PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The goal of Philippine education is not only to promote individual welfare towards the end goal of common good. Thus, by helping our students develop harmoniously the physical, moral and intellectual faculties, we prepare them to participate actively in the life of society, and in the process, contribute to the promotion of good. (de Leon, 2005) To achieve this end, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution mandates the State to give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports. Specifically, Section 19, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution provides the legal basis for physical development: (a) The State shall promote physical education and encourages sports programs, league competition and amateur sports, including training for international competitions to foster self discipline, teamwork and excellence for the development of a health and alert citizenry. (b) All education institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. General Objectives: • Define and interpret the meaning of physical education • Help the students acquire knowledge and analyze fitness as major goal of physical education. • Develop and maintain a desirable level of physical fitness and physical competence • Accept responsibility for personal fitness leading to an active healthy lifestyle. PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEFINED: Physical education is the integral part of the whole educational program designed to promote the optimum development of the individual physically, socially, emotionally, and mentally through total body movement in the performance of properly selected physical activities (Andin, 3). Furthermore, it is a way of education through physical activities which are selected and carried on with full regard to value human growth, development and behavior. FITNESS – A major Goal of Physical Education

Objectives of Physical Education Physical Development – An individual who engages in sports and recreational activities will develop and maintain good health, high level of physical fitness and will avoid the risk of various health problems. Social Development – Activities in physical education provide opportunities for the development of desirable social traits needed for adjustment to social life. Emotional Development – The informal nature of physical education offers opportunities for self-expression and emotional mastery. Mental Development – The individual develops his mental expertise as he learns the mechanical principles underlying movement, knowledge and understanding of rules and strategies of games and sports, and ways of improving movement in gymnastics and dances.
Physical Education Program

Regular Class Program

Extra Class Program

Core Activity

Related Activity

Adapted P.E.

Intramural

Extramural

Field Mass Demo

Exhibition Group

The Physical Education Program Regular Class Program (Instructional in Nature) 1. Core Activities - the main activities which are introduced to carry out the objectives of the program. 2. Related Activities – the co-curricular activities which are scheduled to enrich the learning experience of the children. 3. Adaptive Activities – specially designed or selected activities for those learners who deviate from the normal children.

Extra Class Program (Recreational in Nature) 1. Intramurals – competition of teams within the same school. 2. Extramural – competition of teams from different school. 3. Field Mass Demonstration – a kind of activity where most if not all the children in the school take part for the purpose of informing the public of the activities in physical education.

Activities in the P.E. Program

Develo pmental

Simple Games

Rhythmic Activities

Gymnastics

Sports Type Games

Athletic Sports

Activities in P.E. Program Developmental Activities – the basic type of activities that contribute to the normal growth of the individual and enhance the development of skills. 1. Perceptual Motor Activities - it pertains to the development of the neuro (mind), muscular (muscle), coordination that helps the child manage his body. 2. Posture and Body Mechanics - Correct Posture – is the proper alignment of body segments in relation to different body positions. - Body Mechanics – it is a body exercise of movement that are intended to improve one’s posture, stamina and poise. 3. Basic Movement Skills - Locomotor Movement – Moving from one place to another. Examples: Walk – a series of steps by transferring the weight of the body from one foot to another to another. Run – it is a series of steps in a successive motion without break or intervention. Jump – to spring off the ground either in one or both feet but land on both feet.

Hop – To spring off or move with light bounding skips in one foot but land in the same foot. Skip – to move along by hopping lightly on first one foot and then the other Leap – to move by spring lightly in one foot and land in the other foot. Slide – to move over the surface while maintaining smooth continouos contact in the floor. Gallop – a movement mode of running particularly by a horse, by lifting alternately the feet in successive leaps or bounds - Non Locomotor Movements: movement that can be done in one place to another place Examples: Twisting – the rotation of a selected body part around its long axis. Bending – moving a joint. Swaying – fluidly and gradually shifting the center of gravity from one body part to another. Stretching – moving body parts way from the center of gravity Turning – rotating the body along the axis Swinging – rhythmical, smooth motion of a body part resembling a Pendulum Simple Games – refers to games that are easy to organize Rhythmic Activities – activities with regards to music or any accompaniment. Gymnastics – it is a systematic body exercise which are based on scientific principles. It is from the greek words “gumnos” or sometimes “gymnos” which means naked. Sport Type Games – also called lead up games Atheltic Sports Team Sports Individual – Dual Sports Track and Field events Swimming

PHYSICAL FITNESS The ability to carry out daily tasks comfortably with ample energy left over to meet unexpected events and emergencies. People, who are physically fit look better, feel better and possess the good health necessary for a happy and full life. The more physically fit the person is, the greater is his or her energy reserve throughout the day. It requires a commitment to live a lifestyle that includes good health habits, good nutrition, avoidance of harmful drugs, and cigarettes, management of stress, sufficient rest and sleep and regular medical and dental care. Reminder: Fitness is an individual quality that varies from person to person. It is influenced by age, sex, hereditary, personal habits, exercise and eating practices. You can’t do anything about the first 3 factors. However, it is within you power to change and improve the others when needed. Components of Physical Fitness Health-Related Components – these are the factors that affect the health and well being of a person. It is concerned with fitness training program. 1. Cardio Respiratory Endurance – the ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to function efficiently at moderate to hight intensity over extended period of time Reminder: To improve your cardio respiratory endurance, join activities that keep your heart rate elevated at a safe level for sustained length of time such as walking, swimming or bicycling. The activity you choose does not have to be strenuous to improve your cardio vascular endurance. Start slowly with an activity you enjoy, and gradually work up to a more intense phase. Physiological Benefits of cardiovascular training: a. decreased resting heart rate b. increase blood volume and red blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body c. increased aerobic capacity which allows the body cell to utilize oxygen for better work efficiency d. prevents and/or reduces the risk of developing coronary heart diseases. 2. Muscular Strength – ability of the muscles to exert maximum force. When force is repeated over time, it becomes muscular endurance. The key to making your muscle stronger is working them against a resistance, whether that is from weight or gravity. If you want to gain muscle strength, try exercise such as lifting weights or regularly taking the stairs. When you increase your strength, you’re often also increasing the size of your muscles as well as strengthening your connective tissues. This can help avoid injuries and, of course, make you stronger and healthier.

3. Muscular Endurance – ability of the muscle to continue to perform without fatigue. It is also the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time. To improve your muscle endurance, try cardio vascular activities such as walking, jogging, bicycling or dancing Categories of Strength Training 1. Static Strength Training – involves muscles that do not change in length during contraction. 1.a. Isometric Training – exercise that provides maximum contraction of muscle however, there is no observed movement or change in length of the muscle or angle of a join. Individual who do not have time to go to fitness centers or engage in a regular fitness routine may perform isometric exercise to maintain muscular strength. 2. Dynamic Strength Training – involves muscles that change in length during contraction. 2.a. Isotonic Contraction – is a type of contraction that involves alternate shortening and lengthening of muscle. The muscles contract against a resistance while the load remains constant. It generally produce strength gains throughout the full range of movement. Two basic approaches used to develop muscular strength through isotonic exercise: - callisthenic exercise – are a form of organized exercise consisting of a variety of simple movements performed without weights or equipment that are intended to increase body strength and flexibility using the weight of one’s own body for resistance. - use of free weights 2.b. Isokinetic Contraction – is similar to isotonic contraction but the muscle are exposed to fixed machines with varying degrees of resistance. Through the range of movement, resistance is equal to the force applied. Compared to free weights the use of Cyber machines are often endorsed by fitness trainers since they reduce the risk of muscle joint injury. TYPES of EXERCISE 1. Toning Muscle – where muscles contract against a resistant object with movement such as weight lifting. 2. Increasing Strength – where body gains strength without building bulk 3. Stretching – help increase flexibility and joint mobility. 4. Flexibility – ability of the muscles to move joints, which are to perform a wide range of motions without strain or injury. To improve flexibility, try activities that lengthen the muscles such as swimming, or a basic stretching program.

Fitness benefits of flexibility exercises a. Increased range of muscles joint movement b. reduced muscle stiffness and increased body relaxation c. improved blood circulation in specific body segment d. reduced incidence of injury during a major sport event e. reduced risk of cardiovascular problems in exercise 5. Body Composition – refers to the relative amount of muscle, fat, bone and other vital parts of the body. A person’s total body weight may not change overtime. Body composition is important to consider in maintaining health and manage weight. Body Types: 1. Endomorph – characterized by having round and curvaceous body, high body fat. People with this body type find it hard to lose weight. 2. Mesomorph – characterized by having large bones. The built is usually thick around the middle. 3. Ectomorph – characterized by having a lean and slender body. Looks thin and have a low body fat level. Factors about body composition in relation to sports performance: a. Excess body fats does not contribute to force production especially in sports requiring speed. It decreases acceleration. b. oxygen requirement is increased with any increment in body weight. c. Over fat athletes are disadvantaged in endurance exercises since they have low heat tolerance. Fat insulates heat in the body resulting to increase in body temperature. The quality and quantity of performance deteriorates as premature fatigue sets in.

greater skill

Skill–Related Components – These are the factors which are often the focus of sports training program 1. Speed – ability to make successive movements of the same kind or to cover a distance at a short time of period. 2. Power – the ability to release maximum force / perform one explosive muscular effort in a short period of time. It is the combination of speed and strength. 3. Balance – ability to maintain equilibrium in relation to changes in body position. In other words, this is the ability to remain stable even when moving. 4. Agility – ability of the muscle / body to change direction swiftly, easily and under control in the quickest possible time. 5. Coordination – harmonious working relationship between the skeletal muscles and nerves in one aspect of movement.

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