sisongaiD laitnereffiD dipaR

maS .H rimA
ROTIDE SEIRES

nodnoL nodnoL egelloC ytisrevinU ,loohcS lacideM egelloC ytisrevinU dna eerF layoR tsigolotamuehR dna naicisyhP lareneG tnatlusnoC

nonyeB .C.L.H
ROSIVDA LAIROTIDE

nodnoL nodnoL egelloC ytisrevinU ,loohcS lacideM egelloC ytisrevinU dna eerF layoR

maS .H rimA

enicideM ni stluseR tseT yrotarobaL dna sngiS ,smotpmyS fo Z±A

SISONGAID LAITNEREFFID DIPAR

moc.gnihsilbupllewkcalb.www//:ptth :etisbew ruo tisiv ,gnihsilbuP llewkcalB no noitamrofni rehtruf roF namrahC etaK :rellortnoC noitcudorP yelwoR nahtanoJ :rotidE noitcudorP ttaylU alociN :tnatsissA lairotidE seyoN ikciV :rotidE gninoissimmoC wotsdaP ,dtL lanoitanretnI JT yb modgniK detinU eht ni dnuob dna detnirP aidnI ,.dtL .tvP secivreS noitamrofnI maloK yb regiturF tp§9 / §7 ni teS yrarbiL hsitirB eht morf elbaliava si eltit siht rof drocer eugolatac A

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sisongaiD laitnereffiD dipaR

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sesuac lacideM

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niap lanimodba esuffiD

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niap nioL

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)lacilibmuirep( lanimodba lartneC

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deunitnoc niap lanimodbA
niap lanimodbA 2

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SNC

pag noina hgiH
sisodicA
sisodicA 4

deunitnoc

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ANA

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sispes ,airunibolgomeah lanrutcon lamsyxorap ,)selsaem ,sititapeh ,VIH ,surivovrap 91B( noitcefni lariv ,noitaidar ,)enezneb ,noihtarap( slacimehc ,)etaxertohtem ,dlog ,locinehpmarolhc ,scixototyc( sgurd :deriuqcA atinegnoc sisotareksyd ,aimeana inocnaF :detirehnI cihtapoidI

citsalpA

esaesid laner dna revil ot yradnoces ,airunibolgomeah lanrutcon lamsyxoraP aidirtsolc ,airalam :noitcefnI airunibolgomeah hcraM ,sevlav traeh laicifitra ,)aispmalceUerp ,noisnetrepyh tnangilam Á ,CID ,SUH ,PTT( aimeana citylomeah cihtapoignaorcim :amuart :enummiUnoN Á enidiniuq ,nillicinep :sgurD nrobwen fo esaesid citylomeah ,noitcaer noisufsnarT :enummiollA )amohpmyl ,sesuriv rehto ,VBE .g.e ,snoitcefni ,cihtapoidi( seidobitna dloC ,)apodlyhtem

,.ps

amsalpocyM

.g.e ,sgurd ,amohpmyl ,ELS ,cihtapoidi( seidobitna mraW :enummiotuA

deriuqcA

ycneicifed esanegordyhed etahpsohpU6Uesoculg ,ycneicifed esanik etavuryp :stcefed cilobateM Á Á sisotycotpille ,sisotycorehps :stcefed enarbmeM aimeassalaht ,aimeana llec elkcis :seihtaponibolgomeaH

citylomeaH
eruliaf worram enoB eruliaf laneR ycnangerP )aimeana citycorcam esuac osla yam( msidioryhtopyH )aimeana citycorcam esuac osla yam( aimeana citylomeaH )ycnangilam ,sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfni ,noitcefni cinorhc( esaesid cinorhc fo aimeanA

yratidereH

citycomroN
]6J[

)citycorcim eb yam tub ,citycomron netfo( esaesid cinorhc fo aimeanA gninosiop daeL aisalpsydoleym ,dael ,)locinehpmarolhc ,dizainosi( sgurd ,lohocla ,)deknilUX( latinegnoc :aimeana citsalborediS Á aimeassalahT )snagev .g.e( ekatni

#

,)ycnangerp ,htworg( sdnamed

,)esaesid lewob llams ,ymotcertsag( noitprosba

" #

)elanedoud amortsolycnA( mrowkooh ,)]airutameah ,aigahrronem .g.e[ latinegoru ,]ycnangilam ,reclu citpep .g.e[ IG( ssol doolb :ycneicifed norI

citycorciM

aisalpsydoleyM esaesid reviL msidioryhtopyH aimeana citylomeaH ycneicifed
21B/etaloF

]5J[

aimeanA
7 aimeanA

citycorcaM

lohoclA

niap latceronA
erussif lanA ysorpeL sisairosP amezce ralummuN emrofitlum amehtyrE snargim mucinorhc amehtyrE mugufirtnec eralunna amehtyrE susotamehtyre supul suoenatuc etucabuS sisodiocraS eralunna amolunarG aesor sisairytiP airacitrU

snoisel niks ralunnA
siroproc aeniT

amedeo elknA
amedeO aimeana citsalbolageM aimeassalahT

eeS

sisotycosinA
ycneicifed norI llabeye citehtsorP )sisairdyM

eeS(

sisairdym ro )sisoiM

eeS(

sisoim laretalinU

ytilauqeni lacigoloisyhP

airocosinA
sitiliehC

sititamots ralugnA
gninosiop dael ,aimeaclacrepyh ,ylagemorcA aimeana llec elkciS enob fo esaesid s'tegaP emordnys solnaD±srelhE mucitsale amohtnaxoduesP

eeS

skaerts dioignA
sruomut lanerdA emordnys s'gnihsuC

aisalprepyh lanerda latinegnoC

noitazinegordnA
SOCP sitiloc cibeoma .g.e ,snoitcefnI sisotamolunarg s'renegeW

ACNAUc Á

sesaesid enummiotua citamuehr ,sititapeh enummiotua ,sisohrric yrailib ,sitignalohc gnisorelcs ,esaesid lewob yrotammalfni :oslA esaesid ssuartS±gruhC sitiignaylop cipocsorciM

ACNAUp Á

ACNA
ACNA 8

etiteppa

# ,ssol

# ,etiteppA #
aisahpsyD

thgieW eeS

eeS

aisahpA

noisuffe laidracirep egraL noisuffe laruelp dedisUL Á xarohtomuenp dedisUL Á DPOC aidracortxeD llaw tsehc ralucsum ,ytisebO

detaplap ton taeb xepA

)sisonets lartiM

eeS(

sisonets lartiM

gnippaT

)noitatigruger citroA )noitatigruger lartiM

noitatigruger citroA noitatigruger lartiM

eeS( eeS(

)dedaol emulov( gnitsurhT

noisnetrepyh cimetsyS )sisonets citroA

eeS(

sisonets citroA

)dedaol erusserp( gnivaeH

taeb xepA

ylredle ni VA dipsucirt a fo noitareneged/noitacificlaC VA dipsucib latinegnoc a fo noitacificlaC esaesid traeh citamuehr ot yradnoces sisonetS

sisonets citroA

esaesid lewob yrotamma¯ni ,atcefrepmi sisenegoetso ,emordnys solnaD±srelhE ,mucitsale amohtnaxoduesp ,emordnys s'nafraM :srehtO PB

"" ,)emordnys

s'retieR
]7J[

,sitilydnops gnisolykna .g.e ,seditirhtra evitagenores ,sitirhtra diotamuehr( seditirhtra ,)silihpys .g.e( sititroa ,noitcessid citroa :noitatalid gnir evlav dna atroA evlav citroa dipsucib ,amuart ,revef citamuehr ,sitidracodne evitcefni :seitilamronba/egamad telfael evlaV

noitatigruger citroA

etalap tfelc ,)ycneicifed HRnG dna aimsona( emordnys s'nnamllaK :latinegnoC sesaesid evitarenegedoruen ,amuart daeh ,)amoigninem .g.e( assof roiretna eht fo roolf eht no sruomut :lacigolorueN spylop lasan ,)sitinihr( noitsegnoc lasaN

aimsonA

reclu latcer yratiloS amuarT ycnangilaM xaguf aiglatcorP amotameah lanaireP ssecsba lanaireP )desobmorht ,detalugnarts( sdiohrromeaH

9

etiteppA

:sgnuL stnega citehtseana rehto dna setarutibrab ,senipezaidozneb ,setaipo :sgurD? )ruomut ,amuart ,noitammalfni ,noitcefni ,ralucsav( ertnec yrotaripser gnivlovni esaesid cinagrO? :SNC

)2 epyt :eruliaf yrotaripser(

2OC aP

hgih ,aixopyH
SDRA tnuhs L R

!

sisorbif yranomluP ainomuenP amedeo yranomluP msilobme yranomluP DPOC amhtsA

)1 epyt :eruliaf yrotaripser(

2OC aP

wol ro lamron ,aixopyH

sesag doolb lairetrA
sisairalif ,ycnangilam ,noisicxe lacigrus ,yparehtoidar :tnemevlovni edon hpmyl yrallixA )bir lacivrec ,esicrexe evissecxe htiw detaicossa :niev yrallixa( )TVD( sisobmorht suonev peeD sitilulleC amuarT )erar( amedeohpmyl latinegnoC

gnillews mrA
niap redluohS

osla eeS

niap caidrac derrefeR )dioryht ,yendik ,etatsorp ,tsaerb ,gnul :yradnoces ,yramirp( sruomut :enoB msilobme ,sisobmorht suonev/lairetra ,sisonets yretra naivalcbus :ralucsaV emordnys lennut lapraC seihtaporuen larehpireP bir lacivrec ,recnac gnul lacipa :tnemevlovni suxelp laihcarB )sruomut ,sisolydnops lacivrec ,csid despalorp( noisserpmoc droc lanips lacivrec :lacigolorueN )aiglarhtraonoM

eeS

( sitirhtrA

yrujni niarts ,amuarT

niap mrA
emordnys solnaD±srelhE airunietsycomoH emordnys s'nafraM gnidnif lamroN

ylytcadonhcarA
negonirbif dna ,II ,V ,X ,IIIV ,XI ,IX ,IIX :srotcaf noitalugaoc fo noitibihni ro ycneicifed .e.i yawhtap cisnirtni eht srotinom TTPA :

etoN
CID

]8J[

nirapeH ycneicifed K nimativ ,ypareht nirafraW esaesid reviL esaesid s'dnarbelliW nov ailihpomeaH

" "

,TTPA

TTPA

01

.cte ,esaesid s'nosliW ,esaesid musfeR .g.e ,sesuac cilobatem/citeneg rehto suoremun dna sisodilais ,yhportsydokuel citamorhcatem ,sisonicsufopil diorec ,esaesid shcaS±yaT ,esaesid kciP±nnameiN .g.e ,sesaesid egarotS )aixata rallebereconips .g.e( tnanimod lamosotua ,)aisatceignalet aixata ,aixata s'hcierdeirF .g.e( evissecer lamosotua :saixata yratidereH yhporta metsys elpitlum :evitarenegeD noitamroflam iraihC±dlonrA ,emordnys reklaW±ydnaD ,aisalpopyh ralleberec :latinegnoC amedeoxym ,niotynehp ,lohocla :cilobatem/cixoT citsalpoenarap ,sesatsatem ,amotycortsa ,amotsalboignameah ralleberec :ruomuT amuarT sitilucsav ,sisorelcs elpitlum :noitammalfnI sisocrecitsyc ,sisomsalpoxot ,BT ,ssecsba ralleberec ,allecirav :noitcefnI egahrromeah ,noitcrafni :ralucsaV

aixata rallebereC
aixatA
2OC

noitneter

eruliaf reviL

sixiretsA
stset noitcnuf reviL

eeS TSA

stset noitcnuf reviL eeS )TOGS ,TSA( esarefsnart onimaUetatrapsA Á

noitalumitsrepyh nairavo ,)noisuffe laruelp ,seticsa ,amorbif nairavo( emordnys 'sgieM :eraR emordnys citorhpeN sitidracirep evitcirtsnoc ,eruliaf caidraC

etadusnarT
)amohpmyl ,yregrus .g.e ,scitahpmyl fo noitcurtsbo( seticsa suolyhC sisobmorht niev latrop ,)noitcurtsbo niev citapeh( emordnys iraihC±dduB )msidioryhtopyh( amedeoxyM sititaercnaP cinegoyp ,BT .g.e :noitcefnI )amoilehtosem laenotirep ,civlep ,lanimodba( ycnangilaM

sishorriC

seticsA
aiglarhtrayloP dna aiglarhtraonoM

etaduxE

eeS aiglarhtrA

'tsehc lialf` citamuart ,ytisebo ereves ,sisoilocsohpyk ereveS? :llaw tsehC sisylarap citamgarhpaid ,stnaxaler elcsum seihportsyd ralucsum ,sivarg ainehtsaym :elcsum/noitcnuj ralucsumorueN? airyhprop etuca ,sitileymoilop ,esaesid enoruen rotom ,emordnys OrraB±nialliuG :senoruen rotoM? Ä :ralucsumorueN aeonpa peels evitcurtsbo ,noitcurtsbo yawria egral ,DPOC ,amhtsa ereveS?

11

aixatA

)erar( kcolbimeh roiretsop tfeL aidracortxeD )yawhtap yrossecca dedisUtfel( etihW±nosnikraP±ffloW Á )laretalUoretna( IM Á msilobme yranomlup ,)DPOC ot yradnoces .g.e( yhportrepyh ralucirtnev thgiR

)DAR( noitaived sixa thgiR
)stcefed noihsuc laidracodne .g.e( stcefed traeh latinegnoc ,ycnangerp ,ytisebO )sucof ralucirtnev tfel( aidracyhcat ralucirtneV )sepyt emos( emordnys etihW±nosnikraP±ffloW )llaw roirefni( IM kcolbimeh roiretna tfeL

)DAL( noitaived sixa tfeL

noitaived sixA
sisairosp laruxelF sititamred tcatnoC

)noitcefni

muiretcabenyroC( amsarhtyrE

aenit ,sisaididnac :noitcefni lagnuF

hsar susotamehtyre yrallixA
sititamred cieohrrobeS )srevid aesUpeed ni( esaesid s'nossiaC ;esaesid s'rehcuaG ,esaesid s'yrbaF :rehtO Á lohoclA sititaercnaP ycnangerP )ELS ,sitirhtra diotamuehr .g.e( sesaesid eussit evitcennoC emordnys s'gnihsuC sdioretS llec elkciS yparehtoidaR )rumef fo kcen ,diohpacs .g.e( erutcarF

sisorcen ralucsavA
aixata yrosneS
deunitnoc

sebatoduesp citebaid ,yhtapoleym lacivrec ,)silasrod sebat( silihpys ,)ycneicifed
21B

eeS( droc eht fo noitareneged denibmoc etucabuS

aixatA
aixatA 21

sisaidraiG :noitcefnI )sitigahposeo .g.e( sugahposeo dna )sdiohrromeah .g.e( suna eht dnuora noitammalfnI )sragus rehto dna( esotcal ot ecnarelotnI emordnys lewob elbatirrI aispepsyd recluUnoN Á amonicrac citaercnap ,ycneiciffusni citaercnap ,esaesid yrailib ,esaesid caileoc ,)enitsetni llams( htworgrevo lairetcab :noitprosbalaM rewolfiluac ,egabbac ,snaeb .g.e ,esoniffar etardyhobrac eht gniniatnoc sdooF )eruxelf cinelps ro citapeh( tnempartne riA )ria fo stnuoma egral fo gniwollaws lautibah( aigahporeA sag fo tnuoma lamron fo ssenerawA

"

ecnelutalf dna gnitaolb ,gnihcleB

aimeassalahT aimeana citsalborediS )esaditoelcunU 5Uenidimiryp fo noitibihni( gninosiop daeL Á Á ycneicifed esaditoelcunU 5UenidimiryP Á Á

0

gnilppits cilihposaB

0

tsyc nairavo ,sisoirtemodne ,esaesid yrotammalfni civlep ,sruomut eniretu ,recnac latcer ,esaesid laner ,recnac citaercnap ,reclu citpep ,msyruena citroA

civlep/IG/ralucsaV

noisserpmoc droC )amoleym elpitlum ,sisatsatem( ycnangilaM )sitileymoetso lairetcab ,BT( noitcefnI

sesuac suoireS

retsoz sepreh ,enob fo esaesid s'tegaP ,sisoropoetso ,noitacidualc lanips dna sisonets lanips ,sitirhtraoetsO

)raey 04 

( stneitap redlO

sisehtsilolydnops ,sitilydnops gnisolykna ,csid despalorP

)raey 04 

( stneitap regnuoY 
niap kcaB

ytivitca suounerts ,serutcarf/amuarT

) 21B setavitcani( edixo suortin ,)latinegnoc( ycneicifed nimlabocsnarT

]9J[

)snagev( ekatni

# rehtO

nimroftem .g.e ,noitprosbalam decudniUgurD Á )mrowepat hsif ,eurps laciport ,amohpmyl ,htworgrevo lairetcab ,sisolucrebut ,esaesid s'nhorC ,esaesid caileoc( esaesid/yregrus laeli lanimreT )ymotcertsag ,aimeana suoicinrep( rotcaf cisnirtnI

#

noitprosbA

ycneicifed

21B

#

B
31 ecnelutalf dna gnitaolb ,gnihcleB

sisotycorehpS sisotycoluciteR aisamorhcyloP

:sisotycorehpS

:sisotycoluciteR :aisamorhcyloP :sisotycolikioP

sisotycolikioP seidob remiehneppaP

eeS eeS eeS eeS

eeS

:seidob remiehneppaP

stsalbomroN noitcaer diomeakueL aimeana citsalborhtyreokueL

eeS

:stsalbomroN

eeS

:noitcaer diomeakueL

eeS

:aimeana citsalborhtyreokueL

aimorhcopyH seidob ylloJ±llewoH mlif doolb cihpromiD

eeS

:aimorhcopyH

]01Q[

:seidob ylloJ±llewoH

eeS eeS

:mlif doolb cihpromiD

sllec rruB

eeS

:sllec rruB :stsalB

stsalB

eeS

gnilppits cilihposaB

eeS

:gnilppits cilihposaB :sisotycosinA

sisotycosinA sisotycohtnacA

eeS eeS

:setycohtnacA

mlif doolB

ecnelutalf dna gnitaolb ,gnihcleB

eeS

gnitaolB

)ainepotycobmorhT

eeS
"

( ainepotycobmorhT

,emit gnideelB

noitalugaoc ralucsavartni detanimessiD? nirafraw/ycneicifed K nimatiV? esaesid reviL? ailihpomeaH? :sredrosid noitalugaoC )emit gnideelB

ees

( sredrosid teletalP

degnolorp ,gnideelB

sisorbifoleyM aimeakueL

stsalB

'skcatta pord` ni ssensuoicsnoc fo ssol tucraelc on si ereht :

etoN

aimeacylgopyh :cilobateM )gninrutUdaeh ro kcen eht gnivahs no .g.e( ytivitisnesrepyh Á sunis ditorac ,hguoc ,noitirutcim :ytivitcarevo lagav fo sesuac rehtO noitome ,sgnidnuorrus mraw ni .pse gnidnats degnolorP

)aidracydarb xelfer( lagavosaV
)ylerar( )AIT( kcatta cimeahcsi tneisnart/ekorts ,yspelipE

lacigolorueN
tuptuo caidrac

#

taht noitidnoc yna ,noitcessid citroa ,IM

)srotibihni ECA .g.e( noitacidem evisnetrepyhitna ,)setebaid .g.e( yhtaporuen cimonotua ,aimealovopyh :noisnetopyh larutsoP sisonets yranomlup ,msilobme yranomlup ,MCOH ,sisonets citroa :noitcurtsbo wolftuO aidracyhcat ,)kcolb traeh( aidracydarb :aimhtyhrrA

)niarb eht ot wolf doolb

#

tneisnart( ralucsavoidraC

stuokcalB

stuokcalB

41

ycnangilaM )sititsam ,ssecsba tsaerb( noitcefnI niap tsaerb lacilcyC

niap tsaerB
ssecsbA aisatce tcuD eleocotcalaG

stsyc suoecabes ,samopil :spmul tsaerbUnoN Á

sisorcen taF recnaC tsyC

spmul tsaerB
ecidnuaj evitcurtsbO aimrehtopyH msidioryhtopyH )erusserp lainarcartni

amonedaorbiF

"(

xelfer s'gnihsuC

kcolb ralucirtnevoirtA emordnys sunis kcis ,)aimeahcsi edon suniS( IM etucA nixogid

,)limaparev .g.e( tsinogatna lennahc

‡2

aC ,rekcolbU Á

b ,enoradoima :sgurD
skcatta lagavosaV ssentif lacisyhP

aidracydarB
emordnys thgirblA±enuCcM

peelS

atcefrepmi sisenegoetsO

sway ,silihpys :esaesid lamenoperT stekciR

aibit fo gniwoB
emordnys s'nafraM

esaesid s'tegaP

emordnys solnaD±srelhE atcefrepmi sisenegoetsO mucitsale amohtnaxoduesP

earelcs eulB
esaesid s'nosliW amonaleM

noitcefni sanomoduesP

amotameah lagnubuS

)s(lian eulB
aeohrraiD

aeohrraid ydoolB
noisnetopyH dna noisnetrepyH rednu

eeS

# & " ,erusserp doolB # "
sllec tegraT

eeS

sllec pordraeT

eeS :sllec pordraeT eeS :sllec tegraT

51

niap tsaerB

sitisoymylop ,yhportsyd ralucsum ,sivarg ainehtsaym :elcsuM emordnys OrraB±nialliuG ,noitartlifni laegninem ,esaesid enoruen rotom :evreN Ä ruomut ,aiblubognirys ,)sitilahpecne oilop .g.e( noitcefni ,ralucsav :)metsniarb( ielcuN

:slevel tnereffid eerht ta snoisel )IIX ,X ,XI( sevren lainarc :yslap rabluB

yslap rabluboduesp dna rabluB
sisorbiF recnac gnuL ssecsbA noisuffe laruelp evobA )ainomuenp( noitadilosnoC

gnihtaerb laihcnorB
seitimrofed llaw tsehc ,sredrosid ralucsumorueN xarohtordyh citohrriC emordnys lanerotapeH noisnetrepyh yranomluP )esaesid gnul lanoitapucco /latnemnorivne ,sgurd ,sesaesid eussit evitcennoc ,cinegotpyrc( sisorbif yranomluP recnac gnuL sisatceihcnorb ,noitcefni tsehC DPOC amhtsA )esaesid traeh raluvlav ,saimhtyhrra ,eruliaf traeh( esaesid caidraC ilobme yranomlup tnerruceR aimeanA

)skeew±syad( cinorhC
sisodica cilobateM )BT ,lagnuf ,lariv ,lairetcab( noitcefni tsehC DPOC amhtsA )amedeo yranomlup( eruliaf ralucirtnev tfeL

)sruoh( etucabuS
yteixnA sixalyhpanA ydob ngieroF xarohtomuenP msilobme yranomluP

)setunim( etucA

ssensselhtaerB
amesyhpmE xarohtomuenP noisuffe laruelP

# ,sdnuos htaerB
sitibelhpobmorht laicifrepus ,sitirdnohcotsoc :niap llaw tsehC sisorcen taF aisatce tcuD

espalloC

deunitnoc niap tsaerB

niap tsaerB

61

noisufsnartUtsoP Á ycneicifed esanik etavuryP eruliaf laneR recnac hcamotS
]21J[

sllec rruB
ylamona s'nietsbE ,tcefed latpes lairtA msilobme yranomlup evissaM yhtapoymoidraC esaesid traeh cimeahcsI

)BBBR( kcolb hcnarb eldnub thgiR
sisorbif metsys noitcudnoC )noisnetrepyh ,sisonets citroa( yhportrepyh ralucirtnev tfeL yhtapoymoidraC esaesid traeh cimeahcsI

)BBBL( kcolb hcnarb eldnub tfeL

thgir dna tfel ,skcolb hcnarb eldnuB
)sisodiolyma ,ycnangilam lanretni ,esaesid lewob yrotammalfni htiw detaicossa( atisiuqca asollub sisylomredipe ,atinegnoc asollub sisylomredipE emrofitlum amehtyrE )toof dna dnah( amezcE sgurD setebaiD )esaesid caileoc htiw detaicossa( simrofitepreh sititamreD adrat aenatuc airyhproP sinoitatseg sepreh :ycnangerP diogihpmep ,sugihpmeP seibacs ,)noitcaer 'di` ,sidep aenit( lagnuf ,)eikcasxoc ,VSH ,VZV( lariv ,sitilullec ,ogitepmi :snoitcefnI snrub ,)ekans/tcesni .g.e( setiB

snoisel niks suolluB
esaesid ladimarypartxE )serehpsimeh htob gnivlovni( esaesid ralucsaV ycnangilaM esaesid enoruen rotoM sisorelcs elpitluM

metsniarb rewol eht ot snoisel NMU laretalib :yslap rabluboduesP

]11J[

71

sllec rruB

)emordnys lennut laprac ot ralimis saisehteasyd esuac nac sedirecylgirT

"(

snoitapucco launam ,amuarT )ytimrofed lacol( erutcarF sutillem setebaiD sitirhtra diotamuehR sitirhtraoetsO ytisebO )noitneter diulf( noitpecartnoc laro ,ycnangerP amedeoxyM ylagemorcA )eruliaf

laner cinorhc ni sisodiolyma detaler nilubolgorcimU2 Á

b .g.e( sisodiolymA
cihtapoidI

emordnys lennut lapraC

aimeanietorpopiL msidioryhtopyH seognam ,segnaro ,storrac ssecxE

aimeanetoraC

sisaididnac suoenatucocum cinorhC )ereves( ycneicifed norI ycnangerP ycnangilaM VIH ega fo semertxE sdiorets ,stnasserppusonummi ,scitoibitna murtcepsUdaorb :sgurD Á sutillem setebaiD

sisaididnaC

suimencortsag derutpuR msyruena laetilpop derutpuR emordnys tnemtrapmoc ,amuarT erutpur tsyc s'rekaB sitiicsaf gnizitorcen ,sitilulleC sisobmorht suonev peeD

niap/gnillews flaC

aimeana inocnaF emordnys thgirblA±enuCcM sisorelcs suorebuT sisotamorbiforueN

stops tialUuaUOfaC Á Á Ä
esaesid s'remiehzlA eruliaf caidrac evitsegnoC )SDIA ni muidiropsotpyrC ,BT .g.e( noitcefnI ycnangilaM sredrosid gnitae ,noitirtunlaM

aixehcaC

C
aixehcaC 81

sisocilis ,sisoillyreb ,SDIA ,snoitcefni tsehc tnerrucer ,sruomut citatsatem ,amonicrac laihcnorb :srehtO amohpmyL sisodiocraS

yhtaponedahpmyl ralih laretaliB
yarUX tsehC Á
mgarhpaid eht rednu ygolohtap ,aruelp gnivlovni ycnangilaM esaesid eussit evitcennoC sitidracireP ainomuenP xarohtomuenP

BT

niap tsehc citiruelP
noisserpmoc toor evren ,retsoz sepreh :lacigolorueN )erar ,noitcefni suriv B eikcaxoC( esaesid s'mlohnroB ,bir derutcarf ,)sitirdnohcotsoc( emordnys s'eztieT :lateleksolucsuM sititaercnap ,reclu citpep ,ainreh sutaih ,msaps laegahposeo ,sitigahposeo xulfer :lanitsetniortsaG )ELS .g.e( sesaesid eussit evitcennoc ,ainomuenp ,xarohtomuenp ,msilobme yranomlup :yrotaripseR amorehta na otni gnideelb ,msyruena citroa cicaroht fo erutpur ,noitcessid citroa ,sitidracirep ,noitcrafni laidracoym ,sirotcep anigna :slessev egral/caidraC

msilobme yranomluP

niap tsehC
gninosiop OC yhportsydokuel citamorhcatem ,esaesid kciP±nnameiN ,esaesid shcaS±yaT ,sisodilais :sesaesid egarots lamososyL )sitiretra llec tnaig ,msaps ,sulobme ,sisobmorht( noisulcco yretra laniter lartneC

tops der yrrehC
)serutned htiw ro hteet tuohtiw .g.e( htuom eht fo erusolcrevO gnikcusUpiL Á )gnikcusUnep ,skcitspil .g.e( sititamred tcatnoC Á sisaididnaC ycneicifed nivalfobiR aimeana ycneicifed norI

)sititamots ralugna( sitiliehC
)stoor evren yrosnes no erusserp( sisotamorbiforuen ,esaesid htooT±eiraM±tocrahC ,yhtaporuen yrosnes evissergorp ,sway :srehtO ysorpeL aileymogniryS )silasrod sebat( silihpyS sutillem setebaiD

tnioj s'tocrahC
aixatA

eeS

sngis rallebereC
srekram ruomuT

eeS
31Q

AEC

91

yarUX tsehC Á

)msidioryhtaraprepyh( muiclac ,)sisotamorhcomeah( nori ,)esaesid s'nosliW( reppoc :snoi tnelavid ssecxE sitirhtraoetsO

tuogoduesp/sisoniclacordnohC
enihproM eruliaf ralucirtnev tfeL )erusserp lainarcartni

"

,ekorts .g.e( noisserpmoc ro snoisel metsniarB

noitaripser sekotS±enyehC
espalloC aisalpopyh evisnetxe/gnul fo ecnesba latinegnoC ymotcenomuenP noisuffe laruelp egraL

xarohtimeh etihW
amredorelcs ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,sisotsebsa ,sgurd ,sitiloevla gnisorbif cinegotpyrc :enoz rewoL sisodiocras :enoz elddiM )tsenommoc( BT ,sisodiocras ,sitilydnops gnisolykna ,sitiloevla cigrella cisnirtxe ,noitaidar ,sisolligrepsa yraomlupohcnorb cigrella :enoz reppU

)rucco ylnommoc yeht hcihw ni senoz gnul eht ot gnidrocca deifissalc( swodahs raludonoluciteR
)sisoillyreb ,sisocilis ,sisotsebsa ,sisoinocomuenp 'srekrow laoc( sesoinocomuenP )gnul s'rekrow tlam ,gnul s'reicnaf drib ,gnul 'sremraf .g.e( sitiloevla cigrella cisnirtxE noitaidar ,)niotnarufortin ,nicymoelb ,nahplusub ,enoradoima( sgurD sitilydnops gnisolykna ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,sisodiocras ,ELS ,amredorelcs :sesaesid eussit evitcennoC sitiloevla gnisorbif cinegotpyrC :sisorbif yranomluP

swodahs raludonoluciteR
)amonicrac llec raloevla ,sisotamonicrac sitignahpmyl( slleC )egahrromeah yranomlup( doolB )amedeo yranomlup( diulF )noitadilosnoc( suP

]41Q[

swodahs raloevla/ecapsriA
noitamroflam VA )sisotamolunarg s'renegeW .g.e( seditilucsaV eludon diotamuehR noisuffe lauelp detsycnE noitcrafnI tsyc ditadyh ,ssecsba ,BT ,ainomuenp :noitcefnI amorbif ,amoneda ,amotramah ,amonicrac llec laner ,recnac tsaerb .g.e ,tisoped citatsatem ,amonicrac laihcnorb :sruomuT

snoisel nioC
tcrafnI )amonicrac llec suomauqs ylralucitrap( ruomuT ssecsbA

snoisel gnul gnitativaC
deunitnoc yar-X tsehC

yar-X tsehC

02

lanitsetniortsaG

sisohrriC

)erar( ainomuenp gnizinagro cinegotpyrC )ameypme ,sisatceihcnorb ,ssecsba( esaesid gnul evitaruppuS )sitiloevla gnisorbif cinegotpyrc .g.e( sisorbiF amoilehtosem ,laihcnorb :recnaC

yrotaripseR

amoxym lairtA sitidracodne evitcefnI esaesid traeh citonayc latinegnoC

ralucsavoidraC
gnibbulC

deriuqcA latinegnoC

noitalugaoc

TTPA

ralucsavartni detanimessiD eeS :CID emit nibmorhT eeS :TT RNI eeS :RNI eeS :TTPA eeS :TP emit nibmorhtorP

neercs gnittolC
yhportsyd ralucsuM amedeoxyM lohocla ,enirpoihtaza ,snitats :snoitacideM noitallirbifed ,sitisoymylop /sitisoymotamred ,aimeahcsi lewob ,amotameah ,seruzies ,esicrexe suorogir ,sisyloymodbahr ,snoitcejni MI ,snrub ,amuart ,yregrus :egamad elcsuM sitidracoym ,noitcrafni laidracoyM

" "

,KC

sutillem setebaiD sisodiocraS )latinegnoc( allebuR )latinegnoc( VMC sisomsalpoxoT

sitiniterodiorohC
msidioryhtarapopyH msidioryhtrepyH aerohc s'mahnedyS ELS aimeahtycyloP ycnangerP noitpecartnoc larO esaesid s'nosliW esaesid s'notgnitnuH

aerohC
aimeatahpsohpopyH aimeasengamopyH )airunotpakla( sisonorhcO ylagemorcA

12

gnibbulC

evitarepoUtsoP? Á emordnys lewob elbatirrI? )sdiorbif .g.e? ,ssam civlep ,sisolucitrevid ,srecnac ,DBI .g.e ,serutcirts( noitcurtsbo lanitsetnI? )espalorp latcer ,erutcirts ,erussif( esaesid latceronA? :lanitsetniortsag/lacigruS ega dlO ytilibommI nori ,)senizaihtonehp ,scilcycirt( scigrenilohcitna ,setaipo :sgurD ekatni diulf etauqedani ,erbif wol :teiD

noitapitsnoC

stuokcalB

osla eeS
yspelipE

aimrehtopyh ,)21B ,enimaiht .g.e( seicneicifed nimativ ,amoc amedeoxym .g.e seihtaponircodne ,secnabrutsid )

‡2

gM ,

‡2

aC ,

‡

K ,

‡

aN( etylortcele ,eruliaf laner ,eruliaf revil :cilobateM

stnasserpeditna ,scityloixna ,lohocla ,setaipo .g.e sgurd :cixoT )erusserp lainarcartni

"(

ruomuT

)yrujni daeh( amuarT )noitanileymed( noitammalfnI sitilahpecne ,sitigninem :noitcefnI noitcrafni/egahrromeah lainarcartni :ralucsaV eruliaf yrotaripser ,)citpes ,cimealovopyh( kcohs ,tserra caidrac :aixopyH

# ,ssensuoicsnoC #
esnopser esahp etucA? 4C ro/dna 3C kcohs )cixotodne( ev

aimeacylgopyH

"

ÿ

marG?

yhportsydopil laitrap ,sitirhpenoluremolg yrallipacoignaseM?

eruliaf revil ,snrub ,emordnys citorhpen ,noitirtunlam :sisehtnys

3C # #/ssoL "?

ssenkcis mureS? sitidracodne lairetcab etucabuS? aimeanilubolgoyrc dexim ,ELS? :4C dna 3C

deriuqcA

#

)4C

#

,3C lamron( ycneicifed )rotibihni 1C( esaretse 1C .g.e latinegnoC

ycneicifed tnemelpmoC

srekcolbU Á

b :sgurD
kcohS

msidioryhtopyH

)msapsosav( nonemonehp s'duanyaR )msilobmeobmorht( bmil cimeahcsi etucA

seirehpirep dloC

snoitamroflam VA laihcarb ,msyruena yretra yrallixa :gnibbulc laretalinu ,)sisocixotoryht( yhcaporca dioryhT :srehtO esaesid caileoc .g.e noitprosbalam ,amohpmyl IG esaesid lewob yrotammalfnI

deunitnoc gnibbulC

gnibbulC

22

amedeo yranomluP )sesuac eht rof ,stset noitcnuf gnuL eeS( sisorbif yranomluP

selkcarc eniF
selkcarC

cinegohcysP? eruliaf traeH? srotibihni ECA? esaesid xulfer laegahposeoUortsaG? Á pird lasanUtsoP? Á :sesuac rehtO sisoinocomuenp ,sisodiocras ,esaesid gnul laititsretni ,ycnangilam ,sisatceihcnorb ,)lagnuf ,BT ,ainomuenp( noitcefni ,ilobme yranomlup ,DPOC ,amhtsA? .g.e sesaesid gnul llA? :sesuac yranomluP noitcefni tcart yrotaripser reppU

hguoC

ycnangerp ,negortseo :)GBC( nilubolg gnidnibUlositroC Á

"

sdiocitrococulg suonegoxE noisserpeD )HRC cipotce ,sdionicrac laihcnorb .g.e ,HTCA cipotce ,amonicrac/amoneda lanerda ,amoneda yratiutip( emordnys s'gnihsuC msilohoclA ssenlli cinorhc/etuca ,ssertS

"

,lositroC

amedeollipaP sitisoymotamred ,asodon sitiretraylop ,ELS setats ytisocsivrepyh ,aimeakuel ,aimeana :sredrosid lacigolotameaH yhtaponiter VIH noisulcco niev laniteR yhtaponiter evisnetrepyH )yhtaponiter evitarefilorpUerp( setebaiD Á

stops loownottoC

)sdiorets lacipot ro raew snel tcatnoc ,noisarba laenroc wollof yam snoitcefnI( abeomahtnacA lagnuF )retsoz sepreh ,xelpmis sepreh( lariV )smrofiloc ,sulihpomeaH ,eainomuenp succocotpertS ,sanomoduesP ,sidimredipe/suerua succocolyhpatS( noitcefni lairetcaB

reclu laenroC

)sitiri( sitievu roiretnA amocualg erusolc elgna etucA sititarek ,reclu laenroC

noitacificapo laenroC

esaesid 'sagahC ,esaesid s'gnurpshcsriH ,amredorelcs ,yrujni evren civlep/lanips ,yhtaporuen cimonotua :ralucsumoruen/lacigolorueN gninosiop dael ,airyhprop ,aimealakopyh ,aimeaclacrepyh ,msidioryhtopyh :enircodnE

32

selkcarC

erusserp lainarcartni

" fo

ngis gnizilacol eslaF noisnetrepyh

,sutillem setebaid :)musovren asav( ylppus doolb s'evren eht ot egamaD

IV

)emordnys s'oginedarG( sitisorteP esab lluks fo noitartlifni citsalpoeN )sisobmorht ,ruomut ,msyruena( snoisel sunis suonrevaC noitanileymed/ruomut/AVC metsniarB )amoigninem ,amoruen citsuoca( ruomut elgna enitnopollebereC amonicrac laegnyrahposan ,retsoz sepreh ,aiglaruen lanimegirt :yrosneS

V

amuart daeH

VI

noitcrafni knurt evreN ruomut latibrO sitigninem suotamonicrac/evitcefnI )sisobmorht ,ruomut ,msyruena( snoisel sunis suonrevaC ruomut/noitanileymed/AVC metsniarB )'gninoc`( noitainreh lairotneT amolunarg /ruomut tibro/erussif latibro roirepus ,sunis suonrevac ,metsniarb :ruomuT silihpys ,amonicrac ,amohpmyl ,diocras ,BT :segninem lasab eht fo noitartlifni/noitammalfnI sunis suonrevac eht ni :sisobmorhT? sitiretra llec tnaig ,asodon sitiretraylop? ,ELS ,noisnetrepyh ,setebaid )sesuac 'lacidem`( knurt evren eht ni noitcrafnI? metsniarb eht ni noitcrafnI? sunis suonrevac eht ni ,)metsniarb eht ni( ralisab ,yretra gnitacinummoc roiretsop :msyruenA? :ralucsaV

snoisel evren lainarC
esaesid enoruen rotom ,yhtapoym ,aimeahcsi elcsuM enitsircniv ,nitalpsic ,srekcolb rotpecer II nisnetoignA ,stsinogaU Á

III

]51Q[

b :sgurD

msidioryhtopyH aimealakopyH aimeasengamopyH )sisylaidomeah gnirud lavomer diulf ,gnitaews evissecxe ,sciteruid( noitelped tlas/emulov ralullecartxE gnittis degnolorp ,gninoitisop gel etairporppani ,emordnys ytilibomrepyh ,teef talF cihtapoidI

pmarC
etoN
( DPOC

)tnacifingis ton era gnihguoc no raeppasid taht selkcarc :

)ainomuenp( noitadilosnoC

selkcarc esraoC
deunitnoc

sisatceihcnorB

selkcarC
selkcarC 42

silihpys ,lairetsil ,)laccocotpyrC( lagnuf ,BT ,sitilahpecneogninem/sitigninem lariv :sitigninem evitcefnI

setycohpmyl yltnanimoderP "
sllec etihW

FSC
VCH ,seicnangilam evitarefilorpohpmyl ,)sitilucsav citsalcotycokuel ,ELS .g.e( sredrosid enummiotua/yrotammalfnI :III epyT VBH ,VBE ,noitcefni VCH cinorhC :II epyT aimeanilubolgorcam s'mÐrtsnedlaW ,amoleym elpitluM :I epyT

aimeanilubolgoyrC
ycnangilaM noitammalfnI noitcefnI

" "

,PRC

selkcarC

eeS

snoitatiperC
ssam elcsum woL )ycnangerp( RFG

#
#

"

eniditemic ,mirpohtemirt :noiterces ralubuT

laem taem hgih ,esicrexe retfa :esaercni laminim/tneisnarT )sisyloymodbahr( egamad elcsum etuca ,ssam elcsum hgih ,)eruliaf laner( RFG

"

#

noitartnecnoc amsalp ,eninitaerC
KC

eeS

esanik enitaerC
.snoisel evren lainarc rewol rof emordnys nemarof raluguJ dna yslap rabluboduesp/rabluB

osla eeS

esaesid s'tegaP noitamroflam iraihC±dlonrA xelpitlum sitiruenonoM emordnys OrraB±nialliuG Ä )ruomut ,AVC( snoisel metsniarB aimeakuel ,amohpmyl ,diocras ,BT ,amonicrac :noitartlifni laegninem lasaB amuarT

seislap elpitluM

yslap evren laicaF

eeS
IIV

ruomut latibrO )emordnys s'oginedarG( sitisorteP sitigninem suotamonicrac/evitcefnI ruomut elgna enitnopollebereC snoisel sunis suonrevaC emordnys ffokasroK±ekcinreW ,ruomut/noitanileymed/AVC metsniarB

52

FSC

eruliaf ralucirtnev tfel ,kcohs .g.e tuptuo caidraC # noisulcco lairetrA nonemonehp s'duanyaR erusopxe dloC sisonayc lartnec fo sesuac llA
larehpireP

eruliaf ralucirtnev tfel ,ydob ngierof delahni ,xarohtomuenp ,amhtsa :etucA aimeanibolgomeahflus ,aimeanibolgomeahteM )esaesid traeh latinegnoc citonayc( tnuhs L ! R msilobme yranomlup evissam ,DPOC ,ainomuenp ereves ,sitiloevla gnisorbif :esaesid gnul ot eud refsnart negyxO #

sisonayC
emordnys OrraB±nialliuG Ä ruomuT )ssecsba larudipe ,ruomut( kcolb lanipS
)noitaicossid cimeanimublaotyc( nietorp

lartneC

"

,sllec lamroN

sitigninem suotamonicrac ,seditilucsav SNC ,sisodiocraS sitilahpecne sepreh & sitigninem spmum yllanoisaccO sitigninem )laccocotpyrc( lagnuF sitigninem BT sitigninem lairetcaB
esoculG

#

)h 84±42 tsrif( sitigninem lariv fo esahp laitinI selcirtnev eht otni gnidore ssecsba niarB sitigninem lairetcaB
slihportuen yltnanimoderP

mirpohtemirt ,sDIASN :sgurD sruomut rehto ,aimeakuel ,amohpmyl :)noitartlifni laegninem( ycnangilaM sisorelcs elpitlum ,ELS ,sisodiocras ,esaesid s'teOheB .g.e ,sesaesid yrotammalfnI Â

deunitnoc FSC
FSC 62

snoitcrafni elpitlum :ralucsaV esaesid s'remiehzlA

aitnemeD
setats latciUtsop ,sucitpelipe sutats :yspelipE Á yhtapolahpecne evisnetrepyH snoisel gniypuccoUecaps :ruomuT Á amotameah larudbus ,yrujni daeh :amuarT sitilucsav :noitammalfnI senil VI ,sdnuow lacigrus ,)ylredle .pse( noitcefni yraniru ,noitcefni tsehc :lainarcartxE ,)sisocrecitsycoruen ,airalam larberec ,ssecsba ,sitilahpecne ,sitigninem( lainarcartnI :noitcefnI sisobmorht sunis suonev ,noitcrafni ,gnideelb lainarcartni :ralucsaV )enimaiht ,dica cinitocin ,21B( seicneicifed lanoitirtun ,seihtaponircodne ,)aimeaclacrepyh ,aimeartanopyh .g.e( secnalabmi etylortcele ,eruliaf laner ,eruliaf revil :cilobateM sgurd lanoitaercer ,stsinoga cigrenimapod ,nixogid ,sdioretsocitroc ,stnasluvnocitna ,scityloixna ,scigrenilohcitna ,setaipo :sgurD )yhtapolahpecne s'ekcinreW ,lawardhtiw( lohocla :cixoT aimeacylgopyH )eruliaf caidrac/yrotaripser( aixopyH

)etats lanoisufnoc etuca( muirileD
)aimeaclacrepyh ,sudipisni setebaid ,sutillem setebaid .g.e( airuyloP gnitimov ,aeohrraid :ssol IG gnitaews ssecxe/aixeryP noitirtunlam ,aixerona ,ssenlli ereves :ekatni diulF

# noitardyheD

enob fo esaesid s'tegaP ,esaesid s'erOinOM :srehtO Ä Á
81J
]71J[ ,]61Q[

sisucaybserp :evitarenegeD DAOMDID ,emordnys grubnedraaW ,emordnys troplA .g.e :citeneG aixopyh latanirep ,aispmalce ,allebur lanretam :latinegnoC edimesurf ,sgurd cixototyc ,sedisocylgonima :cixoT amoruen citsuoca :ruomuT yregrus ,yrujni daeh ,esion :amuarT )erar( silihpys ,sitigninem ,spmum ,selsaem :noitcefnI

laruenirosneS

)ycnangilam ro noitcefni ot yradnoces( noisuffe rae elddiM ytilamronba ralucisso ,sisorelcsotO )aidem sitito cinorhc( amotaetselohc ,noitarofrep :murdraE lanac eht ni xaW

ssenfaeD
)stsyc enob( diocraS )noitcrafni worram enob( llec elkciS sitirhtra laccoconoG sitirhtra citairosP

evitcudnoC

sitilytcaD

D
72 aitnemeD

aimeana citsalborediS ymotcertsagUtsoP Á noisufsnartUtsoP Á esaesid reviL ycneicifed etalof/21B dna nori dexiM

mlif doolb cihpromiD
ycneicifed nori taert yllaitraP )bir lacivrec .g.e( noisserpmoc yretra naivalcbuS sresu gurd VI ni noitcejni lairetraUartni tnetrevdanI Á ilobmE nonemonehp s'duanyaR :msapsosaV aimeanilubolgoyrc ,asodon sitiretraylop ,sitirhtra diotamuehr .g.e ,sitilucsaV esaesid s'regreuB ,sutillem setebaid ,esaesid ralucsav larehpireP

energnag latigiD
ycnangilaM sitilucitreviD sitiloc cimeahcsI

esaesid lewob yrotammalfnI

,acitylotsih abeomatn

)desimorpmoconummi eht ni VMC( ,allegihS ,allenomlaS E ,iloc .E cigahrromeaH ,retcabolypmaC :sitiloc evitcefnI

aeohrraid ydoolB

)emordnys nosirroM±renreV( samoPIV ,)yhtaporuen cimonotua( sutillem setebaid ,sisocixotoryht :enircodnE noitapitsnoc ot yradnoces :aeohrraid wolfrevO scitoibitna ,sevitaxal :noitacideM noitceser/esaesid enitsetni llams :noitprosbalaM esaesid lewob yrotammalfnI )VMC ,aidiropsorciM ,aidiropsotpyrC ,yhtaporetne ,)acitylotsih abeomatnE ,aidraiG ,aidiropsotpyrC(

SDIA(

SDIA

setisaraP

,sucitylomeaharap oirbiV ,earelohc oirbiV ,eliciffid muidirtsolC ,snegnirfrep muidirtsolC ,munilutob muidirtsolC ,suerec sullicaB ,suerua succocolyhpatS ,acitilocoretne ainisreY ,iloc .E ,allegihS ,allenomlaS ,retcabolymaC ,)suriv derutcurts dnuor llams ,surivoneda ,surivortsa ,surivator(

lariV

aeohrraiD
:noitcefnI noitcaer gurD revef telracS

esaesid s'ikasawaK

hsar gnitamauqseD
emordnys kcohs cixoT aitnemed ydob yweL ,esaesid noirp ,esaesid s'kciP ,semordnys digir±citenika rehto dna s'nosnikraP :evitarenegeD saixata ralleberec emos ,aerohc s'notgnitnuH ,esaesid s'nosliW :detirehnI )detaeper( aimeacylgopyh ,ycneicifed
21B

nimativ ,amedeoxym :cilobateM setarutibrab ,dael ,lohocla :cixoT citsalpoenarap ,sesatsatem

niarb ,)sulahpecordyh gnisuac( assof roiretsop ,sruomut latnorf :ruomuT egahorrameah larudbus ,yrujni daeh :amuarT sisorelcs elpitlum ,diocras ,ELS ,sitilucsav :noitammalfnI esaesid s'elppihW ,silihpys ,VIH :noitcefnI

deunitnoc

aitnemeD
aitnemeD 82

suonotonom ,tfos :esaesid ladimarypartxE )hceeps citsaps( luftroffe ,tcnitsidni ,wols :yslap rabluboduesP hceeps lasan :yslap rabluB hceeps gninnacs ,derruls :esaesid rallebereC

airhtrasyD
scitebaid dna scilohocla gnoma ycneuqerF

"

lailimaF

erutcartnoc s'nertyupuD
)yslap evren cinerhp ,ylagemotapeh( mgarhpaidimeh desiaR espalloc lasaB )amoilehtosem ,ameypme ,BT dlo( gninekciht laruelP noisuffe laruelP

esab gnul eht ta ssenlluD
yteixna :cinegohcysP sutillem setebaid dellortnocnu ,VIH ,sisodiolyma ,sisodiocras ,emordnys s'nergÐjS :esaesid cimetsyS noitardyheD scitpeloruen ,sciteruid ,senimatsihitna ,stnasserpeditna ,scigrenilohcitna :sgurD

htuom yrD
gnidaer degnolorp ,esaesid 'sevarG ,yslap evren laicaf :erusolc dileyE sciteruid ,sllip evitpecartnoc ,srekcolbU Á

b ,stnasserpeditna ,senimatsihitna :sgurD
#(
reyal nicuM

#

esu snel tcatnoc ,noitcnufsyd lanimegirt :yhtapoilehtipe laenroC )diogihpmep laicirtacric ,snrub ,A nimativ

#

,)noitaidar

,yregrus ,ELS ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,emordnys s'nergÐjS :sdnalg lamircal fo tnemevlovni( reyal suoeuqA

#

,)sitirahpelb( reyal dipiL

#

:noitcudorp raeT

#

seye yrD
)stuokcalB

eeS(

stuokcalb ,aimeana :ssentniaF ? ? ?

aixatA eeS :ecnalabmI eeS :ogitreV ogitreV

ssenizziD
stfarg ,setib ekans ,snruB noitcaer noisufsnart citylomeaH yregruS amuart ereveS )amonicraconeda ;3M :LMA( :ycnangilaM )ilobme diulf citoinma ,noitpurba latnecalp ,aispmalceUerp ereves ,noitroba dessim :snoitacilpmoc cirtetsbO Á sispes ev± marG :noitcefnI

noitalugaoc ralucsavartni detanimessiD
erutcarf latibrO )sitisoym raluco ,yhtapoym raluco ,sivarg ainehtsaym ,esaesid eye dioryhtsyd( esaesid elcsum ralucoUartxE Á aigelpomlahthpo raelcunretni :sevren eht neewteb noitanidroUoc evitcefeD Á snoisel evren lainarC

eeS ,)IV

,VI ,III( seislap evren lainarC

raluconiB

tcaratac .g.e ,snel ro aenroc morf setanigirO

raluconoM
aipolpiD

92

airhtrasyD

A larumartnI
aisalahc

aigahpsyD
aispepsyd recluUnoN Á sititsycelohc cinorhc :reddalb llaG recnac cirtsag ,sitinedoud ,sitirtsag ,ainreh sutaih ,reclu citpep :munedoud/hcamotS sitigahposeo ,xulfer laegahposeoUortsag :sugahposeO Á

lanimulartnI

ydob ngieroF

aispepsyD
ssam civleP sisoirtemodnE

emordnys lewob elbatirrI

)cinorhc( noitcefni civleP

peeD

lacigolohcysP yregrus ,ymotoisipe ,htribdlihc ,)amredorelcs ,emordnys s'nergÐjS( ssenyrd ,)lasuaponemUtsop( sitinigav cihporta ,noitcefni :anigaV Á saisalpsyd ,esaesid lacigolotamred ,noitcefni :avluV

ainuerapsyD
sruomut nairavO esaesid yrotammalfni civleP sisoirtemodnE sisoymonedA

laicifrepuS

yradnoceS
dnuof esuac cinagro oN

sdiorbiF

aeohrronemsyD
aisuegA osla

yramirP
eeS

noisserpeD msidioryhtopyH VIH sisylaidomeaH ycneicifed
21B/nZ

:lanoitirtuN )sisohrric

,esaesid lewob elbatirri ,DROG( IG ,noitatnalpsnart worram enob ,ycnangilaM :eraR serudecorp latneD )gninosiop dael .g.e( slatem yvaeh ,nicimorhtyralc ,muihtiL ,sgurd dioryhtUitna ,srotibihni ECA ,elozadinortem :snixot/sgurD Á yslap evren laicaF ega dlO egakcolb lasan cinorhC

aisuegsyD
eeS

sisenikohcodaidsyD
sngis rallebereC sisenikohcodaidsyD 03

emordnys larhteru elameF sititsyc laititsretnI sititatsorP sisonigav lairetcab ,silanigav sanomohcirT ,snacibla adidnaC :sitinigaV xelpmis sepreH ,snacibla adidnaC ,silanigav sanomohcirT :srehto ,laccoconog ,laidymalhc :sitirhterU )airusyd fo esuac nommocnu( sitirhpenoleyp etuca ,sitirhteru ,sititsyc :noitcefni tcart yranirU

airusyD

esaesid lairdnohcotiM esaesid s'nosliW .g.e ,evissecer lamosotuA esaesid s'notgnitnuH ,snoitareneged rallebereconips .g.e ,tnanimod lamosotuA emordnys nahyN±hcseL .g.e ,deknilUX Á stnasluvnocitna ,)edimarpolcotem( scitemeitna ,)lodirepolah ,enizamorprolhc ,senizaihtonehp( scitohcyspitna :sgurD

ainotsyD
ssensselhtaerB eeS

cihtapoidI

aeonpsyD

aisahpsyd noitcudnoC )tnanimod( ebol laropmet roirepus roiretsop eht gnitceffa )amuart ,ruomut ,AVC .g.e( snoisel :aisahpsyd )evitpecer( s'ekcinreW )tnanimod( ebol latnorf laretalUorefni Á eht gnitceffa )amuart ,ruomut ,AVC .g.e( snoisel :aisahpsyd )evisserpxe( s'acorB

aisahpsyD
aiblubogniryS

esaesid enoruen rotoM sitisoym yrotammalfnI sivarg ainehtsayM yslap rabluboduesp dna rabluB OrraB±nialliuG Ä

ralucsumorueN
tnemegralne )tfel( lairtA )airosul aigahpsyd( yretra naivalcbus tnarrebA msyruena citroA ainreh sutaih laegahposeoaraP hcuop laegnyrahP

AVC

ertiog lanretsorteR yhtaponedahpmyL

larumartxE
esaesid 'sagahC ,amredorelcs :srehtO yparehtoidar ,sevisorroc ,DROG .g.e ,noitammalfni ro VIH ,VMC ,VSH ,sisaididnac .g.e ,noitcefni :sitigahposeO

recnac gnuL

)laegnyrahp ,cirtsag ,laegahposeo( recna sgnir ro sbew laegahposeO :erutcirts ngine

msaps laegahposeo esuffiD C B

13

airusyD

cihtapoidI

emrofitlum amehtyrE
aisatceignalet cigahrromeah yratidereH sredrosid gnideelb ,stnalugaocitnA sruomut lasaN )eniacoc .g.e( esu sgurd lasanartni cinorhc ,ydob ngierof ,gniwolb lufecrof ,gnikcip eson :noitatirri/amuarT

sixatsipE
tnuoc llec etihW

eeS

ailihponisoE
energnag saG amhtsa .g.e ,esaesid gnul evitcurtsbO noitalitnev erusserp evitisoP yrujni laegahposeO noitresni niard tsehc ,yregrus ,amuarT

lacigrus ,amesyhpmE

tnemges TS

evaw U eeS :evaw U aidracyhcaT eeS :aidracyhcaT eeS :)noisserped dna noitavele( tnemges TS evaw P eeS :)llat dna tnesba( evaw P

amedeoxym ,noisuffe laruelp ,DPOC ,ytisebo :sexelpmoc egatlov woL kcolb hcnarb eldnuB

eeS :)thgir

dna tfel( kcolb hcnarb eldnuB dna tfel( noitaived sixA

noitaived sixA

eeS :)thgir

segnahc GCE
aiglaruen laegnyrahpossolG

lacigolorueN
ydob ngieroF tnioj ralubidnamoropmeT sitignyrahp ,sitillisnoT )driht roiretsop eht fo ruomut( eugnoT hteeT

retsoz sepreH

derrefeR
sitidiotsaM aidem sititO

rae elddiM
)amonicrac llec lasab ,amonicrac llec suomauqs .g.e( ycnangilaM diomred noisulcnI anretxe sititO elcnuruf ,lioB amotameah lardnohcirepbus/amuarT

rae lanretxE
ehca raE

E
ehca raE 23

sitisoym latibrO? sitiruen citpO? tnemevom eye no niaP eye der lufniaP eeS

niap eyE
xelpmis sepreH sucimlahthpo retsoz sepreH

sesuac suoires eroM
sitilullec latibrO sititycoyrcaD odemoc dezeeuqs a .g.e noisel lacol a morf noitcefni fo daerps ,eyts ,noizalahC )sisairosp ,amezce ,aecasor htiw detaicossa eb yam( sitirahpelB )stnalp ,slamina ,slacimehc ,scitemsoc htiw tcatnoc( ygrellA

nellows ,sdileyE
sisotporP eeS

somlahthpoxE
)efilUflah regnol Á a sah( hgih llits si RSE tub dezilamron sah PRC nehw :noitcefni na morf yrevoceR amoleyM sitiloc evitareclU ELS

PRC lamron ,RSE

" " "

amotycomorhcoeahp .g.e ,cilobateM ycnangilaM sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI noitcefnI

" " "

RSE
ycnangerP enospad ,setalycilas ,noitpecartnoc laro ,nillicinep ,sedimanohplus :sgurD aimeakuel ,amohpmyl :ycnangilaM esaesid s'teOheB ,sisodiocras ,esaesid lewob yrotammalfni :noitammalfnI Â )sisomsalpoxot( laozotorP ,)sisocymotsalb ,sisocymoidiccoc ,sisomsalpotsih( lagnuF ,)VBE( lariV ,)sisoripsotpel ,ysorpel ,aisttekciR ,ainisreY ,BT ,aidymalhC ,succocotpertS( lairetcaB :noitcefnI

musodon amehtyrE
noitaidar ,)amoleym ,aimeakuel ,amohpmyl( ycnangilaM sisotamolunarg s'renegeW ,NAP ,sisodiocras ,ALS ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI )sisocymoidiccoc ,sisomsalpotsih( lagnuf ,)eaidymalhc ,eainomuenp amsalpocyM( lairetcab ,)fro ,VBE ,VSH( lariv :noitcefnI stnasluvnocitna ,snillicinep ,sedimanohplus :sgurD
]91Q[

33

niap eyE

tnemegralne ditoraP

tnemegralne ditoraP
sitisoymotamreD

eeS

sisobmorht sunis suonrevac ,alutsif suonrevacUocitoraC Á aimeanimublaopyh ,emordnys citorhpeN msidioryhtrepyh/opyH ycneicifed rotibihni 1C ,)sixalyhpana gnidulcni( sgurd/setib tcesni ot ygrellA )erar( sisonihcirt ,sitilullec latibroirep/latibro :noitcefnI

amedeo latibroireP gnillews laicaF
niap laicaf lacipytA niap caidrac derrefeR

sruomut laegnyrahposaN esaesid ditorap dna raE noitcnufsyd tnioj ralubidnamoropmeT esaesid laro/latneD )msyruena yretra gnitacinummoc roiretsop .g.e( esaesid latibroUorter ,sitiruen citpo ,esaesid raluco dna latibrO Á sitisuniS citamuartUtsoP Á

sesuac lacoL

aiglaruen citeprehtsoP eniargim dna aiglaruen suoniargiM aiglaruen laegnyrahpossolG aiglaruen lanimegirT sitiretra llec tnaiG

lacigolorueN niap laicaF

VIH ,esaesid emyL :snoitcefnI yhportsyd ralucsuM sivarg ainehtsayM esaesid enorun rotoM sisodiocraS emordnys OrraB±nialliuG Ä aigelpid laicaf latinegnoC

laretaliB

)metsniarb ni noitanileymed( sisorelcs elpitlum ,)noitammalfni laegninem( sisodiocras :noitammalfnI retsoz sepreh ro noitcefni rae elddim :)enob suortep( noitcefnI noitcrafni metsniarb :ralucsaV dnalg ditorap ,noitartlifni laegninem ,)amoruen citsuoca( elgna enitnopolleberec ,metsniarb :sruomuT ecaf eht fo yregrus ro amuarT

laretalinU yslap evren laicaF

)cihtapoidi( yslap s'lleB

F
43

yslap evren laicaF

srevef cigahrromeaH eugneD sisoripsotpeL diohpyT airalaM

rellevart ni reveF
A sititapeH ycneicifed norI

#

sisylomeah cinorhc ,esaesid cinorhc fo aimeanA aimeana citsalborediS esaesid s'llitS ypareht nori ,aimeassalaht ni snoisufsnart detaepeR sisotamorhcomeaH ycnangilam ,noitammalfni ,noitcefni :esnopser esahp etucA

)#&"( nitirreF # " # "
emordnys eugitaf cinorhC noisserpeD srekcolbU Á

"

b .g.e ,sgurD
ycnangilaM noitcefnI

sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI

eruliaf traeH aimearu ,esaesid s'nosiddA ,msidioryhtrepyh/opyh ,sutillem setebaid :cilobatem/enircodnE

eugitaF
aimeanA sisocixotoryhT yhtapoym yramirP yhtaporuenyloP noisserpmoc toor rotoM esaesid enoruen rotoM

snoitalucicsaF

seilamona latcerona ,elecoleymogninem :latinegnoC esaesid s'nosnikraP ,aitnemed ,)setebaid .g.e( yhtaporuen larehpirep ,)aniuqe aduac ,droc lanips ,niarb( sruomut dna amuart ,sisorelcs elpitlum ,ekorts ,noisserpmoc droc lanips ,yspelipe :lacigolorueN espalorp latcer ,htribdlihc citamuartUcirtetsbo Á ,yregrus latcerona ,erutcarf civlep .g.e ,yrujni latnedicca :ytilamronba roolf civleP )msalpoen latcer ,noitcapmi laceaf( wolfrevO

ecnenitnocni laceaF
)aeohrraiD ytisebo ,emordnys s'gnihsuC sisobmorht CVS amesyhpme suoenatucbuS snrub ,amuarT noitcefni sunis/latneD

eeS( aeohrraiD

tnemegralne/gnillews laicaf fo sesuac rehtO

53

rellevart ni reveF

)xelpitlum sitiruenonoM

eeS(

sutillem setebaid .g.e ,xelpitlum sitiruenonom :noisel evren laenorep nommoC lacigolorueN

pord tooF
enizalasaflus ,mirpohtemirt ,niotynehp :sgurD aixerona ,ylredle ,scilohocla :ekatnI noitceser lanitsetni llams ,esaesid s'elppihW ,eurps laciport ,esaesid caileoc .g.e ,esaesid lanujej :noitprosbA sisylaidomeah ,aimeana citylomeah cinorhc ,noitammalfni cinorhc ,ycnangilam ,noitatcal/ycnangerp :dnameD

# # "
]02J[

ycneicifed etaloF
aecasoR setirtin ,enoretsotset ,)edimaporprolhc htiw ylralucitrap( lohocla :sgurD emordnys dionicraC amotycomorhcoeahP esuaponeM noitome ,noitrexe ,taeh :lacigoloisyhP

laicaf ,gnihsulF
)sisodiocras ,sisomsalpoxot .g.e( sitievu roiretsoP egahrromeah suoertiV tnemhcated/noitareneged suoertiV

sretaolF
ecnelutalf dna gnitaolb ,gnihcleB rednu

eeS

ecnelutalF
silasrod sebaT seihtapoyM )yhtaporuenyloP

eeS( seihtaporuenyloP

siseraparap diccalF
)ruomut sumolg ,ruomut enob( sruomut ,amredorelcs :rehtO sisolydnops lacivrec :derrefeR emordnys lennut lapraC ilobme ,esaesid ralucsav larehpirep ,sitilucsav ,)nonemonehp s'duanyaR( msapsosav :aimeahcsI noitcefni ecaps plup ,noitcefni htaehs nodnet ,aihcynorap :noitcefnI tuog ,sitirhtra diotamuehr .g.e :sitirhtrA amocotameah lagnubus ,erutcarf :amuarT

niap regniF
nigiro nwonknu fo aixeryP

eeS

nigiro nwonknu fo reveF
ssecsba cibeomA sisainamhsieL sisollecurB BT diohpyT

noitabucni regnoL
deunitnoc rellevart ni reveF

airalaM

rellevart ni reveF

63

aisalpordnohca ,emordnys s'nilroG :sesuac reraR sulahpecordyH aimeassalahT stekciR enob eht fo esaesid s'tegaP ylagemorcA

gnissob latnorF
ycnegru yrosnes ,ytilibatsni rosurted ,ecnenitnocni sserts eniuneg ,)recnac ,HPB( tnemegralne etatsorp ,)ssam civlep yb noisserpmoc ,ruomut ,enots( reddalb ,ITU :eniru fo stnuoma llams fo egassap tneuqerF )airuyloP eeS( airuyloP airutcon ,)yraniru( ycneuqerF

emordnys lennut lasrat ,)amoruen evren ratnalp( aiglasratatem s'notroM ,niap toor 1S/5L/4L :lacigolorueN )energnag latigiD ees( sreclu ,aimeahcsi :ralucsaV )PTMretni ,laenaclacarfni dna orter .g.e( sitisrub ,)roiretsop silaibit ,nodnet laenorep ,nodnet sellihcA .g.e( sitinodnet ,sitiicsaf ratnalp :ralucitraireP )aiglarhtrayloP dna aiglarhtraonoM ees( sitirhtraoetso ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,tuog ,sitirhtra citpes :stnioJ sruomut ,)esaesid s'relhÐK( ralucivan dna )esaesid s'grebierF( daeh lasratatem .g.e ,:sitirdnohcoetso ,sitileymoetso ,)erutcarf lasratatem ,erutcarf laenaclac( erutcarf :enoB seitisollac ,snroc ,straw ,sitilullec :nikS )niarts suotnemagil ,ralucsum( niarts ,)teef talf .g.e( seitimrofeD

niap tooF
emordnys tnemtrapmoc ,sroxelfisrod eht ot yrujnI ralucsuM ekorts ,sisorelcs elpitlum ,esaesid noruen rotom :reraR espalorp csid larbetrevUretni .g.e ,)yhtapolucidar( noisel toor 5L Á

73

gnissob latnorF

,esaesid kciP±nnameiN .g.e( cilobatem ,noitcefni ,noitanileymed ,)citatsatem /amolaenip( sruomut ,)snoitamroflam ralucsav ,egahrromeah/noitcrafni( ralucsaV :snoisel

niarbdim roirepuS
lacitreV

noitcefni ,noitanileymed ,ruomut ,)snoitamroflam ralucsav ,egahrromeah/noitcrafni( ralucsaV :snoisel ebol latnorf laretalartnoC ro )noitamrof raluciter naidemarap enitnop( enitnop laretalispI

latnoziroH

yslap ezaG

reclu latcer yratilos ,mulucitrevid s'lekceM ,alutsif ciretneotroa ,sredrosid gnideelb :rehtO gnideelb IG reppu evissecxE )cinoloc( ealucitreviD noitaidar ,cimeahcsi ,evitcefni ,)sitiloc evitareclu( yrotammalfni :sitiloC spylop ,recnac lewoB aisalpsydoignA erussif ,sdiohrromeah :lanA

gnideelb IG rewoL
mucitsale amohtnaxoduesp ,mulucitrevid s'lekceM ,amoymoiel ,aisalpsydoigna ,ealutsif lanedoudotroa ,ytilamronba ralucsav cirtsag yofalueiD ,aisatceignalet cigahrromeah yratidereh ,)ailihpomeah ,ainepotycobmorht( sredrosid gnideelB

eraR

recnac cirtsag/laegahposeO scitylobmorht ,sdiorets ,stnalugaocitna ,sDIASN :snoitacideM raet ssieW±yrollaM secirav laegahposeoUortsaG Á sitigahposeo ,sitinedoud ,snoisore cirtsag/sitirtsaG )lanedoud/cirtsag( reclu citpeP

)sisemetameah( gnideelb IG reppU

rewol dna reppu ,gnideelb lanitsetniortsaG

aimeanitcalorprepyH

eeS

aeohrrotcalaG

snoisel ebol latnorf :stiag cixarpA dael .g.e ,gninosiop latem yvaeh ,oilop dlo ,esaesid htooT±eiraM±tocrahC ,yslap evren laenorep :etag egappetS esaesid s'nosnikraP :tiag gnilffuhs ,tnanitseF

siseraparap citsapS

yhtapoym lamixorP

aixatA eeS :esabUediW Á eeS :gnirossics ,citsapS eeS :gnilddaW

seicnapercsid htgnel geL niap ot eud tiag ciglatnA

tiaG

G
tiaG 83

niap niorG
esaditpepsnart lymatulg±

" ,TGUg " " Á

g

eeS

amohpmyl ,yralludem ,citsalpana ,ralucillof ,yrallipap :amonicrac dioryhT tsyc dioryhT sisenegomrohsyd ,ssecxe/ycneicifed enidoi ,sgurd dioryhtitna ,muihtiL esaesid s'otomihsaH :msidioryhtopyH sitidioryht ,eludon elbaplap eno htiw ertiog raludonitlum cixot ,amoneda cixot ,esaesid 'sevarG :msidioryhtrepyH ycnangerp ,ytrebup :)dioryhtue( ertiog elpmiS

ertioG
)esaesid s'nosliW ,slatem yvaeh ,amoleym elpitlum .g.e( egamad/noitcnufsyd ralubut laneR eruliaf laner cinorhC ycnangerP )aimeacylgrepyH ees : 2 dna 

airusocylG 

1( setebaiD

egamad decudniUlohocla ,)ecidnuaJ rednu Á

)TGG ,TGUY( esaditpepsnart lymatulg±g Á
)erar( silihpyS sisaididnaC

eeS

( sisatselohc :esaesid reviL

nZ ,nivalfobir ,)1B( enimaiht ,)3B( nicain ,21B ,etalof fo ycneicifeD ycneicifed norI

sitissolG
ycnangerP sisorelcs suorebuT aimeakuel etucA PCO ,)mezaitlid ,enipidefin( stsinogatna lennahc aC ,niotynehp ,niropsolcic :sgurD lailimaF

yhportrepyh lavigniG
latineg ,sreclU

sreclu latineG
latineg ,sreclU

eeS eeS

hsar latineG
sitihtsoponalab ,sepreh ,sisaididnac :snalg/ecuperP noisel /noitcefni noitcart yraniru reppu/sititatsorp ot 

2 ,snoisel larhteruUartni ot Á 

2

,sepreh ,sisainomhcirt ,noitcefni cificepsUnon ,aidymalhc ,aeohrronog :arhterU Á

lacigolohtaP

aeohrrotatsorp ,airullatsyrc ,amgems ,lasuora lauxeS

)selam( egrahcsid latineG
.noitaicossid raen±thgil dna slipup egral htiw detaicossa si ezag lacitrev fo sisylarap ,emordnys s'duaniraP nI :

lacigoloisyhP
]12Q[

etoN

)noitcnufsyd ladimarypartxe htiw detaicossa :emordnys nosdrahciR ±eleetS( evitarenegedoruen ,)aimenietorpopilateba ,esaesid s'rehcuaG

93

niap niorG

tsyc diomred ,amotameah ,amorbiforuen ,amoignahpmyl ,amopiL amonicrac tsaerB

laretalinU

)ralucitset .g.e( gnicudorpUnegortseo ,)gnul dna amotapeh .g.e( GCh cipotce :sruomuT Á msidioryhtrepyH msidanogopyH eruliaf laner cinorhC esaesid revil cinorhC )anaujiram ,nioreh( esuba fo sgurd ,nixogid ,snegortseo ,enizamorprolhc ,etateca enoretorpyc ,eniditemic ,enotcalonirips :sgurD nem esebo ni .g.e :aitsamoceanygoduesP ylredle ,ytrebup :lacigoloisyhP

aitsamoceanyG
niap lanimodbA

eeS
04

aitsamoceanyG

sisytpomeah htiw desufnoc eb yam gnideelb IG dna tcart yrotaripser reppu/lasaN :

etoN

sisodiocras ,sisodiolyma ,noitamroflam suonevoiretra :sesuac reraR sisehtaid gnideelb lareneG sisonets lartim :traeH ydob ngierof ,amuart ,)esaesid s'erutsapdooG ,sisotamolunarg s'renegeW .g.e( sitilucsav ,ycnangilam ,msilobme yranomlup ,)setisarap ,ignuf sisatceihcnorb ,sitihcnorb ,ssecsba ,ainomuenp ,BT( noitcefni :gnuL

sisytpomeaH
eeS
" #

aimeahtycyloP

aimeanA

eeS

nibolgomeaH
)tnettimretni etuca( airyhproP airunibolgoym/airunibolgomeaH )nicpimafir ,annes( sgurD toorteeb :dooF

noitarolocsid eniru fo sesuac rehtO

stnalugaocitna ,)aimeakuel ,esaesid llec elkcis ,ainepotycobmorht ,ailihpomeah( sredrosid lacigolotameah :lareneG sititatsorp ,recnac etatsorp ,aisalprepyh citatsorp ngineb :etatsorP esicrexe evissecxe ,edimahpsohpolcyc .g.e ,sgurd ,noitamroflam ralucsav ,sisobmorht niev laner ,ilobme ,esaesid laner citsyc ,sitirhpen laititsretni ,yhtaporhpen AgI ,sitirhpenoluremolg :sesuac rehtO sruomuT senotS sisaimosotsihcs ,BT ylerar ,ITU :noitcefnI amuarT

arhteru ro reteru ,reddalb ,yendiK

airutameaH
yvrucS

sitivonys raludonolliv detnemgip :ruomuT

tuogoduesp ,tuog ,sitirhtraoetsO :sesaesid tnioJ tnioj s'tocrahC :lacigolorueN msyruena ,noitamroflam suonevoiretra ,amoignameah :ralucsaV BT ,sitirhtra citpeS :noitcefnI sgurd ,esaesid llec elkcis ,sredrosid gnittolC :lacigolotameaH )etaicurc roiretna .g.e( yrujni suotnemagil ,raet sucsinem ,erutcarf ,evitarepoUtsop ,cinegortai :amuarT Á

sisorhtrameaH sisemetameaH
eeS

gnideelb lanitsetniortsaG

H

14

sisytpomeaH

)erutcnup rabmul tsop .g.e( erusserp lainarcartni

# dna

)noisnetrepyh lainarcartni ngineb ,sulahpecordyh

,ssecsba/ruomut .g.e ,noisel gniypucco ecaps .g.e( erusserp lainarcartnI

tnerrucer/cinorhC
""
:sesuac rehtO

"

)aimeahtycylop .g.e( semordnys ytisocsivrepyh ,)aimeartanopyh .g.e( secnalabmi etylortcele ,).cte sessenlli lariv ,lairetcab( snoitcefni ,)stsinogatna lennahc aC ,NTG .g.e( sgurd ,PB

yxelpopa yratiutiP sitiretra llec tnaiG amocualg erusolc elgna etucA noitcessid yretra larbetrev/ditoraC sisobmorht suonev larberec ,egahrromeah lainarcartni ,egahrromeah dionhcarabuS sitilahpecne/sitignineM

)E&A ni tneserp ot ylekil( sesuac etucabus/etucA
ehcadaeH
krow launaM ytisebO msidioryhtopyH sisodiolymA ylagemorcA

yrujni daeH

degralne ,sdnaH
niap regniF

eeS

niap dnaH
seruzieS snoisel evren citpo/aimeahcsi laniter .g.e ,esaesid nagro yrosneS )eniacoc ,enimatehpma .g.e( sisohcysp decudniUgurd ,)DSL .g.e Á ,snegonicullah ,lohocla .g.e( cilobatem/cixot ,noitcefni ,)ekorts( ralucsavorbereC

cinagrO
muirileD

sisonicullah cilohoclA sisohcysp larepreuP

aitnemeD sisohcysp htiw noisserped ereveS sisohcysp htiw ainaM redrosid evitceffaozihcs/ainerhpozihcS

noitanicullaH
sisatceihcnorb ,snoitcefni :gnuL DROG ,erutcirts laegahposeo ,aisalahca :IG hcuop laegnyrahp ,sitillisnot cinorhc ,pird lasanUtsop dna sitisunis cinorhc ,sitinihr cihportA :xnyrahposaN Á ycnangilam laegnyrahporo ,sitivignig ,euqalp latned ,eneigyh latned rooP :htuoM

cirtaihcysP

sisotilaH
aicepolA

eeS

ssol riaH

ssol riaH

24

)emordnys etihW±nosnikraP ±ffloW( noitaticxeerp ralucirtnev tfel ,gnicap ralucirtnev tfel ,BBBR

elcirtnev thgir fo noitavitca deyaleD ediW

2S fo gnittilpS
sisonets yranomluP noitcrafni laidracoyM yhtapoymoidrac cihportrepyH esaesid traeh evisnetrepyH sisonets citroA

)4S( htruoF
yhtapoymoidrac evitcirtser ,sitidracirep evitcirtsnoC DSV ,noitatigruger dipsucirt ,noitatigruger lartiM eruliaf ralucirtneV esoht ni lamroN

sraey 53

<

)3S( drihT
)2p

#(

sisonets yranomluP

)2a

#(

sisonets citroA

tfoS

)2p ) 2a

"(

noisnetrepyh yranomluP

"(

aidracyhcat ,noisnetrepyh cimetsyS

duoL

)2S( dnoceS
aidracyhcat ralucirtnev ro ladoN kcolb VA noitallirbif lairtA

ytisnetni elbairaV

eruliaf traeh ereveS BBBL lavretni RP gnoL noitatigruger citrA noitatigruger lartiM

)ytisnetni

#(

tfoS

)semordnys noitaticxeUerp( lavretni RP Á

#

)esicrexe ,revef .g.e( noitalucric cimanydrepyh ,aidracyhcaT amoxym lairta ,sisonets lartiM

)ytisnetni

" ( duoL "

sdnuos traeH
niap laicaF

)1S( tsriF

osla eeS

emordnys dipilohpsohpitna ,ylagemorca ,enob fo esaesid s'tegaP ,srorre evitcarfer ,)sisodiocras ,ycnangilam .g.e( noitartlifni laegninem ,ehcadaeh cinpyh ,)sisolydnops lacivrec morf derrefer( cinegocivrec :sesuac rehtO sitisuniS )sciseglana gnippots no( ehcadaeh dnuober ,ehcadaeh noisneT aiglaruen suoniargiM eniargiM

34

sdnuos traeH

ssecsba ,sisatsatem ,samoilg :sessaM )AIT( kcatta cimeahcsi tneisnart/ekorts :)neddus( AVC :yb xetroc latipiccO ro )sebol laropmet ro lateirap ni( noitaidar citpO ro tcart citpO

suomynomoH
ruomut ralucirtnev drihT amoignyrahpoinarC

:fo tnemevlovnI

tsrif devlovni stnardauq laropmet roirefnI
elecocum sunis dionehpS amonicrac laegnyrahposaN msyruena ditorac ,amoigninem ,amoneda yratiutiP

tsrif devlovni stnardauq laropmet roirepuS
aiponaimeH
ymotcenelpS saimeana citylomeaH ycneicifed DP6G

laropmetiB

)bH derutaned( seidob znieH
srumruM eeS srumrum traeH

noisuffe laidracirep ,DPOC ,ytisebo :sdnuos fo noitcudnoC

sdnuos traeH # #
2a

#

emordnys s'regnemnesiE :2p dna

fo noisuF

tollaF fo ygolartet ,sisonets yranomlup ,aiserta yranomlup ,evlav yranomlup tnesba :2p tnesbA noitatigruger citroa ereves ,sisonets citroa ereves :2a tnesbA noisuffe laidracirep ,DPOC ,ytisebo :tnerappA

2S elgniS
ADP ,noisnetrepyh ,MCOH ,sisonets citroA

emit noitceje ralucirtnev tfel degnolorP
noitaticxeerp ralucirtnev thgir ,gnicap ralucirtnev thgir ,BBBL

elcirtnev tfel fo noitavitca deyaleD gnittilps desreveR
DSA

gnittilps dexif ediW
DSV ,noitatigruger lartiM

emit noitceje ralucirtnev tfeL #
noisnetrepyh yranomlup ,sisonets yranomluP

emit noitceje ralucirtnev thgir degnolorP
deunitnoc

sdnuos traeH
sdnuos traeH 44

ssecsba cinerhpbus .g.e ,:citamgarhpaidbuS noitalupinam evitarepoUartni Á ,ainreh sutaih ,xulfer laegahposeoUortsag .g.e ,:seitilamronba citamgarhpaiD Á sessam lanitsaidem ,)sertiog .g.e( sessam kceN

noitatirri evren cinerhP

tnemeticxe neddus ,erutarepmet IG ro tneibma ni segnahc neddus ;esu occabot dna noitsegni lohocla evissecxE ypocsodne gnirud noitalffusni cirtsag ,aigahporea ,segareveb detanobrac ,gnitae revo :noisnetsid cirtsaG

ngineB

spucciH
aimeakuel llec yriah ,LLA ,aimeanilubolgorcam s'mÐrtsnedlaW ,amoleym ,LLC ,amohpmyL** aimeahtycobmorht laitnesse ,arev arbur aimeahtycylop ,sisorbifoleym ,aimeakuel dioleym cinorhC*

esaesid citsycylop elitnafni ,esaesid s'rehcuaG .g.e ,sredrosid egarots ,sisodiolyma :rehtO sisainamhsiel ,sisaimosotsihcs ,airalam :ediwdlroW sisollecurb ,sisolucrebut ,sisomsalpoxot ,sisoripsotpel ,VMC ,VBE ,C ro B sititapeh :noitcefnI )aimeana suoicinrep .g.e( aimeana citsalbolageM )noisnetrepyh latroP

eeS(

noisnetrepyh latroP

**sredrosid evitarefilorpohpmyL *sredrosid evitarefilorpoleyM

ylagemonelpsotapeH
ylagemonelpsotapeH ees oslA )ebol thgir eht fo noisnetxe na( ebol s'eldieR ro )DPOC ni .g.e( mgarhpaid derewol :'ylagemotapeh tnerappA` sesaesid evitarefilorpohpmyl ,sisodiocras ,sisodiolyma ,sisotamorhcomeah ,)lohocla( noitartlifni yttaf :noitartlifnI tsyc ditadyh ,)cinegoyp ,cibeoma( ssecsba ,sisoripsotpel ,sisomsalpoxot ,VMC ,VBE ,C ,B ,A sititapeh :noitcefnI esaesid revil citsycyloP )sisobmorht niev citapeh( iraihC±dduB eruliaf caidrac evitsegnoC sisohrric yrailib yramirp ,cilohocla yllausu )ylrae( sisohrriC )amoneda llec revil ,amotapeh ,stisoped

ylagemotapeH
eniargim ,)sisylarap s'ddoT( seruzies citpelipe :siserap/aigelpimeh tneisnart fo sesuac rehtO aigelpimeh tneisnart esuac nac aimeacylgopyh :cilobateM ruomuT )rettal eht ni tnerappa eb ton yam amuart fo yrotsih a( egahrromeah larudbus ro larudartxe :amuarT sitilucsav larberec ,sisorelcs elpitlum :noitammalfnI snoitcefni )gnul .g.e( tnatsid ro )sesunis ,rae elddim .g.e( lacol morf ssecsba niarb :noitcefnI )AIT ,egahrromeah ,noitcrafni( AVC :ralucsaV 

2( :recnaC

aigelpimeh ,siserapimeH

54

spucciH

noisulcco ,noitcessid :yretra ditorac lanretnI )xepa gnul( ruomut tsaocnaP :niahc citehtapmys lacivreC sisotamorbiforuen ,noisel suxelp laihcarb :toor 1T aiblub/aileymognirys ,noitcrafni ,)amoilg( ruomut :droc lanips lacivrec/mets niarB

emordnys s'renroH
noitpmusnoc eeffoc

""

,gnikoms ,gniga :elytsefiL

recnac nairavo/tsaerb ,eruliaf laner ,msidioryhtopyh :esaesiD niotynehp ,enillyhpoeht ,etaxertohtem :sgurD etalof ,21B ,6B :ycneicifed nimatiV msihpromylop RFHTM ,ycneicifed esatehtnysU Á

b eninoihtatsyC :citeneG " ,enietsycomoH
ainohpa laciretsyH msidioryhtopyH amonicrac laegnyraL

)noitabutni .g.e( amuart laegnyraL seludon s'regniS )ymotceretradne ditorac ,dioryhtarap ,dioryht( yregrus ,)recnac gnul .g.e ,munitsaidem ,dioryht .g.e ,kcen ,lluks fo esab( sruomut :yrujni evren laegnyral tnerruceR )semuf lacimehc ,pird lasantsop ,DROG ,gnikoms ,lohocla ,niarts droc lacov cinorhc htiw detaicossa( ,)niarts lacov :sitignyraL

etuca ,noitcefni tcart yrotaripser reppu lariv htiw detaicossa(

cinorhC etucA

eciov esraoH

ytivitisnesrepyh nagro tegraT niotynehp ,lidixonim ,snegordna ,niropsolcic :sgurD emordnys s'gnihsuC ,sruomut lanerda gnitercesUnegordna ,aisalprepyh lanerda latinegnoC :slanerdA Á )ruomut llec gidyeL±ilotreS a si hcihw amotsalbonehrra .g.e( sruomut nairavo gnitercesUnegordna ,SOCP :seiravO Á )snoitalupop tnenitnocbus naidnI dna naenarretideM emos ni nommoc( laicar ,lailimaF

msitusriH
gniregnilam ,yteixnA

cinegohcysP
xelfer puccih eht fo noitibihni lamron eht gnisaeler snoisel larutcurts ro evitcefni ,ralucsaV

sredrosid SNC
citehtseana lareneg ,noitacixotni lohocla ,aimearU

]22Q[

cilobatem/cixoT
enarbmem cinapmyt eht gnihcuot seidob ngierof yb sugav eht fo hcnarb ralucirua eht fo noitatirrI kcen eht fo sruomut ,sitignyral ,sitignyrahp yb evren laegnyral tnerrucer eht fo noitatirrI

noitatirri evren sugaV deunitnoc spucciH

spucciH

64

aimeanietorparaP

lanolconoM
noitcefni esaesid

eeS

VIH ,ysorpel ,sisainamhsiel ,sisollecurb ,BT ,)sisatceihcnorb .g.e( noitcefni cinorhC

lewob yrotammalfni ,)sitisoymotamred ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,ELS ,sisodiocras ,emordnys s'nergÐjS .g.e( esaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfni cinorhC sititapeh enumiotua ,sisohrric yrailib yramirp ,esaesid revil cinorhC

aimeanilubolgammagrepyH
ekatni

lanolcyloP

)esaesid s'tneD( airuiclacrepyh deknilUX Á sisodica ralubut laneR

‡2

aC

"

airuiclacrepyh cihtapoidI )evoba ees( aimeaclacrepyH

airuiclacrepyH

eruliaf laner etuca fo esahp citeruid ni rucco osla nac aimeaclacrepyH aimeaclacrepyh ciruiclacopyh lailimaF esaesid s'nosiddA ,ylagemorca ,amotycomorhcoeahp ,msidioryhtrepyh :sesaesid enircodnE sedizaiht ,muihtiL :sgurD )'emordnys ilakla klim`( ekatni

sesuac rehtO
‡2
aC

"

ytilibommI BT ,diocras ,deretsinimdaUfles :D nimativ ssecxE Á amohpmyl ,amonicrac llec suomauqs laihcnorb ,)gnul ,tsaerb ,dioryht ,yendik ,etatsorp( :sisatsatem enob ,amoleym elpitlum :ycnangilaM yraitret dna yramirp :msidioryhtaraprepyH

aimeaclacrepyH

evitcurtsbo dna )emordnys rajjaN±relgirC

,siseioporhtyre evitceffeni ,)citylomeah ,aimeanA

ralullecotapeh ,ecidnuaJ eeS :detagujnoC ,emordnys s'trebliG( noitadinoruculg # eeS( sisylomeah :detagujnocnU

aimeaniburilibrepyH
"
:msinoretsodlarepyh

emordnys s'rettraB ,sciteruid ,eruliaf caidrac ,sisohrric ,sisonets yretra laner ,ruomut gnitercesUniner :nineR Á 



2

msinoretsodla elbaidemerUdiocitrococulg ,aisalprepyh Á lanerda laretalib ,)emordnys s'nnoC( amoneda :msinoretsodlarepyh

msinoretsodlarepyH
aimeakueL aimeana citsalbolageM ycneicifed norI

1

aimeahtycobmorht laitnesse ,sisodiolyma ,eurps laciport ,sitiloc evitareclu ,simrofitepreh sititamred/esaesid caileoc ,esaesid llec elkcis :msinelpsopyH

seidob ylloJ±llewoH
74 aimeanilubolgammagrepyH

ymotcenelpsUtsoP Á

amoc citotekUnon ralomsorepyH Á gnitaews evissecxe :nikS )aimeaclacrepyh? ,aimeacylgrepyh .g.e( siseruid citomso ,sudipisni setebaid :laneR gnitimov aeohrraid :IG ssol diulF " suoicsnocnu ro desufnoc ,ylredle :ekatni diulF # :noitardyheD
aimeartanrepyH

ecidnuaj evitcurtsbO ytisebO tnemriapmi laner ,emordnys citorhpeN amedeoxyM sedizaiht ,sdiorets ,PCO ,lohocla :sgurD )dellortnoc ylroop( setebaiD
)  2( aimeadipilrepyH

amonicrac laihcnorb ,amonicraconeda cirtsag :ycnangilaM ycneicifed A nimativ ,cinesra ,noitcaer gurd :cilobatem/cixoT silihpys 2 sisairosP )emordnys s'retieR( acigahrronelb amredotareK )noitidnoc tnanimod lamosotua na ,sisolyt( latinegnoC )tooferab gniklaw .g.e( noitcirF
)ratnalpomlap( sisotarekrepyH

sisotycobmorht ,sisotycocuel ,sisylomeah :aimealakrepyhoduesP ekatnI "" sciteruid gnirapsUmuissatop rehto dna edirolimA Á esaesid s'nosiddA srotibihni ECA 4 epyt sisodica ralubut laneR eruliaf laneR muinohtemaxus ,sisyloymodbahr ,sisodica :sllec morf desaeleR
aimealakrepyH

staews thgiN eeS oslA noisnetopyh ,aimeacylgopyh ,noitcrafni laidracoym ,ssenlli elirbef etuca yna :etucA scitemimohtapmys ,seitreporp cigrenilohc htiw sgurd ,setaipo :snoitacideM amohpmyl :ycnangilaM sisollecurb ,BT :noitcefni cinorhC amotycomorhcoeahp ,ylagemorca ,sisocixotoryht :enircodnE
sisordihrepyH

sisotamorhcomeah ,sititaercnap cinorhc ,ymotcetaercnaP samonitatsotamos ,samonogaculg ,samotycomorhcoeahp ,ylagemorca ,emordnys s'gnihsuC :enircodnE sdioretS :yradnoceS )2 & 1 epyt( yramirP

setebaiD

sdioretS ssenlli ereves/etuca .g.e ,ssertS
aimeacylgrepyH

aimeacylgrepyH

84

aimeanilubolgammagrepyH

eeS :aimeanilubolgammagrepyH

teuqinruot fo noitacilppa degnolorp ,noitardyhed :noitartnecnocomeaH

aimeanietorprepyH
#
,eruliaf revil :srehtO

)snoitamroflam suonevoiretra ,noitammalfni ,ruomut( sumalahtopyh eht morf esaeler/sisehtnys enimapod )nemow gnitatcal ni gnilkcus yb detavitca yllamron yawhtap xelfer eht fo noitalumits( yrujni llaw tsehC )shportotcal setalumits negortseo( SOCP ,PCO/TRH :snegortseO )msidioryhtopyh 1( esaeler nitcalorp setalumits noiterces HRT )enodirepmod ,edimarpolcotem

"

,ediriplus ,lodirepolah ,enizamorprolhc( :srekcolb rotpecer enimapoD? apodlyhtem ,enipreser :serots enimapod lartnec fo noitelpeD? :sgurD )tceffa amonitcalorpoduesp( klats yratiutip gnisserpmoc ruomut yratiutip :yratiutip roiretna eht ot tropsnart enimapoD

#

)sruomut yendik ,gnul( nitcalorp cipotce ylerar ,amonitcalorP sserts ,noitatcal ,ycnangerp :lacigoloisyhP

aimeanitcalorprepyH
sisotamonalem tnangilam

detanimessid ,)amonicrac ,BT( gnitsaw cinorhc ,eruliaf laner cinorhc :srehtO hsar detubirtsidotohP amredorhtyre retfa .g.e ,yrotammalfniUtsoP Á eeS sehsar evitisnesotohP ycnangerp ,HTCA cipotce ,emordnys s'nosleN ,esaesid s'nosiddA :enircodnE noitaidaR senizaihtonehp ,enizamorprolhc ,naflusub ,enoradoima :sgurD

sisohrric yrailib yramirp ,sisotamorhcomeah :esaesid reviL

noitatnemgiprepyH
noitacixotni D nimatiV ylagemorcA emordnys sisyl ruomuT sisyloymodbahR

noitartsinimda/ekatni etahpsohp evissecxE

)!enomroH gnihsarT etahpsohP :HTP( msidioryhtarapopyhoduesP & opyH

aimeatahpsohprepyH
msidioryhtaraprepyh 

eruliaf laneR

2 gnidnatsUgnol ot yradnoces aisalprepyh dioryhtarap suomonotuA Á

msidioryhtaraprepyh 3
#

)eruliaf laner cinorhc ro ecnatsiser ro ycneicifed D nimativ ot eud .g.e( muiclaC

?msidioryhtaraprepyh 2
amonicrac ylerar dna

)semordnys NEM htiw detaicossa eb yam( aisalprepyh ro amoneda dioryhtaraP 

msidioryhtaraprepyH
msinoretsodlarepyh :sdioctrocolarenim ssecxE )etanobracib muidos .g.e( noitartsinimda ‡aN ssecxE 94 aimeanietorprepyH

msidioryhtaraprepyh 1

noitcaer esahp etucA

aimeanimublaopyH
sisairosp ,arev aimeahtycylop ,aimeakuel ,amohpmyl :revonrut )enirup( dica cielcuN )ycneic®ed TRPGH( emordnys nahyN±hcseL :sisehtnyS ekatni yrateiD

sisehtnyS

#

" " "

noitcudorp/ekatnI

"

noisnetrepyh ,sutillem setebaid ni .g.e ,esaesid laner cinorhC )edimaniziry

p

,lohocl

a

,lotubmaht

e

]52J[

,sciteruid poo

l

,sedizaih

t

,dica cinitoci

n

,)esodUwol( nirips Á

a

,niropsolci

c

:sgurD

cihtapoidI

aimeacirurepyH
adrat aenatuc airyhproP ycnangilaM ,)niotynehp ,niropsolcic ,lidixonim( noitacideM noitirtunlaM asovren aixeronA

noitercxe laneR

# #

dezilareneG
adifib anipS ivean cityconaleM xelpmis nehciL

sisohcirtrepyH
emordnys thgirblA±enuCcM ,snoitatum rotpecerUHST Á )aititcaf sitidioryht( noitpmusnoc enixoryht suoititperrus ,enoradoima :sgurD iiravo amurtS amonicracoerohC dioryht fo amonicrac ralucilloF )HST( msidioryhtrepyh yradnoceS
]42Q[

lacoL

sesuac reraR
)GCh

]32Q[

"(

sisocixotoryht lanoitatseG

)mutrapUtsop ,lariv/etucabus( sitidioryhT Á amoneda cixoT ertiog raludonitlum cixoT

msidioryhtrepyH
aispmalceUerP Á sisonets yretra laner ,atroa fo noitatcraoc :ralucsaV msidioryhtaraprepyh yramirp ,ylagemorca ,samotycomorhcoeahp ,esaesid s'nnoC ,emordnys s'gnihsuC :esaesid enircodnE sdiorets ,sPCO gniniatnocUnegortseo :sgurD Á amonicrac laner ,esaesid yendik citsyc ,sitirhpenoleyp cinorhc ,sitirhpenoluremolg cinorhc :esaesid laneR )cihtapoidi( laitnessE

esaesid 'sevarG

noisnetrepyH
noisnetrepyH 05

snoitcefni ereves ,sdiorets ,aimearU sisorelcoleym ,aisalpopyh worraM yhtaporetne gnisolUnietorp ,noitprosbalam ,noitirtunlam ,emordnys citorhpeN Á )LLC( aimeakueL amohpmyL

deriuqcA
etats ycneicifedonummi denibmoc a fo trap sa ro ,deknilUX Á

amoleyM

aimeanilubolgammagopyH
aimeana citsalborediS aimeassalahT aimeana ycneicifed norI

latinegnoC

aimorhcopyH
srehtO

)noisufsnart evissam( doolb detartic ,ninoticlac ,setanohpsohpsib :cinegortaI? )ebut ATDE na otni doolb gnitcelloc( tcafitrA?

aimeanimublaopyH sisolakla yrotaripseR )etuca( sititaercnaP ypareht etahpsohp ,eruliaf laner cinorhc :etahpsohP

"

ecnatsiser D nimatiV? eruliaf laneR? )niotynehp .g.e( stnasluvnocitnA? esaesid reviL? thgilnus fo kcaL? noitprosbalam/ekatni yrateiD

#? #?

ycneicifed D nimatiV )esaesid s'nosliW(

‡2

uC

"

,daolrevo

‡2

eF ,

‡2

gM

)HTP ot ecnatsiser( msidioryhtarapopyhoduesP? )ymotcedioryhtarap ro ymotcedioryht retfa( lacigruS? enummiotuA? )emordnys s'egroeGiD( latinegnoC?

aimeaclacopyH
aimeanietorpsyd cihtapoidi lailimaF

msidioryhtarapopyH

eraR

ycnangerp ,mra noisufni VI morf elpmaS

noitulidomeaH
snruB

snoisel niks suolluB

)aisatceignahpmyl lanitsetni ,amohpmyl lanitsetni ,esaesid s'elppihW ,eurps ,DBI ,esaesid caileoc( yhtaporetne gnisolUnietorP Á emordnys citorhpeN

ssoL "

noitirtunlaM esaesid reviL

15

aimeanilubolgammagopyH

emordnys illiW±redarP emordnys ldieB±nooM±ecneruaL

sesuac eraR

noitcnufsyd cimalahtopyh dna sisoredisomeah

!

snoisufsnart doolb detaeper

!

:aimeassalahT

eruliaf laner cinorhC sisohrriC esuac yna fo noitirtunlam ,sitiloc evitareclu/esaesid s'nhorC sisorbif citsyC

sesaesid cimetsyS aimeanitcalorprepyH

)msiratiutipopyH

eeS( .cte ,noitcefni/ralucsav :msiratiutipopyh fo sesuac rehtO
ycneicifed HSF ro HL

detalosi ,)aisalpsyd citpoUotpes htiw detaicossa( 1XSEH ,)aisalpopyh lanerda Á latinegnoc htiw detaicossa( 1XAD .g.e ,snoitatum citeneg rehto ,)emordnys s'nnamllaK :aimsona htiw detaicossa nehw( ycneicifed HRnG latinegnoC ssol thgiew ,esicrexe suounerts .g.e ,cimalahtopyh/lanoitcnuF )sitisyhpopyh citycohpmyl ,sisotycoitsih llec snahregnaL ,sisodiocras ,amohpmyl .g.e( snoitartlifni ,noitaidar/yregrus/ruomut yratiutiP

msiratiutipopyH )cihportodanogopyh( msidanogopyh 

2

aimeasotcalag ,)ycneicifed esalyxordyhU71 .g.e( sisehtnys Á negortseo ni devlovni semyzne ,rotpecer HSF ,rotpecer HL ,tinubus ateb HSF/HL

snoitatum citeneG

edimahpsohpolcyc .g.e ,yparehtomehC noitaidaR )civlep( yregruS enummiotuA )spmum .g.e( noitcefnI

egamad ladanoG

)msiciasom(

YRS eht fo noitpursid htiw( YX ,XX ,)emordnys s'renruT( OX eb yam epytoneg ehT
sisnegsyd ladanoG )cihportodanogrepyh( msidanogopyh

XX/OX ro YX/OX ,)yawhtap maertsnwod eht ro emosomorhc Y no eneg

msidanogopyH
ymotcertsagUtsoP Á airalaM eruliaf reviL eruliaf laneR esaesid s'nosiddA lohoclA samocras ,samotapeh ,samonilusnI eniniuq ,enidimatnep ,etalycilas ,saerulynohplus ,)noitcejni nilusni retfa kcans a gnivah ton scitebaid ro( nilusni ssecxE

elameF 

1

aimeacylgopyH
aimeacylgopyH 25

)ycneicifed

esalyxordyhU Á

a 71 dna esalyxordyhUb 11( aisalprepyh lanerda latinegnoC Á
ycneicifed esanegordyhed

dioretsyxordyhU Á dioretsyxordyhU Á

b 11 ,)msilobatem diocitrococulg # dna esanegordyhed b 11 stibihni( ecirouqil ,emordnys s'gnihsuC :sdiocitrococulG ""
msinoretsodlarepyH

)noitercxe

+

K

" !( sdioctrocolarenim

ssol laneR

ssecxE

seimotsoeli ,ealutsif ,amoPIV ,amoneda suolliv ,aeohrraid ,gnitimoV

ssol lanitsetniortsaG

aimealakopyH
sesuac eraR

emordnys illiW±redarP emordnys ldieB±nooM±ecneruaL

noitcnufsyd cimalahtopyh dna sisoredisomeah

! snoisufsnart

doolb detaeper

!

:aimeassalahT

eruliaf laner cinorhC sisohrriC esuac yna fo noitirtunlam ,sitiloc evitareclu/esaesid s'nhorC

sesaesid cimetsyS aimeanitcalorprepyH
1UporP ,1XSEH Á ,1XAD .g.e ,snoitatum citeneg rehto ,)aimsona .g.e seitilamronba latinegnoc ladanogUnon erom ro eno Á

sisorbif citsyC

‡

ycneicifed HRnG :emordnys s'nnamllaK(

)msidanogopyh cihportodanogopyh cihtapoidi( ycneicifed HRnG latinegnoC msiratiutipopyH

eeS

;snoitartlifni/noitaidar/yregrus/ruomut yratiutiP

msiratiutipopyH 

:)cihportodanogopyh( msidanogopyh

2

yhportsyd cinotoym ,sisehtnys enoretsotset ni devlovni semyzne ni stcefed ,rotpecer HSF ,rotpecer HL ,stinubus b HSF/HL

snoitatum citeneG
slevel enoretsotset

# :nioreh

,anaujiram ,lohoclA

edimahpsohpolcyc :snixot/sgurD noitaidaR )ymotcedihcro( yregruS enummiotuA noisrot ,amuarT ,)sitigninemoirohc citycohpmyl ,surivobra B puorg ,surivohce ,spmum .g.e( noitcefnI

egamad ladanoG
]62Q[

tluda eht ni tnesba tub efil latef ni tneserp eussit ralucitset :emordnys sitset gnihsinaV :aihcronA setset dednecsednu :msihcrotpyrC selubut suorefinimes citenegsyd htiw mrif dna llams era setset :)YXX( emordnys s'retlefenilK

sisnegsyd ladanoG :)cihportodanogrepyh( msidanogopyh

elaM 

1

35

aimealakopyH

)sllec eht yb ekatpu etahpsohp dna sisylocylg setalumits sisolakla( sisolakla yrotaripseR )scilohocla ni .g.e( gnideefer ,)sllec eht yb ekatpu etahpsohp dna sisylocylg setalumits nilusni htiw tnemtaert( sisodicaotek citebaid morf yrevocer .g.e ,nilusnI " sllec otni noitubirtsideR
aimeatahpsohpopyH

aimeaclacopyH eeS msidioryhtarapopyH HDAIS ,ycneiciffusni lanerda ,msidioryhtopyH? sititaercnap ,snrub ,gnitimov ,aeohrraid :)02<+aN eniru( ssol lanerUartxE? Á ycneiciffusni lanerda ,yhtaporhpen gnisol? Utlas ,sisodica ralubut laner ,)sedizaiht( sciteruiD :)02>+aN eniru( ssol laneR? Á )02>+aN eniru( eruliaf laner ,emordnys citorhpen ,FCC ,sishorriC? desufni si noitulos muidos wol hcihw otni mra eht morf doolb gnikat :lautcafitrA aimeacylgrepyH? aimeadirecylgirtrepyh ,)amoleym elpitlum .g.e( aimeanietorprepyH? :aimeartanopyhoduesP
aimeartanopyH
:stneitap )suotamedeo( cimealovrepyH :stneitap )detardyhed( cimealovopyH :stneitap cimealovuE

tenracsof ,)etuca( sititaercnap ,ymotcedioryhtarapUtsop ,evitarepoUtsoP :rehtO Á Á )emordnys s'namletiG ro s'rettraB? ,siseruid evitcurtsbotsop ,sisorcen ralubut etucaUtsop( noitcnufsyd ralubut? Á ,msinoretsodlarepyh ,msidioryhtrepyh ,aimeaclacrepyh ,sutillem setebaiD? nitalpsic? ,eniropsolcyc ,B niciretohpma ,sedisocylgonima .g.e ,snixotorhpen :sgurD? esuba lohoclA? )sedizaiht dna pool( sciteruiD?
:sessol laneR

]92Q[ ]82Q[

ealutsif lanitsetni ,noitceser lanitsetni ,noitprosbalam ,aeohrraid ,msilohocla ,noitirtunlam :sessol IG ro ekatnI # #
aimeasengamopyH

sisolakla ,stsinogaUb ,nilusnI Á sllec eht otni noitubirtsideR )noiterces muissatop netfo dna noitprosbaer muidos elubut gnitcelloc ni " yramirp ,noitidnoc tnanimod lamosotua( emordnys s'elddiL egamad ralubut laneR )II & I epyt( sisodica ralubut laneR aimeasengamopyH
srehtO

]72Q[

emordnys s'namletiG ,emordnys s'rettraB )noiterces enoretsodla " osla( sciteruid pool dna sedizaiht :sciteruiD )airusocylg ni .g.e( siseruid citomsO
)noiterces
+

K dna noitprosba

+

aN

"! "!

( norhpen latsid ot yreviled

deunitnoc aimealako‡pyH
aN

" "

aimealakopyH

45

)snrub ,snoisel evitaduxe( ssol suoenatuC? eruliaf laner etuca ,siseruid evitcurtsboUtsop ,sudipisni setebaid ,sutillem setebaid ,citeruid( ssol laneR? Á ssol IG? egahrromeaH? :aimealovopyH aimeacitpeS

noisnetopyH

seidob ylloJ±llewoH eeS

msinelpsopyH

1UporP ,1UtiP .g.e :snoitatuM Á Á noitavrats ,esicrexe ereves ,aixerona :cimalahtopyH emordnys s'naheehS ,)egahrromeah/noitcrafni( yxelpopa yratiutip :ralucsaV sitisyhpopyh citycohpmyl ,sisotamorhcomeah ,X sisotycoitsih ,ssecsba ,amohpmyl ,sisodiocras ,BT :noitartlifni/noitammalfnI )erar( silihpys ,sitilahpecne/sitigninem :noitcefnI noitaidar/yregrus yratiutiP ruomut yratiutiP

msiratiutipopyH

selucam detnemgipopyH
yregrus ,amuarT )amotsalboniter ,amohpmyl ,aimeakuel .g.e( sesatsatem/sruomut ralucoartni fo sisorcen :ycnangilaM )sitievU eeS( sitievu roiretna :noitammalfnI sreclu laenroc ,sitimlahthpodne :noitcefnI
]03J[

ysorpeL )suoenatuc( amohpmyl llecUT Á sisorelcs suorebuT sisodiocraS suvean olaH rolocisrev aeniT ogilitiV yrotammalfniUtsoP Á

noypopyH

emordnys inocnaF airusocylg .g.e ,siseruid citomsO aicalamoetso decudniUruomut Á ,)tnanimod lamosotua ,deknilUX( stekcir cimeatahpsohpopyh yratidereH Á )msidioryhtaraprepyh 2 dna aimeaclacopyh gnisuac yb dna noitprosba IG # yb htob( ecnatsiser/ycneicifed D nimatiV noitercxe yraniru ":) 2 & 1( msidioryhtaraprepyH

laneR

ekatni yrateiD # )cinorhc( aeohrraiD sdicatna gniniatnocUmuisengam/munimula .g.e ,srednib etahpsohP Á

lanitsetniortsaG

enob ni etahpsohp dna +2aC fo noitisoped dekram ot eud :)ainepoetso gnitsixeUerp Á htiw stneitap ni ymotcedioryhtarap gniwollof( emordnys enob yrgnuH 55 noisnetopyH

esaesid yratiutip/cimalahtopyH

yradnoceS

ssecxe/ycneicifed edidoI? )sedimanoiht ,muihtiL ,enoradoima .g.e ,sgurd ,enidoiUoidar ,yregrus( cinegortaI? Á )sitidioryht s'otomihsaH( enummiotuA? :deriuqcA ycneicifed edidoi ,sisenegomrohsyd ,sisoeryhta :latinegnoC

msidioryhtopyH
ycneiciffusni niev geL sevitades ,stnasserpeditna ,setartin ,sciteruid ,sevisnetrepyhitnA :sgurD )emordnys yaD±yeliR( aimonotuasyd lailimaF? emordnys regarD±yhS ,yhporta metsys elpitlum ,esaesid s'nosnikraP :evitarenegeD? cimalahtopyh ,)recnac gnul llec llams .g.e( citsalpoenarap :sruomuT? silihpys ,VIH :noitcefnI? emordnys OrraB±nialliuG :noitammalfnI? Ä )apodUL ,scilcycirt( sgurd ,)erar( sisodiolyma ,sutillem setebaid :cilobateM? Á :yhtaporuen cimonotuA

yramirP

noisnetopyh larutsoP
deunitnoc

noitelped emuloV

noisnetopyH
:ralucsavoidraC

noitcurtsbo wolftuo ,esaesid laidracoym ,)esaesid laidracirep( gnillif cilotsaid

#

,saimhtyhrra .g.e ,tuptuo caidrac

#

taht noitidnoc ynA?

ycneiciffusni lanerdA

noisnetopyH

65

ssecsba ,sitilahpecne/sitigninem :noitcefnI )larberecartni ,dionhcarabus ,larudbus ,larudartxe( egahrromeah :ralucsaV

" ,erusserp lainarcartnI " "
yhtapolahpecne s'ekcinreW samoilG

egahrromeah ,noitcrafni :ralucsaV sisorelcs elpitluM :metsniarb eht ni sulucicsaf lanidutignol laidem fo tnemevlovnI

aigelpomlahthpo raelcunretnI
ainotsyd ,sutinnit ,aeonpa ,msilohocla ,amhtsa ,airutcon ,sutirurp ,niap ,enieffac ,scitonpyh/stnasserpeditna fo lawardhtiw ,sgurd :lacideM yteixna ,ainam ,noisserped :lacigolohcysP .cte levart ,sserts :gnitimilUfleS Á

ainmosnI
sredrosid latioC snerefed sav ,simydidipe fo noitcurtsbO smreps elitommI eleocociraV ) 2 ro  

1( msidanogopyH

elaM

).ytilitrefni rotcaf elam edulcxe ot demrofrep eb dluohs ).cte ytilitom ,ytisned mreps( sisylana nemes :

etoN

(

emordnys dipilohpsohpitnA seitilamronba emosomorhC )sisoirtemodne ,sdiorbif .g.e( seitilamronba ytivac eniretU )snoisehda :yregrus/noitammalfni/noitcefni Utsop .g.e( sebut naipollaf detcurtsbO Á )msidanogopyh 

2/ 1( noitaluvonA 

elameF

ytilitrefnI
aispepsyD

eeS

noitsegidnI
ecnenitnocni laceaF ecnenitnocni yranirU :laceaF

eeS eeS

:yranirU

ecnenitnocnI
)sisorelcsorehta .g.e( esaesid ralucsaV sisorelcs elpitlum ,yregrus etatsorp/kcen reddalb retfa egamad evren ,)aimearu ,sutillem setebaid .g.e( yhtaporuen cimonotua :lacigolorueN ylagemorca ,samonitcalorp ,msidioryhtrepyh ,ycneicifed negordna/msidanogopyh :sredrosid enircodnE sreziliuqnart rojam

,)enotcalonirips( sciteruid ,sibannac ,srekcolbU Á

b ,stnasserpeditna ,lohocla :sgurD
ecnetopmI

)snoitcere gninrom evah yam stneitap( lacigolohcysP

I
75 erusserp lainarcartnI

ypareht norI sisotamorhcomeaH aimeassalaht .g.e ,snoisufsnart detaepeR

daolrevo norI
citycorcim ,aimeanA

eeS

ycneicifed norI
sitievU

eeS

sitirI
amedeo larberec ,sulahpecordyh ,noisnetrepyh lainarcartni ngineB sruomuT

deunitnoc

" ,erusserp lainarcartnI
yrujni daeh :amuarT

erusserp lainarcartnI

85

avac anev roirepus fo noitcurtsbO daolrevo diulF sitidracirep evitcirtsnoc ,noisuffe laidracireP noitatigruger dipsucirT eruliaf traeh thgiR

erusserp suonev raluguJ
esaesid s'tegaP sisobmorht niev raluguJ assof roiretsop eht otni gnidaerps rae elddim eht morf noitcefnI lluks fo esab ta erutcarf :amuarT ruomut ydob ditorac ,ruomut sumolg ,samotaetselohc ,sruomut elgna enitnopolleberec :sruomut rehtO sevren htIIX ro htX ,htXI fo amorbiforueN sesatsateM atamoignineM

PVJ " "

)IX dna X ,XI sevren lainarc gnivlovni( emordnys nemarof raluguJ
yhtapoignalohc SDIA ,sititaercnap ,aloicsaf/sisaimosotsihcs .g.e ,setisaraP sisohrric yrailib yramirp ,sitignalohc gnisorelcs yramirP )dlog ,saerulynohplus ,enizamorprolhc ,sPCO ,scitoibitna( :sgurD )serudecorp evisavni gniwollof( erutcirts ngineB citapeh atrop eht ta yhtaponedahpmyL tcud elib/retaV fo allupma/saercnap fo daeh fo amonicraC )tcud elib nommoc eht ni( senotsllaG

evitcurtsbO
aimeacitpeS emordnys

emordnys rotoR ,emordnys nosnhoJ±nibuD

iraihC±dduB ,ycneicifed nispyrtitnaU1 Á

a ,sisotamorhcomeah ,esaesid s'nosliW
sititapeh enummiotuA sititapeh cilohoclA snoitacidem labreh

ssecsba citapeh ,sesatsatem citapeh ,sisohrriC

,snixot ,)enahtolah ,etaorplav muidos ,snitats ,sgurd BTUitna ,lomatecarap( sgurD Á )revef Q ,sisoripsotpel ,sisomsalpoxot ,VBE ,VMC :snoitcefni rehto( ;C ,B ,A :lariV

ralullecotapeH
# eeS( sisylomeaH

)emordnys rajjaN±relgirC ,emordnys s'trebliG( noitadinoruculg ,siseioporhtyre evitceffeni ,)citylomeah ,aimeanA

citapehUerP Á
ecidnuaJ

sitilucsav lairacitru cimeatnemelpmocopyH amonicrac laihcnorB revef citamuehR ELS

yhtaporhtra s'duoccaJ

J
95 erusserp suonev raluguJ

staeb cipotce elpitlum ,kcolb traeh etelpmoc :ralugerrI lavretni RP gnol yrev htiw kcolb traeh laitrap ,aidracyhcat ladon lamsyxorap ,mhtyhr ladon :ralugeR

)sevaw nonnaC( sevaw 'a`

deunitnoc

erusserp suonev raluguJ
erusserp suonev raluguJ 06

.cte ,aimearu ,sisodicaotek citebaid .g.e ,sisodica cilobateM

gnihtaerb s'luamssuK
ogilitiV straW musoigatnoc mucsulloM sunalp nehciL sisairosP

nonemonehp renbeoK
msyruena laetilpoP? tsyc s'rekaB? asrub suonarbmemimeS?

:roiretsoP?
sisotsoxE? tsyc sucsinem laidem/laretal :laidem/laretaL? esaesid rettalhcS±doogsO? asrub ralletaparfnI? asrub ralletapUerp :roiretnA? Á :sgnillews dezilacoL ycnangilaM seditilucsav ,esaesid s'teOheB ,sisodiocras ,emordnys s'nergÐjS ,ELS :cimetsyS Â )sitirhtra citairosp ,sitilydnops gnisolykna ,)esaesid s'elppihW ,DBI( sitirhtra cihtaporetne ,sitirhtra evitcaer( seditirhtra evitagenoreS sitirhtraoetso ,sitirhtra diotamuehR tuogoduesp/tuoG )scailihpomeah ni( sisorhtrameah ,amuarT )esaesid emyL ,BT ,illicab ev

ÿ

marG ,iccoconog ,iccocolyhpats( sitirhtra citpeS

gnillews ,eenK
aiglarhtraonoM eeS

nellows/lufniap ,eenK
ylamona latinegnoC amotameah lanerireP )ymoterhpen laretalartnoc gniwollof( yhportrepyH sisorhpenoyp ,sisorhpenordyH amonicraC yendik citsyC

degralne ,yendiK
sesaesid egarots negocylG sisocixotoryht ,ycnangerp ,revef :stnemeriuqer cilobateM

"

noitavratS setebaiD

airunoteK

"

,TTPA eeS

TCCK

K
16 gnihtaerb s'luamssuK

yhtapoymoidrac evitcirtseR sitidracirep evitcirtsnoC noisuffe laidracireP

ngis s'luamssuK

ngis s'luamssuK

26

egahrromeaH sisylomeaH noitartlifni worram enob tnangilaM snruB

noitcaer diomeakueL ssenkaew geL
ytilibommI noisicxe ,noitartlifni tnangilam ,)sisairalif( noitcefni ,yparehtoidar :tnemevlovni edon hpmyl ,yramirp :)gnittipUnon( amedeohpmyL Á sniev esociraV sgel kaeW

BT ,noitcefni ereveS

eeS

cinorhC

erutpur tsyc s'rekaB amuart ,emordnys tnemtrapmoC sitilulleC

etucA laretalinU
noitcurtsbo niev caili laretalib/CVI ,ycnangerp ,ssam civlep .g.e ,noitcurtsbo suoneV cinorhc ,)gnittis degnolorp( etuca :ycneiciffusni suoneV daolrevo diulf ,srekcolb lennahc muiclac ,snegortseo :cinegortaI msidioryhtopyH eruliaf laneR )yhtaporetne gnisolUnietorp ,emordnys citorhpen Á ,noitprosbalam ,noitirtunlam( aimeanimublaopyh fo sesuac rehto ,eruliaf reviL

TVD

laretaliB gnillews geL
sitirhtrA msaps elcsum ,yrujni )tnemagil ,nodnet ,elcsum( eussitUtfos :lateleksolucsuM Á yhtaporuen larehpireP yhtapoxelp ,yhtapolucidaR sisonets lanac rabmul :lacigolorueN TVD )esaesid s'regreuB ,sitiretra ,sisorelcsoretra( cinorhc ,)erutcarf .g.e ,amuart ,msilobmeobmorht( etuca :noisulcco lairetra :ralucsaV

eruliaf traeH

niap geL

sisorcen ruomuT msilobme yranomluP egamad etycotapeH sisylomeaH

esanegordyhed etatcaL

noitcrafni laidracoyM

L

36

noitcaer diomeakueL

)evitcurtsbo ,ecidnuaJ eeS( sisatselohc :esaesid reviL

" ,PLA "
kcohS

egamad etycotapeH

"

,)TPGS( TLA

egamad elcsum latelekS noitcrafni laidracoyM sisylomeaH )ecidnuaJ eeS( egamad etycotapeH

"

,)TOGS( TSA

stset noitcnuf reviL

sitilucinnaP erusserP nilusni .g.e ,noitcejnI cihtapoidI

lacoL

)II epyt( sitirhpenoluremolg evitarefilorponarbmem htiw detaicossA srotibihni esaetorp :sgurd VIH latinegnoC

laitraP

laitrap ,yhportsydopiL

ogitepmI emordnys nosnhoJ±snehpetS/emrofitlum amehtyrE sugihpmeP xelpmis sepreH

snoisore piL

sitiliehc suotamolunarG diocraS esaesid s'nhorC )ycneicifed esaretse 1C( kcohs citoruenoignA noitcaer citcalyhpana/cigrellA etib tcesnI

sgnillews piL

sulobme loretselohC asodon sitiretraylop ,emordnys dipilohpsohpitna ,susotamehtyre supul cimetsys ,aimeanilubolgoyrC

siraluciter odeviL

silihpys ,adidnac ,VIH :noitcefnI noitcirf/amuarT

aikalpokueL

aimeana ereveS aixopyH ycnangilam .g.e ,noitartlifni worraM

aimeana citsalborhtyreokueL

aimeana citsalborhtyreokueL

46

)sisocymoidiccoc .g.e( lagnuf ,sisairalif ,sisomsalpoxoT? )selsaem ,allebur ,VMC ,VBE ,VIH .g.e( lariV? esaesid hctarcs tac ,silihpys ,sisollecurb :ylnommoc ssel ,BT ,lairetcaB?

yhtaponedahpmyL
noisses tset eht ot roirp esicrexe ,ytisebo ereveS tnuhs R L

:noitcefnI

!

amhtsA ymotcenomuenP aimeahtycyloP egahrromeah yranomluP

" "

noitamroflam suonevoiretrA aimeanA amesyhpmE sulobme yranomluP )sisorbif yranomlup( esaesid gnul laititsretnI

rotcaf refsnarT
)sisoillyreb ,sisocilis ,sisotsebsa ,sisoinocomuenp 'srekrow laoC( sesoinocomuenP? )gnul s'rekrow tlaM ,gnul s'reicnaf driB ,gnul 'sremraF .g.e( sitiloevla cigrella cisnirtxE? noitaidar ,)niotnarufortin ,nicymoelb ,nahplusub ,enoradoima( sgurD? sitilydnops gnisolykna ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,sisodiocras ,ELS ,amredorelcs :sesaesid eussit evitcennoC? sitiloevla gnisorbif cinegotpyrC?

# #

%57 > oitar CVF/1VEF :tcefed evitcirtseR >
:sisorbif yranomluP DPOC

%57 < oitar CVF/1VEF :tcefed evitcurtsbO <
amhtsA yhtaporuenylop?

stset noitcnuf gnuL

seislap evren lainarC osla eeS

,xelpitlum sitiruenonom ,tnempartne ,amuart :sevren larehpireP? noisurtorp csid rabmul dna lacivrec :toor lanipS? sitileymoilop ,esaesid enoruen rotom :llec nroh roiretnA?

snoisel enoruen rotom rewoL ssensuoicsnoc fo ssoL
esaesid lanitsetni llamS ycnangerp :atnecalP eruliaf laner ,msidioryhtaraprepyh ,sesatsatem enob ,aicalamoetso ,enob fo esaesid s'tegaP ,erutcarf gnilaeh ,ecnecseloda ni htworg :)ytivitca citsalboetso ( esaesid enoB stuokcalB eeS

:edulcni selpmaxE

"

56

yhtaponedahpmyL

tnuoc llec etihW eeS

ainepohpmyL

sisotycohpmyL
niotynehp ,amezce ,sisairosp ,sisotycoitsih ,sisocixotoryht :eraR aimeakuel ,amohpmyl ,sesatsatem :ycnangilaM ELS ,sisodiocras ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :esaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI

tnuoc llec etihW eeS

deunitnoc

yhtaponedahpmyL
yhtaponedahpmyL 66

tsyc nairavO sdiorbiF suretu tnangerP reddalb degralnE

cibuparpuS
yendik civlep detnalpsnarT tsyc nairavO yhtaponedahpmyl cailI esaesid s'nhorC recnac cinoloC esaesid ralucitreviD )noitapitsnoc ni .pse( noloc diomgis dedaoL

assof caili tfeL
yendik civlep detnalpsnarT tsyc nairavO yhtaponedahpmyl cailI )laceacoeli( BT ssam xidneppA esaesid s'nhorC muceac fo amonicraC

assof caili thgiR
recnac citaercnaP yendik degralnE ylagemonelpS

muirdnohcopyh tfeL
itcer egraL revil citohrric a fo eludon citorcenUtsop ,ebol tfel :reviL Á tsycoduesp ,amonicrac :ssam citaercnaP amonicrac cirtsaG

muirtsagipE
ssam cinoloC )degralne ,yendiK

eeS( yednik

degralnE

)ssam reddalbllag ,recnac citaercnap .g.e tcud elib nommoc eht fo noitcurtsbo ,elecocum ,ameypme( reddalbllag degralnE )ylagemotapeH

sgnillews dna sessaM
samocrasoymodbahr .g.e ,snoisel gniypuccoUecapS Á emordnys s'nwoD sisodirahccasylopocuM ylagemorcA sisodiolymA

muirdnohcopyh thgiR

eeS( ylagemotapeH

]13Q[

nemodbA

BT .g.e ,snoitcefni cinorhC

aissolgorcaM
msidioryhtopyH

M

76

sgnillews dna sessaM

noisel enitnoP )xelfer thgil lipup

"(

sitievu roiretnA

)slipup ralugerri( lipup nostreboR llygrA setaipo ,spord eye enipracolip :sgurD

evitcaer±noN

emordnys s'renroH ega dlO

thgil ot evitcaeR

sisoiM
latinegnoC enizalasaflus ,senoloniuq ,eniuqamirp ,setirtin ,setartin ,enospad :sgurD

aimeanibolgomeahteM
aigahrroneM sa sesuac ralimiS

ralugerri ,gnideelb laurtsneM
gnideelb eniretu lanoitcnufsyD stnalugaocitna ,)esaesid s'dnarbelliW nov .g.e( seihtapolugaoc ,msidioryhtrepyh :smelborp cimetsyS noitcefni civlep cinorhc ,)nairavo ,lairtemodne ,lacivrec( ycnangilam ,sisoirtemodne ,sisoymoneda ,)lacivrec dna eniretu( spylop ,sdiorbif :sredrosid lacimotana lacoL
]23Q[

aigahrroneM
aisenmA

eeS

ssol yromeM
)naciremA htuoS( sisaimosonapyrT )SDIA/noitcefni VIH htiw stneitap ni( sitiloc VMC sitiloc cibeomA sitiloc suonarbmemoduesP sitiloc cimeahcsI esaesid lewob yrotammalfnI

nolocageM
)gnillews dna niap ralucitseT

eeS( sgnillews

lufniaP

ammuG ruomut ralucitseT eleocotamrepS tsyc lamydidipE elecordyH ainreh laniugni tceridnI

latorcS

droc eht fo eleocordyH droc eht fo amopiL sitset dednecsednu/cipotcE ssecsba saosP msyruena laromef ,xirav anehpas :ralucsaV yhtaponedahpmyL )laromef ,laniugni( sainreH

laniugnI

deunitnoc sgnillews dna sessaM

sgnillews dna sessaM

86

)saera lartim dna citroa ot gnitaidar ,redrob lanrets tfel ta draeh si rumrum cilotsys noitceje na MCOH ni :etoN(? sisonets yranomlup ,tcefed latpes lairta ,tneconni :aera yranomluP? ]53Q[ sisorelcs citroa ,)sisonets citroA eeS( sisonets citroa :aera citroA? :cilotsys noitcejE

srumruM
sreclU eeS

cilotsyS

sreclu htuoM
?seislap erusserp ot enorp :yhtaporuen yratidereH )amonicrac ,amohpmyl( noitartlifni :ycnangilaM sutillem setebaid :cilobateM esaesid s'teOheB ,emordnys s'nergÐjS ,sisodiocras  ,)ELS ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :yradnoces ;aimeanilubolgoyrc ,emordnys ssuartS ±gruhC ,sisotamolunarg s'renegeW ,NAP .g.e ,yramirp( sitilucsav :noitammalfnI ysorpel ,esaesid emyL ,retsoz sepreh ,VIH :noitcefnI

]43J[

xelpitlum sitiruenonoM
tnuoC lleC etihW eeS

sisotyconoM
ralucitraUartxE Á

sitilullec ,sitivonysonet ,sitisruB ]33Q[ ycnangilaM seditilucsav ,esaesid s'teOheB ,sisodiocras ,emordnys s'nergÐjS ,ELS :cimetsyS Â )sitirhtra citairosp ,sitilydnops gnisolykna ,)esaesid s'elppihW ,DBI( sitirhtra cihtaporetne ,sitirhtra evitcaer( seditirhtra evitagenoreS sitirhtraoetso ,sitirhtra diotamuehR tuogoduesp/tuoG )ailihpomeah( sisorhtrameah ,amuarT )esaesid emyL ,BT ,illicab ev± marG ,iccoconog ,iccocolyhpats( sitirhtra citpes :noitcefnI

aiglarhtraonoM sisonets lartiM

ralucitrA

evlav citehtsorp ,sesodirahccasylopocum ,sitidracodne ,dionicrac ,gnir evlav lartim deificlac ,latinegnoc :nommoc sseL )%09( esaesid traeh citamuehR noitatalid ralucirtnev tfel ot yradnoces :noitatigruger lartim lanoitcnuF )ELS ,emordnys s'nafraM ,emordnys solnaD±srelhE ,atcefrepmi sisenegoetso ,mucitsale amohtnaxoduesp( sesaesid eussit evitcennoc htiw detaicossa evlav lartim yppolf dna erutpur ladrohC )yhtapoymoidrac /esaesid traeh cimeahcsi( noitcnufsyd ro )IM retfa( erutpur elcsum yrallipaP espalorp evlav lartiM sitidracodne evitcefnI a dre c hR noietsaesiigrtuagheritlaamruteiM t 96 srumruM

sredrosid elcsum detirehni ,emordnys tnangilam citpeloruen ,aimrehtrepyh tnangilam :srehtO OC ,lohocla ,snitats ,setarbif :snixot/sgurD aimeatahpsohpopyh ,aimealakopyh :cilobateM sitisoyM seruzies ,esicrexe suorogiR amoc ,ytilibommi ,aimeahcsI

airunibolgoyM
yregrus ,amuarT esaesid s'remiehzlA

esaesid shcaS±yaT ,esaesid s'rehcuaG .g.e ,sesaesid egarots lamososyL

esaesid bokaJ±tdlefztuerC yhtapolahpecne cilobatem etucA

sunolcoyM
latinegnoC

htaed larberec ,amoc peeD amocualg erusolc elgna etucA )noilgnag yrailic eht ot evren eht fo noitareneged( lipup eidA±semloH yslap evren drihT tnalpmi snel ,ymotcediri ,aigelpodiri citamuartUtsop :amuarT Á annodalleb .g.e ,gninosiop ,)edimahtetulg ,enimatehpma ,eniacoc( esodrevo ,)edimaciport

,etalotnepolcyc ,eniporta .g.e ,sciniracsumitna( spord eye citairdym :sgurD

sisairdyM
aiglaymorbiF

emordnys eugitaf cinorhC

acitamuehr aiglaymyloP esaesid s'nosnikraP aixeryprepyh tnangilaM ycnangilaM esaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI cimetsys :noitcefnI ssecsba ,amotameah elcsuM )ssenkaew elcsum lamixorP

eeS(

lohocla ,sgurd ,evitcefni ,yrotammalfni ,cilobatem :yhtapoyM

aiglayM
cilotsaiD

susoiretra sutcud tnetap :suounitnoC )erar( sisonets dipsucirt ,)sisonets lartiM

eeS(

sisonets lartim :cilotsysUdiM Á noitatigruger

yranomlup ,)noitatigruger citroA

eeS(

noitatigruger citroa :cilotsaid ylraE

)noitatigruger dipsucirT

eeS(

noitatigruger dipsucirt

,tcefed latpes ralucirtnev ,)noitatigruger lartiM

eeS(

noitatigruger lartiM? :cilotsysnaP

deunitnoc

srumruM
srumruM 07

msyruena citroa gnidore :elitasluP? amotycamsalp ro ruomut ynob :draH? amopil :tfoS? :gnillews muirbunaM amonicrac laegahposeo/laehcart/laegnyral ,asrub dioyhbus ,alunar gnignulp ,hcuop laegnyrahp ,tsyc diomred laugnilbus :eraR sedon hpmyL tsyc lassolgoryhT gnillews dnalg dioryhT

sgnillews kceN
mgarhpaid ,gnul ,slessev/traeh ,xnyrahp ,redluohs ,tnioj ralucivalcoimorca/ralubidnamoropmet :niap derrefeR tsyc dioryht cigahrromeah ,sitidioryht ,enob fo esaesid s'tegaP ,aicalamoetso ,sisoropoetso :enircodne/cilobateM amoleym ,sruomut enob yradnoces dna yramirp :ycnangilaM )aiglaym lacivrec( noitcefni cimetsys lareneg ,siticsid ,)BT .g.e( sitileymoetso :noitcefnI )emordnys teltuo cicaroht ,amuart( snoisel suxelp laihcarb ,noitcessid yretra ditorac/larbetrev ,)egahrromeah dionhcarabus ,sitigninem( msigninem ,espalorp csid :lacigolorueN acitamuehr aiglaymylop ,yhtaporhtralydnops ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :yrotammalfnI sisotsorepyh lateleks cihtapoidi esuffid ,sisolydnops lacivrec :evitarenegeD noitacolsid ,erutcarf ,yrujni noisnetxeUnoixelf etuca :amuarT Á erusopxe dloc ,larutsoP

enildiM

niap kceN
gnitimoV

aesuaN

eeS

)sunis yrallixam ,laegnyrahposan( sruomuT )kael FSC( assof roiretna fo erutcarf ,ydob ngierof :amuarT amolunarg enildim ,sisodiocras ,sisotamolunarg s'renegeW ,)sisorbif citsyc .g.e( spylop :noitammalfnI SDIA ,silihpys ,lagnuf ,BT :yleraR? sitisunis ,)cinorhc/etuca( lariv :noitcefnI sitinihr rotomosaV lainnerep/lanosaes :sitinihr cigrellA

egrahcsid lasaN amuarT sunalp nehciL amezcE
amuarT sunalP nehciL amezcE ataera aicepolA

gnittip liaN

sisairosP

N

17

sgnillews kceN

latinegnoc :)yticolev lauqe evah stnemevom orfUdnaUot( raludneP Á Á ezag laretal emertxe eht ta :lacigoloisyhP

sumgatsyN
aixopyH sisylomeaH noitartlifni worraM

stsalbomroN
ycneuqerF

eeS airutcoN

elppin eht fo esaesid s'tegaP ,amollipap latcudartni ,amonicrac latcudartni :deniatsUdoolB Á esaesid citsycorbif ,aisatce tcud :neerg/wolleY )erar( BT ,ssecsba tsaerb ,sititsam :tnelurup aimeanitcalorprepyh ,ytrebup ,noitatcal ,ycnangerp etal :ykliM

egrahcsid elppiN
stnasserpeditna ,stsinoga HRnG :snoitacideM esuaponeM sruomut dilos ,amohpmyl .g.e ,ycnangilaM sisomsalpotsih ,VIH :srehto ,)sitileymoetso ,sitidracodne .g.e( snoitcefni lairetcab etucabus ,BT .g.e ,snoitcefni cinorhc :snoitcefnI

staews thgiN
tnuoc llec etihW

eeS ailihportueN eeS aineportueN
esaesid s'musfeR

tnuoc llec etihW

1 epyt yhtaporuen rotomirosnes yratidereH ylagemorcA sisotamorbiforueN sisodiolymA sisodiocraS ysorpel diolucrebuT

)yhportrepyh( gninekciht evreN
elcivalc fo ruomuT msyruena yretra naivalcbuS amorgyh citsyC )BT( ssecsba dloc ,sedon hpmyL

elgnairt roiretsoP

ruomut diotsamonretS msyruena ydob ditoraC ruomut ydob ditoraC tsyc laihcnarB gnillews )ditorap/ralubidnambus( dnalg yravilaS )BT( ssecsba dloc ,sedon hpmyL

elgnairt roiretnA
sgnillews kceN 27

deunitnoc

sgnillews kceN

mungam nemarof eht fo noiger eht ot sezilacol :ezagnwod no gnitaebUnwod fI .noisel metsniarb ro sgurd :sumgatsyn lacitreV Á metsniarb ro htnirybal ni noisel a :sumgatsyn yrotatoR

.noisel eht fo edis eht ot si esahp nI .noisel eht fo edis laretalartnoc

tsaf ,tneserp era sngis ralleberec rehto

C

eht ot si esahp tsap ,tneserp eb yam ogitrev dna sutinnit ,ssol gniraeh :

A

nI :

etoN

)eye gnitcudba laretalartnoc eht fo sumgatsyn ,noisel fo edis eht no noitcudda

#( aigelpomlahthpo raelcunretni ni nees osla si sumgatsyN
)niotynehp .g.e( sgur ? ? )sngis rallebereC

eeS

( esaesid rallebere

D C

)msilohocla( cixot ,)ruomut ,sisorelcs elpitlum( noitammalfni ,)AVC( ralucsav :ielcun ralubitsev/metsniar amoruen citsuoca ,sitinoruen ralubitsev ,)slanac ralucricimes ni sirbed lainocoto( ogitrev lanoitisop ngineb ,esaesid s'erOinOM Ä Á .g.e ,sesaesid )evren ralubitsev/htnirybal( rae renni rehto ,sitihtnirybal etuc

B

?

A

?

:)tneserp era esahp tsaf dna esahpUwols( ykreJ Á

37

sumgatsyN

.ssenfaed ,yhporta citpo ,sutillem setebaid ,sudipisni setebaiD*

*DAOMDID ,s'hcierdeirF .g.e ,saixata yratidereh ,yhporta citpo s'rebeL :yratidereH )amocualg( eye eht edisni erusserP

"

yretra laniter fo noisulccO noitareneged ralucam ,asotnemgip sitiniter :esaesid laniteR amuart tceridni ,erutcarf latibro :amuarT yhtaporuen citpo cimeahcsi roiretnA msyruena ditorac ,sunis dionehps ro yratiutip fo ruomut ,)sruomut evren citpo .g.e( latibroUartni :noisserpmoC Á diocras ,silihpys ,sesunis morf daerps :noitartlifni/noitcefnI lotubmahte ,setebaid ,ycneicifed
21B

nimativ ,lohocla ,occabot :sgurd/cilobatem/cixoT

)sruomut .g.e( amedeollipap gnidnatsUgnol ot Á 

2 :erusserp lainarcartnI

"

)SM( sitiruen citpO

yhportA

csid citpO
senilcycarteT amuarT sisocixotoryhT noitcefni lagnuF sisairosP

sisylohcynO
)sisorbif laenotireporter ,ruomut ,senots( lanerUtsop ,)sisorcen Á ralubut etuca( laner ,)kcohs .g.e( lanerUerp :)cinorhc ,etuca( eruliaf laneR Á noitardyheD

airugilO
noisicxe ,noitartlifni tnangilam ,)sisairalif( noitcefni ,yparehtoidar :tnemevlovni edon hpmyl ,yramirp :amedeohpmyL

gnittipUnoN Á
noitcurtsbo niev caili laretalib/CVI ,ycnangerp ,ssam civlep .g.e ,noitcurtsbo suoneV cinorhc ,)gnittis degnolorp( etuca :ycneiciffusni suoneV daolrevo diulf ,srekcolb lennahc muiclac ,snegortseo :cinegortaI msidioryhtopyH eruliaf laneR yhtaporetne gnisolUnietorp ,emordnys citorhpen Á ,noitprosbalam ,noitirtunlam :aimeanimublaopyh fo sesuac rehto ,eruliaf reviL eruliaf traeH

laretalib ,gnittiP

elkna ,amedeO
eye der lufniaP

eeS

sitisoym latibrO sitiruen citpO

tnemevom eye no niaP

niap ralucO

O
niap ralucO 47

ecnetepmocni evlav dipsucirt .g.e :snoitaslup/noitsegnoc suoneV nibolgomeahtem ,nibolgomeahyxobrac :snibolgomeah lamronbA noitatnemgip nikS hsilop liaN IRM tcafitra noitoM thgil tneibma evisnetnI tnemecalp eborp reporpmI )kcohs .g.e( noisufrepopyH

srorre fo secruos ,noitarutas negyxO
amotaetsalohc htiw aidem sitito evitaruppus cinorhc :gnillems luoF aidem sitito etuca ,rae eht fo amonicrac ,amuart :ydoolb/tnelurupocuM anretxe sitito etuca :tneluruP noitarofrep a htiw aidem sitito evitariuppus cinorhc :diocuM FSC ,lanac rae eht fo amezce :yretaW

aeohrrotO
noitcefni laccoconoG aimeana citylomeaH ELS sitidracodne lairetcab etucabuS

sedon relsO
sreclU

eeS

sreclu larO
gninosiop latem yvaeH snoitpure gurd dexiF snacirgin sisohtnacA esaesid s'nosiddA emordnys s'rehgeJ±ztueP noitammalfni/amuartUtsoP Á )naisA ,nacirfA( laicaR

noitatnemgip larO
)noitanileymed( sitillipaP gninosiop daeL? A sisonimativrepyH? msidioryhtarapopyH? ainpacrepyH? sisobmorht sunis suonev ,sisobmorht niev laniteR? noisnetrepyh tnangilaM? amedeo larberec ,sulahpecordyh ,noisnetrepyh lainarcartni ngineb ,sessecsba ,sruomut ,sitilahpecne/sitignineM .yrujni daeh ,)larberecartni ,dionhcarabus ,larudbus ,larudartxe( egahrromeaH :erusserp lainarcartnI

"?

:amedeollpaP

derrulB

57

srorre fo secruos ,noitarutas negyxO

amoxym lairta ,yhtapoymoidrac ,stnuhs caidrac ,esaesid raluvlav ,rekamecap ,)TV ,TVS ,selotsysartxe ,FA .g.e( *aimhtyhrra yna :caidraC )eniacoc ,srotalidosav ,scigrenilohcitna ,lomatublas ,enitocin ,enieffac( sgurD ycnangerp ,aimeana ,esicrexe ,reveF

snoitatiplaP

esaesid tsohUsusrevUtfarg fo ngiS Á Á emrofitlum amehtyrE silihpys yradnoceS )sitidracodne evitcefni( snoisel yawenaJ )acigahrronelb amredotarek( emordnys s'retieR )emordnys OHPAS ni sitietso dna sisotsorepyh ,enca ,sitivonys htiw detaicossa eb yam( sisolutsup ratnalpomlaP amezce xylohpmoP )evoba
]73J[

hsar ratnalpomlaP
sisotarekrepyH

ees( amehtyre

ramlaP

sisotarekrepyh ratnalpomlaP
aimeakuel cinorhC ycnangerP sisocixotoryhT sitirhtra diotamuehR msilohoclA

eeS

amehtyre ramlaP
airunoteklynehp ,)daerpsediw( ogilitiv ,msinibla :rehtO msiratiutipopyh ,msidioryhtopyh :enircodnE aimeanA epocnyS kcohS lailimaf ,laicaR

esaesid reviL

rollaP

sititarek lairetcab/reclu laenroC amocualg erusolc elgna etucA sitievu roiretnA

eye der lufniaP
sisonets dipsucirT sisonets yranomluP )DPOC ,ilobme yranomlup ot yradnoces ,yramirp( noisnetrepyh yranomluP

sitirelcS

llaT
]63J[

mhtyhr )ladon VA( lanoitcnuj ,kcolb lairtaoniS aimealakrepyH noitallirbif lairtA

tnesbA evaw P

P

evaw P

67

aixeronA amohpmyL sisodiocraS emordnys s'nergÐjS

tnemegralne ditoraP
esaesid niahc yvaeH

laretaliB

aimeakuel ,amohpmyL )aimeanietorparap ngineb( yhtapommag lanolconoM sisodiolyma yramirP aimeanilubolgorcam s'mÐrtsnedlaW

aimeanietorparaP
aimeasengamopyh ,sisolakla yrotaripser ni .g.e ,aimeaclacopyH snoisel cimalaht/lacitroc :yleraR sisorelcs elpitlum ,noisserpmoc toor evren/droc .g.e ,esaesid droc lanipS noitainreh csid ,emordnys lennut laprac ,bir lacivrec .g.e ,noisserpmoc/tnempartne evren larehpireP )yhtaporuenyloP

amoleym elpitluM

eeS(

.cte msilohocla ,sutillem setebaid .g.e ,yhtaporuen larehpireP

eaisehtsearaP

ymotcenelpsUtsoP Á aimeana citylomeaH

seidob remiehneppaP amedeollipaP
csid citpO

aimeana citsalborediS

eeS

)HNP( airunibolgomeah lanrutcon lamsyxorap ,msinelpsrepyh ,sispes ,ELS sisorbifoleyM? amoleyM? sisatsateM? )etuca( aimeakueL? amohpmyL? noitartlifni worraM aimeana citsalbolageM cihtapoidI? selsaem ,sititapeh lariv ,VIH :noitcefnI? dlog ,scixototyc ,locinehpmarolhc :sgurD? sedicitcesni ,enezneb :slacimehC? noitaidaR? s'inocnaF :latinegnoC?

ainepotycnaP
.aidracyhcaT

aimeana citsalpA

eeS

*

noitazitamos ,noisserped ,redrosid yteixna dezilareneg ,skcatta cinap :cirtaihcysP sisotycotsam ,aimeacylgopyh ,samotycomorhcoeahp ,msidioryhtrepyh :enircodnE

77

tnemegralne ditoraP

noisuffe laidracireP
dizainosi ,enizalardyh :sgurD amuart/yregruS yparehtoidaR aimearU amedeoxyM ycnangilaM noitcrafni laidracoyM ELS ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI )lagnuf ;BT ,

sitidracireP

eeS

succocotpertS

.g.e ,lairetcab ;VIH ,spmum ,allecirav ,VBE ,eikcasxoc .g.e ,lariv( noitcefnI

sitidracireP
)noitalfnirepyh( DPOC

cihtapoidI

tnanoserUrepyH Á
gninekciht laruelP sisorbiF noitadilosnoC espalloC )llud ynots( noisuffe laruelP

xarohtomuenP

lluD eton noissucreP
aisehtsearap aiglareM sitisrub ciretnahcorT sitiiliorcaS pih fo sitirhtraoetsO

)espalorp raelcun ro tnemegnipmi tecaf htiw( esaesid csid evitarenegeD

niap eldrig civleP
enob fo esaesid s'tegaP aicalamoetsO sisoropoetsO sitileymoetsO

amordnohc ,stsyc enob :sruomut ngineB

amoleym ,yradnoces ,yramirp :ycnangilaM aisalpsyd suorbif ,atcefrepmi sisenegoetso :latinegnoC

serutcarf lacigolohtaP
noitcefni lairetcaB stsyC iluclaC

ruomut s'nihtraW ,ruomut ditorap dexim ngineb .g.e ,sruomuT

laretalinU
scilohoclA

VIH ,spmum :noitcefnI aimeadirecylgirtrepyh ,scitebaiD

ylagemorcA

deunitnoc

tnemegralne ditoraP
tnemegralne ditoraP 87

elpmas eht ni gnittolc doolb :lautcafitrA )doolb derots fo noisufsnart evissam( ssol lanoituliD ylagemonelps ot eud gniloop cinelps :noitartseuqeS SUH ,PTT ,CID )enidiniuq ,eniniuq ,nirapeh ,scitebaidUitna ,tnasluvnocitna ,scitoibitna ,sciseglana .g.e( sgurD Á )VIH .g.e ,lariv ,airalam( snoitcefnI amohpmyl ,LLC ,ELS )PTI( enummiotuA

noitpmusnoc/noitcurtseD
noitcefni lariv ,)elozaxomirtUoc .g.e( sgurd ,slacimehc :setycoyrakageM Á

"
#

yparehtoidar ,)lohocla ,locinehpmarolhc ,scixototyc( :sgurD aimeakuel ,)citsalpa ,citsalbolagem( aimeana ,)amonicrac ,amohpmyl( noitartlifni worram ,sisorbifoleym ,amoleyM

eruliaf worram enoB
noitcudorP

steletalP

#

seldeen dna sniP
selucam detnemgipopyH dna noitatnemgiprepyH

eaisehtsearaP

eeS

]83J[

noitatnemgiP

eeS

noitpure thgil suohpromyloP argalleP adrat aenatuc airyhproP sitisoymotamreD ELS eniuqorolhc ,senizaihtonehp ,nivlufoesirg ,senilcycartet ,sedimanohplus ,enoradoima .g.e ,sgurD

hsar detubirtsidotohP eaihceteP
airunietsycomoH aileymogniryS adifib anipS sitileymoiloP aixata s'hcierdeirF esaesid htooT±eiraM±tocrahC arupruP

eeS

suvac seP
amedeO

amedeo larehpireP amedeo latibroireP bur laidracireP
97 steletalP sitidracireP gnillews laicaF

eeS

eeS

eeS

BT ,esaesid emyL ,revef citamuehr ,)allebur ,spmum ,B sititapeH ,VIH ,VBE ,sesurivoretne .g.e( lariv ,)laccoconog ,laccocolyhpats .g.e( sitirhtra citpes detanimessid :noitcefnI

aiglarhtrayloP aispidyloP
sisorbifoleyM aimeassalahT airuyloP

eeS

aimeana ycneicifed norI

sisotycolikioP
niap tsehC

niap tsehc citiruelP
emordnys 'sgieM sitidracirep evitcirtsnoC msidioryhtopyH aimeanietorpopyH eruliaf caidraC

eeS

etadusnarT
)etuca( sititaercnaP IMUtsoP Á noitcrafni yranomluP amoilehtosem ,amonicrac laihcnorb :ycnangilaM sisodiocras ,ELS .g.e ,esaesid eussit evitcennoc/noitammalfnI ainomuenp lairetcab ,BT :noitcefnI

noisuffe laruelP
LMC aisalpsydoleyM )ainepotycobmorht retal ,yllaitini( sisorbifoleyM arev aimeahtycyloP aimeahtycobmorht laitnessE

etaduxE

yramirP
yregrus/amuarT ymotcenelpS )esaesid s'nikgdoH .g.e( ycnangliaM )esaesid s'ikasawaK .g.e( noitammalfnI noitcefnI ssol doolB

)sisotycobmorht( steletalP

yradnoceS "

aimearu ,niripsa ,aimeanietorparap ,sredrosid evitarefilorpoleym ,esaesid reviL esaesid loop egarotS ainehtsabmorht s'nnamznalG esaesid reiluoS±dranreB

sredrosid lanoitcnuF
deunitnoc

steletalP
steletalP 08

siseruid evitcurtsboUtsoP Á eruliaf laner cinorhc ,eruliaf laner etuca fo esahp citeruiD sciteruiD )deknilUX ,muihtiL ,aimealakopyh ,aimeaclacrepyh :cinegorhpeN? Á )*DAOMDID ,sitisyhpopyh citycohpmyl ,X sisotycoitsih ,diocras ,BT .g.e( noitartlifni ,yregrus/amuart ,ruomut :lartneC? :sudipisni setebaiD )dellortnocnu( sutillem setebaiD

airuyloP

esaesid kciP±nnameiN ,esaesid s'yrbaF .g.e ,sesaesid egarots lamososyl ,emordnys s'musfeR ,emordnys htooT±eiraM±tocrahC ,airyhprop ,aimeanietorpopilateba .g.e :yratidereH aimearu ,sisodiolyma ,ycneicifed enimaiht/ 21B ,msidioryhtopyh ,sutillem setebaid :cilobateM )dlog ,niotnarufortin ,dizainosi ,niotynehp ,elozadinortem ,enoradoima ,enitsircniv ,munitalpsic( sgurd ,sedicitcesni ,)dael .g.e( slatem yvaeh ,lohocla :cixoT aimeanietorparap ,citsalpoenarap :sruomuT )asodon sitiretraylop .g.e( seditilucsav ,ELS ,sisodiocras ,emordnys s'nergÐjS ,yhtaporuen gnitanileymed yrotamma¯ni cinorhc ,emordnys OrraB±nialliuG :noitammalfnI Ä airehthpid ,ysorpel ,esaesid emyL ,VIH :noitcefnI
]93J[

yhtaporuenyloP

sdiorbif ,amotsalboignameah ralleberec ,amotapeh ,stsyc/amonicrac llec laner .g.e ,niteioporhtyre ni

"

etairporppanI .esaesid traeh citonayc ,esaesid gnul cinorhc

,edutitla hgih .g.e ,aixopyh cinorhc :niteioporhtyre ni

"

etairporppA : 2? 



arev arbur aimeahtycyloP : 1? :aimeahtycylop eurT emordnys s'kcÐbsiaG ,)sciteruid ,lohocla .g.e( noitardyhed :aimeahtycylop evitaleR

aimeahtycyloP aisamorhcyloP
egahrromeaH

siseioporhtyresyd ,sisylomeaH ) 21B ,etahplus suorref( scinitameaH

revef citamuehR

aiglarhtraylop yrotargiM
sitirhtra laccoconoG )yhtaporhtraoetso yranomlup cihportrepyh( ycnangilam ,llec elkcis ,sisotamorhcomeah :rehtO acitamuehr aiglaymylop ,seditilucsav yramirp ,s'teOheB ,s'nergÐjS ,diocras ,ELS :sesaesid cimetsyS Â )sitirhtra citairos ,)DBI ,s'elppihW( cihtaporetn

P

,sitilydnops gnisolykn

A

E

,s'retieR/evitcae

R

( :sitirhtra evitagenoreS

)dezilareneg( sitirhtraoetso ,sitirhtra diotamuehR tuogoduesp/tuoG

18

airuyloP

"

,)TP( emit nibmorhtorP
)egrahcsid lanigav

,nemes( noitanimatnoc ,airunietorp citatsohtro ,FCC ,esicrexe ,revef :rehtO sisodiolymA amoleym elpitluM )sitirhpenoluremolg ,ELS( noitammalfnI )ITU( noitcefnI noisnetrepyH sutillem setebaiD ycnangerP

airunietorP
srekram ruomuT eeS )ASP( negitna cificepsUetatsorP Á
]14J[

)emordnys trepA ro nozuorC :sesonetsoinarc( seitilamronba latibrO sisocixotoryhT sisobmorht sunis suonrevaC alutsif suonrevacocitoraC

laretaliB

sitilullec latibrO amolunarg ,).cte ,amohpmyl s'nikgdoH ,ruomut evren citpo .g.e( ruomut latibrO

sisotporP
musonrevac suproc eht fo yretra peed eht fo msyruena na ni gnitluser yrujni na yb desuaC? :)erar( wolf hgiH sisylaidomeaH? aimeakuel ,sesaesid llec elkcis :sesaesid lacigolotameaH? nisozarp .g.e ,stnega gnikcolBU ? Á ecnetopmi rof enirevapap ro lidatsorpla fo noitcejniUfles retfA? Á esruocretni lamron retfA? :wolf woL

laretalinU

a

msipairP
yhportsyd ralucsum s'ennehcuD ,yhtapoymoidrac evitcurtsbo cihportrepyH emordnys eniveL±gnonaG±nwoL emordns etihW±nosnikraP±ffloW

trohS gnoL
]04J[

kcolb )VA( ralucirtnevoirta eergedUtsriF Á

lavretni RP
sitidracirep evitcirtsnoc ,eruliaf caidrac evitsegnoc ,)sisobmorht niev citapeh( emordnys iraihC±dduB :citapehtsoP sisaimosotsihcs ,atamolunarg ,sisohrric :citapeH sisobmorht niev cinelps/latrop :citapeherP

noisnetrepyh latroP
aispydylop cinegohcysP

noisnetrepyh latroP

28

HAC :slanerda eht ni sisehtnyS rehtom eht yb nekat snegotsegorp cinegordna ro snegordna fo ekatni ,)HAC( aisalprepyh lanerda latinegnoc ,ycnangerp fo amoetul ro ruomut nairavo/lanerda morf negordna :doirep cinoyrbme eht gnirud erusopxE

"?

"?

:snegordna ssecxE

etidorhpamrehoduesP yslap rabluboduesP
stnap thgit ,yteixna :rehtO sisorelcs nehcil ,sisairosp ,amezce ,sititamred tcatnoc :esaesid nikS traw ,alutsif ,erussif ,sdiohrromeah :esaesid lanA seibacs

elameF
]34J[

yslap rabluB eeS

,)sirurc aenit ,sisaididnac( lagnuf ,)mrowdaerht( siralucimrev suiboretnE :noitcefnI eneigyh roop ,aeohrraid ,ecnenitnocnI

ina sutirurP
sdiolakla :sgurD

mrowkooh ,sisairalif :noitcefni laciporT yteixna ,aibohpotisarap :lacigolohcysP amohpmyl s'nikgdoH ,aimeana ycneicifed nori ,aimeahtycylop :lacigolotameaH sutillem setebaid ,msidioryhtopyh ,msidioryhtrepyh :enircodnE eruliaf laner cinorhc ,eruliaf revil :cilobateM

sesaesid cimetsyS

)setib tcesni gniwollof( ogirurp raludoN )yllanoisacco( sisairosP sredrosid gniretsilB simrofitepreh sititamreD setisarap ,retsoz sepreh ,xelpmis sepreH seibacS sunalp nehciL snoitcaer cigrella ,amezcE

sesaesid suoenatuC

sutirurP

)aimealakrepyh/opyh htiw detaicossa( sisylarap cidoirep lailimaf ,seihtapoym lairdnohcotim ,)emordnys s'eldrAcM .g.e sesaesid egarots negocylg .g.e( seihtapoym cilobatem ,seihportsyd ralucsum :detirehnI )ohce ,eikcasxoc ,azneulfni( lariv ,)sisocrecitsyc ,sisonihcirt( setisarap ,sitisoym laccocolyhpats :noitcefnI acitamuehr aiglaymylop ,sitisoymylop ,sitisoymotamred :yrotammalfnI aicalamoetso ,msidioryhtopyh ,sisocixotoryht ,emordnys s'gnihsuC ,sdiorets :cilobatem/cixoT

ssenkaew elcsum lamixorP

negonirbif ,II ,V ,X ,IIV :srotcaf noitalugaoc fo noitibihni ro ycneicifed .e.i yawhtap cisnirtxe eht srotinom TP :etoN nirapeH CID esaesid reviL ycneicifed K nimativ/nirafraW
]24J[

38

etidorhpamrehoduesP

thgirblA±enuCcM msalpoen nairavO )tnempoleved tsyc nairavo enomroh dioryht HSF

!

"

:noiterces HSF setalumits HST

"!

#

( msidioryhtopyH

)noiterces HSF erutamerp ot eud ylbissop depoleved( tsyc nairavO

:snegortseo ssecxe :)ehcarleht( tnempoleved tsaerb erutamerP

sdiorets xes suonegoxE HAC ,sruomut lanerda morf snegordna ssecxE sllec gidyeL no rotpecer nihportodanog eht fo noitavitca evitutitsnoc :emordnys thgirblA±enuCcM ruomut llec gidyeL rotpecer HL eht fo noitatum gnitavitca na ot eud )sisocixototset( noitavitca erutamerp sllec gidyeL samotaret cimalahtopyh/laenip ,amotsalbotapeh ,amotapeh morf .g.e ,)ytivitca ekilUHL sah hcihw( GCh yb detalumits sllec gidyeL Á

snegordna ssecxe :tnempoleved riah yrallixa/cibup erutamerP etelpmocnI

snoitartlifni ,noitaidar ,amuart ,)samotramah ,amoilg :yratiutip/cimalahtopyh( sruomut :deriuqcA snoitamroflam niarb ,sulahpecordyh :latinegnoC

)lartnec( etelpmoC

suoicocerP deyaleD ytrebuP
TTPA

)msidanogopyH

eeS(

tesno latrebupUerp fo msidanogopyH Á

yaled ytrebup dna htworg lanoitutitsnoC

TTP
eeS

eeS

emit nibmorhtorP

TP

silihpyS latinegnoC yhtapoym ralucO? yhportsyd cinotoyM? sivarg ainehtsayM? :yhtapoyM )emordnys

)yslap evren lainarC

s'renroH eeS( emordnys s'renroH eeS( yslap evren drihT

sisotP

)emordnys noitazinimef ralucitset( etelpmoc )emordnys s'nietsnefieR( laitrap morf seirav murtceps :ytivitisnesni negordnA )evissecer lamosotua( ycneicifed esatcuder ahplaU5 Á )evissecer lamosotua( stcefed sisehtnys enoretsotseT )evissecer lamosotua( noitatum rotpecerUHL ro )HL( enomroh gnizinietuL Á

!

deunitnoc

etidorhpamrehoduesP
aisalpopyh llec gidyeL

elaM
48

etidorhpamrehoduesP

)ereves( amhtsA sitidracirep evitcirtsnoc ,edanopmat caidraC

sucixodarap susluP
sisonets citroA

sitidracirep evitcirtsnoc ,noisuffe laidracireP kcohS

# #

)esaesid s'tegaP ,ireb ireb ,aimeana ereves .g.e( eruliaf caidrac tuptuoUhgiH Á susoiretra sutcud tnetaP ycnangerP sisocixotoryhT noitatigruger citroA

erusserp esluP
)silihpys yradnoces ,sitiretra llec tnaig ,sitiretra s'usayakaT( sitilucsav lessev egraL :sitiretrA msyruena citroA noitcessid citroA esaesid cilobmeobmorht ,sisorelcsorehtA

" "

sisonets citroa raluvlavarpuS emordnys laets naivalcbuS

seslup deyaled/lauqenU
esicrexe ,aimeana ereves ,sisocixotoryht ,salutsif VA egral ,susoiretra sutcud tnetap ,noitatigruger citroa :emulov ekortS sisocixotoryht ,eruliaf revil ,sispes ,)DPOC .g.e( noitneter
2OC

"

:noitatalidosav larehpireP

eslup gnidnuoB
inimegib ralucirtnev ,kcolb traeh 

2 :ralugerri ylralugeR

kcolb elbairav htiw rettulf lairta ,)selotsysartxe( staeb cipotce elpitlum ,noitallirbif lairta :ralugerri ylralugerrI )noitaripsni htiw sesaercni etar( aimhtyhrra suniS

eslup ralugerrI
:aidracydarB :aidracyhcaT

aidracydarB eeS eeS aidracyhcaT

esluP

VIH? )tnasserppus etiteppa( enimarulfnef :sgurD? )amredorelcs ,ELS .g.e( esaesid eussit evitcennoC? )susoiretra sutcud tnetap ,DSA ,DSV( wolf doolb yranomluP

"?

ilobme yranomlup tnerruceR? )DPOC( esaesid gnul cinorhC? )sisobmorht/amoxym lairta tfel ,FVL ,esaesid evlav lartim( esaesid traeh tfeL? :yradnoceS

noitnetrepyh yranomluP stset noitcnuf yranomluP
58 sucixodarap susluP stset noitcnuf gnuL

yramirP

eeS

esaesid yendik citsycylop ,sitirhpen laititsretni ,)ssecxe ciseglana .g.e( sisorcen yrallipap laneR iluclaC )scixototyc .g.e( sititsyc lacimehc ,ruomut :reddalB tnemeriuqer erutluc suoiditsaf htiw ITU ,ITU detaert yletauqedani ,BT
elirets ,airuyP

)FPF( revef cidoirep lailimaf ,)FMF( revef naenarretideM lailimaF niripsa ,dizainosi ,sedimanohplus .g.e :sgurD amonicrac citaercnap ,amonicrac ralullecotapeh ,amonicrac llec laner ,aimeakuel ,samohpmyl :ycnangilaM acitamuehr aiglaymylop ,seditilucsav ,sisodiocras ,ELS ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :DTC/noitammalfnI airalam ,)VBE ,VMC ,VIH( snoitcefni lariv ,sisollecurb ,BT? noitcefni yrailib ,ITU ,sitileymoetso ,sitidracodne evitcefni :lairetcaB? )sivlep ,revil ,cinerhpbus( sessecsba :noitcefnI
)OUP( nigiro nwonknu fo aixeryP

)%05( cihtapoidI sisotamolunarg s'renegeW arev arbur aimeahtycylop ,amoleym ,aimeakuel :lacigolotameaH seditirhtra evitagenores ,sitirhtra diotamuehR sititapeh enummiotua ,esaesid lewob yrotammalfnI
musonergnag amredoyP

aecasor ,enca :sngis niks rehto htiW emordnys s'teewS ,esaesid s'teOheB :)ygrehtap( amuart fo setis ta gnipoleveD Â dizainosi ,niotynehp ,sdiorets :sgurD ]44Q[ musonergnag amredoyP )ralutsup( sisairosP seibacS? )sdiorets lacipot htiw detaert yletairporppani noitcefni etyhpotamred( :lagnuF? )selcisev yb dedecerp selutsup( VZV ,VSH :lariV? silihpys yradnoces ,laccoconoG ,illicab evÿ marG ,laccocolyhpatS :lairetcaB? :noitcefnI
selutsuP 



sisodiolyma ,aisatceignalet cigahrromeah yratidereh ,)loretselohc .g.e( ilobme :srehtO emordnys solnaD±srelhE ,yvrucs :sesaesid negalloC sitirhtra diotamuehr ,ELS : 2? aimeanilubolgoyrc ,sisotamolunarg s'renegeW ,ssuartS±gruhC ,asodon sitiretraylop ,aruprup nielnÐhcS±hconeH : 1? :g.e :sitilucsaV )stnalugaocitna ,esaesid revil ,ailihpomeah( yhtapolugaoc ,)esaesid s'dnarbelliW nov( evitatilauq ,)ainepotycobmorht( evitatitnauq :sredrosid teletalP sitidracodne evitcefni ,CID/aimeacitpes laccocogninem :noitcefnI )emordnys s'gnihsuC ,cinegortai( sdioretS elineS
arupruP

airocosinA eeS :lauqenU sisoiM eeS :detcirtsnoC sisairdyM eeS :detaliD
slipuP

slipuP

68

nixogiD aimeaclacrepyH aimrehtrepyH

trohS

yrujni larbereC sitidracoym etuca ,IM etucA sgurd cimhtyhrraUitna aI ssalC ,eniuqorolhc ,stnasserpeditna cilcycirt :sgurD Á emordnys nesleiN±egnaL±llevreJ ,emordnys draW±onamoR :latinegnoC aimeasengamopyh ,aimealakopyh ,aimeaclacopyH aimrehtopyH gnoL lavretni TQ evaw R eeS : 1V ni sevaw R tnanimoD kcolbimeh roiretna tfeL? thgiR dna tfeL :kcolb hcnarb eldnuB? kcolb VA etelpmoc ,aidracyhcat ralucirtnev ,selotsysartxe ralucirtneV? sexelpmoc SRQ ediW amedeoxyM? noisuffe laidracireP? DPOC? ytisebO? noitazidradnats tcerrocnI? sexelpmoc SRQ egatlov woL skcolb hcnarb eldnuB eeS :kcolb hcnarb eldnuB noitaived sixA eeS :noitaived sixA sexelpmoc SRQ kcolb hcnarb eldnuB yhportrepyh ralucirtnev tfeL )noitarud 'sruoh wef a >( noitcrafni laidracoyM 6VU 5V ,III ni nommoC? Á sdael laretal eht ni sevaw Q 'latpeS`? peed mm 2 < ro evaw R gniwollof eht fo thgieh eht fo %52 < fI? lamroN sevaw Q

Q

78

lavretni TQ

amonicraconeda daerpsediW aispmalceUerp Á ,aimeacitpes laccocogninem ,noisnetrepyh tnangilam ,PTT ,SUH ,CID aimeana citylomeah cihtapoignaorciM tfarg laicifitra/evlav traeh laicifitrA

noitatnemgarf llec doolb deR
amonicrac lanA VIH ,silihpys ,aeohrronog ,BT lana :noitcefnI

yleraR

amoneda suolliV emordnys reclu latcer yratiloS DBI lanaireP alutsif lanA amonicrac latceR

lanoisaccO
sititcorP

straw lanaireP espalorp latceR erussif lanA sdiohrromeaH

egrahcsid latceR
esaesid ralucsaV

nommoC

srekcolbUb :sgurD Á bir lacivreC )s'mÐrtsnedlaW( aimeanilubolgorcam ,aimeanilubolgoyrC sninitulgga dloC sitisoymotamred ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,emordnys s'nergÐjS ,ELS ,amredorelcs :sesaesid eussit evitcennoC )sloot gnitarbiv( lanoitapuccO cihtapoidI

nonemonehp s'duanyaR
hsar detubirtsidotohP ,selucam detnemgipopyH ,noitatnemgiprepyH osla

eeS

ycnangilaM sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI )citisarap ,lagnuf ,lariv ,lairetcab( noitcefnI sgurD airacitru ,sisairosp ,amezce .g.e ,sesaesid suoenatuC

hsaR
)muirta tfel ni( !rekamecap decalpsiM )yawhtap yrossecca dedisUtfel( emordnys etihW±nosnikraP±ffloW Á sitidracoyM IM roiretsoP msilobme yranomlup ,BBB thgir ,yhportrepyh ralucirtnev thgiR

1V ni tnanimod ,evaw R

R
1V ni tnanimod ,evaw R 88

sitirhpenoleyP sutillem setebaiD

4 epyT

aimeanisoryt ,esaesid s'nosliW ,sisonitsyc ,ecnarelotni esotcurf ,emordnys s'inocnaF fo trap sa :latinegnoC slatem yvaeh ,edimalozateca :sgurD ,ycneicifed D nimativ ,msidioryhtaraprepyh ,amoleym :deriuqcA

2 epyT

)deterceS

TON

dicA :cinomenM(

aimeana llec elkciS )noitcejer( yendik detnalpsnart ,muihtiL ,niciretohpma :cixoT yhtaporu evitcurtsbO yendik egnops yralludem ,aimeaclacrepyh :sisoniclacorhpeN sisohrric yrailib yramirp ,ELS ,emordnys s'nergÐjS :enummiotuA
]54J[

sisodica ralubut laneR
)laretalinu( amocualG

1 epyT

tnemhcated laniteR noisulcco yretra laniter lartneC noisserpmoc evren citpO sitiruen citpO

)DPAR( tcefed yrallipup tnereffa evitaleR
aimeartanopyh ereveS noisel siralludem sunoC argalleP silasod sebaT kcohs lanipS )ycneicifed
21B(

droc eht fo noitareneged denibmoc etucabuS aixata s'hcierdeirF

sratnalp gniog±pu htiw sexelfer tnesbA
noisel enoruen rotom rewoL noisel enoruen rotom reppU

esaesid enoruen rotoM

eeS :#? eeS :"?

sexelfeR

sexelfeR
tnemhcated laniteR egahrromeh suoertiV )amocualg erusolc elgna etuca( amedeo laenroC tcarataC

tnesba ,xelfer deR
eye der lufniaP

osla eeS

egahrromeah lavitcujnocbus ,aluceugnip demalfni :rehtO amocualg erusolc elgna etucA )sitievu roiretna( sitirI sitirelcS sitirelcsipE )laidymalhc ,lairetcab ,lariv ,cigrella( sitivitcnujnoC

eye deR
98 sisodica ralubut laneR

ev

‡ ,rotcaf diotamuehR ‡

amredorelcS ELS )%07( sitirhtra diotamuehR )%59( emordnys s'nergÐjS

)sisonicsufopil diorec( sesodipil lanorueN seihtaporuen lailimaF saixata yratidereh rehto dna aixata s'hcierdeirF esaesid s'musfeR ldeiB±nooM±ecneruaL aimeanietorpopilatebA
asotnemgip sitiniteR

)sitilucsav laniter larehpirep( esaesid selaE )esaesid evisulcco ditorac ot eud( emordnys cimeahcsi ralucO ELS yhtaponibolgomeah llec elkciS sisobmorht niev laniteR yhtaponiter evitarefilorp citebaiD
noitaziralucsavoen laniteR

segahrromeah laniteR

amedeolllipaP noisnetrepyH yhtaponiter citebaiD noisulcco niev laniter lartneC

eseht kcal taht worram ot nevig tnemtaert nori/etalof/21B ot esnopser eht retfA egahrromeaH sisylomeaH
sisotycoluciteR

amoc ,)sevitades( sgurd ,)erusserp lainarcartni "( ruomut ,)yrujni daeh( amuart ,)sitilahpecne ,sitigninem( noitcefni :esaesid SNC setelhta denoitidnocUllew :lacigoloisyhP Á
#

sisodica cilobateM sisylarap citamgarhpaid ,seticsa :mgarhpaid fo noitavelE ycnangilam ,)sitilucsav( noitammalfni ,noitcefni ,esaesid evitcirtser ,kcatta amhtsa .g.e ,esaesid evitcurtsbo ,msilobme yranomlup ,xarohtomuenp :esaesid gnuL yteixna ,esicrexe :lacigoloisyhP
"
etar yrotaripseR

sag doolb lairetrA eeS :2 epyT sag doolb lairetrA eeS :1 epyT
eruliaf yrotaripseR

esaesid llec elkciS noitcurtsbo yranirU 09

ct g dseiuenrutid onirapsUÁmuissatop ,sDIASN :sgurD in c
sisodica ralubut laneR

sisodica ralubut laneR

tnemhcated laniter cinorhC ruomut/noitammalfni ralucoartni cinorhC aluts® suonrevac±ditorac gnidulcni esaesid yretra ditoraC )sisobmorht niev laniter ,esaesid llec elkcis ,sutillem setebaid( yhtaponiter evitarefilorP
siri sisoebuR

ELS ,NAP :sitilucsaV aimeanA ]64Q[ aimeakueL sitidracodne evitcefnI
stops s'htoR

)sessecsba( sispes dezilacoL airalaM ainomuenp laccocomuenP sitirhpenoleyP sitignalohC
srogiR

)%5( slaudividni yhtlaeH sititapeh cinorhc ,sitidracodne lairetcab etucabus ,sisoelcunonom suoitcefni ,BT .g.e ,sesaesid yrotammalfni/noitcefnI sitisoymotamred/sitisoymyloP aimeanilubolgoyrc dexiM esaesid eussit evitcennoc dexiM 19 siri sisoebuR

snmuloc lasrod laretalib :noitasnes noitarbiv/noitisop tnioJ

stcart cimalahtonips laretalib :noitasnes erutarepmet/kcirp niP ? :)level yrosnes lamotamred a woleb( knurt dna sbmil rewol laretaliB )ssol yrosnes laicaf eht ot laretalispi( metsniarb laretalartnoC? :ssol yrosnes laicaf laretalartnoc

#? #

‡

yrosnesimeH

noisel cimalaht laretalartnoC? :ssol yrosnes laicaf laretalispi

‡ )gel

,knurt ,mra( ssol yrosnesimeH

noitubirtsid ,ecnabrutsid yrosneS

sesaesid egarots cilobateM sisorelcs suorebuT ylamona latinegnoC

nerdlihC

PB desiar yreV esaesid noirp ,esaesid s'remiehzlA :sredrosid evitarenegeD sisodiocras ,ELS ,sitilucsav ,SM :noitammalfnI VIH ,sisocrecitsyc ,BT ,ssecsba ,sitilahpecne ,sitigninem :noitcefnI ycneicifed nimativ ,)amonilusni ,esaesid s'nosiddA ,msidioryhtaraprepyh/opyh ,amedeoxym ,msiratiutipopyh( sredrosid enircodne ,eruliaf citapeh/laner ,) ,
+2 +2

gM

aC , K , aN
+ +

# ro "( secnabrutsid etylortcele ,aimeacylgopyh ,aixopyh :cilobateM
edixonom nobrac ,dael ,sgurd ,lohocla :cixoT sruomuT yrujni daeh :amuarT noitamroflam

ralucsav ,sisobmorht suonev lacitroc ,egahrromeah ,noitcrafni :ralucsaV

seruzieS

stludA

sgnillews dna sessaM eeS

gnillews latorcS

alucam eht gnitceffa esaesid laniteR esaesid evren citpO

lartnec ,amotocS

retsoz sepreH tuoG )asodon sitiretraylop ,sisotamolunarg s'renegeW( sitilucsaV sitilydnops gnisolyknA sitirhtra diotamuehR

snarofrep aicalamorelcS

ysorpel suotamorpeL sitirdnohcylop gnispaleR sisotamolunarg s'renegeW silihpys latinegnoC amuarT

ytimrofed eson elddaS

S
ytimrofed eson elddaS 29

)evren ralupacsarpus ro cicaroht gnol( tnempartne evren ,sisonets lanips/noitainreh csid lacivreC? )niap redluohs tfel( aimeahcsi laidracoyM? :niap derrefeR sisorcen ralucsavA sitinidnet cificlac etucA )tuogoduesp/tuog ,sitirhtra diotamuehr ,sitirhtraoetso ,citpes( sitirhtrA sitinidnet latipiciB raet ffuc rotatoR sitisrub laimorcabuS sitinidnet ffuc rotatoR )redluohs nezorf( sitiluspac evisehdA erutcarf ,noitaxulbus ,seirujni esurevO

niap redluohS
ssensselhtaerB rednu eeS

htaerb fo ssentrohS
)esaesid llec elkcis( audiser sitilytcaD msidioryhtarapopyhoduesP emordnys s'renruT

regnif ht5/ht4 trohS
stset noitcnuf reviL eeS

TPGS
stset noitcnuf reviL eeS

TOGS
)yhtaporuenyloP eeS( sutillem setebaid .g.e yhtaporuen larehpirep :evren larehpireP yhtapolucidar citilydnops :toor evreN noitanileymed ,sisolydnops lacivrec :droc lanipS )ssecsba ,amotameah larudbus ,ruomut( snoisel gniypuccoUecaps :niarB Á

tnetsisreP

cinegohcysP tnempartne toor ro evren larehpireP noitanileymed SNC ekorts ,AIT eniargiM

tneisnarT
tesno fo gnimit ,ecnabrutsid yrosneS
evren larehpireP lamotamreD yhtapoleym lacivreC? yhtaporuen larehpireP? :gnikcotsUdnaUevolG Á Á )aileymognirys .g.e( droc lanips lartneC? :)erutarepmet dna kcirp nip rof 'ssol yrosnes dednepsus`( knurt dna smra reppU snmuloc lasrod laretalispi :noitasnes noitarbiv/noitisop tnioJ stcart cimalahtonips laretalartnoc :noitasnes erutarepmet/kcirp niP

yspelipE

#? #?

:)level yrosnes lamotamred a woleb knurt dna gel( ssol yrosnesimeH

39

niap redluohS

aixata s'hcierdeirF ,siseraparap citsaps yratidereh :latinegnoC )noitareneged denibmoc etucabus( ycneicifed
21B

:cilobatem/cixoT

amoigninem lattigisarap :sruomuT silihpys ,)siseraparap citsaps laciport( 1UVLTH ,VIH ,)amsalpocyM .g.e ,suoitcefniUtsop( sitileym esrevnart :noitcefnI Á Á snoitcrafni larberec elpitlum ,sisobmorht sunis suonev ,sisobmorht yretra lanips roiretna :ralucsaV

srehtO

aileymogniryS )yslap larberec( yrujni htrib ,amuarT esaesid enoruen rotoM sisorelcs elpitluM )ruomut droc lanips ,enips ni ruomut yradnoces ,espalorp csid ,sisolydnops lacivrec( noisserpmoc droC

siseraparap citsapS
sisaididnaC

)noitcefni latehcoripsosuf( anigna s'tnecniV anignapreH

sreclu laegnyrahp htiW
airehthpiD sitignyrahp laccoconoG sisoelcunonom suoitcefnI sitillisnot laccocotpertS )lariv( sitignyrahP

xelpmis sepreH

taorht eroS
"? "

sreziliuqnart/lohocla ,ytisebo ,egA

:ssenkaew elcsum dna ytixal eussitUtfos yawriaUreppU Á Á

)mutpes detaived ,seigrella .g.e( egakcolb lasan ,slisnot degralnE? enipus gnipeels nehw sdrawkcab gnillaf eugnoT? aluvu lamronUnahtUregnol ,etalap tfos kciht tesUwoL? Á Á Á :gniworran yawriA aeonpa peels evitcurtsbO

gnironS

)etahpsohp dna

+2

aC

"

,eruliaf laner egatsUdne Á

htiw detaicossa sisorcen niks gnisuac sitilucsav lessevUllams( sixalyhpiclaC Á )sititaercnap ,cihtapoidi .g.e( sitilucinnaP musonergnag amredoyP sitidracodne lairetcab etucabus ,loretselohc :ilobmE esaesid ralucsav larehpireP )sitirhtra diotamuehr ,ELS :yradnoceS ;aimeanilubolgoyrc ,sisotamolunarg s'renegeW :yramirP( sitilucsaV )aimeacitpes laccocogninem .g.e( CID ,ycneicifed S/C nietorP ,nirafraW

sisorcen nikS

ssecsba/noitcefni/ruomut yranomlup ,noisnetsid eluspac citapeh ,)ssecsba cinerhpbus .g.e( noitatirri citamgarhpaiD?

deunitnoc

niap redluohS
niap redluohS 49

illiW±redarP ,aisalpordnohca ,emordnys s'renruT :cimordnyS lailimaf ,)yaled ytrebup dna htworg lanoitutitsnoc( DPGC

erutats trohS
erutatS
ffoUekat hgiH Á

msyruena ralucirtnev tfeL anigna latemznirP sitidracireP )etuca( noitcrafni laidracoyM

noitavelE

yhportrepyh ralucirtneV )enidiniuq ,nixogid( sgurD )roiretsop( noitcrafni laidracoyM aimeahcsi laidracoyM

tnemges TS
sisytpomeaH osla

noisserpeD
eeS

alutsif laruelpohcnorB sisatceihcnorB ssecsba gnul ,BT ,ainomuenp :noitcefnI )sitihcnorb ,sitinihr ,sitisunis etuca( ecruos yrotaripser reppU

)tnelurup( mutupS
sisonets lartiM sisairosP sitilucsaV sitidracodne evitcefnI gninedrag .g.e ,amuarT

segahrromeah retnilpS
]74Q[

.aimeahtycobmorht laitnesse ,arev arbur aimeahtycylop ,sisorbifoleym ,aimeakuel dioleym cinorhC*

sisodiolyma ,sisodiocras ,ELS ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/yrotammalfnI sisollecurb ,sisolucrebut ,sisoelcunonom suoitcefni ,sitidracodne evitcefni :noitcefnI )noisnetrepyh latroP

eeS(

noisnetrepyh latroP )*sredrosid

evitarefilorpoleym ,aimeakuel ,amohpmyl ,aimeana citylomeah( lacigolotameaH

etaredoM

esaesid s'rehcuaG ylagemonelps laciport ,sisaimosotsihcs ,sisainamhsiel ,airalam :snoitcefni laciporT sisorbifoleym ,aimeakuel dioleym cinorhC

ylagemonelpS

evissaM

aimeacitpeS aimeana citylomeah enummiotuA sisotycorehps yratidereH

sisotycorehpS
59 erutatS

ruomut ,ydob ngieroF? :lanimulartnI syawria reppu fo noitcurtsbo laitraP

rodirtS

)sredluohs( sretfilUthgiew ,)saera larcasobmul Á ,shgiht( ecnecseloda ,)stsaerb ,nemodba rewol( ycnangerp :lacigoloisyhP sdiorets cimetsyS emordnys s'gnihsuC

eairtS

sisohrric yrailib yramirp ,noitcurtsbo yrailiB

ycneiciffusni yrailiB
sisorbif citsyc ,recnac citaercnap ,sititaercnap cinorhC

ycneiciffusni citaercnaP
eurps laciport ,esaesid s'elppihW ,sitiretne noitaidar ,amohpmyl lanitsetni ,)sisaidiolygnorts ,sisaidraig .g.e( noitcefni etisarap ,BT laceacoeli ,esaesid s'nhorC ,esaesid caileoc ,)yhtaporuen cimonotua ,sisolucitrevid ,amredorelcs .g.e( htworgrevo lairetcaB

noitceser/esaesid lewob llamS

aeohrrotaetS
)sruomut

lanerda ,HAC fo sesahp ylrae .g.e( ytrebup suoicocerp/sdiorets xes ssecxE? )sisocixotoryht( senomroh dioryht ssecxE? )msitnagig( HG ssecxE? :enircodnE airunitsycomoH? emordnys s'nafraM? emordnys s'retlefenilK? :)etanoitroporpsid( cimordnyS lailimaF

erutats llaT
eruliaf laner cinorhc :laneR? sisorbif citsyc :yrotaripseR? esaesid traeh citonayc latinegnoc :ralucsavoidraC? )esaesid lewob yrotammalfni ,ecnarelotni nietorp klim ,esaesid caileoc( noitprosbalam :lanitsetniortsaG? :ssenlli cimetsyS srotcaf lanoitirtuN )msidioryhtopyh( senomroh dioryhT

#?

)msifrawd noraL( 1FGI fo slevel woL? )noitatum rotpecerUHG( ecnatsiser HG? Á HG evitcani yllacigoloiB? sdioretsocitroc

""

dna emordnys s'gnihsuC?

rotpecer HRHG ,1PORP ,1tiP :snoitatuM? )ruomut yratiutip .g.e( msiratiutipopyH :enomroh htworG

#?

:srotcaf enircodnE noitavirped lanoitome ,asovren aixerona ,esuba dlihc :srotcaf laicosohcysP

deunitnoc

erutatS
erutatS 69

staews thgiN osla sisordihrepyH

eeS

gnitaewS

:gnitaewS

eeS "

yhtaponedahpmyL? ertioG? :larumartxE )ymotsoehcart/noitabutni/yregrus gniwollof( sisonets laehcarT? sitirhtra diotamuehr dionetyraocirC? amonicrac laegnyraL? )noitalahni ekoms ,sixalyhpana( amedeo laegnyraL? ssecsba laegnyrahporter ,)xnyral eht no straw VPH( atamollipap yrotaripser ,nerdlihc ni puorc ,sitittolgipe :noitcefnI? :larumartnI

79

gnitaewS

etar yrotaripseR

aeonpyhcaT

eeS

sgurd ,emordnys TQ gnol ,sitidracoym ,yhtapoymoidrac ,esaesid traeh evisnetrepyh ,IM/esaesid traeh cimeahcsi ,cihtapoidI

aidracyhcat ralucirtneV
sisonets lartim ,esaesid traeh citamuehr ,esaesid traeh cimeahcsi ,yhtapoymoidrac ,sitidracirep ,recnac/noitcefni/msilobme :yranomlup ,esuba lohocla ,sisocixotoryht ,cihtapoidI

rettulf/noitallirbif lairtA
emordnys etihW±nosnikraP±ffloW ,cihtapoidI

aidracyhcat ralucirtnevarpuS
aimeacylgopyh ,samotycomorhcoeahp ,msidioryhtrepyh :enircodnE esaesid gnul cinorhc ,amhtsa ,msilobme yranomlup :yranomluP sitidracirep evitcirtsnoc ,eruliaf caidrac evitsegnoc ,IM :caidraC )aimeacitpes ,aimealovopyh .g.e( noisnetopyH ycnangerp ,)enitocin ,senimalohcetac ,scigrenilohcitna ,lomatublas ,enieffac( sgurd ,aimeana ,yteixna ,esicrexe ,reveF

aidracyhcat suniS

aidracyhcaT

BBBL htiw detaicossA aimeahcsi laidracoyM yhportrepyh ralucirtnev tfeL
laretal dna
6VÐ4V

muihtiL ,egahrromeah dionhcarabuS yhtapoymoidrac cihportrepyH IM evaw QUnoN Á
5VÐ2V

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msilobme yranomluP kcolb hcnarb eldnub thgiR )elpoep kcalb dna nerdlihc( tnairav lamroN
4V / 3VÐ1V

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detrevnI
msidioryhtopyH noisuffe laidracireP aimealakopyH

llamS
tnairav lamroN IM etucA aimealakrepyH

sevaw T

llaT

T
89

sevaw T

)GBT( nilubolg gnidnibUdioryhT Á
steletalP eeS sisotycobmorhT steletalP eeS ainepotycobmorhT nirapeH

slevel "

citeneG

" ,emit

)negonirbif

#( CID nibmorhT eeS

# ,enoretsotseT # #
sisobmorht niev laneR nielnÐhcS±hconeH ,asodon sitiretrayloP aimeakueL diocras ,BT sitihcroUomidydipE Á noisrot ralucitseT

msidanogopyH

gnillews dna niap ralucitseT
elam ,msidanogopyH eeS yhporta ralucitseT emordnys lewob elbatirrI amonicrac latcer .g.e ,nemul/llaw latcer ni snoisel gniypuccoUecapS Á

sumseneT

sititamred noitaidaR aecasoR )mretUgnol( sdiorets lacipoT Á ycnangerP )sisohrric cilohocla .pse( esaesid revil cinorhC aisatceignalet aixata ,aisatceignalet cigahrromeah yratidereh :citeneG sitisoymotamred ,ELS ,amredorelcs :sesaesid eussit evitcennoC tnairav lamroN

aisatceignaleT
sisorbif worram enoB aimeassalahT

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sllec pordraeT
aisuegsyD rednu eeS tnemriapmi etsaT ycneicifed )TACL( esarefsnartlyca loretselohc nihticeL esaesid reviL ycneicifed norI )esaesid C nibolgomeah ,aimeassalaht ,aimeana llec elkcis( seihtaponibolgomeaH ymotcenelpS

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sllec tegraT
99 nilubolg gnidnibUdioryhT Á

srekomS

eugnoT
eniniuq ,lohocla ,niripsa :sgurD sisorelcs elpitlum :SNC aimeana ,ytisocsiv

gnirruF

" :lacigolotameaH

eruliaf traeh ,noisnetrepyh :SVC

lareneG
stoggam .g.e ,stcesnI smelborp tnioj ralubidnamoropmeT ruomut ydob ditorac ,ruomut eraluguj sumolg ,amoruen citsuoca :sruomuT snoitamroflam VA/smsruenA sisorelcsotO sciteruid pool ,sedisocylgonima .g.e ,sgurd cixototO decudniUesioN Á esaesid s'erOinOM Ä Á sisucybserP

reveF

sutinniT
aisehtsearaP eeS teef dna sdnah ni gnilgniT

lacoL

seidobitna 4TUitnA? Á aimeanixoryhtrepyh cimeanimublasyd lailimaF? nilubolg gnidnibUenixoryht mureS Á

" :HST

lamron ,3T dna 4T

"

enomroh dioryht ot ecnatsiser ,)amoHST yratiutip( msidioryhtrepyh yradnoceS :HST )msidioryhtrepyH ,3T dna 4T ,3T dna 4T

" ro lamron eeS( msidioryhtrepyh yramirP :HST #

" "

)stneitap dezilatipsoh .pse ,ssenlli cimetsys( emordnys dioryhtue kcis ,)msiratiutipopyH

eeS(

msidioryhtopyh yradnoceS :HST lamron ro

,3T dna 4T ,3T dna 4T

)msidioryhtopyH

eeS(

msidioryhtopyh yramirP :HST

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msidioryhtopyh trevo sa sesuac emas ,msidioryhtopyh lacinilcbuS :HST

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dna 4T lamroN

msidioryhtrepyh trevo sa sesuac emas ,msidioryhtrepyh lacinilcUbuS :HST Á dna 4T lamroN

dioryhtuE :HST dna 3T ,4T lamroN

stset noitcnuf dioryhT
ylagemorcA )sdioretsocitroc ,snegordna .g.e( sgurD emordnys citorhpeN esaesid revil cinorhC noitirtunlaM

slevel #
airyhprop tnettimretni etuca ,sititapeh lariv etucA )senizaihtonehp ,setaipo ,negortseo( sgurD ycnangerP

citeneG

deunitnoc

)GBT( nilubolg gnidnibUdioryhT Á
nilubolg gnidnibUdioryhT Á 001

stcefed ebut laruen nepo ,sisohrric ,sititapeh ,ycnangerp ,ruomut llecUmreg ,amotapeh :nietorpoteFU Á Á

a

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ruomuT

eruliaf laner cinorhc ,anigna elbatsnu :ni detavele eb osla yaM noitcrafni laidracoyM

"

,T ninoporT

sisonets lartim rof ymotovlav lartim lufsseccus a retfa nees RT ,xaroht eht ot yparehtoidar :cinegortaI )emordnys s'nafraM ni .g.e( espalorp evlav ,)noitcrafni laidracoym ,noisnetrepyh yranomlup ni .g.e( noitatalid ralucirtnev thgir fo ecneuqesnoc :lanoitcnuF )ailihponisoerepyh htiw detaicossa eb yam( sisorbif laidracoymodne ,edigresyhtem ,enimarulfnef :sgurD ,)gnidnatsUgnol( sisohrric ,emordnys dionicraC Á )esaesid raluvav rehto ro sisonets dipsucirt htiw detaicossa( esaesid traeh citamuehR )sresu gurd VI ni nommoc( sitidracodne evitcefnI DSA mumirp muitso ni evlav dipsucirt tfelc ,)evlav dipsucirt denoitisoplam( ylamona s'nietsbE :latinegnoC

noitatigruger dipsucirT
)sngis rallebereC

eeS( ngis

ralleberec :romert noitcA

semordnys digir±citenika rehto dna esaesid s'nosnikraP :tser ta romerT )stnasserpeditna ,muihtil ,etaorplav ,srotalidohcnorb tsinogaU Á

b .g.e

,sgurd ,lohocla ,yteixna ,msidioryhtrepyh yb esrow edam( :romert lacigoloisyhP )srekcolbU Á

b ro lohocla htiw # ,yrotsih ylimaf evitisop ,gnitirw

]35Q[

/ssalg a gnidloh nehw .g.e ,daeh/sdnah fo romert larutsop( :romert laitnessE

romerT
stset noitcnuf gnuL

eeS

rotcaf refsnarT
noisuffe laruelp egraL xarohtomuenp noisneT espalloC

noitaived laehcarT
silihpyS? ruomuT? amuart latneD? reclu suohthpA?

noitareclU
)aissolgorcaM

eeS( gnillewS
cinegohcysP?

eugnot lamron yllacigoloisyhp eroS? sitissolG

eeS

)sisaididnac ,ycneicifed nivalfobir/B nimativ/etalof/nori( sitissolG?

ycnangilam ,)esaesid s'teOheB( yrotammalfni ,)xelpmis sepreh( noitcefni :sreclU? Â

eugnot eroS
sesaesid IG noitardyheD
]25Q[

scitoibitna .g.e ,sgurD srehtaerb htuoM

101

srekram ruomuT

amedeollipap cinorhC amocualg cinorhC )asotnemgip sitiniteR

eeS(

asotnemgip sitiniteR

noisiv lennuT
)dnalg eht fo ezis dna ega htiw

"

osla ASP( ,noitanimaxe

latcer latigid ,sititatsorp ,aisalprepyh citatsorp ngineb ,recnac etatsorp :ASP amonicrac nairavo ,ycnangerp ,gnikoms ,amonimes :PALP amonicracoirohc ,elom mrofiditadyh ,sruomut llec mreg ,ycnangerp :GCH gnikoms ,sititaercnap ,sisohrric ,amonicrac dioryht yralludem ,recnac latceroloc :AEC sisatselohc ,recnac latceroloc ,recnac citaercnap :9±91 AC esaesid tsaerb ngineb ,recnac tsaerb :3±51 AC )sisohrric ,sitinotirep ,esaesid yrotammalfni civlep ,sdiorbif ,sisoirtemodne( snoitidnoc ngineB .)saercnap ,gnul ,lairtemodne ,tsaerb( seicnangilam rehto ,recnac nairavo :521 AC

deunitnoc

" ,srekram " "

ruomuT

]45Q[

srekram ruomuT

201

siseraparap citsapS dna siserapimeH

eeS

snoisel enoruen rotom reppU
ycnangilaM musonergnag amredoyP erusserP aimeana llec elkciS asodon sitiretraylop .g.e ,seitilucsav yramirp ,sitirhtra diotamuehr :sitilucsaV cihtaporuen dna cimeahcsi :citebaiD sisorelcsorehta :lairetrA TVD ,ycneiciffusni suonev laicifrepus :suoneV

geL

sesaesid s'nahcartS :rehtO esaesid s'nhorC :IG emrofitlum amehtyre ,sugihpmep :sesaesid nikS emordnys s'retieR ,esaesid s'teOheB :sesaesid yrotammalfnI Â silihpys ,xelpmis sepreh :noitcefnI

latinegorO
amuarT

seibacs ,sisairosp ,amezce ,noitpure gurd dexif :sehsar latineg rehtO

amonicrac llec suomauqs ,taryeuQ fo aisalporhtyrE emordnys s'retieR esaesid s'nhorC esaesid s'teOheB Â

)sitamolunarg muiretcabotammylaC( elaniugni amolunarG ,)sitamohcart aidymalhC( muerenev amolunargohpmyL ,)mudillap amenoperT( silihpyS :sselniaP iyercud sulihpomeaH ,xelpmis sepreh :lufniaP :noitcefnI )diorcnahc(

latineG

emordnys s'nahcartS :rehtO amonicrac llec suomauqs :ycnangilaM sunalp nehcil ,emrofitlum amehtyre ,diogihpmep ,sugihpmep :sesaesid nikS ELS ,sitirhtra evitcaer ,esaesid s'teOheB :yrotammalfnI Â sisotycolunarga ,aimeakuel :edulcxE )erar( silihpys ,BT sisaididnac ,)anigna s'tnecniV( sititamots evitareclu etuca ,xelpmis sepreh :noitcefnI esaesid caileoc ,esaesid s'nhorC :sesaesid lanitsetniortsaG sreclu suohthpa ,amuarT

gel ,latineg ,htuom :sreclU
msidioryhtrepyH aimeaclacrepyH aimealakopyH lamroN

htuoM

evaw U

U
301 snoisel enoruen rotom reppU

tnanimatnoc lanigaV

esaretse etycokuel enirU
airunoteK

noitcefni tcart yranirU

senoteK
eeS

eeS

esoculg enirU
airutameaH

airusocylG

doolB
eeS

eeS

airunietorP

nietorP

nicipmafir :egnarO ycnangilam ,sisonorhco ,ecidnuaj evitcurtsbo :kraD lofoporp ,enilitpyrtima ,eulb enelyhtem :neerG slatsyrc etahpsohp ,airuyp :etihW
eraR

enidirypozanehP airyhproP toorteeB airunibolgoyM airunibolgomeaH airutameaH

ruoloc enirU
sisylanirU
ycnegru yrosnes ,ytilibatsni rosurted ,ecnenitnocni sserts eniuneG )recnac ,HPB( tnemegralne etatsorP ssam civlep yb noisserpmoc ,ruomut ,enots :reddalB ITU

nworb/deR

ycnegrU
egrahcsid latineG eeS egrahcsid larhterU

etaorplav muidos :sgurD HDAIS eruliaf revil ,noitavrats ,teid nietorpUwoL Á )ycnangerp( RFG desaercnI

#

enilcycartet ,sdiorets :sgurD noitardyheD setats cilobatac ,egahrromeah IG ,teid nietorp hgiH )RFG( etar noitartlif raluremolg deriapmI

)# dna # #

"( " "

aerU
aerU 401

"

)tolc doolb ,ruomut ,enots( kcen reddalb/nemul larhteru fo noitcurtsbO )ruobal fo amuart dna( ycnangerp ,ssam nairavo ,sdiorbif :ssam civleP

selameF

yhtaporuen cimonotua citebaid ,noisserpmoc/yrujni .g.e ,esaesid droc lanips ,sisorelcs elpitlum :lacigolorueN lohocla ,stnasserpeditna ,scigrenilohcitna .g.e ,:noitacideM *evitarepoUtsoP Á )tolc doolb ,ruomut ,enots ,erutcirts( kcen reddalb/nemul larhteru fo noitcurtsbO amonicrac/aisalprepyh citatsorP

selaM

etuca ,noitneter yranirU
.ecnenitnocni sserts esuac osla nac reddalb fo noisnetsidrevo/noitneter cinorhc dna ytilibatsni rosurteD :

etoN

yparehtoidar ,ycnangilam ,yregrus ,ruobal detcurtsbo ot yradnoces )lanigavocisev .g.e( alutsiF? yhtaporuen cimonotua citebaid ,sivlep ro aniuqe aduac ,droc lanips rewol ni serbif citehtapmysarap 4S ,3S ,2S ot egamad ot eud ainota reddalB? )noitneter yraniru

ees( noitcurtsbo wolftuO?

:wolfrevo/noisnetsidrevo/noitneter cinorhC

ecnenitnocni suounitnoC

)sititsyc( noitcefni ,ruomut ,enots reddalB )yrujni daeh/droc lanips ,sruomut lanips/snoisel csid :noisserpmoc droc ,SM ,AVC .g.e ,snoisel NMU htiw noitibihni lanipsUarpus Á fo ssol ,noitcurtsbo wolftuo reddalb ot yradnoces ,cihtapoidi( ytilibatsni rosurteD

ecnenitnocni egrU

)egamad retcnihps larhteru lanretxe( yregrus etatsorp :selaM )esuaponem ,ytisebo ,yreviled lanigav ,ycnangerp( tnecsed kcen reddalb/ssenkaew roolf civlep :selameF

ecnenitnocni ssertS
ycneuqerF

ecnenitnocni yranirU

eeS

ycneuqerf yranirU
eruliaf laneR noitardyh evissecxE sudipisni setebaiD

#
tsartnoc yarUX Á esaesid reviL eruliaf traeH ycneiciffusni lanerdA sutillem setebaiD )gnitimov ,aeohrraid .g.e( noitardyheD

ytivarg cificeps enirU
airutameah ssorG noitcefni tcart yranirU

"

etirtin enirU

501

etuca ,noitneter yranirU

gnisolykna ,)esaesid lewob yrotammalfni( cihtaporetne ,sitirhtra evitcaer( :seihtaporhtralydnops evitagenoreS :sesaesid eussit evitcennoC/yrotammalfnI

sitievU
)settesor ,setalp cibmohr( dica cirU )depahsUdilUniffoc( etahpsohp muinomma muisengaM Á Á )epahs lanogaxeh( enitsyC etahpsohp muiclaC )depahsUeldeen ,depahsUepolevne ,depahsUllebbmud( etalaxo muiclaC Á Á Á

slatsyrC

amohpmyl .g.e amyhcnerap laner fo noitartlifni ,recnac reddalb .g.e ycnangilam yraniruotineG :sllec ruomuT airutameaH

eeS :sllec

deR

sititsyc lacimehc ,yhtaporhpen ciseglana ,sitirhpen laititsretni ,sitirhpenoluremolg ,iluclac reddalb/laner ,BT ,smsinagro suoiditsaf rof noitidnoc htworg gnorw ro tnega lairetcabitna yb detibihni erutluc :airuiretcab tuohtiw airuyp ,)sitirhteru ,sititsyc ,sitirhpenoleyp( ITU :sllec etihW

slleC

sitirhpenoluremolg evitarefilorp ,sitirhpenoleyp :stsac llec etihW eruliaf laner decnavda :stsac yxaW noisnetrepyh tnangilam ,sitilucsav ,sitirhpenoluremolg :stsac llec deR stsac ralunarg detalunarg ylenif sa emas :stsac enilayH sisodiolyma ,yhtaporhpen citebaid ,sitirhpen laititsretni ,sitirhpenoluremolg :detalunarg ylesned ,stsac ralunarG revef ,esicrexe ,)pool( sciteruid ,eniru detartnecnoc :detalunarg ylenif ,stsac ralunarG airunietorp yvaeh/etaredom :stsac yttaF sisorcen ralubut etuca ,sitirhpenoluremolg etuca :stsac llec lailehtipE

stsaC

noitanimatnoC airuiretcab citamotpmysA noitcefni tcart yranirU

airetcaB

ypocsorcim enirU
sisomihp ,sisorbif laenotireporter ,ssam civlep/citatsorp :edistuo eht morf erusserP reddalb cihtaporuen ,sislatsirep evitcefed ,)larhteru/cireteru( erutcirts :llaw eht nI )llec elkcis ,sutillem setebaid ,sDIASN( eallipap laner dehguols ,stolc doolb ,ruomut ,senots :nemul eht nI

noitcurtsbo tcart yranirU
.noitcurtsbo wolftuo reddalb gnitsixeUerp ,aixarporuen ,amedeo Á lacol ,niap ,noitapitsnoc ,ytilibommi ,scitehtseana/sgurd :evitarepoUtsoP* Á yhtaporuen cimonotua citebaid ,noisserpmoc/yrujni .g.e ,esaesid droc lanips ,sisorelcs elpitlum :lacigolorueN lohocla ,stnasserpeditna ,scigrenilohcitna .g.e ,:noitacideM *evitarepoUtsoP Á

deunitnoc etuca ,noitneter yranirU

etuca ,noitneter yranirU

601

sruomut ralucoartni ,sitimlahthpo citehtapmys .g.e :esaesid ralucO

aracoxoT ,silihpys
,BT ,citepreh ,lagnuf ,noitcefni evitarepoUtsop ,sisomsalpoxot ,VMC :noitcefnI Á sitirhtra cinorhc elinevuj ,esaesed s'teOheB ,sisodiocras ,)sitirhtra citairosp ,sitilydnops Â

701

sitievU

)erar( sitiruen citpo laretaliB sebol latipicco fo stcrafni laretaliB msaihc citpo eht gnisserpmoc noisel a fo noissergorp dipaR )erusserp lainarcartni

""

,noisnetrepyh tnangilam( amedeollipap laretalib ereveS

laretaliB

sitiruen citpO sitiretra llec tnaiG tnemhcated laniteR egahrromeah suoertiV noisulcco yretra laniter lartneC noisulcco niev laniter lartneC xaguf sisoruamA

ssol lausiV
snoisel niks suolluB

laretalinU nedduS
eeS

selciseV
eniargiM? :rehtO

yspelipe suonigitreV?

sruomut ,sisorelcs elpitluM? gnideelb/)noitalucric ralisaborbetrev( aimeahcsI? :metsniarB )sedisocylgonima .g.e( sgurd cixototO? amoruen citsuocA? retsoz sepreH? :evren ralubitseV esaesid rae elddim ot yradnoceS? esaesid s'erOinOM? Ä Á ogitrev lanoitisop ngineB? sitihtnirybal etucA?

ogitreV
sitinigav cihporta ,noiportce lacivrec :rehtO )sbaws ,snopmat deniater .g.e( ydob ngieroF )lairtemodne/lacivrec( ycnangilaM silatineg sepreH? aehrronoG? aidymalhC? sisainomohcirT? sisonigav lairetcaB? sisaididnaC? noitcefnI sllip COC ,ycnangerp ,noitaluvo dnuora :lacigoloisyhP

:htnirybaL

egrahcsid lanigaV

V
801

egrahcsid lanigaV

amocualg erusolc elgna etucA sitihtnirybal etuca ,)noisnetrepyh lainarcartni ngineb ,noisel gniypuccoUecaps ,noitcefni( erusserp lainarcartni desaercni :lacigolorueN Á ycnangerp ,aimearu ,aimeaclacrepyh ,sisirc nainosiddA ,sisodicaotek citebaid :enircodne/cilobateM )lacigoloceanyg ,citapeh ,lanitsetniortsag( ygolohtap lanimodbA lohocla ,gninosiop ,sgurD

gnitimoV

noisserpmoc evren citpO )detalerUega( noitareneged ralucaM Á yhtaponiter citebaiD amocualG stcarataC

laudarG

901

gnitimoV

niag thgieW
ycnangerP eniacoc ,enimatehpma ,setaipo ,lohocla ,sDIASN ,nimroftem ,nixogid ,apodUL ,stnasserpeditna :sgurD Á )asovren aixerona .g.e( redrosid gnitae ,noisserped :cirtaihcysP esaesid s'nosiddA .g.e ,sesaesid enircodnE? esaesid lanitsetniortsaG? sesaesid yranomlupoidraC? ycnangilaM? )VIH ,sitidracodne lairetcab etucabus ,sisollecurb ,BT .g.e( snoitcefnI? :ssenlli cimetsys cinorhC

etiteppa # htiW #

samotycomorhcoeahp ,sutillem setebaid dellortnocnu ,msidioryhtrepyh :enircodnE semordnys noitprosbalaM ytivitca lacisyhp ni

etiteppa " htiW "

"

dekraM

esicrexe ,teid :yratnuloV

ssol thgieW

emordnys lieF±leppilK

kcen debbeW
emordnys s'renruT

siseraparap

siseraparap citsapS

pord tooF eeS :pord tooF diccalF eeS :siseraparap diccalF eeS :siseraparap citsapS

sgel kaeW
"

)seye yrd htiw stneitap ni yllacixodarap rucco naC( noitcudorp raeT

cas lamircaL/tcud lamircalosan fo egakcolB sisonets latcnuP

noitisoplam dil/latcnuP

seye gniretaW

yslap evren naidem/ranlu ,sitirhtra diotamuehR

tnemevlovni evren larehpireP tnemevlovni suxelp laihcarB tnemevlovni tooR

amuart ,ruomut gnul lacipa ,bir lacivreC

atamorbiforuen ,sisolydnops lacivreC

sitileymoilop ,silihpys ,aileymognirys ,noisserpmoc droc lanips ,DNM

sdnah fo selcsum llams fo gnitsaW

W

1T

sdnah fo selcsum llams fo gnitsaW

011

aimeakuel cilihponisoe ,sruomut rehto emos dna esaesid s'nikgdoH esaesid s'nosiddA asodon sitiretrayloP )emordnys cilihponisoerepyh ,ainomuenp cilihponisoe ,emordnys ssuartS±gruhC ,sisolligrepsa yranomlupohcnorb cigrella ,snoitcefni cihtnimleH( ailihponisoe yranomluP seibacs ,simrofitepreh sititamred ,sugihpmep ,sisairosp :sesaesid nikS noitcefni etuca morf yrevoceR ).ps

aracoxoT

,mrowepat ,sisonihcirt ,

silarocrets sediolygnortS

,sisaimosotsihcs

,

elanedoud amotsolyknA

,sisairacsa ,sisaibeoma .g.e( snoitcefni citisaraP

)sedimanohplus ,nillicinep .g.e( ytivitisnes gurD )ygrella doof ,revef yah ,amezce ,airacitru ,amhtsa( sesaesid cipota/cigrellA

slihponisoE
emordnys s'nnamtsoK :latinegnoC snacirfA kcalb :laicar ngineB emordnys s'ytleF ,ELS ,aineportuen enummiotua :enummI enipazolc ,elozamibrac ,sedimanohplus ,enizalasaflus .g.e :sgurD razaUalak ,sisollecurb ,BT ,diohpyt ,)azneulfni ,VIH ,sititapeh .g.e( lariv :noitcefnI Á )ainepotycnaP

" "

eeS

( ainepotycnap a fo trap sA

#

sruomut citorcen dna sruomut dilos detanimessid ylralucitrap :ycnangilaM sdiorets :noitacideM aimeakuel dioleym cinorhc ,aimeahtycylop :esaesid evitarefilorpoleyM )etuca( sisylomeah/egahrromeaH IM ,snrub ,yregrus/amuart :egamad eussiT sitilucsav/sesaesid eussit evitcennoc/noitammalfnI )lairetcab( noitcefnI

tnuoc llec etihW
)asodon sitiretraylop ,sisolligrepsa yranomlupohcnorb cigrella ,ailihponisoe laciport .g.e( ailihponisoe yranomluP emordnys dionicraC eruliaf ralucirtnev tfeL ruomuT? ydob ngieroF? sisatceihcnorB? sitihcnorB? amhtsA?

slihportueN

"

:syawria fo gniworraN

ezeehW
"

gnikoms etteragic fo noitasseC noitcurtsbo citahpmyl ,sdiulf VI ssecxe ,sisohrric ,eruliaf laner ,eruliaf caidrac evitsegnoc :diulF

noisserpeD stnasluvnocitna ,stnasserpeditna ,sdiorets cinegordna ,sPCO ,sdiorets :sgurD ylagemorca ,)ruomut ,amuart( esaesid cimalahtopyh ,msidioryhtopyh ,emordnys s'gnihsuC ,SOCP :enircodnE ekatni cirolac evissecxE

111

tnuoc llec etihW

noisel toor 7C xelpitlum sitiruenonoM

eeS

xelpitlum sitiruenonoM

)mra reppu eht fo erutsop

lamronba fo doirep degnolorp a ot yradnoces .g.e( amuart :noisel evren laidaR

pord tsirW
airacitrU amedeoxyM aimeakuel

sisotycotsam/asotnemgip airacitrU

sitiloc evitareclU

dioleym cinorhc ,arev arbur aimeahtycylop :sredrosid evitarefilorpoleyM snoitcefni lariV

slihposaB
aineportuen fo esahp yrevoceR esaesid s'nikgdoH ,)5M ,4M( LMA ,aimeakuel cityconomoleym cinorhc :ycnangilaM aozotorp ,VBE .g.e ,lariv ,diohpyt ,silihpys ,sitidracodne lairetcab etucabus ,sisollecurb ,BT :noitcefnI

" "

setyconoM
aimearU ELS sdioretS esaesid 'seriannoigel ,SDIA :noitcefnI )noitaidar/yparehtomehc ,noitartlifni worram .g.e( ainepotycnaP

" "

#
sisocixotoryhT amohpmyl s'nikgdoHUnoN Á ,aimeakuel llec yriah ,aimeakuel citsalbohpmyl etuca ,aimeakuel citycohpmylorp ,aimeakuel citycohpmyl cinorhC sissutrep ,sisollecurb ,BT ,sisomsalpoxot ,lariv .g.e ,snoitcefnI

"

deunitnoc

yc tnuocsleltecoehtpimW hyL
tnuoc llec etihW 211