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MOVEMENT AND SUPPORT IN ANIMALS

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MOVEMENT & SUPPORT Both aquatic and terrestrial organisms need a skeleton to support them against the pull of gravity. Skeleton fulfil 3 main functions:  support,  locomotion  protection.

MOVEMENT & SUPPORT
Other functions of skeleton :  support the body and keep it in shape  for muscle attachment and act as a level system for movement and locomotion -- muscles are attached to bones through ligaments and tendons to form a level system which can keep the body in shape and produce movement and locomotion through contraction and relaxation of muscles  protect the internal organs -- e.g. skull protects the brain; thoracic cage protects lung and heart  produce red blood cells -- red bone mallow in soft bonds produces RBCs

MUSCULAR MOVEMENT
Muscles are attached to bones to form lever systems for movement Muscle contraction creates a driving force when obtains energy from respiration; When a muscle relaxes, energy is not necessary There are 3 types of muscle:  Skeletal muscle  Smooth muscles,  Cardiac muscle.

Skeletal Muscle Muscles attached to bone surfaces Under conscious control (voluntary muscle) Each muscle fibre is multinucleate with striations Produces powerful contractions but becomes fatigued if remains contracted for a long time because lactic acid accumulates in the muscle cells Skeletons function in support, protection, and movement

Skeletal Muscle

Smooth Muscle Found in internal organs Not under conscious control (involuntary muscle) Possesses a central nucleus & is non-striated Produces less powerful contractions but can remain contracted for a long time

Smooth Muscle

Cardiac Muscle Found only in heart Not under conscious control (involuntary muscle) Contracts automatically & is regulated by nerves Each muscle fibre is striated, with bridges joining neighbouring muscle fibres Contracts powerfully and does not become fatigued unless the heart dies

Cardiac Muscle

HYDROSKELETON
˜ Fluid is secreted within the body and enclosed by ˜ ˜

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body wall muscles. Muscles are not attached to any structures and thus they can only pull against each other The combined effect of muscle contraction and fluid pressure serves to maintain the shape and form of the animal. Longitudinal and circular muscles act antagonistically against each other to bring about locomotion. Example: earthworm

HYDROSKELETON

EXOSKELETON
˜ Epidermal cells secrete a non-cellular cuticle,

composed mainly of chitin. It acts as a hard outer covering to the animal and is made up of a series of articulated plates or tubes covering or surrounding organs. ˜ The combination of a system of plates and tubes joined together by flexible membranes provides both protection and mobility. ˜ Example: arthropods

EXOSKELETON

Exoskeleton in beetle (insect)

ENDOSKELETON
˜ Made either of cartilage or bone, is located

within the organism and is internal to the muscles. ˜ It is composed of living tissue and so can grow steadily within the animal ˜ Joints and elastic ligaments exist to allow movement and maintain the correct relative position ˜ Examples: human, dog

JOINTS
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A joint is formed wherever two or more bones meet Types of joints :  Immovable joints e.g. between bones of skull and pelvic girdle  Slightly movable joints e.g. vertebrae  Freely movable joints  Pivot joint e.g. joint between atlas & axis  Hinge joint e.g. elbow & knee  Ball & socket joint e.g. shoulder & hip  Gliding joint e.g. wrist

JOINTS
˜ The surface of joints is covered with cartilage

which contains pores. Synovial fluid is secreted from synovial membrane for reducing friction and absorbing shock.
˜ Joint is surrounded by strong fibrous capsule

which helps holding the bones of the joint in position.

JOINTS

LOCOMOTION Locomotion is the movement of a organism from one place to another. Locomotion requires energy to overcome friction, drag, inertia, and gravity.

Functions Animal move in order to : To obtain food To escape from predators To find a mate To distribute offspring To reduce competition To avoid danger To maintain position To avoid waste products

LOCOMOTION IN WATER
Water has a greater density than air. It also offer considerable resistance to the movement of the organisms within it. An aquatic animal's body is no denser than its aqueous environment, it should be able to stay afloat well enough. Though this means little energy need be expended maintaining vertical position, it makes movement in the horizontal plane much more difficult.

LOCOMOTION IN WATER Body shape is therefore important for efficient movement, which is essential for basic functions like catching prey. A fusiform, torpedo-like body form is seen in many marine animals, though the mechanisms they employ for movement are diverse. Movement of the body may be from side to side, as in sharks and many fishes, or up and down, as in marine mammals.

SWIMMING ACTION

LOCOMOTION IN THE AIR Gravity is a major problem for flight through the air. Because it is impossible for any organism to approach the density of air, flying animals must generate enough lift to ascend and remain airborne. Wing shape is crucial in achieving this, generating a pressure gradient that results in an upward force on the animal' body.

LOCOMOTION IN THE AIR Flying animals must be very light to achieve flight, the largest birds being around 20 kilograms. Other structural modifications of flying animals include reduced and redistributed body weight, fusiform shape and powerful flight muscles.

FLIGHT ACTION
Gliding flight:  Birds hold their large wings to create as much air resistance as possible, then descend slowly, covering large horizontal distances. Flapping flight:  Wings are moved up and down rhythmically to create a greater resistance against the air on the downward stroke than the upward stroke by the large & powerful pectoralis major muscles and smaller pectoralis minor muscles respectively.

FLIGHT ACTION

LOCOMOTION ON LAND A terrestrial animals required strong skeletal and muscular framework for structural support. Each step also requires much energy to overcome inertia, and animals can store elastic potential energy in their tendons to help overcome this. Balance is also required for movement on land.

LOCOMOTION ON LAND Other animals move in terrestrial habitats without the aid of legs. For example, earthworms that crawl by a peristalsis and snakes move using several different modes of locomotion, depending upon substrate type and desired speed. Some animals even can roll and some have specialized for moving on nonhorizontal surfaces.

ANIMALS MOVEMENT

Creeping movement of earthworm

ANIMALS MOVEMENT

Strides of insect in walking

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