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In the name of Allah the praiseworthy, the passionate whose blessings made it possible for us to complete this complex task. It is a matter of great Pleasure and enthusiasm for us to complete our project. It is all because of Almighty Allah’s great guidance that made us do that. We are especially thankful to our respected Teacher Mr. Naseem Qaiser who provided us an opportunity to prepare this Project report and encouraged us. It was not possible without the guidance he provided to us, to complete this project. We are also thankful to the organization we have studied, about Pakistan Railway. As it was not possible without there help too.
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Topics Acknowledgement Table of Contents History and Introduction Vision and Mission Software Details Hardware Details Data Base Software Network Structure Database Backup Management Security Management Online Presence Conclusions & Recommendations Suggestions
Page Number 1 2 3 11 11 16 21 31 33 37 37
Table of Contents
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History of Rail Transport:
The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. Modern rail transport systems first appeared in England in the 1820s. These systems, which made use of the steam locomotive, were the first practical forms of mechanized land transport, and they remained the primary form of mechanized land transport for the next 100 years. As the colliery and quarry tram ways and wagon ways grew longer, the possibility of using the technology for the public conveyance of goods suggested itself. On 26 July 1803, Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London - arguably, the world's first public railway, albeit a horsedrawn one. It was not a railway in the modern sense of the word, as it functioned like a turnpike road. There were no official services, as anyone could bring a vehicle on the railway by paying a toll.
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In 1812 Oliver Evans, an American engineer and inventor, published his vision of what steam railways could become, with cities and towns linked by a network of long distance railways plied by speedy locomotives, greatly reducing the time required for personal travel and for transport of goods. Evans specified that there should be separate sets of parallel tracks for trains going in different directions. Unfortunately, conditions in the infant United States did not enable his vision to take hold. This vision had its counterpart in Britain, where it proved to be far more influential. William James, a rich and influential surveyor and land agent, was inspired by the development of the steam locomotive to suggest a national network of railways. It seems likely in 1808 James attended the demonstration running of Richard Trevithick’s steam locomotive Catch me who can in London; certainly at this time he began to consider the long-term development of this means of transport. He was responsible for proposing a number of projects that later came to fruition, and he is credited with carrying out a survey of the Liverpool and
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Manchester Railway. Unfortunately, he became bankrupt and his schemes were taken over by George Stephenson and others. However, he is credited by many historians with the title of "Father of the Railway". It was not until 1825 that the success of the Stockton and Darlington Railway proved that the railways could be made as useful to the general shipping public as to the colliery owner. This railway broke new ground by using rails made of rolled wrought iron, produced at Bedlington Ironworks in Northumberland. Such rails were stronger. This railway linked the town of Darlington with the port of Stockton-on-Tees, and was intended to enable local collieries (which were connected to the line by short branches) to transport their coal to the docks. As this would constitute the bulk of the traffic, the company took the important step of offering to haul the colliery wagons or chaldrons by locomotive power, something that required a scheduled or timetabled service of trains. However, the line also functioned as a toll railway, where private horse drawn wagons could be operated upon it.
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This curious hybrid of a system (which also included, at one stage, a horse drawn passenger wagon) could not last, and within a few years, traffic was restricted to timetabled trains. (However, the tradition of private owned wagons continued on railways in Britain until the 1960s.) The success of the Stockton and Darlington encouraged the rich investors of the rapidly industrializing North West of England to embark upon a project to link the rich cotton manufacturing town of Manchester with the thriving port of Liverpool. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first modern railway, in that both the goods and passenger traffic was operated by scheduled or timetabled locomotive hauled trains. At the time of its construction, there was still a serious doubt that locomotives could maintain a regular service over the distance involved. A widely reported competition was held in 1829 called the Rain hill Trials, to find the most suitable steam engine to haul the trains. A number of locomotives were entered, including Novelty, Perseverance, and Sans Pareil. The winner was Stephenson's Rocket, which had superior steaming qualities as a
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consequence of the installation of a multi-tubular boiler (suggested by Henry Booth, a director of the railway company). The promoters were mainly interested in goods traffic, but after the line opened on 15 September 1830, they found to their amazement that passenger traffic was just as remunerative. The success of the Liverpool and Manchester railway influenced the development of railways elsewhere in Britain and abroad. The company hosted many visiting deputations from other railway projects, and many railwaymen received their early training and experience upon this line. It must be remembered that the Liverpool and Manchester line was still a short one (35 miles (56 km)), linking two towns within an English shire county. The world's first trunk line can be said to be the Grand Junction Railway, opening in 1837, and linking a mid point on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway with Birmingham, by way of Crewe, Stafford, and Wolverhampton.
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Introduction of Railways in Subcontinent:
The idea of a rail network was first thought of in 1847, with the possibility of Karachi becoming a major seaport. Sir Henry Edward Frere, who was appointed as the Commissionar of SindhS, sought permission from Lord Dalhousie to begin a survey for a Karachi Seaport and a survey for a railway line in 1858. The proposed railway line would be laid from Karachi (city) to Kotri. A steamboat service on the Indus and Chenab rivers would connect Kotri to Multan and from there another railway line would be laid to Lahore and beyond. On May 13th, 1861 the first railway line was opened to the public, between Karachi (city) and Kotri, with a total distance of 105 miles (169 km). By 1886, there were four railway companies operating in what would become Pakistan. The Scinde (Sindh) Railways, Indian Flotilla Company, Punjab Railway and Delhi Railways. These were amalgamated into the Scinde, Punjab & Delhi Railways Company and purchased by the Secretary of State for India in 1885, and in January 1886 formed the
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North Western State Railways, which was later on renamed as North Western Railway (NWR). This would eventually become Pakistan Railways in 1947. Another railway line between Karachi and Keamari was opened on June 16th, 1889. In 1897, the line from Keamari to Kotri was doubled. By 1898 as the network began to grow, another proposed railway line was in the works from Peshawar to Karachi. It closely followed the route taken by Alexander The Great and his army while marching through the Hindu Kush to the Arabian Sea. During the early 20th century, railway lines were also laid down between Peshawar and Rawalpindi and Rawalpindi to Lahore. Different sections on the existing main line from Peshawar and branch lines were constructed in the last quarter of 19th century and early 20th century. In 1947, after Pakistan became an independent state, 1,947 route miles (3,133 km) of North Western Railways were transferred to Pakistan from British India.
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In 1954, the railway line was extended to Mardan and Charsada, and in 1956 the Jacobabad-Kashmore 2
ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge line was converted into broad gauge. In 1961, the Pakistani portion of North Western Railways was renamed Pakistan Railways. The Kot Adu-Kashmore line was constructed between 1969 and 1973 providing an
alternative route from Karachi to northern Pakistan.
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History of Pakistan Railways:
Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of Transportation in the farthest corners of the country and brings them closer for Business, sight seeing, pilgrimage and education. It has been a great integrating force and forms the life line of the country by catering to its needs for large scale movement of people and freight. The possibility of Karachi as a sea port was first noticed in the mid of 19th century and Sir Henry Edward Frere who
was appointed Commissioner of Sind after its annexation with Bombay in 1847 sought permission from Lord Dalhousie to begin survey of sea port. He also initiated the survey for Railway line in 1858 . It was proposed that a railway line navigation up the Indus
from Karachi City to Kotri, steam
/Chenab up to Multan and from there an other railway to Lahore and beyond be constructed.
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It was on 13th May,1861 that first railway line was opened for public traffic between Karachi City and Kotri, the distance of 105 miles. The line between Karachi City and
Keamari was opened on 16.6.1889.By 1897 the line from Keamari to Kotri was doubled. The railway line from Peshawar to Karachi closely follows Alexander’s line of March through the HinduKush to the sea. Different sections on
existing main line from Peshawar to Lahore and Multan branch lines were constructed in the last quarter of 19th century and early years of 20th century. The 4 sections i.e.Scinde railways, Indian Flotilla company Punjab railway and Delhi railways working in a single company were later on amalgamated into Scinde, Punjab & Delhi railways company and was purchased by the Secretary of State for India in 1885 and in January, 1886 it was named North Western State Railways which was later on renamed as North Western Railways. At the time of partition, North Western Railway’s 1847 route mile was transferred to India leaving route miles 5048 to Pakistan. In 1954 The
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railway line was extended to Mardan and Charsada section and in 1956 Jacababad-Kashmore 2’-6’’ line was converted into broad gauge. Kot Adu-Kashmore line was constructed between 1969 to 1973 providing an alternate route from Karachi to up country.
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To provide a safe reliable, modern, efficient and cost effective infrastructure to its customers: to contribute in building the economy of Pakistan and to look after the welfare of its employees.
• Increasing share in freight and passenger market. • Restoring confidence of the passenger and trading community. • Development of human resource need base coupled with improvement and development of management, infrastructure and rolling stock. • Encourage private sector in public private partnership, both for development of infrastructure and train operations. • Diversify all its non-core activities to make them selfsustainable units.
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Programs consist of all the electronically encoded instructions that tell the computer hardware how to perform a task. Without software, hardware is useless. These are of two types: System Software. Application Software.
What is System Software?
Systems software refers to the Operating System and utility programs (like Compiler, Loader, Linker, and
Debugger) that manage computer resources at a low level. Operating systems, such as GNU, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X or Linux, are prominent examples of system software. System software is software that basically allows the parts of a computer to work together. Without the system software the computer cannot operate as a single unit. In contrast to system software, software that allows you to do things like create text documents, play games, listen to music, or surf the web is called application software.
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In general, application programs are software that enable the end-user to perform specific, productive tasks, such as word processing or image manipulation. System software performs tasks like transferring data from memory to disk, or rendering text onto a display device. System software is not generally what a user would buy a computer for, instead, it is usually the basics of a computer which come built-in. Application software is the programs on the computer when the user buys it. These programs may include word processors and web browsers.
System Softwares used in Pakistan Railways:
Most frequently used system software’s in
Pakistan Railways are: Microsoft Windows XP. SCO UNIX 5.0.5 Red Hat Linux 7.2 & Advance Server 2.1 Windows 98
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Windows 2000 Professional Window XP Professional 2003 Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 Advance Server Windows 2003 Server Windows XP Windows NT 4.0 IBM AIX
Oracle Collaboration Suite:
Pakistan Railways has installed the latest office
management tools named OCS ( Oracle Collaboration Suite ) widely and extensively used world wide, this software, which is based, will help the management by exchanging the data on LAN and WAN, helping them to schedule the day long
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activities in an organized way. The focus area of OCS is email sharing, Calendar, File Transfer, Ultra Search, Web messages. At present mail box capacity has been fixed as 20 MB for each user, Which may be enhanced depending upon the requirements.
What is Application Software?
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Application software is computer software designed to help the user perform a particular task. Such programs are also called software applications, applications or apps. Typical examples are word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications. Application software should be contrasted with system software (infrastructure) or middleware (computer services/ processes integrators), which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. A simple, if imperfect analogy in the world of hardware would be the relationship of an electric light bulb (an application) to an electric power generation plant (a system). The power plant merely generates electricity, not itself of any real use until harnessed to an application like the electric light that performs a service that benefits the user.
Miscellaneous Software Applications:
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Directorate of Information Technology has developed the software listed below. 1. Pension System. 2. Statistical System ( Passenger, Goods, Operations). 3. Track Management system for IBU. 4. Electrical Billing system for Commercial and Residential. 5. Railway Employees Card System. 6. Accounting System for Benevolent Fund Organization. 7. Legal System. 8. Advisement Management System for Public Relation Department.
9. Monthly Financial Reporting System for the generation
of Computerized Tickets which includes Sales Summery and Military Concessions. 10. File Management, Inventory Management and
Personnel System for Vigilance Directorate. 11. 12. Billboard System for Marketing Directorate. Website Upgraded.
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Passenger Revenue Reporting System on the
All the machinery and equipment in a computer system is known as hardware. Pakistan Railway possesses one of the latest computers Technology among the other stations of pakistan. Following are the details of computer hardware used by Pakistan Railway:
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Server is a computer in a network that holds collections of data (databases) and programs for connecting PCs, workstations, and other devices. Servers enable many users to share equipment, programs, and data. Nearly, 50 servers for various purposes are installed in head office. Each Station has its own server, which is connected through VPN, DXX or other technology to one of the core offices’ (Karachi, Lahore, Khanewal and Islamabad) servers. Following are the specifications of WAN servers used in Pakistan Railways: Acer. Dell.
Following are the specifications of LAN servers used in Pakistan Railways: Acer Desktop. Dell Desktop. Raffles Desktop.
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Sun System Desktops.
Branded as well as non-branded P-III & P-IV PCs are being used in the Pakistan Railways operational and administration offices with following specifications: Dell Systems and Monitors Acer Systems. Non Branded Systems. View Sonic Monitors. Samsung Monitors. LG Monitors. Philips Monitors
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Printers are output devices that produce text and graphics on paper. Ink jet and laser printers are used in the offices for providing print facility to staff and for printing work in administration Offices. Hewlett Packard Printers. Zerox Printers.
Flatbed as well as jet scanners are used in the offices to scan Customers Pictures, forms, documents etc. Scanners. Hewlett Packard
Key Board and Mouse:
The most frequently used pointing input devices are keyboard and mouse. Both branded and non branded
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keyboards and mouse are used in the Pakistan Railway offices.
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Pakistan Railway comprises 8,775 route km, 781 stations and 42 trains halts. It has a fleet of 546 diesel electric locomotives, 25,815 wagons and 2,099 passenger coaches. Maintenance is provided by three major locomotive workshops and thirty-five smaller workshops. Signaling facilities at important stations are track circulated within interlocking limits. Most routes have VHF radio coverage for communication between train dispatchers and trains. Telephone Communication is over wire lines and microwave. Freight traffic during the past five years has averaged 5-6 million tones per annum. It was 15 million tones per annum in the 1960 but trucking has steadily taken over the freight
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market. The volume of freight traffic in 1995/96 was approximately 5.1 billion-km. PR carried about 145 million passengers per annum in the 1970 but during the past five years, it has dropped to 70 million per annum. However the average distance per kilometre has increased from 80 km in the 70's to about 260 km today. Competition from the inter-city bus services is increasing and only an efficient rail service will be able to increase its clientele. Pakistan Railways is multi system and operates on three gauges, i.e. broad gauge, meter-gauge and narrow gauge. The gauge wise route length and track length of Pakistan Railways on 30th June, 1996 were as under: Type of Route Broad Gauge Meter Gauge Narrow Gauge Total Route KM 7,718 445 611 8774 Track KM 11,344 555 726 12625
Currently Pakistan Railways functions under the guidance of Ministry of Railways. The Railway Board comprises the Chairman and four Members. The Chairman of the Board is ex-officio Secretary to the Government of
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Pakistan. The four member of the board, namely Member Traffic, Member Mechanical Engineering, Member Civil Engineering and Member Finance are ex-officio Additional Secretary to the Government of Pakistan. The Railway Board functions as a policy, planning and review Board. In order to make Pakistan Railways a more efficient and viable organization by following business led approach, a setup of Pakistan Railways has been developed and wide powers are vested in the Board of effectively supervise the running of the six functional units as follows: a. Railways Operational Units. b. Production Unit-I (Carriage factory/Islamabad, Automatic Vehicle Launching Bride Section, Steel Shops etc). c. Production Unit-II (Locomotive Factory, Risalpur, Locomotive Rehabilitation Project). d. Production Unit-III (Concrete Sleeper Factories, Flash butt Welding Plant, Sukkur, etc.) e. RAILCOP (Railway Construction Company, Pakistan Ltd.) f. PRACS (Pakistan Railway Advisory and Constancy Services Ltd.)
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The General Manager heads the Railway Operation unit. The remaining five units are headed by the Managing Directors who have full autonomy for the running of their respective units. All Functional units are accountable to the Railway Board. A Task Force on Pakistan Railways was constituted by the Prime Minister in March 1997, and was required to make specific recommendations for the restructuring and reform of railways for the balanced and consistent development of the railroad sector. The Task Force submitted recommendations in April 1997.
Modernization Activities: The major emphasis of Pakistan Railways has been on the replacement of overage assets. Due to resource constraint, however, it is now engaged in modernizing certain areas as best as it can. These include the following:-
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i. To ensure more comfortable journey it has been decided to manufacture only lower class air-conditioned coaches in future. ii. All second class coaches are being provided with cushioned seats. iii. Reservation work has been computerized on modern lines at Lahore and Karachi stations; the system's two major reservation centres. Computerization of reservation offices of Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, Multan and Hyderabad is in progress and is likely to be commissioned shortly. The steps are now underway to link these stations with other major railway stations. iv. Closed circuit televisions have been introduced at Lahore, Karachi, Multan and Faisalabad railway stations. This entertainment is being extended to Sukkur, Rawalpindi and Peshawar stations in the next phase. Subak Kharam and Shalimar trains have also been provided with closed circuit televisions and this system is being provided in Subak Raftar also.
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v. Public address system is being provided in Subak Raftar, Subak Kharam, Tezgam and Khyber Mail trains. vi. Modernization of Karachi, Quetta, Hyderabad, Multan, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar Railway stations, removal of hindrances on railway platforms and upgradation of approach roads are being carried out. vii. Private Sector is being encouraged to participate in the activities of the system. As a first step, ticket selling and ticket checking on Lahore-Faisalabad and Lahore-NarowalSialkot Sections have been privatized. (viii). Feasibility study for a high-speed track is in hand. Development Schemes: The Pakistan Railways has proposed major replacement and rehabilitation schemes for the forthcoming five year plan. An amount of Rs. 40 billion has been allocated for ongoing and new works. The major physical components which would be completed during the Plan period includes:
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i. Doubling of track from Lodhran to Peshawar (800 Km) to ensure sustained improvement in the turn round time of rolling stock and motive power; ii. Manufacture of 51 locomotives; iii. Rehabilitation of 101 diesel electric locomotives; iv. Manufacture of 175 new design light-weight passenger coaches; v. Equipping 7000 wagons with roller bearing; vi. Revamping of 14 electric locomotives; vii. Procurement of 1400 high capacity wagons; viii. Procurement of 50 wagon movers; ix. Introduction of Management Information System; x. Improvement and Rehabilitation of track to cater for high speeds; xi. Telecommunication and Signaling Network on main and important branch lines Pakistan Railways (reporting mark PR) is a national stateowned rail transport service of Pakistan, head-quartered in Lahore. It is administered by the federal government under the Ministry of Railways. PR provides an important mode of
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transportation throughout Pakistan. It is commonly referred to as the "life line of the country", by aiding in large scale movement of people and freight throughout Pakistan. The current chairman is Sami-ul-Haq Khilji. .1. An efficient transportation system plays a vital role in
the economic development of a country Massive investment and development of infrastructure is essential for sustainable economic growth. 2. Pakistan has a natural geo-strategic location at the
peripheral of South Asia and Central Asia. In the south, the Arabian Sea forms a gateway to the vast Eurasia hinterland and makes Pakistan a shortest route for transit trade to the Central Asian Republics (CARs). Indian trade to the region, in an economical/convenient manner, is also dependent on the availability of passage through Pakistan. 3. Pakistan’s primary traffic movers Railways as well as
Road are concentrated along the South North Corridor linking the Central and the Northern part of the country with Ports and commercial hubs in the south.
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In a rapidly growing economy like Pakistan, the need
for a reliable integrated transport is acutely felt. The raison d’etre of railways primarily exists for mass transport; where it can be economically viable to survive as a competitive business. Pakistan Railways (PR) has a definite edge over Roads for long haul and Mass Traffic movement both for passengers and freight in addition to a safe, economical and environmental friendly mode of transport. 5. PR is a Public Sector Organization and provides service
through an obligation (PSO) relying on the back up support of the Government. A long beginning since 1861 it once occupied a principal position in land transport in the past. 6. Pakistan’s transportation network, albeit not as modern
and efficient as that of developed countries, is considerably more efficient than it was a decade ago and the growth in demand for transportation services is considerably higher than the GDP. PR is the only enterprise which provides rail services in the country yet much is required of the planners enabling rail transport to catch up with time.
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The scale of PR historic debts, exorbitant escalating fuel
prices, pay & pension hikes and loss making passenger services are significant constraints limiting scope of investment for infrastructural and services development. 9. The total road infrastructure stretches 260,000 km of
which 60% is paved. Road density is 0.32 km/km. An increase of 15.4% has been achieved since 1996-97. 10. The main arteries along the corridor are the 1819 km long N-5 which serves 80% of Pakistan’s urban population and carries 65% of intercity traffic and the Indus Highway (N55) an access free, 4 lanes divided facility with a capacity of 66,000 Passenger Car Units (PCUs) per day. 11. During 1990-2005 railways share in the freight sector declined from 14% to 4.2%. It did register a recovery in 2000-01 when its freight traffic grew by over 20% as against an average decline of 4.4% in 1990’s. 12. Road transport system makes up 90 percent of
passenger and 96 percent of freight movement. National Highways and Motorways network. (10,849 km) constitute
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4.2% of the road network and carries 90 percent of Pakistan’s total traffic.
Automatic database backup:
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A database may become unusable due to a wide variety of hardware or software failures. Automatic database backup simplifies database backup management tasks for the DBA by always ensuring that a recent full backup of the database is performed as needed. It determines the need to perform a backup operation based on one or more of the following measures:
You have never completed a full database backup. The time elapsed since the last full backup is more than a specified number of hours.
• The transaction log space consumed since the last backup is more than a specified number of 4 KB pages (in archive logging mode only). • Protect your data by planning and implementing a disaster recovery strategy for your system. If suitable to your needs, you may incorporate the automatic database backup feature as part of your backup and recovery strategy.
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• If the database is enabled for roll-forward recovery (archive logging), then automatic database backup can be enabled for either online or offline backup. Otherwise, only offline backup is available. • Automatic database backup supports disk, tape, Tivoli(R) Storage Manager (TSM), and vendor DLL media types. • Through the Configure Automatic Maintenance wizard in the Control Center or Health Center, you can configure:
1. The requested time or number of log pages
2. The backup media.
3. Whether it will be an online or offline backup. If backup to disk is selected, the automatic backup feature will regularly delete backup images from the directory specified in the Configure Automatic Maintenance wizard. Only the most recent backup image is guaranteed to be available at any given time. It is recommended that this
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directory be kept exclusively for the automatic backup feature and not be used to store other backup images. The automatic database backup feature can be enabled or disabled by using the auto_db_backup and auto_maint database configuration parameters. In a partitioned database environment, the automatic database backup runs on each database partition if the database configuration parameters are enabled on that database partition.
Database and Backup Management:
Organizational data such as customers, financial records and other sensitive information is critical to the operation of a business. Ensuring that your information is protected and running as efficiently as possible is a difficult task for most IT departments. Pakistan Railways has experienced engineers that are required to ensure that the
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mission-critical information stored in databases is readily available regardless of any situation. Database Services: Database backup strategy design • Disaster recovery planning • Accidental data-loss recovery Database Maintenance and Performance Analysis • Query Performance Optimization • Database Schema Performance Optimization • Database De-Fragmenting • Growing, Shrinking or Purging Databases • Moving Databases
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• Migrate databases to a new server • Migrate any database to or from any of these popular databases
• Microsoft SQL Server • Oracle • DB/2 • Progress
Security of Data; Security is a balance between maintaining the ease of use of resources in the organization and controlling access to those resources. Putting together a security program that restricts both users and attacks can be time consuming and
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costly. A security program that pushes the balance too far toward control may disgruntle users with policies that limit them from effectively doing their work. Following are some methods adopted by BUL in this context: Authentication of servers.
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Hardware Firewall is used.
Software firewall is used.
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Backup Persons can only take backups. Online Backup.
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Tapes and DVD’s are kept under heavy security.
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Conclusion & Recommendations:
A management information system is a system or process that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. MIS and the information it generates are generally considered essential components of
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prudent and reasonable business decisions. This report discuses all the activities that the Management Information System perform in our selected organization “Pakistan Railways”. The report start with the whole history of Rail transport, introduction of Rail transport in Subcontinent and the Background of the Beginning Rail transport in Pakistan. The details of Hardware and Software used at Pakistan Railways are also discussed in the report of us. Pakistan Railways have their own National base website for their customers.
The Rail services should be improved and must be provided to the Passenger in time. The salaries of the employees should be reasonable. There should be screening of employees because the no. of employees working is more than required. Overall system should be computerized to save time, money and resources of the Organization. Pakistan Railways must have to introduce automation in its processes and improve MIS system.
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The HR department of the Pakistan Railways is not playing an effective role. Proper arrangement should be made for professionals by issuing detailed job description and job specification to get maximum profit from them.
Pakistan Railways should decrease its Service rent because in present environment Organization can retain its Passengers(Customers) through this strategy.
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