ARTICULATION

The Fourth Step in Voice Production

Objectives:
a. b.

c. d.

e.

Identify and recognize the stress and intonation patterns of spoken English; Describe and compare alternating stress pattern, basic intonation patterns, and the intonation patterns for specific structures; Demonstrate skills in using stress for emphasis and for contrast; Demonstrate skill in blending words to form breathy units and thought groups and in phrasing sentences for better clarity and understanding; and Speak larger forms of structure with correct stress and intonation.

STRESS IN ENGLISH SPEECH
‡All spoken language is characterized by a particular rhythm and

melody patterns which makes different individuals speak in a variety of time and tune. ‡An important feature of spoken language is the prominence given to a syllable in a word or a short span of connected speech. ‡Stress involves changes in pitch, force, and duration.

Word Stress: Monosyllabic Words
y One-syllable words (monosyllables) like do, has, and bay are

stressed in isolation. y They blend with the nearest word, and lose a part of their original sound. deal hold hem seal sail east may cell tame cent sun can care whole get love

Word Stress: Multi-syllable words
y Mutli-syllable words, those with two or more syllables, have

only one strong stress. y The strongly-stressed syllable are spoken louder, longer and clearer than the rest of the unstressed syllables which are spoken lightly and quickly. notice tafetta syllable transferable urchin vatican ostracize oratory vivid titan merchandize matinee supervise vegetable voluntary origin

cartoon survive horizon technique obscure accustom volunteer manufacture apparatus correspond departmental elementary superimpose accommodation authoritarian pronunciation personification indemnification denaturalize indispensability

distinguish consortium photosynthesis parliamentary contemporary extemporaneous inexplicability insubordination

Noun-verb Shifts
y A shift in the position of syllable stress results in a change in

meaning of a particular group of words. y Words stressed in the first syllable are nouns, and when they are stressed in the second syllable are verbs.

NOUN
y Contract y Convert y Contrast y Process y Conflict y Exploit y Discount y Desert y Export y Incline y Excerpt y Pervert

VERB
y Contract y Convert y Contrast y Process y Conflict y Exploit y Discount y Desert y Export y Incline y Excerpt y Pervert

Her beauty entranced the movie fans as she neared the theater entrance. 2. You can extract the vanilla, an aromatic extract, from a certain tropical orchid. 3. The producers retail their goods retail. 4. The hapless pervert might pervert some truths in the cross examination. 5. Give me a digest of the senator·s speeches on how to digest food. Activity: Create sentences using the words in the last slide.
1.

Number words
y Those ending in ²ty and ²ieth are stressed on the first

syllable as in thirty and thirtieth. y Those ending in ²teen and ²teenth are stressed on the last syllable as in sixteen and sixteenth. twenty the twentieth the twenty-first thirty the thirtieth the thirty-second forty the fortieth the forty-seventh sixteen the sixteenth eighteen the eighteenth seventeen the seventeenth nineteen the nineteenth fifteen the fifteenth fourteen the fourteenth

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sixty alumnae attended the twentieth anniversary of their graduation. Her booth number is thirteen not thirty. Seventy classrooms will be constructed on the nineteenth of this month. Mother will be forty on the sixteenth of December. His seventieth birthday was attended by nineteen grandchildren.

Derived Words
y Some words formed by adding a prefix or a suffix to a root

word usually retain the same syllable stress; others however result in s change in syllable stress, function and meaning. libel-libelous subsist-subsistence trouble-troublesome vital-vitalize visual-visualize endow-endowment titan-titanic supplement-supplemental timid-timidity gelatin-gelatinous valid-validity gymnast-gymnastics

Form a new word by adding a prefix or a suffix to each of the following words. Read each pair stressing the appropriate syllable. Use them both in a sentence or sentences. labor govern deliver origin equal democracy journal department music elastic educate exhale pronounce temper moment proper

Phrasal Verbs
y This is a two word verb or a three word verb consisting of a

simple verb and an adverbial particle and/or a preposition whose meaning may have no apparent connection with the meaning or use of its component parts. y The placement of the strong stress in two-word verbs depends on the structure of the combination, whether the combination is separable or not. Call up. (separable combination) Call up Mom. Call on. (non-separable combination) Call on Mary.

Separable combinations
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Give up Put off Hand in Turn on Turn off Look up Call off Try on Leave out Pick up

Give up the chance. Give it up. Put off the party. Put it off. Hand in the homework. Hand it in. Turn on the fan. Turn them on. Turn off the airconditioner. Turn it off. Look up the meaning. Look it up. Call off the meeting. Call it off. Try on the shirt. Try it on. Leave out the question. Leave it out. Pick up your friend. Pick it up.

Non-separable combinations.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Look for Look for the wallet. Look for it. Look at Look at the girls. Look at them. Get on Get on the bus. Get on it. Go back on Go back on a contract. Put up with Put up with the weather. Wait on Get over Count on Look after Run into

Word Combination
y Noun-noun or adjective-noun combinations carry stress

positions on the basis of the meanings they convey. y If the first part of the compound shows the purpose for which the second part is intended, the first part of the combination receives the strong stress. y If the first part of the combination shows the material contained in the second part, the second part of the combination is stressed. y There are no fixed rules for determining which word to stress in the combinations.

Read the following compounds by stressing on the appropriate parts:
window pane sewing machine baby sitter ice pick leather bag plastic cups clay pot nylon hose bathhouse dining room flower pot nursery rhyme gold watch apple pie fruit salad paper roses swimming pool class card hair dryer baking soda silk blouse steel bar cotton blanket strawberry shake

Sentence Stress
y Words flow along smoothly with each other in uninterrupted y y y

y

fashion resulting in a single breath unit. Saying words as a single breath unit and then hearing them as a single thought group is the process of blending. Certain kinds of words are usually stressed in context while other types are not usually stressed. Nouns, main verbs, adjectives, adverbs, demonstratives, and question words (wh-words including how) are content words that carry meaning. Determiners such as articles, demonstrative, and possessive pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and auxiliary verbs (be and modals) are usually unstressed in context.

Stress the appropriate parts in the following sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Is it here? Take the bus or the train. Does he know? He·s as good as his father. Did he come? You must not know about me. Can I go? Call Betty,Tess and Ernie. Aren·t we included? They will read it not.

Yes, it is. Yes, he does. No, he didn·t. No, you can·t. No, we aren·t.

Emphatic Stress
y Stress is also used to emphasize an idea and to indicate

contrast in a sentence. y One, two or more words can be stressed if the word contains the idea the speaker wishes to call attention to, if the word repeats or reinforces another idea, and if the word is an answer to a particular question. y In addition, any word in a sentence can be emphasized one at a time in order to answer a particular question.

Examples:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

PAL flies to Europe and so does PANAM. John bought a book and Tony did, too. Visitors will come and delegates will come, too. Peluchie can type and Cherry can, too. Stores offer discounts and restaurants do, too. Carla ordered two chicken sandwiches. (Who ordered?) Linda danced the ballet gracefully. (How?) The lady swims daily at the pool. (How often?) Carla ordered two chicken sandwiches. (What kind?) Linda danced the ballet gracefully. (What did she danced?)

Contrastive Stress
y When differing ideas exist in one, two, or more words, each

of these words are stressed for contrast. y To convey special meanings, some words which are not usually stressed (some and any) become stressed while words which are customarily stressed (nouns) become unstressed. y Stressed ´someµ suggests ´contrast,µ it often means special or certain in contrast with other choices. y Stressed ´anyµ suggests emphasis, irritation, or sarcasm.

Exercises:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

She wants to sing, not dance. The girls want a picnic but the boys want a party. It was my idea. Our group won. It·s under the table, not on the table. I have some friends. (I have other friends.) I have some friends. (I have certain friends.) I eat some fruits. (other fruits) Got any message? (irritation) Got any message? (another message)

Seatwork
Get a one half sheet of paper. 2. Write your name, section, and the date today. 3. Indicate the seatwork number (W1).
1.

INTONATION IN ENGLISH SPEECH

Definition
y This is the rise and fall of the voice. y It is the combination of tunes on which we pronounce the

syllables that make up our speech. y There are four tunes in speaking:  (1) low  (2) normal  (3) high  (4) extra high y Extra high is used to express an extreme emotion like fear, anger, surprise, and excitement.

Terms
y SHIFT. y GLIDE. y There are three intonation patterns: 
2-3-1 Rising-falling intonation  2-3-3 Rising intonation  2-3-2 Non-final intonation

2-3-1 or Rising-Falling Intonation
y This patterns begin on the normal (2) tune and ends by

raising the voice to a high (3) on the last stressed syllable of the sentence, then making it fall to a low (1).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

They want to listen to the latest recording. Brenda had been working for six hours. The traffic is slow because of the flooded street. Somebody blew a whistle. Sit down at the table. Clean up your room. Look at that boy. Smoke in the next room. What would you like for breakfast? Where did you learn it?

2-3-3 or Rising Intonation
y The voice begins on the normal (2) tune and ends on a high

(3) tune on the last stressed word of the sentence.

y Are you sure you·ve got enough paper? y Would you rather have coffee? y Have you been to many places this year? y Will you please take these forms to the table? y Do you really close at seven o·clock? y Can you do it? y Were they invited? y Does she know? y Is he coming? y Do you mean you lost your front door key?

2-3-2 or Non-final Intonation
y It is used in that part of the sentence which precedes the last

stressed word. y The voice begins on the normal (2) then rises to pitch level (3) on the stressed word, and returns to the normal level or tune (2). y It may be used in combination with other patterns, specially in stressed function words, in contrast and comparisons, and in sentences where two or more thought groups are divided by short pauses.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Are you ready to leave? They should be here on time. I·m looking for a toothbrush not a hairbrush. Linda runs faster than Sonia does. He·d like to get it, but he can·t. If you leave now, we have to go with you. Keep watch, while I run to the station for help. No, thank you, not today. Will you stay with him while I run to the store? When the boat docked, did he go straight to the Customs Office?

Intonation Patterns for Specific Structures
y The 2-3, 2-3-1 or the CHOICE QUESTION TUNE is used

for ´series with and/ alternatives with orµ type of structures. A rising intonation is used on all parts of the alternatives or series except the last which is given the rising-falling pattern (2-3-1). He will arrive on Thursday or Saturday. Would you like to play golf, tennis, or bowling. These are my friends: Gloria, Alice, and Lisa. She·d like to buy a bottle of shampoo and lipstick.

Intonation Patterns for Specific Structures
y DIRECT ADDRESS refers to the name or word substituted

for a name, such as dear or darling, addressed directly to the person to whom one is speaking. This may come at the end of the sentence or elsewhere, and it does not affect the intonation pattern of the rest of the sentence. It uses the 2-3 pattern. You·re very kind, my dear. Anna, will you please come to Ward No. 10? But, Sir, I really must attend to this lady.

Intonation Patterns for Specific Structures
y TAG QUESTIONS are spoken in two types of intonation

patterns. y If the tag question is said as a statement of fact and the speaker is definite that the listener will agree with him, the tag question is spoken with the rising-falling pattern. It·s painful, isn·t it? y If the sentence is said as a real question and the speaker is not sure of the listener·s answer, the tag question is spoken with the rising pattern. It·s painful, isn·t it?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

To be or not to be. They aren·t pleased with anybody, are they? (unsure) You made it, didn·t you? (definite) They listen, don·t they? (definite) We weren·t there, were we? (unsure) No. (uncertain) No. (with conviction). No. (sarcastic) Is that so? (doubtful) Is that so? (sarcastic)

Problems in Articulation
y ERRORS OF OMISSION- Omitting sounds or even

syllables. y ERRORS OF SUBSTITUTION- Substituting an incorrect sound for the correct one. y ERRORS OF ADDITION- Adding sounds where they do not belong. y ERRORS OF DISTORTION- An attempt is made at the correct sound but it results in a poor production. i.e a distorted /s/ sound may whistle, or the tongue may be thrusting between the teeth causing a frontal lisp.

Errors of Omission
NOT THIS
y Gov-a-ment y Hi-stry y Wanna y Fishin y Studyin y A-lum-num y Hon-orble y Comp-ny y Vul-ner-bi-ity

THIS
y Gov-ern-ment y Hi-story y Want to y Fishing y Studying y A-lum-i-num y Hon-or-able y Comp-a-ny y Vul-ner-a-bil-ity

Errors of Substitution
NOT THIS
y Wader y Dese y Ax y Undoubtebly y Beder y Eksetera y Ramark y lenth

THIS
y Waiter y These y Ask y Undoubtedly y Better y Et cetera y Remark y length

Errors of Addition
NOT THIS
y Acrost y Athalete y Americer y Idear y Filim y Lore y Is-treet

THIS
y Across y Athelete y America y Idea y Film y Law y Street

Errors of Accent
NOT THIS
y New Or-LEANS y IN-surance y o-RA-tor

THIS
y New OR-leans y In-SU-rance y O-ra-tor

Errors of Adding Sounds
NOT THIS
y Often y Homage y Illinois y Evening y Burgalar y Athalete y Airaplane

THIS
y Offen y Omage y Illinoi y Evning y Burglar y Athlete y Airplane

Summary
y Stress and intonation patterns are emotional dictations. y Though emotional by nature, they pattern a strict conduct of

rules. y Articulation is the combination of word pronunciation and voice production. y We do not aim to create an accent based on voice and diction.

Evaluation (W1)
y Get a ½ sheet of paper. y Write your name, section, and the date today. y Wait for the instructions of your teacher.

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