tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopf
trSwf(1) twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

*sme,f

1

tvHawmfopf*sme,f tvHawmfopf*sme,f trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 2 1/ tvHawmfopf rmwdum 2/ tvHawmfopft,f'Dwmpum; 3 3/ tvHawmfopf tqkdtrdefYrsm; 4 - AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; 5 - a':atmifqef;pkMunf 6 - rif;ukdEkdif 7 - ukdukdBuD; 8 - t&Sif*r ÇD& 9 4/ tvHawmfopf uAsmrsm; 10 - rif;xuf 11 -ndKa&mif0dkuf 14 -armiftdk; 15 - xGef;awmufxdef 17 - edrdwfxGef; 18 - OD;0if;wif 19 - ZGefrif; 20 - ESdKif;r& 21 - va&mifrsKd;quf 22 - armif*kPf&nf 23 - Mo&o 67
2

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

5/ tvHawmfopfumwGef;rsm; -tifwmeufay:u bD&krm&JY umwGef;rsm; 24 -tdkbmrm;udk umwGef;q&mawGu tifwmeufay:rSm 'Dvdkjrifw,f . 41 6/ tvHawmfopf aqmif;yg; - ukdBuD;awm 29 - Akdvfaumif;cRef 53 - Zmenfarmif 59 7/ tvHawmfopf0x¦ K -xdyfarmifxl; 46 8/ tvHawmfopf ukd,fawGU owif;aqmif;yg; - a,mq&mBuD; 63

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

t,f'Dwm pum;
uREfkyfwdkYpkpnf;rdMuNyD/ tzd k ; wd k Y \e,f c sJ Y qef Y usif a &;? t rsd K om;vG w f a jrmuf a&; a&Ta'gif;awmif uavmifudk vufqihfurf; qkyfudkif&if; Nidrf;csrf;a&;? vlYtcGifhta&; wdkufyGJrsm; twGif; uREfkyfwdkY pkpnf; rdMujyD/ eu farSmi faom ppfuRef acw fBuD; ay: wGif &J &J eDao m tr d cGyfa'gif; aoG;rsm; okwfvdrf;í vnf;aumif;? jzLpif &dk;om; Nidrf;csrf;aom awmifyHrsm;udkwzsyfzsyf &dkufcwfívnf;aumif;? uREkfyfwdkY pkpnf;rdMuNyD/ wuf<u Edk;Mum; vmaom jynfolrsm;aMumifh vnf; au mif;? tm Pm&Sifpepf\ oaE¨ygtkyfcsKyfa&;nhHrsm;aMumihfvnf;aumif;? EdkifiHwum \ xda&mufaom ydwfqdkYrIrsm;aMumifh vnf;aumif;? tmPm&SifwdkY\ jc pm; xm;aom cHwkwfusif;rsm; twGif; wyfysuf AdkvfcsKyfBuD;rsm;onfaemufqHk; xG u f o uf u d k u a,mif u wrf ; &S L ½I d u f a e&aomtcsd e f u mvtwG i f ; uGsEfkyfwdkYpkpnf;rdMujyD/ uREf k y f w d k Y o nf ,Of a us;rI p pf r suf E S m ud k zG i f h u m tmPm&S i f pepfudk pdrfac:&if; þ tvHawmfopf atmufwGifuREfkyfwdkY pkpnf;rdMuNyD/

t,f'DwmtzGJY
3

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopf tqdktrdefYrsm;

-

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; a':atmifqef;pkMunf rif;udkEdkif udkudkBuD; t&Sif*rD Ç&

4

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

]]vlawGu wifajr§mufNyD; vlawG&JU tusKd;vkyfudkvkyfwJh vlawG&JU tpdk;&omvQif 'Drkdua&pD jzpfEdkifr,f/ tjcm;[mawG[m 'Drdkua&pDtppf rjzpfEdkifbl;/ twkawGom jzpfw,f/.. }} AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;

5

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

taumif;qHk;udkarQmfvifh tqdk;qHk;udk&ifqdkifzdkYjyifqif atmifqef;pkMunf

6

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

]] wpf z uf o wf v k y f a qmif r I r S e f o rQud k uRef a wmf w k d Y vufcHrSm r[kwfovkd iHkYcHrSmvnf; r[kwfbl;}} rif;udkEdkif (88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;)

7

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

]] aMumufaMumuf ½GHU½GHU xdwfxdwfvefYvefYeJY aeae&wJh b0awGuae vGwfajrmufzdkYtwGuf vGwfvyfwJh Nidrf;csrf;wJh b0 awG cHpm;EdkifzdkYtwGuf uRefawmfwdkY wpfOD;csif;&JUvGwfvyfrIawGudk ay;qyfypf r,f? paw;ypfr,f }} udkudkBuD; (88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;)

8

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

]]usKyfbufuawmh tm;vHk;udktepfemcH pGefYvTwfcJNyD;ygNyD/tjyifrSm½SdaeMuwJh wumawmfBuD; awGtaeeJYudk,fhwm0efudk,f aus>yefbkdYvdkw,f. .}} q&mawmf t½Sif*rÇD& (tusOf;axmifwGif;rS ay;ydkYvdkufaom trSmpum;)
9

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopf uAsmrsm;
- rif;xuf . - ndKa&mif0dkuf - armiftdk; . - xGef;awmufxdef - edrdwfxGef; - Od;0if;wif . - EdIif;r& . - va&mifrsdK;quf - armif*kPf&nf. - ZGefrif; - Mo&o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aoewfajymif;0rSm yGifhr,fhyef;awG rdk;MudK;oHrsm; zdeyfuav;awG&JY tem*wf EdkifiHawmfoHuGif;qufrsm; uvd,k*fnD;csif; usm;&J aoG;om;xJu awmfvSefa&; &efukefrSm &GmwJhrdk; aeqdkwm 0ifudk0if&r,f uefYaumfwef;rSm vrf;avQmufol

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

aoewfajymif;0rSmyGifhr,fh yef;awG

uA

odpdwfrSm. . . trSefw&m;vdkY qdkMuygpdkY. . . / wdkYacwfrSm. . . trSefw&m;[m b,fawmhrS rdk;rvif;cJhbl; nDav; . ./ ‘acwf&JU vljzpf&usKd;eyf&jcif;awG rif; ausmydk;tdwfxJ ygoGm;wmawG[m acwfwpfacwf&JU zGifhrajymvdk jcif;awGvm;. . ./ rif;aqmif;xm;wJh OD;xkyfav;[m rif;tar&JU rsuf&nfawGeJY &ufxm;wJhvm; nDav;&,f. . ./ wdkYwawGtwGuf w&m;rQwjcif;aumif;uif[m arSmifvGef;vSygw,f/ pdwfrcsbl; nDav;. . . a½SUudk odyfrxGufeJY nDav;. . . cPav;a½Smifaeaemf nDav;. . .

rif;xuf

sm

]] ‘DaumifawG odyfvufwH½Snfw,faemf}} nDav;. . . tJh'Dvdk pum;oHawGMum;xJ ]]oGm;awmhr,f. .udkBuD;}}wJh trSefw&m; vli,fav;wpfa,muf&JU Zmwfodrf;[m . . .'Dvkdvm;/ uRefawmf vkyfawmhr,f tpfudk uRefawmfha½SUutpfudkawGudk vdyfjymrvHkbl; tpfudk uRefawmfjzpfatmif vkyfawmhr,f tpfudk tJh'Dvdk pum;oHawGMum; . . . wdkYwawG b0[m usD;vefYpmpm;. ./ uRefawmf vkyfawmhr,f tpfudk uRefawmhfa½SUu tpfudkawGudk vdyfjymrvHkbl;tpfudk uRefawmfjzpfatmif vkyfawmhr,f tpfudk tJh'Dvdk pum;oHawGMum;. . . wdkYwawGb0[m usD;vefYpmpm;. . ./

tvHawmfopf*sme,f acwfpepfqdk;&JUatmuf wdkY&JU trSefw&m;[m b,fawmhtcgrsm;rSm yJGxGufcGifh&rSmvJ nDav;. ./ wu,fawmh nDav;&m . . . wdkYb0? wkdYacwfuudku trSefw&m; om;ysufom;avQmb0BuD;qdkwm rajymvJ wdkYtm;vHk; odcJhygw,f nDav;. . ./ ‘'Dtwdkif;NidrfcHae. . . ‘'Dtwdkif;jzpfawmhrSmaygh udkBuD;&m rif;pum; rif;xm;oGm;NyD;vm;/ rifhnDav; ]]tvkyf}} ½Smay;vdkufygom;&,f. . . rifhnDav; pdwfavaew,f om;&,f . . . wu,fawmh rsKd;qufwpfqufvHk; awayavvGifhaecJh&wmyg ]]tar}} vdkY ig rajym&ufcJhbl;. .. ajym&vQif ]]tar}}&,f om;wkdYacwf[m b,favmufxd yg;vSyfcJhovJqdk udk,fht&dyfudk,f jyefrMunfh&Jbl;tar. . ./ b'´urÇmrSm. . . trSefudk trSeftwdkif;ajym&vQif ]]axmifuswm}}

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 om;wkdYwpfEdkifiHyJ½Sdw,ftar. ./ vlYtcGifhta&;pum;ajym&if ]]e,fESifcH&wm}} om;wdkYwpfEdkifiHyJ½Sdw,ftar. . ./

uA

vdkcsifwmudk tMurf;rzufbJ qkawmif;rdvdkY tMuifemrJhqHk; qkvmbfjzpfwJh usnffqHawG om;wdkY vufaqmif&cJhygw,f/

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tara&. . . tar. . . om;wdkYEdkifiH&JU vrf;rwdkif;rSm om;wdkYtm;vHk;&JU aoG;awG½Sdw,ftar om;wkdY ESvHk;aoG;awGeJY a[m'D rvGwfajrmufEdkifao;wJh EdkifiHudk wpfpufcsif; 0dkif;ywfxm;w,ftar zdESdyfolawG ajy;p&majrr½Sdatmif 0dkif;ywfxm;w,ftar olwdkY aoewfajymif;0rSm yef;awGyGifhvmwJhtxdaygh. . ./ rif;xuf

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

rdk;BudK;oHrsm;
ndKa&mif0dkuf
yJjyKwfonfvnf; yJjyKwfonftavQmuf b0awG tcsdefpD;rpD; csdefcGifeJY csdefwwfcJhNyD ppftpdk;&u aumif;wmvm;?'Drdkua&pDu aumif;wmvm; yJa½G;ovdk a½G;cs,fwwfcJhNyD NidrfcHae&if b,fvkdjzpfoGm;rvJ uefYuGuf[efYwm;&if b,fvkdjzpfvmrvJ t½HI;tjrwf cJGjcm;wGufwwfcJhNyD vrf;wumvSnfhNyD; ]]yJjyKwf}} vdkY atmfovdk b0twGuf b,fvdkatmf&rvJqdkwmvnf; tqifoifhjzpfcJhNyD/ qdkufum;orm;vnf; qdkufum;orm;tavQmuf b0awGudk b,fauGU&rvm; nmauGU&rvm; cJGjcm;em;vnfcJhNyD ppftpdk;&udk wifac:oGm;&rSmvm; jynfolvlxkudk wifac:oGm;&rSmvm; c&D;onf a½G;ovdk cJGjcm;a½G;cs,fwwfcJhNyD vrf;qdk;udk a½SmifNyD; vrf;aumif;rSm eif;cJhovdkrsKd; b0twGuf b,fvrf;udk a½G;eif;&rvJ qkdwmvnf; tqifoifhjzpfcJhNyD &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;ESifhtwl wkdif;&if;om;rsm;? ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; tvkyform;rsm; v,form;rsm;

uA

sm

pma&;pmcsD ukefonfyJGpm;rsm; ynm½Sifrsm; vufvkyfvufpm;rsm; qif;&Jolqif;&Jom;rsm; jynfolvlxkBuD; wpf&yfvHk;[mvnf; "r®qdkwm bmvJ t"r®qdkwm bmvJ i&Jqdkwm bmvJ edAÁmefqdkwm bmvJ cJGjcm; odjrif pdwf"mwfpGrf;tifawG tqifoifh jzpfaeMuNyD/ {&m0wDjrpfa&vdIif;awG oufaownf ½dk;rawmifwef;awG oufaownf vmNyD Armjynf[m urÇmwnfatmif armfuGef;topf a&;xkd;jyawmhrnf/ ndKa&mif0dkuf

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

zdeyfav;awG&JU tem*wf
armiftdk;
&ifeifhaMuuJGp&m jrifuGif;ygyJ zdeyfawG. . . zdeyfav;awG. . upifhuvsm; vTifhpifjyefYBuJ wcsKdUu. . b,fnmtpHk wcsKdUu. . b,fwpfzufwnf; wcsKdUu. . nmwpfzufwnf; t½G,fpHk. .tBuD;tvwftao; ta&mifpHk. . tjzLteDtndKtjym uwå&mvrf;ay:rSm yvufazmif;awGay:rSm bkef;BuD;ausmif;0ef;xJrSm wcsKdUu yufvuf wcsKdUu arSmufvQuf\ wcsKdUu oJBudK;av;awG jywfxGuf [dkvTifh'DvTifhjyefYMuJ rdk;a&xJrSm. . . acR;awGxJrSm. . . tvkd xdwfvefYp&m aoG;uGufaoG;tkdifxJrSm. . . [dkrSm tJh'g trsKd;orD;zdeyfyJ [dkrSm tJh'g trsKd;om;zdeyfyJ [dkrSm tvkd. .oHCmawmfpD;zdeyfyJ. . . (a[h . .ajymprf;yg. .ajymjyprf;yg

uA

&ifeifhaMuuJGp&m jrifuGif;ygyJ zdeyfawG. . . zdeyfav;awG. . upifhuvsm; vTifhpifjyefYBuJ wcsKdUu. . b,fnmtpHk wcsKdUu. . b,fwpfzufwnf; wcsKdUu. . nmwpfzufwnf; t½G,fpHk. .tBuD;tvwftao; ta&mifpHk. . tjzLteDtndKtjym uwå&mvrf;ay:rSm yvufazmif;awGay:rSm bkef;BuD;ausmif;0ef;xJrSm wcsKdUu yufvuf wcsKdUu arSmufvQuf wcsKdUu oJBudK;av;awG jywfxGuf [dkvTifh'DvTifhjyefYMuJ rdk;a&xJrSm. . . acR;awGxJrSm. . . tvkd xdwfvefYp&m aoG;uGufaoG;tkdifxJrSm. . .

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f
[dkrSm tJh'g trsKd;orD;zdeyfyJ [dkrSm tJh'g trsKd;om;zdeyfyJ [dkrSm tvkd. .oHCmawmfpD;zdeyfyJ. . . (a[h . .ajymprf;yg. .ajymjyprf;yg zdeyfydkif½SifawG. .b,fa&mufoGm;NyDvJ. . zdeyfydkif½SifawG. .b,fa&mufoGm;NyDvJ. .) (yJhwifoHawG jyefMum;vdkuf& a&m*gcyfodrf; . .uif;Nidrf;Muygap. . ‘ku©cyfodrf;. .uif;Nidrf;Muygap. . vltcsif;csif;ESdyfpufjcif;. .uif;a0Muygap. .) (yJhwifoHawG xyfrHNyD;jyefMum;vdkuf& qJoHqdkoH. .½dkufESufoHawG. . ypfoHcwfoH. .owfjzwfoHawG. . .) zdeyfav;awG ydkif½SifrJh zdeyfav;awGav tJh’D zdeyfav;awGu tjzpftysuf taMumif;pHkudk ajymjyMuvdrfhr,f/ olwkdYu odw,f ½dk;om;rIawGudk odw,f ,kwfrmrIawGudk odw,f olawmfpifrIawGudk odw,f rdpäm’d|dawGudk odw,f “r®rIawGudk odw,f trIawGudk odw,f olwdkY ajymjyMuvdrhfr,f/ olwdkYu odw,f jynfoltppfudkodw,f jynfoltwkudk odw,f ausmif;om;tppfudk odw,f ausmif;om;twkudk odw,f oHCmawmftppfudk odw,f oHCmawmftwkudk odw,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

olwdkY ajymjyMuvdrfhr,f/ owkdYu tm;vHk;odw,f vlYtcGifhta&;udkodw,f ‘Drdkua&pDa&;udk odw,f jynfolYawmfvSefa&;udk odw,f atmifjrifr,fh vlawGudk odw,f usqHk;r,fhvlawGudk odw,f/ zdeyfav;awGudk av;jrwfMuyg. . . &mZ0ifopftaMumif;udk ajymjyr,hf zdeyfav;awG EdkifiHawmfopftaMumif;udk ajymjyr,fh zdeyfav;awG acR;pGef;aewJh aoG;pGef;aewJh ydkif½SifrJh tem*wf&JU zdeyfav;awG/ / armiftdk;

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

EdkifiHawmfopf oHuGif;rsm;

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

uvd,k*f nnf;csif;

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

usm;&J

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

uefYaumfwef;rSmvrf;avQmufol
ZGefrif;
a&mifjyefrsm;pGmeJYjc,frIef; o&kyfyDvGef;aewJYreufcif;wpfck ,nfaus;rIacwfwpfck xkqpfjyaeav&JU/ tJ'Do&kyfazmfuGufxJ pygwmuwfol&Jaumif;awG&JU a<u;aMumfoHeJU eD&kd&JUAsyfapmif;oHudkvnf; Mum;&avowJU/ tJ'Dwkef;.... [dk;....wbufu Munfpifat;jr pmtHoHwydkif;wp Mum;vdkuf&w,f ]yef;uav;rsm;yGifhawmhrnf zl;wH0ifhvdkUcsD aejcnfrSma&T&nfavmif; igwdkUpmoifausmif;] wJU/ aMomf...eifhueJ b0wuodkvf&JUuHhaumfwef; igavQmufvSrf;aewmygvm;/ ZGefrif;

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

aoG;om;xJu awmfvSefa&;pdwf
rw&m;rSKukd iYkHrcH tmPm&Sifukd wGef;vSefzkdY igwkdYvljzpfcJh/ yxr ... tzkd; ... zufqpfukdarmif;xkwf ukdvkdeDukd tjyKwfwkdufzkdY &J&J0hH0HheJY ppfwvif;ukdxGufcJhw,f/ opfyifrSmvufjyefBudK;wkwf ta&pkwfatmifESdyfpufvnf; wkefvSKyfrSKuif;pGm tHukdBudwf aoonftxdwkdufyGJ0if &mZ0ifukdaoG;eJYa&;cJhw,f/ 'kwd, ... taz ... tmPm&SifukdjzKwfcs 'Drkdua&pD vlxkwkdufyGJrSm &J&Jawmufpdwf"gwfeJY a&SUwef;uyg0ifcJhw,f/ vufwpfqkyfpm acG;wpftkyf&JU vlrqefwJhvkyf&yf &uf&ufpufpuf armif;jzKwftcsrSm olvnf;yg0if &mZ0ifukdaoG;eJYa&;cJhw,f/ wwd, ... uRefawmf ... tzkd;eJYtazwkdY&JU rNyD;qkH;ao;wJhwkdufyGJ[m taoG;tom;xJukd qufvufpD;qif;w,f/

ppfrSefwJh Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf ppfrSefwJh 'Drkdua&pDa&;twGuf ppftmPm&SifukdjzKwfcszkdY &mZ0ifukd aoG;eJYa&;oifh&ifvnf; a&;r,f/

/

ESdKif;r&

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

&efukefrSm &GmwJhrdk;
Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;ray:u aoG;awGudk b,fawmhrS aq;aMumypfvdkY r&bl;/ a½Twd*Hk ta½SUzufrk’fa½SUu aoG;awGudk b,fawmhrS aq;aMumypfvdkY r&bl;/ ql;avbk&m;vrf;ay:u aoG;awGudk b,fawmhrS aq;aMumypfvdkY r&bl;/ pufwifbmv[m &efukefNrdKUBuD;ay: urÇmausmf aoG;rdk;awG ½GmoGef;cJhaygh// va&mifrsKd;quf

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

aeqdkwm 0ifudk0if&r,f
wpfnae. . . uRefawmfeJY uRefawmfhom;eJY vrf;avQmufaewkef; om;u ajymw,f ]]azaz. . .aevHk;BuD;u Munfhae&if;eJY ajrBuD;xJ 0ifoGm;NyD ae0ifoGm;&if aMumufp&mBuD;aemf arSmifrnf;aewmyJ. . .}}wJh uRefawmfu jyefajymw,f ]]ighom; ae0ifrSmudk raMumufeJY aer0ifrSmudkom aMumuf bmjzpfvdkYvJqdkawmh aer0if&if urÇmysufNyD tJ’Dawmh urÇmrysufzdkYtwGuf obm0w&m;udku ae0ifatmifudk vkyfay;xm;w,f aeqdkwm 0ifudk0if&r,f ighom; aeqdkwm 0ifudk0if&r,f. . .}} arSmifBuD;xJrSm uRefawmfwdkYom;tzESpfa,muf tawG;udk,fpDeJY vrf;qufavQmufaeMuw,f/ armif*kPf&nf

uA

sm

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

usaemfwdkY zwfvdkuf&wJh

tifwmeufay:u

bD&krm &JY umwGef;rsm;

24

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tifwmeufay:u

bD&krm &JY umwGef;rsm;

25

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tifwmeufay:u

bD&krm &JY umwGef;rsm;

26

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tifwmeufay:u

bD&krm &JY umwGef;rsm;

27

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tifwmeufay:u

bD&krm &JY umwGef;rsm;

28

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopfaqmif;yg;

;

cifAsm;wdkY etz ppfacgif;aqmifawGudk ,Hkvm;
udkBuD;awm

29

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

cifAsm;wdkY

etz ppfacgif;aqmifawG udk,Hkvm;
ajymp&m½Sdwm awGudk 'Jh'dk;ajymwwfw,f/ ar;p&m½Sdwm awGudkvJ 'Jh'dk;yJ ar;wwfw,f/ tckvJ usKyfajymcsifar;csifwJh tcsufav;awGudk vdk&if;wdk½Sif;yJ ajymrSm ar;rSmyg/

1/
usKyfwkdYEkdifiH&JY vuf½SdEdkifiHa&; taMumif;udk usKyfenf;enf;ajymcsifw,f/ usKyfu ½Sif;½Sif;bGif;bGif;yJajymwwf w,f/ pum;vHk;vSvSav;awGeJY wefqmqifNyD;awmhvJ rajymwwf bl;/ oHcif;wrHcif; pum;awGvdk oG,fum0dkufumvJ rajymwwfbl;/
30

b,favmuftxd aumufuspf vSnfhzsm;vdrfnmcJhMuovJ qdkwmudk jyefMunfhMuzdkY vdkr,f/
t&ifqHk; usKyfbmrS rajymcif cifAsm;wdkYudk

tvHawmfopf*sme,f ar;cGef;wpfck BudKar;r,f/ cifAsm;wdkY pdwfxJrSm½SdwJh twdkif; vdk&if;wdk½Sif;yJ trSeftwdkif;ajz. . ./ ]]cifAsm;wdkY etz ppfacgif;aqmifawGudk ,Hkvm;. .}}

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tmPmodrf;NyD;aemufrSm Adkvfapmarmifu ]]tmPmudk jynfolYvufxJ jyeftyfrSmyg}} ]]uRefawmfwdkY u ppfwef;vsm;udk jyefrSmyg}} vdkY ajymcJhw,f/

qdkwmudk jyefMunfhMuzdkY vdkr,f/ ]] 88}} vlxktHk<urI ta&;tcif;BuD;rSm &[ef;oHCmausmif;olausmif;om;jynfol vlxkBuD; udk &uf&ufpufpuf ypfowfcJhMuw,f/ ½dkufESufzrf;qD;NyD; axmifoGif; tusOf;cs cJhMuw,f/ 'gayr,fh. vlxkBuD;&JU awmfvSeftHk<urIBuD;u ydkNyD; BuD;xGm;vmw,f/ wpfEdkifiHvHk; twkdif;twmeJY BuD;rm;us,f jyefYvmw,f/ olwdkY vHk;0 rxdef;csKyfEdkifawmhbl;/ tJh'DrSm olwdkYbmvkyfcJhMuovJ/ xHk;pHtwdkif;. . . ]]wdkif; jynfBuD; acsmufxJusawmhrSm jzpfwJh twGufaMumifh rvJTra½SmifomvdkY tmPmudk ,lvdkuf&wmyg. .}} vdkY qifajcay; ajymqkdvdkY&atmif vkyf,lawmhwmyJ/ olwdkY tmPmodrf;,lvdkY aumif;zdkYtwGuf wdkif;jynfBuD; ydkNyD; ½IwfaxG;ysufpD;atmif
31

2/
vuf½Sd etz ppfacgif;aqmifawG&JU vkyf&yfordkif;aMumif;udk jyefMunfhzdkYvdkr,f/ olwdkY b,favmuf xd rdkuf½dkif;,kwfrm &ufpufcJhMuovJqdkwmeJY b,favmuftxd aumufuspf vSnfhzsm;vdrfnmcJhMuovJ

tvHawmfopf*sme,f olwdkYyJ zefwD;jyKvkyfcJhwmyJ/ t½Sif;qHk;eJY txif½Sm;qHk; tcsuf(2)csufudkyJ ajymr,f/ wpfcsufu. .qef*dkaxmifawG puf½Hktvkyf½HkawG ½Hk;awGxJudk olwdkY ppfom;awGuyJ t&ifqHk; 0ifw,f/

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 aemufwpfcsufu acgif;jzwfowfMuwJh udpö/ tJh'gvJ olwdkYyJ tJ'DvdkrsKd;jzpfatmif zefwD;cJhMuwmyJ/ qE´jy csDwufaeMuwJh vltkyfBuD;udk axmufvSrf;a&;awGu tqdyfcwfae

olwdkYvdkcsifwJh qefawG? ypönf;awGudk olwdkY ppfom;awGuyJ o,fxkwfoGm;w,f/ NyD;awmh 'Dtwdkif; [mvm[if;vif;xm;cJhw,f/ tJh'DtcsdefrSm qif;&JiwfjywfaewJh jynfolawGu 0if,lw,f/ jynfolawG0if,lawmh olwkdYu ypfowfw,f/ (tJh'guawmh r,Hkr½SdeJY? usKyfudk,fwdkif rsufjrifudk,fawGU) NyD;awmh olwdkYu b,fvdk aMujimovJ/ rif;rJhp½dkufawG jzpfaeNyDvdkY olwdkYuyJ pwifaMujimawmhwmyJ/

MuNyDvdkY olwdkYuyJ owif;jzefY w,f/ NyD;awmh olwdkY zefwD;jyKvkyfxm;wJh "m;pmcHawGudk vufñId;xdk;jyNyD; ]]tJh'g axmufvSrf;a&;awG}} ]]tJh'g tqdyfcyfwJhaumifawG}} vkdYolwkdYukd,fwkdif vufnSKd;xkd;jyw,f/ tJh'DrSm rauseyfcsufawGeJY a'goxGufaeMuwJh jynfolawGu pdwfrxdef;EdkifMuawmhbJ acgif;jzwfowfypfMuw,f/ NyD;awmh. . ]]rif; rJhp½dkufawG jzpfaeukefMuNyD}}
32

tvHawmfopf*sme,f ]]acgif;jzwfowfaeMuNyD}}vdkY olwdkYuyJ aMujimw,f/ usKyfqdkvdkcsifwmu. .rif;rJhp½dkufawGjzpfNyD; olwkdY tmPmodrf;,lvdkY&atmif olwdkYudk,fwdkifu uvdefuuspf zefwD;jyKvkyfcJhMuwmyJ/

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 Adkvfapmarmifwpfa,mufawmh wpfaeY 'ku©vSvS awGUvdrhfr,fvdkY/ xifwJhtwdkif;yJ ]] uRefawmfwdkYu ppfwef;vsm;udk jyefoGm;rSmyg}} vdkY ajymcJh uwday;cJhwJh Adkvfapmarmifwpfa,muf pnf;0dkif;xJuae r½IrvS uefxkwfcHvkduf&w,f/ vuf½Sd ppfacgif;aqmifawGu tmPmudk jynfolYvufxJ jyefay;csifwmrS r[kwfwm/ ppfwef;vsm;udk jyefrSmrS r[kwfwm/ Adkvfapmarmif uefxkwfcH&wmaygh/

]] 1990 ckESpf a½G;aumufyJG&v'f [m tusKH;r0ifawmhygbl;/}} vdkY ajymvdkY&atmif. . .
vkd&if;tcsufawGudkyJ usKyfqufajymr,f/ tmPmodrf;NyD;aemufrSm Akdvfapmarmifu]]tm PmukdjynfolYvufxJjyeftyfrSmyg}} ]]uRefawmfwkdYuppfwef;vsm;ukdjyefrSmyg}} vkdY ajymcJhw,f/ (Adkvfapmarmifu pdwf&if;trSeftwdkif;yJ ajymcJhajymcJh/ vSnfhzsm;zdkYtwGuf vdrfnmNyD;awmhyJ ajymcJhajymcJh/ tJh'gu wpfydkif;yJ/ ) bmyJjzpfjzpf olajymcJhwmu w&m;0ifpum;yJ/ jrefrmwifr[kwfbl;? urÇmuyg odwJhpum;yJ/ tJh'D pum;ajymvdkufuwnf;u usKyfwdkYu BudKNyD; wGufNyD;om;? jrifNyD;om;/

33

tvHawmfopf*sme,f tJh'Dtcsufu wkdif;jynfeJY jynfolawGtay:rSm opömazmufvdkufwJh tcsufyJ/ aemuf. .AdkvfcifnGefYudpö/ AdkvfcifnGefYu a':atmifqef;pkMunfudk ]]nDrav;wpfa,mufvdk oabm xm;yg w,f}}vdkY ajymcJhzl;w,faemf/ tJh'Dpum;av;u awmfawmfta&;ygwJh pum;av;yg/ aemufNyD;. . AdkvfcifnGefYu olYvufaxmuft&m½SdBuD; ESpfOD;oHk;OD;ukd wrefawmf tjzpfcefYNyD; a':atmifqef;pkMunfeJY vQKdY0SufawGUqHkaqG;aEG;a&;vkyfw,f/ tJh'DrSmjyóemu pawmhwmygyJ/ usKyf AdkvfcifnGefYudk trTef;wifaewm

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 r[kwfbl;aemf/ AdkvfcifnGefY&JU vkyf&yf[m usKyfwdkYjynfolawGtwGuf aumif;usKd;vJ jzpfcsifvJjzpfr,f/ qdk;usKd;vJ jzpfcsifjzpfr,f/ tJh'g oD;oefYudp ö /bmyJjzpfjzpf AkdvfcifnGefY&JY vkyf&yf[m tedrfhqkH;tqifhtaeeJY

&[ef;oHCmawmfawGudk aoewfeJY ypfowfMuw,f/ 0g;&if;wkwfeJY½dkufNyD; zrf;qD;axmifcs cJhMuw,f/ NyD;awmh. .
'Drkdua&pDvrf;aMumif;zufukd rsufESmrlwJh vkyf&yfvkdY ,lqvkdY&w,f/tJh'DrSm. . jynfolawG&JU 'Drdkua&pD vrf;aMumif;zufudk rsufESmrlwmav;awmifrBudKufwJh vuf½Sdetzppfacgif;aqmifawGu AdkvfcifnGefYudk uefxkwf ypfvkdufawmhwmyJ/ aemuf. .trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzJGUcsKyfudpö/ 1990 ckESpfrSm jynfolu w&m;0if a½G;cs,fwifa`r§muf vdkufwJh trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGUcsKyf udpö/ tJh'D trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pD tzJGUcsKyf &iffqdkifMuHKawGUae&wJh 'ku©aygif;pHkuawmh

34

tvHawmfopf*sme,f pMu0Vmtod urÇmod cifAsm;wdkYvJ todyJ/ etz ppfacgif;aqmifawGu trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pD tzJGUcsKyfay:rSm yHko@meftrsKd;rsKd;eJY rdkuf½dkif;,kwfrm

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 qHk;rSmr[kwfbl;/ ukefrSmawmif r[kwfbl;/ 1990 ckESpfuae tckxd tESpf (20) vHk;vHk; ]] 1990 ckESpf a½G;aumufyJG&v'f [m tusKH;r0ifawmhygbl;}} vdkY ajymvdkY&atmif

em*pfrkefwdkif; 'PfcH vdkuf&wJh ½GmawGrSmqdkvQif qE´cH,lyJGusif;yw,fqkdwm udkawmif rodvdkufMubl; . . olwdkYawGtm;vHk;u axmufcHrJawGjzpfukefw,f/
&ufpufcJhyHkawGudka&m? yHko@meftrsKd;rsKd;eJY aumufuspfvSnfhzsm;vdrfnmcJhykHawGudka&m wpfckcsif; wef;pDNyD; ajymjy&r,fqdk&ifawmh yHko@mef trsKd;rsKd;eJY vdrfnm aumufuspfNyD; tcsdefqJGcJh w,f/ tJh'D tESpf(20) vHk;vHk; a':atmifqef;pkMunfupNyD; tzJGUcsKyf A[kdvlBuD;awG? ygwD0if trwfawG? ygwD0ifvlBuD;awG? ygwD0if vli,fawGtay:rSm yHko@meftrsKd;rsKd;eJY rdkuf½dkif;,kwfrm &ufpufcJhMuw,f/ usKyfujyefajymjyzdkYawmifrvdkbl;/ cifAsm;wdkY taotcsm jyefpOf;pm;MunfhNyD; rsufvHk;xJu jyefjrifMunfh/ cifAsm;wdkY rsufvHk;xJrSm
35

tvHawmfopf*sme,f etzppfacgif;aqmifawG&JU &ufpuf,kwfrm vdrfnmaumufuspfyHkawG wpfuGuf csif; wpfuGufcsif; wpfckcsif; wpfckcsif; tukefvHk; pkNyHKNyD; jyef0ifvmvdrfhr,f/ jyefjrifvmvdrfhr,f/ jynfolu cspfwJhjynfolY acgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pkMunfudk tmPmvJTay;&rSmaMumufawmh a':atmifqef;pkMunftay:rSm aumufuspf&ufpufcJhyHkawG[m Mocsavmufw,f/ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDt zJGUcsKyftaMumif;eJY ywfouf vdkYuawmh. .'DavmufeJYyJ &yfxm;vdkufr,f/ aemuf. .rif;udkEdkif? udkudkBuD;. .tp½SdwJh ]]88}} rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;udpö/ wdkif;jynfBuD;wkd;wuf aumif;rGefzdkYtwGuf wdkif;jynfBuD; 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfBuD;jzpfzdkY twGuf udk,fusKd;pGefYtepfemcHNyD; BudK;BudK; pm;pm; tvkyfvkyfaeMuwJh vli,fawG/ vufeufqdkvdkY tyfwdkwpfacsmif;awmif rudkifbJ ½dk;½dk;om;om; Nidrf;Nidrf;csrf;csrf; wdkif;jynftwGuf tvkyfvkyfaeMuwJhvli,fawG/ wdkif;jynf&JU

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tem*wf acgif;aqmifawG/ a[m. . .olwdkYtmPm vufvTwf&rSmaMumufawmh. .tJh'Dausmif;om;vli,ftkyfpkudk yHko@mef trsKd;rsKd; eJY 'ku©ay;? aESmifh,Suf[efYwm;? tjypfwiftykwfcs? Ncdrf;ajcmufwdkufcdkuf? yk'frtrsKd;rsKd;wyf axmifcs vkyfawmhwmyJ/ tck aemufqHk; yk'frtBuD;BuD;awGwwfNyD; axmif'PfESpf½SnftBuD;BuD;awG csvdkufawmh wmyJ/ tJh'DvdkyJ. . OD;cGefxGef;OD; tp½SdwJh wdkif;&if;om;acgif;aqmiftawmfrsm;rs m;udkvnf; yk'fr tBuD;BuD; awG wyfNyD; axmif'PfESpf½SnftBuD;BuD;awG csvdkufawmhwmyJ/ aemuf. .2007ckESpf .. a½T0ga&mifoHCmta&;awmfyHkudpö/ usKyfwdkYEdkifiH[m urÇmrSm Ak'¨bmom txGef;um;qHk;EdkifiHaemf/ Ak'¨bmomEdkifiHaemf/ &[ef;oHCmawmfawGqdkwmvnf;
36

tvHawmfopf*sme,f Ak'¨&JUom;awmfawGaemf/ tJh'D Ak'¨&JU om;awmf&[ef;oHCmawmfawGu. .'ku©trsKd;rsKd;eJY qif;&JiwfjywfaewJh jynfolawG zufuae &yfwnfNyD; Nidrf;Nidrf;csrf;csrf;eJY jynfolawG&JU qE´udk awmif;qdkay;cJhwmaemf/ &[ef;oHCmawmfawGu aoewf udkifqJGNyD; ykefuefwdkufcdkufaewmr[kwfbl;/

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

olwdkYu b,fvdkaMujimcJhMuvJ/ tJh'gawG[m &[ef;oHCmtwkawGwJh/ uJ. . b,fvkdvkyfMurvJ/ b,fvdkpum;vHk;awGeJY a0zefMurvJ/ aemuf. .qufajymr,f/ zJGUpnf;yHktajccHOya'udpö/ olwdkYtmPmqufNyD; wnfjrJaezdkYtwGuf olwdkYtvdkawmf&dawGeJY olwdkY pdwfBudKufa&;qJGxm;wJhtajccHOy a'/ jynfolYudk,fpm;vS,ftppfawG wpf a,mufrS ryg0ifbJ a&;qJGxm;wJh tajccHOya'/ tJh'DtajccHOya'udk vlxkqE´cH,lyJG usif;yowJh/ 92.84% qdkvm; axmufcHrI&owJh/ tHha&myJ/ ajAmifvdrfwJh urÇmausmf vdrfvnfrIBuD;yJ/ olwkdYajymovdkqdk jynfol tm;vHk;eD;yg;u axmufcHvdkufw,fqdkwJhoabmyJ/ jyefpOf;pm;MunfhMu/ {&m0wDwdkif;rSm AHk;axmifazmufcJGzsufqD;a&; vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;/ arwåmokwf½GwfqdkNyD; em*pfrkefwdkif; Nidrf;Nidrf;csrf;csrf;eJY qE´jyawmif;qdkaeMuwm/ rdvdkY jynfolawG odef;eJYcsDaoNyD; oef;eJYcsD 'ku©yifv,fa0aewJhtcsdefBuD;rSm tJh'gudk . .olwkdYu b,fvdkwkefYjyef cJhMuoem;Muifem pmemrI vHk;0 r½SdbJ ovJ/ &[ef;oHCmawmfawGudk rdkufrdkuf½dkif;½dkif;udk vkyfcJhwJh qE´cH,lyJGBuD;yJ/ aoewfeJY ypfowfMuw,f/ tjzpftysufudk jyefMunfh/ uefYuGufrJxnfh 0g;&if;wkwfeJY½dkufNyD; zrf;qD;axmifcs xnfhrSmqkd;vkdY jynfolawGukdNcdrf;ajcmufNyD;a cJhMuw,f/ NyD;awmh. .
37

tvHawmfopf*sme,f xmufcHrJxnfhckdif;w,f/uefYuGufrJ xnfhcJhwJh rJawGuvnf; axmufcHrJjzpfukefw,f/ pdwfysufvdkY r,HkMunfvdkY rJvmrxnfhMuwJh vlawGtrsm;BuD; uvnf;

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tESpfcsKyfajymawmhr,f/ etz ppfacgif;aqmifawG[m. . . rpöwm]]yifnJ½dk;}}udk ac:NyD; nmw,f/ rpöwm]]uifwm;em;}}udk ac:NyD; nmw,f/ urÇmhMuufajceDtzJGUudk ac:NyD; nmw,f/ rpöwm ]]*rfbm&D}} udk ac:NyD; nmw,f/ rpöwm ]]brfuDrGef;}} udk ac:NyD; nmw,f/ urÇmhukvor* ¾ vkHjcHKa&;aumifpDukd nmw,f/ a[m . .tck. .vmNyD/ tukefvHk;axmufcHrJjzpfukefw,f/ vmjyefNyD? a½G;aumufyJGwJh/ 2010rSm wcsKdUqkdbmrSef;awmif rodvkdufbl;.. a½G;aumufyJGusif;yay;r,fwJh/ vGwf olwkdYrJawGuaxmufcHrJjzpfukefw,f/ vyfNyD; w&m;rQwwJh a½G;aumufyJGwJh/ wcsKdY½GmawGrSmqdkvQif. . . txl;ojzifh usKyfMum;jzwfNyD;awmhyJ ar;cGef;xyfar;r,f/ em*pfrkefwdkif; 'PfcH vdkuf&wJh ]]cifAsm;wdkY. . etz ½GmawGrSmqdkvQif qE´cH,lyJGusif;yw,fqkdwm ppfacgif;aqmifawGudk ,Hkvm;..}} udkawmif rodvdkufMubl;. .olwdkYawGtm;vHk;u axmufcHrJawGjzpfukefw,f/t½Sufr½Sd? *kPfodu©mr½Sd wdkif;jynfudka&m urÇmudka&m tJh'Da½G;aumufyJGqdkwm olwkdYtmPm tBuD;tus,f vdrfvdkufwJh vdrfvnfrIBuD;yJ/ qufvufudkifxm;Edkifa&;twGufudkyJ&nf½G uJ. . .usKyf vdk&if;udkyJ

3/

38

tvHawmfopf*sme,f ,fNyD; wpfzuf owfa&;qJGxm;wJh zJGUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'BuD;ay:rSm tajccHNyD;awmh usif;yrSm/tJh'D a½G;aumufyJGrSm olwdkY ppfacgif;aqmifawGeJY olwdkY&JU taygif;yg tzJGUtpnf;awGyJ tEdkif&atmifvkyfrSm/

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 tEdkif&atmifvkyfrSm/ wpn ygwDqdkwm ygvmvdrfhr,f/ olwdkYbmvJqdkwm cifAsm;wdkYodw,f/ MuHUzGUHtzJGUawGygvmvdrfhr,f/ olwdkY bmvJqdkwm cifAsm;wdkYodw,f/ ]]88}} rsKd;quf ausmif;om;rsm;

olwdkYyJ qufvufNyD; rif;rl tkyfcsKyfEdkifatmif vkyfrSm/ vdrfnmenf;trsKd;rsKd;? aumufuspf,kwfrmenf;trsKd;rsKd;? Ncdrf;ajcmuf [efYwm;enf;trsKd;rsKd; raumif;wJhenf;aygif;pHkeJY olwkdYtuGufcsxm;wJhtwdkif;

(jrefrmjynf)vdkY trnfcHxm;wJh at;vGif wdkYtzJGUygvmvdrfhr,f/ 0HomEkqdkvm; bmqdkvm; trnfrSnfhxm;wJh a'gufwmpdk;vif;wdkYtzJGUygvmvdrf h r,f/ olwdkYwawGua&m bmvJqdkwm cifAsm;wdkYodw,f/ olwdkYvufoyfarG;xm;wJh wjcm;tzJGUtpnf; awGvJ ygvmvdrfhOD;r,f/
39

tvHawmfopf*sme,f a[m. . .tck. .'Drdku&ufwpfygwDwJh/ ay:vmNyD/ olwdkYua&m b,folawGvJ/ olwdkYawGu b,fvdk&nf½G,fcsufrsKd;eJY a½G;aumufyJGrSm 0ifNydKifrSmvJ/ olwdkYwawGu bmvJqdkwmudkvnf; cifAsm;wdkY aoaocsmcsmpOf;pm;MunfhvQif tajzudk ½Sif; ½Sif;vif;vif;awGU&vdrfhr,f/ cifAsm;wdkY 'Drdkua&pD &Jabmf&JbufawGudkawmh usKyf &ifxJtoJxJu av;pm;ygw,f/ 'Drdkua&pD vrf;aMumif;ay:rSm wpdkufrwfrwf &J&J0Hh0Hh jywfjywfom;om; avQmufvSrf;aeMuwmudkvnf; usKyf txl;yJ csD;usL;*kPfjyKygw,f/ 'Drdkua&pD ta&;awmfyHk[m wpfaeYrSm atmifjrifrSmqdkwmudkvnf; usKyf ,HkMunf ygw,f/ atmifjrifygapvdkYvnf; usKyf aeYpOf qkawmif;ay;aeygw,f/ 'gayr,fh . .usKyf . . wpfckawmh owday;csifw,f/ vlwwfBuD;vkyf q&mBuD;vkyfNyD; owday;wm r[kwfbl;aemf/ cifAsm;wdkYwawGudk atmifjrif apcsifvdkY &ifxJtonf;xJu apwemrSefeJY ½dk;½dk;om;om; owday;vdkufwmyg/ tJh'gu bmvJqkd

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 awmh. . .wdkif;jynftwGuf awmfvSefa&;Edk ifiHa&;vkyfwJhae&mrSm bmyJvkyfvkyf etz ppfacgif;aqmifawGudk r,HkwJhrsufpdeJY MunfhygvdkY/ ed*Hk;csKyftaeeJY usKyf cifAsm;wdkYudk ar;cGef;yJ xyfar;vdkufr,fav/pOf;pm;NyD; ajzMunfhvdkufyg/ ]]cifAsm;wdkY. . etz ppfacgif;aqmifawGudk ,Hkvm;. .}

udkBuD;awm

40

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tdkbm;rm; udk umwGef;q&mawGu tifwmeufay:rSm'DvdkjrifMuw,f

41

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tdkbm;rm; udk umwGef;q&mawGu tifwmeufay:rSm'DvdkjrifMuw,f

42

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tdkbm;rm; udk umwGef;q&mawGu tifwmeufay:rSm'DvdkjrifMuw,f

43

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tdkbm;rm; udk umwGef;q&mawGu tifwmeufay:rSm'DvdkjrifMuw,f

44

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tdkbm;rm; udk umwGef;q&mawGu tifwmeufay:rSm'DvdkjrifMuw,f

45

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopf 0x¦K

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46

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

a':a&TMuif a':odef;jrwdkY\ Zmwfvrf;
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ajymcsifaZmjzifh a':odef;jr\ wJtdrf&Sd&modkY w&SL;xdk;BuD; oGm;ae\/ a':odef;jr\ wJtdrd a&SUodkYta&mufwGif ]]odef;jra&. . odef;jra&. . a[h. .odef;jr . .}} a':a&TMuifonf yg;pyfrSvnf; atmfac:&if; a':odef;jr\ wJtdrftwGif;odkY iHkY0ifoGm;\/ tdrfxJwGif xrif;tdk;wnfaeaom a':odef;jronf txdwfwvefYjzpfum a':a&TMuifudk vSnfhMunfhvdkuf\/ ]][Jh. .a&TMuif. .tvefYwMum;. .bmjzpfvmwmvJ . . ajymprf;ygOD;. . bmjzpfvmwmvJ}} a':a&TMuifonf a':odef;jr\ tar;udk

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]][Jh. .a&TMuif&JU. 'Drkdua&pD &awmhrSmqdkawmh. tJh'D 'Drdkua&pDukd b,folu 0,fay;rSmwJhwkef;. .}}

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47

tvHawmfopf*sme,f tarmajyoGm;atmif touf&SLae\/ NyD;rS pum;udk pajymvdkuf\/ ]][Jh..odef;jr&JY..igwkdY 'Drkdua&pD&awmhrSm[Jh..}} a':a&TMuif\ pum;ukdMum;vkduf&aomtcg a':odef;jr\ rsufvkH;rsm; t0kdif;om; jzpfoGm;\/ a':a&TMuifudk jyefNyD; pl;pdkufMunfhum... ]][Jh. .a&TMuif&JU. .'Drkdua&pD&awmhrSmqdkawmh. .tJh'D 'Drdkua&pDukd b,folu

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 .ighqdkifab;em;rSm 0ufom;a&mif;wJh zdk;wkwfqdkwJhaumifav. .A[kokwuvJ &Sd tajymuvJaumif;wJhaumifav.. tJ'Daumif zkd;wkwfuajymjyvkdufwm.. ighukdaoaocsmcsm ajymjyvkdufwm..}} ]]at;yg. .at;yg. .qufajymyg..}} ]]zdk;wkwfu ighudk&Sif;jyw,fath. . ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pD wdkif;jynfBuD; wnfaqmufzdkYtwGufwJh? ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pD acgif;aqmifawGudkyJ a&G;xkwfay;r,fh a&G;aumufyJGBuD;udk usif;yay;awmhrSmwJh. .}}

ygwDtzGJYawG&JYemrnfudk a&;ay;vdkufr,fwJh? tdrfa&muf&if tao tcsmzwfwJh ? tvGwfusufxm;wJh?
0,fay;rSmwJhwkef;. .}} ]][Jhaumifr. .odef;jr. .nOf;. .ighudk raemufeJY . .&GJUajym rajymeJY. .ig twnfajymaewm odef;jr}} ]]at;. .tJh'Dvdkqdk. .ajymprf;ygOD;at. .nOf;bmawGrsm; Mum;cJhvdkYvJ. .ighudk &Sif;jy. .}} ]]nOf;odw,fr[kwfvm;. ]]a':a&TMuif\ pum;tqkH;wGif a':odef;jrcrsm aMumifpDpDBuD; jzpfoGm;\/ NyD;awmh rsufarSmifBuD;vnf; MuKwfoGm;\/ ]]aeygOD;. .aeygOD;. .a&TMuif. .ig ajymyg&apOD;. .igar;yg&apOD;. .tck igwdkY wdkif;jynfBuD;udk ppfwyfu tmPmodrf;NyD; tkyfcsKyfxm;wm r[kwfbl;vm;/ ppfwyfu tmPmodrf;NyD; tkyfcsKyfxm;wm
48

tvHawmfopf*sme,f qdkawmh . .b,fvdkvkyfNyD; b,folawGu a&G;aumufyJGBuD;udk usif;yay;rSmwJhwkef;. .nOf;uvJ pOf;pOf; pm;pm;av; ajymygqdkygOD;at. .}} ]]at;. .tJ'ghudkyJ igajymjyrvkdath. .zdk;wkwfu ajymjyw,f. .tJh'DtmPmodrf;xm;wJh ppfwyfu acgif;aqmifBuD;awGuyJ pdwf&if;rSefapwemrSefeJY usif;yjyKvkyfay;rSmwJh. .}} ]]bm}} a':odef;jr\ yg;pyfrS ]]bm}} wpfvHk;wnf;om xGufvm\/ NyD;awmhrSqufNyD;? ]]bm. .bmajymw,f. .bmajymw,f. .qufajymygOD;}} ]]nOf;uvJ. .'Dvdkat. .tJh'DtmPmodrf;xm;wJh ppfwyfu acgif;aqmifBuD;awGuyJwJh? olwdkY,lxm;wJh tmPmudk jynfolawG&JU vufxJudk jyeftyfwJhtaeeJYwhJ? jynfolawG&JU tusKd;pD;yGm;udk OD;pm;ay;arQmf udk; &nf&G,fNyD;awmhwJh? pdwf&if;rSef apwem rSefeJYwJh? olwkdY udk,fwkdifu a&G;aumufyJGBuD;udk usif;y

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 jyKvkyfay;oGm;rSmwJh. .}} a':odef;jrwpfa,muf bmrSjyefrajym jyefrar;yJ csufcsif;NidrfusoGm;\/ a':odef;jr\ rsufESmay:wGif pOf;pm;awG;awmaeonfh t&dyfta,mifu txif;om;ay:vGifae\/ ]][Jh odef;jr. .nOf;bmawG pOf;pm;aewmvJ. .}} ]]pOf;pm;&wmayghat. .'geJY igwpfckjzwfar;ygOD;r,f. .tJh'Da&G;aumufyJGBuD;rSm ppfwyfu acgif;aqmifBuD;awGu ygOD;rSmwJhvm;. .}} ]]rygbl;wJh. .vHk;0rygbl;wJh}} ]][kwfyghrvm;at. .}} ]]tdk. .[kwfygw,fqdkrS. .zkd;wkwfudk,fwdkifu ajymjyvdkufwm. .ppfwyfu acgif;aqmifBuD;awGu tmPmudk r,lawmhbJ jynfolawGudk vJTay;vdkufrSmwJh . .olwdkY vHk;0rygawmhbl;whJ. .}} a':odef;jr cPpOf;pm;\/ qufNyD; pOf;pm;\/ NyD;awmh qufajym\/ ]]Mum;&wJh owif;uawmh aumif;vdkufwmat. .igqufajymjyr,f a&TMuif. .'Dvkdqdk&if. .tmPm udk twif;vk,lxm;wmvdkY tpGyfpJGcHae&wJh
49

tvHawmfopf*sme,f ppfwyfu acgif;aqmifBuD;awGu tmPmudk rrufarmygbl;vkdY jyvkdufwm[m raumif;bl;vm;.. tmPmukd jynfolawG&JU vufxJudk jyefNyD; vJTajymif;ay;vdkufwm[m raumif;bl;vm;. .'Drdkua&pD acgif;aqmiftppfawGudkyJ a&G;xkwfay;r,fh a&G;aumufyJGBuD;udk olwdkYudk,fwkdifu usif;yjyKvkyfay;wm[m raumif;bl;vm;. . tm;vHk;[m taumif;awG csnf;yJath tJh'Dawmh igajymcsifwm bmvJqdkawmh igwdkYwawGu ppfwyf acgif;aqmifBuD;awGudk oGm;ykwfavvTifh tjypfwif a0zefajymqkdaeMuwmawG[m olawmfaumif;awGudk apmfum;aeovdkawmif jzpfraebl;vm;. .}} ]]at;. .[kwfwmaygh. .ighwkdYwawG[m ppfwyfacgif;aqmifBuD;awGudk 0efcsawmif;yefzdkYawmif vdkaeNyD xifw,faemf. .}} ]]'geJY. .aeygOD;. .igodcsif vdkY qufar;ygOD;r,f. .a&G;aumufyJG 0ifNydKifr,fh. .'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmifawGu b,folawGwJhvJ. .}} ]]at;. .thJ'gawGudkvJ igar;ygw,fat. .'gayr,fh zdk;wkwfqdkwJhaumifu

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 A[kokwuvJ&Sd tajymuvnf; aumif; qdkayr,fh *spfuyfuyf&,f. .pdwfuvJ wdkwwfygbDoeJY. . igvJ odcsifvdkY ar;jzpfatmifawmh ar;ygw,f/. .'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmifawGu b,folawGvJvdkY. .zdk;wkwfu pdwfwdkwdkeJY wHk;wdBuD; jyefajz awmh. .'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmifawGudk vQKdY0Sufxm;w,fwJh. .igvJ aMumufaMumufeJYyJ aemufwpfqifh wufNyD; xyfar;Munfhvdkufw,f. . 0ifNydKifr,fhtzJGUawG ygwDawGua&m trsm;BuD;vm;vdkY..b,ftzJGU awG b,fygwDawGygvJvdkY. .tJ'Dvdk qufar;Munfhvdkufw,f. .tJ'Dawmh zdk;wkwfu ighudkpdwfwdkwdk eJY bkMunfhMunfhw,fath. .NyD;awmh ighudk ajymw,fath. .cifAsm;wkdYuvJ tawmf t MuwmyJwJh. .A[kokwav;awG bmav;awG&SdatmifvkyfMuOD;whJ . . . a&'D,dkav;bmav;vJ em;axmifMuygOD;wJh? pmav;bmav;vJ zwfMuygOD;wJh? jyD;awmh ighudkaigufar; ar;ao;w,f? cifAsm; b,fygwD 0ifa&T;r,fqdkwm wu,fodcsifvm;wJh? iguvJ odcsifwmayghvdkY ajzvdkufw,f? tJ'Dawmh zdk;wkwfu
50

tvHawmfopf*sme,f cifAsm;wu,fodcsifaewmqdkawmh usKyfuajymjy&rSmayghwJh? b,folYudkrSajymjywm r[kwfbl; cifAsm;rdkYvdkYajymjywm wJh? yg;pyfeJYawmh rajymjyawmhbl;wJh? ygwDtzGJYawG&JYemrnfudk pm&GufeJYa&;ay;vdkufr,fwJh? tdrfa&muf&if tao tcsmzwfwJh ? tvGwfusufxm;wJh? tJ'Dvdk ajymNyD;awmh pm&GuftvGwf wckrSm ygwD tzGJYawG&JY trnfudka&;ay;jyD; ighudkay;vdkufw,fawmh . . .}} ]] a[ [kwfvm; . . . tJ'gqdkighudkjyprf; . . . ighudkjyprf; }} a':a&TMuifonf ol\awmif;MuD;xJodkY vufEdIufvdkuf\/ wdkvDrdkvD ypnf;awGatmufwGif 0Suf,lvmaom pm&Gufacgufav;udk qGJxkwf,lvdkuf\/ pm&Gufudk jzefYvdkuf\/ ]] nnf;udk igzwfjyr,f odef;jr }} ]] at;yg[ . . . zwfjyprf;yg. . . zwfjyprf;yg }} ]] wpfu EdkifiHawmfygwD wJh? ESpfu at;csrf;ygwD wJh? oHk;u om,ma&;ygwD wJh? av;u ESifhygwD wJh }} ]] [Jh a&TMuif aeygOD; bmwJh ESifhygwD wJh ?

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 [kwfvm; b,fvdkemrnfMuD;vJath tJ'D ESifh u bm t"dy Üg,fvJ }} ]] [Jhodef;jr eifwdkY igwdkYu txHkawG t tawG? ynmrJhawG? olwdkYu 'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmifMuD;awG? ynmwwfawG? ynm&SifawG? t"dy Ü g ,frJh emrnfrSnfhygrvm;? t"dy Üg,faumif;aumif;av;eJY emrnfvSvS uav;awG rSnfhxm;wmjzpfrSmaygh}} ]] at; at; [kwfygw,f [kwfygw,f uJqufzwfygOD; }} ]] ig; u zGHYygwDwJh? ajcmufu jzdK;a&;ygwD wJh? ckESpfu aumifpDygwDwJh? tm;vHk; ckESpfzGJYawmif&Sdw,fath }} ]] at; ckESpfzGJYawmif&Sdw,faemf emr,fav;awGuvJ vSrS vSyJ nD;ajymovdk igwdkYOmPfvdkufrrSDvdkYom em;rvnfwm? olwdkYuawmh emrnfav;awGudk t"dy Üg,faumif;aumif;av;awGeJY rSnfhxm;MuwmjzpfrSm? ckESpfzGJYawmifqdkawmh tawmfrsm;wmyJ? tm;&p&mMuD;yJ? tJ'DtzGJYawGxJrSm igwdkYodwJh igwdkYMum;zl;wJh EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifMuD;awG? 'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmifMuD;awG tukefvHk;ygrSm
51

tvHawmfopf*sme,f yJaemf? tzGJYawG&JY emrnfudkvnf; igtvGwfusufrSwfxm;&r,f? zdk;wkwfu rsufpdMuD; em;MuD;qdkawmh olajymwm rSefw,fath olajymovdk igwdkYEdkifiHMuD; 'Drdkua&pD&awmhrSmqdkwm 'Dtwdkif;wmqdk trSefbJat h tJ'D tzGJYawGxJu 'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmifMuD;awG om wdkif;jynftkyfcsKyfvdkufr,fqdkvdkYua wmh igwdkY wdkif;jynfMuD;[m tawmfMuD;ukd aumif;oGm;rSm aocsmw,fath? vlawGjynfolawG twGuf0rf;omp&mMuD; ygyJat? nnf; aoaocsmcsmpOf;pm;Munfh eifwdkYigwdkYtwGufvnf; 0rf;omp&mMuD; ygyJat }} ]] at;..igvJ tJ'gudkyJ pOf;pm;aewm igwdkYwawGvJ tckvdk edrfhuswJh b0awG uae vGwfajrmufjyD;aumif;aumif; rGefrGef csrf;csrf;omom eJY aeMu&awmhrSm qdkwmudk pOf;pm;rdjyD; 0rf;omaewm }} ]] at; [kwfw,f a&TMuif&JY }} a':a&TMuifESifha':odef;jrwdkY onf bmpum;rS rajymMuawmhbJ? tawG;udkpDjzifh jidrfoufoGm;Muav\/ olwdkY\ a&SYa&;rsm;udk pdwful;,Ofum 0rf;omaysmf&Tif aeMuav\/ awmMudK tkHMum; awmolawmifom; b0awGuae vGwfajr-

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 mufjyD; wifhwifhw,fw,f aeMu&awmhr,fh b0awGudk pdwful;,OfarQmfrSef;um 0rf;om aysmf&Gif aeMuav\/ qif;qif; &J&J csdKYcsdKYiJhiJh aeae&wJhb0awGuae vGwfajrmufjyD; aumif;aumif; rGefrGef pm;&aomuf&r,fh b0awGudk pdwful;,OfarQmfrSef;u 0rf;omaysmf&Tif aeMuav\/ xdkuJhodkYESpfa,mufom; 0rf;omaysmf&Tif aeMuonfh tcsdefwGif a':odef;jr\EIwfrS tmvkyfoHMuD;jzifh arw Å mydkYo qkawmif; vdkufonfhtoH xGufay:vmav\/ ]] tmPmudkvJ rrufarmyJ pGefYvTwfvdkufjyD;? udk,fusdKpD;yGm;udkvJ rrufarmbJ pGefYvTwfvdkufjyD;? ppfrSefwJh a&T;aumufyGJMuD;udk apwem trSefeJY usif;y jyKvkyfay;r,fh ppfwyfacgif;aqmif armifrif;MuD;om;rsm; usef;rm csrf;omMuygapawmf . . .}} xdyfarmifxl;

52

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopf aqmif;yg;

igwdkY vufeuf olYvufeuf
Adkvfaumif;cGsef

53

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

igwdkY vufeuf olYvufeuf
a&csKd;&wJhtaMumif;? wreufcif;wGif tusOf;OD;pD;XmerS aq;0g;&wJhtaMumif;awGudk nTefMum;a&;rª; yg0ifaom pme,fZif;orm;awG owif;pmq&mawG axmiftmPmydkiftzJGUonf EdkifiHa&; zdwfNyD;jyr,f. . .}} [k ajymcJhonf/ tusOf;us aqmifbufodkY a&muf½SdvmNyD; ]] rD'D,mudk rD'D,mESifh wkefYrnf[k cifAsm;wdkY axmifxJu owif;awG? jyóe- ajymcJhMuonfhtwkdif; rD'D,mrsm;? mawGudk tjyif rxkwfygeJY...vdktyfwm owif;*sme,fESifh toHvTifh |mersm;udk rajyvnfwm½Sd&if axmifydkifuae wpfqifh wdk;csJUcJhMuonf/ VOA , BBC ,RFA , DVB uRefawmfhqDwifjyyg. . . ponfh toHvTifh|mersm;u uRefawmf wwfEdkiforQ vTifhxkwfcsdeftwdkif; olwdkYuvnf; wdk;csJU n§dEdIif;aqmif½Gufay;r,f. . .rD'D,mawGrSm xkwfvTifhcJhMuonf/ jr0wD MRTV axmifuowif;awGoGm;&if uRefawmfjrefrmhtoH? aejynfawmf? wcsKdYaom wdkuf½dkufawGUqHk aqG;aEG;cef;rsm;? wcsKdYaom a0zef oHk;oyfcsufrsm; tifwmAsL;rsm;onf vuf½Sd EdkifiHa&;jzpfpOfrsm;? tajctaersm;? rl0g'rsm;udk ydkrdk½IyfaxG;? ydkrdk ,drf;,dkifapygonf/ wdkY ½Sif; &vif;&wmawG tvkyf½Iyfw,f. . .aemufqdkvQif uRefawmfwdkYuvnf; rD'D,mudk rD'D,meJY wkefYrSm aemf. . . xrif;00pm;&wJhtaMumif;? ydawmufajr ponfwdkYu vlBudKufrsm;aom oDcsif;aumif;rsm;jzifh rQm;,lzdkY qJGaqmifcJhMuonf/ olwdkYay;csifaom owif; udk vlxku em;rpdkufcsifae? vlxkem;xJ BBC, VOA u owif;pum;rsm;
54

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

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55

tvHawmfopf*sme,f acsmif;ajrmif;aeonf/ &efolü r[mAsL[m twdtus&Sdonf/ twdtus vdkufemtaumiftxnf azmfonf/ ]]usnfuG,frsufuG,f? ypfuGif;vG,fí? a&Smifz,fxif&Sm;? ypfrSwfrsm;udk? pGrf;tm;tpHk? vufeufukefjzifh? a&GUwHk qkwfwuf? tusKd;oufatmif? aqmif&GufMunfh½I? owdjyK. . }} [laomppfa&;tavhtusifhrsm;udk &efolu &&Sdxm;ygonf/ rdrdwdkYürl r[mAsL[m? enf;AsL[m\ apmifhxdef;tyfaom vu©Pmrsm; rJhaeonf/ wpfa,muf wpfoH xGufaeonf/ cH,lcsuftm;aysmhaom tiftm;pkrsm;ESifh jynfolrsm;onf awmfvSef a&;tay: ,HkMunfrIrJh? tm;udk;rJh? ajzqnfrIrJhum acgif;aqmifrJhaom jyóemrsm;yg ay:aygufvmonf/ acgif;aqmif½Sdaom vlwpfusdyfonf acgif;aqmifrJhaom vl&maxmifudk acsrIef;EdkifaMumif; rdrdwdkY oif,l NyD; jzpfonf/ rdrdwdkYtm;vHk; [dk;rm;\ tDvD,uf uAsm&SnfxJrS

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 ]]tmcdvd-zaemifh}} udk owd&oifhonf/ xkdYjyif q&m OD;0if;wifa&;aom ]]*Pef;rsufpd}} udk jyefvnftrSwf&rdonf/ oHcsyfumuJhodkY wpfudk,fvHk; tcGHrmrsm; zHk;tkyfumuG,fxm;aom *Pef;onf jcifudkufcH&&HkESifh aoowJh/ jcifu *Pef;\ tm;enf; csufjzpfaom rsufpdudk udkuf&mwGif *Pef;onf rnfokdYrQ rckcHEdkifbJ toufqHk;&IH;&onf/ okdYjzpfí rdrdwdkY\ tajc rcdkifrI? tpnf;ajyaerI? tpDtpOf r&SdrIrsm;udk BudKwiftxkyfjznf rjy&ef? &efoludk owif;ray;rd&ef tvGefvdktyfygonf/ &efolu owif;OD;&NyD; jzpfvQifawmifrS rdrdwdkYu twnf jyKcsufray;rdzdkY owdjyKoifhygonf/ Oyrm? ajyma&;qdkcGihf&Sdol OD;0if;wif? OD;OmPf0if;? OD;odef;nGefYwdkYESifh ukvor*¾wGif ajyma&; qdkcGifh&Sdol a'gufwmaomif;xGef;? OD;AdkvfvSwifhwdkYtaejzifh tcsdeftcgESifh udkufnDpGm aqmif&Gufaeaom EdkifiHa&;tajctaersm;? rl0g'oabmxm;rsm;? EdkifiHwum axmufcHrI&atmif jyifqifaerIrsm;? odkYr[kwf tuJr[efyHkrsm;udk vQKdY0Sufxm;&ef? acwåqdkif;iHhxm;&ef?

56

tvHawmfopf*sme,f tifwmAsL;rvkyf&ef vkdtyfavonf/ xdkYjyif tqHk;tjzwfay;&efvdktyfaom ta&;BuD; tajctaersm;wGif wm0efr&Sdolrsm;? rnfonfhtzJGUtpnf;? rnfonfh tiftm;udkrQ udk,fpm;rjyKolrsm;? &efolr\ vlrsm;udk yJGrxkwfrdap zdkYESifh? xdkolwdkYESifh a&maESm NyD; OD;0if;wif? OD;OmPf0if;? a'gufwmaomif;xGef;wkdYtm; tajzxkwfoHk;oyfcdkif;jcif;rsm; rjyK vkyfrdzdkY vdktyfayonf/ tu,fí awmfvSefa&; tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf a0zefaxmufjyp&m? tMuHjyKp&mrsm; &Sdae vQif rD'D,mrS rajymbJ xdkyk*d¾Kvf xdktzJGUtpnf;vuf0,fokdYta&muf vQKdU0Sufay;ydkY oifhygonf/ þodkYqdkí &efoljyKwfusEdkifa&;twGuf pme,fZif;usifh0wf? rD'D,musifh0wfrsm;udk csKd;azmuf&rnf[k wifjyaejcif; r[kwfyg/ rD'D,mtoD;oD;odkY a&muf&SdaeMuaom rdrdwdkY\ awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;onf rdrdudk,fukd Mum;aetkyfpk[k rxifrSwfrdzdkY ta&;BuD;ygonf/ rD'D,monf tEkynm ygaom vlxkqufoG,fa&;yif jzpfygonf/ rD'D,mwGif Entertainment

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 azsmfajza&;ESifh Education ynmay;a&;[k yg0ifae&m Propagand a 0g'jzefYcsda&;ESifh Infromation owif;tcsuftvufay;a&; oabmrsm;vnf; yg0ifaeayonf/ wdkif;jynfwnfaqmufa&;? nifompGm ul;ajymif;a&;wGif rdrdtiftm;pkomru &efoludkvnf; 'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh vlYtcGifhta&; todynmrsm; ay;&rSm jzpfonf/ rdrdESifhtwl &efoludkvnf; wdk;wuf ap&rSm jzpfonf/ okdYaomf ynm&atmif? 'DyvdkarpD&atmif? rD'D,musifh0wfESifhvnf; nDatmifqdkNyD; t,ltquJGvJGolrsm;udk pum;ppfxdk;apjcif;rSm. . .pcef;odrf; ppfyJGe,f ajrpdk;rdk;a&;ppfyJGtwGuf rdrdwdkY&Sd vufeuf? &du©m? aq;0g;? aiGaMu;? wyftiftm; pDrHcefYcJGae onfh tpnf;ta0;wGif &efoltm; wufa&muf cGifh ay;xm;jcif;ESifh wlaeonfr[kwfygvm;/ &efolu Psycological - warfare udk pepfwus vkyfonf/ owif;rsm;udk yHkzsufjcif;? aumv[v vTifhjcif;? owif;rSm;ay;jcif;? tm&HkvTJajymif;jcif;rsm; toHk;jyKí rdrd
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tvHawmfopf*sme,f rD'D,mrsm;rS wpfqifh rdrdwdkYtm; toHpHkxGufvmatmif? tod[kefoGm;atmif? aiGukefoHjymjzpfatmif vkyfaejcif;jzpfonf/ rdrd wdkYuvnf; &efoludk tem;ray;bJ ppfyef;atmifvkyfNyD; wdkufcdkufEdkif ygonf/ Oyrm? uav;ppfom; pkaqmif;jcif;? vkyftm;ay;cdkif;apjcif;? v,f,majrrsm; todrf;cH&jcif;? vlrsKd;wkef;owfjzwfcH&rIESifh wdkif; &if;olrsm; t"r®tusifhcHae&jcif;? 'DyJ,if; vkyfMuHrIjzpfjcif;? 2008 zJGUpnf;yHk uefYuGufjcif; ponfh owif;rsm;udk xkwfvTifhay;jcif;ESifh Adkvfrª;atmifvif; xG#fajymMum;onfh xdkif;a&vkyfom;rsm; towfcH &rIESifh ywfoufí usef&pfol xdkif;rdom;pkrsm;tm;&SmazGNyD; tifwmAsL;[m &efoludk awmajcmuf usHK;oGif; jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfEkdifygonf/ ed*Hk;csKyf&vQif &efolonf rdrdwdkY\ rD'D,mvufeufudk olydkif uJhodkY toHk;cscGifh&aeonf/ (1) rdrd wdkY\ owif;rsm;udk &&Sdaeonf/ (2) t,ltqrwlolrsm;udk qJGxkwf,lEdkifonf/ (3) pdwf"mwfusqif; aeaom jynfolwcsKdYudk ydkrdkawGa0apEdkifonf/ xdkYaMumifh &efolu xdkodkYaom tcGifhta&;rsKd;rsm; &&Sdae

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 jcif;udk [efYwm;&yfwefYypfEdkifzdkYtwGuf jrefrmhowif;or*¾ (BMA) ESifhwuGaom rD'D,mrsm;tm;vHk;u pOf;pm;oHk;oyfí ukpm;EdkifMuygap[k qkawmif;vdkuf&ygonf/

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58

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopf aqmif;yg;

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59

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

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tvHawmfopf*sme,f tEkynmvkyfief;rsm; wDxGifzefwD; vkyfudkifjcif;? ukefxkwfvkyfom;rsm;u ukefxkwfvkyfjcif;. . tp&Sdaom vlom;tm;vkH;ESifh qufpyfywf ouforQ t&mtm;vHk;udk EkdifiHa&;[kyif uRefawmfu nTef;qdkjycsifygonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf uRefawmfwdkYtm;vHk;onf txufygtcsuftvufrsm;ESifh qufpyf ywfoufaeaomaMumifhyif jzpfygonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd jrefrmEdkifiHom; wdkif;&if;om; jynfoltaygif;wdkYonf EdkifiHa&;[kqdkvdkufvQif rD;udka&ESifh Nidrf;vdkufouJhodkY &SJueJjrnfum ta0;odkY a&Smif&Sm;í oGm;Muygawmh onf/ rdrdwdbmhaMumifh qif;&Jedrfhusae&oenf;? rdrdwdkY\ om;orD;rsm; bmaMumifh ynmroifMum; Edkif jzpfaeoenf;? rdrdwkdYtwGuf usef;rma&; apmifha&SmufrIrsm; bmhaMumifh edrfhusae&oenf;/ rdrdwdkY\ vkyftm;crsm;; xdkufwefpGm bmaMumifh rcHpm;Mu&oenf;. . . ponfhponfh tcsufrsm;udk tajz&Sm&ef vdktyfayonf/ xdkodkYjzpfay:ae&jcif;rSm EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH\ tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009 nHhzsif;aomaMumifhqdkaom tcsufudk xif&Sm;pGm awGUjrif&ayonf/ okdYaomf jrefrmEdkifiHol EdkifiHom;trsm;pkBuD;u rodusKd;uRefjyKí a&pkefarQmvdkufaeMuonfudk 0rf;enf;zG,f awGU&Sdae&ayonf/ xdkuJhodkY rodusKd;uRefjyKí a&pkefarQmvdkufaejcif;rsm;aMumifhyif ppfuRef ouf ydkrdkMum&SnfcJhjcif;jzpfayonf/ EdkifiHa&;qdkonfrSm

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61

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

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62

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

tvHawmfopf owif; tawGY tMuHK

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63

tvHawmfopf*sme,f

trSwf(1)? twGJ(1)? Edk0ifbmv? 2009

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64

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65

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