2 SO4 ) that contains the H+ ions has a concentration of 1 mol. The solution (e.4 Let’s say that you have a device that you can use to measure heights from some distance away. Let’s say that person A for example is 15 cm shorter than the height of the post. Definition: Standard hydrogen electrode The standard hydrogen electrode is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the scale of oxidation-reduction potentials. The hydrogen electrode is based on the following redox half cell: 2H+ (aq) + 2e− → H2 (g) A standard hydrogen electrode consists of a platinum electrode in a solution containing H+ ions. A B C You could summarise your findings as follows: Person A B C Height relative to post (cm) -15 -30 +10 Although you don’t know any of their absolute heights. Although you can’t measure their absolute height. Person B is 30 cm shorter than the post and person C is 10 cm taller than the post. The reaction is as follows: 331 . As the hydrogen gas bubbles over the platinum electrode.

The equilibria on the two electrodes are as follows: 332 . the hydrogen will be relatively more negative. if you are trying to determine the electrode potential of zinc. The voltmeter measures the potential difference between the charge on these electrodes. concentration. It is therefore important that the conditions for the standard hydrogen electrode are standardised as follows: pressure = 100 kPa (1atm). it needs to be attached to the electrode system that you are investigating. temperature = 298 K (250 C) and concentration = 1 mol. the voltmeter would read 0. it has a relatively higher number of electrons).4 CHAPTER 17.g.17. the equilibrium lies far to the right.4.e. A simplified representation of the cell is shown in figure 17.GRADE 12 H2 gas (1 x atmosphereric pressure) Pt [H3 O+ ] (1 mol. 1.3: The standard hydrogen electrode 2H + (aq) + 2e− ⇔ H2 (g) The position of this equilibrium can change if you change some of the conditions (e. you will need to connect the zinc half cell to the hydrogen electrode and so on. The equilibria on the two electrodes are as follows: Zn2+ (aq) + 2e− ⇔ Zn(s) 2H + (aq) + 2e− ⇔ H2 (g) In the zinc half-reaction. In order to use the hydrogen electrode. if you are trying to determine the electrode potential of copper. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . so if the standard hydrogen electrode is connected to the zinc half cell. Let’s look at the examples of zinc and copper in more detail. so if the standard hydrogen electrode is connected to the copper half cell.dm−3 ) 25 ◦ C Figure 17. Copper Copper has a lower tendency than hydrogen to form ions. For example. In this case. Zinc Zinc has a greater tendency than hydrogen to form ions. the equilibrium lies far to the left and in the hydrogen halfreaction. temperature). 2.76 and would show that Zn is the negative electrode (i. the zinc will be relatively more negative because the electrons that are released when zinc is oxidised will accumulate on the metal.dm−3 . you will need to connect the copper half cell to the hydrogen electrode.

the equilibrium lies far to the right and in the hydrogen halfreaction. Cu2+ (aq) + 2e− ⇔ Cu(s) 2H + (aq) + 2e− ⇔ H2 (g) In the copper half-reaction. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . it has a relatively lower number of electrons). The sign of the voltage tells you the sign of the metal electrode.CHAPTER 17.4. A simplified representation of the cell is shown in figure 17.4: When zinc is connected to the standard hydrogen electrode. There are lots of electrons on the zinc electrode. but are potentials that have been measured relative to the potential of hydrogen if the standard hydrogen electrode is taken to be zero.e. relatively few electrons build up on the platinum (hydrogen) electrode.5: When copper is connected to the standard hydrogen electrode.5 Standard electrode potentials The voltages recorded earlier when zinc and copper were connected to a standard hydrogen electrode are in fact the standard electrode potentials for these two metals.34 and would show that Cu is the positive electrode (i. It is important to remember that these are not absolute values. the hydrogen electrode is written on the left hand side of the cell. relatively few electrons build up on the copper electrode. 17. The voltmeter measures the potential difference between the charge on these electrodes.5. the equilibrium lies far to the left. Important: Conventions and voltage sign By convention. V H electrode ----- - - Cu electrode Figure 17.GRADE 12 17.4 V H electrode (less negative) - - ----- Zn electrode with electrons Figure 17. There are lots of electrons on the hydrogen electrode. the voltmeter would read 0. 333 . In this case.

This means they ionise easily. Worked Example 84: Using the table of Standard Electrode Potentials Question: The following half-reactions take place in an electrochemical cell: Cu2+ + 2e− ⇔ Cu Ag− + e− ⇔ Ag 1. These will be used to explain some of the trends in the table of electrode potentials. So.17. Luckily for us. they release electrons easily. in other words.3 and notice the following trends: • Metals at the top of series (e. 334 .3. The electrode potential for the silver half-reaction is +0. the electrode potential for the copper half-reaction is +0. if a metal has a negative standard electrode potential. Copper is more likely to be oxidised and to form ions more easily than silver. it means it forms ions easily. This will be explained in more detail below. Step 6 : Use the electrode potential values to determine which metal is oxidised and which is reduced Both values are positive. we do not have to calculate the standard electrode potential for every metal. but silver has a higher positive electrode potential than copper. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . zinc’s electrode potential is actually -0. Which of these reactions will be the reduction half-reaction in the cell? Answer Step 5 : Determine the electrode potential for each metal From the table of standard electrode potentials. They are easily reduced and are therefore good oxidising agents. Refer to table 17. Which of these reactions will be the oxidation half-reaction in the cell? 2.4 CHAPTER 17. Copper is the oxidation half-reaction and silver is the reduction half-reaction. in other words. This has been done already and the results are recorded in a table of standard electrode potentials (table 17.e. This means that silver does not form ions easily. If a metal has a positive standard electrode potential. The more negative the value.g. silver is more likely to be reduced. These metals are easily oxidised and are therefore good reducing agents.34 V.GRADE 12 In the examples we used earlier. • Metal ions at the bottom of the table are good at picking up electrons.76 and copper is +0. • The reducing ability (i. the ability to act as a reducing agent) of the metals in the table increases as you move up in the table. • The oxidising ability of metals increases as you move down in the table. it means it does not form ions easily. A few examples from the table are shown in table 17.80 V.34. Li) have more negative values. the easier it is for that metal to form ions.2).

76 -0.13 -0.36 1.74 -0.25 -0.23 1.14 -0.40 0.28 -0.78 0.80 0.82 2.44 -0.52 1.50 1.15 0.00 0.71 -2.28 1.33 1.68 0. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .92 -2.96 1.14 0.87 -2.77 0.41 -0.16 0.04 0.54 0.78 0.37 -1.87 Table 17.17 0.83 -0.52 0.4 Half-Reaction Li+ + e− ⇋ Li K + + e− ⇋ K Ba2+ + 2e− ⇋ Ba Ca2+ + 2e− ⇋ Ca N a+ + e − ⇋ N a M g 2+ + 2e− ⇋ M g M n2+ + 2e− ⇋ M n 2H2O + 2e− ⇋ H2 (g) + 2OH − Zn2+ + 2e− ⇋ Zn Cr2+ + 2e− ⇋ Cr F e2+ + 2e− ⇋ F e Cr3+ + 3e− ⇋ Cr Cd2+ + 2e− ⇋ Cd Co2+ + 2e− ⇋ Co N i2+ + 2e− ⇋ N i Sn2+ + 2e− ⇋ Sn P b2+ + 2e− ⇋ P b F e3+ + 3e− ⇋ F e 2H + + 2e− ⇋ H2 (g) S + 2H + + 2e− ⇋ H2 S(g) Sn4+ + 2e− ⇋ Sn2+ Cu2+ + e− ⇋ Cu+ 2+ SO4 + 4H + + 2e− ⇋ SO2 (g) + 2H2 O 2+ Cu + 2e− ⇋ Cu 2H2 O + O2 + 4e− ⇋ 4OH − Cu+ + e− ⇋ Cu I2 + 2e− ⇋ 2I − O2 (g) + 2H + + 2e− ⇋ H2 O2 F e3+ + e− ⇋ F e2+ − N O3 + 2H + + e− ⇋ N O2 (g) + H2 O Hg 2+ + 2e− ⇋ Hg(l) Ag + + e− ⇋ Ag − N O3 + 4H + + 3e− ⇋ N O(g) + 2H2 O Br2 + 2e− ⇋ 2Br− O2 (g) + 4H + + 4e− ⇋ 2H2 O M nO2 + 4H + + 2e− ⇋ M n2+ + 2H2 O 2− Cr2 O7 + 14H + + 6e− ⇋ 2Cr3+ + 7H2 O Cl2 + 2e− ⇋ 2Cl− Au3+ + 3e− ⇋ Au − M nO4 + 8H + + 5e− ⇋ M n2+ + 4H2 O Co3+ + e− ⇋ Co2+ F2 + 2e− ⇋ 2F − E0V -3.06 1.04 -2.34 0.2: Standard Electrode Potentials 335 .18 -0.40 -0.90 -2.CHAPTER 17.GRADE 12 17.

In your own words.GRADE 12 Half-Reaction Li+ + e− ⇋ Li Zn2+ + 2e− ⇋ Zn F e3+ + 3e− ⇋ F e 2H + + 2e− ⇋ H2 (g) Cu2+ + 2e− ⇋ Cu Hg 2+ + 2e− ⇋ Hg(l) Ag + + e− ⇋ Ag E0V -3.3: A few examples from the table of standard electrode potentials Important: Learning to understand the question in a problem.4 CHAPTER 17.34 0.78 0.80 This means that magnesium is more easily oxidised than silver and the equilibrium in this half-reaction lies to the left. what the question is actually asking is whether magnesium or silver forms ions more easily. Exercise: Table of Standard Electrode Potentials 1. This will only happen if magnesium has a greater tendency than silver to form ions. If magnesium is able to displace silver from a solution of silver nitrate.00 0. 2. Looking at the electrode potentials for the magnesium and silver reactions: For the magnesium half-reaction: Eo V = -2.04 -0. The half-reactions are as follows: M g 2+ + 2e− ⇔ M g Ag + + e− ⇔ Ag Step 2 : Use the table of electrode potentials to see which metal forms ions more easily. there will now be silver metal and a solution of magnesium nitrate. In other words. Silver is more easily reduced and the equilibrium lies to the right in this half-reaction. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .37 For the silver half-reaction: Eo V = 0. explain what is meant by the ’electrode potential’ of a metal. make sure you understand exactly what the question is asking. this means that magnesium metal will form magnesium ions and the silver ions will become silver metal. Worked Example 85: Using the table of Standard Electrode Potentials Question: Is magnesium able to displace silver from a solution of silver nitrate? Answer Step 1 : Determine the half-reactions that would take place if magnesium were to displace silver nitrate. Before you tackle this problem. In other words. It can be concluded that magnesium will displace silver from a silver nitrate solution so that there is silver metal and magnesium ions in the solution.80 Table 17. Give the standard electrode potential for each of the following metals: (a) magnesium 336 .04 0.76 -0. The oxidation reaction will occur spontaneously in magnesium.17.

The reading on the meter will show the potential difference between the two half cells. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .GRADE 12 (b) lead (c) nickel 3. does the equilibrium position for the reaction lie to the left or to the right? Explain your answer.6 Combining half cells Let’s stay with the example of the zinc and copper half cells. Use the table of standard electrode potentials to put the following in order from the strongest oxidising agent to the weakest oxidising agent. • • • • Cu2+ MnO− 4 Br2 Zn2+ Ca2+ + 2e− → Ca Cl2 + 2e− → 2Cl F e3+ + 3e− → F e I2 + 2e− → 2I − 5. If zinc is added to a solution of magnesium sulphate. Which one of the substances listed below acts as the oxidising agent in the following reaction? (a) (b) (c) (d) H+ Cr3+ SO2 Cr2 O2− 7 3SO2 + Cr2 O2− + 2H+ → 3SO2− + 2Cr3+ + H2 O 7 4 (IEB Paper 2. does the equilibrium position for the reaction lie to the left or to the right? Explain your answer. A voltmeter connected to this cell will show that the zinc electrode is more negative than the copper electrode.CHAPTER 17. and also by looking at the sign of the electrode potential. Look at the following half-reactions. will the zinc displace the magnesium from the solution? Give a detailed explanation for your answer. (f) If silver was added to a solution of copper sulphate. zinc will be the oxidation half-reaction and copper will be the reduction half-reaction. If we combine these cells as we did earlier in the chapter (section 17. 17. (a) (b) (c) (d) Which of the metals is most likely to be oxidised? Which metal is most likely to be reduced? Which metal is the strongest reducing agent? In the copper half-reaction.2). 337 .76V ) Cu2+ + 2e− ⇔ Cu(E 0 = +0. Refer to the electrode potentials in table 17.34V ) We know from demonstrations. would it displace the copper from the copper sulphate solution? Explain your answer. This is known as the electromotive force (emf) of the cell. 17.4 4. that when these two half cells are combined. the following two equilibria exist: Zn2+ + 2e− ⇔ Zn(E 0 = −0. (e) In the mercury half-reaction. 2004) 7.4.3. • • • • (a) Which substance is the strongest oxidising agent? (b) Which substance is the strongest reducing agent? 6.

76 = 1. emf is the electrical driving force of the cell reaction. There is no longer a potential difference between the two half cells.E (anode) So. the reaction approaches equilibrium. and therefore no more current will flow.76) = 0.7 Uses of standard electrode potential Standard electrode potentials have a number of different uses. you can use any one of the following equations: 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (right) . 100 kPa.dm−3 )||Cu2+ (1mol. Definition: Standard emf (E0 ) cell Standard emf is the emf of a voltaic cell operating under standard conditions (i. In other words. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .1 V Worked Example 86: Calculating the emf of a cell Question: The following reaction takes place: Cu(s) + Ag + (aq) → Cu2+ (aq) + Ag(s) 338 . it is shown as follows: Zn|Zn2+ (1mol. It is important to note that the potential difference across a cell is related to the extent to which the spontaneous cell reaction has reached equilibrium. the higher the emf. E0 (cell) = 0.34 . The symbol 0 denotes standard conditions. 17. for the Zn-Cu cell. Calculating the emf of an electrochemical cell To calculate the emf of a cell. concentration = 1 mol.4 CHAPTER 17.E (left) (’right’ refers to the electrode that is written on the right in standard cell notation. The cathode half cell (where reduction takes place) is always written on the right. In other words. as the reaction proceeds and the concentration of reactants decreases and the concentration of products increases.E (reducing agent) 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (cathode) .(-0.dm−3 and temperature = 298 K).E (oxidation half reaction) 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (oxidising agent) .34 + 0.GRADE 12 Definition: Electromotive Force (emf) The emf of a cell is defined as the maximum potential difference between two electrodes or half cells in a voltaic cell.4. the stronger the reaction.e. When equilibrium is reached. the emf of the cell is zero and the cell is said to be ’flat’. ’Left’ refers to the half-reaction written on the left in this notation) 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (reduction half reaction) .dm−3 )|Cu The anode half cell (where oxidation takes place) is always written on the left.17. When we want to represent this cell.

37) = +2.dm−3 )|Ag Step 4 : Calculate the cell potential 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (cathode) . Answer Step 1 : Write equations for the two half reactions involved Cu2+ + 2e− ⇔ Cu (Eo V = 0.00) Step 2 : Determine which reaction takes place at the cathode and which is the anode reaction From the overall equation.CHAPTER 17.GRADE 12 1.80 . Copper is oxidised.dm−3 )||Ag + (1mol.(+0.80V) Step 2 : Determine which reaction takes place at the cathode and which is the anode reaction Both half-reactions have positive electrode potentials. Step 3 : Represent the cell using standard notation Cu|Cu2+ (1mol. silver does not form ions easily. Magnesium is therefore the anode reaction and hydrogen is the cathode reaction. M g(s) + 2H + (aq) → M g2+(aq) + H2 (g) Answer Step 1 : Write equations for the two half reactions involved M g 2+ + 2e− ⇔ M g (Eo V = -2.E (anode) = +0.00 .37) 2H + + 2e− ⇔ H2 (Eo V = 0.46 V 17. Calculate the cell potential (emf) of the electrochemical cell. Copper is the oxidation half-reaction.(-2.4 Worked Example 87: Calculating the emf of a cell Question: Calculate the cell potential of the electrochemical cell in which the following reaction takes place.16V) Ag + + e− ⇔ Ag (Eo V = 0. and represent the cell using standard notation. Represent the cell using standard notation. In other words.37 V 339 . ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .E (anode) = 0. and this must be the reduction half-reaction. it is clear that magnesium is oxidised and hydrogen ions are reduced in this reaction.34) = +0. Silver is reduced and so this is the cathode reaction. therefore this is the anode reaction. Step 3 : Represent the cell using standard notation M g|M g 2+ ||H + |H2 Step 4 : Calculate the cell potential 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (cathode) . 2. but the silver half-reaction has a higher positive value.

in other words it is more easily reduced and the equilibrium position lies to the right. the opposite is happening. Look at the electrode potential for the first half reaction. we know that neither of these half reactions will proceed spontaneously in the direction indicated by the original reaction. 340 .34 V) 2H + (aq) + 2e− ⇔ H2 (g) (E0 = 0 V) Answer Step 5 : For each reaction.17. Overall it is clear then that the reaction will not proceed spontaneously. the positive electrode potential means that copper does not lose electrons easily. the reactants are Pb2+ and Br− ions. Worked Example 88: Predicting whether a reaction is spontaneous Question: Will copper react with dilute sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 )? You are given the following half reactions: Cu2+ (aq) + 2e− ⇔ Cu(s) (E0 = +0. but in the original equation.13 V) Br2 + 2e− ⇔ 2Br− (+1. This part of the reaction is therefore not spontaneous. the spontaneous reaction is from right to left.e. The spontaneous reaction proceeds from left to right. when copper ions are reduced to copper metal. The positive electrode potential value for the bromine half-reaction shows that bromine is more easily reduced. In this case. This is not what is happening in the original equation and therefore this is also not spontaneous. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . in other words it is easily oxidised. The negative value shows that lead loses electrons easily. The reaction is therefore not spontaneous. During the reaction. the copper is oxidised and the hydrogen ions are reduced. look at the electrode potentials and decide in which direction the equilibrium lies In the first half reaction. In the reaction.GRADE 12 Predicting whether a reaction will take place spontaneously Look at the following example to help you to understand how to predict whether a reaction will take place spontaneously or not. the equilibrium lies to the left). in other words the equilibrium lies to the right.4 CHAPTER 17.06 V) Important: Half cell reactions You will see that the half reactions are written as they appear in the table of standard electrode potentials. It may be useful to highlight the reacting substance in each half reaction. Another way of saying this is that the spontaneous reaction is the one that proceeds from left to right. P b2+ (aq) + 2Br− (aq) → Br2 (l) + P b(s) the two half reactions are as follows: P b2+ + 2e− ⇔ P b (-0. Step 6 : Compare the equilibrium positions to the original reaction What you should notice is that in the original reaction. The reaction would normally proceed from right to left (i. In the second half reaction. But from an earlier step. It is the Pb2+ ions that are being reduced to lead. the reactants are copper (Cu) and sulfuric acid (2H+ ).

ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . Under standard conditions the reading on the voltmeter is 0. In which beaker will a spontaneous reaction take place? 4.GRADE 12 Important: 17. Four beakers are set up.CHAPTER 17. each of which contains one of the following solutions: (a) (b) (c) (d) Mg(NO3 )2 Ba(NO3 )2 Cu(NO3 )2 Al(NO3 )2 Iron is added to each of the beakers. (b) Predict whether the reaction will take place spontaneously. Exercise: Predicting whether a reaction will take place spontaneously 1. 2Ag(s) + Cu2+ (aq) → Cu(s) + 2Ag + (aq) 2. A salt bridge containing a KNO3 solution joins the two half cells. is to look at the sign of the emf value for the cell. using the table of electrode potentials. If the emf is negative.46V. Balancing redox reactions We will look at this in more detail in the next section. 341 . Zinc metal reacts with an acid. (a) Write an equation for the reaction. If the emf is positive then the reaction is spontaneous. Show your working.4 A second method for predicting whether a reaction is spontaneous Another way of predicting whether a reaction occurs spontaneously. Show all your working. Which one of the following solutions can be stored in an aluminium container? (a) (b) (c) (d) Cu(SO)4 Zn(SO)4 NaCl Pb(NO3 )2 Exercise: Electrochemical cells and standard electrode potentials 1. 3. An electrochemical cell is made up of a copper electrode in contact with a copper nitrate solution and an electrode made of an unknown metal M in contact with a solution of MNO3 . H+ (aq) to produce hydrogen gas. then the reaction is not spontaneous. Predict whether the following reaction will take place spontaneously or not. A voltmeter is connected across the electrodes.

anode half-reaction iii.5 Balancing redox reactions Half reactions can be used to balance redox reactions. We are going to use some worked examples to help explain the method. (b) Identify the metal M. (b) Which reaction takes place at the cathode and which reaction takes place at the anode? (c) Represent the electrochemical cell using standard notation. 342 .17. overall cell reaction (d) What is the purpose of the salt bridge? (e) Explain why a KCl solution would not be suitable for use in the salt bridge in this cell. Show calculations. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .5 CHAPTER 17. cathode half-reaction ii. Calculate the emf for each of the following standard electrochemical cells: (a) M g|M g 2+ ||H + |H2 (b) F e|F e3+ ||F e2+ |F e (c) Cr|Cr2+||Cu2+ |Cu (d) P b|P b2+ ||Hg 2+ |Hg 3. Given the following two half-reactions: • F e3+ (aq) + e− ⇔ F e2+ (aq) − • M nO4 (aq) + 8H + (aq) + 5e− ⇔ M n2+ (aq) + 4H2 O(l) (a) Give the standard electrode potential for each half-reaction. (IEB Paper 2.GRADE 12 V Cu Salt bridge (KNO3 ) M Cu(NO3 )2 (aq) MNO3 (aq) The reaction in the copper half cell is given by: Cu → Cu2+ + 2e− (a) Write down the standard conditions which apply to this electrochemical cell. (c) Use the standard electrode potentials to write down equations for the: i. (d) Calculate the emf of the cell 17. 2004) 2.

Write a balanced equation for this reaction.GRADE 12 17.CHAPTER 17.) M g + Cu2+ → M g 2+ + Cu Step 7 : Do a final check to make sure that the equation is balanced In this case. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .. If the reaction takes place in a basic medium. but the charge on the right is +2. 343 . In the process. Charges can be balanced by adding electrons to either side. there is one magnesium atom on the left and one on the right. magnesium is oxidised to magnesium ions. Answer Step 1 : Write down the unbalanced oxidation half reaction. but this time using the reduction half reaction. Two electrons must be added to the right hand side. check that the charges balance. Step 6 : Combine the two half reactions to get a final equation for the overall reaction. two electrons must be added to the right hand side so that the charges balance. No multiplication is needed because there are two electrons on either side. M g → M g 2+ Step 2 : Balance the number of atoms on both sides of the equation. you can add either hydroxide ions (OH− ) or water molecules. M g + Cu2+ + 2e− → M g 2+ + Cu + 2e− (The electrons on either side cancel and you get. In this case. The reduction half reaction is: Cu2+ → Cu The atoms balance but the charges don’t. The half reaction is now: M g → M g 2+ + 2e− Step 4 : Repeat the above steps.. Therefore. You are allowed to add hydrogen ions (H+ ) and water molecules if the reaction takes place in an acid medium. Cu2+ + 2e− → Cu Step 5 : Multiply each half reaction by a suitable number so that the number of electrons released in the oxidation half reaction is made equal to the number of electrons that are accepted in the reduction half reaction.5 Worked Example 89: Balancing redox reactions Question: Magnesium reduces copper (II) oxide to copper. The charge on the left of the equation is 0. it is. so no additional atoms need to be added. Step 3 : Once the atoms are balanced.

GRADE 12 Worked Example 90: Balancing redox reactions Question: Chlorine gas oxidises Fe(II) ions to Fe(III) ions. Therefore. The charge on the left of the equation is +2. The reduction half reaction is: Cl2 → Cl− The atoms don’t balance. There is one iron atom on the left and one on the right. Two electrons must be added to the left hand side to balance the charges.5 CHAPTER 17. Cl2 + 2e− → 2Cl− Step 5 : Multiply each half reaction by a suitable number so that the number of electrons released in the oxidation half reaction is made equal to the number of electrons that are accepted in the reduction half reaction. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .17. Write a balanced equation for this reaction. The half reaction is now: F e2+ → F e3+ + e− Step 4 : Repeat the above steps. so we need to multiply the right hand side by two to fix this. so no additional atoms need to be added. but the charge on the right is +3. F e2+ → F e3+ Step 2 : Balance the number of atoms on both sides of the equation. chlorine is reduced to chloride ions. check that the charges balance. but this time using the reduction half reaction. We need to multiply the oxidation half reaction by two so that the number of electrons on either side are balanced. Answer Step 1 : Write down the oxidation half reaction. This gives: 2F e2+ → 2F e3+ + 2e− Step 6 : Combine the two half reactions to get a final equation for the overall reaction. In the process. Step 3 : Once the atoms are balanced. one electron must be added to the right hand side so that the charges balance. Worked Example 91: Balancing redox reactions in an acid medium Question: The following reaction takes place in an acid medium: 2− Cr2 O7 + H2 S → Cr3+ + S 344 . 2F e2+ + Cl2 → 2F e3+ + 2Cl− Step 7 : Do a final check to make sure that the equation is balanced The equation is balanced.

GRADE 12 Write a balanced equation for this reaction. 2− Cr2 O7 + 14H + + 3S 2− → 3S + 2Cr3+ + 7H2 O Step 7 : Do a final check to make sure that the equation is balanced Worked Example 92: Balancing redox reactions in an alkaline medium Question: If ammonia solution is added to a solution that contains cobalt(II) ions. We need to multiply the reduction half reaction by three so that the number of electrons on either side are balanced. 2− Cr2 O7 → 2Cr3+ + 7H2 O Now the oxygen atoms balance but the hydrogens don’t. we will need to add water molecules to the right hand side. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .5 Step 2 : Balance the number of atoms on both sides of the equation. a complex ion is formed. 2− Cr2 O7 → Cr3+ 17. Write a 6 balanced equation for this reaction. called the hexaaminecobalt(II) ion (Co(NH3 )2+ ). The reduction half reaction after the charges have been balanced is: S 2− → S + 2e− Step 5 : Multiply each half reaction by a suitable number so that the number of electrons released in the oxidation half reaction is made equal to the number of electrons that are accepted in the reduction half reaction. This gives: 3S 2− → 3S + 6e− Step 6 : Combine the two half reactions to get a final equation for the overall reaction. hexaaminecobalt ions are oxidised by hydrogen peroxide solution to the hexaaminecobalt(III) ion Co(NH3 )3+ . but the charge on the right is +6. but this time using the reduction half reaction. check that the charges balance. Answer Step 1 : Write down the oxidation half reaction 345 . six electrons must be added to the left hand side so that the charges balance. 2− Cr2 O7 + 14H + → 2Cr3+ + 7H2 O Step 3 : Once the atoms are balanced. The half reaction is now: 2− Cr2 O7 + 14H + + 6e− → 2Cr3+ + 7H2 O Step 4 : Repeat the above steps. In a chem6 ical reaction with hydrogen peroxide solution. Because the reaction takes place in an acid medium. Answer Step 1 : Write down the oxidation half reaction. The charge on the left of the equation is (-2+14) = +12. We need to multiply the right side by two so that the number of Cr atoms will balance.CHAPTER 17. Therefore. To balance the oxygen atoms. we can add hydrogen ions to the left side.

2Co(N H3 )2+ + H2 O2 → 2Co(N H3 )3+ + 2OH − 6 6 Step 7 : Do a final check to make sure that the equation is balanced Exercise: Balancing redox reactions 1. (c) Besides chlorine gas which is formed during the reaction. check that the charges balance. The number of atoms are the same on both sides. The charge on the left of the equation is +2. We need to multiply the oxidation half reaction by two so that the number of electrons on both sides are balanced. (IEB Paper 2. Write a balanced equation for the reaction. Although you don’t actually know what product is formed when hydrogen peroxide is reduced. Step 3 : Once the atoms are balanced.The half reaction is now: Co(N H3 )2+ → Co(N H3 )3+ + e− 6 6 Step 4 : Repeat the above steps. One elctron must be added to the right hand side to balance the charges in the equation. the final equation for the reduction half reaction is: H2 O2 + 2e− → 2OH − Step 5 : Multiply each half reaction by a suitable number so that the number of electrons released in the oxidation half reaction is made equal to the number of electrons that are accepted in the reduction half reaction. but this time using the reduction half reaction. Balance the following equations. the most logical product is OH− . show by calculations why this mixture needs to be heated. Manganate(VII) ions (MnO− ) oxidise hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) to oxygen 4 gas. hydrogen chloride gas is given off when the conentrated hydrochloric acid is heated. 2004) 346 .5 CHAPTER 17. During the reaction. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS .GRADE 12 Co(N H3 )2+ → Co(N H3 )3+ 6 6 Step 2 : Balance the number of atoms on both sides of the equation. Explain why the hydrogen chloride gas is removed from the gas mixture when the gas is bubbled through water.17. The mixture is carefully heated. 3. (a) Write down a balanced equation for the reaction which takes place. This gives: 2Co(N H3 )2+ → 2Co(N H3 )3+ + 2e− 6 6 Step 6 : Combine the two half reactions to get a final equation for the overall reaction. (b) Using standard electrode potentials. The reaction is done in an acid medium. but the charge on the right is +3. (a) HN O3 + P bS → P bSO4 + N O + H2 O (b) N aI + F e2 (SO4 )3 → I2 + F eSO4 + N a2 SO4 2. The reduction half reaction is: H2 O2 → OH − After the atoms and charges have been balanced. the manganate(VII) ions are reduced to manganese(II) ions (Mn2+ ). Chlorine gas is prepared in the laboratory by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to manganese dioxide powder.

Mostly. Electro-refining (also sometimes called electrowinning is electroplating on a large scale. 17. 347 . (c) Explain why it is necessary to heat the reaction mixture. The electrolyte is a solution of aqueous CuSO4 and H2 SO4 . (d) The sulfur dioxide gas is now bubbled through an aqueous solution of potassium dichromate. We are going to look at a few examples. (IEB Paper 2. Bars of crude (impure) copper containing other metallic impurities is placed on the anodes. particularly in industry. Describe and explain what changes occur during this process.) onto a surface that doesn’t have that property. The cathodes are made up of pure copper with few impurities. Copper plays a major role in the electrical reticulation industry as it is very conductive and is used in electric cables. abrasion and wear resistance. corrosion protection.6. this application is used to deposit a layer of metal that has some desired property (e.6 Applications of electrochemistry Electrochemistry has a number of different uses. (b) Give the E0 value for the overall reaction. (a) Derive a balanced ionic equation for this reaction using the half-reactions that take place.GRADE 12 4. is electro-winning. Which ONE of the following best explains this? (a) (b) (c) (d) Laboratory solutions of aqueous potassium dichromate are not acidified The E0 value for this reaction is only +0. improvement of aesthetic qualities etc. Electrochemical reactions are used to deposit pure metals from their ores. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . Sulfur dioxide gas can be prepared in the laboratory by heating a mixture of copper turnings and concentrated sulfuric acid in a suitable flask. Yet aqueous laboratory solutions of potassium dichromate remain orange for years. 2002) 5. 2002) 17. The following equation can be deduced from the table of standard electrode potentials: 2Cr2 O2− (aq) + 16H+ (aq) → 4Cr3+ (aq) + 3O2 (g) + 8H2 O(l) (E0 = 7 +0.6 (IEB Paper 2. One of the methods used to purify copper.1 Electroplating Electroplating is the process of using electrical current to coat an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal. The copper electro-winning process is as follows: 1.g.10V) This equation implies that an acidified solution of aqueous potassium dichromate (orange) should react to form Cr3+ (green). 2. One example is the electrorefining of copper.10V The activation energy is too low The reaction is non-spontaneous 17. 3.CHAPTER 17. One of the problems though is that copper must be pure if it is to be an effective current carrier.

17. The other metal impurities (Zn. a disinfectant. in solvents.GRADE 12 4.6 CHAPTER 17.2 The production of chlorine Electrolysis can also be used to produce chlorine gas from brine/seawater (NaCl). the following happens: 2N a+ + 2H2 O + 2e− → 2N a+ + 2OH − + H2 The overall reaction is: 2N a+ + 2H2 O + 2Cl− → 2N a+ + 2OH − + H2 + Cl2 Chlorine is a very important chemical. The impure copper anode dissolves to form Cu2+ ions in solution. Au. The reactions that take place are as follows: At the anode: Cu(s) → Cu2+ (aq) + 2e− At the cathode: Cu+2 (aq) + 2e− → Cu(s) (> 99%purity) 5. Fe and Pb) do not dissolve and form a solid sludge at the bottom of the tank or remain in solution in the electrolyte. + – + – positive anode impure copper electrode Cu 2+ negative cathode pure copper electrode Figure 17. electrolysis takes place. The reactions that take place are as follows: At the anode the reaction is: 2Cl− → Cl2 (g) + 2e− whereas at the cathode.6: A simplified diagram to illustrate what happens during the electrowinning of copper 17. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . pharmaceuticals.6. 348 . where reduction takes place to produce pure copper metal. It is used as a bleaching agent. When current passes through the cell. Ag. These positive ions are attracted to the negative cathode. dyes and even plastics such as polyvinlychloride (PVC). This is sometimes referred to as the ’Chlor-alkali’ process.

The AlF6 electrolyte is stable and remains in its molten state.CHAPTER 17.7 Summary • An electrochemical reaction is one where either a chemical reaction produces an external voltage. Cryolite helps to lower the melting point and dissolve the ore. 3− 4. Electrolysis can be used to extract aluminum from bauxite.6. or where an external voltage causes a chemical reaction to take place. 17.7 + – positive anode electrode negative cathode electrode Cl− Na+ NaCl solution Figure 17.GRADE 12 + – 17.7: The electrolysis of sodium chloride 17. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . It is also used in the manufacture of products such as aeroplanes and motor cars. The process described below produces 99% pure aluminum: 1. 3. the Al3+ ions are reduced and metal aluminum deposits on the lining. iron oxides and hydrated alumina (Al2 O3 x H2 O). The metal is present in deposits of bauxite which is a mixture of silicas. The basic electrolytic reactions involved are as follows: At the cathode: Al+3 + 3e− At the anode: 2O2− The overall reaction is as follows: 2Al2 O3 → 4Al + 3O2 → O2 (g) + 4e− → Al(s) (99%purity) The only problem with this process is that the reaction is endothermic and large amounts of electricity are needed to drive the reaction. The anode carbon rods provide sites for the oxidation of O2− and F − ions.3 Extraction of aluminium Aluminum metal is a commonly used metal in industry where its properties of being both light and strong can be utilized. 349 . The process is therefore very expensive. At the cathode cell lining. Aluminum is melted along with cryolite (N a3 AlF6 ) which acts as the electrolyte. Oxygen and flourine gas are given off at the anodes and also lead to anode consumption. 2.

17. • There are a number of important applications of electrochemistry. the build up of electrons at the anode sets up a potential difference between the two electrodes. The more negative the value. • The standard notation for a galvanic cell such as the zinc-copper cell is as follows: Zn|Zn2+ ||Cu2+ |Cu where | = a phase boundary (solid/aqueous) the salt bridge || = • The galvanic cell is used in batteries and in electroplating. These include electroplating. In an electrolytic cell. Exercise: Summary exercise 350 . electrolysis occurs. • The values on the standard table of electrode potentials are measured relative to the standard hydrogen electrode. • One example of an electrolytic cell is the electrolysis of copper sulphate to produce copper and sulphate ions.E (oxidation half reaction) 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (oxidising agent) . ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . The reaction potential of metals (in other words. • It is possible to balance redox equations using the half-reactions that take place. An example is the zinc-copper cell. the production of chlorine and the extraction of aluminium.7 CHAPTER 17. • A galvanic cell is therefore an electrochemical cell that uses a chemical reaction between two dissimilar electrodes dipped in an electrolyte to generate an electric current. • A galvanic cell has a number of components. • An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that uses electricity to drive a non-spontaneous reaction. the greater the tendency of the metal to be reduced. is recorded in a standard table of electrode potential. their ability to ionise). each of which is placed in a separate beaker in an electrolyte solution. • One of the electrodes is the anode. • Different metals have different reaction potentials.E (left) 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (reduction half reaction) .GRADE 12 • In a galvanic cell a chemical reaction produces a current in the external circuit. where oxidation takes place. and this causes a current to flow in the external circuit. The more positive the value. It consists of two electrodes. The electrodes are connected two each other by an external circuit wire. • The emf of a cell can be calculated using one of the following equations: 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (right) . the greater the tendency of the metal to be oxidised.E (reducing agent) 0 0 E0 (cell) = E (cathode) . The two electrolytes are connected by a salt bridge.E (anode) • It is possible to predict whether a reaction is spontaneous or not. The cathode is the electrode where reduction takes place. • In a galvanic cell. either by looking at the sign of the cell’s emf or by comparing the electrode potentials of the two half cells. which is a process of separating elements and compounds using an electric current.

5H2 S + 2M nO4 + 6H + → 5S + 2M n2+ + 8H2 O (e) Which statement is CORRECT for a Zn-Cu galvanic cell that operates under standard conditions? i. (b) What chemical property of nitric acid is illustrated by this reaction? (c) List three observations that this learner would make during the investigation. 2003) (b) Consider the reaction represented by the following equation: − − Br2(l) + 2Iaq → 2Braq + I2(s) Which one of the following statements about this reaction is correct? i. (a) The anode in an electrolytic cell has a negative charge. AgN O3 + N aI → AgI + N aN O3 iii. 2008) 3. The concentration of the Cu2+ ions in the copper half-cell gradually increases. BaCl2 + M gSO4 → M gCl2 + BaSO4 (IEB Paper 2. bromine acts as a reducing agent iii. (a) Use the relevant half-reactions from the table of Standard Reduction Potentials to derive the balanced nett ionic equation for the reaction that takes place in the beaker.80 V) Which one of the following substances from these half-reactions has the greatest tendency to donate electrons? i. M n + Cu2+ → M n2+ + Cu 2− ii. Y+ (d) Which one of the following redox reactions will not occur spontaneously at room temperature? i. (DoE Exemplar Paper 2. ii. say whether the statement is true or false. If it is false. re-write the statement correctly.CHAPTER 17.GRADE 12 1. X2 iii. choose the one correct answer. Negative ions migrate from the zinc half-cell to the copper half-cell. 351 17. For each of the following. For each of the following questions. 2F eCl3 + 2H2 O + SO2 → H2 SO4 + 2HCl + 2F eCl2 iv.09 V) and Y + + e− ⇔ Y (-2. iodine acts as a reducing agent (IEB Paper 2. bromine is oxidised ii. A few pieces of copper metal are dropped into the nitric acid. X− ii. Zn + SO4 + 4H + → Zn2+ + SO2 + 2H2 O − iii. iv. a learner places a beaker containing concentrated nitric acid on a sensitive balance. HCl + N aOH → N aCl + H2 O ii. (b) The reaction 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2 is an example of a redox reaction. the iodide ions are oxidised iv. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . The concentration of the Zn2+ ions in the zinc half-cell gradually decreases. F e3+ + 3N O2 + 3H2 O → F e + 3N O3 + 6H + − iv. 2002) (c) The following equations represent two hypothetical half-reactions: X2 + 2e− ⇔ 2X − (+1. 2.7 . The intensity of the colour of the electrolyte in the copper half-cell gradually decreases. (c) Lead is a stronger oxidising agent than nickel. In order to investigate the rate at which a reaction proceeds. Y iv. (a) Which one of the following reactions is a redox reaction? i. iii.

. the cathode (d) Write a balanced nett ionic equation for the reaction which takes place in this cell.7 CHAPTER 17. (IEB Paper 2. The following two half reactions occur when electrical energy is produced by the cell. 2001) 6. 2005) 352 .. 2005) 4. The following reaction takes place in an electrochemical cell: Cu(s) + 2AgN O3 (aq) → Cu(N O3 )2 (aq) + 2Ag(s) (a) Give an equation for the oxidation half reaction. (d) Use your result above to state in which direction the cell reaction will proceed (forward or reverse) when the cell is being charged. The lead rod is then connected to the aluminium container by a copper wire and voltmeter as shown. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS . (b) Which substance is oxidised? (c) Derive a balanced ionic equation for the overall cell reaction for the discharging process.17. (IEB Paper 2. (b) Which metal is used as the anode? (c) Determine the emf of the cell under standard conditions. 2003) 5. Half reaction 1: Cd(s) + 2OH− (aq) → Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2e− Half reaction 2: NiO(OH)(s) + H2 O(l) + e− → Ni(OH)2 (s) + OH− (aq) (a) Which half reaction (1 or 2) occurs at the anode? Give a reason for your answer.GRADE 12 (IEB Paper 2. (e) What are the two functions of the porous pot? (f) Calculate the emf of this cell under standard conditions. the anode ii. i. The porous pot is then placed in a large aluminium container filled with a solution of aluminium sulphate. An electrochemical cell is constructed by placing a lead rod in a porous pot containing a solution of lead nitrate (see sketch). (b) In which direction do electrons flow in the copper wire? (Al to Pb or Pb to Al) (c) Write balanced equations for the reactions that take place at. V lead rod copper wire porous pot Al2 (SO4 )3 (aq) Pb(NO3 )2 (aq) aluminium container (a) Define the term reduction. The nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery is small and light and is made in a sealed unit. (IEB Paper 2. It is used in portable appliances such as calculators and electric razors.

Part IV Chemical Systems 353 .

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if water did not exist. Think for example of fish and amphibians that live either all or part of the time in rivers. Water shapes the landscape around us by wearing away at rocks and also transports and deposits sediments on floodplains and along coastal regions. It is because of this that Earth is sometimes called the ’Blue Planet’. if we were able to view Earth from space. normally every week or every two weeks. Water also plays a very important role in helping to regulate Earth’s climate. the rest of the solar system). teresting In the search for life on other planets. For many animals and plants. This means that it can exchange energy with its surroundings (i. 18. A cycle is a series of events that repeats itself. estuaries. but no new matter is brought into the system. dams and the oceans. most planets are either too close to the sun (and therefore 355 . and yet life on Earth would not exist were it not for this extraordinary compound. Apart from allowing life to exist. dams) and in the atmosphere as clouds and water vapour.g. it is important that all the elements and molecules on Earth are recycled so that they are never completely used up. Think for example of the word ’bicycle’ or the regular ’cycle tests’ that you may have at school. the wheel turns through a full circle before beginning the motion again. glaciers).Chapter 18 The Water Cycle . groundwater (e. In the case of a bicycle.2 The importance of water For many people. Our Earth is a closed system. it doesn’t have a beginning or an end. Most of this water is stored in the oceans.e. In other words. water also has a number of other functions. and also removes waste products such as carbon dioxide and ammonia from the body. In the next two sections. However. no life would be possible. They are the water cycle and the nitrogen cycle. Not only is it believed that the first forms of life actually started in water. in industry. with the rest found in ice (e. water acts as a solvent and helps to transport vital materials such as food and oxygen to where they are needed. in mining. In fact. For this reason. rivers. while cycle tests happen regularly. it is so easy to take water for granted. we would see that almost three quarters of our planet’s surface is covered in water. surface water (e.Grade 10 18.g. water is their home. one of the first things that scientists look Interesting Fact Fact for is water. but most of the cells in living organisms contain between 70% and 95% water. boreholes).1 Introduction You may have heard the word ’cycle’ many times before. As humans we use water in our homes. Because a cycle repeats itself. lakes. irrigation and even as a source of electricitiy in hydro-electric schemes.g. Here in the cells. We will discuss this again later in the chapter. we are going to take a closer look at two cycles that are very important for life on Earth.

especially the leaves but also from the stems. 4. 18.1. As water moves through the cycle. 2. This mostly takes place in the upper atmosphere but can also take place close to the ground if there is a significant temperature change.18. As this warm. solid (ice) and gas (water vapour). fog and mist are all examples of condensation. As the temperature drops. and gas phases. Transpiration Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plants. Evaporation When water on the earth’s surface is heated by the sun. because it is a cycle. flowers and fruits. or they are too far away and therefore too cold. So. even if water were to be found. It is powered by solar energy and. The water cycle is driven by solar radiation and it includes the atmosphere. teresting Have you ever tried breathing out on a very cold day? It looks as though Interesting Fact Fact you are breathing out smoke! The moist air that you breathe out is much warmer than the air outside your body. The movement of water through the water cycle is shown in figure 18. The source of energy The water cycle is driven by the sun. THE WATER CYCLE . infiltration and runoff. it changes state between liquid. As water moves. precipitation. above. the energy of the water vapour molecules also decreases. which provides the heat energy that is needed for many of the other processes to take place. from river to ocean) is the result of processes such as evaporation. solid. 3. Clouds. A cloud is actually a collection of lots and lots of tiny water droplets.GRADE 10 too hot) for water to exist in liquid form. rivers and dams. Definition: The Water Cycle The water cycle is the continuous circulation of water across the Earth. Condensation is the change of water from water vapour (gas) into liquid water droplets in the air. Evaporation is the change of water from a liquid to a gas as it moves from the ground. The actual movement of water from one part of the cycle to another (e. This is called evaporation. into the atmosphere. Each process will be described below. In the figure.3 The movement of water through the water cycle The water cycle is the continuous movement of water over. each process within this cycle is numbered.3 CHAPTER 18. condensation occurs. 1. until the molecules don’t have enough energy to stay in the gas phase. the conditions are unlikely to allow it to exist in a form that can support the diversity of life that we see on Earth. and beneath the Earth’s surface. it has no beginning or end. At this point. This is another way that liquid water can enter the atmosphere as a gas. moist air comes into 356 . water vapour rises in the atmosphere and cools as the altitude (height above the ground) increases.g. Condensation When evaporation takes place. or from bodies of water like the ocean. land. surface water and groundwater. it changes phase between liquid (water). the average energy of the water molecules increases and some of the molecules are able to leave the liquid phase and become water vapour.

1: The water cycle contact with the colder air outside. Rain will fall as soon as a cloud becomes too saturated with water droplets. THE WATER CYCLE . 5. 6. Snow only falls if temperatures in the atmosphere are around freezing. This is called infiltration.GRADE 10 18. This water may evaporate again from the soil at a later stage. 357 . flows into the rivers or seeps into the soil 5 4 Rain falls directly into rivers. or the underground water may seep into another water body. The ’smoke’ that you see is actually formed in much the same way as clouds form in the upper atmosphere. Snow is similar to rain. dams or the oceans 2 7 Surface water Evaporation 3 Some rain seeps into the soil and becomes part of the ground water supply 6 Ground water may feed into rivers or will eventually lead into the sea Figure 18.CHAPTER 18. its temperature drops very quickly and the water vapour in the air you breathe out condenses. Infiltration If precipitation occurs. The freeing point of water is 00 C). some of this water will filter into the soil and collect underground. except that it is frozen. Precipitation Precipitation occurs when water falls back to the earth’s surface in the form of rain or snow.3 1 SUN Condensation forms clouds Rain falls onto the soil.

18. water Set up a model of the water cycle as follows: lamp ice cubes glass tank slope water 1. evaporate into the air. Close the fish tank lid. and will evaporate again at a later stage. lamp. Important: It is important to realise that the water cycle is all about energy exchanges. Surface runoff CHAPTER 18. Leave the model like this for 20-30 minutes and then observe what happens. It also includes channel runoff when water flows in rivers and streams. Turn the lamp on and position it so that it shines over the water. As it flows. Energy from the sun heats the water and causes evaporation. THE WATER CYCLE . Which parts of the water cycle can you see taking place in the model? 2. the water may infiltrate into the ground. 4. the latent heat is released. Make sure that you don’t touch the lamp as it will be very hot! Observation questions: 1. Lean the plastic against one side so that it creates a ’hill slope’ as shown in the diagram. or when water flows straight across the sand. 5. This includes surface runoff such as when water flows along a road and into a drain. Place the beaker with ice on the lid directly above the hill slope. The liquid water falls to earth. When the water vapour condenses again. 3. or be extracted for agricultural or other human uses. become stored in lakes or reservoirs. 6.3 7. beaker with ice cubes. 2. and helps to drive circulation in the atmosphere. Activity :: Experiment : The Water Cycle Materials: Tile or piece of plastic (e.g. Pour water into the bottom of the tank until about a quarter of the hill slope is covered. Which parts of the water cycle are not represented in the model? 358 . The sun is the original energy source.GRADE 10 This refers to the many ways that water moves across the land. lid of ice-cream container) to make a hill slope. glass fish tank with a lid. This energy is stored in water vapour as latent heat. The atmospheric circulation patterns that occur because of these exchanges of heat are very important in influencing climate patterns.

molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds.4. and more specifically to the shape of the molecule and its polar nature. H O 18. water behaves very differently from other liquids. the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativty than the hydrogen atoms and therefore attracts the electrons more strongly. and to the bonds that hold water molecules together. Important: Intramolecular and intermolecular forces 359 . Oxygen (slightly negative charge) Hydrogen (slightly positive charge) H Hydrogen (slightly positive charge) Figure 18.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules In every water molecule. You will learn more about this in chapter 4.4 18. THE WATER CYCLE . Hydrogen bonds are a much stronger type of intermolecular force than those found in many other substances. The result is that the oxygen atom has a slightly negative charge and the two hydrogen atoms each have a slightly positive charge. 18. the nucleus of each atom has an attractive force on the electrons of the other atoms.4 The microscopic structure of water In many ways.4. Can you think of how those parts that are not shown could be represented? 4.GRADE 10 3. The water molecule is said to be polar because the electrical charge is not evenly distributed in the molecule. You will learn more about these at a later stage.3). These properties are directly related to the microscopic structure of water. But there are also forces between different water molecules. What do you think the function of the ice is in the beaker? 18. In a water molecule. What is the energy source in the model? What would the energy source be in reality? 5. the forces that hold the individual atoms together are called intramolecular forces.2: Diagrams showing the structure of a water molecule. and this affects the properties of water. When atoms bond.1 The polar nature of water Every water molecule is made up of one oxygen atom that is bonded to two hydrogen atoms. One part of the molecule has a different charge to other parts. Each molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms that are attached to one oxygen atom. This ’pull’ is stronger in some atoms than in others and is called the electronegativity of the atom. These are called intermolecular forces (figure 18.CHAPTER 18. but for now it is enough to know that in water.

and are able to help moderate the Earth’s climate. intermolecular forces intramolecular forces O H O H O O H O O Figure 18. 1. Water has a high specific heat.e. 2.5 The unique properties of water Because of its polar nature and the strong hydrogen bonds between its molecules. Activity :: Demonstration : The high specific heat of water (a) Pour about 100 ml of water into a glass beaker.18.5 CHAPTER 18. the oceans and other water bodies act as heat reservoirs. The intramolecular forces are between the atoms of each water molecule. meaning that a lot of energy must be absorbed by water before its temperature changes. Specific heat Definition: Specific heat Specific heat is the amount of heat energy that is needed to increase the temperature of a substance by one degree. (c) After this time.GRADE 10 If you find these terms confusing. An international cricket match is a match between two different countries. Then use the end of a finger to test the temperature of the water. water has some special properties that are quite different to those of other substances. Note that the diagram on the left only shows intermolecular forces. Absorption of infra-red radiation The polar nature of the water molecule means that it is able to absorb infra-red radiation (heat) from the sun.3: Intermolecular and intramolecular forces in water. (b) Place the beaker on a stand and heat it over a bunsen burner for about 2 minutes. THE WATER CYCLE . An introvert is someone who doesn’t express emotions and feelings outwardly. 18. ’Inter’ means between (i. the forces within a molecule). the forces between molecules). As a result of this. They tend to be quieter and keep to themselves. 360 .e. carefully touch the side of the beaker (Make sure you touch the glass very lightly because it will be very hot and may burn you!). remember that ’intra’ means within (i.

The ice doesn’t sink to 361 . and can burn your fingers if you touch it.65 kJ/mol. water also helps to keep the temperature of the internal environment of living organisms relatively constant. before the particles can start moving faster. At night. water has to be heated to 1000 C before it changes phase. The metal of the pot heats up very quickly. In humans. and life is able to exist comfortably.CHAPTER 18. In other words. their temperature range is higher than that for coastal regions. 3. the bonds between them must be broken. How can we explain this in terms of hydrogen bonding? Remember that increasing the temperature of a substance means that its particles will move more quickly. This large difference between the melting and boiling point is very important because it means that water can exist as a liquid over a large range of temperatures. You can observe this if you put ice into a glass of water. Melting point and boiling point The melting point of water is 00 C and its boiling point is 1000C. these bonds are strong hydrogen bonds. At this temperature. and lower minimum temperatures. The strength of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules also means that it has a high heat of vaporisation. the oceans heat up slowly. It is very lucky for life on earth that water does have a high heat of vaporisation. This means that at night. while the water may take several minutes before its temperature increases even slightly. The same principle also applies on a global scale. Land temperatures are cooler than they would be if they were further from the sea. The heat of vaporisation for water is 40. High heat of vaporisation Definition: Heat of vaporisation Heat of vaporisation is the energy that is needed to change a given quantity of a substance into a gas. However. By contrast. THE WATER CYCLE . and then releasing it very slowly so that it never becomes too hot or too cold. places further from the sea experience higher maximum temperatures. The three phases of water are shown in figure 18. the oceans lose the heat that they have absorbed very slowly. the molecules have enough energy to break the bonds that hold the molecules together.4. In the case of water. In a similar way. This is very important. a change in body temperature of only a few degrees can be deadly. before they can move faster. Less dense solid phase Another unusual property of water is that its solid phase (ice) is less dense than its liquid phase. 4. It is the high specific heat of water and its ability to absorb infra-red radiation that allows it to regulate climate. Can you imagine what a problem it would be if water’s heat of vaporisation was much lower? All the water that makes up the cells in our bodies would evaporate and most of the water on earth would no longer be able to exist as a liquid! 5. and so sea breezes blowing across the land are relatively warm.5 You have probably observed this phenomenon if you have boiled water in a pot on the stove. coastal regions are generally slightly warmer than areas that are further from the sea. Have you noticed how places that are closer to the sea have less extreme daily temperatures than those that are inland? During the day. Because the bonds between molecules are strong. ’Heat of vaporisation’ is the heat energy that is needed to change water from the liquid to the gas phase. and so the air moving from the oceans across land is cool. and so a lot of energy is needed just to break these. The large amount of water across Earth’s surface helps to regulate temperatures by storing infra-red radiation (heat) from the sun.GRADE 10 What do you notice? Which of the two (glass or water) is the hottest? 18. for example.

5 CHAPTER 18. and even the oceans would freeze solid as soon as temperatures dropped below freezing. preventing the water from freezing. but floats on top of the liquid. only the upper few inches of the ocean would thaw. The thick. THE WATER CYCLE . making life as we know it impossible on Earth. The ability of ice to float as it solidifies is a very important factor in the environment. glacial blanket of ice acts as an insulator. During summer. If ice sank. While other materials contract when they solidify.GRADE 10 Gas (water vapour) on a ti lim o n s u b a ti re.4: Changes in phase of water the bottom of the glass. the ’frozen continent’. when a deep body of water cools. Figure 18. lakes. And this lake is hidden beneath 4 kilometres of ice! Lake Vostok is 200 km long and 50 km wide. the floating ice insulates the liquid water below.18. water expands. then eventually all ponds. preventing it from freezing and allowing life to exist under the frozen surface. has one of the world’s largest and deepest Interesting Fact Fact freshwater lakes. Water as a solvent 362 . Instead.blim su Liquid freezing melting co n eva dens p o a ti o rat n io n Solid (ice) Figure 18. This phenomenon is also related to the hydrogen bonds between water molecules.5: Ice cubes floating in water teresting Antarctica. 6.

can be dissolved in rainwater and transported into the soil in this way. that we find pure water. meaning that it is easy for other substances to dissolve in it. and this is how plants and animals obtain the gases that they need to survive. How do they get these gases from the water in which they live? Oxygen and carbon dioxide are just two of the substances that dissolve easily in water.6 Water is also a very good solvent. or seen the flow of water in a river reduced to almost nothing because of its extraction for industrial and other uses? And if you were able to test the quality of the water you see. she adds ice cubes to a glass of water. the water that we drink and use has all kinds of substances dissolved in it. that water is an amazing compound. THE WATER CYCLE . • Firstly. as to how these nitrates and nitrites are able to be present in the soil at all. when most of the Earth’s nitrogen is in a gaseous form in the atmosphere. So why. If water is to continue playing all the important functions that were discussed earlier. She makes the following observations: • The ice cubes float in the water. in fact. however. think about the animals and plants that live in aquatic environments such as rivers. they are present in solution in the surrounding water. Exercise: The properties of water 1.CHAPTER 18.6 Water conservation Water is a very precious substance and yet far too often. • After a while the water becomes cold and the ice cubes melt. • Secondly.GRADE 10 18. which are formed during flashes of lightning. It is these that make water taste different in different areas. life on Earth would definitely not be possible. How many times have you walked past polluted rivers and streams. The other part of the answer lies in the activities of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil. it is vital that we reduce the impact of humans on these resources. and that they absorb this nitrogen from compounds such as nitrates and nitrates that are present in the soil. Instead of being available as gases in the atmosphere. It is very seldom. but this is a topic that we will return to in a later section. Part of the answer lies in the fact that nitrogen oxides. 2. Which properties of water allow it to remain in its liquid phase over a large temperature range? Explain why this is important for life on earth. you would probably be shocked. The question remains. Often our water resources are contaminated with chemicals such as pesticides and fertilisers. (a) What property of ice cubes allows them to float in the water? (b) Briefly explain why the water gets cold when the ice cubes melt. (c) Briefly describe how the property you mentioned earlier affects the survival of aquatic life during winter. 18. or both. In order to get cold water to drink. is it important that water is such a good solvent? We will look at just a few examples. All of these living organisms either need oxygen for respiration or carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Most of the time. A learner returns home from school on a hot afternoon. to be absorbed by plants. dams or in the sea. and that without its unique properties. 363 . It should be clear now. then. consider the fact that all plants need nitrogen to grow. earth’s water resources are abused and taken for granted.

The same is true for many other parts of the world. If groundwater supplies are reduced enough. the overuse of water is also a problem. In a sense this is true because water cannot be destroyed. (a) what is meant by ’urbanisation’ (b) how urbanisation can affect water quality 2. Of the available fresh water.6 CHAPTER 18. this may affect stream flows during dry weather periods because it is the groundwater that seeps to the surface at these times. many regions are extremely dry and receive very little rainfall. To understand these impacts you will need to have a good knowledge of the water cycle! It is interesting to note that the oceans contain most of earth’s water (about 97%). THE WATER CYCLE . roads. However.g. Within the water cycle. entitled ’The Effects of Urbanisation on the Water Cycle’ by Susan Donaldson. The article gives some examples of human impacts on water quality. The water we use today has been in existence for billions of years. However. try to explain.. The runoff water will collect many of the pollutants that have accumulated on these surfaces (e. What changes would you introduce to try to protect the quality of water resources in your urban area? 6. peak flows of stormwater runoff are larger and arrive earlier. leaving only a very small fraction available for use by humans.18. In what other ways do human activities affect water quality? 4. What measures could be introduced in rural areas to protect water quality? Apart from the pollution of water resources. The water cycle continually renews and refreshes this finite water supply. Because our usable water supply is so limited. while the effects of urbanisation on water quality can be major. these impacts can be reduced if wise decisions are made during the process of development.g. parking lots) decreases the amount of water that can soak into the ground. These changes have an impact on our precious water resources.g. expansion of services and more. 98% is present as groundwater. while the remaining 2% is in the form of surface water. road networks. Of the freshwater supplies on earth. What do you think some of the consequences of these impacts might be for humans and other forms of life? 5. it is easy sometimes to think that water is a never-ending resource. oil from cars) and carry them into other water bodies such as rivers or the ocean. with pollution of water being one of many such impacts. we notice many visible changes including housing developments. Atmospheric pollution can also have an impact because condensing water vapour will pick up these pollutants (e. As our communities grow. CO2 and NO2 ) and return them to earth into other water bodies.. where the scarcity of water 364 . roofs. So how exactly does urbanisation affect the water cycle? The increase in hard surfaces (e. 78% is tied up in polar ice caps and snow. Imagine that you are the city manager in your own city or the city closest to you. SO2 . Because there is less infiltration. increasing the size of urban floods. In looking at the water cycle.GRADE 10 Activity :: Group work : Human impacts on the water cycle Read the following extract from an article. there is no ’new’ water ever produced on the earth. Questions 1. 3. In South Africa for example. and then answer the questions that follow. Explain why it is so important to preserve the quality of our water supplies. In groups. it is vitally important to protect water quality. This increases the amount of surface runoff. the availability of water may vary from place to place.

Water use activity Irrigation Urban Rural Mining and bulk industry Power generation Afforestation % of SA’s total water requirements 365 .6 is a life and death issue. the demands being placed on South Africa’s water resources are large. ’rural’ means water for domestic use and stock watering in rural areas. A decrease in water quality limits how water can be used and developed. In addition to this.. THE WATER CYCLE . and remembering that South Africa is already a dry country. The figures in the table were taken from South Africa’s National Water Resource Strategy. Some climate models suggest that rising temperatures could increase the variability of climate and decrease rainfall in South Africa. 2. The present threat of global warming is also likely to affect water resources. the more likely it is that water quality will also decrease. the less water there is available. For South Africa as a whole.1 and then answer the following questions: 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) in the mining and industry sector? for power generation? in the irrigation sector? Suggest reasons for each of your answers above.GRADE 10 18. With this in mind. ’Afforestation’ is included because many plantations reduce stream flow because of the large amounts of water they need to survive.1 shows the water requirements that were predicted for the year 2000.. Complete the following table.1: The predicted water requirements for various water management areas in South Africa for 2000 (million m3 /annum) Water management area Limpopo Thukela Upper Vaal Upper Orange Breede Country total Irrigation Urban Rural Mining and bulk industrial 14 46 173 2 0 755 Power generation 7 1 80 0 0 297 Afforestation Total 238 204 114 780 577 7920 34 52 635 126 39 2897 28 31 43 60 11 574 1 0 0 0 6 428 322 334 1045 968 633 12871 Activity :: Case Study : South Africa’s water requirements Refer to table 18.. Which water management area in South Africa has the highest need for water. Table 18. by calculating the percentage (%) that each activity contributes to the total water requirements in South Africa for the year 2000. At present.. In the table. produced by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in 2004. while ’urban’ means water for domestic. it is vitally important that we manage our water use carefully. (a) Which activity uses the most water? (b) Which activity uses the least water? 3. industrial and commercial use in the urban area.CHAPTER 18. Table 18.

industry.. Look at the country’s total water requirements for 2000 and the total available yield. Explain what is meant by. • Water moves between the land and sky in the water cycle. In the table. mining and agriculture.2 and then answer the following questions: 1. Which water management area has the. discuss ways that the country’s demand for water could be reduced. Present your ideas to the rest of the class for discussion. ’usable return flow’ means the amount of water that can be reused after it has been used for irrigation. South Africa is already placing a huge strain on existing water resources. (a) (b) (c) (d) lowest surface water yield? highest surface water yield? lowest total yield? highest total yield? 3. (b) Do you think that the country’s total water requirements will increase or decrease in the coming years? Give a reason for your answer.7 Summary • Water is critical for the survival of life on Earth. THE WATER CYCLE ..2: The available water yield in South Africa in 2000 for various water management areas (million m3 /annum) Water management Surface Ground Irrigation Urban Mining Total loarea water and cal yield bulk industrial Limpopo 160 98 8 15 0 281 Thukela 666 15 23 24 9 737 Upper Vaal 598 32 11 343 146 1130 Upper Orange 4311 65 34 37 0 4447 Breede 687 109 54 16 0 866 Country total 10240 1088 675 970 254 13227 Now look at table 18. It is an important part of the cells of living organisms and is used by humans in homes.GRADE 10 Table 18. 366 . which shows the amount of water available in South Africa during 2000.7 CHAPTER 18. 4.2. The water cycle is driven by solar radiation. (a) surface water (b) ground water 2. (a) Calculate what percentage of the country’s water yield is already being used up.18. In groups of 3-4. The water cycle describes the changes in phase that take place in water as it circulates across the Earth... urban or mining. 18. Activity :: Case Study : Water conservation Refer to table 18.

transpiration. iv. • Human activities threaten the quality of water resources through pollution and altered runoff patterns. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. there is a greater demand for water. the equal distribution of charge in a water molecule iii. The town has been relying only on rainfall for its water supply because it has no access to rivers or tap water. strong covalent bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in each water molecule ii. this demand exceeds the amount of water available for use. Give a word or term for each of the following phrases: (a) (b) (c) (d) The The The The continuous circulation of water across the earth. high heat of vaporisation and the fact that the solid phase of water is less dense that its liquid phase. Irrigation is one of the largest water users in South Africa. In each of the following multiple choice questions. This property means that it is a good transport medium in the cells of living organisms. temperature at which water changes from liquid to gas. regulating the internal environment of living organisms and allowing liquid water to exist below ice. The hardening of surfaces in urban areas results in increased surface runoff. and that it can dissolve gases and other compounds that may be needed by aquatic plants and animals. and to maintain natural ecosystems. Water conservation is important because water cannot be recycled. iii. • As human populations grow. Managing water wisely is important in ensuring that there will always be water available both for human use. These characteristics affect the properties of water. (a) Many of the unique properties of water (e.7 • Some of the important processes that form part of the water cycle are evaporation. choose the one correct answer from the list provided. even if temperatures are below zero. change in phase of water from gas to liquid. condensation. ii. strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules iv. movement of water across a land surface. • Water molecules are polar and are held together by hydrogen bonds. • These properties of water help it to sustain life on Earth by moderating climate. the linear arrangement of atoms in a water molecule (b) Which of the following statements is false? i. Together these processes ensure that water is cycled between the land and sky. 3. • It is the microscopic structure of water that determines its unique properties.g. • Water is also a good solvent. precipitation. its high specific heat. 367 . Most of the water on earth is in the oceans. infiltration and surface runoff. THE WATER CYCLE .CHAPTER 18. In many areas.GRADE 10 18. • Some of the unique properties of water include its ability to absorb infra-red radiation. its high specific heat and high boiling point) are due to: i. 2. A group of people told the community that they will never run out of rainwater because it will never stop raining. The sketch below shows a process that leads to rainfall in town X.

(c) What scientific arguments can you use to convince the community members that this group of people should not be blamed for the drought? (d) What possible strategies can the community leaders adopt to ensure that they have a regular supply of water. Various reasons have been given to explain the drought.18. THE WATER CYCLE .GRADE 10 Cloud P2 P1 Town X Sea (a) List the processes labelled P1 and P2 that lead to rainfall in town X.7 CHAPTER 18. (b) Is this group of people correct in saying that town X will never run out of rainwater? Justify your answer using the sketch. 368 . Some of the community members are blaming this group who told them that it will never stop raining. Recently. the amount of rainwater has decreased significantly.

proteins and nucleic acids. transport substances around the body. and control what happens in living organisms. So. if nitrogen is so essential for life. 19. the nitrogen cycle is made up of the following processes: • Nitrogen fixation . which can be absorbed and used by plants.Chapter 19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle . This is because of the strong triple bond between its atoms that makes it difficult to break. It is in all amino acids.Grade 10 19. • Denitrification .The process of converting inert nitrogen gas into more useable nitrogen compounds such as ammonia. And at some later stage. In plants. Nitrogen is essential for many biological processes. these compounds are needed to build tissues. much of the nitrogen is used in chlorophyll molecules which are needed for photosynthesis and growth. Very broadly. making it the largest pool of this gas. Definition: The nitrogen cycle The nitrogen cycle is a biogeochemical cycle that describes how nitrogen and nitrogencontaining compounds are changed in nature. This process of changing nitrogen into different forms is called the nitrogen cycle (figure 19. • Nitrification . Something needs to happen to the nitrogen gas to change it into a form that it can be used. We are going to look at each of these processes in more detail. how does it go from being a gas in the atmosphere to being part of living organisms such as plants and animals? The problem with nitrogen is that it is an ’inert’ gas. Some fixation occurs in lightning strikes and in industrial processes. these new compounds must be converted back into nitrogen gas so that the amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere stays the same.1). 369 . As you will see in a later chapter.2 Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen fixation is needed to change gaseous nitrogen into forms such as ammonia that are more useful to living organisms.The conversion of nitrates back into nitrogen gas in the atmosphere.The conversion of ammonia into nitrites and then into nitrates.1 Introduction The earth’s atmosphere is made up of about 78% nitrogen. which means that it is unavailable to living organisms in its gaseous form.

Some of these bacteria are free-living. Biological fixation Some bacteria are able to fix nitrogen.1: A simplified diagram of the nitrogen cycle but most fixation is done by different types of bacteria living either in the soil or in parts of the plants. Others live in the root nodules of legumes (e. the nitrogen compounds that were present in them are broken down and converted into ammonia.g. Industrial nitrogen fixation 370 . GLOBAL CYCLES: THE NITROGEN CYCLE . but this is not shown in the above equation. Another important source of ammonia in the soil is decomposition. soy. The bacteria then use some of this ammonia to produce their own organic compounds.2 CHAPTER 19. 1.GRADE 10 Nitrogen in the Atmosphere Denitrification returns nitrogen to the atmosphere Lightning fixation Industrial fixation Nitrogen fixation by bacteria Animals obtain nitrates from plants Atmosphere Soil Decomposers e.19. They use an enzyme called nitrogenase to combine gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia. peas and beans). The bacteria get carbohydrates (food) from the plant and. in other words they live in the soil. produce ammonia which can be converted into nitrogen compounds that are essential for the survival of the plant. in exchange. When animals and plants die. In nutrient-poor soils. while what is left of the ammonia becomes available in the soil. A simplified equation for biological nitrogen fixation is: N2 + 8H + + 8e− → 2N H3 + H2 Energy is used in the process. Here they form a mutualistic relationship with the plant. 2. planting lots of legumes can help to enrich the soil with nitrogen compounds. This process is carried out by decomposition bacteria and fungi in the soil.g. bacteria Ammonia (NH3) Nitrification by nitrifying bacteria Plant consumption Nitrites (NO-2) Nitrification Nitrates (NO-) 3 Figure 19.

3. This has serious environmental consequences. the oxidation of ammonia with oxygen to form nitrite (NO− ) and secondly the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates. lightning and photons are important in the reaction between nitrogen (N2 ) and oxygen (O2 ) to form nitric oxide (NO) and then nitrates. if you can’t find any for South Africa. 1. In other words. they become part of the plants’ proteins. What is ’blue baby syndrome’ and what are the symptoms of the disease? 371 . How is nitrate concentration in water measured? 2. In young babies this can lead to respiratory distress.3 Nitrification Nitrification involves two biological oxidation reactions: firstly. Nitrification is performed by bacteria in the soil. 3. humans have more than doubled the amount of nitrogen that would normally be changed from nitrogen gas into a biologically useful form. teresting It is interesting to note that by cultivating legumes. Lightning In the atmosphere. There are strict regulations that control how much nitrate can be present in drinking water. In this way. Activity :: Case Study : Nitrates in drinking water Read the information below and then carry out your own research to help you answer the questions that follow. N H3 + O2 → N O2 + 3H + + 2e− (production of nitrites) − − 2. This reduces the ability of the haemoglobin to carry oxygen. The negatively charged nitrate ion is not held onto soil particles and so can be easily washed out of the soil.GRADE 10 19. These plant proteins are then available to be eaten by animals. nitrogen (N2 ) is converted together with hydrogen gas (H2 ) into ammonia (NH3 ) fertiliser. GLOBAL CYCLES: THE NITROGEN CYCLE . valuable nitrogen can be lost from the soil. a condition known as ”blue baby syndrome”. 19. What concentration of nitrates in drinking water is considered acceptable? You can use drinking water standards for any part of the world. This absorption of nitrates by plants is called assimilation. The nitrates can then accumulate in groundwater. and eventually in drinking water. reducing the soil’s fertility.CHAPTER 19. This is an artificial process. called nitrifying bacteria. animals (including humans) obtain their own nitrogen by feeding on plants. because nitrates can be reduced to highly reactive nitrites by microorganisms in the gut. Nitrites are absorbed from the gut and bind to haemoglobin (the pigment in blood that helps to transport oxygen around the body). This is called leaching. Once the nitrates have been assimilated by the plants. 2 − 1. which are easily absorbed by the roots of plants. using the Haber-Bosch Interesting Fact Fact process to manufacture chemical fertilisers and increasing pollution from vehicles and industry. N O2 + H2 O → N O3 + 2H + + 2e− (production of nitrates) Nitrification is an important step in the nitrogen cycle in soil because it converts the ammonia (from the nitrogen fixing part of the cycle) into nitrates.3 In the Haber-Bosch process.

or can become part of the groundwater supply as we mentioned earlier. In groups of 5-6.9 34.7 63. The nitrogen that is produced is returned to the atmosphere to complete the nitrogen cycle.GRADE 10 19.g. Try to suggest a reason for the differences you see in the fertiliser use data for South Africa.4 91.9 1975 57. 6. which shows the average fertiliser use (in kilograms per hectare or kg/ha) over a number of years for South Africa and the world. The process is carried out by denitrification bacteria. nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) that stimulate excessive plant growth. Describe the trend you see for.9 SA World 1. discuss the following questions: (a) What could farmers do to try to reduce the risk of nutrient runoff from fields into water systems? Try to think of at least 3 different strategies that they could use..9 2000 47. 4. GLOBAL CYCLES: THE NITROGEN CYCLE . Increased nitrogen in rivers and dams can lead to a problem called eutrophication. and therefore a greater danger of eutrophication. When the plants die and decompose. Do you see the same pattern for South Africa? 5.6 86. The equation for the reaction is: − 2N O3 + 10e− + 12H + → N2 + 6H2 O 19. dams and slow-moving streams receive excess nutrients (e. Sometimes this can cause certain plant species to be favoured over the others and one species may ’take over’ the ecosystem..2 48.4 CHAPTER 19. 372 .1 88. One of the problems with increased fertiliser use is that there is a greater chance of nutrient runoff into rivers and dams. (a) the world (b) South Africa 3.9 1980 80. • Both artificial fertilisation and the planting of nitrogen fixing crops. estuaries. and means that agricultural productivity is high.4 Denitrification Denitrification is the process of reducing nitrate and nitrite into gaseous nitrogen.9 1995 48. Then answer the questions that follow: 1965 27. On the same set of axes.2 2002 61. it can run off into nearby water courses such as rivers. This is called a ’bloom’. 2. Suggest a reason why the world’s fertiliser use has changed in this way over time.19.3 80.0 1970 42. draw two line graphs to show how fertiliser use has changed in SA and the world between 1965 and 2002. Eutrophication is a process where water bodies such as rivers.5 84. large amounts of oxygen are used up and this can cause other animals in the water to die. however. Activity :: Case Study : Fertiliser use in South Africa Refer to the data table below.6 1985 66. Eutrophication also affects water quality. increase the amount of nitrogen in the soil.9 90. resulting in a decrease in plant diversity. On the other hand. if there is too much nitrogen in the soil.7 1990 54.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle Humans have contributed significantly to the nitrogen cycle in a number of ways. In some ways this has positive effects because it increases the fertility of the soil.

ammonium nitrate. after he left the programme. At the time. Haber also played a major role in the development of chemical warfare in World War I. In high concentrations these gases can contribute towards global warming. 19. He also led the teams that developed chlorine gas and other deadly gases for use in trench warfare. how ammonia is then reacted with oxygen to form nitric acid and how nitric acid and ammonia are then used to produce the fertiliser. nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). At a high pressure and a temperature of approximately 5000 C. Clara Immerwahr. Despite this. During the 1920s. and in the presence of a suitable catalyst (usually iron). possibly gassed by Zyklon B. Part of this work included the development of gas masks with absorbent filters. also a chemist. Haber was Jewish by birth. Both NO2 and NO can combine with water droplets in the atmosphere to form acid rain. Most of these gases result either from emissions from agricultural soils (and particularly artificial fertilisers). • Preparation of ammonia (NH3 ) The industrial preparation of ammonia is known as the Haber-Bosch process. teresting Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch were the two men responsible for developing Interesting Fact Fact the Haber-Bosch process.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen A number of industrial processes are able to fix nitrogen into different compounds and then convert these compounds into fertilisers. or from the combustion of fossil fuels in industry or motor vehicles. GLOBAL CYCLES: THE NITROGEN CYCLE . both NO and NO2 contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer and some are greenhouse gases. Haber was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work. He died in 1934 at the age of 65. Many members of his extended family died in the Nazi concentration camps. The combustion (burning) of nitrogen-bearing fuels such as coal and oil releases this nitrogen as N2 or NO gases. in the Nazi extermination camps. you will see how atmospheric nitrogen is fixed to produce ammonia. His wife. opposed his work on poison gas and committed suicide with his service weapon in their garden. nitrogen and hydrogen react according to the following equation: N2 + 3H2 → 2N H3 Ammonia is used in the preparation of artficial fertilisers such as (NH4 )2 SO4 and is also used in cleaning agents and cooling installations. which was used as an insecticide and also later. 373 . In 1918. 19. In the descriptions below. he was forced to leave the country in 1933 because he was Jewish ’by definition’ (his mother was Jewish). How will you educate them about the dangers? How will you convince them that it is in their interests to change their farming practices? Present your ideas to the class.CHAPTER 19. The main culprits are nitrous oxide (N2 O). The Haber-Bosch process was a milestone in industrial chemistry because it meant that nitrogenous fertilisers were cheaper and much more easily available.6 • Atmospheric pollution is another problem. but converted from Judaism in order to be more accepted in Germany. Furthermore.GRADE 10 (b) Imagine you are going to give a presentation on eutrophication to a group of farmers who know nothing about it. scientists working at his institute also developed the cyanide gas formulation Zyklon B. this was very important in providing food for the growing human population.

GLOBAL CYCLES: THE NITROGEN CYCLE . One group should take the position of agreeing with the statement. 374 . discuss reasons why you have the opinion that you do. The industrial preparation of nitric acid is known as the Ostwald process. proteins and nucleic acids. ammonia is heated with oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst to form nitric oxide and water. 2N O(g) + O2 (g) → 2N O2 (g) 3N O2 (g) + H2 O(l) → 2HN O3 (aq) + N O(g) The NO is recycled. 4N H3 (g) + 5O2 (g) → 4N O(g) + 6H2 O(g) Secondly. as an explosive and also in the preparation of ’laughing gas’ which is used as an anaesthetic.19. Ammonium nitrate is prepared by reacting ammonia with nitric acid: N H3 + HN O3 → N H4 N O3 Activity :: Debate : Fertiliser use Divide the class into two groups to debate the following topic: Increasing the use of artificial fertilisers is the best solution to meet the growing food needs of the world’s human population. and record some notes of your discussion. and the other should disagree. and the acid is concentrated to the required strength by a process called distillation. • Preparation of ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrate is used as a fertiliser. In your groups.GRADE 10 • Preparation of nitric acid (HNO3 ) Nitric acid is used to prepare fertilisers and explosives. but the gas is inert. • The nitrogen cycle describes how nitrogen and nitrogen-containing compounds are changed into different forms in nature. A portion of nitrogen dioxide is reduced back to nitric oxide.7 Summary • Nitrogen is essential for life on earth. 19. since it forms part of amino acids.7 CHAPTER 19. The Ostwald process involves the conversion of ammonia into nitric acid in various stages: Firstly. Your teacher will then explain to you how to proceed with the debate. This gas is then readily absorbed by the water to produce nitric acid. meaning that it is not available to living organisms in its gaseous form. nitric oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. • The atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen gas.

which can be easily assimilated by plants. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. industrially through the Haber-Bosch process or by lightning. eutrophication may occur.7 • The nitrogen cycle consists of three major processes: nitrogen fixation.GRADE 10 19. • Eutrophication is the enrichment of water systems with excess nutrients. GLOBAL CYCLES: THE NITROGEN CYCLE . (b) Are the changes that take place in the water cycle physical or chemical changes? Explain your answer. In some cases. N2 O and NO2 are released by agricultural soils and artificial fertilisers. • The Ostwald process reacts ammonia with oxygen to produce nitric acid. • Humans have had a number of impacts on the nitrogen cycle. Explain what is meant by each of the following terms: (a) nitrogen fixing (b) fertiliser (c) eutrophication 3. Look at the diagram and the descriptions of the nitrogen cycle earlier in the chapter: (a) Would you describe the changes that take place in the nitrogen cycle as chemical or physical changes? Explain your answer. • Nitrogen can be fixed biologically through the actions of bacteria. 4. • If ammonia and nitric acid react. The production of artificial fertilisers for example.CHAPTER 19. • The Haber-Bosch process converts atmsopheric nitrogen into ammonia. the product is ammonium nitrate. • A number of industrial processes are used to produce articifical fertilisers. which may stimulate excessive plant growth at the expense of other parts of the ecosystem. These gases may combine with water vapour in the atmosphere and result in acid rain. means that there is a greater chance of runoff into water systems. 2. which is used as a fertiliser and as an explosive. • Many nitrogen gases such as NO. Refer to the diagram below and then answer the questions that follow: 375 . • Denitrification converts nitrites and nitrates back into gaseous nitrogen to complete the nitrogen cycle. Explain why the fixing of atmospheric nitrogen is so important for the survival of life on earth. • Nitrification converts ammonia into nitrites and nitrates. which is used in the preparation of fertilisers and explosives. Some of these gases are also greenhouse gases and may contribute towards global warming. that are more easily used. nitrification and denitrification. • Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds such as ammonia.

GRADE 10 N2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (a) Explain the role of decomposers in the nitrogen cycle. Draw a table to summarise the advantages and disadvantages of their use.19. (d) On the diagram. then label the processes at (1) and (5). There are a number of arguments both ’for’ and ’against’ the use of artificial fertilisers. NO and NO2 are both nitrogen compounds: (a) Explain how each of these compounds is formed? (b) What effect does each of these compounds have in the environment? 6. GLOBAL CYCLES: THE NITROGEN CYCLE . (b) If the process taking place at (3) is nitrification.7 CHAPTER 19. what process is used to produce the compound at 2? (f) Does the diagram above show a ’cycle’ ? Explain your answer. 5. (e) In industry. (c) Identify the nitrogen products at (2) and (4). indicate the type of bacteria that are involved in each stage of the nitrogen cycle. 376 .

help to shape the earth’s surface. which is something very unique. You can see this for example in rivers. including the atmosphere. rain or snow. water is an important weathering agent.g. Among other things.e. These two process i. and the energy changes that accompany it. On a bigger scale.1 Introduction As far as we know. it condenses to form liquid water which eventually returns to the surface by precipitation e. • Lithosphere In the lithosphere (the ocean and continental crust at the Earth’s surface). lithosphere and biosphere. Also.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere It is important to realise that the hydrosphere interacts with other global systems. Our planet also has water on its surface. the saltwater of the oceans and estuaries. Earth is often called the ’Blue Planet’ because most of it is covered in water. 20. Transpiration (evaporation of water from the leaf surface) then returns water back to the atmosphere. the food production process in plants. land plants absorb water through their roots and then transport this through their vascular (transport) system to stems and leaves. is what drives weather patterns on earth. In the upper streams. 377 . These fragments may then be transported by water to another place. where they are deposited.Grade 10 20. groundwater and water vapour. the Earth we live on is the only planet that is able to support life. and cliffs and caves on rocky beach coastlines. weathering and erosion. In fact. This is called erosion. by energy from the sun). Together. Earth is just the right distance from the sun to have temperatures that are suitable for life to exist. which means that it helps to break rock down into rock fragments and then soil. all these water bodies are called the hydrosphere. This water is made up of freshwater in rivers and lakes.g. rocks are eroded and sediments are transported down the river and deposited on the wide flood plains lower down. This water is needed in photosynthesis.Chapter 20 The Hydrosphere . This cycle of water moving through the atmosphere. the Earth’s atmosphere has exactly the right type of gases in the right amounts for life to survive. When water vapour cools again. • Atmosphere When water is heated (e. • Biosphere In the biosphere. river valleys in mountains have been carved out by the action of water. are also the result of weathering and erosion by water. it evaporates and forms water vapour.

while the remaining amount (less than 1%) is available as freshwater. tides. Choosing a study site: For this exercise. we are going to spend some time exploring a part of the hydrosphere. think about the following questions: • How does the data you have collected vary at different sites? • Can you explain these differences? • What effect do you think temperature. you can choose any part of the hydrosphere that you would like to explore. about 2. in order to start appreciating what a complex and beautiful part of the world it is. You can also collect a water sample in a clear bottle. wetland or even just a small pond. despite the vast amount of water on the planet. THE HYDROSPHERE .2% occurs as a solid in ice sheets. almost 97% is found in the oceans as saltwater. Interpreting the data: Once you have collected and recorded your data. a lake. This may be a rock pool. This works best in a river. (b) Hydrological data Measure the water velocity of the river and observe how the volume of water in the river changes as you move down its length. So from a human perspective. In fact. Of this. You may not know exactly what these measurements mean right now. hold it to the light and see whether the water is clear or whether it has particles in it. 2. When choosing your study site. rain). about 71% of the earth is covered by water. conductivity and dissolved oxygen at each of your sites. Collecting data: Your teacher will provide you with the equipment you need to collect the following data. drinking water). You should have at least one study site where you will collect data.g. consider how accessible it is (how easy is it to get to?) and the problems you may experience (e. (a) Chemical data Measure and record data such as temperature. but it will become clearer later in the chapter. dissolved oxygen and pH have on animals and plants that are living in the hydrosphere? 378 Site 2 Site 3 .3 Exploring the Hydrosphere The large amount of water on our planet is something quite unique. pH. Activity :: Investigation : Investigating the hydrosphere 1. where you can choose sites down its length. The guidelines below will apply best to a river investigation. (c) Biological data What types of animals and plants are found in or near this part of the hydrosphere? Are they specially adapted to their environment? Record your data in a table like the one shown below: Site 1 Temperature pH Conductivity Dissolved oxygen Animals and plants 3. river. but you might decide to have more if you want to compare your results in different areas.GRADE 10 20. only a very small amount is actually available for human consumption (e.3 CHAPTER 20.20. but you can ask similar questions and gather similar data in other areas.g. Before we go on to look more closely at the chemistry of the hydrosphere.

GRADE 10 • Water is seldom ’pure’. Because of the structure of the water molecule. Ca and NO− ions) or suspended (e.4 20. nitrate (NO− ).g. Drinking water is obviously very important. Water can also be used to generate electricity through hydropower. Mg. nitrite (NO− ) and ammonium (NH+ ) 3 2 4 ions. dissolved nutrients are also available. life would not be able to survive. most of the chemical reactions that occur in life.CHAPTER 20. and how these ions maintain a balance in the human body. and this allows the cell to function normally. Many gases (e. Many of the substances that dissolve are ionic.g. washing and cleaning) and in industry. but water is also used domestically (e.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere It is so easy sometimes to take our hydrosphere for granted. Where 3 do these substances come from? • Are there any human activities near this part of the hydrosphere? What effect could these activities have on the hydrosphere? 20. Below are just some of the very important functions of water in the hydrosphere: • Water is a part of living cells Each cell in a living organism is made up of almost 75% water. In rivers and the oceans for example.g. soil particles. nutrients e. • Human needs Humans use water in a number of ways. and when they dissolve they form ions in solution. and we seldom take the time to really think about the role that this part of the planet plays in keeping us alive. These are just a few of the very important functions that water plays on our planet. CO2 . In fact.5 Ions in aqueous solution As we mentioned earlier.g. We are going to look at how water is able to dissolve ionic compounds. This means that water takes a long time to heat up. involve substances that are dissolved in water. cells would not be able to carry out their normal functions. Ocean currents also help to disperse heat. Without water. It usually has lots of things dissolved (e. • Water provides a habitat The hydrosphere provides an important place for many animals and plants to live. This is very important because if water wasn’t able to do this. and life could not exist. it is able to dissolve substances in it. O2 ). THE HYDROSPHERE . For plants. how they affect water hardness. water is able to carry dissolved substances from one part of the body to another. The presence of these substances is critical for life to exist in water.g. 20. Ca2+ and Mg2+ ) are dissolved in water. dissolved oxygen means that organisms are still able to respire (breathe). • Regulating climate You may remember from chapter ?? that one of water’s unique characteristics is its high specific heat. water is seldom pure. and how specific ions determine the pH of solutions. In the human body. and also a long time to cool down. 379 . debris) in it. as well as other ions (e. This is important in helping to regulate temperatures on earth so that they stay within a range that is acceptable for life to exist.g. Many of the functions of water relate to its chemistry and to the way in which it is able to dissolve substances in it.

the ionic bonds between the sodium and chloride ions are weakened and the water molecules are able to work their way between the individual ions. This process is called dissociation. l (liquid). g (gas) and aq (material is dissolved in water) are written after the chemical formula to show the state or phase of the material. THE HYDROSPHERE .GRADE 10 20.5. In the case of sodium chloride (NaCl) for example. while the negative chloride ions (Cl− ) will be attracted to the positive pole of the water molecule.2.1: Water is a polar molecule It is the polar nature of water that allows ionic compounds to dissolve in it.5 CHAPTER 20.1). δ+ H2 O δ− Figure 20.2: Sodium chloride dissolves in water The dissolution of sodium chloride can be represented by the following equation: N aCl(s) → N a+ (aq) + Cl− (aq) The symbols s (solid).1 Dissociation in water You may remember from chapter 5 that water is a polar molecule (figure 20. Definition: Dissociation Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which ionic compounds separate or split into smaller molecules or ions. This means that one part of the molecule has a slightly positive charge and the other part has a slightly negative charge. surrounding them and slowly dissolving the compound. In the process.20. usually in a reversible manner. Cl− δ+ H2 O δ− Cl− δ + H2 O δ − N a+ δ − H2 O δ + Cl− δ− H2 O δ+ Cl− Figure 20. the positive sodium ions (Na+ ) will be attracted to the negative pole of the water molecule. The dissolution of potassium sulphate into potassium and sulphate ions is shown below as another example: 380 . A simplified representation of this is shown in figure 20.

which control body processes. Dissolved ions are found inside and outside of body cells. say whether the substance is ionic or molecular. (a) (b) (c) (d) sodium sulphate (Na2 SO4 ) potassium bromide (KBr) potassium permanganate (KMNO4 ) sodium phosphate (Na3 PO4 ) 381 . The movement of ions across the membrane can also be converted into an electric signal that can be transferred along neurons (nerve cells). for example when we sweat during exercise. For each of the following. If there is a difference in the charge that is inside and outside the cell. The membrane potential acts like a battery and affects the movement of all charged substances across the membrane. HCl(g) → H + (aq) + Cl− (aq) teresting The ability of ionic compounds to dissolve in water is extremely important in Interesting Fact Fact the human body! The body is made up of cells. THE HYDROSPHERE .g. Exercise: Ions in solution 1. to name just a few. each of which is surrounded by a membrane. Mg2+ . C6 H12 O6 (s) ⇔ C6 H12 O6 (aq) There are exceptions to this and some molecular substances will form ions when they dissolve.g. If ionic substances were not able to dissociate in water. Cl− ).g. Ca2+ . Hydrogen chloride for example can ionise to form hydrogen and chloride ions. Some of these ions are positive (e. Sports drinks such as Lucozade and Powerade are designed to replace these lost ions so that the body’s normal functioning is not affected. in different concentrations.GRADE 10 20.5 2− K2 SO4 (s) → 2K + (aq) + SO4 (aq) Remember that molecular substances (e. and Cl− . then none of these processes would be possible! It is also important to realise that our bodies can lose ions such as Na+ . excretion and in maintaining blood pH. (a) (b) (c) (d) potassium nitrate (KNO3 ) ethanol (C2 H5 OH) sucrose sugar (C12 H22 O11 sodium bromide (NaBr) 2. One example is sugar.CHAPTER 20. Membrane potentials play a role in muscle functioning. but most will not form ions. This is called the membrane potential of the cell. Write a balanced equation to show how each of the following ionic compounds dissociate in water. K+ . covalent compounds) may also dissolve. Mg2+ ) and some are negative (e. then there is a potential difference across the cell membrane. digestion.

Acids and bases can be described as substances that either increase or decrease the concentration of hydrogen (H+ or H3 O+) ions in a solution. it must be recharged. mainly calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Toothpaste will also not froth well in hard water. affects whether the solution is acidic or basic.g. The sodium replaces the calcium and magnesium.5. soap will lather more easily when it is rubbed against the skin.5 CHAPTER 20. You will learn about acids and bases in chapter 15. while a base decreases the hydrogen ion concentration. The sodium that was originally on the beads is released into the water. Hard water is water that has a high mineral content. A salt solution is passed through the resin. pH is used to measure whether a substance is acidic or basic (alkaline).5. usually made of resin beads that are supersaturated with sodium. When the resin becomes saturated with calcium and magnesium. As the water passes through the beads.3 The pH scale The concentration of specific ions in solution. teresting The simplest way to check whether water is hard or soft is to use the lather/froth Interesting Fact Fact test.20. If the water is very soft. With hard water this won’t happen. and these ions are released into the waste water and discharged. Hard water may also contain other metals as well as bicarbonates and sulphates. A water softener works on the principle of ion exchange.GRADE 10 20. pH can be calculated using the following equation: pH = −log[H + ] or pH = −log[H3 O+ ] The brackets in the above equation are used to show concentration in mol. If water has a high mineral content. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. calcium and magnesium) attach themselves to the beads. The calcium enters the water from either CaCO3 (limestone or chalk) or from mineral deposits of CaSO4 . Minerals are substances such as calcite. An acid increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. while those with a pH greater than seven are basic (alkaline). pH 7 is considered neutral. Hard water passes through a media bed. THE HYDROSPHERE . the hardness minerals (e. Water that has a low mineral content is known as soft water. it usually contains high levels of metal ions.2 Ions and water hardness Definition: Water hardness Water hardness is a measure of the mineral content of water. 20. The main source of magnesium is a sedimentary rock called dolomite. Definition: pH pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. quartz and mica that occur naturally as a result of geological processes.dm−3 . CaMg(CO3 )2 . 382 . Solutions with a pH less than seven are acidic.

So. Calculate the pH of the solution. THE HYDROSPHERE . Answer Step 1 : Determine the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution According to the balanced equation for this reaction. therefore the concentration of these two ions in the solution will also be the same.dm−3 .dm−3 Step 2 : Substitute this value into the pH equation and calculate the pH value pH = -log[H+] = -log(1 × 10−7 ) =7 Worked Example 94: pH calculations Question: In a solution of ethanoic acid.dm−3 .003 dm−3 . the concentration has been given and is 1 × 10−7 mol. Important: It may also be useful for calculations involving the pH scale. it is necessary to maintain a constant pH so that chemical reactions can occur under optimal conditions.CHAPTER 20. the mole ratio of CH3 COO− ions to H3 O+ ions is the same. the following equilibrium is established: CH3 COOH(aq) + H2 O ⇔ CH3 COO− (aq) + H3 O+ The concentration of CH3 COO− ions is found to be 0. Step 2 : Substitute this value into the pH equation and calculate the pH value pH = -log[H3O+ ] = -log(0.5 Worked Example 93: pH calculations Question: Calculate the pH of a solution where the concentration of hydrogen ions is 1 × 10−7 mol.52 Understanding pH is very important.003) = 2. In living organisms.dm−3 In this example. [H3 O+ ] = 0.003 mol.GRADE 10 20. to know that the following equation can also be used: [H3 O+ ][OH− ] = 1 × 10−14 383 . Answer Step 1 : Determine the concentration of hydrogen ions in mol.

20.5

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10

teresting A build up of acid in the human body can be very dangerous. Lactic acidosis Interesting Fact Fact is a condition caused by the buildup of lactic acid in the body. It leads to acidification of the blood (acidosis) and can make a person very ill. Some of the symptoms of lactic acidosis are deep and rapid breathing, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In the fight against HIV, lactic acidosis is a problem. One of the antiretrovirals (ARV’s) that is used in anti-HIV treatment is Stavudine (also known as Zerit or d4T). One of the side effects of Stavudine is lactic acidosis, particularly in overweight women. If it is not treated quickly, it can result in death.

In agriculture, farmers need to know the pH of their soils so that they are able to plant the right kinds of crops. The pH of soils can vary depending on a number of factors such as rainwater, the kinds of rocks and materials from which the soil was formed and also human influences such as pollution and fertilisers. The pH of rain water can also vary and this too has an effect on agriculture, buildings, water courses, animals and plants. Rainwater is naturally acidic because carbon dioxide in the atmosphere combines with water to form carbonic acid. Unpolluted rainwater has a pH of approximately 5.6. However, human activities can alter the acidity of rain and this can cause serious problems such as acid rain.

Exercise: Calculating pH 1. Calculate the pH of each of the following solutions: (a) A 0.2 mol.dm−3 KOH solution (b) A 0.5 mol.dm−3 HCl solution 2. What is the concentration (in mol.dm−3 ) of H3 O+ ions in a NaOH solution which has a pH of 12? 3. The concentrations of hydronium and hydroxyl ions in a typical sample of seawater are 10−8 mol.dm−3 and 10−6 mol.dm−3 respectively. (a) Is the seawater acidic or basic? (b) What is the pH of the seawater? (c) Give a possible explanation for the pH of the seawater. (IEB Paper 2, 2002)

20.5.4

Acid rain

The acidity of rainwater comes from the natural presence of three substances (CO2 , NO, and SO2 ) in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. These gases are able to dissolve in water and therefore make rain more acidic than it would otherwise be. Of these gases, carbon dioxide (CO2 ) has the highest concentration and therefore contributes the most to the natural acidity of rainwater. We will look at each of these gases in turn.

Definition: Acid rain Acid rain refers to the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow and dew. Acid rain occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere, undergo chemical transformations, and are absorbed by water droplets in clouds. The droplets then fall to earth as rain, snow, mist, dry dust, hail, or sleet. This increases the acidity of the soil, and affects the chemical balance of lakes and streams. 384

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10 1. Carbon dioxide

20.5

Carbon dioxide reacts with water in the atmosphere to form carbonic acid (H2 CO3 ). CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 The carbonic acid dissociates to form hydrogen and hydrogen carbonate ions. It is the presence of hydrogen ions that lowers the pH of the solution, making the rain acidic.
− H2 CO3 → H + + HCO3

2. Nitric oxide Nitric oxide (NO) also contributes to the natural acidity of rainwater and is formed during lightning storms when nitrogen and oxygen react. In air, NO is oxidised to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). It is the nitrogen dioxide which then reacts with water in the atmosphere to form nitric acid (HNO3 ). 3N O2 (g) + H2 O → 2HN O3 (aq) + N O(g) The nitric acid dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions and nitrate ions. This again lowers the pH of the solution, making it acidic.
− HN O3 → H + + N O3

3. Sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere first reacts with oxygen to form sulfur trioxide, before reacting with water to form sulfuric acid. 2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3 SO3 + H2 O → H2 SO4 Sulfuric acid dissociates in a similar way to the previous reactions.
− H2 SO4 → HSO4 + H +

Although these reactions do take place naturally, human activities can greatly increase the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, so that rain becomes far more acidic than it would otherwise be. The burning of fossil fuels in industries, vehicles etc is one of the biggest culprits. If the acidity of the rain drops below 5, it is referred to as acid rain. Acid rain can have a very damaging effect on the environment. In rivers, dams and lakes, increased acidity can mean that some species of animals and plants will not survive. Acid rain can also degrade soil minerals, producing metal ions that are washed into water systems. Some of these ions may be toxic e.g. Al3+ . From an economic perspective, altered soil pH can drastically affect agricultural productivity. Acid rain can also affect buildings and monuments, many of which are made from marble and limestone. A chemical reaction takes place between CaCO3 (limestone) and sulfuric acid to produce aqueous ions which can be easily washed away. The same reaction can occur in the lithosphere where limestone rocks are present e.g. limestone caves can be eroded by acidic rainwater. H2 SO4 + CaCO3 → CaSO4 .H2 O + CO2

385

20.6

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10 Activity :: Investigation : Acid rain You are going to test the effect of ’acid rain’ on a number of substances. Materials needed: samples of chalk, marble, zinc, iron, lead, dilute sulfuric acid, test tubes, beaker, glass dropper Method: 1. Place a small sample of each of the following substances in a separate test tube: chalk, marble, zinc, iron and lead 2. To each test tube, add a few drops of dilute sulfuric acid. 3. Observe what happens and record your results. Discussion questions: • In which of the test tubes did reactions take place? What happened to the sample substances? • What do your results tell you about the effect that acid rain could have on each of the following: buildings, soils, rocks and geology, water ecosystems? • What precautions could be taken to reduce the potential impact of acid rain?

20.6

Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity

Conductivity in aqueous solutions, is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current. The more ions there are in the solution, the higher its conductivity. Definition: Conductivity Conductivity is a measure of a solution’s ability to conduct an electric current.

20.6.1

Electrolytes

An electrolyte is a material that increases the conductivity of water when dissolved in it. Electrolytes can be further divided into strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes. Definition: Electrolyte An electrolyte is a substance that contains free ions and behaves as an electrically conductive medium. Because they generally consist of ions in solution, electrolytes are also known as ionic solutions.

1. Strong electrolytes A strong electrolyte is a material that ionises completely when it is dissolved in water: AB(s,l,g) → A+ (aq) + B − (aq) This is a chemical change because the original compound has been split into its component ions and bonds have been broken. In a strong electrolyte, we say that the extent of ionisation is high. In other words, the original material dissociates completely so that there is a high concentration of ions in the solution. An example is a solution of potassium nitrate:
− KN O3 (s) → K + (aq) + N O3 (aq)

386

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10 2. Weak electrolytes

20.6

A weak electrolyte is a material that goes into solution and will be surrounded by water molecules when it is added to water. However, not all of the molecules will dissociate into ions. The extent of ionisation of a weak electrolyte is low and therefore the concentration of ions in the solution is also low. AB(s,l,g) → AB(aq) ⇔ A+ (aq) + B − (aq) The following example shows that, in the final solution of a weak electrolyte, some of the original compound plus some dissolved ions are present.
− C2 H3 O2 H(l) → C2 H3 O2 H ⇔ C2 H3 O2 (aq) + H + (aq)

20.6.2

Non-electrolytes

A non-electrolyte is a material that does not increase the conductivity of water when dissolved in it. The substance goes into solution and becomes surrounded by water molecules, so that the molecules of the chemical become separated from each other. However, although the substance does dissolve, it is not changed in any way and no chemical bonds are broken. The change is a physical change. In the oxygen example below, the reaction is shown to be reversible because oxygen is only partially soluble in water and comes out of solution very easily. C2 H5 OH(l) → C2 H5 OH(aq) O2 (g) ⇔ O2 (aq)

20.6.3

Factors that affect the conductivity of water

The conductivity of water is therefore affected by the following factors: • The type of substance that dissolves in water

Whether a material is a strong electrolyte (e.g. potassium nitrate, KNO3 ), a weak electrolyte (e.g. acetate, C2 H3 O2 H) or a non-electrolyte (e.g. sugar, alcohol, oil) will affect the conductivity of water because the concentration of ions in solution will be different in each case.

• The concentration of ions in solution • Temperature

The higher the concentration of ions in solution, the higher its conductivity will be.

The warmer the solution the higher the solubility of the material being dissolved, and therefore the higher the conductivity as well.

Activity :: Experiment : Electrical conductivity Aim: To investigate the electrical conductivities of different substances and solutions. Apparatus: solid salt (NaCl) crystals; different liquids such as distilled water, tap water, seawater, benzene and alcohol; solutions of salts e.g. NaCl, KBr; a solution of an acid (e.g. HCl) and a solution of a base (e.g. NaOH); torch cells; ammeter; conducting wire, crocodile clips and 2 carbon rods. 387

20.6 Method:

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10

Set up the experiment by connecting the circuit as shown in the diagram below. In the diagram, ’X’ represents the substance or solution that you will be testing. When you are using the solid crystals, the crocodile clips can be attached directly to each end of the crystal. When you are using solutions, two carbon rods are placed into the liquid, and the clips are attached to each of the rods. In each case, complete the circuit and allow the current to flow for about 30 seconds. Observe whether the ammeter shows a reading. battery

Ammeter

A

test substance X crocodile clip Results: Record your observations in a table similar to the one below: Test substance Ammeter reading

What do you notice? Can you explain these observations? Remember that for electricity to flow, there needs to be a movement of charged particles e.g. ions. With the solid NaCl crystals, there was no flow of electricity recorded on the ammeter. Although the solid is made up of ions, they are held together very tightly within the crystal lattice, and therefore no current will flow. Distilled water, benzene and alcohol also don’t conduct a current because they are covalent compounds and therefore do not contain ions. The ammeter should have recorded a current when the salt solutions and the acid and base solutions were connected in the circuit. In solution, salts dissociate into their ions, so that these are free to move in the solution. Acids and bases behave in a similar way, and dissociate to form hydronium and oxonium ions. Look at the following examples: KBr → K+ + Br− NaCl → Na+ + Cl− HCl + H2 O → H3 O+ + Cl− NaOH → Na+ + OH− Conclusions: Solutions that contain free-moving ions are able to conduct electricity because of the movement of charged particles. Solutions that do not contain free-moving ions do not conduct electricity.

388

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10

20.7

teresting Conductivity in streams and rivers is affected by the geology of the area where Interesting Fact Fact the water is flowing through. Streams that run through areas with granite bedrock tend to have lower conductivity because granite is made of materials that do not ionise when washed into the water. On the other hand, streams that run through areas with clay soils tend to have higher conductivity because the materials ionise when they are washed into the water. Pollution can also affect conductivity. A failing sewage system or an inflow of fertiliser runoff would raise the conductivity because of the presence of chloride, phosphate, and nitrate (ions) while an oil spill (non-ionic) would lower the conductivity. It is very important that conductivity is kept within a certain acceptable range so that the organisms living in these water systems are able to survive.

20.7

Precipitation reactions

Sometimes, ions in solution may react with each other to form a new substance that is insoluble. This is called a precipitate.

Definition: Precipitate A precipitate is the solid that forms in a solution during a chemical reaction.

Activity :: Demonstration : The reaction of ions in solution Apparatus and materials: 4 test tubes; copper(II) chloride solution; sodium carbonate solution; sodium sulphate solution

CuCl2

CuCl2

Na2 CO3

Na2 SO4

Method: 1. Prepare 2 test tubes with approximately 5 ml of dilute Cu(II)chloride solution in each 2. Prepare 1 test tube with 5 ml sodium carbonate solution 3. Prepare 1 test tube with 5 ml sodium sulphate solution 4. Carefully pour the sodium carbonate solution into one of the test tubes containing copper(II) chloride and observe what happens 5. Carefully pour the sodium sulphate solution into the second test tube containing copper(II) chloride and observe what happens Results: 389

20.7

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10 1. A light blue precipitate forms when sodium carbonate reacts with copper(II) chloride 2. No precipitate forms when sodium sulphate reacts with copper(II) chloride

It is important to understand what happened in the previous demonstration. We will look at what happens in each reaction, step by step. 1. Reaction 1: Sodium carbonate reacts with copper(II) chloride When these compounds react, a number of ions are present in solution: Cu2+ , Cl− , N a+ 2− and CO3 . Because there are lots of ions in solution, they will collide with each other and may recombine in different ways. The product that forms may be insoluble, in which case a precipitate will form, or the product will be soluble, in which case the ions will go back into solution. Let’s see how the ions in this example could have combined with each other: Cu2+ + CO2− → CuCO3 3

Na+ + CO2− → Na2 CO3 3 You can automatically exclude the reactions where sodium carbonate and copper(II) chloride are the products because these were the initial reactants. You also know that sodium chloride (NaCl) is soluble in water, so the remaining product (copper carbonate) must be the one that is insoluble. It is also possible to look up which salts are soluble and which are insoluble. If you do this, you will find that most carbonates are insoluble, therefore the precipitate that forms in this reaction must be CuCO3 . The reaction that has taken place between the ions in solution is as follows:
2− 2N a+ + CO3 + Cu2+ + 2Cl− → CuCO3 + 2N a+ + 2Cl−

Na+ + Cl− → NaCl

Cu2+ + 2Cl− → CuCl2

2. Reaction 2: Sodium sulphate reacts with copper(II) chloride
2− The ions that are present in solution are Cu2+ , Cl− , N a+ and SO4 .

The ions collide with each other and may recombine in different ways. The possible combinations of the ions are as follows: Cu2+ + SO2− → CuSO4 4 Na+ + Cl− → NaCl Cu2+ + 2Cl− → CuCl2

Na+ + SO2− → Na2 SO4 4 If we look up which of these salts are soluble and which are insoluble, we see that most chlorides and most sulphates are soluble. This is why no precipitate forms in this second reaction. Even when the ions recombine, they immediately separate and go back into solution. The reaction that has taken place between the ions in solution is as follows:
2− 2− 2N a+ + SO4 + Cu2+ + 2Cl− → 2N a+ + SO4 + Cu2+ + 2Cl−

Table 20.1 shows some of the general rules about the solubility of different salts based on a number of investigations: 390

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10 Table 20.1: General rules for the solubility of salts Salt Nitrates Potassium, sodium and ammonium salts Chlorides Solubility All are soluble All are soluble All are soluble except silver chloride, lead(II)chloride and mercury(II)chloride All are soluble except lead(II)sulphate, barium sulphate and calcium sulphate All are insoluble except those of potassium, sodium and ammonium

20.8

Sulphates

Carbonates

20.8

Testing for common anions in solution

It is also possible to carry out tests to determine which ions are present in a solution.

20.8.1

Test for a chloride

Prepare a solution of the unknown salt using distilled water and add a small amount of silver nitrate solution. If a white precipitate forms, the salt is either a chloride or a carbonate. Cl− + Ag+ + NO− → AgCl + NO− (AgCl is white precipitate) 3 3

CO2− + 2Ag+ + 2NO− → Ag2 CO3 + 2NO2 (Ag2 CO3 is white precipitate) 3 3 The next step is to treat the precipitate with a small amount of concentrated nitric acid. If the precipitate remains unchanged, then the salt is a chloride. If carbon dioxide is formed, and the precipitate disappears, the salt is a carbonate. AgCl + HNO3 → (no reaction; precipitate is unchanged) Ag2 CO3 + 2HNO3 → 2AgNO3 + H2 O + CO2 (precipitate disappears)

20.8.2

Test for a sulphate

Add a small amount of barium chloride solution to a solution of the test salt. If a white precipitate forms, the salt is either a sulphate or a carbonate. SO2− + Ba2+ + Cl− → BaSO4 + Cl− (BaSO4 is a white precipitate) 4

CO2− + Ba2+ + Cl− → BaCO3 + Cl− (BaCO3 is a white precipitate) 3 If the precipitate is treated with nitric acid, it is possible to distinguish whether the salt is a sulphate or a carbonate (as in the test for a chloride). BaSO4 + HNO3 → (no reaction; precipitate is unchanged) BaCO3 + 2HNO3 → Ba(NO3 )2 + H2 O + CO2 (precipitate disappears) 391

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CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10

20.8.3

Test for a carbonate

If a sample of the dry salt is treated with a small amount of acid, the production of carbon dioxide is a positive test for a carbonate.
2− Acid + CO3 → CO2

If the gas is passed through limewater and the solution becomes milky, the gas is carbon dioxide. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2 O (It is the insoluble CaCO3 precipitate that makes the limewater go milky)

20.8.4

Test for bromides and iodides

As was the case with the chlorides, the bromides and iodides also form precipitates when they are reacted with silver nitrate. Silver chloride is a white precipitate, but the silver bromide and silver iodide precipitates are both pale yellow. To determine whether the precipitate is a bromide or an iodide, we use chlorine water and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). Chlorine water frees bromine gas from the bromide, and colours the carbon tetrachloride a reddish brown. Chlorine water frees iodine gas from an iodide, and colours the carbon tetrachloride is coloured purple.

Exercise: Precipitation reactions and ions in solution 1. Silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) reacts with potassium chloride (KCl) and a white precipitate is formed. (a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction that takes place. (b) What is the name of the insoluble salt that forms? (c) Which of the salts in this reaction are soluble? 2. Barium chloride reacts with sulfuric acid to produce barium sulphate and hydrochloric acid. (a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction that takes place. (b) Does a precipitate form during the reaction? (c) Describe a test that could be used to test for the presence of barium sulphate in the products. 3. A test tube contains a clear, colourless salt solution. A few drops of silver nitrate solution are added to the solution and a pale yellow precipitate forms. Which one of the following salts was dissolved in the original solution? (a) (b) (c) (d) NaI KCl K2 CO3 Na2 SO4

(IEB Paper 2, 2005)

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CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10

20.9

20.9

Threats to the Hydrosphere

It should be clear by now that the hydrosphere plays an extremely important role in the survival of life on Earth, and that the unique properties of water allow various important chemical processes to take place which would otherwise not be possible. Unfortunately for us however, there are a number of factors that threaten our hydrosphere, and most of these threats are because of human activities. We are going to focus on two of these issues: overuse and pollution and look at ways in which these problems can possibly be overcome. 1. Overuse of water We mentioned earlier that only a very small percentage of the hydrosphere’s water is available as freshwater. However, despite this, humans continue to use more and more water to the point where water consumption is fast approaching the amount of water that is available. The situation is a serious one, particularly in countries such as South Africa which are naturally dry, and where water resources are limited. It is estimated that between 2020 and 2040, water supplies in South Africa will no longer be able to meet the growing demand for water in this country. This is partly due to population growth, but also because of the increasing needs of industries as they expand and develop. For each of us, this should be a very scary thought. Try to imagine a day without water...difficult isn’t it? Water is so much a part of our lives, that we are hardly aware of the huge part that it plays in our daily lives.

Activity :: Discussion : Creative water conservation As populations grow, so do the demands that are placed on dwindling water resources. While many people argue that building dams helps to solve this watershortage problem, the reality is that dams are only a temporary solution, and that they often end up doing far more ecological damage than good. The only sustainable solution is to reduce the demand for water, so that water supplies are sufficient to meet this. The more important question then is how to do this. Discussion: Divide the class into groups, so that there are about five people in each. Each group is going to represent a different sector within society. Your teacher will tell you which sector you belong to from the following: Farming, industry, city management or civil society (i.e. you will represent the ordinary ’man on the street’). In your groups, discuss the following questions as they relate to the group of people you represent: (Remember to take notes during your discussions, and nominate a spokesperson to give feedback to the rest of the class on behalf of your group) • What steps could be taken by your group to conserve water? • Why do you think these steps are not being taken? • What incentives do you think could be introduced to encourage this group to conserve water more efficiently?

2. Pollution Pollution of the hydrosphere is also a major problem. When we think of pollution, we sometimes only think of things like plastic, bottles, oil and so on. But any chemical that is present in the hydrosphere in an amount that is not what it should be is a pollutant. Animals and plants that live in the hydrosphere are specially adapted to surviving within a certain range of conditions. If these conditions are changed (e.g. through pollution), these organisms may not be able to survive. Pollution then, can affect entire aquatic ecosystems. The most common forms of pollution in the hydrosphere are waste products from humans and from industries, nutrient pollution e.g. fertiliser runoff which causes eutrophication (this will be discussed in a later section) and toxic trace elements such as aluminium, mercury and copper to name a few. Most of these elements come from mines or from industries. 393

20.10

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10

It is important to realise that our hydrosphere exists in a delicate balance with other systems, and that disturbing this balance can have serious consequences for life on this planet.

Activity :: Group Project : School Action Project There is a lot that can be done within a school to save water. As a class, discuss what actions could be taken by your class to make people more aware of how important it is to conserve water.

20.10

Summary

• The hydrosphere includes all the water that is on Earth. Sources of water include freshwater (e.g. rivers, lakes), saltwater (e.g. oceans), groundwater (e.g. boreholes) and water vapour. Ice (e.g. glaciers) is also part of the hydrosphere. • The hydrosphere interacts with other global systems, including the atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. • The hydrosphere has a number of important functions. Water is a part of all living cells, it provides a habitat for many living organisms, it helps to regulate climate, and it is used by humans for domestic, industrial and other use. • The polar nature of water means that ionic compounds dissociate easily in aqueous solution into their component ions. • Ions in solution play a number of roles. In the human body for example, ions help to regulate the internal environment (e.g. controlling muscle function, regulating blood pH). Ions in solution also determine water hardness and pH. • Water hardness is a measure of the mineral content of water. Hard water has a high mineral concentration and generally also a high concentration of metal ions e.g. calcium and magnesium. The opposite is true for soft water. • pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution. The formula used to calculate pH is as follows: pH = -log[H3O+ ] or pH = -log[H+ ] A solution with a pH less than 7 is considered acidic and more than 7 is considered basic (or alkaline). A neutral solution has a pH of 7. • Gases such as CO2 , NO2 and SO2 dissolve in water to form weak acid solutions. Rain is naturally acidic because of the high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, increase the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, resulting in acid rain. • Conductivity is a measure of a solution’s ability to conduct an electric current. • An electrolyte is a substance that contains free ions, and is therefore able to conduct an electric current. Electrolytes can be divided into strong and weak electrolytes, based on the extent to which the substance ionises in solution. • A non-electrolyte cannot conduct an electric current because it dooes not contain free ions. • The type of substance, the concentration of ions and the temperature of the solution, affect its conductivity. 394

CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE - GRADE 10

20.10

• A precipitate is formed when ions in solution react with each other to form an insoluble product. Solubility ’rules’ help to identify the precipitate that has been formed. • A number of tests can be used to identify whether certain anions are present in a solution. • Despite the importance of the hydrosphere, a number of factors threaten it. These include overuse of water, and pollution.

Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. Give one word for each of the following descriptions: (a) (b) (c) (d) the change in phase of water from a gas to a liquid a charged atom a term used to describe the mineral content of water a gas that forms sulfuric acid when it reacts with water

2. Match the information in column A with the information in column B by writing only the letter (A to I) next to the question number (1 to 7) Column A 1. A polar molecule 2. molecular solution 3. Mineral that increases water hardness 4. Substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration 5. A strong electrolyte 6. A white precipitate 7. A non-conductor of electricity Column B A. H2 SO4 B. CaCO3 C. NaOH D. salt water E. calcium F. carbon dioxide G. potassium nitrate H. sugar water I. O2

3. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct answer from the list provided. (a) Which one of the following substances does not conduct electricity in the solid phase but is an electrical conductor when molten? i. Cu ii. PbBr2 iii. H2 O iv. I2 (IEB Paper 2, 2003) (b) The following substances are dissolved in water. Which one of the solutions is basic? i. sodium nitrate ii. calcium sulphate iii. ammonium chloride iv. potassium carbonate (IEB Paper 2, 2005) 4. The concentration of hydronium and hydroxyl ions in a typical sample of seawater are 10−8 and 10−6 respectively. (a) Is the seawater acidic or basic? (b) Calculate the pH of this seawater. 5. Three test tubes (X, Y and Z) each contain a solution of an unknown potassium salt. The following observations were made during a practical investigation to identify the solutions in the test tubes: A: A white precipitate formed when silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) was added to test tube Z. 395

D: The precipitate in test tube Y was insoluble in hydrochloric acid.20.10 CHAPTER 20. THE HYDROSPHERE . C: The precipitate in test tube X dissolved in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a gas was released. (b) Write a chemical equation for the reaction that took place in test tube X before hydrochloric acid was added. (DoE Exemplar Paper 2 2007) 396 .GRADE 10 B: A white precipitate formed in test tubes X and Y when barium chloride (BaCl2 ) was added. Y and Z. (a) Use the above information to identify the solutions in each of the test tubes X.

the lithosphere. It is the upper part of the mantle and the crust that make up the lithosphere (’lith’ means ’types of stone’ and ’sphere’ refers to the round shape of the earth). the mantle and the outer crust (figure 21. namely the core at the centre.1: A cross-section through the earth to show its different layers Definition: Lithosphere The lithosphere is the solid outermost shell of our planet. The crust is the thin.1 Introduction If we were to cut the Earth in half we would see that our planet is made up of a number of layers. hydrosphere and atmosphere make up the world as we know it. and is made up of material from both the continents and the oceans on the Earth’s surface. called magma which moves continuously because of convection currents.1). hard outer layer that ’floats’ on the magma of the mantle.Chapter 21 The Lithosphere . The lithosphere includes the crust and the upper part of the mantle. The mantle. 397 .Grade 11 (NOTE TO SELF: Need map showing major mining areas in SA) 21. consists of molten rock. which lies between the core and the crust. Together. The core is made up mostly of iron. Atmosphere Crust Upper Mantle Mantle Outer Core Inner Core Figure 21.

CaO. chite or copper carbonate hydroxide) Mineral Quartz A rock is a combination of one or more minerals. potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg). in electrical components. Gold has an affinity for tellurium (Te). through mining) for economic purposes.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust The crust is made up of about 80 elements.1: Table showing examples of minerals and their chemistry Chemistry Comments SiO2 (silicon dioxide) Quartz is used for glass. Rocks that contain valuable minerals are called ores. most of the mass of crustal material is made up of only 8 of these elements. Hematite Fe2 O3 (iron oxide) Iron usually occurs in iron oxide minerals or as an alloy of iron and nickel. sodium (Na). and then solidifies. but are usually part of other more complex minerals. Orthoclase KAlSi3 O8 (potassium alu. iron. It is a mineral that is made up of silica and oxygen. calcium (Ca).Orthoclase belongs to the feldspar group minium silicate) of minerals. it is profitable to extract them (e. which give it a particular structure. A mineral is a compound that is formed through geological processes.21. These are oxygen (O). limestone) form when rock fragments. iron (Fe). These metal elements are seldom found in their pure form. granite. sedimentary and metamorphic. Metamorphic rock is formed when any other rock types are subjected to intense heat and pressure over a period of time. Granite for example. gold. There are three different types of rocks. but more often minerals are made up of many different elements combined. silica (Si). we are particularly interested in the ores that contain metal elements. is a rock that is made up of minerals such as SiO2 .g. Minerals range in composition from pure elements to complex compounds. Many of the elements that are of interest to us (e. Al2 O3 . igneous. sandstone. 398 . The lithosphere is also very important. 21. and also in those minerals that can be used to produce energy. If their concentration is very low. not only because it is the surface on which we live.GRADE 11 Earlier chapters have focused on the hydrosphere (chapter 20) and the atmosphere (chapter 22). a gold als called the tellurides. Definition: Mineral Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes.g. A mineral could be a pure element.2 CHAPTER 21. which occur in over 2000 different compounds and minerals. Quartz is just one example. Copper Cu (pure element) or copper can be mined as a pure element Cu2 (CO3 )(OH)2 (mala. Calaverite is a mineral) mineral that belongs to this group. Examples include slate and marble. Table 21. As humans.g.or as a mineral such as malachite. aluminium (Al). In places where these elements are abundant. However.1. organic matter or other sediment particles are deposited and then compacted over time until they solidify. K2 O. optical lenses and in building stone Gold Au (pure element) or Gold is often found in a group of minerAuTe2 (Calaverite. basalt) are formed when magma is brought to the earth’s surface as lava. The term ’mineral’ includes both the material’s chemical composition and its structure.g. Igneous rocks (e. Some more examples are shown in table 21. are unevenly distributed in the lithosphere. Na2 O and others. copper). Sedimentary rocks (e. then the cost of extraction becomes more than the money that would be made if they were sold. THE LITHOSPHERE . and is the most common gold-bearing mineral. but also because humans gain many valuable resources from this part of the planet.

cat’s eye and sapphire.GRADE 11 Definition: Ore An ore is a volume of rock that contains minerals which make it valuable for mining. Slivers of stone were cut from a rock and then sharpened. During the Stone Age for example. transport and even cookery.5 million years ago! It was the discovery of metals that led to some huge advances in agriculture. Which minerals are found in the following rocks? (a) basalt (b) sandstone (c) marble 21. Copper can also be melted and then put into a mould to re-shape it.3 teresting A gemstone (also sometimes called a gem or semi-precious stone). THE LITHOSPHERE . it was discovered that if certain kinds of stones are heated to high enough temperatures. a rock and an ore. At about the time that copper was in widespread use.CHAPTER 21. Where are most of the earth’s minerals concentrated? 2. 21. probably because of its beautiful shiny appearance. is used in jewelry and other adornments. liquid metals flow from them. Gold was used mostly to make jewelery because it was too soft to make harder tools. 3. and it also lasted a lot longer than the stone that had previously been used in knives. cooking utensils and weapons. These rocks are 399 . diamond. copper and iron. Examples of gemstones are amethyst. Later. stones were used to make tools. Throughout history. Carry out your own research to find out which elements are found in the following minerals: (a) gypsum (b) calcite (c) topaz 4. tools. In Africa. weapons and later machinery and other forms of technology. We have become so used to having metals around us that we seldom stop to think what life might have been like before metals were discovered. aluminium. warfare. copper became an important metal because it could be hammered into shape. Explain the difference between a mineral. is a Interesting Fact Fact highly attractive and valuable piece of mineral which. metals have played a very important role in making jewelery.3 A brief history of mineral use Many of the minerals that are important to humans are metals such as gold. some of the stone tools that have been found date back to 2. One of the first metals to be discovered was gold. when cut and polished. Exercise: Rocks and minerals 1. This is known as casting.

GRADE 11 ores. like coal. South Africa is the world’s sixth largest coal producer. 21. and which helps to meet our energy needs. Many metal technologies may in fact have developed independently in Africa and in many African countries. 400 . steel is a very important part of industry and construction. Uranium produces energy through the process of nuclear fission. iron has divine status because it is used to make instruments for survival. However. Oil. which turns turbines to generate electricity. are coal. Bronze is a very useful metal because it produces a sharper edge than copper. with Mpumalanga contributing about 83 Another element that is found in the crust. teresting Originally it was believed that much of Africa’s knowledge of metals and their Interesting Fact Fact uses was from the Middle East. More recent studies have shown that iron was used far earlier than it would have been if knowledge of this metal had started in the Middle East. making the metal even harder. While most of South Africa’s oil is imported and then processed at a refinery in either Durban. In Nigeria’s Yoruba country for example. it becomes even harder and produces steel. which is used to produce electricity. The layers of compact organic material that can be found between sedimentary layers. the God of Iron. and contain the metal minerals inside them. It was also found that ores do not only occur at the earth’s surface. An important discovery was that if iron is heated in a furnace with charcoal. the ores of iron and tin were found close together. leaving behind organic remains that accumulate and become compacted over millions of years under sedimentary rock. This type of nuclear power is relatively environmentally friendly since it produces low gas emissions. Oil and Gas Corporation). a large amount of heat energy is released. and as a by-product in some copper mines. If this hot metal has its temperature reduced very suddenly. the process does produce small amounts of radioactive wastes . THE LITHOSPHERE . Cape Town or Sasolburg. Today. This heat is used to produce steam. some of the carbon in the charcoal is transferred to the iron.4 Energy resources and their uses Apart from minerals and ores. metals have an extremely important place in society. Coal is formed from organic material when plants and animals decompose. When the nucleus of a uranium atom is split. but also deep below it.21. The technology behind this type of extraction has largely been developed by SASOL (South African Coal. and only specially designed furnaces are able to produce the temperatures that are needed. which must be carefully disposed of in order to prevent contamination. The cast alloy of these two metals is bronze.4 CHAPTER 21. is seen as the protector of the kingdom. some is extracted from coal. the products of the lithosphere are also important in meeting our energy needs. Uranium is produced as a by-product of gold in some mines in the Witwatersrand. Neutrons are aimed at the nucleii of the uranium atoms in order to split them. Iron is the most abundant metal at the earth’s surface but it is more difficult to work with than copper or tin. But this may not be the case. This discovery led to the beginning of mining. Coal is one of the most important fuels that is used in the production of electricity. ’Ogun’. for example in Phalaborwa. The process of heating mineral ores in this way is called smelting. Oil is another product of the lithosphere which is critical in meeting our fuel needs. Another important discovery was that of iron. a large amount of energy is released as heat. is uranium. It is very difficult to extract iron from its ore because it has an extremely high melting point. But humans’ explorations into the world of metals did not end here! In some areas. When coal is burned.

21.5 21. and roof supports are needed so that the rock does not collapse. Shaft mining is needed to reach the gold ore. Water is added and the pans are shaken so that the gold is sorted from the rock and other materials. millions of years ago. Geologists believe that. and this means that some deposits are very deep and often difficult to reach. After the initial drilling. set of circumstances that South Africa’s gold deposits are so concentrated in that area. pebbles and fine particles of gold and deposited them over a long period of time. gold occurs in smaller ’pockets’. THE LITHOSPHERE . which later grew into larger settlements. dangerous and expensive. Wide. It accumulates here.5. Pilgrim’s Rest in Mpumalanga. Its discovery brought many foreigners into South Africa. Most of South Africa’s gold is concentrated in the ’Golden Arc’. was the first site for gold panning in South Africa.3 Processing the gold ore For every ton of ore that is mined. They set up small mining villages. also known as ’Egoli’ or ’Place of Gold’. Oil requires unique geological and geochemical conditions in order to be produced. which are scattered over a much greater area. The oil that is produced is then pushed out into nearby sedimentary layers. Part of this process involves the burial of organic-rich sediments under extremely high temperatures and pressures.2. This type of mining is not suitable if the gold is buried very deep below the surface. towns and cities. Surface layers of rock and sediments are removed so that the deeper gold rich layers can be reached. which stretches from Johannesburg to Welkom. open cast and shaft mining. only a very small amount of gold is extracted.GRADE 11 21. who were lured by the promises of wealth.1 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold Introduction Gold was discovered in South Africa in the late 1800’s and since then has played a very important role in South Africa’s history and economy. Panning Panning for gold is a manual technique that is used to sort gold from other sediments. silt. There are also problems of the intense heat and high pressure below the surface which make shaft mining very complex. Rivers feeding into this lake brought sand. Because gold is much more dense. it settles to the bottom of the pan. tunnels are built leading outwards from the main shaft so that the gold reef can be reached.5. shallow pans are filled with sand and gravel (often from river beds) that may contain gold.2 Mining the Gold A number of different techniques can be used to mine gold. One of the first of these settlements was the beginning of present-day Johannesburg. A number of different methods can be used to separate gold from its ore. and can then be accessed by oil rigs and other advanced equipment.5. Open cast mining This is a form of surface mining. 21. 3. but one of the more common 401 . Shaft mining is a dangerous operation. Eventually these deposits accumulated and became compacted to form gold-bearing sedimentary rock or gold reefs. blasting and equipping of a mine shaft. 21. It is because of this complex.CHAPTER 21. A diagram illustrating open cast and shaft mining is shown in figure 21. 1.5 is organic in origin and normally forms from organic deposits on the ocean floor. 2. Oil will then move upwards until it is trapped by an impermeable rock layer. Shaft mining South Africa’s thin but extensive gold reefs slope at an angle underneath the ground. this area was a massive inland lake. In other countries like Zimbabwe. but unique. The three most common methods in South Africa are panning.

THE LITHOSPHERE .2: Diagram showing open cast and shaft mining methods is called gold cyanidation. the ore is crushed and then cyanide solution is added so that the gold particles are chemically dissolved from the ore. This method makes use of the high affinity that activated carbon has for gold. gold is oxidised. Both the carbon and the acid are then treated so that they can be re-used. The first stage involves the absorption of gold in the cyanide solution to carbon. In the elution stage.3. In this step of the process. teresting Another method that is used to process gold is called the ’carbon-in-pulp’ (CIP) Interesting Fact Fact method.4 Characteristics and uses of gold Gold has a number of uses because of its varied and unique characteristics. Zinc dust is then added to the cyanide solution. gold is removed from the carbon into an alkaline cyanide solution. Below is a list of some of these characteristics that have made gold such a valuable metal: • Shiny Gold’s beautiful appearance has made it one of the favourite metals for use in jewelery. 402 . and there are three stages to the process.GRADE 11 Open cast mining at shallow gold seam Sloping gold seams Main underground shaft Tunnel from main shaft to access gold 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 21. The zinc takes the place of the gold.21. so that the gold is precipitated out of the solution. This process is shown in figure 21. electro-winning is used to remove gold from the solution through a process of electrolysis. In the final stage.5 Gold deposits 1 2 3 4 5 Gold seam close to surface CHAPTER 21. 21. In the process of gold cyanidation.5. Gold that has been removed is deposited on steel wool electrodes.

A sodium cyanide (NaCN) solution is mixed with the finely ground rock 4Au + 8N aCN + O2 + 2H2 O → 4N aAu(CN )2 + 4N aOH Gold is oxidised. • Heat ray reflector Because gold reflects heat very effectively. Activity :: Case Study : Dropping like a gold balloon Read the article below. In 2004.The gold-bearing solution can then be separated from the remaining solid ore through filtration STEP 4 . As recently as 1980. that figure was a dismal 14%.Zinc is added. it is very useful in fine wires and to produce sheets of gold.The ore is crushed until it is in fine pieces STEP 2 . The gold is precipitated from the solution. These include 403 .3: Flow diagram showing how gold is processed • Durable Gold does not tarnish or corrode easily. THE LITHOSPHERE . Chamber of Mines figures showed that SA’s annual gold production last year slipped to its lowest level since 1931. This is the reduction part of the reaction. computer circuits and telephone exchanges. laments Baxter. Zinc replaces the gold in the gold-cyanide solution. where a thin layer of gold is placed in the masks of the firefighters to protect them from the heat. it is used in space suits and in vehicles. Chamber economist Roger Baxter says the ’precipitous’ fall in production was caused by the dual impact of the fall in the rand gold price due to the strong rand. It is also used in the protective outer coating of artificial satellites. It is sometimes used in dentistry to make the crowns for teeth. South Africa accounted for over 70% of world gold production. Figure 21. are ’costs we do not have control over’.CHAPTER 21. • Good conductor Gold is a good conductor of electricity and is therefore used in transistors. STEP 3 .5 STEP 1 . • Malleable and ductile Since gold can be bent and twisted into shape. and the continued upward rise in costs.GRADE 11 21. and therefore does not deteriorate in quality. One of the more unusual applications of gold is its use in firefighting. which has been adapted from one that appeared in the Financial Mail on 15th April 2005 and then answer the questions that follow. Many of these costs. as well as being flattened into very thin sheets.

Find out what the current price of gold is. all mining has an environmental cost. 5. as well as humans that may rely on that water for drinking. The disposal of other toxic waste (e. 21. 1. and at current rand gold prices. which rose by 13% on average in 2004. Acid from gold processing can leach into nearby water systems such as rivers. are marginal or loss-making. What percentage did South Africa’s gold production contribute towards global production in: (a) 1980 (b) 2004 3. causing damage to animals and plants.GRADE 11 water. 4. Suggest what impact a decrease in gold production is likely to have on. rose above inflation in 2003 and 2004 At these costs. employing 90 000 people. Discuss why you think gold is so expensive. Briefly explain how the increased cost of resources such as water contributes towards declining profitability in gold mines. Outline two reasons for this drop in gold production. (a) South Africa’s economy (b) mine employees 7. about 10 mines.5 CHAPTER 21. He provides a breakdown of the cost components faced by mines: • Water prices have risen by 10% per year for the past 3 years • Steel prices have increased by double-digit rates for each of the past 3 years • Spoornet’s tariffs rose 35% in 2003 and 16.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining However. cyanide) can also have a devastating effect on biodiversity. transport. THE LITHOSPHERE . The following are just a few of the environmental impacts of gold mining: • Resource consumption • Poisoned water Gold mining needs large amounts of electricity and water. says Baxter. despite the incredible value of gold and its usefulness in a variety of applications.g. Refer to the table below showing SA’s gold production in tons between 1980 and 2004.5% in 2004 • Labour costs. 6. Suggest a reason why the cost of steel might affect gold production.5. steel and labour costs. 404 . 2.21. Year 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2004 Production (t) 675 660 600 525 425 340 Draw a line graph to illustrate these statistics. which make up 50% of production costs...

as well as harmful gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide which are released from the furnaces. contribute to air pollution. • What actions did RBM take to rehabilitate the dunes? • Was the project successful? • What were some of the challenges faced? Exercise: Gold mining Mapungubwe in the Limpopo Province is evidence of gold mining in South Africa as early as 1200. Plants for example. One rehabilitation project that has received a lot of publicity is the rehabilitation of dunes that were mined for titanium by Richards Bay Minerals (RBM). Today. where large amounts of soil and rock must be displaced in order to access the gold reserves. • Air pollution Dust from open pit mines.CHAPTER 21. 405 . Processing the gold ore also leaves solid waste behind. THE LITHOSPHERE . Any mine rehabilitation programme should aim to achieve the following: • ensure that the site is safe and stable • remove pollutants that are contaminating the site • restore waterways to what they were before mining • restore the biodiversity that was there before mining started There are different ways to achieve these goals.GRADE 11 • Solid waste 21. and can also help to stabilise the soil so that other vegetation can grow. As a group. If it is too difficult to restore the site to what it was before. Discussion: In groups of 3-4. Suggest some creative ideas that could be used to encourage mining companies to rehabilitate old sites. What are the main benefits of mine rehabilitation? 2. South Africa is a world leader in the technology of gold mining. The following flow diagram illustrates some of the most important steps in the recovery of gold from its ore.5 This applies particularly to open pit mines. discuss the following questions: 1. Activity :: Discussion : Mine rehabilitation There is a growing emphasis on the need to rehabilitate old mine sites that are no longer in use. 4. can be used to remove metals from polluted soils and water. carry out your own research to try to find out more about this project. What are some of the difficulties that may be experienced in trying to rehabilitate a mine site? 3. Land contouring can help to restore drainage in the area. • Threaten natural areas Mining activities often encroach on protected areas and threaten biodiversity in their operation areas. then a new type of land use might be decided for that area.

6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron Iron is one of the most abundant metals on Earth. To create pure iron.g. These include silica (Si). carbon monoxide is the main ingredient that is needed to strip oxygen from iron.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing One of the more common methods of mining for iron ore is open cast mining. The bonds between iron and oxygen are very strong. As mentioned earlier. Is gold oxidised or reduced during this process? 3. Name the chemical substance that is used in process B. Iron ore also contains other elements. which have to be removed in various ways. Open cast mining is used when the iron ore is found near the surface. These reactions take place in a blast furnace. Briefly explain the importance of this process taking place in the furnace. phosphorus (P). In fact. THE LITHOSPHERE . State at least one negative influence that the recovery of gold can have on water resources and how it will impact on humans and the environment. Definition: Smelting Smelting is a method used to extract a metal from its ore and then purify it. This is why carbon is used.e. and therefore it is important to use an element that will form stronger bonds with oxygen that the iron. 21. During process A.6 CHAPTER 21. During smelting (illustrated by C in the diagram).g. Smelting usually involves heating the ore and also adding a reducing agent (e. Iron is usually found in minerals such as magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) and hematite (Fe2 O3 ). a type of coal) and a flux (e. 21. 6. gold is extracted from the ore. A blast furnace is a huge steel container many metres high and lined with heat-resistant material. limestone) are fed into the top of the furnace and a blast of heated air is forced ◦ into the furnace from the bottom. iron is commonly found in the form of iron oxides. 4. A simple 406 . It is extracted from iron ore and is almost never found in its elemental form. and lower in the crust. the ore must be smelted to remove the oxygen. gold is sent into a calcining furnace.21.GRADE 11 Gold bearing ore A NaAu(CN)2 B Gold precipitate C Pure gold 1. Its concentration is highest in the core. In the furnace the solid raw materials. it needs to be crushed into fine particles before it can be processed further. carbon) so that the metal can be freed from its ore. Name the process indicated by A. Once the ore has been removed. Use oxidation numbers to explain your answer to the question above. The recovery of gold can have a negative impact on water in our country. 5. carbon (in the form of ’coke’. i. aluminium (Al) and sulfur (S). iron ore.6. 2. Temperatures in a blast furnace can reach 2000 C. if not managed properly. Iron ores are usually rich in iron oxide minerals and may vary in colour from dark grey to rusty red.

A common flux is limestone (CaCO3 ). CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3 In step 3. the hulls of large ships and in the 407 . phosphorus (makes steel brittle). This can then be separated and removed. In this case the slag is the CaSiO3 . whereas the silicon dioxide would not have.GRADE 11 21.CHAPTER 21. The calcium oxide then reacts with silicon dioxide (the impurity) to form a slag. 3F e2 O3 + CO → 2F e3 O4 + CO2 F e3 O4 + CO → 3F eO + CO2 F eO + CO → F e + CO2 STEP 3: Fluxing The flux is used to melt impurities in the ore. The equations for the reactions that take place are shown in the flow diagram below. Its combination of low cost and high strength make it very important in applications such as industry.2 Types of iron Iron is the most used of all the metals. iron oxide (haematite) coke waste gases limestone waste gases iron forms carbon monoxide forms carbon dioxide forms Step 2 carbon monoxide + iron oxide carbon dioxide + carbon carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + iron Step 1 carbon monoxide carbon dioxide air blast air blast molten slag molten iron Figure 21.6 diagram of a blast furnace is shown in figure 21.4. the calcium carbonate breaks down into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. automobiles.6. Common impurities are silica. STEP 1: Production of carbon monoxide C + O2 → CO2 CO2 + C → 2CO STEP 2: Reduction of iron oxides takes place in a number of stages to produce iron.4: A blast furnace. aluminium and sulfur (produces SO2 gases during smelting and interferes with the smellting process). The slag melts in the furnace. THE LITHOSPHERE . showing the reactions that take place to produce iron 21. and floats on the more dense iron.

• Some of the products that are manufactured in South Africa include reinforcing bars. The following incomplete word equations describe the extraction process: 408 . galvanisation and plastic coating. By varying the amounts of the alloy elements in the steel. the following characteristics can be altered: hardness. • About 40 million tons of iron ore is mined annually in South Africa. • Corrugated iron is actually sheets of galvanised steel that have been rolled to give them a corrugated pattern. It is the iron in the haemoglobin that helps to attract and hold oxygen so that this important gas can be transported around the body in the blood.2% carbon. It has mostly been replaced by mild steel for ’wrought iron’ gates and blacksmithing. It is tough. Mild steel does not have the same corrosion resistance as true wrought iron. THE LITHOSPHERE . One problem with iron and steel is that pure iron and most of its alloys rust. to where it is needed. 21. One important Interesting Fact Fact role that iron plays is that it is a component of the protein haemoglobin which is the protein in blood. cast iron and steel. but also containing a small amount of carbon. • South Africa is the largest steel producer in Africa.GRADE 11 structural components of buildings. Approximately 15 million tons are consumed locally. It has between 4% and 5% carbon and contains varying amounts of contaminants such as sulfur.6. silicon and phosphorus. • Steel is an alloy made mostly of iron. Pig iron is an intermediate step between iron ore. ductility and tensile strength. railway track material. and this is done through painting. teresting Iron is also a very important element in all living organisms.21. Corrugated iron is a common building material. Some of the different forms that iron can take include: • Pig iron is raw iron and is the direct product when iron ore and coke are smelted.6 CHAPTER 21. • Wrought iron is commercially pure iron and contains less than 0. • South Africa exports crude steel and finished steel products. elasticity.3 Iron in South Africa The primary steel industry is an important part of the South African economy and it generates a great deal of foreign exchange. Iron ore is mixed with limestone and coke in a blast furnace to produce the metal. but is cheaper and more widely available. plates and steel coils and sheets. These products therefore need to be protected from water and oxygen. malleable and ductile. Elements other than carbon can also be used to make alloy steels. These include manganese and tungsten. • South Africa is ranked about 20th in the world in terms of its crude steel production. Wrought iron does not rust quickly when it is used outdoors. and the remaining 25 million tons are exported. and a lot is also used locally. Exercise: Iron Iron is usually extracted from heamatite (iron(III)oxide). wire rod.

In South Africa. the phosphate mineral is calcium phosphate (Ca3 (PO4 )2 . In the equation below. Why is limestone added to the reaction mixture? 5. and phosphate therefore refers to a rock or ore that contains phosphate ions. and they are therefore an important component of fertilisers to stimulate plant growth. The ore is crushed into a powder and is then treated with sulfuric acid to form a superphosphate (Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ).7. and has to be quarried to access the ore.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates A phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid (H3 PO4 ). the main phosphate producer is at the Palaborwa alkaline igneous complex. You can see now what an important role scientists play in mineral exploration! 409 . the ore can be treated with concentrated phosphoric acid. while geochemists sample the soils at the earth’s surface to get an idea of what lies beneath them. Ca3 (P O4 )2 + 2H2 SO4 → Ca(H2 P O4 )2 + 2CaSO4 Alternatively. 4 21. THE LITHOSPHERE . 3.7 1. 2007) 21.CaF2 + 4H3 P O4 + 9H2 O → 9Ca(H2 P O4 )2 + CaF2 21. Name the gases X and Y. Phosphates are one of the three main nutrients needed by plants. teresting Exploring the lithosphere for minerals is not a random process! Geologists Interesting Fact Fact help to piece together a picture of what past environments might have been like. which is then used as a fertilizer. What is the function of gas Y in reaction C? 4. Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus. The chemical formula for the phosphate ion is PO3− . magnetics and the electrical properties of rocks to try to make similar predictions. Phosphorus is seldom found in its pure elemental form. in which case the reaction looks like this: 3Ca3 (P O4 )2 .1 Mining phosphates Phosphate is found in beds in sedimentary rock. so that predictions can be made about where minerals might have a high concentration.CHAPTER 21.7. A quarry is a type of open pit mine that is used to extract ore. Write a balanced chemical equation for reaction C.GRADE 11 A coke + oxygen → gasX B gasX + coke → gasY C iron(III)oxide + gasY → iron + gasX 21. Geophysicists measure gravity. Briefly describe the impact that the mining of iron has on the economy and the environment in our country. (DoE Exemplar Paper.2 Uses of phosphates Phosphates are mostly used in agriculture. which produces about 3 million tons of ore per year. 2. Grade 11.

21. who are in it for their own gain. Others are employees of failed ecotourism ventures. which has more species than the United Kingdom. is estimated at R1. The Australian mining company predicts that 570 direct jobs will be created. Many are suspicious of outsiders. Exploratory drilling revealed Xolobeni has the world’s 10th largest titanium deposit. who blame the mining company for their situation. Refer to the products in reactions A and B and write down TWO advantages of reaction B over reaction A. we will fight.4 billion. 2007) Activity :: Case Study : Controversy on the Wild Coast . ’The rest say if people bring those machines. The amount of money that will be spent over the mine’s 22 years. and then answer the questions that follow. Write down the names for each of these products in reactions A and B. Headman Mandoda Ndovela was shot dead after his outspoken criticism of the mining.Titanium mining Read the extract below. THE LITHOSPHERE . is an important raw material in the production of fertilisers. Despite similar molecular formulae. But at least two communities fiercely oppose the mining plans. worth about R11 billion. a youth living in one of the villages that will be affected by the mining. mined from open pit mines at Phalaborwa. The mining will take place in the Xolobeni dunes. Mzamo Dlamini. Some opponents are former miners who fear Gauteng’s mine dumps and compounds will be replicated on the Wild Coast. largely because the proposed mining areas form part of the Pondoland centre of endemism. State ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of phosphate mining. (DoE Exemplar Paper. south of Port Edward. the products Ca(H2 PO4 )2 formed in the two reactions have different common names. 2. which has been adapted from an article that appeared in the Mail and Guardian on 4th May 2007. The following two reactions are used to transform rock phosphate into water soluble phosphates: A: Ca10 (PO4 )6 F2 + 7X + 3H2 O → 3Ca(H2 PO4 )2 H2 O + 2HF + 7CaSO4 B: Ca10 (PO4 )6 F2 + 14Y + 10H2 O → 10Ca(H2 PO4 )2 H2 O + 2HF 1. some of which are endemic and facing extinction. 4. Intimidation of people who oppose the mining has also been alleged.GRADE 11 Exercise: Phosphates Rock phosphate [Ca10 (PO4 )6 F2 ]. 3. The villagers have also complained that some of the structures within the mining company are controlled by business leaders with political connections. Grade 11.7 CHAPTER 21. A potentially violent backlash looms in Pondoland over efforts by an Australian company to persuade villagers to back controversial plans to mine an environmentally sensitive strip of the Wild Coast. Why is rock phosphate unsuitable as fertiliser? 5. The application has outraged environmental groups.’ 410 . Identify the acids represented by X and Y. including a smelter. said 10% of the Amadiba ’who were promised riches by the mining company’ support mining.

Other areas in which coal is produced. Share your ideas with the rest of the class.8. it cannot simply be produced again.2 How coal is removed from the ground Coal can be removed from the crust in a number of different ways. they leave behind organic remains that accumulate and become compacted over millions of years under sedimentary rock. 5.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal The products of the lithosphere are also important in meeting our energy needs. Write down three questions that you would want the mining company to answer before you made a decision about whether to oppose the mining or not. What kinds of ’riches’ do you think the Amadiba people have been promised by the mining company? 3. Oil is also a fossil fuel and is formed in a similar way. In South Africa. When plants and animals decompose. and coal is formed.8 21.8. include the Free State. 411 . Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. which may play a role in global warming. Definition: Fossil Fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon that is formed from the fossilised remains of dead plants and animals that have been under conditions of intense heat and pressure for millions of years. In two columns. coal is particularly important because most of our electricity is generated using coal as a fuel. What would your main concerns be about the proposed mining project? Again share your answers with the rest of the class. open cast mining and underground mining. 21. Imagine that you are an environmentalist. THE LITHOSPHERE . South Africa is the world’s sixth largest coal producer. list the potential advantages and disadvantages of mining in this area. which is used to produce electricity. The most common methods used are strip mining.1 The formation of coal Coal is what is known as a fossil fuel. A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon that has been formed from organic material such as the remains of plants and animals. ESKOM.CHAPTER 21. is that it is a non-renewable resource. Explain what the following words means: (a) endemic (b) smelter (c) ecotourism 2. Imagine that you were one of the villagers in this area. the heat and pressure in these parts of the earth’s crust also increases. is the coal industry’s main customer. One of the problems with coal however. At present. 4. When coal is burned. Coal is one product that is used to produce energy.GRADE 11 1. Burning coal also produces large quantities of greenhouse gases. 21. the South African government’s electric power producer. a large amount of heat energy is released. 21. with Mpumalanga contributing about 83% of our total production. Over time. meaning that once all resources have been used up.

where some of the ground is left unmined so that it forms pillars to support the roof.8 1. A lot of steam is produced and this is used to spin turbines which then generate electricity. attempts are made to rehabilitate the area. it can also be used for other purposes. and there is a very real chance that the ground could collapse during the mining if it is not supported. there will be none left. This is very important in the chemical industry (refer to chapter 23). only a small percentage of coal is mined in this way. usually at a depth greater than 40 m. Electricity In order to generate electricity. but here the coal deposits are too deep to be reached using strip mining. 1. Of the coal that is produced. that it would be impossible for coal to re-form at a rate that would keep up with humankind’s current consumption.21. 21. Using another method called longwalling. the problem with underground mining is that it is very dangerous. All the other surfaces underground will be mined. 3.8. 21. and this leaves a huge pit in the ground. As with shaft mining for gold. Open cast mining Open cast mining is also a form of surface mining. It is therefore very important that South Africa. In fact. The only problem is that producing liquid fuels from coal. Gasification If coal is broken down and subjected to very high temperatures and pressures. solid coal must be crushed and then burned in a furnace with a boiler. releases much greater amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. is that it is a non-renewable resource which means that once all the coal deposits have been mined. the roof is allowed to collapse as the mined-out area moves along. and other countries that rely on coal. Strip mining CHAPTER 21. and this contributes further towards global warming. and also one of the top producers. THE LITHOSPHERE . One way to limit the danger is to use pillar support methods.3 The uses of coal Although in South Africa. South Africa is one of the leaders in this technology (refer to chapter 23). Coal takes such a long time to form. the coal industry is second only to the gold industry. In South Africa. South Africa is one of the world’s top coal exporters. and in many cases. and requires such specific environmental conditions. 2. most is used locally to produce electricity and the rest is used in industry and domestically. The overburden (overlying sediment) is removed so that the coal seams can be reached. 2. Underground mining Undergound mining is normally used when the coal seams are amuch deeper.8. The problem with coal however. One of the environmental impacts of open cast mining is that the overburden is dumped somewhere else away from the mine. These sediments are replaced once the mining is finished. 412 . 3. Liquid fuels Coal can also be changed into liquid fuels like petrol and diesel using the Fischer-Tropsch process. More than this.GRADE 11 Strip mining is a form of surface mining that is used when the coal reserves are very shallow. start to look for alternative energy resources. which is a mix of carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases. the main use of coal is to produce electricity. it forms a synthesis gas. rather than refining petroleum that has been drilled.4 Coal and the South African economy In South Africa.

The CSLF also aims to make these technologies as widely available as possible. the visual impact is particularly bad. and deeper coal contains the most methane. During strip mining and open cast mining. All coal contains methane. Acid can also leach into soils and alter its acidity. teresting It is easy to see how mining. sulfuric acid is formed.CHAPTER 21. Exercise: Coal in South Africa The following advertisement appeared in a local paper: 413 . although this is partly reduced by rehabilitation in some cases. contribute towards Global Warming.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining There are a number of environmental impacts associated with coal mining. methane is about twenty times more potent than carbon dioxide. As a greenhouse gas. The forum is an international climate change initiative that focuses on developing cost effective technologies to separate and capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere so that it can be stored in some way. Another gas that causes problems is methane. it can cause a lot of damage to the ecosystem. and many other activities including industry and veInteresting Fact Fact hicle transport. • Global warming As was discussed earlier. plants.8 21. animals). and destroys biodiversity (e. THE LITHOSPHERE . burning coal to generate electricity produces carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides which contribute towards global warming (refer to chapter 22). • Visual impact and landscape scars Coal mining leaves some very visible scars on the landscape. If this acid washes into nearby water systems. • Acid formation Waste products from coal mining have a high concentration of sulfur compounds. producing large amounts of sulfurous smoke which contributes towards atmospheric pollution. It was for this reason that South Africa joined the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF). This in turn affects what will be able to grow there.8.g. When these compounds are exposed to water and oxygen. • Spontaneous combustion and atmospheric pollution Coal that is left in mine dumps may spontaneously combust.GRADE 11 21.

21. If the pressure in the oil reservoir is high. the oil is forced 414 . Is coal actually a healthy source of energy? Motivate your answer by referring to all influences that coal and coal mining have on both humans and the environment.1 How oil is formed Oil is formed in a very similar way to coal. As the hydrocarbon chains in the mixture become longer. except that the organic material is laid down in oceans. then it is a gas called natural gas. with continuing heat and pressure. Grade 11. refer to chapter 9. THE LITHOSPHERE . Over time. For more information on hydrocarbons. Crude oil or petroleum.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil Oil is another product of the lithosphere which is very important in meeting our fuel needs. ”Coal is as old as the hills. Organisms such as zooplankton and algae settle to the ocean floor and become buried under layers of mud. 4. the organic material changes to a waxy material called kerogen. as these layers of sediment accumulate and the heat and pressure also increase. is actually a mixture of hydrocarbons (mostly alkanes) of different lengths. 3. Give a reason for your choice. Eventually. These hydrocarbons are lighter than rock and therefore move upwards through the rock layers before being trapped by an impermeable layer. Quote a statement from the advertisement that gives an indication that coal is non-renewable.2 Extracting oil When enough oil has accumulated in a well.9 CHAPTER 21. 2007) 21.9.9. and just as natural.21. Here the oil will slowly accumulate until there is enough that it can be accessed by oil rigs and other equipment. 21. Coal SOUTH AFRICA 1. Coal is made up of the longest hydrocarbons. If the mixture contains mostly short hydrocarbons. 2.” Is this statement TRUE? Motivate your answer by referring to how coal is formed. liquid and gas hydrocarbons are formed. it becomes economically viable to try to extract it either through drilling or pumping. the product becomes more and more solid. ranging from 5 carbons to 18 carbons in the hydrocarbon chain. Why is coal used as a primary energy source in South Africa? (DoE Exemplar Paper 2.GRADE 11 ENERGY STARTS WITH SOUTH AFRICAN COAL s tive es g ddi tiv o aeserva lourin N pr co 0 N o tifi c ia l r e 2 3 0 r a e fo N o e st b B Coal is as old as the hills and just as natural. It’s like juice from real fruit. Coal is a non-renewable energy source.

Many of these options are very controversial. to name just a few. as discussed in section 21. Uranium is 415 . steam cracking and hydrocracking. Burning oil as a fuel source produces carbon dioxide. and the actual drilling process.CHAPTER 21. 21. • Nuclear power Another element that is found in the crust. 21.8. then pumps must be used to extract it.3 Other oil products Oil can also be used to make a variety of different products. When the oil is very difficult to extract. diesel. If we are to maintain the quality and health of our planet. • Fractional distillation Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into the parts that make it up. which contributes towards global warming. many of the fuels that we use produce large amounts of greenhouse gases. When the nucleus of a uranium atom is split. In addition. • Cracking There are two types of cracking. many of our energy resources are non-renewable and will soon run out. which can contribute towards global warming. and which helps to meet our energy needs. plastics (ethylene) and other products that are needed to make fuel gas (propylene).10 Alternative energy resources As the world’s population increases.9. liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and tar. some is extracted from coal. In oil refineries. In this next section. gasoline. kerosine. fuel oil. is uranium. While most of South Africa’s oil is imported and then processed at a refinery in either Durban. Neutrons are aimed at the nucleii of the uranium atoms in order to split them. so does the demand for energy. and also meet our growing need for energy. can result in major pollution. THE LITHOSPHERE . we are going to take a closer look at some of these possible alternatives.GRADE 11 21.10 naturally to the surface. reduce its viscosity and make it easier to extract. and may have both pros and cons. Cape Town or Sasolburg. This is known as secondary recovery. steam injection into the reservoir can be used to heat the oil.9. You will find more information on this in chapter 23. which turns turbines to generate electricity. If the pressure is low. crude oil is separated into useful products such as asphalt.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use Some of the key environmental impacts associated with the extraction and use of oil are as follows: • Pollution Exploring the oceans for oil. • Ecosystem impacts • Global warming Dredging the ocean floors for oil can disrupt seabed ecosystems. Uranium produces energy through the process of nuclear fission (chapter ??). As we have already mentioned. This heat is used to produce steam. a large amount of energy is released as heat. we will need to investigate alternative energy resources. Cracking is used to change heavy hydrocarbons such as petroleum into lighter hydrocarbons such as fuels (LPG and gasoline). This is known as primary recovery of oil. 21.

Solar energy can however meet small energy needs such as the direct heating of homes. it has the potential to produce electricity. • Solar energy Solar energy is energy from the sun. 416 . There are alternative energy sources available. However. Ethanol can be produced through the fermentation of sugar-containing products such as sugar cane. for hydropower to be effective. were a dramatic wake-up call to the growing energy crisis that the country faces. and as a by-product in some copper mines. THE LITHOSPHERE .21. composed mostly of methane. In June 2002. Many people regard this type of nuclear power as relatively environmentally friendly because it doesn’t produce a lot of greenhouse gases. is the vast areas of land that are needed to cultivate the necessary crops. Mozambique has large sources of under-utilised natural gas and so an agreement was reached between SASOL and the South African and Mozambican governments to build the pipeline. There are also concerns around leaking of nuclear materials. Crops such as maize can also be used in the process. • Natural gas Natural gas is formed in a similar way to oil and is often located above oil deposits in the earth’s crust. and plans are underway to establish ethanol plants in some of the maize-producing provinces. Another way to look at the problem. As water falls from a height. • Geothermal energy This type of energy comes from the natural heat below the Earth’s surface. for example in Palaborwa. While this process is environmentally friendly. and nights). and many of them have their own problems.10 CHAPTER 21. and solar energy is a renewable resource. generating nuclear power does produce radioactive wastes. a company called ’Ethanol Africa’ has been set up by commercial farmers to convert their surplus maize into environmentally-friendly biofuel. ’Natural gas’ refers to a hydrocarbon gas. the energy is used to turn turbines which produce electricity. Activity :: Discussion : Using energy wisely The massive power cuts or ’load shedding’ that South Africans began to experience at the beginning of 2008. ethanol is currently being used as a substitute for crude petroleum. but they will take years to become functional. The building of a dam comes with its own set of problems such as the expense of construction. One of the problems with this however. If hot underground steam can be tapped and brought to the surface. It is also an economical and efficient energy source as the gas can easily be piped directly to a customer’s facility.GRADE 11 produced as a by-product of gold in some mines in the Witwatersrand. The benefits of natural gas include the fact that it is a clean-burning fossil fuel and few by-products are emitted as pollutants. construction began on a pipeline that would stretch for 865 km between Mozambique and South Africa. In South Africa. a large dam is needed to store water. the supply of radiation is not constant (think for example of cloudy days. which would transport natural gas from Mozambique to South Africa. • Hydropower Hydropower produces energy from the action of falling water. It is highly combustible and produces low emissions. The sun’s radiation is trapped in solar panels and is then converted into electricity.and disrupting a natural river course. is to put the focus on reducing how much energy is used rather than focusing only on ways to meet the growing demand. • Biofuels In many parts of the world. However. and the production of electricity is not efficient. which must be carefully disposed of in order to prevent contamination. as well as the social and environmental impacts of relocating people (if the area is populated).

• When iron ore is processed. One way to process the ore after it has been crushed is a method called gold cyanidation. • Gold is one of the most important metals in the history of South Africa. It was the discovery of gold that led to an influx of fortune-seeking foreigners. solid waste and the destruction of biodiversity in natural areas. • A mineral is formed through geological processes. THE LITHOSPHERE . • A rock is an aggregate of a number of different minerals. malleable. which include resource consumption. a blast furnace is used. durable. poisoned water. • Minerals have been used throughout history. (a) industries (b) domestic users (c) farmers 2. The iron ore. The metal is shiny. 417 . • Three methods are used to obtain gold from the lithosphere: panning. air pollution. Iron oxides are reduced by carbon monoxide to produce iron.GRADE 11 1. as well as products that are needed to produce energy. Zinc is then added to this solution so that the gold is precipitated out. As new metals and minerals were discovered. furniture and building materials. • Iron is usually found in minerals such as iron oxides. important growth took place in industry. • An ore is rock that contains minerals which make it valuable for mining. 21.CHAPTER 21. • Gold ore must be processed so that the metal can be removed. In your groups. open cast mining and shaft mining. but rather as minerals in rocks. agriculture and technology. Discuss creative incentives that could be used to encourage each of these groups to reduce their energy consumption. • Mine rehabilitation is one way of restoring old mine sites to what they were like before. • Gold has a number of important characteristics which make it a useful metal for jewelery and other applications. the gold-bearing mineral calaverite (AuTe2 ). These minerals must be processed to remove the metal. • Most of South Africa’s gold is concentrated in the ’Golden Arc’ in the area between Johannesburg and Welkom. A cyanide solution is added to the crushed ore so that a gold-cyanide solution is formed. outermost part of our planet and contains many important metal elements such as gold and iron. is a good conductor of electricity and is also a good heat reflector. It can either be a pure element (e. and a growth in mining villages and towns. carbon and a flux are added to the top of the furnace and hot air is blasted into the bottom of the furnace. A number of reactions occur in the furnace to finally remove the iron from its ore. • Gold mining has a number of environmental impacts.g.11 21. ductile. gold) or may consist of a number of different elements e. discuss ways that each of the following groups of people could save energy.g.11 Summary • The lithosphere is the solid. • These elements are seldom found in their pure form. • Iron is another important metal and is used in industry.

. These include nuclear power. • Phosphates are found in sedimentary rock.11 CHAPTER 21. South Africa has large amounts of water to use in mining (b) The complete list of reactants in an iron blast furnace is. gasoline and liquid petroleum gas. spontaneous combustion.21. THE LITHOSPHERE . • Some of the environmental impacts associated with coal mining include landscape scars. • Oil is also a fossil fuel but it forms in the oceans. steel. meaning that once they have been used up. acid formation and global warming. gold panning can be used as an additional method to extract gold ii.. A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon that has been formed from the fossilsed remains of plants and animals that have been under conditions of high heat and pressure over a long period of time. Give one word to describe each of the following phrases: (a) (b) (c) (d) earth’s crust together with the upper layer of the mantle a mineral containing silica and oxygen an alloy of iron and tin a manual technique used to sort gold from other sediments 2. open cast mining or underground mining. which is an important component in fertilisers. choose the one correct answer from the list provided. It can extracted using either pumping or drilling. Coal and oil can be extracted from the lithosphere for this purpose.GRADE 11 • Iron can occur in a number of forms. Coal can also be used to produce liquid fuels or a syngas which can be converted into other useful products for the chemical industry. South Africa’s geological history is such that its gold reserves are concentrated in large reefs iv. • Coal and oil are non-renewable resources. 418 . (a) One of the main reasons that South Africa’s gold industry has been so economically viable is that. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. biofuels. depending on its level of purity and carbon content. other alternative energy sources should be considered. It can also occur in an alloy e. All of these alternatives have their own advantages and disadvantages. depending on the pressure of the oil. • Phosphates react with phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid to produce a superphosphate (Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ). which must be quarried to access the ore. which can be used to generate electricity. • Cracking can be used to convert heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons. • Coal can be removed from the ground using strip mining. • Fractional distillation of oil can be used to make products such as diesel.. • The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use are similar to those for coal. open cast mining can be used to extract gold reserves iii.. no more can be produced. For each of the following questions. i.g. • The products of the lithosphere are also important in meeting energy needs. hydropower and a number of others. • Coal and oil are both fossil fuels. • In view of the number of environmental impacts associated with the extraction and use of coal and oil. • Coal is burned to produce energy.

everything is okay.too small for the eye to see. cyanide solution that seeps into the ground will not break down because of the absence of sunlight. It allows miners to obtain gold flakes .GRADE 11 i. If you don’t see corpses. On the other hand. Gold can also be extracted from the waste of old operations which sometimes leave as much as a third of the gold behind. but is more often stored in a pond behind a dam or even dumped directly into a local river. 2007) 419 . ii. The left-over cyanide can be re-used. carbon and oxygen coal. Mining companies insist that cyanide breaks down when exposed to sunlight and oxygen which render it harmless. THE LITHOSPHERE . gold miners have made use of cyanidation to recover gold from the ore. which means it does not pose a risk to anyone who eats the fish. iron ore and slag 21. iii. more poisons. iv. if the solution is alkaline the cyanide does not break down.CHAPTER 21. acid-base or redox? (c) Is the pH of the solution after cyanidation greater than. 3. oxygen. oxygen and iron ore coal. it could turn into cyanide gas.11 More profits. A teaspoonful of 2% solution of cyanide can kill a human adult. air. iron ore and limestone carbon. Over 99% of gold from ore can be extracted in this way. (a) What is cyanidation? (b) What type of chemical reaction takes place during this process: precipitation. In practice. If the cyanide solution is very acidic. There are no reported cases of human death from cyanide spills. (DoE Grade 11 Paper 2. They also point to scientific studies that show that cyanide swallowed by fish will not ’bio-accumulate’. less than or equal to 7? (d) How is solid gold recovered from this solution? (e) Refer to cyanidation and discuss the meaning of the heading of this extract: More profits. which is toxic to fish. more poisons In the last three decades.

THE LITHOSPHERE .GRADE 11 420 .21.11 CHAPTER 21.

but without these gases. The atmosphere provides the gases that animals and plants need for respiration (breathing) and photosynthesis (the production of food). water and sunlight to produce simple sugars. water vapour. In this chapter. methane. plants use carbon dioxide. carbon dioxide. Some scientists believe that the earliest atmosphere contained gases such as water vapour.9% of the atmosphere respectively. The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the earth. but it is also one of the only planets to have liquid water on its surface. oxygen is essential for life because it is the gas we need for respiration. which make up about 78. which helped to filter the sun’s harmful UV radiation so that plants were able to flourish 421 . contributes about 0. Many scientists also believe that the first stage in the evolution of life. Two important gases are nitrogen and oxygen. the building blocks of life. teresting Interesting Fact Fact The earth’s early atmosphere was very different from what it is today.1 The composition of the atmosphere Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of gases. helium and ozone make up the remaining 0. our earth has an atmosphere that has just the right composition to allow life to exist. and a number of other gases such as carbon dioxide. A third gas. We will discuss the importance of some of the other gases later in this chapter. When the earth formed around 4. Argon. 22. Oxygen is also released in the process.1%.9%. nitrogen and sulfur which were released from inside the planet as a result of volcanic activity. At a later stage.Chapter 22 The Atmosphere . During photosynthesis. these primitive forms of plant life began to release small amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere as a product of photosynthesis. around 4 billion years ago. it helps to keep temperatures on earth constant and also protects us from the sun’s harmful radiation. 6CO2 + 6H2 O + sunlight → C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 This build-up of oxygen in the atmosphere eventually led to the formation of the ozone layer.5 billion years ago. there was probably no atmosphere. we are going to take a closer look at the chemistry of the earth’s atmosphere and at some of the human activities that threaten the delicate balance that exists in this part of our planet. In addition. life on earth would definitely not be possible.1% and 20.Grade 11 Our earth is truly an amazing planet! Not only is it exactly the right distance from the sun to have temperatures that will support life. In an earlier chapter. Similarly. needed an oxygen-free environment. we discussed the importance of nitrogen as a component of proteins. We may not always be aware of them.

g. The heating of the atmosphere will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. This is because the density of gases becomes less as you move higher in the atmosphere. it will get colder. wet or dry. The troposphere is the most turbulent part of the atmosphere and is the part where our weather takes place. this force weakens slightly and so the gas particles become more spread out.9% argon. Weather is the state of the air at a particular place and time e.GRADE 11 in different environments. 22.038% carbon dioxide.9% oxygen. and it is the part in which we live.1 The troposphere The troposphere is the lowest level in the atmosphere. The stratosphere extends from altitudes of 10 to 50km. so did the production of oxygen. Generally. 20. 22. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.2. places that are closer to the Earth’s surface will be warmer than those at higher altitudes. and which are held there by the Earth’s gravity. trace amounts of other gases. You will have noticed this if you have climbed a mountain. In other words. you will have noticed that it becomes very difficult to breathe. where most long distance aircraft fly.2 The stratosphere Above the troposphere is another layer called the stratosphere. As plants became more widespread and photosythesis increased. If you have ever been in an aeroplane and have looked out the window once you are well into the flight. if it is warm or cold. meaning turning or mixing. as you climb higher. and how cloudy or windy it is. The atmosphere contains roughly 78. THE ATMOSPHERE . 0.22. The troposphere varies in thickness. but there are fewer oxygen molecules in the same amount of air that you are able to breathe. and extends from the ground to a height of about 7km at the poles and about 18km at the equator. In effect.1). In other words. the gases in the atmosphere haven’t changed. If you have ever had to climb to a very high altitude (altitude means the ’height’ in the atmosphere). The increase in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere would have allowed more forms of life to exist. An important characteristic of the troposphere is that its temperature decreases with an increase in altitude. This is because the troposphere is heated from the ’bottom up’. This mixture of gases is commonly known as air. jet aircraft fly just above the troposphere to avoid all this turbulence.2.1% nitrogen. each with its own particular characteristics (figure 22. the average temperature is often lower where the altitude is higher. The word troposphere comes from the Greek tropos. you will have noticed 422 . It is gravity that holds the atmosphere close to the earth. As you move higher. or if you have moved from a city at a high altitude to one which is lower. 0. Definition: Earth’s atmosphere The Earth’s atmosphere is a layer of gases that surround the planet.2 The structure of the atmosphere The earth’s atmosphere is divided into different layers. and many climbers suffer from ’altitude sickness’ before they reach their destination.2 CHAPTER 22. 22. and a variable amount of water vapour. when you are at a high altitude.

The upper layers of the stratosphere are also warmer because of the presence of the ozone layer. The two reactions are shown below: O2 → O + O O + O2 → O3 The change from one type of molecule to another produces energy. As we have already mentioned. Each individual atom is then able to combine with an oxygen molecule to form ozone. This is because the stratosphere absorbs solar radiation directly. Ozone (O3 ) is formed when solar radiation splits an oxygen molecule (O2 ) into two atoms of oxygen. An important function of the ozone layer is to absorb UV radiation and reduce the amount of harmful radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface.CHAPTER 22.1: A generalised diagram showing the structure of the atmosphere to a height of 110 km that you are actually flying above the level of the clouds.GRADE 11 22. Extension: CFCs and the ozone layer 423 . THE ATMOSPHERE . clouds and weather occur in the troposphere. meaning that the upper layers closer to the sun will be warmer. and this contributes to higher temperatures in the upper part of the stratosphere. whereas the stratosphere has very stable atmospheric conditions and very little turbulence. It is easy to understand why aircraft choose to fly here! The stratosphere is different from the troposphere because its temperature increases as altitude increases.2 120 110 100 90 80 70 Mesosphere Height (km) 60 50 40 Stratosphere 30 20 10 0 -100 Troposphere Thermosphere -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 Temperature (◦ C) -10 0 10 20 Figure 22.

ClO + O → Cl + O2 4. human activities have once again disrupted the chemistry of the atmosphere.GRADE 11 You may have heard people talking about ’the hole in the ozone layer’. the recombination process occurs more often here because the gas molecules and ions are closer together. which consists of negative free electrons and positive ions. In this part of the atmosphere. When CFC’s react with UV radiation. The ’ozone hole’ is actually a thinning of the ozone layer approximately above Antarctica. This leads to a high concentration of iron and other metal atoms.2. CF Cl3 + U V → CF Cl2 + Cl 2. fridges and airconditioners. The chlorine monoxide then reacts with a free oxygen atom (UV radiation breaks O2 down into single oxygen atoms) to form oxygen gas and a single chlorine atom. What do they mean by this and do we need to be worried about it? Most of the earth’s ozone is found in the stratosphere and this limits the amount of UV radiation that reaches the earth. THE ATMOSPHERE . they break down ozone molecules so that the ozone is no longer able to protect us as much from UV rays. One possible consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in the incidence of skin cancer because there is more UV radiation reaching earth’s surface. a carbon-chlorine bond in the chlorofluorocarbon breaks and a new compound is formed. it is the CFC’s that cause the substance to be sprayed outwards. and combine again with them if they are in close enough contact. when they are released into the atmosphere. The single chlorine atom reacts with ozone to form a molecule of chlorine monoxide and oxygen gas. photons from the solar radiation are able to dislodge electrons from neutral atoms and molecules during a collision. The bad side of CFC’s is that. At these radiation frequencies. Temperatures in the upper mesosphere can fall as low as -100◦C in some areas. Within this layer.2.22. However. an opposing process called recombination also begins. The 424 . ultraviolet (UV) and shorter X-Ray radiation from the sun cause neutral gas atoms to be ionised.2 CHAPTER 22. and scientists are trying to find ways to restore ozone levels in the atmosphere. Cl + O3 → ClO + O2 3. In aerosol cans. 22.3 The mesosphere The mesosphere is located about 50-80/85km above Earth’s surface. Millions of meteors burn up daily in the mesosphere because of collisions with the gas particles that are present in this layer. In the process. This part of the atmosphere is called the ionosphere. Some of the free electrons are drawn to the positive ions. temperature decreases with increasing altitude. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are compounds found in aerosol cans. ozone is destroyed. A single CFC molecule can destroy 100 000 ozone molecules. Let’s take a closer look at the chemical reactions that are involved in breaking down ozone: 1. The chlorine atom is then free to attack more ozone molecules. with a chlorine atom. CFC replacements are now being used to reduce emissions. and the process continues. 22. A plasma is formed.4 The thermosphere The thermosphere exists at altitudes above 80 km. Since the gas density increases at lower altitudes. At the same time that ionisation takes place however.

ultraviolet and x-rays. Overall. Exercise: The composition of the atmosphere 1. which can be observed from space.GRADE 11 22. Extension: The ionosphere and radio waves The ionosphere is of practical importance because it allows radio waves to be transmitted. and emissions from molecular nitrogen are purple. when they collide with atoms. For example. Shortly afterwards. electrons) with atoms in the earth’s upper atmosphere. and may then be reflected back into the ionosphere for a second bounce. THE ATMOSPHERE . Atmospheric Height (km) Gas composition General characlayer teristics Troposphere 0-18 Turbulent. A radio wave is a type of electromagnetic radiation that humans use to transmit information without wires. The beam returns to the Earth’s surface. the atoms also become energised. emissions from atomic nitrogen are blue. Often these emissions are from oxygen atoms. The oscillating electron will then either recombine with a positive ion. the ionosphere is used to reflect the transmitted radio beam. a dark red glow (wavelength 630 nm). the atoms emit the energy they have gained. at lower energy levels or higher altitudes. Auroras are caused by the collision of charged particles (e.CHAPTER 22. Complete the following summary table by providing the missing information for each layer in the atmosphere. Many other colours can also be observed. Use your knowledge of the atmosphere to explain the following statements: 425 . or will re-radiate the original wave energy back downward again. have a higher temperature than the lower layers where recombination takes place. Some of the radio wave energy is given up to this mechanical oscillation.2 ionisation process produces energy which means that the upper parts of the thermosphere. temperature in the thermosphere increases with an increase in altitude.g. and also infra-red. teresting Interesting Fact Fact The ionosphere is also home to the auroras. resulting in a greenish glow (wavelength 557. as light. Auroras emit visible light (as described above). which are dominated by ionisation. When using high-frequency bands. Charged particles are energised and so. When a radio wave reaches the ionosphere. the electric field in the wave forces the electrons in the ionosphere into oscillation at the same frequency as the radio wave. part of atmosphere where weather occurs Ozone reduces harmful radiation reaching Earth Mesosphere High concentration of metal atoms more than 80 km 2.7 nm) and.

and it passes easily through the atmosphere towards the earth’s surface.GRADE 11 (a) Athletes who live in coastal areas need to acclimatise if they are competing at high altitudes. and this has led to a lot of concern about the impact that this could have in increasing global temperatures. • Methane (CH4 ) Methane is emitted when coal. But the situation is a little more complex than this.2.1 Greenhouse gases and global warming The heating of the atmosphere As we mentioned earlier. At the surface. • Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil. natural gas and oil are produced and transported. Methane emissions can also come from livestock and other agricultural practices and from the decay of organic waste. the distance of the earth from the sun is not the only reason that temperatures on earth are within a range that is suitable to support life.g. The composition of the atmosphere is also critically important.g. could have a big effect on temperature. even a small increase in their concentration as a result of human emissions. most of the sun’s energy would be lost and the Earth would be a lot colder than it is! A simplified diagram of the heating of the atmosphere is shown in figure 22. A large amount of the sun’s energy is re-radiated from the surface back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation. some of the energy is absorbed. The earth receives electromagnetic energy from the sun in the visible spectrum. THE ATMOSPHERE .2 The greenhouse gases and global warming Many of the greenhouse gases occur naturally in small quantities in the atmosphere. and also as a result of other chemical reactions (e. conduction and advection) that maintain temperatures at exactly the right level to support life. trees and wood products. combined with surface heating and other processes (e. the manufacture of cement). which is invisible. 22. Most of the radiation is shortwave radiation. Carbon dioxide can also be removed from the atmosphere when it is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. It is this ’re-emission’ of heat by greenhouse gases. with some being reflected before reaching the surface. they help to warm the lower layers of the atmosphere even further.22. 22.3 22. There are also small amounts of infrared and ultraviolet radiation in this incoming solar energy. These gases are very important because they re-emit the energy back towards the surface. turbulence generally decreases above a certain altitude.3. But before we go on. water vapour and methane. 426 . solid waste. (b) Higher incidences of skin cancer have been recorded in areas where the ozone layer in the atmosphere is thin. and coal). However. (c) During a flight. Without the presence of greenhouse gases. human activities have greatly increased their concentration. Because the natural concentrations of these gases are low.3 CHAPTER 22. natural gas. and this heats up the earth’s surface. let’s look at where some of these human gas emissions come from.3. This phenomenon is known as global warming. By doing this. As this radiation passes through the atmosphere. some of it is absorbed by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.

hydrofluorocarbons. These are very powerful greenhouse gases. their demands on resources (e. is 4700 m thick.2: The heating of the Earth’s atmosphere • Nitrous oxide (N2 O) Nitrous oxide is emitted by agriculture and industry. and in slowing down global warming. So how. One way in which scientists are able to understand what is happening at present.g.3 sun Outgoing long-wave infrared radiation Incoming short-wave solar radiation atmosphere infrared radiation is absorbed and re-emitted by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere earth’s surface Figure 22.Taking a look at earth’s past climate Global warming is a very controversial issue.CHAPTER 22. perfluorocarbons. THE ATMOSPHERE . Over thousands of years. and are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases (’High GWP gases’).g. and at its deepest location. This is partly why Antarctica is also on average one of the highest continents! On average. energy) increase. Antarctica is the coldest continent on earth. and so does their production of greenhouse gases.g. in other words they are man-made. others argue that the climatic changes we are seeing are part of a natural pattern. • Fluorinated gases (e. ice has accumulated in layers and has become more and more compacted as new ice is added. and when fossil fuels and solid waste are burned. Extension: Ice core drilling . you may be asking. and sulfur hexafluoride) Overpopulation is a major problem in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. do we know what the earth’s past climate was like? One method that is used is ice core drilling. 427 . They are emitted from a variety of industrial processes.GRADE 11 22. is to understand the earth’s past atmosphere. As populations grow. CFC’s). While many people are convinced that the increase in average global temperatures is directly related to the increase in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. the ice sheet that covers Antarctica is 2500 m thick. These gases are all synthetic. and because of this there is very little melting that takes place. Fluorinated gases are sometimes used in the place of other ozone-depleting substances (e. and the factors that affected its temperature.

is like taking a journey back in time. The ice and impurities hold information about the Earth’s environment and climate at the time that the ice was deposited. Top layers are the most recently deposited Increasing age Bottom layers are the oldest One of the most well known ice cores was the one drilled at a Russian station called Vostok in central Antarctica. THE ATMOSPHERE . scientists can start to piece together a picture of what the earth’s climate must have been like. 428 .22. ’ppm’ means ’parts per million’ and is a unit of measurement for gas concentrations. The deeper into the ice you venture. this means that atmospheric temperatures at that time were 9◦ C lower than what they are today.3 CHAPTER 22. it traps different chemicals and impurities which are dissolved in the ice. if the local temperature change 160 000 years ago was -9◦ C. The values in the table below were extrapolated from data obtained by scientists studying the Vostok ice core. By analysing the gases and oxygen isotopes that are present (along with many other techniques) in the ice at various points in the earth’s history. data has been gathered for dates as far back as 160 000 years! Activity :: Case Study : Looking at past climatic trends Make sure that you have read the ’Information box’ on ice core drilling before you try this activity.GRADE 11 As the snow is deposited on top of the ice sheet each year. ’Local temperature change’ means by how much the temperature at that time was different from what it is today. For example. Drilling an ice core from the surface down. the older the layer of ice. So far.

”Climate change now represents at least as great a threat to the number of species surviving on Earth as habitatdestruction and modification. The researchers worked independently in six biodiversity-rich regions around the world. Do these graphs prove that temperature changes are determined by the concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? Explain your answer.3. 5. according to a recent study. What other factors might you need to consider when analysing climatic trends? Local temperature change (◦ C) -9 -10 -10 -3 +1 -4 -8 -5 -6 -8 -9 -7 -8 -7 -9 -2 -0.GRADE 11 Years before present (x 1000) 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 (1850) Present Questions 1.CHAPTER 22. 2. rising temperatures exacerbated by human-induced belches of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases could send more than a million of Earth’s land-dwelling plants and animals down the road to extinction. THE ATMOSPHERE . What do you notice? 3. Compare the graphs that you have drawn. By 2050 Warming to Doom Million Species.” said Chris Thomas. draw graphs to show how temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations have changed over the last 160 000 years. a conservation biologist at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom. read the following extracts and then answer the questions that follow.3 The consequences of global warming Activity :: Group Discussion : The impacts of global warming In groups of 3-4. Is there a relationship between temperature and the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide? 4. from Australia to South Africa. Study Says By 2050. and should be given negative values.5 Carbon dioxide (ppm) 190 205 240 280 278 240 225 230 220 250 190 220 180 225 200 260 280 371 22.3 22. On the same set of axes. plugging field data on species distribution and regional climate into computer models that simulated the 429 . Hint: ’Years before present’ will go on the x-axis.

panels and research bodies have been working to gather accurate and relevant information so that a true picture of our current situation can be painted. National Geographic News. 3 March 2006 Discussion questions 1. 3. You may also have heard of the Kyoto Protocol. What effect do you think a 50% drop in river water level in some parts of Africa would have on the people living in these countries? 7. One important orgaisation that you may have heard of is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). THE ATMOSPHERE . Hardest hit would be areas in northwestern and southern Africa. Discuss some of the other likely impacts of global warming that we can expect (e. the predicted range of climate change by 2050 will place 15 to 35 percent of the 1 103 species studied at risk of extinction. the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The IPCC was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations. In parts of northern Africa.22. Why do you think a loss of biodiversity is of such concern to conservationists? 4. sea level rise. On average.” de Wit said. A number of organisations.3 CHAPTER 22. Explain why global warming is likely to cause a loss of biodiversity. According to the researchers’ collective results. Cape Town would be left with just 42% of its river water. river water levels would drop below 50%. A decrease in water availability could occur across about 25 percent of the continent. the lifeblood for rural populations in Africa. which will be discussed a little later. To predict future rainfall. changes in ocean currents). to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans. 22. What is meant by ’biodiversity’ ? 2. the scientists compared 21 of what they consider to be the best climate change models developed by research teams around the world. and ”Botswana would completely dry up. Explain why you chose these species. 12 July 2004 Global Warming May Dry Up Africa’s Rivers. Study Suggests Many climate scientists already predict that less rain will fall annually in parts of Africa within 50 years due to global warming.g.GRADE 11 ways species’ ranges are expected to move in response to temperature and climate changes. animals and plants rely on river water? 6.4 Taking action to combat global warming Global warming is a major concern at present. National Geographic News. the models forecast a 10 to 20% drop in rainfall in northwestern and southern Africa by 2070. melting of polar ice caps. 430 . With a 20% decrease. with some of the most serious effects striking large areas of Botswana and South Africa. Now new research suggests that even a small decrease in rainfall on the continent could cause a drastic reduction in river water.3. according to the new study. Suggest some plant or animal species in South Africa that you think might be particularly vulnerable to extinction if temperatures were to rise significantly. In what way do people. Less river water would have serious implications not just for people but for the many animal species whose habitats rely on regular water supplies. 5.

• The gases that make up the atmosphere are nitrogen. 431 . regulating temperature and protecting Earth from harmful radiation. These gases are important in sustaining life.68 295 588 21426 1995 5292 288 372 555 233 3. highlight those countries that are ’developed’ and those that are ’developing’.4 In your group.45 298 439 19412 1990 5013 222 368 598 207 2. The Kyoto Protocol was signed in Kyoto. carbon dioxide and others e. methane. However.GRADE 11 Activity :: Group Discussion : World carbon dioxide emissions The data in the table below shows carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels (in million metric tons of carbon dioxide). USA) were not prepared to sign the protocol.4 Summary • The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds Earth.16 378 1000 23851 2004 5912 336 405 579 365 3. These guidelines set targets for the world’s major producers to reduce their emissions within a certain time. How does South Africa compare to the other developing countries. water vapour. and also to the developed countries? Carbon dioxide emissions are a major problem worldwide.26 234 299 18333 1985 4585 187 394 588 179 1. some of the worst contributors to greenhouse gas emissions (e. You may ask questions of the other people. Each person in the group must adopt one of the following roles during the discussion: • the owner of a large industry • an environmental scientist • an economist • a politician 1980 4754 186 487 608 175 1. Japan in December 1997. Using a coloured pen. you are going to discuss some of the economic and environmental implications for a country that decides to sign the Kyoto Protocol.g. • a chairperson for the discussion 22. Explain why CO2 emissions are so much higher in developed countries than in developing countries. Panel discussion Form groups with 5 people in each.CHAPTER 22. or challenge their ideas. Its main objective was to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by encouraging countries to become signatories to the guidelines that had been laid out in the protocol. • There are four layer in the atmosphere. 2.44 344 867 22033 2000 5815 345 399 551 288 4. oxygen.g. THE ATMOSPHERE .83 429 1112 27043 22. Each person will have the opportunity to express the view of the character they have adopted. partly because of the potential effect this would have on the country’s economy. provided that you ask permission from the chairperson first. which relies on industry and other ’high emission’ activities. Region or Country United States Brazil France UK Saudi Arabia Botswana South Africa India World Total Questions 1. each with their own characteristics. 3.

rising sea levels and a loss of biodiversity. Incoming radiation has a short wavelength and some is absorbed directly by the Earth’s surface. a large amount of energy is re-radiated as longwave infrared radiation. 432 . Interventions are needed to reduce this phenomenon. to name a few. temperature decreases with an increase in altitude. • Human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. THE ATMOSPHERE . • Some of the impacts of global warming include changing climate patterns. which occurs mostly in the upper thermosphere. • The auroras are bright coloured skies that occur when charged particles collide with atoms in the upper atmosphere. the bottom layers of the atmsophere are kept much warmer than they would be if all the infrared radiation was lost. However.22. • The depletion of the ozone layer is largely because of CFC’s.GRADE 11 • The troposphere is the lowest layer and here. water vapour and methane absorb infrared radiation and re-emit it back towards the Earth’s surface. and the direct heating from the sun. The force of gravity holds the atmosphere against the earth. which break down ozone through a series of chemical reactions. • The next layer is the stratosphere where temperature increases with an increase in altitude because of the presence of ozone in this layer. • The thermosphere is also known as the ionosphere. • The Earth is heated by radiation from the sun. neutral atoms are ionised by UV and X-ray radiation from the sun. • Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. • The mesosphere is characterised by very cold temperatures and meteor collisions. Depending on the type of atom. energy is released as light at different wavelengths.4 CHAPTER 22. Temperature increases with an increase in altitude because of the energy that is released during this ionisation process. The troposphere is where weather occurs. increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and may contribute towards global warming. The mesosphere contains high concentrations of metal atoms. In this way. • In the thermosphere. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. The atmosphere is a relatively thin layer of gases which support life and provide protection to living organisms. and is the part of the atmosphere where radio waves can be transmitted. The diagram below shows the temperatures associated with the various layers that make up the atmosphere and the altitude (height) from the earth’s surface.

(e) Suggest ONE way in which YOU can help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Without natural greenhouse gases. Global warming is a global challenge and calls for a global response now. the rising sea level and increasing average temperatures are global concerns. (d) In layer B. Plants need carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to manufacture food. the increase in levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution is of great concern. Planet Earth in Danger It is now accepted that greenhouse gases are to blame for planet earth getting warmer. such as carbon dioxide. 2. heat up the earth’s surface? (b) Draw a Lewis structure for the carbon dioxide molecule (c) The chemical bonds within the carbon dioxide molecule are polar. B and D of the atmosphere. Write down an explanation for this trend. (b) In which one of the layers of the atmosphere is ozone found? (c) Give an explanation for the decrease in temperature as altitude increases in layer A.4 120 110 100 90 80 70 Height (km) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 Temperature (◦ C) 0 10 20 E D C B A (a) Write down the names of the layers A. The increase in the number of sudden floods in Asia and droughts in Africa. Give a reason for your answer. which will create millions of climate refugees.GRADE 11 22. Greater disasters are to come. However.like carbon dioxide and water vapour. However. Support this statement by performing a calculation using the table of electronegativities. (a) State the possible consequence of having too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. not later. 3.life on earth is not possible. THE ATMOSPHERE . 433 . It is our duty to take action for the sake of future generations who will pay dearly for the wait-and-see attitude of the current generation. Jacques Chirac) (a) How do greenhouse gases. (d) Classify the carbon dioxide molecule as polar or non-polar. (Adapted from a speech by the French President. the engines of motor vehicles cause too much carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere.CHAPTER 22. Urgent action to reduce waste is needed. there is a steady increase in temperature as the altitude increases.

4 CHAPTER 22. 2007) 434 .GRADE 11 (b) Explain two possible effects on humans if the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere becomes too low. THE ATMOSPHERE . (DoE Exemplar Paper Grade 11.22.

Chapter 23 The Chemical Industry . 23. Unfortunately. As a result. glass. and many of the main chemical companies in South Africa developed to meet this need for explosives. there was a greater demand for fertilisers to help produce enough food to feed all the people in cities and rural areas. This was the start of the chemical industry. Sasol was established in 1950. had very little natural gas. Mines needed explosives so that they could reach the diamonds and gold-bearing rock. and after many negotiations. Sasol began producing oil from coal in 1955. In South Africa. textiles and soaps. the key event that led to the growth of the chemical industry was the discovery of diamonds and gold in the late 1800’s. the government-sponsored ’South African Coal. and this is where Sasol has played a very important role. Sasol. is large supplies of coal. it was not until the time of the Industrial Revolution that the chemical industry as we know it today began to develop. One thing South Africa does have however. In this chapter.1 Introduction The chemical industry has been around for a very long time. and will also explore the chloralkali and fertiliser industries. With this came an increase in the need for things like paper. A ’feedstock’ is something that is used to make another product. but not always in the way we think of it today! Dyes. Oil and Gas Corporation Ltd’ 435 . with its main aim being to convert low grade coal into petroleum (crude oil) products and other chemical feedstocks. After a long time. the human population began to grow very quickly and more and more people moved into the cities to live. In the early Interesting Fact Fact 1930’s a research engineer called Etienne Rousseau was employed to see whether oil could be made from coal using a new German technology called the FischerTropsch process. until recently. Much of South Africa’s chemical industry has developed because of the need to produce oil and gas from coal. However. Rousseau was given the rights to operate a plant using this new process. perfumes. teresting The first interest in coal chemistry started as early as the 1920’s. Chemists and engineers responded to these growing needs by using their technology to produce a variety of new chemicals. medicines and soaps are all examples of products that have been made from chemicals that are found in either plants or animals.Grade 12 23. we are going to take a closer look at one of South Africa’s major chemical companies. South Africa has no large oil reserves and. On the farms. At the time of the Industrial Revolution.2 Sasol Oil and natural gas are important fuel resources.

The coal is put under extremely high pressure and temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide react under high pressure and temperature and in the presence of an iron catalyst. Coal to liquid fuels Sasol is involved in mining coal and converting it into synthetic fuels. using the FischerTropsch technology.23.1 Sasol today: Technology and production Today. The gas that is produced has a high concentration of hydrogen (H2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). Ammonia. A manufacturing plant was established in the Free State and the town of Sasolburg developed around this plant.GRADE 12 (commonly called ’Sasol’) was formed in 1950 to begin making oil from coal. Low grade coal has a low percentage carbon. Production began in 1955. 23. That is why it is called a ’synthesis gas’.2. because it is a mixture of more than one gas. to produce a range of hydrocarbon products. It is enough just to see that the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (the two gases in the synthesis gas) produces a hydrocarbon and water. secondly the production of crude oil and thirdly the conversion of natural gas to liquid fuel. and contains other impurities.1 is a simplified diagram of the process that is involved. Below is the generalised equation for the process. Sasol has three main areas of operation: Firstly. In the Sasol Advanced Synthol (SAS) reactors. In 1969. the Natref crude oil refinery was established. and by 1980 and 1982 Sasol Two and Sasol Three had been built at Secunda. 1. Crude synthesis gas Gas purification SAS reactor C1 to C20 hydrocarbons Figure 23. and involves converting low grade coal to a synthesis gas. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . coal to liquid fuels technology. sulfur and phenolics are also recovered. Don’t worry too much about the numbers that you see in front of the reactants and products. the gas undergoes a high temperature Fischer-Tropsch conversion.2 CHAPTER 23. Figure 23. 436 . Sasol is an oil and gas company with diverse chemical interests. Coal mining Coal gasification (Sasol/Lurgi process) Condensates from the gas are cooled to produce tars. oils and pitches.1: The gasification of coal to produce liquid fuels Coal gasification is also known as the Sasol/Lurgi gasification process.

GRADE 12 (2n + 1)H2 + nCO → Cn H2n+2 + nH2 O 23. and is used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. Petrol is used as a fuel in combustion engines. ranging from C5 H12 to C18 H38 . LPG and petrol) through the breaking of C-C bonds. This is a technical name for the alkanes. Natural gas has the same origin as petroleum. Natural gas Paraffin wax Petrol (gasoline) Diesel Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Paraffin Jet fuel You will notice in the diagram that Sasol doesn’t only produce liquid fuels. A type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet engined aircraft. It is a mixture of hydrocarbons. but is made up of shorter hydrocarbon chains. Diesel is also derived from petroleum. Sometimes it is the synthetic fuels themselves that are used as feedstocks to produce these chemical products. Some LPG mixtures contain mostly propane. alcohols and acetic acids. It produces chemical products such as ethane. isoparaffins.CHAPTER 23. butane. This is made up of longer hydrocarbon chains. while others are mostly butane. but refers specifically to the linear alkanes. and a light hydrocarbon has fewer hydrogen and carbon atoms and is either a liquid or a gas. corrosion inhibitors and icing inhibitors. or is extracted from natural gas supplies in the ground. propane. LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases. A liquid fuel that is derived from petroleum. The table below summarises some of the fuels that will be mentioned in this chapter. jet fuel. ethylene. diesel. LPG. 437 .9 in chapter 21). mostly alkanes. jet fuel and diesel. Definition: Hydrocracking Hydrocracking is a cracking process that is assisted by the presence of an elevated partial pressure of hydrogen gas. including petrol. but which contains extra additives to increase the octane rating of the fuel. A heavy hydrocarbon is one that has a high number of hydrogen and carbon atoms (more solid). THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . but also a variety of other chemical products.g. Isoparaffin refers to non-linear alkanes. It is an oil-based fuel and contains additives such as antioxidants. Important: Different types of fuels It is important to understand the difference between types of fuels and the terminology that is used for them.2 A range of hydrocarbons are produced. making it a solid compound. polypropylene. but is used in diesel engines. Compound Petroleum (crude oil) Description A naturally occurring liquid that forms in the earth’s lithosphere (see section 21. This is done through processes such as hydrocracking and steamcracking. LPG is manufactured when crude oil is refined. Cracking is when heavy hydrocarbons are converted to simpler light hydrocarbons (e.

paraffins and diesel.2: Crude oil is refined at Sasol’s Natref refinery to produce liquid fuels 3. Sasol also sells liquid fuels through a number of service stations.3). THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . or fractions. a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon is diluted with steam and then briefly heated in a furnace at a temperature of about 8500 C. During the process.23. Ethylene is a chemical that is needed to make plastics.3: Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels In the autothermal reactor. This is a similar process to that involved in coal gasification.g. fractional distillation can be used to separate it into these different parts. Figure 23. Mozambique natural gas Autothermal reactor Sasol Slurry Phase F-T reactor Linear-chained hydrocarbons e. Definition: Fractional distillation Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts. methane from natural gas reacts with steam and oxygen over an iron-based catalyst to produce a synthesis gas. Since air is made up of a number of gases (with the major component being nitrogen). The gas undergoes a complex process to produce linear-chained hydrocarbons such as waxes and paraffins (figure 23. waxes and paraffins Figure 23. waxes. the gas is reacted at far lower temperatures than in the SAS reactors.GRADE 12 Definition: Steam cracking Steam cracking occurs under very high temperatures. Production of crude oil Sasol obtains crude oil off the coast of Gabon (a country in West Africa) and refines this at the Natref refinery (figure 23. In this process. Liquid fuels from natural gas Sasol produces natural gas in Mozambique and is expanding its ’gas to fuel’ technology. Steam cracking is used to convert ethane to ethylene. The syngas is then passes through a Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate (SSPD) process. which is an important fuel gas. Steam cracking is also used to make propylene.g. The oxygen is produced through the fractional distillation of air.2). Imported crude oil Oil processed at Natref refinery Linear-chained hydrocarbons e. 2.2 CHAPTER 23. Apart 438 .

and use these to answer the following questions: 1. Ammonia is also produced. summarise the similarities and differences between coal. liquid or gas. 3. Sasol has been supplying natural gas from Mozambique’s Temane field to customers in South Africa since 2004. teresting Sasol is a major player in the emerging Southern African natural gas industry. (c) Explain why Sasol’s ’coal to liquid fuels’ technology is so important in meeting South Africa’s fuel needs. Coal and oil play an important role in Sasol’s technology.GRADE 12 23. which can be used to make fertilisers. high quality diesel can also be produced in this process. describe how coal is converted into liquid fuels. can be produced. Explain what is meant by each of the following terms: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) crude oil hydrocarbon coal gasification synthetic fuel chemical feedstock 2. oil and natural gas in terms of how they are formed (’origin’). (a) In the table below. liquid or gas (b) In your own words. (d) Low grade coal is used to produce liquid fuels. (a) What is diesel? (b) Describe two ways in which diesel can be produced.2 billion US dollars to develop onshore gas fields in central Mozambique. Coal Oil Natural gas Origin General chemical formula Solid. Describe one way in which lighter chemical products such as ethylene. 4.CHAPTER 23. their general chemical formula and whether they are solid. Residual gas from the SSPD process is sold as pipeline gas while some of the lighter hydrocarbons are treated to produce kerosene and paraffin. Exercise: Sasol processes Refer to the diagrams summarising the three main Sasol processes. What is the main use of higher grade coal in South Africa? 439 .2 from hard wax and candle wax. Interesting Fact Fact after investing 1. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY .

In groups. and these products are exported to over 70 countries worldwide. to benchmark the petrochemical giant’s occupational health and safety performance against international best practice. The evidence led at the inquiry showed a failure on the part of the company to conduct a proper risk assessment and that: Sasol failed to identify hazards associated with a high-pressure gas pipeline running through the plant. the petrochemicals group. mark the line or take precautions. in the presence of hundreds of people and numerous machines. the US safety consultancy. Because Sasol had failed to identify the risk. which had been shut for extensive maintenance work. there are always environmental costs associated with industry. and then discuss the questions that follow. and welding and cutting machines. the hazard of the high-pressure pipeline had never been identified. What information would you need to know in order to do this assessment? 3. who did not want to be named. discuss the importance of each of the following in ensuring the safety of workers in the chemical industry: • employing experienced Safety. Apart from the vast quantities of resources that are needed in order for the industry to operate. What other precautions would you add to this list to make sure that working conditions are safe? 23. fitters. despite these obvious benefits. Today. Sasol has grown to become a major contributor towards the South African economy. Imagine that you have been asked to conduct a risk assessment of the Sasol/Lurgi gasification process. Because there had never been a risk assessment. In total. The specialist. Read the following extract that appeared in the Business report on 6th February 2006. a Cape Town labour law specialist said on Friday. the production process itself produces waste products and pollutants. and meets more than 40% of South Africa’s liquid fuel requirements.Sasol. more than 200 fuel and chemical products are manufactured at Sasolburg and Secunda. and contributes around R40 billion to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).2 CHAPTER 23.GRADE 12 Activity :: Case Study : Safety issues and risk assessments Safety issues are important to consider when dealing with industrial processes. contractors.2 Sasol and the environment From its humble beginnings in 1950. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . 1. It was convened by the labour department. was speaking after the inquiry into the explosion was concluded last Tuesday. Sasol embarked on a comprehensive programme to improve safety at its operations and appointed Du Pont Safety Resources. it did not take any measures to warn people about it. including cranes. Health and Environment personnel • regular training to identify hazards • equipment maintenance and routine checks 4. There had also been inadequacy in planning the shutdown work.2. The industry has also helped to provide about 170 000 jobs in South Africa.23. Explain what is meant by a ’risk assessment’. This huge success is largely due to Sasol’s ability to diversify its product base. 2. In the face of a barrage of criticism for the series of explosions that year. 440 . the industry produces more than 150 000 barrels of fuels and petrochemicals per day. was likely to face prosecution on 10 charges of culpable homicide after an explosion at its Secunda plant in 2004 in which 10 people died. However. Cape Town .

In the same way. Water use (1000m3 ) River water Potable water Total 2002 113 722 15 126 157 617 2003 124 179 10 552 178 439 2004 131 309 10 176 173 319 2005 124 301 10 753 163 203 1. they must achieve this with as little environmental impact as possible. some of the major resources that are needed are energy to drive many of the processes. Explain what is meant by each of the following terms: (a) greenhouse gas (b) global warming 4. over-use of resources and acid rain. These reactions in the atmosphere may cause acid rain. Explain what is meant by ’potable’ water. Refer to the data table below which shows Sasol’s water use between 2002 and 2005 (Sasol Sustainable Development Report 2005 ). 3.2 Exercise: Consumption of resources Any industry will always use up huge amounts of resources in order to function effectively. In order for an industry to operate. Describe some of the possible effects of global warming. This is a huge challenge. either as a coolant or as part of a process and land for mining or operations. and answer the questions that follow. Suggest possible reasons for this trend. 5.CHAPTER 23. 6. and then answer the questions that follow. which shows greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollution data for Sasol between 2002 and 2005. Industries are in a difficult position: On one hand they must meet the ever increasing demands of society.GRADE 12 23. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . nitrogen dioxide and water vapour react to form nitric acid. Many industries are major contributors towards environmental problems such as global warming. water. 3. Describe the trend in Sasol’s water use that you see in the above statistics. (Source: Sasol Sustainable Development Report 2005 ) Greenhouse gases and air pollutants (kilotonnes) Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) Nitrogen oxides (N Ox ) Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) 2002 57 476 118 168 283 2003 62 873 105 173 239 2004 66 838 102 178 261 2005 60 925 89 166 222 1. 2. Outline some of the possible consequences of acid rain. List some of the environmental impacts of using large amounts of river water for industry. Suggest ways in which these impacts could be reduced Exercise: Industry and the environment Large amounts of gases and pollutants are released during production. Describe what you see in the graphs. 4. and the chemical industry is no exception. Draw line graphs to show how the quantity of each pollutant produced has changed between 2002 and 2005. 441 . 5. environmental pollution. it may react with water vapour to produce weak sulfuric acid. Refer to the table below. and when the fuels themselves are used. 2. and on the other. and suggest a reason for this trend. When sulfur dioxide is present in the atmosphere.

3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide Chlorine and sodium hydroxide can be produced through a number of different reactions.23. Many chemical products such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride also contain chlorine. who will present your ideas to the class. antiseptics. the chlorine combines with the sodium hydroxide to form chlorate (ClO− ) and chloride (Cl− ) ions. This produces sodium chlorate. 23. • Elect a spokesperson for each group. 442 . and is used as a disinfectant. It is also used in the manufacture of many every-day items such as hypochlorous acid. One branch of Sasol. food. which include making soap and other cleaning agents. The products of this industry have a number of important uses. Chlorine is used to purify water.3 CHAPTER 23. paints. and many other consumer products. plastics (such as polyvinyl chloride or PVC). petroleum products. The main raw material is brine which is a saturated solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) that is obtained from natural salt deposits. and to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide. and produces chlorine and sodium hydroxide through the electrolysis of salt (NaCl). Sasol Technology also has a bio-diesel research and development programme focused on developing more environmentally friendly forms of diesel. making paper and making rayon (artificial silk). To overcome this problem the chlorine and sodium hydroxide must be separated from each other so that they don’t react. one of the problems is that when chlorine and sodium hydroxide are produced together.GRADE 12 • Work in groups of 3-4 to discuss ways in which industries could be encouraged (or in some cases forced) to reduce their environmental impact. From Interesting Fact Fact 1st January 2006. However.3 The Chloralkali Industry The chlorine-alkali (chloralkali) industry is an important part of the chemical industry. • Are the ideas suggested by each group practical? • How easy or difficult do you think it would be to implement these ideas in South Africa? teresting Sasol is very aware of its responsibility towards creating cleaner fuels. a component of household bleach. 23. Sasol has complied with this. textiles. NaClO. the South African government enforced a law to prevent lead from being added to petrol. All three methods involve electrolytic cells (chapter 17). There are three industrial processes that have been designed to overcome this problem. solvents. One way to do this is to use renewable resources such as soybeans to make diesel. which is used to kill bacteria in drinking water. Chlorine is also used in paper production. Sodium hydroxide (also known as ’caustic soda’) has a number of uses. medicines. Sasol is busy investigating this new technology. purifying bauxite (the ore of aluminium). THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . insecticides.

The mercury reacts with the brine to form mercury(II) chloride. forming an amalgam of sodium and mercury. An electrolytic cell is activated by applying an external electrical current. Two new products are formed. and forces a chemical reaction to take place in the electrolyte.CHAPTER 23. and although it is returned to the electrolytic cell. 2Na(Hg) + 2H2 O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) Cl2 Main vessel NaCl Secondary vessel mercury cathode (-) sodium mercury amalgam H2 NaCl Carbon anode (+) NaOH mercury returned to the electrolytic cell H2 O Figure 23. The sodium reacts with water in the vessel and produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and hydrogen gas. This creates an electrical potential across the cathode and anode. Mercury flows along the floor of this chamber and acts as the cathode. the brine is treated before it is discharged so that the environmental impact is lower. one product at the cathode and one at the anode. only produces a fraction of the chlorine and sodium hydroxide that is used by industry as it has certain disadvantages: mercury is expensive and toxic. The Mercury Cell In the mercury-cell (figure 23. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY .4).GRADE 12 Important: Electrolytic cells 23. In the past this effluent was released into lakes and rivers. 443 .3 Electrolytic cells are used to split up or loosen ions. sodium ions are reduced to sodium. Cations flow towards the cathode and are reduced. while the mercury returns to the electrolytic cell to be used again. Today. however.4: The Mercury Cell This method. where it decomposes into sodium and mercury. When an electric current is applied to the circuit. causing mercury to accumulate in fish and other animals feeding on the fish. 1. some always escapes with the brine that has been used. The amalgam is then poured into a separate vessel. 2Na+ + 2e− → 2Na(Hg) (aq) The sodium dissolves in the mercury. brine passes through a chamber which has a carbon electrode (the anode) suspended from the top. 2Cl− → Cl2(g) + 2e− (aq) At the cathode. chloride ions in the electrolyte are oxidised to form chlorine gas. They are made up of an electrolyte and two electrodes. Anions flow to the anode and are oxidised. the cathode and the anode.

which contains pure water. hydrogen ions in the water are reduced to hydrogen gas. as large quantities of asbestos had to be disposed. Brine is pumped into the anode compartment. When an electric current passes through the brine. but the sodium hydroxide is not as easily concentrated and precipitated into a useful substance. This has nothing to do with the size of the pores. the salt’s chlorine ions and sodium ions move to the electrodes. The Diaphragm Cell CHAPTER 23. teresting To separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide. The structure of the membrane is such that it allows cations to pass through it between compartments of the cell.5). At the cathode. into an anode compartment and a cathode compartment.3 2. Today.6) is very similar to the diaphragm cell. 3. rather than by a diaphragm.5: Diaphragm Cell This method uses less energy than the mercury cell. Chlorine gas is produced at the anode. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . which needed to be replaced every two months. the asbestos is being replaced by other polymers which do not need to be replaced as often. 444 . the two half-cells were Interesting Fact Fact traditionally separated by a porous asbestos diaphragm. This was damaging to the environment. Some salt remains in the solution with the caustic soda and can be removed at a later stage. and the same reactions occur.GRADE 12 In the diaphragm-cell (figure 23. and only the positively charged sodium ions pass into the cathode compartment. The Membrane Cell The membrane cell (figure 23. The main difference is that the two electrodes are separated by an ion-selective membrane. 2Cl− → Cl2(g) + 2e− At the negatively charged cathode. forming caustic soda and hydrogen gas. Cl− ions from the brine are oxidised to Cl2 gas. It does not allow anions to pass through. The brine is introduced into the anode compartment and flows through the diaphragm into the cathode compartment. sodium ions react with water. + Cl2 – H2 NaCl anode cathode porous diaphragm Figure 23. a porous diaphragm divides the electrolytic cell. but rather with the charge on the ions. which contains brine. At the positively charged anode.23.

Refer to the flow diagram below which shows the reactions that take place in the membrane cell. The overall equation is as follows: 2NaCl + 2H2 0 → Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH The advantage of using this method is that the sodium hydroxide that is produced is very pure because it is kept separate from the sodium chloride solution. The process also uses less electricity and is cheaper to operate. The chloride ions cannot pass through. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . The caustic soda therefore has very little salt contamination. so the chlorine does not come into contact with the sodium hydroxide in the cathode compartment.GRADE 12 + Cl2 – H2 23.CHAPTER 23. Exercise: The Chloralkali industry 1. 445 . and then answer the questions that follow.3 NaCl anode NaOH cathode NaCl H2 O membrane Figure 23.6: Membrane Cell 2H+ + 2e− → H2(g) (aq) The N a+ ions flow through the membrane to the cathode compartment and react with the remaining hydroxide (OH − ) ions from the water to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The sodium hydroxide is removed from the cell.

this surface tension must be reduced so that the water can spread. This means that it tends to bead up on surfaces and this slows down the wetting process and makes cleaning difficult. Summarise what you have learnt about the three types of cells in the chloralkali industry by completing the table below: Mercury cell Main raw material Mechanism of separating Cl2 and NaOH Anode reaction Cathode reaction Purity of NaOH produced Energy consumption Environmental impact Diaphragm cell Membrane cell 23. Chemicals that are able to do this 446 . (c) Explain one feature of this cell that allows the Na+ and OH− ions to react at (c). 2. You will remember from an earlier chapter.GRADE 12 ANODE NaCl is added to this compartment CATHODE (a) (b) Cl− ions H+ ions are reduced to H2 gas Na+ ions in solution OH− ions in solution (c) Na+ and OH− ions react to form NaOH (a) What liquid is present in the cathode compartment at (a)? (b) Identify the gas that is produced at (b).2 Soaps and Detergents Another important part of the chloralkali industry is the production of soaps and detergents. When cleaning.3 CHAPTER 23. (d) Give a balanced equation for the reaction that takes place at (c). The drop holds its shape and does not spread. that water has the property of surface tension. You can observe this property of surface tension when a drop of water falls onto a table surface.3. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY .23.

the glycerol is separated from the hydrocarbon chain in the fat. Definition: Surfactant A surfactant is a wetting agent that lowers the surface tension of a liquid. Soap is an example of one of these surfactants. attached to three fatty acids (figure 23. a number of important biological macromolecules were discussed. However. sunflower oil) and fats are found in animals.GRADE 12 23. meaning that it is attracted to water. Let’s imagine that we have added soap to water in order to clean a dirty rugby jersey. meaning that it is repelled by water. The carboxylic acid is hydrophilic. We will go on to look at these in more detail.g. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY .7). Fatty acids consist of two parts: a carboxylic acid group and a hydrocarbon chain. Oils are found in plants (e. Soaps In chapter 10. allowing it to spread more easily. Soaps are the water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. Each fatty acid is made up of a carboxylic acid attached to a long hydrocarbon chain. teresting Soaps can be made from either fats or oils. The hydrocarbon chain will attach itself to the soil particles in the 447 . composed of an alcohol and three fatty acids To make soap.CHAPTER 23.7: The structure of a fat. proteins and nucleic acids. 1. oils and other dirt.8). During this reaction. olive oil. glycerol H H C O O C O C O C fatty acids (CH2 )14 CH3 H C O (CH2 )14 CH3 H C H O (CH2 )14 CH3 Figure 23. including carbohydrates. and is replaced by either potassium or sodium ions (figure 23. it is attracted to grease. and vegetable oils such as palm oil are also commonly used. disperse and hold particles in suspension. Fats are also biological macromolecules. Surfactants also loosen. but is a liquid rather than a solid. sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) must be added to a fat or an oil.3 are called surfactants. The hydrocarbon chain is hydrophobic. A fat is made up of an alcohol called glycerol. An oil has the same structure as a fat. Detergents contain one or more surfactants. Beef fat is a common source of Interesting Fact Fact fat. all of which are an important part of the cleaning process.

THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . 2.GRADE 12 H H C O O C O C O C (CH2 )14 CH3 + 3NaOH H H C OH Na+ − O O C O C O C (CH2 )14 CH3 H C O (CH2 )14 CH3 H C OH + Na+ − O (CH2 )14 CH3 H C H O (CH2 )14 CH3 H C H glycerol OH Na+ − O (CH2 )14 CH3 sodium salts of fatty acids Figure 23. In a washing machine or with vigourous handwashing. • Oxidants for bleaching and disinfection. Depending on the type of cleaning that is needed. Detergents are also cleaning products.3 CHAPTER 23.8: Sodium hydroxide reacts with a fat to produce glycerol and sodium salts of the fatty acids jersey. Definition: Soap Soap is a surfactant that is used with water for washing and cleaning. detergents may contain one or more of the following: • Abrasives to scour a surface. but are composed of one or more surfactants. Detergents Definition: Detergent Detergents are compounds or mixtures of compounds that are used to assist cleaning. Exercise: The choralkali industry 448 . while the carboxylic acid will be attracted to the water. fats or carbohydrates in stains. • Enzymes to digest proteins. The term is often used to distinguish between soap and other chemical surfactants for cleaning. the soil is pulled free of the jersey and is suspended in the water. In this way.23. These are called biological detergents. this suspension can be rinsed off with clean water. Soap is made by reacting a fat with either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

The substance responsible for this process is the weak acid. 2003) 449 . (g) The OCl− ion undergoes hydrolysis .GRADE 12 3. (d) What ion passes through the membrane while these reactions are taking place? Chlorine is used to purify drinking water and swimming pool water. (b) Give the chemical equation for the reaction that produces chlorine in step 2. NaOH is produced 1. Chlorine is produced industrially by the electrolysis of brine. (e) One way of putting HOCl into a pool is to bubble chlorine gas through the water. Give an equation showing how bubbling Cl2 (g) through water produces HOCl. (c) Give the equation for the reaction that takes place at the cathode.3 1. 2. Raw material into main reaction vessel 2. (f) A common way of treating pool water is by adding ’granular chlorine’. Ca(OCl)2 . Granular chlorine consists of the salt calcium hypochlorite. hypochlorous acid (HOCl). H2 gas released 4. Indicate the phase of each substance in the equation. (c) What other product is formed in step 2. (IEB Paper 2. as shown by the following equation: OCl− + H2 O ⇔ HOCl + OH− Will the addition of granular chlorine to pure water make the water acidic. Cl2 + NaCl anode NaCl – H 2 NaOH cathode H2 O membrane (a) What ions are present in the electrolyte in the left hand compartment of the cell? (b) Give the equation for the reaction that takes place at the anode. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . basic or will it remain neutral? Briefly explain your answer.Chlorine is produced 5. Na-Hg amalgam breaks into Na and Hg in second reaction vessel 23. (a) Name the ’raw material’ in step 1. Approximately 30 million tonnes of chlorine are used throughout the world annually. Give an equation showing how this salt dissolves in water. (d) Name the reactants in step 4. The diagram above shows the sequence of steps that take place in the mercury cell.CHAPTER 23. The diagram represents a membrane cell used in the production of Cl2 gas.

4. obtaining nutrients starts with plants. Think for example of the human diet. Examples of micronutrients in plants include iron.GRADE 12 23. chlorine. The same is true for animals. oxygen (O).2 summarises the functions of some of the macronutrients in animals. hydrogen (H). while phosphorus is absorbed as phosphates. lipids and proteins Hydrogen Water from the soil Component of organic molecules Oxygen Water from the soil Component of organic molecules Nitrogen Nitrogen compounds Part of plant proteins and in the soil chlorophyll. is absorbed as nitrates. It is important therefore that plants are always able to access the nutrients that they need so that they will grow and provide food for other forms of life. and their function.4 23. Table 23. part of chlorophyll and reduces diseases in plants Animals need similar nutrients in order to survive. So most of the nutrients that animals need are obtained either directly or indirectly from plants. Nitrogen for example. while a micronutrient is one that only needs to be present in small amounts for a plant or an animal to function properly. which are able either to photosynthesise or to absorb the required nutrients from the soil. We can’t make our own food and so we either need to eat vegetables. Also boosts plant growth. Phosphorus Phosphates in the soil Needed for photosynthesis. fruits and seeds (all of which are direct plant products) or the meat of other animals which would have fed on plants during their life. An essential nutrient is any chemical element that is needed for a plant to be able to grow from a seed and complete its life cycle.2 The Role of fertilisers Plants are only able to absorb soil nutrients in a particular form. Nutrients then. nitrogen (N). Table 23. Importantly.1: The source and function of the macronutrients in plants Nutrient Source Function Carbon Carbon dioxide in the Component of organic air molecules such as carbohydrates. is summarised in table 23. copper and zinc.1 The Fertiliser Industry The value of nutrients Nutrients are very important for life to exist. the blood pigment that is responsible for transporting oxygen to all the cells in the body. Iron for example. the macronutrients include carbon (C). However since animals can’t photosynthesise. The nitrogen cycle (chapter 450 . A macronutrient is one that is required in large quantities by the plant or animal. The source of each of these nutrients for plants. 23. Micronutrients also play an important function in animals. phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). is found in haemoglobin. In plants.4 CHAPTER 23. Definition: Nutrient A nutrient is a substance that is used in an organism’s metabolism or physiology and which must be taken in from the environment.23.1. blooming and root growth Potassium Soil Building proteins. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . are essential for the survival of life.4. they rely on plants to supply them with the nutrients they need.

you may need to use a fertiliser with a slightly different ratio. there is more and more strain on the land to produce food. Fertilisers also provide other nutrients such as calcium. and they give the percentage of nitrogen. manure and fishmeal). you might choose a fertiliser with a greater amount of phosphorus.CHAPTER 23. 18-24-6.g. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . Depending on the types of plants you are growing.3: Common grades of some fertiliser materials Description Grade (NPK %) Ammonium nitrate 34-0-0 Urea 46-0-0 Bone Meal 4-21-1 Seaweed 1-1-5 Starter fertilisers 18-24-6 Equal NPK fertilisers 12-12-12 High N. low P and medium K fertilisers 25-5-15 23. and the way in which you would like them to grow. Others are inorganic and can be made industrially. fertilisers play a very important role in restoring soil nutrients so that crop yields stay high. phosphorus and potassium in that fertiliser. If you want to encourage root growth in your plant for example. compost. Compost for example is often made up of things like vegetable peels and other organic remains that have been thrown away.2: The functions of animal macronutrients Nutrient Function Carbon Component of organic compounds Hydrogen Component of organic compounds Oxygen Component of organic compounds Nitrogen Component of nucleic acids and proteins Phosphorus Component of nucleic acids and phospholipids Potassium Helps in coordination and regulating the water balance in the body 23. Table 23. As populations grow and the demand for food increases. Definition: Fertiliser A fertiliser is a compound that is given to a plant to promote growth.g. These numbers are called the NPK ratio.GRADE 12 Table 23. phosphorus and potassium there are in different types of fertilisers. Fertilisers usually provide the three major plant nutrients and most are applied via the soil so that the nutrients are absorbed by plants through their roots. However. sulfur and magnesium. The advantage of these commercial fertilisers is that the nutrients are in a form that can be absorbed immediately by the plant. which means that they started off as part of something living. cultivation practices don’t give the soil enough time to recover and to replace the nutrients that have been lost. Look at the table below. you will see three numbers on the back of the packet e.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers The industrial production of fertilisers may involve several processes. which gives an idea of the amounts of nitrogen. Today.4.4 19) describes the process that is involved in converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants. When you buy fertilisers from the shop. all these natural processes of maintaining soil nutrients take a long time. 451 . Some of these fertilisers are organic (e. Often.

Before this. One of the advantages for Germany was that. Fritz Haber and Karl Bosch (The process is sometimes also referred to as the ’Haber-Bosch process’). Hydrogen can be produced through steam reforming.4 1. Each of these steps will be examined in more detail. which is then reacted with oxygen to produce nitric acid. By the 20th century. and found these to be high temperature and high pressure. they did not need to rely on other countries for the chemicals that they needed to make them. a number of methods had been developed to ’fix’ atmospheric nitrogen. (a) HABER PROCESS The production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen (b) OSTWALD PROCESS Production of nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen (c) NITROPHOSPHATE PROCESS Acidification of phosphate rock with nitric acid to produce phosphoric acid and calcium nitrate Figure 23. Nitric acid is used to acidify phosphate rock to produce nitrogen fertilisers.23. Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture (remember that air is a mixture of different gases) into its component parts through various methods. before the start Interesting Fact Fact of World War 1. During World War 1. other sources of nitrogen for fertilisers had included saltpeter (N aN O3 ) from Chile and guano. 452 . bats and seals. having perfected the Haber process.GRADE 12 Making nitrogen fertilisers involves producing ammonia. One of these was the Haber process. They also experimented with different catalysts to see which worked best in that reaction. Guano is the droppings of seabirds. The equation for the Haber process is: N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g) (The reaction takes place in the presence of an iron (Fe) catalyst under conditions of 200 atmospheres (atm) and 450-500 degrees Celsius) teresting The Haber process developed in the early 20th century. Nitrogen fertilisers CHAPTER 23. the ammonia that was produced through the Haber process was used to make explosives. The flow diagram below illustrates the processes that are involved. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY .9: Flow diagram showing steps in the production of nitrogen fertilisers (a) The Haber Process The Haber process involves the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. and it advanced through the work of two German men. They worked out what the best conditions were in order to get a high yield of ammonia. In this process. Nitrogen is produced through the fractional distillation of air. a hydrocarbon such as methane reacts with water to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen according to the following equation: CH4 + H2 O → CO + 3H2 Nitrogen and hydrogen are then used in the Haber process.

Sulfuric acid is then used in a reaction that produces phosphoric acid. a compound fertiliser is produced. 2NH3 + CO2 → H2 N − COONH4 ii. 2SO2 + O2 (g) → 2SO3 (g) 453 . Initially nitric oxide is oxidised again to yield nitrogen dioxide: 2NO(g) + O2 (g) → 2NO2 (g) This gas is then absorbed by the water to produce nitric acid. Nitric acid can then be used in reactions that produce fertilisers. 3NO2 (g) + H2 O(l) → 2HNO3 (aq) + NO(g) (c) The Nitrophosphate Process The nitrophosphate process involves acidifying phosphate rock with nitric acid to produce a mixture of phosphoric acid and calcium nitrate: Ca3 (PO4 )2 + 6HNO3 + 12H2 O → 2H3 PO4 + 3Ca(NO3 )2 + 12H2 O When calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid react with ammonia. H2 N − COONH4 → (NH2 )2 CO + H2 O • Other common fertilisers are ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate. 2NH3 + H2 SO4 → (NH4 )2 SO4 2. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . Two reactions are involved in producing urea: i. This step is strongly exothermic. and the acid is concentrated to the required strength. Phosphoric acid can then be reacted with phosphate rock to produce triple superphosphates. 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2 O(g) Stage two. (d) Other nitrogen fertilisers • Urea ((NH2 )2 CO) is a nitrogen-containing chemical product which is produced on a large scale worldwide. Phosphate fertilisers The production of phosphate fertilisers also involves a number of processes. the result will be NPK fertiliser. is carried out in the presence of water.4 (b) The Ostwald Process The Ostwald process is used to produce nitric acid from ammonia. S(s) + O2 (g) → SO2 (g) This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide using oxygen in the presence of a vanadium(V) oxide catalyst. Nitric oxide is also a product of this reaction. First. Ammonium nitrate is formed by reacting ammonia with nitric acid. (a) The production of sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid is produced from sulfur. NH3 + HNO3 → NH4 NO3 Ammonium sulphate is formed by reacting ammonia with sulphuric acid. sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide. The first is the production of sulfuric acid through the contact process.CHAPTER 23. making it a useful heat source. oxygen and water through the contact process. it is oxidised by heating with oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst to form nitric oxide and water. In the first step.4%) and is produced by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide.GRADE 12 23. Ca(NO3 )2 + 4H3 PO4 + 8NH3 → CaHPO4 + 2NH4 NO3 + 8(NH4 )2HPO4 If potassium chloride or potassium sulphate is added. Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in two stages. The nitric oxide (NO) is recycled. which combines two reaction steps. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogeneous fertilisers in common use (46.

and if the oxygen content of the water decreases too much. However. Health-related problems can also occur if eutrophic conditions interfere with the treatment of drinking water. Definition: Eutrophication Eutrophication refers to an increase in chemical nutrients in an ecosystem. plant growth is rapid.23. In some cases. it can also be accelerated by certain human activities.g.4 CHAPTER 23. and estuaries making recreational activities less enjoyable. normally by compounds that contain nitrogen or phosphorus. Human society is impacted as well because eutrophication can decrease the resource value of rivers. and sewage are two of the major causes of eutrophication. In this example. an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2 CO3 ). the plants that flourish during eutrophication can be toxic and may accumulate in the food chain. Other potassium salts (e. favoring certain species over others. SO3 (g) + H2 O(l) → H2 SO4 (l) (b) The production of phosphoric acid The next step in the production of phosphate fertiliser is the reaction of sulfuric acid with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid (H3 PO4 ). 23. Agricultural runoff. this can cause other organisms such as fish to die. • A decrease in biodiversity (the number of plant and animal species in an ecosystem) When a system is enriched with nitrogen. Plants also consume oxygen for respiration. they can block light from reaching deeper. In aquatic environments. teresting South Africa’s Department of Water Affairs and Forestry has a ’National EuInteresting Fact Fact trophication Monitoring Programme’ which was set up to monitor eutrophication in impoundments such as dams. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . Eutrophication is considered a form of pollution because it promotes plant growth.4. • Toxicity Sometimes. 3Ca3 (PO4 )2 CaF2 + 4H3 PO4 + 9H2 O → 9Ca(H2 PO4 )2 + CaF2 3. There are a number of impacts of eutrophication.GRADE 12 Finally the sulfur trioxide is treated with water to produce 98-99% sulfuric acid. Potassium Potassium is obtained from potash. lakes. triple superphosphate is produced. Ca5 F(PO4 )3 + 5H2 SO4 + 10H2 O → 5CaSO4 2H2 O + HF + 3H3 PO4 (c) The production of phosphates and superphosphates When concentrated phosphoric acid reacts with ground phosphate rock.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication Eutrophication is the enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients. eutrophication can be a natural process that occurs very slowly over time. where no monitoring was taking place. the rapid growth of certain types of plants can disrupt the normal functioning of an ecosystem. When the number of plants increases in an aquatic system. These chemical nutrients usually contain nitrogen or phosphorus. when excess fertilisers are washed off fields and into water. causing a variety of problems. KCl AND K2 O) are also sometimes included in fertilisers. 454 . the phosphate rock is fluoropatite (Ca5 F(PO4 )3 ).

455 . There is also a cost benefit for the farmer.CHAPTER 23. Demand is influenced by population growth and urbanisation. farmers can make sure that they only apply just enough fertiliser. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . List all the possible consequences of eutrophication that you can think of. A final possible intervention is nitrogen testing and modeling. roads and rivers can also help. In groups.GRADE 12 23. By assessing exactly how much fertiliser is needed by crops and other plants. The facts are as follows: • There is an increasing world population to feed • Most soils in the world used for large-scale. there are a number of ways of preventing eutrophication from taking place. These act as filters and cause nutrients and sediments to be deposited there instead of in the aquatic system. Cleanup measures can directly remove the excess nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from the water. Creating buffer zones near farms. the damage from eutrophication is already done. This means that there is no excess to run off into neighbouring streams during rain. Laws relating to the treatment and discharge of sewage can also help to control eutrophication. Activity :: Discussion : Dealing with the consequences of eutrophication In many cases. that arise because of eutrophication. 2. as well as income levels and changes in dietary preferences. Suggest ways to solve these problems.4 Despite the impacts. Exercise: Chemical industry: Fertilisers Why we need fertilisers There is likely to be a gap between food production and demand in several parts of the world by 2020. do the following: 1. intensive production of crops lack the necessary nutrients for the crops Conclusion: Fertilisers are needed! The flow diagram below shows the main steps in the industrial preparation of two important solid fertilisers.

2. 3. You will know from your own experience that we use batteries in a number of ways. 23. 5. 456 . Galvanic cells have a number of applications. torches. 4. Write down the chemical formulae of fertilisers C and D respectively.5. These do not touch each other but are immersed in a solid or liquid electrolyte. Write down the name of process Y.23. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . including cars. each of which is made up of two half cells that are connected in series by a conductive electrolyte. sound systems and cellphones to name just a few.5 Electrochemistry and batteries You will remember from chapter 17 that a galvanic cell (also known as a voltaic cell) is a type of electrochemical cell where a chemical reaction produces electrical energy. and a negative electrode (anode). Write down the balanced chemical equation for the formation of the brown gas.1 How batteries work A battery is a device in which chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy. It consists of one or more voltaic cells. The voltaic cells are connected in series in a battery. Write down THREE ways in which the use of fertilisers poisons the environment. 23. The following extract comes from an article on fertilisers: A world without food for its people A world with an environment poisoned through the actions of man Are two contributing factors towards a disaster scenario. Each cell has a positive electrode (cathode). Write down the chemical formula of liquid E. but one of the most important is their use in batteries.5 CHAPTER 23.GRADE 12 Air Methane Nitrogen Haber process H2 SO4 Hydrogen Fertiliser C NH3 Process Y NO Brown gas Liquid E Fertiliser D 1. The emf of a galvanic cell is the difference in voltage between the two half cells that make it up.

Also. depends on a number of factors. • Quantity of electrolyte and electrode material in cell The greater the amount of electrolyte in the cell. The higher the concentration of the chemicals. • Secondary batteries can be recharged. a larger cell will have a greater capacity than a small one. and alkaline and carbon-zinc cells both measure about 1.5 Each half cell has a net electromotive force (emf) or voltage. Through this process. • Discharge conditions A unit called an Ampere hour (Ah) is used to describe how long a battery will last. for example. The concentration of the chemicals that are involved will also affect a battery’s capacity. However. the cell returns to its original state. both electrodes turn 457 . For example. in other words its ability to produce an electric charge.2 Battery capacity and energy The capacity of a battery. I is the discharge current (A). their chemical reactions can be reversed if electrical energy is supplied to the cell. k is the Peukert constant and t is the time of discharge (hours).5 volts. the greater its capacity. discharge time and capacity of a battery is expressed by Peukert’s law: Cp = I k t In the equation. When the battery discharges. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY .5. The capacity of the battery will depend on the rate at which it is discharged or used. in other cells such as Lithium cells. in other words. the greater will be the capacity of the cell. If a 100 Ah battery is discharged at 50 A (instead of 5 A). So. Battery manufacturers use a standard method to rate their batteries.3 Lead-acid batteries In a lead-acid battery. ’Cp ’ represents the battery’s capacity (Ah). These include: • Chemical reactions The chemical reactions that take place in each of a battery’s half cells will affect the voltage across the cell. and so lithium cells can produce as much as 3 volts or more. a 100 Ah battery will provide a current of 5 A for a period of 20 hours at room temperature. nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells measure about 1. Internal corrosion can also take place.CHAPTER 23. each cell consists of electrodes of lead (Pb) and lead (IV) oxide (PbO2 ) in an electrolyte of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ).5. An ampere hour (more commonly known as an amp hour) is the amount of electric charge that is transferred by a current of one ampere for one hour. 23. and therefore also its capacity. the changes in electrochemical potential are much higher because of the reactions of lithium compounds.GRADE 12 23.2V. the greater the surface area of the electrodes. the capacity will be lower than expected and the battery will run out before the expected 2 hours. even if the chemistry in two cells is the same. Once the supply of reactants has been used up. In other words. Batteries are usually divided into two broad classes: • Primary batteries irreversibly transform chemical energy to electrical energy. 23. the greater the capacity of the battery. The voltage of the battery is the difference between the voltages of the half-cells. the battery can’t be used any more. This potential difference between the two half cells is what causes an electric current to flow. Secondary batteries can’t be recharged forever because there is a gradual loss of the active materials and electrolyte. The relationship between the current.

with suitable separators between them.685 V . They are then placed in the battery container.23. - + Lead anode plates Lead cathode plates coated with PbO2 H2 SO4 Figure 23.10). The lead-acid battery is made up of a number of plates that maximise the surface area on which chemical reactions can take place. One of the important things about a lead-acid battery is that it can be recharged. The chemical half reactions that take place at the anode and cathode when the battery is discharging are as follows: Anode (oxidation): Pb(s) + SO2− (aq) ⇔ PbSO4 (s) + 2e− (E0 = -0.041 V Since most batteries consist of six cells. Each plate is a rectangular grid.5 CHAPTER 23. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . after which acid is added (figure 23. This paste is pressed into the holes and the plates are then stacked together. 458 . have a long shelf life and can be recharged.(-0.356 V) EMF = +2.GRADE 12 into lead (II) sulphate (PbSO4 ) and the electrolyte loses sulfuric acid to become mostly water. They are ideal for use in cars. are relatively cheap. the total voltage of the battery is approximately 12 V. The holes are filled with a mixture of lead and sulfuric acid.685 4 V) The overall reaction is as follows: PbO2 (s) + 4H+ (aq) + 2SO2− (aq) + Pb(s) → 2PbSO4 (s) + 2H2 O(l) 4 The emf of the cell is calculated as follows: EMF = E (cathode). The recharge reactions are the reverse of those when the battery is discharging.10: A lead-acid battery Lead-acid batteries have a number of applications.356 V) 4 Cathode (reduction): PbO2 (s) + SO2− (aq) + 4H+ + 2e− ⇔ PbSO4 (s) + 2H2 O(l) (E0 = 1. They can supply high surge currents. with a series of holes in it.E (anode) EMF = +1.

according to the following reaction: 2MnO2 (s) + H2 (g) → Mn2 O3 (s) + H2 O(l) The combined result of these two reactions can be represented by the following half reaction. One of the disadvantages of this type of battery is that the battery’s lead must be recycled so that the environment doesn’t become contaminated.5 where they provide the high current that is needed by the starter motor. which takes place at the cathode: Cathode: 2NH+ (aq) + 2MnO2 (s) + 2e− → Mn2 O3 (s) + 2NH3 (g) + H2 O(l) 4 459 . THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . hydrogen gas is generated at the cathode and this can cause a small explosion if the gas comes into contact with a spark. The paste of ammonium chloride reacts according to the following half-reaction: 2NH+ (aq) + 2e− → 2NH3 (g) + H2 (g) 4 The manganese(IV) oxide in the cell removes the hydrogen produced above.CHAPTER 23. They are also used in forklifts and as standby power sources in telecommunication facilities.5. The electrolyte is a paste of ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl). sometimes when the battery is charging. The cathode is the central carbon rod. metal cap carbon rod (cathode) zinc case manganese (IV) oxide paste of NH4 Cl separator between zinc and the electrolyte Figure 23. surrounded by a mixture of carbon and manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2 ).11. and a brass pin in the centre of the cell conducts electricity to the outside circuit. Also.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell A simplified diagram of a zinc-carbon cell is shown in figure 23. generating stations and computer data centres.11: A zinc-carbon dry cell A zinc-carbon cell is made up of an outer zinc container. 23. A fibrous fabric separates the two electrodes.GRADE 12 23. which acts as the anode.

Alkaline batteries last longer than zinc-carbon batteries. This was replaced by the dry cell in the 1880’s.5 CHAPTER 23. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . The anode was a zinc and mercury alloyed rod. In the dry cell. has become the anode.5 V) 4 2 Alkaline batteries are almost the same as zinc-carbon batteries.23. they can cause a lot of damage to the environment. and the cell was therefore called a wet cell. teresting The idea behind today’s common ’battery’ was created by Georges Leclanche Interesting Fact Fact in France in the 1860’s. (NOTE TO SELF: Insert diagram) The paste of ammonium chloride reacts according to the following half-reaction: 2NH+ (aq) + 2e− → 2NH3 (g) + H2 (g) (a) 4 Manganese(IV) oxide is included in the cell to remove the hydrogen produced during half-reaction (a).5 Environmental considerations While batteries are very convenient to use. The two half reactions in an alkaline battery are as follows: Anode: Zn(s) + 2OH− (aq) → Zn(OH)2 (s) + 2e− Cathode: 2MnO2 (s) + H2 O(l) + 2e− → Mn2 O3 (s) + 2OH− (aq) Zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries are cheap primary batteries and are therefore very useful in appliances such as remote controls. torches and radios where the power drain is not too high. Exercise: Electrochemistry and batteries A dry cell. They also have a short shelf life. does not contain a liquid electrolyte. The electrolyte was a liquid solution of ammonium chloride. 23. the zinc can which contains the electrolyte. the cathode was a porous cup containing crushed MnO2 . where they could get into water supplies. They use lots of valuable resources as well as some potentially hazardous chemicals such as lead. as shown in the diagram below. rivers and other ecosystems. mercury and cadmium. A carbon rod was inserted into this cup. and the electrolyte is a paste rather than a liquid. rather than ammonium chloride. The disadvantages are that these batteries can’t be recycled and can leak.5. The electrolyte in a typical zinc-carbon cell is a moist paste of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride. except that the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide (KOH). according to the following reaction: 2MnO2 2(s) + H2 (g) → Mn2 O3 (s) + H2 O(l) (b) 460 .GRADE 12 The anode half reaction is as follows: Anode: Zn(s) → Zn2+ + 2e− The overall equation for the cell is: Zn(s) + 2MnO2 (s) + 2NH+ → Mn2 O3 (s) + H2 O + Zn(NH3 )2+ (aq) (E0 = 1. Attempts are now being made to recycle the different parts of batteries so that they are not disposed of in the environment.

such as the one above. • The conversion of coal to liquid fuels involves a Sasol/Lurgi gasification process. • All countries need energy resources such as oil and natural gas. Dry cells are generally discarded when ’flat’. • All industries have an impact on the environment through the consumption of natural resources such as water. The main raw material is brine (NaCl).5 V under standard conditions. Write down the net ionic equation occurring in the zinc-carbon cell.CHAPTER 23. and thirdly the production of liquid fuels from natural gas. 5.GRADE 12 The combined result of these two half-reactions can be represented by the following half reaction: 2NH+ (aq) + 2MnO2 (s) + 2e− → Mn2 O3 (s) + 2NH3 (g) + H2 O(l) (c) 4 1. secondly the production and refinement of crude oil which has been imported. Sasol imports crude oil from Gabon and then refines this at the Natref refinery. Since South Africa doesn’t have either of these resources. 461 . because it is oxidised. Secondly. One of South Africa’s major chemical companies is Sasol. Other important chemical industries in the country are the chloralkali and fertiliser industries. half-reaction (c) and the halfreaction that takes place in the Zn/Zn2+ half-cell. Give a reason for the latter observation. it still corrodes.6 Summary • The growth of South Africa’s chemical industry was largely because of the mines. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . 6. the gas must pass through an autothermal reactor to produce a synthesis gas. When not in use. this synthesis gas is passed through a Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate process to convert the gas to hydrocarbons. Why is the carbon rod the most useful part of the cell. Calculate the reduction potential for the cathode half-reaction. Sasol technology has developed to convert coal into liquid fuels. 3.6 23. Explain why it is important that the hydrogen produced in half-reaction (a) is removed by the manganese(IV) oxide. 2. which needed explosives for their operations. • The chloralkali industry produces chlorine and sodium hydroxide. Common forms of cracking are hydrocracking and steam cracking. using the FischerTropsch technology in SAS reactors. through two processes: First. • Heavy hydrocarbons can be converted into light hydrcarbons through a process called cracking. followed by the conversion of this synthesis gas into a range of hydrocarbons. Write down the half-reaction occurring at the anode. produce an emf of 1. nitrogen oxides and others. and through the production of pollution gases such as carbon dioxide. the conversion of coal to liquid fuel. hydrogen sulfides. • Sasol has three main operation focus areas: Firstly. • With regard to crude oil. When in use the zinc casing of the dry cell becomes thinner. In a zinc-carbon cell. even when the cell is flat? (DoE Exemplar Paper 2. 4. • Gas from Mozambique can be used to produce liquid fuels. 2007) 23.

the Ostwald process reacts oxygen and ammonia to produce nitric acid. The Cl− ions are oxidised to form chlorine gas at the anode. • The fatty acids in soap have a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic part in each molecule. • All plants need certain macronutrients (e. chlorine gas is produced at the anode and sodium hydroxide at the cathode. • Nitrogen fertilisers can be produced industrially using a number of chemical processes: The Haber process reacts nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. • In plants. The first reaction vessel contains a mercury cathode and a carbon anode. a porous diaphragm separates the anode and the cathode compartments.GRADE 12 • In industry. Specially designed electrolytic cells are needed to do this. whcih may have fed on plants during their life. One of the challenges in this process is to keep the products of the electrolytic reaction (i. 462 . • One use of sodium hydroxide is in the production of soaps and detergents. Fertilisers provide these nutrients. • To make soap.6 CHAPTER 23. • The membrane cell is very similar to the diaphragm cell. where the Na+ ions react with hydroxide ions from the water. while sodium ions produced at the cathode react with water to produce sodium hydroxide. hydrogen. carbon. • The mercury cell consists of two reaction vessels. and so this is another important part of the chloralkali industry. oxidants or enzymes. • Animals also need similar nutrients. In the reaction. An electric current passed through the brine produces Cl− and Na+ ions. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . chlorine. • The fertiliser industry is another important chemical industry. except that the anode and cathode compartments are separated by an ion-selective membrane rather than by a diaphragm. copper and zinc) in order to survive. which contains water. Chloride ions are oxidised to chlorine gas at the anode. nitrogen and phosphorus) and micronutrients (e. is what soap is made of. Some of these additives may be abrasives. the diaphragm cell and the membrane cell. Positive sodium ions pass through the membrane into the cathode compartment.g. Brine is only pumped into the anode compartment. As with the other two cells. potassium. Na+ ions combine with the mercury cathode to form a sodium-mercury amalgam. but they obtain most of these directly from plants or plant products. electrolytic cells are used to split the sodium chloride into its component ions to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide.e. but are made up of a mixture of compounds. • In the diaphragm cell. and this helps to loosen dirt and clean items. They may also obtain them from other animals. a sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid. The sodium-mercury amalgam passes into the second reaction vessel containing water.23. • Detergents are also cleaning products. which is highly toxic.g. Sodium hydroxide is the product of this reaction. The product. the nitrophosphate process reacts nitric acid with phosphate rock to produce compound fertilisers. sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide react with a fat or an oil. iron. • The fertiliser industry is very important in ensuring that plants and crops receive the correct nutrients in the correct quantities to ensure maximum growth. • There are three types of electrolytic cells that are used in this process: mercury cell. • One of the environmental impacts of using this type of cell. most nutrients are obtained from the atmosphere or from the soil. is the use of mercury. They may also have other components added to them to give certain characteristics. the chlorine and the sodium hydroxide) separate so that they don’t react with each other. oxygen. the sodium or potassium ions replace the alcohol in the fat or oil.

Sulfuric acid then reacts with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. Give one word or term for each of the following descriptions: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A solid organic compound that can be used to produce liquid fuels. • A zinc-carbon cell is made up of an outer zinc container. k is the Peukert constant and t is the time of discharge (hours). A compound given to a plant to promote growth. When the battery discharges. surrounded by a mixture of carbon and manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2 ). • A primary battery cannot be recharged. the quantity of electrolyte and electrode material in the cell. They can lead to eutrophication. Each half cell has a net electromotive force (emf) or voltage. ’Cp ’ represents the battery’s capacity (Ah).6 • Phosphate fertilisers are also produced through a series of reactions. each of which is made up of two half cells that are connected in series by a conductive electrolyte. The contact process produces sulfuric acid. The electrolyte is a paste of ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl). batteries are made of potentially toxic materials and can be damaging to the environment. and the discharge conditions of the battery. A number of preventative actions can be taken to reduce these impacts. after which phosphoric acid reacts with ground phosphate rock to produce fertilisers such as triple superphosphate. but a secondary battery can be recharged. • A battery consists of one or more voltaic cells. • Two common types of batteries are lead-acid batteries and the zinc-carbon dry cell. each cell consists of electrodes of lead (Pb) and lead (IV) oxide (PbO2 ) in an electrolyte of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ). • The relationship between the current. A fibrous fabric separates the two electrodes. Exercise: Summary Exercise 1. • Despite their many advantages. both electrodes turn into lead (II) sulphate (PbSO4 ) and the electrolyte loses sulfuric acid to become mostly water. I is the discharge current (A). and a brass pin in the centre of the cell conducts electricity to the outside circuit. • In a lead-acid battery. The cathode is the central carbon rod. • Another important part of the chemical industry is the production of batteries. discharge time and capacity of a battery is expressed by Peukert’s law: Cp = I k t In the equation. • Potassium is obtained from potash. which acts as the anode. The main raw material in the chloralkali industry. • The capacity of a battery depends on the chemical reactions in the cells. 463 .GRADE 12 23. • Fertilisers can have a damaging effect on the environment when they are present in high quantities in ecosystems. The process of separating nitrogen from liquid air. The process used to convert heavy hydrocarbons into light hydrocarbons. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . • A battery is a device that changes chemical energy into electrical energy. This potential difference between the two half cells is what causes an electric current to flow. The net voltage of the battery is the difference between the voltages of the half-cells.CHAPTER 23.

zinc is reduced to produce electrons iv. phosphorus and potassium. Chlorine is produced using three types of electrolytic cells. choose the one correct answer from the list provided. coal → autothermal reactor → Sasol slurry phase F-T reactor → liquid hydrocarbon iii. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . (d) During the industrial preparation of chlorine and sodium hydroxide. NaCl + H2 O → NaOH + HCl (c) In a zinc-carbon dry cell.. chemical energy is converted to electrical energy. rewrite the statement correctly. 2H+ + 2e− → H2 iv. manganese (IV) dioxide acts as a reducing agent 4. 2Cl− → Cl2 + 2e− ii. For each of the following questions. (b) The main elements used in fertilisers are nitrogen. coal → coal gasification → gas purification → SAS reactor → liquid hydrocarbons (b) The half-reaction that takes place at the cathode of a mercury cell in the chloralkali industry is: i.GRADE 12 (f) An electrolyte used in lead-acid batteries. If the statement is false. 2Na+ + 2e− → 2Na iii. The simplified diagram below shows a membrane cell. zinc is oxidised to produce electrons iii. (d) Which gas is chlorine gas? Write down only Gas A or Gas B. (c) A soap molecule is composed of an alcohol molecule and three fatty acids. the more likely it is to be a solid at room temperature. 464 .23. (b) Why do you think it is advisable to use inert electrodes in this process? (c) Write down the equation for the half-reaction taking place at electrode M. i. 3. Chloralkali manufacturing process The chloralkali (also called ’chlorine-caustic’) industry is one of the largest electrochemical technologies in the world. the electrolyte is manganese (IV) oxide ii. (a) The sequence of processes that best describes the conversion of coal to liquid fuel is: i. coal → gas purification → SAS reactor → liquid hydrocarbon ii. coal → coal purification → synthesis gas → oil iv..6 CHAPTER 23. 2. Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false. Gas A Power supply Gas B Saturated NaCl + M Depleted NaCl N NaOH (a) Give two reasons why the membrane cell is the preferred cell for the preparation of chlorine. (a) The longer the hydrocarbon chain in an organic compound.

6. the product at (4).2007) 5. (DoE Exemplar Paper 2. the process at (3) that produces gas (2). The production of nitric acid is very important in the manufacture of fertilisers. A lead-acid battery has a number of different components. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY . Column A The electrode metal Electrolyte A product of the overall cell reaction An oxidising agent in the cathode half-reaction Type of cells in a lead-acid battery Column B Lead sulphate Mercury Electrolytic Lead Sulfuric acid Ammonium chloride Lead oxide Galvanic 465 .CHAPTER 23.GRADE 12 (e) Briefly explain how sodium hydroxide forms in this cell. Match the description in Column A with the correct word or phrase in Column B. (1) N2 (g) + H2 (3) 23. All the descriptions in Column A relate to lead-acid batteries. which shows part of the fertiliser production process. two fertilisers that can be produced from nitric acid. and then answer the questions that follow. Look at the diagram below. the gas at (2).6 (2) + O2 NO + H2 O Ostwald Process (4) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Name Name Name Name Name the process at (1).

THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY .GRADE 12 466 .6 CHAPTER 23.23.

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