MECHANISMS AND DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Hamilton H. Mabie
Charles F. Reinholtz
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
JOHN WILEY & SONS
DEDICATED to the late FRED W. OCVIRK whose contributions to the First and Second Editions motivated later editions, and to SALLIE MABIE and JERI REINHOLTZ whose assistance and forbearance have made this edition possible.
Copyright © 1957, 1963, 1975, 1987, by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
AU rights reserved .. Published simultaneously in Canada.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 and 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission
or further information should be addressed to
the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:
Mabie, Hamilton H. (Hamilton Horth), 19]4- Mechanisms and dynamics of machinery. Includes index.
11. Mechanical movements. 2.
of. 3. Machinery, Dynamics of.
TJ175.M123 1986 621.8
I. Reinholtz, Charles F.
Printed in the United States of America
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22
About the Authors
HAMILTON H. MABIE, Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University since 1964, received his B.S. degree from the University of Rochester, his M.S. degree from Cornell University, and his Ph. D. degree from Pennsylvania State University.
From 1941 to 1960, Dr. Mabie was on the faculty of the Sibley School of Mechanical Engineering at Cornell University. From 1960 to 1964, he worked at Sandia Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he was engaged in research and development related to nuclear weapons.
In addition to his work in kinematics, Dr. Mabie is engaged in research on gears, torque characteristics of instrument ball bearings, environmental effects on the fatigue life of aluminum, and fretting corrosion of rolling element bearings. He has authored and coauthored many technical papers in these fields .. He is a licensed professional engineer and a Life Fellow of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
The first edition of Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery was published by John Wiley & Sons in 1957 and the second in 1963, both with the late F. W. Ocvirk as coauthor. The third edition was published in 1975 and an SI Version in 1978. This fourth edition has Charles F. Reinholtz as coauthor.
CHARLES F. REINHOLTZ is currently Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia, a position he has held since 1983. He holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Florida. He has also worked for Burroughs Cor-
iv ABOUT THE AUTHORS
poration as a design engineer in the Peripheral Products Group. Professor Reinholtz has been active in the area of kinematics and mechanism design since 1976. He is a member of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The American Society for Engineering Education, and Sigma Xi. He is also a member of Tau Beta Pi and Pi Tau Sigma Honor Societies.
This textbook has been completely revised and updated. Its contents have been reorganized to better match the sequence of topics typically covered and to reflect the many changes brought about by the use of computers in the classroom. These changes include the use of iterative methods for linkage position analysis and matrix methods for force analysis. BASIC language computer programs, developed on a personal computer, have been added throughout the text to demonstrate the simplicity and power of computer methods. All BASIC programs listed in the text have also been coded in FORTRAN 77 and listed in Appendix Three. The text can now be used with either U.S. units, SI units, or a combination of both. Where the units of an equation must be specified, both a U.S. and an SI form are given. An effort has been made to maintain a balance between analytical and graphical methods.
This edition has been expanded to include a number of new topics. In keeping with the additional emphasis on computer methods, kinematic and dynamic analysis of linkages has been demonstrated using the commercially available Integrated Mechanisms Program (IMP). Analytical cam design material has been expanded to include equations for determining the various disk cam contours. Both the U.S. and metric systems of gearing are covered, and a complete problem set is given for each system of units. A new section that covers nonstandard spur gears cut with a pinion cutter has been added to the chapter on nonstandard gearing. Two new topics have been included in the chapter on gear trains: harmonic drives and power flow through planetary gear trains.
Complex number methods and loop-closure equations have been used more extensively in the velocity and acceleration analysis of linkages. The chapter on force analysis has been thoroughly revised. In addition to the superposition method,
it now includes the matrix method, which is a powerful tool when used in conjunction with a computer. In the chapter on balancing, a method for balancing four-bar linkages has been added. The chapter on kinematic synthesis has been revised and expanded to include many new topics, including a general discussion of function generation, path generation, and body guidance, and the problems of branch defect, order defect, and Grashof defect. The final chapter, on spatial mechanisms and robotics, is completely new. The material contained in this chapter is becoming increasingly important in the design of complex automatic production machinery.
We appreciate the many suggestions and helpful comments made by our reviewers: Richard Alexander, Marvin Dixon, and William H. Park .. We are indebted to the following instructors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for their helpful suggestions: Craig A. Rogers, Richard E. Cobb, Edgar G. Munday, Joseph W. David, and Peter J. Leavesly. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the help and encouragement provided by our editors at Wiley, Charity Robey and Bill Stenquist.
HAMILTON H. MABIE
CHARLES F. REINHOL TZ
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction to the Study of Mechanisms 1 1.2 Mechanism, Machine 5
1.3 Motion 5
1.4 Cycle, Period, and Phase of Motion 7 1.5 Pairing Elements 7
1.6 Link, Chain 7
1.7 Inversion 8
1.8 Transmission of Motion 9
1.9 Mobility, or Number of Degrees of Freedom 11 PROBLEMS 15
Linkages and Mechanisms 20
2.1 Position Analysis of the Four-Bar Linkage 20
2.2 Four-Bar Linkage Motion and Grashoff's Law 24 2.3 Position Analysis of Linkages Using Loop Closure
Equations and Iterative Methods 26 2.4 Linkage Analysis Using the Integrated
Mechanisms Program (IMP) 32 2.5 Slider Crank Mechanism 35
2.6 Scotch Yoke 38
2.7 Quick-Return Mechanisms 38
2.8 Toggle Mechanism 40 2.9 Oldham Coupling 41
2.10 Straight-Line Mechanisms 41 2.11 Pantograph 42
2.12 Chamber Wheels 43 2.13 Hooke's Coupling 44
2.14 Constant-Velocity Universal Joints 46 2.15 Intermittent-Motion Mechanisms 50 2.16 Computing Elements 54
2.17 Integrators 55
2.18 Synthesis 57
2.19 Case Study in Mechanism Design: The Hydrominer 57 PROBLEMS 61
Chapter 3 Cams 71
3.1 Cam Classification and Nomenclature 71
3.2 Disk Cam with Radial Follower (Graphical Design) 73
3.3 Disk Cam with Oscillating Follower (Graphical Design) 76 3.4 Positive-Return Cam (Graphical Design) 78
3.5 Cylinder Cam (Graphical Design) 78
3.6 Inverse Cam (Graphical Design) 79
3.7 Cam Displacement Curves 79
3.8 Cam Displacement Curves-Advanced Methods 88 3.9 Disk Cam with Radial Flat-Faced
Follower (Analytical Design) 90
3.10 Disk Cam with Radial Roller Follower (Analytical Design) 96 3.11 Disk Cam with Oscillating Roller
Follower (AnalyticalDesign} 106 3.12 Contour Cams 111
3.13 Three-Dimensional Cams 115 3.14 Cam Production Methods 118
Spur Gears 128
4.1 Introduction to Involute Spur Gears 128 4.2 Involutometry 131
4.3 Spur Gear Details 134
4.4 Characteristics of Involute Action 135 4.5 Interference in Involute Gears 140 4.6 Gear Standardization 141
4.7 Minimum Number of Teeth to Avoid Interference 151 4.8 Determination of Backlash 156
4.9 Internal (Annular) Gears 162 4.10 Cycloidal Gears 163 PROBLEMS 164
Nonstandard Spur Gears 171
5.1 Theory of Nonstandard Spur Gears 171 5.2 Extended Center Distance System 173 5.3 Long and Short Addendum System 183 5.4 Recess Action Gears 185
5.5 Nonstandard Spur Gears Cut by a Pinion Cutter 187 PROBLEMS 199
Bevel, Helical, and Worm Gearing 206 6.1 Theory of Bevel Gears 206
6.2 Bevel Gear Details 210
6.3 Gleason Straight Bevel Gear Tooth Proportions 213 6.4 Angular Straight Bevel Gears 214
6.5 Zerol Bevel Gears 214
6.6 Spiral Bevel Gears 215
6.7 Hypoid Gears 219
6.8 Theory of Helical Gears 220 6.9 Parallel Helical Gears 226 6.10 Crossed Helical Gears 229 6.11 Worm Gearing 231
Gear Trains 245
7.1 Introduction to Gear Trains 245 7.2 Planetary Gear Trains 248
7.3 Application of Planetary Gear Trains 258 7.4 Assembly of Planetary Gear Trains 262
7.5 Circulating Power in Controlled Planetary Gear Systems 267 7.6 Harmonic Drive Gearing 273
Velocity and Acceleration Analysis 291 8.1 Introduction 291
8.2 Linear Motion of a Particle 293 8.3 Angular Motion 296
8.4 Relative Motion 296
8.5 Methods of Velocity and Acceleration Analysis 298
8.6 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis by Vector Mathematics 298 8.7 Determination of Velocity in Mechanisms by Vector Polygons 311 8.8 Relative Velocity of Particles in Mechanisms 312
8.9 Relative Velocity of Particles in a Common Link 313
8.10 Relative Velocity of Coincident Particles on Separate Links 316 8.11 Relative Velocity of Coincident Particles at the
Point of Contact of Rolling Elements 318 8.12 Instantaneous Centers of Velocity 321 8.13 Instantaneous Center Notation 323
8.14 Kennedy's Theorem 324
8.15 Determination of Instantaneous Centers
by Kennedy's Theorem 325
8.16 Determination of Velocity by Instantaneous Centers 327 8.17 Rolling Elements 329
8.18 Graphical Determination of Acceleration
in Mechanisms by Vector Polygons 329
8.19 Relative Acceleration of Particles in Mechanisms 330 8.20 Relative Acceleration of Particles in a Common Link 330 8.21 Relative Acceleration of Coincident Particles on
Separate Links. Coriolis Component of Acceleration 333 8.22 Relative Acceleration of Coincident Particles at
the Point of Contact of Rolling Elements 340
8.23 Analytical Vector Solution of Relative Velocity
and Acceleration Equations 344
8.24 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis by Numerical or Graphical Differentiation 349
8.25 Kinematic Analysis by Complex Numbers 354 8.26 Analysis of the Slider Crank by Loop Closure Equations and Complex Numbers 357
8.27 Analysis of the Inverted Slider Crank by Loop Closure Equations and Complex Numbers 362 8.28 Analysis of the Four-Bar Linkage by Loop Closure Equations and Complex Numbers 364 8.29 Complex Mechanisms 369
8.30 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis Using the Integrated Mechanisms Program (IMP) 370 PROBLEMS 372
Force Analysis of Machinery 395 9.1 Introduction 395
9.2 Centrifugal Force in Rotor Blades 396 9.3 Inertia Force, Inertia Torque 399
9.4 Force Determination 402
9.5 Methods of Linkage Force Analysis 404
9.6 Linkage Force Analysis by Superposition 404 9.7 Linkage Force Analysis by Matrix Methods 413 9.8 Force Analysis Using the Integrated
Mechanisms Program (IMP) 418
9.9 Linkage Force Analysis by the Method of Virtual Work 421 9.10 Linkage Force Analysis from Dynamic Characteristics 425
9 .. 11 Linkage Force Analysis by Complex Numbers 429
9.12 Engine Force Analysis 434
9.13 Dynamically Equivalent Masses 440 9.14 Application of Equivalent Masses 441
9.15 Engine Force Analysis Using Point Masses 442 9.16 Engine Block 449
9.17 Engine Output Torque 450 9.18 Flywheel Size 456
9.19 Forces on Gear Teeth 462 9.20 Cam Forces 468
9.21 Gyroscopic Forces 470
9.22 Moment-of-Inertia Determination 475 PROBLEMS 479
Balance of Machinery 503 10.1 Introduction 503
10.2 Balance of Rotors 504
10.3 Dynamic and Static Balance 510 10.4 Balancing Machines 511
10.5 Balance of Reciprocating Masses 513
10.6 Analytical Determination of Unbalance 516 10.7 Firing Order 525
10.8 V Engines 525
10.9 Opposed Engines 532
10.10 Balance of Four-Bar Linkages 533 PROBLEMS 535
Introduction to Synthesis 545
11.1 Classification of Kinematic Synthesis Problems 546
11.2 Spacing of Accuracy Points for Function Generation 549 11.3 Analytical Design of a Four-Bar Linkage
as a Function Generator 552
11.4 Curve Matching Applied to the Design of a Four-Bar Linkage as a Function Generator 557
11.5 Graphical Design of a Four-Bar Linkage
as a Function Generator 560
11.6 Graphical Design of a Four-Bar Linkage for Body Guidance 561 11. 7 Analytical Design of a Four-Bar Linkage for Body Guidance 564 11.8 Analytical Synthesis Using Complex Numbers 567
11.9 Design of a Four-Bar Linkage as a Path
Generator Using Cognates 570
11.10 Practical Considerations in Mechanism Synthesis (Mechanism Defects) 572
Spatial Mechanisms and Robotics 582 12.1 Introduction 582
12.2 Mobility 583
12.3 Describing Spatial Motions 587
12.4 Kinematic Analysis of Spatial Mechanisms 595 12.5 Kinematic Synthesis of Spatial Mechanisms 597 12.6 Introduction to Robotic Manipulators 600
12.7 Kinematics of Robotic Manipulators 602
Answers to Problems 628
1.1 INTRODU'CTION TO THE STUDY OF MECHANISMS
The study of mechanisms is very important. With the continuing advances made in the design of instruments, automatic controls, and automated equipment, the study of mechanisms takes on new significance. Mechanisms may be defined as that division of machine design which is concerned with the kinematic design of linkages, cams, gears, and gear trains. Kinematic design is design on the basis of motion requirements in contrast to design on the basis of strength requirements. An example of each of the mechanisms listed above will be given in order to present a comprehensive picture of the components to be studied.
A sketch of a linkage is shown in Fig. 1.1. This particular arrangement is known as the slider-crank mechanism. Link 1 is the frame and is stationary, link 2 is the crank, link 3 is the connecting rod, and link 4 is the slider. A common application of this linkage is in the internal-combustion engine where link 4
FIGURE 1.1 Slider-crankmechanisDI.
becomes the piston (Fig. 1.2a). This figure also demonstrates how difficult it may be to discern the basic kinematic device when looking at a photograph or a drawing of a complete machine. Figure L2b shows the kinematic diagram of the slider-crank mechanism corresponding to the left-side crankshaft-connecting-rodpiston in the photograph of Fig. 1.2a. Such a kinematic diagram is much easier to work with and allows the designer to separate the kinematic considerations from the larger problem of machine design.
FIGURE lo2a Chevrolet V-8 engine showing slider-crank mechanism. (General Motors Corporation).
FIGURE 1.2b Kinematic diagram of engine mechanism.
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF MECHANISMS 3
Figure 1.3 shows the sketch of a cam and follower. The cam rotates at a constant angular velocity, and the follower moves up and down. On the upward motion the follower is driven by the cam, and on the return motion it is driven by the action of gravity or of a spring. Cams are used in many machines, but one of the most common is the automotive engine where two cams are used per cylinder to operate the intake and exhaust valves, also shown in Fig. l..2a. A three-dimensional cam is shown in Fig. 1.4. In this cam,. the motion of the follower depends not only upon the rotation of the cam but also upon the axial motion of the cam.
FIGURE 1.3 Two-dimensional cam.
, t z= f(x,y)
FIGURE 1.4 Three-dimensional cam.
Gears are used in many applications to transmit motion from one shaft to another with a constant angular velocity ratio. Figure 1.5 shows several commonly used gears.
FIGURE 1.5 (continued next page)
Parallel shaft helical gears
In some cases, the desired reduction in angular velocity is too great to achieve using only two gears. When this occurs, several gears must be connected together to give what is known as a gear train. Figure 1.6 shows a gear train where the speed is stepped down in going from gear 1 to gear 2 and again in going from gear 3 to gear 4. Gear 1 is the driver) and gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaft. In many gear trains, it is necessary to be able to shift gears in and out of mesh so as to obtain different combinations of speeds. A good example of this is the automobile transmission where three speeds forward and one in reverse are obtained by shifting two gears.
In devices such as instruments and automatic controls, obtaining the correct motion is all-important. The power transmitted by the elements may be so slight as to be negligible, which allows the components to be proportioned primarily on the basis of motion, strength being of secondary importance.
There are other machines, however, where the kinematic analysis is only one step in the design. After it has been determined how the various machine components will act to accomplish the desired motion, the forces acting upon
FIGURE 1.5 (continued)
Worm and worm gear
FIGURE 1.6 Gear train. Output
Crossed shaft helical gears
these parts must be analyzed. From this, the physical size of the parts may be determined. A machine tool is a good example; its strength and rigidity are more difficult to attain than the desired motions.
It is important at this time to define the terms used in the study of mechanisms. This is done in the following section.
1.2 MECHANISM, MACHINE
I n the study of mechanisms the terms mechanism and machine will be used repeatedly. These are defined as follows:
A mechanism is a combination of rigid or resistant bodies so formed and connected that they move upon each other with definite relative motion. An example is the crank, connecting rod, and piston of an internal-combustion engine as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1.2b.
A machine is a mechanism or collection of mechanisms which transmit force from the source of power to the resistance to be overcome. An example is the internal-combustion engine.
In dealing with the study of mechanisms, it is necessary to define the various types of motion produced by these mechanisms.
Plane Motion Translation
When a rigid body so moves that the position of each straight line of the body is parallel to all of its other positions, the body has motion of translation.
1. Rectilinear translation. All points of the body move in parallel straight line paths. When the body moves back and forth in this manner, it is said to reciprocate. This is illustrated in Fig. 1.7, where the slider 4 reciprocates between the limits B' and B".
2. Curvilinear translation. The paths of the points are identical curves parallel to a fixed plane. Figure 1.8 shows the mechanism that was used in connecting
the drive wheels of the steam locomotive. In this mechanism, link 3 has curvilinear translation, and all points in the body trace out identical cycloids as wheels 2 and 4 roll along track 1. Link 5 moves with rectilinear translation.
If each point of a rigid body having plane motion remains at a constant distance from a fixed axis that is perpendicular to the plane of motion, the body has motion of rotation. If the body rotates back and forth through a given angle, it is said to oscillate. This is shown in Fig. 1.9, where link 2 rotates and link 4 oscillates between the positions B I and B".
FIGURE 1.9 Four-bar linkage.
Rotation and Translation
Many bodies have motion which is a combination of rotation and translation.
Link 3 in Fig. 1.7, links 2 and 4 in Fig. 1.8, and link 3 in Fig. 1.9 are examples of this type of motion.
When a rigid body moves so that each point of the body has motion of rotation about a fixed axis and at the same time has translation parallel to the axis, the
LINK, CHAIN 7
body has helical motion. An example of helical motion is the motion of a nut as the nut is screwed onto a bolt.
When a rigid body moves so that each point of the body has motion about a fixed point while remaining at a constant distance from it, the body has spherical motion.
A body moving with rotation about three nonparallel axes and translation in three independent directions is said to be undergoing general spatial motion.
1.4 CYCLE, PERIOD, AND PHASE OF MOTION
When the parts of a mechanism have passed through all the possible positions they can assume after starting from some simultaneous set of relative positions and have returned to their original relative positions, they have completed a cycle of motion. The time required for a cycle of motion is the period. The simultaneous relative positions of a mechanism at a given instant during a cycle are a phase.
1.5 PAIRING ELEMENTS
The geometrical forms by which two members of a mechanism are joined together so that the relative motion between these two members is consistent are known as pairing elements. If the joint by which two members are connected his surface contact such as a pin joint, the connection is known as a lower pair. If the connection takes place at a point or along a line such as in a ball bearing or between two gear teeth in contact, it is known as a higher pair. A pair that permits only relative rotation is a revolute, or turning, pair, and one that allows only sliding is a sliding pair. A turning pair can be either a lower or a higher pair depending upon whether a pin and bushing or a ball bearing is used for the connection. A sliding pair will be a lower pair as between a piston and cylinder wall.
1.6 LINK, CHAIN
A link is a rigid body having two or more pairing elements by means of which it may be connected to other bodies for purposes of transmitting force or motion. Generally, a link is a rigid member with provision at each end for connection to two other links. This may be extended, however, to include three, four, or even more connections. Figures 1.l0a, b, and c show these arrangements. Perhaps the extreme case of a multiply connected link is the master rod in a nine-cylinder radial aircraft engine as seen in Fig. 1.lOd.
A well-known example of a link with three connections is the bell crank, which can be arranged as shown in Fig. 1.1la or Fig. 1.11b. This link is generally
used for motion reduction and can be proportioned for a given ratio with a minimum of distortion of the required motion.
When a number of links is connected by means of pairs, the resulting system is a kinematic chain. If these links are connected in such a way that no motion is possible, a locked chain (structure) results. A constrained chain is obtained when the links are so connected that, no matter how many motion cycles are passed through, the relative motion will always be the same between the links.
It is also possible to connect links so that an unconstrained chain results, which means that the motion pattern will vary from time to time depending on the amount of friction present in the joints. If one of the links of a constrained chain is made a fixed link, the result is a mechanism.
If in a mechanism, the link which was originally fixed is allowed to move and another link becomes fixed, the mechanism is said to be inverted. The inversion
TRANSMISSION OF MOTION 9
of a mechanism does not change the motion of its links relative to each other but does change their absolute motions (relative to the ground).
1.8 TRANSMISSION OF MOTION
In the study of mechanisms, it is necessary to investigate the method in which motion may be transmitted from one member to another. Motion may be transmitted in three ways: (a) direct contact between two members such as between a cam and follower or between two gears, (b) through an intermediate link or connecting rod, and (c) by a flexible connector such as a belt or chain.
The angular velocity ratio is determined for the case of two members in direct contact. Figure 1.12 shows cam 2 and follower 3 in contact at point P. The cam has clockwise rotation, and the velocity of point P as a point on body 2 is represented by the vector PM2• The line NN' is normal to the two surfaces at point P and is known as the common normal, the line of transmission, or the line of action. The common tangent is represented by TT'. The vector PM2 is broken into two components, Po along the common normal and Pt2 along the common tangent. Because of the fact that the cam and the follower are rigid members and must remain in contact, the normal component of the velocity of P as a point on body 3 must be equal to the normal component of P as a point on body 2. Therefore, knowing the direction of the velocity vector of P as a point on body 3 to be perpendicular to the radius 03P and its normal component, it is possible to find the velocity PM3 as shown in the sketch. From this vector, the angular velocity of the follower may be determined from the relation V = Rw, where V equals the linear velocity of a point moving along a path of radius Rand w equals the angular velocity of the radius R.
In direct-contact mechanisms, it is often necessary to determine the velocity of sliding. From the sketch this can be seen to be the vector difference between the tangential components of the velocities of the points of contact. This difference
is given by the distance t2t3 because the component Pt3 is opposite in direction to that of Pt2• If t2 and t3 fall on the same side of P, then the distance will subtract. If the contact point P should fall on the line of centers 0203, then the vectors PM2 and PM) will be equal and in the same direction. The tangential components must also be equal and in the same direction so that the velocity of sliding will be zero. The two members will then have pure rolling motion. Thus, it may be said that the condition for pure rolling is that the point of contact shall lie on the line of centers.
For the mechanism of Fig. 1.12, the motion between the cam and the follower will be a combination of rolling and sliding. Pure rolling can only take place where the point of contact P falls on the line of centers .. However, contact at this point may not be possible because of the proportions of the mechanism. Pure sliding cannot occur between cam 2 and follower 3. For this to happen, a point on one link, within the limits of its travel, has to come in contact with all the successive points on the active surface of the other link.
It is possible to determine a relation so that the angular velocity ratio of two members in direct contact can be determined without going through the geometrical construction outlined above. From O2 and 03 drop perpendiculars upon the common normal striking it at e and i. respectively. The following relations will be seen to hold:
PM2 and PM3
W2 --- W3
W3 PM3 02P
-- X --
W2 O)p PM2 From the fact that triangles P M2n and 02Pe are similar,
Also, PM3n and 03Pj are similar triangles; therefore,
With the common normal intersecting the line of centers at K, triangles 02Ke
MOBILITY, OR NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM 11
and 03Kf are also similar; therefore,
W3 = 02e = 02K W2 03f 03K
Therefore, for a pair of curved surfaces in direct contact, the angular velocities are inversely proportional to the segments into which the line of centers is cut by the common normal. From this it can be seen that for constant angular velocity ratio the common normal must intersect the line of centers in a fixed point.
It is also possible to derive the above relations for the transmission of motion through an intermediate link or connecting rod and for the transmission of motion through a flexible connector. Figures 1.13 and 1.14 show these two cases, respectively, where the angular velocity ratio is given by
In Fig. 1.14, the ratio W4!W2 is independent of the center distance O2°4'
1.9 MOBILITY, OR NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM
Mobility is one of the most fundamental concepts to the study of kinematics. By definition, the mobility of a mechanism is the number of degrees of freedom it possesses. An equivalent definition of mobility is the minimum number of in-
dependent parameters required to specify the location of every link within a mechanism.
A single link constrained to move with planar motion, such as the one shown in Fig. 1.ISa, possesses three degrees of freedom. The x- and y-coordinates of the point P along with the angle 8 form an independent set of three parameters describing its location. Two unconnected planar links are shown in Fig. 1.1Sb. Since each link possesses three degrees of freedom, these two links possess a total of six degrees of freedom. If the two links are pinned together at a point by means of a revolute joint, as shown in Fig. 1.ISe, the two-link system will possess only four degrees of freedom. Four independent parameters describing the location of the two links could, for example, be the x- and y-coordinates of the point PI, the angle 81, and the angle 82, There are many other parameters that could be used to specify the location of these links, but only four of these can be independent. Once the values of the independent parameters are specified, the position of every point in both links is determined.
In the simple example described above, connecting two planar links with a revolute joint had the effect of removing two degrees of freedom from the system. Stated in another way, a revolute joint permits a single degree of freedom (pure rotation) between the links it connects. Using this type of logic, it is possible to
MOBILITY, OR NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM 13 develop a general equation which will help predict the mobility of any planar mechanism.
For example, a planar mechanism having n links is to be designed. Before any connections are made, the system of n links will have a total of 3n degrees of freedom. Recognizing that one link of every mechanism will always be considered to be fixed to the ground removes three degrees of freedom. This leaves the system with a total of 3n - 3, or 3(n - 1), degrees of freedom. Each one-degree-of-freedom joint removes two degrees of freedom from the system. Similarly, each two-degree-of-freedom joint removes one degree of freedom from the system. The total mobility of the system is given by Grubler's equation
M = 3(n - 1) - 2f1 - f2
the mobility, or number of degrees of freedom
n - the total number of links, including the ground
f1 the number of one-degree-of-freedom joints
f2 the number of two-degree-of-freedom joints
Care must be used when applying this equation because there are a number of special mechanism geometries for which it will not work. Although no all-inclusive rule exists for predicting when the mobility equation may give an incorrect result, special cases often occur when several links of a mechanism are parallel. For example, applying Grubler's equation to the mechanism of Fig. 1.16 gives
M = 3(5 - 1) - 2(6) = 0
Nevertheless, this device can actually move as a result of its special geometry and is a mechanism with one degree of freedom. It must also be noted that a joint connecting k links at a single point must be counted as k - 1 joints. For example, a revolute joint connecting three links at a single point is counted as two joints. Only four types of joints are commonly found in planar "mechanisms.
(Rolling Without) sliding
These are the revolute, the prismatic, and the rolling contact joints (each having one degree of freedom), and the cam or gear joint (having two degrees of freedom). These joints are depicted in Fig. 1.17. The following definitions apply to the actual mobility of a device:
the device is a mechanism with M degrees of freedom the device is a statically determinate structure
the device is a statically indeterminate structure
M > 1:
M - 0:
M < -1: Joint Type (Symbol)
Degrees of Freedom
Cam or gear
FIGURE 1.17 Common types of joints found in planar mechanisms.
Example 1.1. Determine the mobility of the four-bar linkage of Fig. 1.18.
There are four links and fo~r revolute joints, each having one degree of freedom.
The mobility is given by
M = 3(4 - 1) - 2(4) M = 1
So this is a one-degree-of-freedom mechanism.
Example 1.2. Determine the mobility of the device of Fig. 1.19.
There are four links connected by five single-degree-of-freedom joints (the joint connecting three links at a point counts twice). The mobility is given by
M = 3(4 - 1) - 2(5) M = -1
This is a statically indeterminate structure.
MOBILITY, OR NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM 15
Example 1.3. Determine the mobility of the device of Fig. 1.20.
There are three links, two one-degree-of-freedom revolute joints and one twodegree-of-freedom higher-pair joint. In the higher-pair joint, the two contacting bodies may translate along the common tangent to the two surfaces or rotate about the contact point, thus giving two degrees of freedom. The mobility is given by
M = 3 (3 - 1) - 2(2) - 1 (1 ) M = 1
This is a one-degree-of-freedom mechanism.
1.1. (a) If W2 = 20 radlmin, calculate the angular velocity of link 3 for the two cases shown in Fig. 1.21. (b) Calculate the maximum angle and the minimum angle of the follower with the horizontal.
1.2. Layout the mechanisms for Problem 1.1 to full scale and graphically determine the Velocity of sliding between links 2 and 3. Use a velocity scale of 1 in. = 10 in./min.
1.3. If W2 = 20 rad/min for the mechanism shown in Fig. 1.21, using graphical construction, determine the angular velocities of link 3 for one revolution of the cam in 600 increments starting from the position where W3 = O. Plot W3 versus cam angle a letting the scale of W3 be 1 in. = 2.0 rad/min and the scale of 6 be ! in. = 60.
1.4. (a) If 0)2 = 1800 rad/s, calculate the angular velocity of link 3 for the mechanism shown in Fig. 1.22. (b) Calculate the maximum angle and the minimum angle of the follower relative to the horizontal.
1.5. For the linkage shown in Fig. 1.23, determine 0)4 and VB' 1.6. For the linkage shown in Fig. 1.24, determine VB and 0)4'
1.7. Prove for the linkage shown in Fig. 1.13 that the angular velocities of the driven and driver links are inversely proportional to the segments into which the line of centers is cut by the line of transmission.
1.8. Prove for the belt and pulleys shown in Fig. 1.14 that the angular velocities of the pulleys are inversely proportional to the segments into which the line of centers is cut by the line of transmission.
1.9. In a linkage as shown in Fig. 1.13, the crank 2 is 19 mm long and rotates at a constant angular velocity of 15 rad/s. Link 3 is 38 mm long and link 4 is 25 mm long. The distance between centers O2 and 04 is 51 mm. Graphically determine the angular velocity of link
MOBILITY, OR NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM 17
02A = 4 in. 04B = 5 in.
W2 = 100 rad/s ccw
1 FIGURE 1.23
0204 = 4 in. 02A = 2.828 in.
AB = 2 in. °48 == 2 in.
W2 = 14.14 rad/s ccw
1 FIGURE 1.24
MOBILITY, OR NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM 19
4 when link 2 is counterclockwise 45° from the horizontal. State whether or not <.t>4 is constant.
1.10. A pulley of 100 mm diam drives one of 200 mm diam by means of a belt. If the angular velocity of the drive pulley is 65 rad/s and the center distance between pulleys is 400 mm, graphically determine the speed of the 200 mm pulley. Will its speed be constant?
1.11. Determine the mobility (number of degrees of freedom) of the devices shown in Figs. 1.25 through 1.32.