This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Unit II - Shell & folded plat structures
The word shell is an old one and is commonly used to describe the hard covering of eggs, crustacea, tortoises, etc. The dictionary says that the word shell is derived from the Latin scalus, as in fish scale. The shell structure is typically found in nature as well as in classical architecture. Its efficiency is based on its curvature (single or double), which allows a multiplicity of alternative stress paths and gives the optimum form for transmission of many different load types. Various different types of steel shell structures have been used for industrial purposes; singly curved shells, for example, can be found in oil storage tanks, the central part of some pressure vessels, in storage structures such as silos, in industrial chimneys and even in small structures like lighting columns. Application of shell structure in various fields Architecture and building Power and chemical engineering Structural engineering Vehicle body structures Composite construction Thin-shell structures are light weight constructions using shell elements. These elements are typically curved and are assembled to large structures. Typical applications are fuselages of aero planes, boat hulls and roof structures in some buildings. A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is small compared to its other dimensions and in which deformations are not large compared to thickness. A primary difference between a shell structure and a plate structure is that, in the unstressed state, the shell structure has curvature as opposed to plate·s structures which are flat. Membrane action in a shell is primarily caused by in-plane forces (plane stress), though there may be secondary forces resulting from flexural deformations. Where a flat plate acts similar to a beam with bending and shear stresses, shells are analogous to a cable which resists loads through tensile stresses. Though the ideal thin shell must be capable of developing both tension and compression.
Double curvature shells are either part of a dome or a hyperboloid or revolution.1) barrel vaults 2) conoid shells. Materials: Most suited: concrete.Shell & folded plat structures A shell is a 3 d structure considered with a curved membrane acting as a stretched skin.I Unit II . there are some important difficulties that can occur precisely on account of unavoidable rigidity. Types of shell structures y y y y y y y Folded plate Barrel vaults Short shells Domes Intersection shells Warped surfaces Shell arches Advantages: Attraction of elegant simplicity of curved shell forms that utilize the natural strength and stiffness of shell form with great economy in the use of material.The essential ingredients of a shell structure Disadvantages: More expensive than a part framed structure. thin membrane is made structurally possible by providing restraint at edges against bending stresses Single curvature shells Double curvature shells single curvature shells are curved on one linear axis and are part of a cylinder or cone eg.ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION . the construction of centering of shell is very high. cost of labor. highly plastic with small section. Capable of transferring loads in more than two directions to supports without bending or twisting. While rigidity and strength are in many cases desirable attributes of shell structures. reinforcement bars to follow curvature of shells 2 . Continuity and Curvature.
12 feet. straight lines which lie in the surface is made up of a network of interesting straight lines Therefore.ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION . Some advantage may be gained by increasing the thickness of the slab just at the valleys so it will act as a haunched beam and as an I section plate girder. Resulting surface is described because horizontal sections through the surface are hyperbolas and vertical sections are parabolas. Therefore. A folded plate may be formed for about the same cost as a horizontal slab and has much less steel and concrete for the same spans. Hyperbolic parabolic shell: y Is obtained by sliding a vertical parabola with upward curvature in a plane at right angles. up in one and down in other. Folded plates are not adapted to as wide bay spacing as barrel vaults. they are more adaptable to smaller areas than curved surfaces which require multiple uses of forms for maximum economy. The hyperbolic paraboloid shells designed by Felix candela of Mexico demonstrated the dramatic shapes and structural possibility of doubly curved shells. 3 . This shape is formed when a parabolic directix with the plane of the generator remaining vertical as it moves along the directrix. The plane of the first here and the curvature of the two sections will be in opposite directions.I Unit II . For widths of plate over. y y y Folded plates: The distinguishing feature of the folded plate is the ease in forming plane surfaces. The structural significance of this shape is that at every point on the surface . the thickness of the folded plate must be thicker than for a barrel vault.Shell & folded plate structures Translation shell: y It is a type of shell obtained by moving a vertical curve parallel to itself along another vertical in a plane at right angles to the plane of a sliding curve. say. centering for RCC hyperbolic paraboliod consists of thin straight sections of timber which are simple to fix and support.
The Z shell is not an efficient structural shape since it is discontinuous and its effective depth is much less than the actual vertical depth. In constructing the Z shell. The forces from the reactions of the sloping plates on these rigid frames will be quite large and at an outside column they will not be balanced by thrusts from the adjacent plates. the roof surface can be painted with aluminum so light from the sun is reflected through the windows to the ceiling and the windows need not be very large. The dimensions of the plates are dependent on both the width of the barrel and on the span. The depth of the shell should be about 0.ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION . the spans are limited in comparison to the plates having a large number of units side by side. Therefore. For example. This form has been called a Z shell and is similar to the louver used for window ventilation.10 times the span and the maximum slope of a plate should not be greater than 40 degrees. The thickness of the plates could be about 3 ½ inches. Z SHELL Each of the units in sketch has one large sloping plate and two edge plates arranged with space between the units for windows. 4 . The depth of the shell should be about 6 feet and the horizontal width of each plate with a three segment plate should be about 8 feet. The end stiffeners are rigid frames rather than deep girders as in the last example. The size of the frames may be reduced by using a steel tie between the tops of the columns which can be concealed in the fenestration. which is about 37 degrees and is satisfactory. The windows are normally open to the north but most of the light is actually reflected south light. The architectural effect is very dramatic if the structure can be shown by a cantilever projected out beyond the support. To increase this effect.Shell & folded plate structures THREE SEGMENT FOLDED PLATE This sketch shows a folded plate structure with three segments for each barrel. The slope of the plates is 6/8.I Unit II . movable forms need only be lowered a short vertical distance if construction is started on the right and proceeds to the left. Adjacent units should be tied together by structural window mullions. assume for the above structure that the span is 60 feet and the bay width is 24 feet.
The beam element that carries the load of the roof between columns will then be wider. a torsion member can be placed in the valley which will carry the unbalanced loads. Another possibility is to place the smaller depths all at one end so that the entire structure forms a circular ring. This folded plate has four segments. Stiffeners can often be hidden on the top surface so they are not in evidence and the shell will appear to spring from the vertical column. the structure is not very efficient and not suitable for long spans because of the excess height required for the large ends.I Unit II . acting as stiffening members. The height of the shells at the center of the span is the critical dimension for bending strength. EDGE SUPPORTED FOLDED PLATES The usual upturned edge plate can be eliminated and the roof structure can be made to appear very thin if the edge plate is replaced by a series of columns. Wind loads are taken by rigid frame action in the columns and stiffeners.Shell & folded plate structures CANOPIES A folded plate structure for a small canopy at the entrance of a building is shown. the transfer of loads may be difficult. If a large number of units are used in each span. At the wall of the building there should also be a stiffener hidden in the wall construction. Another weak element in this design is the transfer of shear from the small end of the triangular plate to the large end. TAPERED FOLDED PLATES Folded plate structures may be built with tapered elements and only one of the many possible combinations is shown here. A folded plate may be used for walls as a thin structural element by casting each plate flat on the floor and grouting the joints full of concrete. If it is absolutely necessary to have a two element system. A wall of this type can be made much thinner than a flat wall. This instability can be demonstrated by a paper model having the ends of the model glued to vertical pieces of cardboard. 5 . The slab between columns must be designed as a beam and it may be convenient to extend the main roof slab as a cantilever canopy.ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION . A two segment structure is not desirable because it has very little torsional resistance. Provision should be made for drainage of the center valley. Therefore.
Near the supports the thickness may be greater for containing the larger longitudinal bars. The top longitudinal compression member may require some additional thickness to form a compression member of sufficient size to carry the compression force. In contrast to folded plates where the thickness is based on the design of a slab element. BARREL VAULTS Elements of barrel vaults The structure above is a single barrel vault with edge beams. the structure is a multiple barrel structure and if more than one span. plus some space for tolerance. If these bars are all half inch rounds.Shell & folded plate structures FOLDED PLATE TRUSS The term "folded plate truss" is intended to indicate the structural action of this structure.ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION .I Unit II . The top chord of the inclined truss is formed by the ridge member. They do not necessarily have to be complete diaphragms. The thrusts from the triangular crossed arches are carried lengthwise to the ends. but may be arches with a horizontal tie. 6 . There are horizontal ties across the width only at the ends of the building and the structure acts as an edge supported shell as shown in the previous example. the thickness of the barrel shell is usually based on the minimum thickness required for covering the steel for fireproofing. Stiffeners are required at columns. a practical minimum would be 3 1/4 inches. Any numbers of continuous barrels or continuous spans are possible except that eventually provision should be made for expansion joints in a large structure. FOLDED PLATE RIGID FRAME An arch with straight segments is sometimes called a rigid frame. The bottom chords are the ties at the base of the side gables and the diagonals are formed by the sloping valleys at the intersection of the gables and the triangular plates. as shown here. Ties across the plates are required at the knees and at the crown in order to distribute the forces at the ends of each segment. The shell has been allowed to project beyond the edge of the stiffener in order to show the shape of the shell. plus the space required for three layers of bars. it is called a multiple span structure. If more than one barrel is placed side by side. It is not as efficient as the curved arch because the bending moments are greater.
The minimum shell thickness should be at the top in the center of the span.ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION . the shell thickness is increased slightly for local stresses. However. the parabola. TYPES Domes . other conic sections. other curves are also satisfactory. and it is one of the earliest of the shell structures. or random curves. They are formed by a surface generated by a curve of any form revolving about a vertical line. the edge beams are provided at the lowest point of the shell and the arch is placed on top of the shell so that forms may be moved through the barrel.I Unit II . The thickness increases toward the springing line of the arch and if not supported by an edge beam. The curve of the shell is determined by the proper shape of the arch and may be a circle for small structures or may conform to the thrust line of the arch for long span structures. At the arch. DOME A dome is a space structure covering a more or less square or circular area. The edge beams act like the folded plate structures described in the first chapter. the edge beam can be omitted if the shell is thickened. The best known example is the dome of revolution.Shell & folded plate structures BASIC ELEMENTS OF SHORT SHELLS This sketch illustrates some of the principle parts of a short shell structure: 1) the shell spanning between arches. such as the ellipse. In small structures. and 2) the arch structure. Excellent examples are still in existence that was built in Roman times. This surface has double curvature and the resulting structure is much stiffer and stronger than a single curved surface. such as a cylindrical shell. The simple dome of revolution is a portion of a sphere. the thickness here should be based on the thickness for a slab spanning the same distance. In this structure.square in plan Multiple domes Translation domes Folded plate domes Multi facet dome 7 .
Shell & folded plate structures SQUARE IN PLAN MULTIPLE DOMES 8 .ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION .I Unit II .
Shell & folded plate structures SHELL ARCHES Folded plates and cylindrical barrel shells are essentially beams. FOLDED PLATE ARCH This structure is suitable for quite long spans and forms for the concrete can be used many times because each unit can be made self-supporting. as in the folded plate rigid frame. The shearing forces are not very large in an arch so larger holes may be used than for a barrel shell. The surface is more difficult to form but the widths of the individual elements may be made greater than for the folded plate shape.ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION . Shell arches are somewhat in the same category as short shells in that the shell action is subservient to the arch action. Arches of very long span are possible because the bending moments in an arch are much less than in a beam of comparable span. The hyperbolic paraboloidal dome is really a shell arch.I Unit II . that is. BARREL ARCH This shape is similar to the folded plate shell arch except that cross sectional elements are curved instead of being made with plane surfaces. having different structural properties. There are types of shells that fit in several categories. Shells are not very efficient structures if the bending moments are high. it should fit the thrust line of the applied loads. The curve of the arch has to be generally a funicular form. As in the folded plate shapes. All of the different section shapes of folded plates are possible with this type of structure. Lighting may be obtained by using skylights. Any number of different shapes may be used. The Z shape can be used to provide north light. Placing of concrete on the steep slope at the springing of the arches may be a problem unless blown-on concrete is used or the lower portion of the shell may be precast on the ground and lifted into place. such as the corrugated shape or the north light Lazy S shape. 9 . All the thicknesses can be made quite small of an arch is used because the stresses will be principally compression. an edge plate is required for the outside member. The same cross sectional shapes can be used for arches and a new set of forms. is obtained.
Shell & folded plate structures SHELL vs.I Unit II . FOLDED PLATE STRUCTURES A shell is a three dimensional body with One of the shell dimensions is much smaller than the other two the curvature of the shell mid-surface in the current configuration is non-zero A plate is a three dimensional body with One of the plate dimensions much smaller than the other two the curvature of the plate mid-surface in the reference configuration is zero 10 .ADVANCE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.