Kinds of Propositions

1. Categorical Proposition It is one that affirms or denies the identity of the two terms in an absolute manner, without any condition or alternative. e.g. All vegetables are healthy. Some books are expensive.

Sub-classification of Categorical Proposition
1.1. Existential or Factual Proposition It is a kind of proposition wherein there is an agreement between the logical proposition and the factual reality. The subject and the predicate are joined or disjoined to represent an actual reality. e.g. San Beda College is a Catholic school.

1.2 Formal or Predicational Proposition It is a kind of proposition that expresses the objective identity of one term, expressed as subject with another term, expressed as predicate. This proposition does not necessarily have to conform with actual reality. e.g. A square circle is a figure.

1.3. Analytic a priori or synthetic a posteriori Judgment Proposition Analytic a priori It is one wherein the predicative is already contained within the subject and may be understood by simple analysis of it. e.g. A baldheaded man is a person without hair.

Synthetic a posteriori It is one wherein the predicate is not contained within the subject and may not be understood by the analysis of it. e.g. A rose is red.

Kinds of Categorical Proposition
1. Simple Categorical Proposition It is a proposition that has a single subject and a single predicate and expressing a single judgment. e.g. Stephen is a student.

2. Compound Categorical Proposition It is a proposition that has several subjects and/ or several predicates united by connective particles and expressing several distinct judgments. e.g. X and Y are the bread and butter of their parents.

3. Complex Categorical Proposition It is a proposition where subject and predicate is qualified by restriction, comparison, specification or some other modification or applicative clause so that even if it is apparently simple, in reality, it is not so. e.g. Maria, a sexy lady, is a part-time model and a student who has a big exposure in public service.

2. Hypothetical Proposition It expresses a judgment as dependent on another judgment, not an absolute one. e.g. God is the author of everything. If he is the author of everything, He is the Ultimate Creator.

Sub-Classification of Hypothetical Proposition
2.1 Conditional Proposition It is a kind of hypothetical proposition that expresses a judgment as depending on certain provision. That judgment of the clause qualified by the particle If is called the antecedent or condition and the other, the consequent or conditional clause.

e.g. If a student completes his academic course, then, he will be graduated. If you will kiss me, then, I will hug you. If you come with me, then, we shall have a great time!

2.2 Disjunctive Proposition It is a kind of hypothetical proposition expressing an alternative all of which cannot be true or false together but one must be true and the other (or others) false.

Perfect Disjunctive Proposition In this kind of disjunctive, the members of the disjunction are, in effect, contradictory of each other. That means that in the perfect disjunctive not only must one or the other part to be true, but both cannot be true. It must be one or the other, and it cannot be both.

1. Member must be contradictory. 2. One must be true. 3. Both must be true. e.g. A living being is either mortal or immortal. A good person is either pious or honest.

Imperfect Disjunctive Proposition In imperfect disjunctive, the two enunciations are so related that one must be true but both may be true. If you deny one member, you must affirm the other but you can affirm one member without being forced to deny the other.

1. One must be true. 2. Both may be true. 3. Deny the one, affirm the other. 4. Affirm the one, not be forced to deny the other. e.g. A person with a stone in his kidney will either undergo a surgery or dies. If you play basketball, you will be either be healthy or become an athlete.

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