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NSTP Module 4 - 1st Semester AY: 2010-2011
promote our identity to all the new Thomasians. These values are shared by all alumni, faculty members, administration and students of our almost four-century old university. Defining communities in terms of geography however is only one way of looking at them. Communities can also be defined by common cultural heritage, language and beliefs or shared interests also called communities of interest. In essence, community may be described as a geographical area where a group of people live in a common life linked together by factors such as religious beliefs, sexual orientation, occupation or ethnic origin, and a shared sense of identity and belongingness. (Coloma and Herrera) What we do now in the community has a great impact in the future generation. How do you recognize a developed community? Let us now look into the definition of development… Development is a gradual unfolding, a fuller working out of the details, of noted changes or growing improvement. Development has meant different things at different times in relation to changing circumstances and sensibilities. If you would recall the era of the industrial revolution, development then is closely related to increased speed, volume and size (CD handbook, 1999). Many are questioning this concept now. There was a realization that more is not always better. According to professor Elmer ferret, the term development does not necessarily mean growth, it is however about change, positive change. So what now is community development? Community development is culturally rooted to the life of the people. It is a planned evolution of all aspects of community well-being (economic, social, environmental and cultural). (cdta handbook, 2005)
Community Development and Community Organizing
Lesson 1: Community Development Lesson 2: Community Organizing
We have two lessons in Module 4 Lesson 1 will discuss the theoretical background of community development. This lesson will help you be aware of why there is a need for community development and hot to go about it. Lesson 2 will discuss how to put the theories and concepts of community development into action through community organizing. In this lesson, you will be able to know what community development is all about and how essential it is connecting the people and the nation. Check out the vision of community development and take note of its highlights. The Vision of community developments in the Philippines to realize the community’s dreams and expectations, by strengthening itself and develop towards its full potentials through active participation and effective involvement thus create empowered and responsible citizens working relentlessly for a better Philippines. We are all part of a community. Most of us belong to more than one community, whether we are aware of it or not. For example, an individual can be part of a neighborhood community, a religious community and a community of shared interests all at the same time. (Frank smith 1999) the University of Santo Tomas is an example of a strong and established educational community for higher learning. As a community we share, transmit and
Community development is not a quick fix for the day-to-day operations of the community Example: have you participated in a giftgiving or relief operations in your community? These activities can be classified under a dole-out. Through this method we are only enabling the people to be dependent thus preventing them to help themselves. Community development follows a planned process that is long- term and integrated. The process of developing and organizing the community is long and tedious. Every step must be carefully planned and monitored. (cdta handbook 2005) you will know more about this in lesson 2 community organizing. Thus, community development is a process of facilitating people to actualize them selves and therefore discover their identities and possibilities and connection with each other and with the world. (Prof. Elmer ferrer) a Community development is not a new concept in the Philippines. This has been rooted even before the coming of the Spaniards with early Filipinos organized into balangays; most members are related and headed by a leader (Gloria 2000). Through the years it has a teaching which is being applied based on the needs of the people in the community. Community development is the improvement, growth and change of the geographic area and its people from conventional to modern ways, from crudeness to refinement, from ignorance to learning; from faultiness to virtuosity. 1. people’s welfare community development is for the people; thus it is very important to place their welfare above anything else. In developing a community remember the following endeavor that has to be achieved: improve the quality of life help people acquire coherence and meaning in life lead people towards achieving sustainability and self-determination. 2. people’s capacity
all people and communities have a certain amount of capacity. No one is without capacity but often we need to develop it. What is important to realize is that the heart of capacity building is people. It would take capacity to achieve a healthy community as well as good leadership, a viable plan, motivation and support of the people from the community. Capacity is simply the ways and means needed to do what has to be done. It is much broader than simply skills, people and plans. It includes commitment, resources and all that is brought to bear on a process to make it successful. An indication that capacity is developing within a community is that people are active. Interested and participating in what is going on. This is similar to you as part of a group or organizing in your school or community. You are part of the discussion, there will also be questioning, challenging and debating- but you will be debating on what should be done, not complaining that nothing will ever change. More and more people will be getting involved, identifying key issues and taking action. 3. people’s participation and collective involvement Active community participation is the heart that pumps the community’s lifeblood citizens-into becoming an improved community. Community participation . . . is critical to community success. Bordenave (1994) considers participation as a “joint” effort of people for achieving a common important objective previously defined by them. Meanwhile, community participation according to Paul (1987) is an active process whereby beneficiaries influence the direction and execution of the development projects rather than merely receiving a share of the project benefits. Community participation is far more than a requirement. It is a condition for success. Studies have documented those communities that engage their citizens and
partners deeply in the work of community development raise more resources, achieve more results, and develop in a more holistic and ultimately-more beneficial way. Community participation, then is critical To community success. It is very important to ensure people’s active participation and involvement in the different programs within the community, build the people’s capacity and be empowered because through this, the purposes of community development become more realistic. Empowerment refers to increasing political, social and economic strength of individuals. It often involves developing confidence in their own capacities. It is increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes. Central to this process are actions which both build individual and collective assets, and improve the efficiency of organizations and institutions. Empowered people have freedom of choice and action; this in turn enables them to better influence the course of their lives and the decisions which affect them. The goals of community development lead us to empowerment, Thus empowerment is most essential to community development! If the people are appreciably empowered and can participate in the process of development, then they can. Cooperation and education. Cooperation is about taking an active part in the community of which you are an important member. It is all about voluntary association for mutual benefit. Cooperation is about the people whoa re affected by decisions being people who make those decisions. Most importantly, cooperation is about having your voice heard. Another way to empower the community is through EDUCATION. Basic education not only increases a person’s economic
opportunities, it also serves as a catalyst for social change. More importantly this is the key component for sustainable development. In my pegagogic creed, John Dewey held, among other things, that: Education is the fundamental method of social progress. Education is a regulation of the process of coming to share in the social consciousness; and the adjustment of individual activity on the basis of this social consciousness is the only sure method of social reconstruction. Education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience; that the process and the goal of education are one and the same thing.
The community’s duty to education is, therefore its paramount moral duty. LESSON 2 Community organization is that process by which the people… organize themselves to take charge of their situation and thus develop a sense of being a community together. It is a particularly effective tool for the poor and powerless as they determine for themselves the actions they will take to deal with the essential forces that are destroying their community and consequently causing them to be powerless. -Reverend Robert Linthicum, world vision international. We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give – Winston Churchill Community organizing (_CO) has been defined as the application of principles and methods foe effecting change in which the community groups are helped to identify the common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and in other ways develops and implement strategies for reaching the goal they have set. (Minkler 1990) CO is a values-based process by which people – most often low—and moderate— income people previously absent from
decision-making tables – are brought together in organizations to jointly act in the interest of their communities and the common good. Ideally, in the participatory process of working for needed changes, people involved in CO organizations/ groups learn how to take greater responsibility for the future of their communities, gain in mutual respect and achieve growth as individuals. In the Philippine setting, community organizing is seen as systematic, planned and liberating change process of transforming a community into an organized, conscious empowered, self-reliant, just and humane entity and institution. (Dr. Reynaldo A. Padilla, CWTS: A Component of National Service Training Program 2004 Edition) When organizing a community it is very important that we set our goals. What is our purpose and why is there a need for community organizing? These should be the fruits of our labours in our efforts in organizing the community. People’s empowerment+improve quality of life+leadership and mobilization+ social transformation= goals of community organizing People’s empowerment. The people will become conscious that they possess power- power to assert their rights and to have a hand in decisions that will affect their lives. This will enable people to think that there are opportunities for change and development through cooperation and collective action. Improved quality of life Through the process of community organizing people learn to secure short and long term improvements in their standards of living as soon as they receive access to their basic needs. Leadership development and mobilization Leaders are identified and developed. They gain knowledge, skills and proper attitude required by their task in community development. Social transformation Community organizing seeks to change the life of the community and the whole society into a democratic, self-reliant, nationalistic and self-governing entity that can respond to
bigger concerns like environmental problems and individual needs. The process of community organizing is not an easy and tidy endeavour- it does not happen in neat and predictable steps, sometimes problems do exist. That is why it is important that you are guided with the following principles. Go to the people, live among the peoplecommunity organizers can decide which approach can be employed best if they know and feel what the community believes, does and wants to attain. Learn, plan and work with the people- an organizer must be open what the people want to achieve and how they plan to achieve it. He should facilitate changes and ensure that residents participate in the whole process of planning, decision-making, implementing and evaluating activities. Start with and build on what the people know- the organizer should begin with the indigenous resources, technologies and structures that a community has. Teach by showing; learn by doing- the organizer should demonstrate procedures or techniques and not just merely give instructions so people could learn easily. Not by piecemeal but by an integrated approach.- community organizing is an interrelationship of different factors. Cooperation system of the residents must be used until the majority of the people are provided with the basics in their daily life. Not relief but release- community organizing liberates a community from its problems. Problems do not recur in their original forms but are resolved on a long term basis. I. Area site selection
Communities chosen for community organizing are those that are generally described as marginalized, those that are unserved, undeserved and are economically depressed. These communities are chosen based on a need, a need that the external agent (in this case the university, through the NSTP) would like to address, and may have the capacity to address. Additional criteria such as location, distance and safety of the community organizer is also taken into consideration.
The general acceptance of the community to community organizing and development work also plays an important factor in the selection of the community. Let’s take the case of Stitio Mabilog and Sitio Haduan in Bamban, Tarlac. These areas are not the most accessible areas for development work. In fact students and faculty members would normally hike to get to community. Why of all places did the University choose these areas for our community development program? The answer is simple, these is a need. Poverty is pervasive in communities, health and education services are inaccessible and we feel that we can contribute to changing this state. But most of all, the communities accept and are cooperative to the development efforts in the area. II. Entry to the community
activities, planting rice, harvesting banana and camote, washing clothes by the stream, riding a carabao, etc. just remember not to take unnecessary risks and always seek the permission of your facilitator. Always greet every body with a smile. I am pretty sure you will always get a smile in return. III. Community study
Your immersion should have given you a good idea of what the community is. It is time to formalize and conduct a community study or community profiling. Depending on your course ort specialization, this is also called as the : Community diagnosis Social investigation Community investigation Social analysis IV. spotting potential leaders
“when in Rome, do as the Romans do” so goes the cliché that probably best describes this phase. ORGANIZERS don’t do it but get others to do it ORGANIZERS are simply facilitators and implementers. Must do: Hold courtesy call to local leaders (barangay officials, school officials. Leaders of the peoples’ organization, members of the core group Be prepared to explain the purpose of your visit in the community Never promise anything. Don’t raise the hopes of the community particularly in things we can not deliver. Assume simplicity in clothing. Your jewelries and expensive gadgets are better left home during your community visits. Act in a behavior that will be a positive reflection of you, your family and the University. Have fun. don’t be afraid to try out new things, new adventures in the community. Try to participate in normal community
in the course of working and interacting with the community, you will get the chance to know them better. You will also notice that there are individuals who show more concern and are more active in the community and have considerable influence and leadership among others. They are your potential leaders. Identifying them at this stage is important because they will be able to help you In your organizing work. As you continue your work with our partner communities, you will get to know some of your partner communities, and some of our local leaders. Observe them, talk with them, try to pick up some of their traits that qualify them as leader. V. core group formation
Jesus did not do it himself. He had twelve disciples. Organizing is a daunting task if you would place all the task and responsibility on yourself. You can plan and divide the activities with everybody; hence, the work gets easier. Everybody feels responsible for the success and we slowly build up the community organization.
Remember: your core group serves as the building VI. community organization
identifying these. You can evaluate your activity based on the following criteria: Effectiveness
community organization may take on different forms. This is the phase when you formalize your organization. The organization must: 1. clearly identified, articulated reason for being. This is normally captured in their statement of vision, mission and goals (VMG). It may take a while before they may be able to come up with their VMG but a generally statement may suffice. 2. community organization and development plan: a. b. c. d. e. f. objectives activities resources needed timeframe responsible persons/group expected output
Did we fully achieve our objectives? Partially? What are the factors that facilitated the achievement of your objectives? a. organizational / group b. community factors efficiency what resources (material, manpower, money) were utilized in the project? How much time was spent for the whole project? Was it enough? Was time used wisely? How were these resources utilized? Is the output commensurate to the resources utilized? adequacy is the project sufficient for the identified problem? If not, what other projects/ activities could contribute to the solution of the problem identified? appropriateness was it the right project/ approach to solve the problem? Was it a suitable solution to the problem? Your subsequent action would largely be based on the result of your evaluation. The community may need more training; they may need assistance in linking up with other agencies (government, NGO or churchbased). They may need further planning and evaluation, etc. at this point you should also be weaning the community with your direct influence in the decision making. Slowly your presence is less felt and you are now in your exit phase. You occasionally visit the community to follow-up/ monitor their progress and provide assistance only when needed and expressed. This lesson on community organizing discussed and taught you how to put into action the principles of community
3. Have a semblance of a structure. 4. they may even have their policies, such as dues, attendance in meetings, upkeep of the meeting hall, etc. VII. mobilization this is the actual implementation or activity phase. This is when you along with the community put your plans into action. Just remember: We work with the community and not for them. Use available resources in the community Have fun. VIII. evaluation and follow-up
evaluation is a process of assessing what has been done and its impact. Please bear in mind that community organizing is both a process and an output. Projects may seem to fail but still produce learning experiences that are in the long term, beneficial to the community. We must be very keen in
development. This is supported by the following concepts and experiences. Community organizing is a process. CO is a values-based and problem-solving process by which ordinary people are brought to the tables, empowered with knowledge and skills to identify their needs and problems. They mobilize their resources to deal with their problems and take action collectively. CO aims to empower the people through leadership and mobilization and improve the quality of life through social transformation. Community organizers are simply facilitators and implementers; your role as a community organizer is to simply get others to do it. The phases for community organizing follow this process. a. area/ site selection b. entry/ integration c. Community study d. Spotting potential leaders e. Core group formation f. Community organization g. Mobilization h. Evaluation i. Follow-up expansion
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