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Electrical Assignment 10

Electrical Assignment 10

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Published by: nanimdp on Aug 22, 2010
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Break InHuman Beings We all know about 3-phase 4-wire system which is commonly used in shore.

But lets know what kind of unique system we use on board ships. Know why we use such unique type of grounding system on board ships? The Earthing/Grounding system which provides double-safety on board ships. How Earthing Works on Shore

Before delving into ship grounding, let us study about shore grounding to have a basic understanding of the concept. In shore we use 3-phase 4-wire systems, in which 3 wires are representing each phase and 4th wire is neutral which carries the return current. The neutral is earthed at many places for the safety of human beings against shocks. If any conductor carrying current has its insulation failure, then if the conductor comes in contact with the metal enclosure part of the machinery, then it may cause voltage accumulation, leading to shock to human beings which is highly fatal. Thus to maintain the safety of human beings against the accidents due to circuit failures, the neutral is earthed at various places like transformers, distribution sub-stations etc. This makes the equipment to automatically get out of supply by tripping the protection devices. Insulated Neutral Sytem--The Reason for Using it Onboard for Ship grounding

The requirement ashore is the safety of human beings. So, inorder to prevent human-electrical accidents, the neutral is earthed. The priority is neither the safety of the machinery nor the continuous necessary operation of the machinery. But the scenario onboard ship is totally different. The priority is the continuous operation of the machineries which are classed "essential". The distribution system followed onboard is "insulated neutral" system. The main priority onboard is the safety of ship which includes navigation & fire safety..etc. If due to earth fault, the machinery classed as"essential" gets isolated, say for eg: steering gear, then the safety of ship is at question, which may lead to collison, grounding, fire & pollution etc..So the priority onboard ship is to maintain the continuity of the supply to the machinery in the event of "single earth fault occuring". Circuit Faults:

SIGNIFICANCE OF EARTH FAULTS: If an earth fault occurs in an "earthed distribution system". it would be equivalent to a "short-circuit" fault across the load via ship's hull.A basic circuit consist essentially of Two parts: 1. . it would cause a heavy shock. Generally insulation failure occurs which leads to the conductor getting in contact with the body of the metal enclosure. This may result in hazardous situation. if the equipment is classed as "essential" for eg: steering gear. A short-circuit fault is due to the double break in the insulation. Either break in the insulation or break in the conductor. 2.. The break in the conductor leads to non-flow of current in the circuit. The resulting large earth fault current will immediately "blow-up" the fuses in the line. The Conductor--which carried the current around the circuit. A majority of earth faults occurs within the equipment. Thus the equipment is isolated from the supply and thus rendered safe. thus a very high current passes through. allowing the conductor to touch the hull or earthed metal enclosure. the metal enclosure of the equipment if not earthed. A break in the insulation leads to an earth fault. Thus the "earthed distribution system" requires only one earth fault on the line conductor to cause an earth fault current to flow. When such earth faults happen. allowing both conductors to get connected. by-passing the load. and may result in fire accidents too. The Insulation---which keeps the current inside the conductor. Only 2 types of circuit faults can occur.

perhaps.therefore. will not cause any equipment to go out of operation and thus maintains the continuity of operation of the equipment. The fact that I took some water out didn't change how much was available from the ocean. This point is to be noted.If the earth fault occurs in "insulated neutral distribution system". cause disconnection of. and not change it at all. then the two earth faults together would be equivalent to a short circuit fault ( via ships hull) thus resulting large current would operate the protection devices.brighthub. An insulated neutral distribution system requires two earth faults on two different lines to cause an earth fault current to flow. If a second earth fault occurs. the ground is attached to the metal framework in the ocean.. Pretty much the same as a grounding pole in the earth. more effective than an earthed system in maintaining continuity of supply to equipments. Thus an insulated neutral system. on ships and offshore equipment. and why it's important. "Ground" is a large reservoir of chage that I can take however much I need from. and some other reasons as well. Thus a single earth fault will not provide a complete circuit for the fault current to flow." the machinery still continues to operate".aspx#ixzz0wwivAsRM Let's start with what a ground is. essential services creating a risk to the safety of the ship. is . Looking for more articles like this? Ship's Control Systems Related Links y y y y How To Protect An Alternator From Reverse Power & Under Voltage? What Is A Preferential Trip ? Marine Alternators: Protection Systems Used On Board Ships Read more: http://www. where we can get access to as much charge as we need. Hence it is adopted for mostmarine electrical systems. We use grounds to ensure that everything is at the same potential. A physical analogue of a ground would be taking a cup of water (charge) out of the ocean (ground). or add as much as I need to. So. .com/engineering/marine/articles/38231.

so a fuse/circuit breaker would not protect the person in this situation. Airplanes use their jet engines to generate electrical power while they are in flight (at the gate.There's still a _lot_ of water available. it's the difference between using the ocean as my reservoir. If a fault occurred that allowed a connection between those heating elements and a metal (electrically conductive) shell that is part of the toaster. Group Operations Manager at Animalcare plc see all my answers Boats to have a great big lump of metal attached to the outside which acts as a sacrificial electrode so as current passes to ground it eats away the electrode rather than the boat hull of more likely on plastic boats the screw Aircraft are basically insulated in the air when flying and can discharge relative to ground when they touch down. By providing an electrical ground. Problem changes again when you think about seaplanes and planes landing on say snow/ice/ metal/concrete etc posted 9 months ago Shreeram R. a battery operated flashlight is not connected to the ground. and my adding or removing a cup won't really change things that much. Current only flows through the ground circuit when there is a problem (fault). For example. they are normally connected to electrical power from . and a swimming pool . Anything connected to that shell will have the same potential. There we use a "floating ground" and use the body of the plane itself as the reservoir. however. when their insulating rubber wheels touch down or when the engineer fits the grounding strip. While the shell is a pretty big reservoir. Electrical grounding is a protective mechanism that helps prevent electrical shock.On planes. Student at Mid Sweden University see all my answers Electrical "grounding" does not mean that all electrical systems have to be connected to the ground. it can be overwhelmed. but I can see a point where I could conceivably empty the pool with enough need. posted 9 months ago Bill A. The circuit's fuse or circuit breaker only protects from a high current. it's a bit different. For example. This protects someone from receiving an electric shock if they touch the toaster's shell. then someone who touched the outside (shell) of the faulty toaster could be exposed to a high voltage. Using our water analogue case. Normally there is no current through the ground circuit. I guess the question then is when do they ground. nor is the electrical system in your car. a toaster has electrical connections to the heating elements inside the toaster. current would be allowed to flow from the toaster's shell through the ground circuit which would have less resistance that somebody's skin touching the faulty toaster's shell.

protecting circuit insulation from damage due to excessive voltage. Todd Clark. Parts of the aircraft that are made of plastics or composites are protected with a metal mesh or fibers. as well as ionization of the air by the engines. a 'ground' is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge. Department of Energy ===================================================== Electric systems do not need to be "grounded" in order to work. Humans and buildings are usually at the electric potential of the earth. Fig. a connection to ground is done for safety purposes to protect people from the effects of faulty insulation on electrically powered equipment. dust and rain. to avoid appliances or other electric devices giving a shock. In electronic circuit theory. For measurement purposes. there is little noticeable effect other than communications. can cause the airplane to develop a static charge up to several million volts. if something goes wrong inside. 1: A typical earthing electrode (left of gray conduit) at a home in Australia. Snow. a person will not get a shock. In some types of telegraph and power transmission circuits. . a common return path for electric current (earth return or ground return). the Earth serves as a (reasonably) constant potential reference against which other potentials can be measured.the airport). the purpose of grounding on earth is to make sure that harmful or undesired electric voltages are not present in the event of a malfunction. Note the green and yellow marked earth wire. A connection to ground helps limit the voltage built up between power circuits and the earth. That way. so the metal frame is used as a conducting "ground" for all the electrical components inside the aircraft. Airplanes are usually made of metal. An electrical ground system should have an appropriate current-carrying capability in order to serve as an adequate zero-voltage reference level. The use of the term ground (or earth) is so common in electrical and electronics applications that circuits vehicles such as ships. the outer part of the appliance is connected to ground with a wire. The aircraft itself becomes charged as it is flying.S. aircraft. the earth itself can be used as one conductor of the circuit.Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. Because the passengers and the equipment is inside the metal shell. In power circuits. The plane's electrical circuits can still have "grounds" that would prevent an electric shock hazard from faulty electrical equipment on the plane. Rather. saving the cost of installing a separate run of wire as a return conductor. Office of Science U. which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential. In electrical engineering. and spacecraft may be spoken of as having a "ground" connection without any actual connection to the Earth. Ground is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured. Communications are disrupted by the radio frequency static that occurs when corona discharge or electrical leakage occurs. the term ground or earth has several meanings depending on the specific application areas. Thus. Connections to ground may be used to limit the build-up of static electricity when handling flammable products or when repairing electronic devices. or a direct physical connection to the Earth. So "ground" on an airplane is usually the frame. A metal frame also protects the occupants from lightning strikes.

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