Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits
**

with MATLAB®Applications

Steven T. Karris Editor

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB®Applications Copyright ” 2005 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, info@orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

**Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
**

Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) 2005901972 Copyright TX 5-589-152

ISBN 0-9744239-4-7

Disclaimer

The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text.

Preface

This book is an undergraduate level textbook presenting a thorough discussion of state-of-the art electronic devices. It is self-contained; it begins with an introduction to solid state semiconductor devices. The prerequisites for this text are first year calculus and physics, and a two-semester course in circuit analysis including the fundamental theorems and the Laplace transformation. No previous knowledge of MATLAB®is required; the material in Appendix A and the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version is all the reader need to get going. Our discussions are based on a PC with Windows XP platforms but if you have another platform such as Macintosh, please refer to the appropriate sections of the MATLAB’s User Guide which also contains instructions for installation. Additional information including purchasing may be obtained from The MathWorks, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760-2098. Phone: 508 647-7000, Fax: 508 647-7001, email: info@mathwork.com and web site http://www.mathworks.com.This text can also be used without MATLAB. This is our fourth electrical and computer engineering-based text with MATLAB applications. My associates, contributors, and I have a mission to produce substance and yet inexpensive texts for the average reader. Our first three texts* are very popular with students and working professionals seeking to enhance their knowledge and prepare for the professional engineering examination. We are working with limited resources and our small profits left after large discounts to the bookstores and distributors, are reinvested in the production of more texts. To maintain our retail prices as low as possible, we avoid expensive and fancy hardcovers. The author and contributors make no claim to originality of content or of treatment, but have taken care to present definitions, statements of physical laws, theorems, and problems. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the nature of small signals used in electronic devices, amplifiers, definitions of decibels, bandwidth, poles and zeros, stability, transfer functions, and Bode plots. Chapter 2 is an introduction to solid state electronics beginning with simple explanations of electron and hole movement. This chapter provides a thorough discussion on the junction diode and its volt-ampere characteristics. In most cases, the non-linear characteristics are plotted with simple MATLAB scripts. The discussion concludes with diode applications, the Zener, Schottky, tunnel, and varactor diodes, and optoelectronics devices. Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to bipolar junction transistors and FETs respectively, and many examples with detailed solutions are provided. Chapter 5 is a long chapter on op amps. Many op amp circuits are presented and their applications are well illustrated.

* These are Circuit Analysis I, ISBN 0-9709511-2-4, Circuit Analysis II, ISBN 0-9709511-5-9, and Signals and Systems, ISBN 0-9709511-6-7.

The highlight of this text is Chapter 6 on integrated devices used in logic circuits. The internal construction and operation of the TTL, NMOS, PMOS, CMOS, ECL, and the biCMOS families of those devices are fully discussed. Moreover, the interpretation of the most important parameters listed in the manufacturers data sheets are explained in detail. Chapter 7 is an introduction to pulse circuits and waveform generators. There, we discuss the 555 Timer, the astable, monostable, and bistable multivibrators, and the Schmitt trigger. Chapter 8 discusses to the frequency characteristic of single-stage and cascade amplifiers, and Chapter 9 is devoted to tuned amplifiers. Sinusoidal oscillators are introduced in Chapter 10. There are also three appendices in this text. As mentioned earlier, the first, Appendix A, is an introduction to MATLAB. Appendix B is an introduction to uncompensated and compensated networks, and Appendix C discusses the substitution, reduction, and Miller’s theorems. A companion to this text, Logic Circuits, is nearly completion also. This text is devoted strictly on Boolean logic, combinational and sequential circuits as interconnected logic gates and flip-flops, an introduction to static and dynamic memory devices. and other related topics. Like any other new text, the readers will probably find some mistakes and typo errors for which we assume responsibility. We will be grateful to readers who direct these to our attention at info@orchardpublications.com. Thank you. Orchard Publications Fremont, California 94538-4741 United States of America www.orchardpublications.com info@orchardpublications.com

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Signals and Signal Classifications .................................................................................................1-1 Amplifiers......................................................................................................................................1-3 Decibels.........................................................................................................................................1-4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response............................................................................................1-5 Bode Plots .....................................................................................................................................1-7 Transfer Function .........................................................................................................................1-9 Poles and Zeros ...........................................................................................................................1-11 Stability .......................................................................................................................................1-12 The Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit .................................................................................1-16 The Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit.................................................................................1-18 Summary .....................................................................................................................................1-20 Exercises......................................................................................................................................1-23 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises.......................................................................................1-25

Chapter 2

Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics - Diodes Electrons and Holes ...................................................................................................................... 2-1 The Junction Diode ...................................................................................................................... 2-4 Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non-Linear Devices ............................................................ 2-9 Piecewise Linear Approximations .............................................................................................. 2-13 Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes .................................................................... 2-15 Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits ............................................................................. 2-19 Peak Rectifier Circuits ................................................................................................................ 2-28 Clipper Circuits........................................................................................................................... 2-30 DC Restorer Circuits .................................................................................................................. 2-32 Voltage Doubler Circuits ............................................................................................................ 2-33 Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits ................................. 2-34 Diode Applications in Frequency Modulation (FM) Detection Circuits .................................. 2-35 Zener Diodes............................................................................................................................... 2-36 The Schottky Diode ................................................................................................................... 2-42 The Tunnel Diode ...................................................................................................................... 2-43 The Varactor .............................................................................................................................. 2-45 Optoelectronic Devices .............................................................................................................. 2-46

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

i

Summary..................................................................................................................................... 2-50 Exercises ..................................................................................................................................... 2-54 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises ...................................................................................... 2-59

Chapter 3

Bipolar Junction Transistors Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 3-1 NPN Transistor Operation .......................................................................................................... 3-3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier......................................................................... 3-4 Equivalent Circuit Models - NPN Transistors............................................................................. 3-6 Equivalent Circuit Models - PNP Transistors.............................................................................. 3-7 Effect of Temperature on the i C - v BE Characteristics............................................................ 3-10 Collector Output Resistance - Early Voltage............................................................................. 3-11 Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing .......................................................................................... 3-18 Fixed Bias ................................................................................................................................... 3-21 Self-Bias...................................................................................................................................... 3-25 Amplifier Classes and Operation ............................................................................................... 3-28 Class A Amplifier Operation ..................................................................................................... 3-31 Class B Amplifier Operation ...................................................................................................... 3-34 Class AB Amplifier Operation ................................................................................................... 3-35 Class C Amplifier Operation...................................................................................................... 3-37 Graphical Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 3-38 Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier .................................................................... 3-42 Piecewise-Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier .............................................................. 3-44 Incremental linear models.......................................................................................................... 3-49 Transconductance...................................................................................................................... 3-54 High-Frequency Models for Transistors..................................................................................... 3-55 The Darlington Connection ...................................................................................................... 3-59 Transistor Networks................................................................................................................... 3-61 The h-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Base Transistor..................................................... 3-61 The T-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Base Transistor .................................................... 3-64 The h-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Emitter Transistor ................................................ 3-65 The T-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Emitter Transistor................................................ 3-70 The h-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Collector (Emitter-Follower) Transistor.............. 3-70 The T-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Collector Transistor Amplifier ............................ 3-76 Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions ................................................................................. 3-77 Cutoff Region ............................................................................................................................. 3-78 Active Region............................................................................................................................. 3-78 Saturation Region ...................................................................................................................... 3-78 The Ebers-Moll Transistor Model.............................................................................................. 3-80 ii Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Schottky Diode Clamp ...............................................................................................................3-84 Transistor Specifications.............................................................................................................3-85 Summary .....................................................................................................................................3-86 Exercises......................................................................................................................................3-90 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises.......................................................................................3-96

Chapter 4

Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET)................................................................................ 4-1 The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) ........................................4-6 The N-Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode.................................................................4-8 The N-Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode.....................................................................4-12 The P-Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode................................................................4-14 The P-Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode......................................................................4-17 Voltage Gain ..............................................................................................................................4-17 Complementary MOS (CMOS) .................................................................................................4-19 The CMOS Common-Source Amplifier....................................................................................4-20 The CMOS Common-Gate Amplifier .......................................................................................4-20 The CMOS Common-Drain (Source Follower) Amplifier........................................................4-20 The Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET)...............................................................................4-21 The Unijunction Transistor ........................................................................................................4-22 The Diac.....................................................................................................................................4-23 The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR).....................................................................................4-24 The SCR as an Electronic Switch ..............................................................................................4-27 The SCR in the Generation of Sawtooth Waveforms................................................................4-28 The Triac....................................................................................................................................4-37 The Shockley Diode...................................................................................................................4-38 Other PNPN Devices .................................................................................................................4-40 Summary ....................................................................................................................................4-41 Exercises ....................................................................................................................................4-44 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises......................................................................................4-46

Chapter 5

Operational Amplifiers

The Operational Amplifier........................................................................................................... 5-1 An Overview of the Op Amp....................................................................................................... 5-1 The Op Amp in the Inverting Mode............................................................................................ 5-2 The Op Amp in the Non-Inverting Mode ................................................................................... 5-5 Active Filters ................................................................................................................................5-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications iii

Analysis of Op Amp Circuits ..................................................................................................... 5-11 Input and Output Resistances ................................................................................................... 5-22 Op Amp Open Loop Gain ......................................................................................................... 5-25 Op Amp Closed Loop Gain ....................................................................................................... 5-26 Transresistance Amplifier .......................................................................................................... 5-29 Closed Loop Transfer Function ................................................................................................. 5-30 The Op Amp Integrator............................................................................................................. 5-31 The Op Amp Differentiator....................................................................................................... 5-35 Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits............................................................................... 5-37 Differential Input Op Amp ........................................................................................................ 5-39 Instrumentation Amplifiers........................................................................................................ 5-42 Offset Nulling............................................................................................................................. 5-44 External Frequency Compensation............................................................................................ 5-45 Slew Rate.................................................................................................................................... 5-45 Circuits with Op Amps and Non-Linear Devices...................................................................... 5-46 Comparators ............................................................................................................................... 5-50 Wien Bridge Oscillator............................................................................................................... 5-50 Digital-to-Analog Converters .................................................................................................... 5-52 Analog-to-Digital Converters .................................................................................................... 5-56 The Flash Analog-to-Digital Converter .................................................................................... 5-57 The Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter .................................................. 5-58 The Dual-Slope Analog-to-Digital Converter........................................................................... 5-59 Quantization, Quantization Error, Accuracy, and Resolution .................................................. 5-61 Op Amps in Analog Computers ................................................................................................ 5-63 Summary..................................................................................................................................... 5-67 Exercises ..................................................................................................................................... 5-71 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises ...................................................................................... 5-78 Chapter 6

Integrated Circuits

The Basic Logic Gates.................................................................................................................. 6-1 Positive and Negative Logic......................................................................................................... 6-1 The Inverter ................................................................................................................................. 6-2 The AND Gate ............................................................................................................................ 6-6 The OR Gate................................................................................................................................ 6-8 The NAND Gate ......................................................................................................................... 6-9 The NOR Gate........................................................................................................................... 6-13 The Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates............................................... 6-15 Fan-In, Fan-Out, TTL Unit Load, Sourcing Current, and Sinking Current ............................ 6-17 Data Sheets ................................................................................................................................ 6-20 iv Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)..................................................................................................... 6-24 NMOS Logic Gates .................................................................................................................... 6-28 The NMOS Inverter................................................................................................................... 6-31 The NMOS NAND Gate........................................................................................................... 6-31 The NMOS NOR Gate .............................................................................................................. 6-32 CMOS Logic Gates..................................................................................................................... 6-32 The CMOS Inverter ................................................................................................................... 6-33 The CMOS NAND Gate ........................................................................................................... 6-34 The CMOS NOR Gate .............................................................................................................. 6-35 Buffers, Tri-State Devices, and Data Buses................................................................................ 6-35 Present and Future Technologies ............................................................................................... 6-39 Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 6-43 Exercises...................................................................................................................................... 6-46 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises....................................................................................... 6-49 Chapter 7

Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators

Astable (Free-Running) Multivibrators........................................................................................ 7-1 The 555 Timer.............................................................................................................................. 7-2 Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer ................................................................................... 7-3 Monostable Multivibrators ......................................................................................................... 7-15 Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops)............................................................................................ 7-18 The Fixed-Bias Flip-Flop ............................................................................................................ 7-19 The Self-Bias Flip-Flop ............................................................................................................... 7-22 Triggering Signals for Flip-Flops ................................................................................................. 7-28 Present Technology Bistable Multivibrators .............................................................................. 7-30 The Schmitt Trigger ................................................................................................................... 7-30 Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 7-33 Exercises...................................................................................................................................... 7-34 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises....................................................................................... 7-37 Chapter 8

Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers

Properties of Signal Waveforms.................................................................................................... 8-1 The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies.............................................................................. 8-5 The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies ............................................................................ 8-9 Combined Low- and High-Frequency Characteristics ............................................................... 8-14 Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers .................................................................... 8-14 Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers ....................................................................... 8-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications v

Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers ................................... 8-32 Summary..................................................................................................................................... 8-34 Exercises ..................................................................................................................................... 8-36 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises ...................................................................................... 8-39 Chapter 9

Tuned Amplifiers

Introduction to Tuned Circuits ....................................................................................................9-1 Single-tuned Transistor Amplifier ................................................................................................9-8 Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers........................................................................................................9-14 Synchronously Tuned Amplifiers................................................................................................9-15 Stagger-Tuned Amplifiers ...........................................................................................................9-19 Three or More Tuned Amplifiers Connected in Cascade ..........................................................9-27 Summary......................................................................................................................................9-29 Exercises ......................................................................................................................................9-31 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises .......................................................................................9-32 Chapter 10

Sinusoidal Oscillators

Introduction to Oscillators......................................................................................................... 10-1 Sinusoidal Oscillators................................................................................................................. 10-1 RC Oscillator.............................................................................................................................. 10-4 LC Oscillators............................................................................................................................. 10-5 The Armstrong Oscillator.......................................................................................................... 10-6 The Hartley Oscillator ............................................................................................................... 10-7 The Colpitts Oscillator .............................................................................................................. 10-7 Crystal Oscillators ...................................................................................................................... 10-8 The Pierce Oscillator ............................................................................................................... 10-10 Summary................................................................................................................................... 10-12 Exercises ................................................................................................................................... 10-14 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises .................................................................................... 10-15 Appendix A

Introduction to MATLAB®

MATLAB® and Simulink®....................................................................................................... A-1 Command Window ..................................................................................................................... A-1 Roots of Polynomials ................................................................................................................... A-3 vi Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

............................................................................B-2 Appendix C The Substitution................................. and Miller’s Theorems The Substitution Theorem .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................Polynomial Construction from Known Roots ................ Reduction................. C-1 The Reduction Theorem ............................................................................................................... A-19 Multiplication........................................................ Division and Exponentiation................ A-20 Script and Function Files..................................................................................................... A-26 Display Formats ............ C-6 Miller’s Theorem..............B-1 Compensated Attenuator ............................................................... C-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications vii ................ A-32 Appendix B Compensated Attenuators Uncompensated Attenuator.................................................................................................................................................................................A-5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values .................... A-8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots............................................ A-6 Rational Polynomials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... A-11 Subplots......

and so on. current.1. Consider the waveform shown in Figure 1. temperature. these devices are thought of as electrical devices and the systems that consist of these devices are generally said to be electrical rather than electronic systems. ICs are getting smaller and smaller and thus the modern IC technology is referred to as microelectronics. Of course.2. Because resistors. current. telephony. Figure 1. 1. f(t) t Figure 1.= --------------------Period b–a a f ( t ) ave ∫ b (1. radio. Electronic devices are primarily non-linear devices such as diodes and transistors and in general integrated circuits (ICs) in which small signals (voltages and currents) are applied to them. Typical waveform of a signal We will now define the average value of a waveform. capacitors and inductors existed long ago before the advent of semiconductor diodes and transistors. As we know.1 shows a typical signal f ( t ) that varies with time where f ( t ) can be any physical quantity such as voltage. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. capacitors and inductors as well. or radar. such as voltage. with today’s technology. television.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals E lectronics may be defined as the science and technology of electronic devices and systems. sound. image.1 Signals and Signal Classifications A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. electronic systems may include resistors. The average value of f ( t ) in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b is f ( t ) dt b Area a = ---------------.1) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-1 . pressure. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. electric or magnetic field strength.

2) for all time t and for all integers n .2. Examples of alternating waveforms The effective (or RMS) value of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) denoted as I eff is the current that produces heat in a given resistor R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc . Others are shown in Figure 1.4) T and 1 P ave = -T ∫ T 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ T Ri 2 dt 0 R = --T ∫ i dt 2 0 (1. Defining the average value of a typical waveform A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) (1.5) 1-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals f(t) f(a ) Area f(b) t a Period b Figure 1. Of course. that is. all sinusoids are alternating waveforms.3. t T T t T t Figure 1. Average Power = P ave = RI eff = RI dc 2 2 (1. The constant T is the period and it is the smallest value of time which separates recurring values of the waveform. An alternating waveform is any periodic time function whose average value over a period is zero.3. in a periodic current waveform i ( t ) the instantaneous power p ( t ) is p ( t ) = Ri ( t ) 2 (1.3) Also.

3) with (1. Ave ( i ) ≠ ( i ave ) . then I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 = 0.8) and we must remember that (1. V ave = 0 and I ave = 0 . ( i ave ) implies that the average value of the current must first be found and then the average must be squared.4.7) where RMS stands for Root Mean Squared. P ave ≠ V ave ⋅ I ave . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-3 . Symbol for electronic amplifier * See Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. Orchard Publications.8) applies to sinusoidal values only.2 Amplifiers An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. However. If v ( t ) = V p cos ωt and i ( t ) = I p cos ( ωt + θ ) for example. 1 P ave = -T T T 2 2 2 2 ∫ 1 p dt = -T 0 ∫0 vi dt ≠ 0 In introductory electrical engineering books it is shown* that if the peak (maximum) value of a current of a sinusoidal waveform is I p . v in v out Figure 1.6) or I RMS = I eff = 1 -T ∫0 i d t T = Ave ( i ) 2 (1. the effective value I eff or I RMS value of a current is computed as the square root of the mean (average) of the square of the current.5) we get R 2 RI eff = --T ∫0 i d t 2 2 T or 1 2 I eff = -T ∫0 i d t 2 T (1. Ave ( i ) implies that the current i must first be squared and the average of the squared value is to be computed.Amplifiers Equating (1. The symbol of a typical amplifier is a triangle as shown in Figure 1. it follows that P ave = 0 also. On the other hand. that is.4. Warning 2: In general. Warning 1: In general. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4. 1.707I p (1.

The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. For this reason we use absolute values of power. 000 Also. An amplifier can be classified as a voltage. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels (dB). n (1. 000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1.3 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1. If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB . 1-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). Thus. 1. current or power amplifier. P out dB = 10 log -------P in Therefore. 000. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator. 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 . if an op amp has a gain of – 100 (dimensionless number). 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 . For instance. voltage and current when these are expressed in dB terms to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss. the output is equal to the input. it means that the output is 180° out-ofphase with the input. for a voltage amplifier Output Voltage Voltage Gain = ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or G v = V out ⁄ V in The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. We should remember that a negative voltage or current gain G v or G i indicates that there is a 180° phase difference between the input and the output waveforms. By definition. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain.9) It is useful to remember that 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 . For instance.

the low-pass and high-pass filters have only one Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-5 . Since y = log x = 2 log x and P = V ⁄ Z = I ⋅ Z . Consider. As shown in figure 1.707 Bandwidth ω1 Figure 1. At these frequencies. that is.5 .707 and these two points are known as the 3-dB down or half-power points. Definition of bandwidth ω2 ω V out Alternately.11) 1. the bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the cutoff frequencies.5. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 × 1.25 = 2. it is “halved”. They derive their name from the fact that since power p = v ⁄ R = i ⋅ R . we can estimate other values. 1 0.10) (1. For instance. for example.25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these.5. amplifiers exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant. We recall from the characteristics of electric filters. we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between half-power points. 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 × 5 = 500 .5.4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Like electric filters.707 the power is 1 ⁄ 2 .Bandwidth and Frequency Response 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1. V out = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. for R = 1 and for v or i = 2 2 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. if we let Z = 1 the dB values for voltage and current ratios become V out dB v = 10 log --------V in and I out dB i = 10 log ------I in 2 2 2 2 2 V out = 20 log --------V in I out = 20 log ------I in (1. the magnitude of the output voltage V out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency ω as shown in Figure 1. Likewise.

16) 1-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .15) and the phase angle (sometimes called argument and abbreviated as arg) is V out –1 ϕ = arg ⎛ ---------.13) or V out 1 –1 1 ---------.6. We may think that low-pass and high-pass filters have also two cutoff frequencies where in the case of the low-pass filter the second cutoff frequency is at ω = 0 while in a high-pass filter it is at ω = ∞ . the output voltage is expressed as V out ( ω ) = V out ( ω ) e jϕ ( ω ) (1.⎞ = – tan ( ωRC ) ⎝ V in ⎠ (1.12) where V out ( ω ) is known as the magnitude response and e jϕ ( ω ) is known as the phase response. In general form.1 Derive and sketch the magnitude and phase responses of the RC low-pass filter shown in Figure 1.= -------------------------------.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals cutoff frequency whereas band-pass and band-stop filters have two.14) and thus the magnitude is V out 1 ---------. Example 1. RC low-pass filter Solution: By application of the voltage division expression 1 ⁄ jωC V out = --------------------------.V in R + 1 ⁄ jωC V out 1 ---------.= ----------------------V in 1 + jωRC (1.= -------------------------------------------------------------------. These two responses together constitute the frequency response of a circuit.= -------------------------------2 2 V in 1 + ω2 R C (1.6.∠– tan ( ωRC ) 2 2 V in –1 2 2 1 + ω2R C 1 + ω 2 R C ∠ tan ( ωRC ) (1. R v in C v out Figure 1. We also recall also that the output of circuit is dependent upon the frequency when the input is a sinusoidal voltage.

φ ≅ – tan ( – ∞ ) ≅ 90 as ω → 0 .⎟ ⎝ ω1 ⎠ (1.Bode Plots To sketch the magnitude. φ ≅ – tan 1 ≅ – 45 as ω → ∞ . Consider two frequency intervals expressed as ⎛ ω2 ⎞ u 2 – u 1 = log 10 ω2 – log 10 ω1 = log ⎜ -----. V out ⁄ V in ≅ 1 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC . V out ⁄ V in ≅ 0 To sketch the phase response. Then. as ω → 0 .17) then two common frequency intervals are (1) the octave for which ω 2 = 2ω 1 and (2) the decade for which ω 2 = 10ω 1 .7. and ∞ .7. we use (1.707 and as ω → ∞ .707 ω −1/RC 0 −45° 1/RC −90° 90° ϕ 45° 1/RC ω Figure 1.6 1. we let ω assume the values 0 . Then. V out ⁄ V in = 1 ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0. φ ≅ – tan 0 ≅ 0 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .16).5 Bode Plots The magnitude and phase responses of a circuit are often shown with asymptotic lines as approximations. Vout Vin 1 0. φ ≅ – tan ( ∞ ) ≅ – 90 –1 ° –1 ° –1 –1 ° The magnitude and phase responses of the RC low-pass filter are shown in Figure 1. Magnitude and phase responses for the low-pass filter of Figure 1. 1 ⁄ RC . as ω → – ∞ . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-7 .

let us consider a circuit whose gain is given as G ( ω )v = C ⁄ ω k (1. We can now approximate the magnitude and phase responses of the low-pass filter of Example 1. We observe also that if the exponent k in (1.19) represents an equation of a straight line with abscissa log 10 ω . Thus. We can choose the slope to be either – 20k dB ⁄ decade or – 6k dB ⁄ octave .8.1 with asymptotic lines as shown in Figure 1. the slope becomes – 20 dB ⁄ decade as illustrated in the plot of Figure 1.9.8.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Now.18) and multiplying by 20 we get 20 log 10 { G ( ω ) v } = 20 log 10 C – 20k log 10 ω { G ( ω ) v }dB = 20 log 10 C – 20k log 10 ω (1. any line parallel to this slope will represent a drop of 20 dB ⁄ decade .19) We observe that (1. slope of – 20k . {G(ω) v} 0 dB −20 slope = −20 dB/decade −40 log10ω 1 10 100 Figure 1. if k = 1 . Plot of relation (1. 1-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the slope will be – 40 dB ⁄ decade .19) for k = 1 Then. Taking the common log of (1. and { G ( ω ) v } intercept at 20 log 1010 C = cons tan t .18) is changed to 2 .18) where C is a constant and k is a non-zero positive integer.

* linear.v in ( t ) + a n – 2 ------------.v in ( t ) + a n – 1 ------------. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4 by this author. linear.6 Transfer Function Let us consider the continuous-time. v in ( t ) Continuous – time .v out ( t ) + b m – 1 -------------.6. † A linear system consists of linear devices and may include independent and dependent voltage and current sources.v out ( t ) + b m – 2 -------------. and timeinvariant system v out ( t ) Figure 1. ‡ A time-invariant system is a linear system in which the parameters do not vary with time. For details.10.Transfer Function dB 0 −10 −45° −20 −30 0.20) For practically all electric networks.9. Magnitude and phase responses for the low-pass filter of Figure 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-9 . ISBN 0-97095115-9. ** The Laplace transform and its applications to electric circuit is discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II.v in ( t ) + … + a 0 v in ( t ) n n–1 n–2 dt dt dt n n–1 n–2 m m–1 m–2 (1. 1. please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.1 1 10 logω 100 −90° −20 dB/decade ϕ(ω) 0. Orchard Publications.1 1 10 100 logω Figure 1.v out ( t ) + … + b 0 v out ( t ) = m m–1 m–2 dt dt dt d d d a n -----. Taking the Laplace transform** of both sides of (1. Input-output block diagram for linear. The input-output relationship can be described by the differential equation of d d d b m ------. time-invariant continuous-time system We will assume that initially no energy is stored in the system.20) we get ( bm s + bm – 1 s n m m–1 + bm – 2 s m–2 n–2 + … + b 0 )V out ( s ) = + … + a 0 )V in ( s ) ( an s + an – 1 s n–1 + an – 2 s * A continuous-time signal is a function that is defined over a continuous range of time. m ≥ n and the integer m denotes the order of the system.10.† and time-invariant‡ system of Figure 1.

The transfer function G ( s ) is defined as V out ( s ) ----------G ( s ) = ----------------. we will denote the time domain as t – domain † Henceforth..5s + + − 1⁄s 1 V out ( s ) − − Figure 1.11.2 in the s – domain − * For brevity. + V in ( s ) 0.= N ( s ) D(s) V in ( s ) (1.12.5 H C + + − 1F R 1Ω v out ( t ) − Figure 1.2 Derive the transfer function G ( s ) of the network of Figure 1.V in ( s ) m m–1 m–2 D(s) ( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b0 ) n n–1 n–2 where N ( s ) and D ( s ) are the numerator and denominator polynomials respectively. s = σ + jω . 1-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . will be referred to as the s – domain .V in ( s ) = ----------.2 Solution: The given circuit is in the t – domain *The transfer function G ( s ) exists only in the s – domain † and thus we redraw the circuit in the s – domain as shown in Figure 1.21) Example 1. Circuit of Example 1.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Solving for V out ( s ) we obtain ( an s + an – 1 s + an – 2 s + … + a0 ) N(s) V out ( s ) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.e.11. L + v in ( t ) − − 0. the complex frequency. i.12. Network for Example 1.

F ( s ) is a proper rational function. parallel combination of the capacitor and resistor yields 1⁄s×1 1 ----------------. repeated.( b m s m + b m – 1 s m – 1 + b m – 2 s m – 2 + … + b 1 s + b 0 ) an N(s) F ( s ) = ----------. and are found by letting N ( s ) = 0 in (1. 2. of a combination of these. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9.V in ( s ) 0. Orchard Publications. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-11 . * The zeros and poles can be distinct (different from one another). to do this. The roots of the denominator are called the poles * of F ( s ) and are found by letting D ( s ) = 0 . However.= ---------1⁄s+1 s+1 and by application of the voltage division expression 1 ⁄ (s + 1) V out ( s ) = --------------------------------------.. n are real numbers and. It is very convenient to make the coefficient a n of s in (12.e. In this case.22) where N ( s ) and D ( s ) are polynomials and thus (1. i. for the present discussion. Thus.12.24) .Poles and Zeros For relatively simple circuits such as that of Figure 1. we have assumed that the highest power of N ( s ) is less than the highest power of D ( s ) .2) unity.= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a1 D(s) a0 n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 s + ---------.7 Poles and Zeros Let ----------F(s) = N(s) D(s) (1. If m ≥ n . we rewrite it as 1---.s + … + ---.23) The coefficients a k and b k for k = 0. complex conjugates.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------n n–1 n–2 D(s) + an – 2 s + … + a1 s + a0 an s + an – 1 s m m–1 m–2 (1. …. m < n . F ( s ) is an improper rational function.s + ---------.= ---------------------2 V in ( s ) s +s+2 1. we can readily obtain the transfer function with application of the voltage division expression.22) can be expressed as bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b1 s + b0 N(s) F ( s ) = ----------. 1.5s + 1 ⁄ ( s + 1 ) or V out ( s ) 2 G ( s ) = ----------------. For details please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. in most engineering applications we are interested in the nature of the poles.s + ---an an an an n (1.24) The roots of the numerator are called the zeros of F ( s ) .

In terms of the impulse response. 1-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1. 2.14.15. We can predict the stability of a system from its impulse response* h ( t ) . Characteristics of a marginally stable system 3. 1. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Orchard Publications. a system is said to be stable if a finite input produces a finite output.8 Stability In general. A system is unstable if the impulse response h ( t ) reaches infinity after a certain time as shown in Figure 1. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7. A system is stable if the impulse response h ( t ) goes to zero after some time as shown in Figure 1.14.13. * For a detailed discussion on the impulse response. A system is marginally stable if the impulse response h ( t ) reaches a certain non-zero value but never goes to zero as shown in Figure 1.13. Characteristics of a stable system Figure 1.

It is marginally stable when one or more poles lie on the jω axis.{wmin. and unstable when one or more poles lie on the right-hand half-plane.100). the location of the zeros in the s – plane is immaterial. If we want to display the magnitude only.wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radians/second) and the function bode(sys. we can use the bodemag(sys.15. that is.den) creates a continuous-time transfer function sys with numerator num and denominator den. A system is stable only when all poles lie on the left-hand halfplane. number_of_values). at which the Bode response is to be evaluated. The function bode(sys. and tf creates a transfer function.2. MATLAB requires that we express the numerator and denominator of G ( s ) as polynomials of s in descending powers. Characteristics of an unstable system We can plot the poles and zeros of a transfer function G ( s ) on the complex frequency plane of the complex variable s = σ + jω .w) function. to generate plots for 100 logarithmically evenly spaced points for the frequency interval 10 ≤ ω ≤ 10 r ⁄ s . the nature of the zeros do not determine the stability of the system. However. we use the statement logspace(−1. the frequency range and number of points are chosen automatically. we use the command logspace(first_exponent.Stability Figure 1.3 The transfer function of a system is ) G ( s ) = 3 ( s – 1 ) ( s + 2s + 5 -------------------------------------------------2 ( s + 2 ) ( s + 6s + 25 ) 2 –1 2 * An introduction to MATLAB is included as Appendix A. Example 1. For example. in radians/second. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-13 .w) uses the user-supplied vector w of frequencies. To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors.w) function displays both magnitude and phase. With this function. The bode(sys. We can use the MATLAB* function bode(sys) to draw the Bode plot of a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) System where sys = tf(num.last_exponent.

b..3 From Figure 1. is this system stable? b. lie on the left-hand half-plane and thus the system is stable.16..16.16 we observe that all poles. use the MATLAB bode(sys. Solution: a. denoted as .w) function to plot the magnitude of this transfer function. We use the MATLAB expand(s) symbolic function to express the numerator and denominator of G ( s ) in polynomial form syms s. d=expand((s+2)*(s^2+6*s+25)) n = s^3+s^2+3*s-5 d = s^3+8*s^2+37*s+50 and thus 1-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .'eqnN') function to find the roots of the quadratic factors. The location of the zeros. Let us use the MATLAB solve('eqn1'. is immaterial. n=expand((s−1)*(s^2+2*s+5)). Poles and zeros of the transfer function of Example 1. equ1=solve('s^2+2*s+5−0').'eqn2'. – 3 + j4 – 1 + j2 –2 –1 –j 2 –3 –j 4 1 Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals a.. equ2=solve('s^2+6*s+25−0') equ1 = [-1+2*i] equ2 = [-3+4*i] [-1-2*i] [-3-4*i] The zeros and poles of G ( s ) are shown in Figure 1.. denoted as . syms s.

1 MHz . sys=tf(num.. a DC gain of 80 dB .w).4 It is known that a voltage amplifier has a frequency response of a low-pass filter. 10 KHz . Bode plot for Example 1. and 100 MHz .17 Figure 1.. attenuation of – 20 dB per decade.Stability 3 ( s + s + 3s – 5 ) G ( s ) = -------------------------------------------------3 2 ( s + 8s + 37s + 50 ) 3 2 For this example we are interested in the magnitude only so we will use the script num=3*[1 1 3 −5]. Solution: Using the given data we construct the asymptotic magnitude response shown in Figure 1. den=[1 8 37 50]. Frequency Gain (dB) 1 KHz 80 10 KHz 77 100 KHz 60 1 MHz 40 10 MHz 20 100 MHz 0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-15 . bodemag(sys.2. 10 MHz . w=logspace(0. and the 3 dB cutoff frequency occurs at 10 KHz .17.den).18 from which we obtain the following data. 100KHz .100). grid The magnitude is shown in Figure 1.. Determine the gain (in dB ) at the frequencies 1 KHz .3 Example 1.

9 The Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Amplifiers are often represented by equivalent circuits* also known as circuit models.5 For the voltage amplifier of Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals dB – 20 dB ⁄ decade 60 40 20 0 80 Hz 4 10 3 10 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 1. 1-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .19 are R in → ∞ and R out → 0 .4 1. From the plot. Then. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4. Circuit model for voltage amplifier where A voc denotes the open circuit voltage gain The ideal characteristics for the circuit of Figure 1. Example 1.20. use MATLAB to plot the magnitude of A v for the range 10 ≤ ω ≤ 10 .19. i out R out out A voc = -------i out = 0 v in R in A voc v in v out v v in Figure 1. estimate the 3 dB cutoff frequency.18.19. find the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s . Asymptotic magnitude response for Example 1. 3 8 * Readers who have a copy of Circuit Analysis I. are encouraged to review Chapter 4 on equivalent circuits of operational amplifiers. The equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier is shown in Figure 1.

1 × 10 14 4 10 14 (1.1 nF 100 Ω + − A voc v in R load v load 5 KΩ A voc = 20 Figure 1.1 × 10 14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-17 .21.V S ( s ) = ----------------------------------------. The s – domain circuit of Figure 1.V S ( s ) 7 14 10 s + 1. 10 VS ( s ) 3 10 2 1 KΩ V in ( s ) 10 4 + + − 10 10 100 Ω − + ⁄s − 20V in ( s ) 5 × 10 V load ( s ) 3 Figure 1.5 Solution: The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 1. 10 5 × 10 V load ( s ) = ------------------------------.20.The Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Rs vs 1 KΩ R in 10 KΩ C R out + − v in 2 cos ωt mV + − 0.61 × 10 V load ( s ) = ----------------------------------------.26) we get 19.V in ( s ) = 19. Amplifier circuit for Example 1.25) Also.26) and by substitution of (1.21.25) into (1.1 × 10 3 5 (1.20V in ( s ) = --------------------.= --------------------------4 10 4 10 10 s + 10 10 + 10 ⁄ s 14 14 4 10 and by the voltage division expression 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 V in ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------.V S ( s ) 3 14 4 10 7 14 10 + 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 s + 1.61V in ( s ) 2 3 3 10 + 5 × 10 5.20 The parallel combination of the 10 resistor and 10 ⁄ s capacitor yields 4 10 10 10 ⁄ s Z ( s ) = 10 || 10 ⁄ s = ------------------------------.

22.. bodemag(sys.= ----------------------------------------7 14 VS ( s ) 10 s + 1.w).23 are R in → 0 and R out → ∞ .61 × 10 G v ( s ) = ------------------.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 14 V load ( s ) 19.10 The Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit The equivalent circuit of a current amplifier is shown in Figure 1.5 1. Circuit model for current amplifier where A isc denotes the short circuit current gain The ideal characteristics for the circuit of Figure 1.23..22 and we see that the cutoff frequency occurs at 22 dB where f C ≈ 10 ⁄ 2π ≈ 1.59 MHz 7 Figure 1.1000)..27) and with MATLAB num=[0 19. w=logspace(3.61*10^14]. den=[10^7 1.1 × 10 (1. sys=tf(num.8.den). i in i out i out A isc = ------i in v out = 0 v in R in A isc i in R out v out Figure 1. 1-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . grid The plot is shown in Figure 1. Bode plot for the voltage amplifier of Example 1.23.1*10^14].

Current amplifier for Example 1.------------------.A isc i in R out + R load (1.24.i s R s + R in (1.28) Also. R out i load = ---------------------------.6 Solution: Using the current division expression we get Rs i in = ------------------.29) yields R out Rs i load = ---------------------------. Two more circuit models are the transresistance and transconductance equivalent circuits and there are introduced in Exercises 1.24.6 For the current amplifier of Figure 1.5 respectively.A isc R out + R load R s + R in is In Sections 1.29) Substitution of (1.10 we presented the voltage and current amplifier equivalent circuits also known as circuit models. i in i out i load R load Rs R in A isc i in R out V load is Figure 1.i s R out + R load R s + R in (1.4 and 1.The Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Example 1.A isc ------------------.30) or R out Rs i load A i = --------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-19 . derive an expression for the overall current gain A i = i load ⁄ i s .9 and 1.= ---------------------------.28) into (1.

• If the peak (maximum) value of a current of a sinusoidal waveform is I p . or radar.= --------------------b–a Period a f ( t ) ave ∫ b • A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) for all time t and for all integers n . current. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator.11 Summary • A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. then I RMS = I p ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0. the effective value I eff or I RMS value of a current is computed as the square root of the mean (average) of the square of the current. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. • An amplifier can be classified as a voltage. • The effective (or RMS) value of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) denoted as I eff is the current that produces heat in a given resistor R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc and it is found from the expression I RMS = I eff = 1 -T ∫0 i dt 2 T = Ave ( i ) 2 where RMS stands for Root Mean Squared. The constant T is the period and it is the smallest value of time which separates recurring values of the waveform. Thus. telephony. • An alternating waveform is any periodic time function whose average value over a period is zero. current or power amplifier. image. for a voltage amplifier ---------------------------------------Voltage Gain = Output Voltage Input Voltage 1-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .707I p • An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. television. radio. electric or magnetic field strength. such as voltage.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1. • An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. • The average value of a waveform f ( t ) in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b is defined as f ( t ) dt b a Area = ---------------. sound. that is.

2 ⁄ 2 = 0.Summary or G v = V out ⁄ V in The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. These two responses together constitute the frequency response of a circuit. V out = power points. • We also recall also that the output of circuit is dependent upon the frequency when the input is a sinusoidal voltage.= N ( s ) D(s) V in ( s ) where the numerator N ( s ) and denominator D ( s ) are as shown in the expression Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-21 . At these frequencies. • Two frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 are said to be separated by an octave if ω 2 = 2ω 1 and separated by a decade if ω 2 = 10ω 1 . We may think that low-pass and high-pass filters have also two cutoff frequencies where in the case of the low-pass filter the second cutoff frequency is at ω = 0 while in a high-pass filter it is at ω = ∞ . In general form. • The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels (dB). By definition. • The transfer function of a system is defined as V out ( s ) ----------G ( s ) = ----------------. dB = 10 log P out ⁄ P in The dB values for voltage and current ratios are dB v = 20 log V out ⁄ V in dB i = 20 log I out ⁄ I in • The bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the cutoff frequencies.707 and these two points are known as the 3-dB down or half- • The low-pass and high-pass filters have only one cutoff frequency whereas band-pass and bandstop filters have two. • The magnitude and phase responses of a circuit are often shown with asymptotic lines as approximations and these are referred to as Bode plots. the output voltage is expressed as V out ( ω ) = V out ( ω ) e jϕ ( ω ) where V out ( ω ) is known as the magnitude response and e jϕ ( ω ) is known as the phase response.

and tf creates a transfer function. • The zeros and poles can be real and distinct. • We can use the MATLAB function bode(sys) to draw the Bode plot of a system where sys = tf(num. the current amplifier. The common types are the voltage amplifier. • Amplifiers are often represented by equivalent circuits also known as circuit models.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals ( an s + an – 1 s + an – 2 s + … + a0 ) N(s) V out ( s ) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. the transresistance amplifier. If we want to display the magnitude only.w) function displays both magnitude and phase. the roots of the numerator are called the zeros of F ( s ) . and the transconductance amplifier.s ---.V in ( s ) = ----------. The function bode(sys.den) creates a continuous-time transfer function sys with numerator num and denominator den. 1-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . number_of_values).wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radians/second) and the function bode(sys. The roots of the denominator are called the poles of F ( s ) and are found by letting D(s) = 0 . in radians/second. • A system is said to be stable if a finite input produces a finite output. A system is stable only when all poles lie on the left-hand half-plane. the frequency range and number of points are chosen automatically. It is marginally stable when one or more poles lie on the jω axis. With this function. and unstable when one or more poles lie on the right-hand half-plane. the location of the zeros in the s – plane is immaterial. and are found by letting N ( s ) = 0 . in most engineering applications we are interested in the nature of the poles. we use the command logspace(first_exponent. or combinations of real and complex conjugates.( b m s m + b m – 1 s m – 1 + b m – 2 s m – 2 + … + b 1 s + b 0 ) an N(s) F ( s ) = ----------.last_exponent.s + ---+ +…+ s + an an an an where m < n . The bode(sys.= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a1 D(s) a0 n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 ---------. However. To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors.w) uses the user-supplied vector w of frequencies. at which the Bode response is to be evaluated. or complex conjugates. or repeated.V in ( s ) m m–1 m–2 D(s) ( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b0 ) n n–1 n–2 • In the expression 1 ---. we can use the bodemag(sys.{wmin. We can predict the stability of a system from its impulse response h ( t ) .w) function. • Stability can easily be determined from the transfer function G ( s ) on the complex frequency plane of the complex variable s = σ + jω . However.s ---------.

12 Exercises 1. – 2 – j . 2.Exercises 1.1.5 H + v in ( t ) − + −C 1F R 1Ω + v out ( t ) − 3. and zeros at – 1 . Derive the transfer function G ( s ) for the network shown below. the circuit is as shown below.1 nF 100 Ω + R load v load 5 KΩ + − + − R m i in 2 cos ωt mV − − Find the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s if R m = 100 Ω . Following the procedure of Example 1. – 2 + j . i in v in R in R m i in R out i out out R m = -------i out = 0 v out v i in With a voltage source v s in series with resistance R s connected on the input side and a load resistance R load connected to the output. Then. derive and sketch the magnitude and phase responses for an RC high-pass filter. 4. The circuit model shown below is known as a transresistance amplifier and the ideal characteristics for this amplifier are R in → 0 and R out → 0 . A system has poles at – 4 . and – 3 – j2 . L 0. Rs vs 1 KΩ i in R out R in 10 KΩ + v in C 0. Derive the transfer function of this system given that G ( ∞ ) = 10 . use MATLAB to plot the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-23 . – 3 + j2 .

Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals magnitude of A v for the range 10 ≤ ω ≤ 10 . the circuit is as shown below. 5. From the plot. The circuit model shown below is known as a transconductance amplifier and the ideal characteristics for this amplifier are R in → ∞ and R out → ∞ . estimate the 3 dB cutoff frequency. i out vs Rs v in R in G m v in R out R load v load Derive an expression for the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s 1-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i out R in 3 8 v in G m v in R out v out i out G m = ------v in v out = 0 With a voltage source v s in series with resistance R s connected on the input side and a load resistance R load connected to the output.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-25 . and try again. make an honest effort to solve these exercises without first looking at the solutions that follow.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date. It is recommended that first you go through and solve those you feel that you know. look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors. for your benefit.13 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain solutions to all end-of-chapter exercises. You must. review the chapter. For your solutions that you are uncertain. You should follow this practice with all end-of-chapter exercises in this book.

G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0. This is shown on the plot below where. i.∠ atan ( 1 ⁄ ( ωRC ) ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 1+ω R C 1 + 1 ⁄ (ω R C ) (1) The magnitude of (1) is 1 G ( j ω ) = -------------------------------------------. As ω → 0 . R V out = --------------------------. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° 1-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .(2) 2 2 2 1 + 1 ⁄ (ω R C ) and the phase angle or argument. grid We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle.707 and as ω → ∞ .ωRC ( j + ωRC ) G ( j ω ) = ---------.= -------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 V in 1 + j ωRC 1+ω R C 1+ω R C 2 2 2 1 ωRC 1 + ω R C ∠ atan ( 1 ⁄ ( ωRC ) ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Thus. and ω → ∞ .^2).j ωRC + ω R C . for convenience.magGs).*RC). θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω . w=0:0. RC=1. ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . semilogx(w. ω → – ∞ .= ----------------------. Thus.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1. ω = 1 ⁄ RC ./(w.02:100..e.V in R + 1 ⁄ j ωC or 2 2 2 V out j ωRC . magGs=1. and ω → ∞ .= ---------------------------------------. by evaluating (3) at ω = 0 . we let RC = 1 . G(jω) ≅ 1 We will use the MATLAB script below to plot G ( jω ) versus radian frequency ω . G(jω) ≅ 0 For ω = 1 ⁄ RC ./sqrt(1+1.= -------------------------------------------. is θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } = atan ( 1 ⁄ ωRC ) (3) We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( j ω ) versus ω by evaluating (2) at ω = 0 . ω = 1 ⁄ RC . as ω → 0 .

*180. grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-27 . we let RC = 1 ./(w. argGs=atan(1./pi.*RC)). RC=1. This is shown on the plot below where. θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° As ω → – ∞ . w=−8:0.argGs). θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ . for convenience. plot(w. θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° We will use the MATLAB script below to plot the phase angle θ versus radian frequency ω .Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises For ω = 1 ⁄ RC .02:8. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° For ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .

We draw the s – domain equivalent shown below.V in ( s ) 2 s ⁄ (s + 2) + 1 2 V out ( s ) s +2 G ( s ) = ----------------. 0.5s + V in ( s ) − + − 1⁄s 1 + V out ( s ) − Parallel combination of the inductor and capacitor yields s⁄2⋅1⁄s s -----------------------.= ---------------------2 V in ( s ) s +s+2 1-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Phase characteristics of an RC high-pass filter with RC = 1 2.25.= ------------2 s⁄2+1⁄s s +2 and by application of the voltage division expression we get 1 V out ( s ) = --------------------------------.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Figure 1.

then K = 10 and the final form of the transfer function is 10 ( s + 7s + 19s + 13 ) ) -------------------------------------------------------G ( s ) = --------------------------------------------------------.w). bode(num. The transfer function has the form K [ s – ( –1 ) ] [ s – ( – 3 + j2 ) ] [ s – ( – 3 – j2 ) ] G ( s ) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[ s – ( –4 ) ] [ s – ( – 2 + j ) ] [ s – ( – 2 – j ) ] K ( s + 1 ) ( s + 6s + 13 . Rs vs 1 KΩ i in R out R in 10 KΩ + v in C 0.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 3.den.grid 3 2 2 4. w=logspace(0. It is given that G ( ∞ ) = 10 .100).K ( s + 7s + 19s + 13 ) = ------------------------------------------------------) = ------------------------------------------------------2 3 2 ( s + 4 ) ( s + 4s + 5 ) s + 8s + 21s + 20 2 3 2 To determine the value of the constant K we divide all terms of G ( s ) by s3 and we get K ( 1 + 7 ⁄ s + 19 ⁄ s + 13 ⁄ s ) G ( s ) = --------------------------------------------------------------------2 3 1 + 8 ⁄ s + 21 ⁄ s + 20 ⁄ s 2 3 and as s → ∞ .2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-29 .= 10 ( s + 1 ) ( s + 6s + 13 3 2 2 s + 8s + 21s + 20 ( s + 4 ) ( s + 4s + 5 ) num=10*[1 7 19 13]. den=[1 8 21 20]. G ( s ) ≈ K .1 nF 100 Ω + R load v load 5 KΩ + − + − 100 i in 2 cos ωt mV − − The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown below.

sys=tf(num.1000).Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 10 VS ( s ) 3 I in ( s ) 10 4 2 + − V in ( s ) + 10 + + − 10 10 + ⁄s − 100I in ( s ) 5 × 10 3 V load ( s ) − − The parallel combination of the 10 resistor and 10 ⁄ s capacitor yields 4 10 10 ⁄ s 10 Z ( s ) = 10 || 10 ⁄ s = ------------------------------. V load ( s ) 98 G v ( s ) = ------------------.100I in ( s ) = --------------------.w).2 × 10 s + 1.1 × 10 ) Then.V S ( s ) 3 14 4 10 7 14 10 + 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 s + 1.1 × 10 and with MATLAB num=[0 0 98].11.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 10 7 14 VS ( s ) ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1.= --------------------------4 10 4 10 10 + 10 ⁄ s 10 s + 10 14 14 4 10 and by the voltage division expression 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 V in ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------.2*10^18 1..I in ( s ) = 98I in ( s ) (1) 2 3 3 10 + 5 × 10 5. den=[10^11 1.1 × 10 ) 14 7 14 and by substitution into (1) we get 98 V load ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1 × 10 ) VS ( s ) V in ( s ) I in ( s ) = --------------.V S ( s ) = ----------------------------------------.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------.1 × 10 3 5 where 10 V S ( s ) ⁄ ( 10 s + 1. bodemag(sys.1 × 10 14 4 10 14 Also. w=logspace(5.V S ( s ) 4 10 7 14 ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1. grid 1-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .den).1*10^24]. 5 × 10 5 × 10 V load ( s ) = ------------------------------.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 2 18 24 VS( s ) 10 s + 1.1 × 10 ) or V load ( s ) 98 G v ( s ) = ------------------.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 4 10 4 10 7 14 Z(s) 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1...

v s (1) R s + R in Also R out R load v load = ---------------------------.G m v in (2) R out + R load Substitution of (1) into (2) yields R out R load R in v load = ---------------------------. i out vs Rs v in R in G m v in R out R load v load By the voltage division expression R in v in = ------------------. 5.= ⎛ ------------------.G m ------------------.v s R out + R load R s + R in R in R out R load v load A v = ---------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises This plot shows a high attenuation of the source voltage v s and thus the transresistance circuit model should not be used as a voltage amplifier.⎞ G m ⎝ R s + R in ⎠ ⎝ R out + R load ⎠ vs Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-31 .⎞ ⎛ ---------------------------.

Partial silicon crystal structure * Valence electrons are those on the outer orbit.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . its characteristics and applications. Silicon has four valence electrons* and Figure 2.1 shows a partial silicon crystal structure in a two-dimensional plane where we observe that atoms combine to form an octet of valence electrons by sharing electrons. The N-type and P-type semiconductors are discussed and majority and minority carriers are defined.1 Electrons and Holes We recall from the Periodic Table of Elements that silicon is classified as a semiconductor and it is widely used in the fabrication of modern technology electronic devices. i. and others. this combination is referred to as covalent bonding. Zener diodes. tunnel diodes. The electron and hole movement is explained and illustrated in simple terms..e. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-1 . electron electron sharing Figure 2. The junction diode.Diodes T his chapter begins with an introduction to semiconductor electronics. The chapter concludes with the introduction of other types of diodes. 2.1.

Free electron and hole movement at random Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . free electron hole Figure 2. the dislodged electron becomes a free electron and thus a vacancy (empty) space is created and it is referred to as a hole. Free electron and the created hole in a partial silicon crystal When a free electron approaches a hole it is attracted and “captured” by that hole. in a silicon crystal that has been thermally agitated we have two types of current movement. free electron 1 2 hole 3 Figure 2. that free electron becomes once again a bound electron and this action is called recombination. The other electrons which stay in the valence orbit are called bound electrons. A new hole has now been created in position 2 and thus we say that the hole has moved from position 1 to position 2. Accordingly.3. Then. the free electron movement and the hole movement.3. Let us now suppose that the bound electron in position 2 is attracted by the hole in position 1. Figure 2.Diodes Thermal (heat) energy can dislodge (remove) an electron from the valence orbit of the silicon atom and when this occurs. in a crystal of pure silicon that has been thermally agitated there is an equal number of free electrons and holes. Next.2.3 shows that a hole exists in position 1. Therefore. the hole in position 2-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 shows a free electron that has escaped from the valence orbit and the hole that has been created. The movement of holes can be best illustrated with the arrangement in Figure 2.

and antimony.5. and gallium. on the other hand. We should also remember that in both N-type and P-type materials. if we connect a voltage source as shown in Figure 2. are added to melted silicon. arsenic.5. f ree electron movement hole movement f ree electron hole Figure 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-3 . aluminum. Hole flow.4. Free electron and hole movement when an external voltage is applied We should keep in mind that holes are just vacancies and not positive charges although they move the same way as positive charges. Si free electron Si hole Si As Si Si = Silicon As = Arsenic Ga = Gallium Si Ga Si Si N – type semiconductor Si P – type semiconductor Figure 2. The silicon is first melted to break down its original crystal structure and then impurity atoms are added.Electrons and Holes 2 may attract the bound electron from position 3 and the hole now appears in position 3. only exists within the material itself. The free electron and hole movement is a random process. This continued process is called hole movement and it is opposite to the free electron movement. current flow in the external circuit consists of electrons moving out of the negative terminal of the battery and into the positive terminal of the battery. The newly formed compound then can be either an N-type semiconductor or a P-type semiconductor depending on the impurity atoms that were added as shown in Figure 2. the hole and free electron movement takes place in an orderly fashion. However.4. N-type and P-type semiconductors * Atoms with five valence electrons are often referred to as pentavalent atoms and atoms with three valence electrons are referred to as trivalent atoms. Doping is a process where impurity atoms* which are atoms with five valence electrons such as phosphorous. or atoms with three valence electrons such as boron.

This is because the donor atoms in the N material were left with positive charges (the protons outnumbered the electrons) after the free electrons became available by covalent bonding. These ions are fixed in place in the crystal lattice structure and cannot move. the holes in the P material diffuse across the junction into the N material and are filled by N material electrons.2 The Junction Diode A junction diode is formed when a piece of P-type material and a piece of N-type material are joined together as shown in Figure 2. 2. Because there is a depletion. reduces the number of free electrons and holes in the vicinity of the junction. A P N Physical Structure B Depletion Region A P N B Symbol Figure 2. while the loss of a hole from the P material created a negative ion in that material. Conversely.6 where the area between the P-type and N-type materials is referred to as the depletion region. On the N side of the junction. it is still electrically neutral.7. An electrostatic field. At the same time. The diffusion of electrons and holes across the junction will continue until the magnitude of the electrostatic field is increased 2-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . there is a layer of negatively charged ions.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . they make up a layer of fixed charges on the two sides of the junction as shown in Figure 2-7. Formation of a junction diode and its symbol We would think that if we join the N and P materials together by one of the processes mentioned earlier. represented by a small battery in the figure. This process. all the holes and electrons would pair up. This does not happen. We should remember that although the N-type material has an excess of free electrons. is established across the junction between the oppositely charged ions. called junction recombination. Thus. The loss of an electron from the N-type material created a positive ion in the N material. the P-type material is also electrically neutral because the excess of holes is exactly balanced by the number of free electrons. on the P side of the junction.6. for every free electron in the N material there is a corresponding positively charged atom to balance it and the N material has a net charge of zero. it is known as the depletion region. there is a layer of positively charged ions.Diodes An N-type semiconductor has more free electrons than holes and for this reason the free electrons are considered to be the majority carriers and the holes the minority carriers. or lack of free electrons and holes in this area. Instead the electrons in the N material diffuse (move or spread out) across the junction into the P material and fill some of the holes. a Ptype semiconductor has more holes than free electrons and thus the holes are the majority carriers and the free electrons are the minority carriers. Therefore. The depletion region is shown in more detail in Figure 2. By the same reasoning.

conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow on the diode symbol. for all practical purposes. If we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the P-type material and the minus (−) side to the N-type as shown in Figure 2. and are repelled by the negative and positive ions respectively.8.9. the electrostatic field created by the positive and negative ions in the depletion region is called a barrier. a forward-biased PN junction is formed. If we reverse the voltage source terminals as shown in Figure 2.9.7. P N Figure 2. Reverse-biased junction diode Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-5 . the movement of carriers across the junction ceases. Only the carriers in the immediate vicinity of the junction are affected. P N Figure 2.8. The PN junction barrier formation The action just described occurs almost instantly when the junction is formed. The carriers throughout the remainder of the N and P material are relatively undisturbed and remain in a balanced condition. a reverse-biased PN junction is formed.The Junction Diode to the point where the electrons and holes no longer have enough energy to overcome it. For this reason. Forward-biased junction diode When a junction diode is forward-biased. At this point equilibrium is established and. Junction Hole Free E lectron Negative Ion Positive Ion Depletion Region Electrostatic Field Figure 2.

These designations and the notations for the voltage V D across the diode and the current I D through the diode are shown in Figure 2. I r is the reverse current.11. ideally no current will flows through the diode. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4. However.10.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .10. q = 1. the coefficient n varies from 1 to 2 depending on the current level and * It is immaterial whether we use the electron current flow or the conventional current flow. VD Anode ID Cathode Figure 2.1) where i D and v D are as shown in Figure 2. q is charge of an electron. ideally i D → 0 .Diodes When a junction diode is reverse-biased. the actual i D – v D relationship in a forward-biased junction diode is the non- linear relation iD = Ir [ e ( qv D ⁄ nkT ) – 1] (2. the current which would flow through the diode if the polarity of v D is reversed. Orchard Publications. Ideal i D – v D characteristics of a junction diode With reference to Figure 2. that is. iD vD Figure 2.6 × 10 – 19 coulomb . Voltage and current designations for a junction diode Figure 2. and when v D < 0 . ideally i D → ∞ .11 we see that when v D > 0 .11 shows the ideal i D – v D characteristics of a junction diode. 2-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The equations for the voltagecurrent relationships are the same as proved in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. that is. The P-type side of the junction diode is also referred to as the anode and the N-type side as the cathode.10 where the direction of the current I D through the diode is the direction of the conventional* current flow.

k ./(n.6 × 10 (2.3) ≈ 26mV Thus. amps').7 V . the current through the diode is i D ≈ 1 mA . iR=10^(−15).1) into one variable V T known as thermal voltage where V T = kT ⁄ q (2. 27 deg C'). It is convenient to combine q . and T is the absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin.The Junction Diode the nature or the recombination near the junction.... Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-7 . grid Figure 2. n = 1 .001: 1. iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (2.. volts').*VT))−1).65 volt or greater.*(exp(vD.38 × 10 – 23 × 300 ⁄ 1. that is. n=1. that is. and temperature at 27 °C . at T = 300 °K we have VT 300 °K = kT ⁄ q = 1.12. xlabel('Diode voltage vD. o T = 273 + temperature in C .4) We will use the MATLAB script below to plot the instantaneous current i D versus the instantaneous voltage v D for the interval 0 ≤ v D ≤ 10 v . n=1.. iD=iR. The curve of Figure 2. axis([0 1 0 0.. vD=0: 0. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow of the diode as long as the voltage drop v D across the diode is about 0.12 shows that in a junction diode made with silicon and an impurity.iD)..2) – 1] – 19 and by substitution into (1).. title('iD−vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode. k = 1. Voltage-current characteristics of a forward-biased junction diode. We also see that at v D = 0.38 × 10 – 23 joule ⁄ Kelvin . ylabel('Diode current iD. plot(vD.01]). and T in (2. k = Boltzmann's constant . VT=26*10^(−3)..

All of the above ratings are subject to change with temperature variations. The maximum current permitted to flow in the forward direction in the form of nonrecurring pulses is referred to as the maximum surge current. 2 for transistors. The maximum reverse-bias voltage that may be applied to a diode without causing junction breakdown is referred to as the Peak Reverse Voltage (PRV) and it is the most important rating. usually 25 °C .13.Diodes When a junction diode is reverse-biased.13 where V Z is referred to as the Zener diode voltage. For instance. We will discuss Zener diodes on the next section. If this rating is exceeded. A typical diode is identified as XNYYYY where X denotes the number of semiconductor junctions (1 for diodes. 2-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The maximum peak current that can be permitted to flow in the forward direction in the form of recurring pulses is referred to as the peak forward current. and 3 a tetrode which has three junctions). The voltage-current characteristics of a reverse biased junction diode are shown in Figure 2. 1N4148 is a semiconductor diode and 2N3904 is a transistor. There are many types of diodes varying in size from the size of a pinhead used in subminiature circuitry. structure breakdown can occur.9. for example. i VZ Avalanche Region 0 v Figure 2. The reverse biased region of a junction diode The maximum amount of average current that can be permitted to flow in the forward direction is referred to as the maximum average forward current and it is specified at a special temperature. Current should not equal this value for more than a few milliseconds. watts) by the manufacturer. and YYYY is an identification number. N identifies the device as a semiconductor.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . If. the operating temperature is above that stated for the ratings. and if these ratings are exceeded. to large 250-ampere diodes used in high-power circuits. the ratings must be decreased. Commercially available diodes are provided with a given rating (volts. We will discuss transistors in Chapter 3. as shown in Figure 2. the diode will burn-out in either the forward-biased or the reverse-biased direction. a very small current will flow and if the applied voltage exceeds a certain value the diode will reach its avalanche or Zener region.

17 where V TH and R TH represent the Thevenin* equivalent voltage and resistance respectively of * For a thorough discussion on Thevenin’s equivalent circuits.15.5 – V D = 1. In the circuit of Figure 2. 2.14.7 = 0. so current flows. we can analyze the circuit using a graphical solution. and thus V out = 0 . so no current flows. Example 2. we will see later that for small signals (voltages or currents) these circuits can be represented by linear equivalent circuit models. refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.1 For the circuit of Figure 2. If a circuit contains only one non-linear device.5 V ID V out 1.5 – 0. Then. A Symbol B A Orientation B Figure 2. the i – v characteristics of the diode D are shown in Figure 2. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4. and all the other devices are linear. and thus V out = 1.16.15.8 V . The procedure is illustrated with the following example. such as a diode. Diodes in DC Circuits In the circuit of Figure 2. Orchard Publications Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-9 . Diode symbol and orientation Diodes are used in various applications where it is desired to have electric current flow in one direction but to be blocked in the opposite direction as shown in Figure 2.3 Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non-Linear Devices As we’ve seen the junction diode i – v characteristics are non-linear and thus we cannot derive the voltage-current relationships with Ohm’s law.Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non-Linear Devices The N side of a typical junction diode has a black band as shown in Figure 2.15(b) the diode is reverse-biased.5 V ID = 0 V out = 0 R ( a ) Forward – biased diode ( b ) Reverse – biased diode Figure 2. VD R 1. we can apply Thevenin’s theorem to reduce the circuit to a Thevenin equivalent in series with the non-linear element.14.15(a) the diode is forward-biased. However.

Diodes another circuit that has been reduced to its Thevenin equivalent. Voltage-current characteristics of the diode of Example 2.17. R TH V TH + − 1V 1 KΩ + vD − D iD Figure 2.1 Figure 2. by KVL vR + vD = 1 V Ri D = – v D + 1 1 1 i D = – --. Then.18 2-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 Solution: The current i D through the diode is also the current through the resistor. We wish to find the voltage v D across the diode and the current i D through this diode using a graphical solution. Circuit for Example 2.v D + --R R (2.5) We observe that (2.5) is an equation of a straight line and two points of this straight line can be obtained by first letting v D = 0 . then i D = 0 .16. We obtain the straight line shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .

Therefore. i R = 0.1 The intersection of the non-linear curve and the load line yields the voltage and the current of the diode where we find that v D ≈ 0. Check: Since this is a series circuit.= e D T Ir Taking the natural logarithm of both sides we get Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-11 .33 mA . Figure 2.Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non-Linear Devices which is plotted on the same graph as the given diode i – v characteristics.67 = 1 V The relation of (2. we want to find the voltage when the current is known. To do that we rewrite (2.18. Quite often. by KVL v R + v D = 0. the voltage drop v R across the resistor is v R = 1 KΩ × 0.3) gives us the current when the voltage is known. Then. the above relation reduces to iD = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (2.67V and i D ≈ 0. This line is referred to as a load line.6) or iD ( v ⁄ nV ) ---.33 mA also. Curves for determining voltage and current in the diode of Example 2.33 V .33 + 0.3) as iD + Ir = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) and since i D » I r .33 mA = 0.

3nV T log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) (2.= 2.8) Example 2.3 log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) 0.= e D2 D1 V D1 ⁄ nV T I D1 I e r V ⁄ nV Taking the natural log of both sides we get 2-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----------------------------.≈ ----------------------.4343 log 10 e and thus (2.3) iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) – 1] iD + Ir = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) and since i D » I r iD ≈ Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) Let I D1 ≈ I r e V D1 ⁄ nV T and I D2 ≈ I r e V D2 ⁄ nV T By division we get I D2 I r e D2 T ( V – V ) ⁄ nV T ------.2 Derive an expression for the voltage change ∆v = V 2 – V 1 corresponding to a current change ∆i = I 2 – I 1 .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .7) may also be written as v D = 2. Solution: From (2.Diodes iD v D ⁄ nV T = ln ---Ir v D = nV T ln ( i D ⁄ I r ) (2.7) Recalling that log b x log ax = ------------log ba we get log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) ln ( i D ⁄ I r ) = log e( i D ⁄ I r ) = -----------------------------.

19. we can now represent a typical junction diode with the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2.19. Compute I r at 52 °C . Straight lines for forward-biased diode characteristics approximations Using the approximation with the straight lines shown in Figure 2. and it is known that for a certain diode I r = 10 Solution: Ir 52 °C – 14 A at 27 °C .( V D2 – V D1 ) nV T I D1 ∆v = V D2 – V D1 = nV T ln ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) = 2.19. Figure 2.Piecewise Linear Approximations I D2 ( V – V ) ⁄ nV T 1 ln ------. = 10 – 14 = 10 – 14 ( 1 + 0.15 ) 25 ≈ 3.15 ) ( 52 – 27 )°C ( 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-13 .3nV T log 10 ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) (2.3 Experiments have shown that the reverse current I r increases by about 15% per 1 °C rise.3 × 10 – 13 A This represents about 97% increase in reverse current when the temperature rises from 27 °C to 52 °C . 2.4 Piecewise Linear Approximations The analysis of electronic circuits that contain diodes is greatly simplified with the use of diode models where we approximate the diode forward-biased characteristics with two straight lines as shown in Figure 2.= ln ( e D2 D1 ) = --------.20.9) Example 2.

the horizontal solid line in Figure 2. and r D = 1 ⁄ slope = 50 × 10 –3 A ⁄ V = 20 Ω .19 represents the small voltage source V D in Figure 2.Diodes VD + − ID ( b ) Piecewise linear equivalent A + rD B ID A B ( a ) Practical diode Figure 2.11.21. rD VD 0V 0.22(a) the diodes are identical and the piecewise linear i – v characteristics are shown in Figure 2. Find the voltage V out .23 we have replaced the diodes by their piecewise linear equivalents and have combined the two parallel resistors. Representation of a practical diode by its piecewise linear equivalent In Figure 2. and the reciprocal of the slope of the line in Figure 2. Circuit and piecewise linear i – v characteristics for Example 2.20.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . i ( ma ) V out 1V 2V 3V 2 KΩ 2 KΩ 0.65 V slope = 1 ⁄ r D Figure 2.22(b). these representations are also illustrated in Figure 2.7 V with the applied voltages. for each branch we have combined the diode voltage V D = 0.4 In the circuit of Figure 2. the diode represents an ideal diode whose i – v characteristics are shown in Figure 2.7 V slope = 50 × 10 –3 A⁄V v (V) (a) (b) Figure 2.20(b). For convenience. The components of a practical junction diode Example 2.20(b).20(b). 2-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .21.19 is represented by the resistance r D shown in Figure 2.22.4 Solution: In Figure 2. Also.

we must conclude that only the diode on the right side conducts and by the voltage division expression V out = ----------------------. diodes.29 ≈ 1. that is.3 – 1.3 V 1000 20 + 1000 2. By Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) I1 + I2 + I3 = I4 V out 0.3 – V out ----------------------.3 V 20 Ω 1.3 ⁄ 1000 = 1.3 – V out 2.= 0 1000 151 V out = 195 V out = 195 ⁄ 151 = 1. Therefore.3 – 1.3 V I4 1 KΩ V out Figure 2.Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes I1 20 Ω 0.3 ≈ 1.3 mA I1 + I2 + I3 ≠ I4 We see that the current I 1 cannot be negative.3 – 1.× 1.+ ----------------------. Also.23.3 V Check: I 1 ≈ ( 0. it cannot flow on the opposite direction of the one shown.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ 0 I 3 = ( 2. Piecewise linear equivalent circuit for Example 2.8 ≤ n ≤ 2.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ 50 mA I 4 = 1.0 are biased to operate at some point in the neighborhood of the relatively linear region of the i – v characteris- Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-15 .= ----------20 20 20 1000 15 – 50V out + 65 – 50V out + 115 – 50V out – V out ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. usually with 1.5 Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes When used with AC circuits of low frequencies.+ ----------------------. the current I 2 is zero.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ – 50 mA I 2 ≈ ( 1.3 V I2 I3 20 Ω 2.4 Let us follow the procedure below to find out if we can arrive to a valid answer.3 – V out 1.

I D ) is shown in Figure 2. The current I D produced by the bias DC voltage V D is ID = Ir e V D ⁄ nV T (2.11) 2-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Figure 2. Junction diode biased at point Q and changes in i D corresponding to changes in v D We can derive an expression that relates v D ( t ) and i D ( t ) in a junction diode. A bias point denoted as Q whose coordinates are Q ( V D.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .24.10) and with an AC voltage v D ( t ) superimposed the sum v T ( t ) of the DC and AC voltages is vT ( t ) = VD + vD ( t ) (2.65 ≤ v D ≤ 0.24 shows how changes in v D ( t ) result in changes in i D ( t ) . iD ( t ) Q t vD ( t ) t Figure 2.8 V .24 for a junction diode with n = 2 .Diodes tics where 0.

The ratio I D ⁄ nV T in (2.x 2! n! (n) (2. R 5mV AC 5 KΩ v out 5V DC Figure 2.13) and the first two terms of the series yield ID i D ( t ) ≈ I D + --------. and it is known that n = 2 . the current through the diode is I D = 1 mA when V D = 0.1 . Its reciprocal nV T ⁄ I D is denoted as r D is called incremental resistance.1 we can use Maclaurin’s series* expansion on (2.x + … + ---------------.10) iD ( t ) = ID e v D ⁄ nV T (2. Circuit for Example 2.Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes The total diode current i T ( t ) = I D + i D ( t ) corresponding to the total voltage of (2. Orchard Publications. ISBN 0-9709511-1-6.7 V . Example 2.26.v D ( t ) nV T (2.11) is iT ( t ) = ID + iD ( t ) = Ir e ( V D + v D ) ⁄ nV T = Ir e V D ⁄ nV T v D ⁄ nV T e and in analogy with (2.14) is denoted as g D and is referred to as incremental conductance.12) using the relation f (0) n f ′′ ( 0 ) 2 f ( x ) = f ( 0 ) + f ′ ( 0 )x + ------------.5 Solution: Replacing the diode with the piecewise linear equivalent we get the circuit of Figure 2.14) is a small-signal approximation and should be used only when v D ⁄ nVT ≤ 0.5 In the circuit of Figure 2.14) We must remember that the approximation in (2.12) If v D ⁄ nV T ≤ 0.25. Find the DC voltage V out and the AC voltage v out at 27 °C where V T = 26 mV . * For a detailed discussion on Taylor and Maclaurin’s series refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Spreadsheets. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-17 .25.

7 = 0.86 × 10 Then. we consider the AC voltage source acting alone by suppressing (shorting out) the DC voltage source to find v out .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .= ------------------------------. 2-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . –3 rD 60.86 × 0. by linear interpolation. the superposition principle applies only to linear circuits.Diodes R 5mV AC 5 KΩ 5V DC iD rD v T out Figure 2.14) and thus –3 nV T 2 × 26 × 10 r D = --------. V D actual = 0.= 60. the current I D is 5 – 0. The piecewise linear equivalent of the circuit of Example 2. by suppressing (shorting out) the AC voltage source to find V out .= 60 µVAC R + rD 5000 + 60.5 × 5 × 10 v D peak = -------------.6 VDC With the AC voltage source acting alone the value of the incremental resistance r D is the reciprocal of (2. that is.7 I D = ---------------.7V = 1mA . With the DC voltage source acting alone and with the assumption that r D « 5 KΩ . V out = 0. v T out = V out + v out .5 Therefore v T out = V out + v out = 0.26.⋅ 5mV = -----------------------------------. However. The total output voltage will be the sum of these two.5 Ω –3 ID 0.86mA 3 5 × 10 and since we are told that I D v = 0.6 V Therefore.= 0.6 VDC + 60 µVAC * Generally.5 We apply the superposition principle* for this example. We fist consider the DC voltage source acting alone. Then. it is also applicable for this example since it is applied to a piecewise linear equivalent circuit.

27 is a half-wave rectifier. The diode is reverse-biased during the negative half-cycle from π to 2π so no current flows.27. The circuit of Figure 2. Orchard Publications. the maximum value of v out will be v out = 10 – 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-19 .Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits 2. Solution: Typically.6 Design a DC voltmeter* that will have a 10 volt full-scale using a milliammeter with 1 milliampere full-scale and internal resistance 20 Ω . a voltmeter is a modified milliammeter where an external resistor R V is connected in series with the milliammeter as shown in Figure 2. the diode is forward-biased during the positive half-cycle from 0 to π of the input voltage v in and so current flows through the diode and resistor where it develops an output voltage drop v out = v in – v D . Half-wave rectifier circuit In the half-wave rectifier circuit of Figure 2. and thus v out = 0 V .27. For instance. a junction diode. v in π iD vD R 2π v out 0 v in v out 0 π 2π Figure 2. ISBN 09709511-2-4. Assume that the diode is ideal.6 Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits Diodes are also used in AC circuits where it is desired to convert AC voltages to DC voltages. and an external resistor R whose value must be found.7 = 9. The input is an AC voltage with a value of 63 volts peak-to-peak.3 V . Example 2.28 where I = current through circuit R M = internal resis tan ce of milliameter R V = external resistor in series with RM V M = voltmeter full scale reading * For a detailed discussion on electronic instruments refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. if the maximum value of v in is 10 V volts.

29. Typical voltmeter circuit Because the available input voltage is AC and we want to read DC (average) values. it follows that Vp – p ⁄ 2 31.= 10 ( 20 + R V )π 31. 100 V .π -----------------.= ---------------------------------------.30(a) shows a half-wave rectifier circuit consisting of a transformer. we insert a junction diode is series as shown in Figure 2.Diodes IM + mA RM RV VM − RV = Voltmeter internal resistance VM= Voltmeter range Figure 2.* a junction diode.5 I peak = I p = --------------------.5 --------------------------.5 ( – cos t ) 0 20 + R V 0 31.= --------------------------Period 2π 2π ( 20 + R V )2π ( 20 + R V )π ∫ 2π ∫ For full-scale reading we want I ave = 1 mA . Therefore. Voltmeter for Example 2. –3 31. * For a detailed discussion on transformers.= -----------------RM + RV 20 + R V and I ave 31.28. and so on and can use any AC waveform with different peak-to-peak values.5 .5 Area 0 = ---------------.5 3 20 + R V = --------. ISBN 0-9709511-59. and we need to find the value of R V so that the meter will read 1 mA full scale but it is now being labeled as 10 V DC. 2-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.= --------------------------. Orchard Publications.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .sin t dt I p sin t dt π 31.6 Since the diode does not conduct during the negative half cycle.× 10 π R V = 10 KΩ Of course. IM mA RM 20 Ω VM RV = ? + 1 mA − Figure 2. Figure 2. we can label our voltmeter for any value such as 50 V .= --------------------------------.29.

the maximum current that the diode will allow without being damaged. As shown in Figure 2. + vS − (a) v + D − + vin − iD R load + v load − v load vin (b) Figure 2.7 V .31.30.30(b). If the applied voltage is v S = V p sin ωt . and Figure 2. then PIV = V p but in practice we must use diodes whose reverse-biased breakdown voltages 70% or greater than the value of V p . ∆ v = v in – v out θ Figure 2.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits and a load resistor. Waveforms for the derivation of conduction angle θ for a half-wave rectifier Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-21 .30(b) shown the waveforms of the input voltage v in and the load voltage v load . and b. The Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) that the diode can withstand without reaching the reversebiased breakdown region. the diode begins conducting sometime after the input voltage shown by the dotted curve rises to about 0. We derive the angle by which the solid curve lags the dotted curve as follows with reference to Figure 2.31. Half-wave rectifier circuit and input and output waveforms When using diodes in rectifier circuits we must calculate: a.

= ----2π Period ∫θ (π – θ) 1 ( V p sin φ – ∆v ) dφ = ----. for simplicity. We start with the definition of the average value.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .Diodes From Figure 2.31 we observe that conduction begins at ∆ v = v in – v out corresponding to angle θ .– -----2 π (2.16) We can also find the average value of the waveform of v out . v in = ∆ v and thus ∆ v = V p sin θ or θ = sin – 1∆ v ⁄ V p (2.17) Figure 2. v in = V p sin x . 1 Area V out ( ave ) = ---------------. Full-wave rectifier circuit 2-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .[ – V p cos ( π – θ ) – ∆v ( π – θ ) + V p cos θ + ∆vθ ] = ----. and the output of that circuit is v out ( t ) = A sin ωt as shown in Figure 2.( – V p cos φ – ∆vφ ) 2π π–θ φ=θ 11V out ( ave ) = ----.34. A + v in ( t ) − D C − R + B + v out ( t ) − Figure 2.[ 2V p cos θ – ( π – 2θ )∆v ] 2π 2π Generally. the angle θ is small and thus cos θ ≈ 1 and ( π – 2θ ) ≈ π . and at x = θ . Therefore.32 shows a full-wave bridge rectifier circuit with input the sinusoid v in ( t ) = A sin ωt as shown in Figure 2. that is.33.15) We also observe that the conduction terminates at the angle ( π – θ ) and therefore the entire conduction angle is ( π – θ ) – θ = ( π – 2θ ) (2. the last relation above reduces to V p ∆v V out ( ave ) ≈ ----.32. The input waveform is a sinusoid of the form v in = V p sin ωt or.

then to Point B. v out lags v in by the angle θ = sin ( 2 ∆ v ⁄ v in ) .32 A vOUT(t) π 2π Figure 2.32 we see that during the positive half cycle conventional current flows from the voltage source to Point A. it goes through the resistor from Point B to Point C. Figure 2. Input waveform for the circuit of Figure 2. the output is zero for an angle 2θ = 2 sin ( 2 ∆ v ⁄ v in ) centered around –1 –1 the zero crossing points.32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-23 . We observe that during both the positive and negative half-cycles the current enters the right terminal of the resistor. current flows from Point D to Point B. Accordingly.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits A vIN(t) π 2π -A Figure 2.31 for the half-wave rectifier. During the negative half cycle the lower terminal of the voltage source becomes the positive terminal. and thus v out is the same for both half-cycles as shown in the output waveform of Figure 2. Also. and through Point A returns to the upper (now negative) terminal of the voltage source. Output waveform for the circuit of Figure 2.35 shows the input and output waveforms of the full-wave bridge rectifier on the same graph.34.32 From Figure 2.35. and through Point D returns to the negative terminal of the voltage source.33. 2 ∆ v = v in – v out θ 2θ Figure 2. Input and output waveforms for the full-wave bridge rectifier of Figure 2. It is to be noted that the difference in amplitude between v in and v out is denoted as 2 ∆ v because in a full-wave bridge rectifier circuit there are two diodes in the conduction path instead of one as shown in Figure 2. it goes through the resistor from Point B to Point C.34.

⎨ ----------------. Orchard Publications 2-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .37 where the inductor and capacitor form a filter to smooth out the pulsating DC.7 * Refer to Chapter 7 of Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Circuit for Example 2.+ … ⎬ π ⎩ 3 15 π ⎭ (2. Full-wave rectifier with centered tapped secondary winding The output voltages v out from the half and full wave rectifiers are often called pulsating DC voltages.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . FF vD + vS − (a) vin + − + vin v − + D − + − + v load − vload vin (b) Figure 2.+ ----------------.36(b) shows the input and output waveforms. + v in ( t ) − − R L + + vR ( t ) − 5H C 10 µF + R load v load 2 KΩ − Figure 2. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7. These voltages can be smoothed-out with the use of electric filters as illustrated with the following example.37. Example 2.7 It is shown* in Fourier Analysis textbooks that the trigonometric Fourier series for the waveform of a full-wave rectifier with even symmetry is given by ⎫ 4A ⎧ cos 2ωt cos 4ωt -----v R ( t ) = 2A – -----.36.36(a) shows a full-wave rectifier with a center-tapped transformer secondary winding and Figure 2.Diodes Figure 2.18) where A is the amplitude and this waveform appears across the resistor R of the full-wave rectifier in Figure 2.

Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits Compute and sketch the voltage v load assuming that v in ( t ) = 120 V RMS operating at the fundamental frequency f = 60 Hz . Phasor equivalent circuit for Example 2.20) and so for n = 0 .38.⎨ ----------------.38 where the inductive reactance is X L = jω n L and the capacitive reactance is X C = 1 ⁄ jω n C . Solution: We replace the given circuit by its phasor equivalent as shown in Figure 2. and 4 and using superposition we will add these three terms.7 For simplicity.– -----. we let Z 1 = j5ω n and 8 2 × 10 × 10 ⁄ j ω n 2 × 10 Z 2 = -------------------------------------------.V R 8 5 3 Z1 + Z2 j5ω n + ( 2 × 10 ) ⁄ ( 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n ) ( 2 × 10 ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. vR ( t ) n=0 2A = -----π Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-25 .19) We will now compute the components of V load for n = 0. 2.V R 5 3 8 ( j5ω n ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n ) + ( 2 × 10 ) 8 8 5 3 (2. + V in − − R Z1 + + VR − j5ω n 10 ⁄ j ω n 5 Z2 + V load 2 × 10 3 − Figure 2.+ ----------------.= ---------------------------------------------3 5 5 3 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n 2 × 10 + 10 ⁄ j ω n 3 5 By the voltage division expression V load Z2 ( 2 × 10 ) ⁄ ( 10 + 2 × 10 × jω n ) = ----------------.+ … ⎬ π ⎩ 3 15 π ⎭ (2.V R = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. We were given that ⎫ 2A 4A ⎧ cos 2ωt cos 4ωt v R ( t ) = -----.

19) V load Z2 = ----------------..∠0°⎞ = – 0.∠0° 15π and in the phasor ( jω ) domain VR n=4 2-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .20) vR ( t ) n=2 4A = – -----.cos 754t 3π 4A = – -----.0364 ans = -176..20) vR ( t ) n=4 4A= – -------.1° ⎝ 3π ⎠ (2.cos 1508t 15π 4A = – -------.0154A ∠– 176.V R Z1 + Z2 n=2 4A = ( 0.∠0° 3π and in the phasor ( jω ) domain VR n=2 Then.22) For n = 4 . V load n=2 Z2 = ----------------.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . V load n=0 2A = V R = -----π (2. 4ω = 4 × 2πf = 8 × π × 60 = 1.. angle(bracket1)*180/pi ans = 0.Diodes and since for this DC case the inductor is just a short and the capacitor an open.0682 Therefore. abs(bracket1).0364 ∠– 176. bracket1=(2*10^8)/((j*5*754)*(10^5+2*10^3*j*754)+2*10^8).V R Z1 + Z2 ( 2 × 10 ) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 2ω = 2 × 2πf = 4 × π × 60 = 754 r ⁄ s and from (2. 508 r ⁄ s and from (2.V R 5 3 8 ( j5 × 754 ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 × j754 ) + ( 2 × 10 ) 8 n=2 n=2 We will use MATLAB to find the magnitude and phase angle of the bracketed expression above.1° ) × ⎛ – -----. from (2.21) For n = 2 .

1 ) ) (2.21).19) V load Z2 = ----------------.0154..22).*(2.0089 ans = -178.1° ⎝ 15π ⎠ (2.. and (2.*t−176. bracket2=(2*10^8)/((j*5*1508)*(10^5+2*10^3*j*1508)+2*10^8).. xlabel('Time (sec)'). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-27 . plot(t..V R Z1 + Z2 n=4 4A= ( 0.1° ) (2.1° ) × ⎛ – -------.(40/pi-0. from (2.00076.23) Combining (2. −0.*cos(2.. vL=20.vL). plot(t. Let us plot (2..*377.00076 ∠– 178. hold on./180).39 and we observe that the ripple is approximately ± 0.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits Then. grid The plot is shown in Figure 2. t=0: 1: 2000./180)).1..23) we get V load = V load n=0 + V load n=2 + V load n=4 = A ( 2 ⁄ π – 0.0154)). (2.*pi.7'). V load n=4 Z2 = ----------------..∠0°⎞ = – 0. axis([0 2000 0 20]).00076 cos ( 4ωt – 178.*pi..0841 Therefore..0154 ∠– 176.*cos(4.25) using MATLAB with A = 20 and ω = 377 ./pi−0.V R 5 3 8 ( j5 × 1508 ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 × j1508 ) + ( 2 × 10 ) 8 n=2 n=2 We will again use MATLAB to find the magnitude and phase angle of the bracketed expression above.5 V about the average (DC) value.24) and in the time domain v load ( t ) = A ( 2 ⁄ π – 0.00076A ∠– 178. axis([0 2000 0 20]).V R Z1 + Z2 ( 2 × 10 ) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.*t−178.*377.. ylabel('Load voltage (vL)').1° ) – 0. abs(bracket2).089 ∠– 178.1.0154 cos ( 2ωt – 176. angle(bracket2)*180/pi ans = 0.1° – 0.25) and this is the filtered output voltage across the 2 KΩ resistor. title('Filtered output voltage for Example 2.

Figure 2.41(b). Peak rectifier circuit The peak rectifier circuit shown in Figure 2.36 2.40(b) shows the input v in and output v out waveforms and we observe that the value of v out is approximately equal to the peak of the input sinewave v in .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .39. Voltage across the 2 KΩ resistor in Figure 2.7 Peak Rectifier Circuits The circuit of Figure 2. when v in starts decreasing. We have assumed that the diode is ideal and thus as v in is applied and reaches its positive peak value.Diodes Figure 2.40(a) will behave like an AC to DC converter if we add a resistor across the capacitor as shown in Figure 2. the voltage v out across the capacitor assumes the same value. assuming that the diode is ideal and that the time constant τ = RC is much greater than the discharge interval.41(a). the voltage across the resistor-capacitor combination will be as shown in Figure 2. 2-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the diode becomes reverse-biased and the voltage across the capacitor remains constant since there is no path to discharge.40. However. + vin (a) v out v out − vin (b) Figure 2. Then.40(a) is referred to as peak rectifier.

we can simplify (2.– ---. RC » T .41(b) we see that the average output voltage V out ( ave ) when the diode conducts is 1 V out ( ave ) = V p – -. we can express (2.41. we need to find an expression for V pp ( ripple ) when the diode does not conduct. Also.⎞ ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ RC ⎠ ⎠ = Vp ( 1 – e – ( t ⁄ RC ) * Refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.Peak Rectifier Circuits V pp ( ripple ) iD + vin − R iR iC + v out C − v out v in = V p sin ωt t (a) T ( period ) (b) Figure 2. that is.41(b) se see that peak-to-peak ripple voltage V pp ( ripple ) can be made sufficiently small by choosing the time constant τ = RC much larger that the period T .28) by recalling that e –x x x = 1 – x + ---. We recall from basic circuit theory* that in an simple RC circuit the capacitor voltage v C discharges as the decaying exponential v C = v out = V p e – ( t ⁄ RC ) – ( t ⁄ RC ) (2.+ … 2! 3! e –x 2 3 and for small x .28) as V pp ( ripple ) = V p – V p e – ( t ⁄ RC ) ≈1–x T) = V p ⎛ 1 – 1 – ⎛ – ------. Therefore.V pp ( ripple ) 2 (2. from Figure 2. Peak rectifier used as an AC to DC converter From the waveforms of Figure 2.28) or v out = V p – V pp ( ripple ) = V p e and since we want RC » T . Orchard Publications Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-29 .27) (2. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4.26) Next.

43.43 shows a clipper circuit and its input-output characteristics where the diode does not conduct for v in > – 0.6 V and so v out = v in . This circuit is effectively a combination of the clipper circuits shown in Figures 2. This circuit is often referred to as a hard limiter.42 shows a clipper circuit and its input-output characteristics where the diode does not conduct for v in < 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .7 V Figure 2.42.7 V when v in ≥ 0.7 and for this interval v out = v in .Diodes or V pp ( ripple ) = V p ------RC T (2.7 V .7 V Figure 2. resistors. 2-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29) we observe that for V pp ( ripple ) to be small. we must make RC » T 2.7 V and thus v out ≈ 0. R 0.7 V if v in ≤ – 0. Circuit where v out = v in if diode does not conduct and v out ≈ – 0. Circuit where v out = v in when diode does not conduct and v out ≈ 0.8 Clipper Circuits Clipper (or limiter) circuits consist of diodes.7 V and thus v out ≈ – 0. The input-output characteristics of clipper circuits are typically those of the forward-biased and reverse-biased diode characteristics except that the output is clipped to a a certain level.43 and both diodes are not conducting when – 0.29) and from (2. Figure 2. The diode conducts for v in ≥ 0. one or the other diode conducts.44 shows a clipper circuit with two diodes in parallel with opposite polarities.7 ≤ v in ≤ 0.6 V but it conducts for v in ≤ 0.42 and 2.7 V . Clipper circuits are used in applications where it is necessary to limit the input to another circuit so that the latter would not be damaged. Outside this interval.7 V v out + vin − + − v out vin Figure 2.7 V vin + vin − Figure 2. and sometimes DC sources to clip or limit the output to a certain level. R v out + − v out − – 0.

7 V VA v out − − vin Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.7 V if it conducts Example 2.46.8 For the circuit of Figure 2. Circuit where v out = v in if diode does not conduct and v out ≈ VA + 0. R + vin − VA + + − v out − VA + 0.7 V . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-31 .7 and v out ≈ ± 0.45.7 V − R + vin − vin − – 0. Circuit where v out = v in when – 0. and r D « R . the diodes are identical with v D = 0.44. R + vin − + D1 VA + − R D2 VB − v + out R I D1 I D2 − Figure 2.45.7 ≤ v in ≤ 0. This can be accomplished by placing a DC source in series with the diode as shown in Figure 2.Clipper Circuits v out + v out − 0.7 . all three resistors have the same value. Derive expressions for and sketch the v out – v in characteristics.7 V Figure 2.7 V outside this interval Occasionally. it is desirable to raise the limit level to a value other than v out ≈ ± 0. Then.8 Solution: Diode D 1 conducts when v in > VA and under this condition diode D 2 does not conduct. VA = V B with the polarities shown.46.

= -------------------------------R+R 2R ( v in – VA – 0.33) For range – V B < v in < V A .= 0.5 ( v in – V B – 0.32) and v in – V B + 0.31) Diode D 2 conducts when v in < – V B and under this condition diode D 1 does not conduct.7 + VA + R ------------------------------------.9 DC Restorer Circuits A DC restorer (or clamped capacitor) is a circuit that can restore a DC voltage to a desired DC level. * Refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.48 is a DC restorer and its operation can be best explained with an example.7 + VA + RI D1 = 0.7 v in – ( VA + v D ) -----------------------------------. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4. Example 2.7 ) 2R (2. The circuit of Figure 2.7 v in – ( V B – v D ) I D2 = – -----------------------------------.Diodes v in – VA – 0.7 – V B – R ⎛ – ---------------------------------⎞ = 0.7 ) v out1 = 0. we get v in – V B + 0. v out = v in . in accordance with the passive sign convention*. and the v out – v in characteristics are shown in Figure 2. Then. Compute and sketch the waveform for the output v out .5 ( v in + VA + 0.7 v out2 = – 0.49. the input v in is as shown in Figure 2.9 For the circuit of Figure 2.= – --------------------------------R+R 2R (2.47.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . Orchard Publications 2-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8 2.7 ) ⎝ ⎠ 2R (2. The v out – v in characteristics for the circuit of Example 2.7 – V B – R I D1 = – 0.30) and (2.48.47. v out v out1 − vin − – v out2 Figure 2.

We observe that there is no path for the capacitor to discharge and therefore v C = 5 V always.48.48 we observe that the diode conducts only when v in < 0 and thus the capacitor charges to the negative peak of the input which for this example is – 5 V .10 Voltage Doubler Circuits The circuit of Figure 2.51 is referred to as a voltage doubler.48. DC Restorer circuit v in ( V ) t –5 5 Figure 2.Voltage Doubler Circuits − + − vin C + iD + v out − Figure 2. and the capacitor voltage is v C = 5 V with polarity as shown in Figure 2. Since v out = v in + v C . Input waveform for the circuit of Example 2.49. when v in = – 5 V . When the input voltage is positive. and v out = 5 + 5 = 10 V . v out = – 5 + 5 = 0 and the output has shifted upwards to zero volts as shown in Fig- ure 2.9 Solution: From the circuit of Figure 2.50. Output waveform for the circuit of Example 2.50. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-33 . v in = 5 V . v out ( V ) 10 t Figure 2. The waveform for the output voltage is as shown in Figure 2.9 2.50.

v out 0 t –Vp – 2V p Figure 2. the peak value V p of the input v in appears across the capacitor C 1 of and thus v D1 = 0 .40 and 2. During the positive half-cycle of the input waveform diode D 1 conducts.11 Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits Junction diodes are also used in AM radio signals to remove the lower envelope of a modulated signal.48. capacitor C 2 is being charged to a voltage which is the sum of v in v C1 and thus the output voltage is v out = v in + v C1 = – V p sin ωt – V p sin ωt = – 2 V p sin ωt = – 2v in as shown in Figure 2. we observe that the circuit of Figure 2.51 is a combination of a DC restorer circuit consisting of the capacitor C 1 and diode D 1 and a peak rectifier consisting of C 2 and diode D 2 . 2-34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it is described in electronic communications systems books.51. A voltage doubler circuit With reference to the circuits of Figures 2. 2.52.Diodes + − vin v in = V p sin ωt C1 D1 + + v D1 − D2 C2 v out = – 2 v in − Figure 2. A typical AM Envelope Detector circuit is shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .51 Voltage triplers and voltage quadruplers can also be formed by adding more diodes and capacitor to a voltage doubler. Output waveform for the voltage doubler circuit of Figure 2. It is beyond the scope of this text to describe the operation of this circuit.53.52. Our intent is to show the application of the junction diode in such circuits. During the negative half-cycle of the input waveform diode D 2 conducts.

53 2.55.12 Diode Applications in Frequency Modulation (FM) Detection Circuits Figure 2.53 capacitor C 2 and resistor R 2 form a high-pass filter that removes the carrier frequency.53. and the output v out is the audio signal as shown in waveform (c). The circuit of Figure 2.55 shows how junction diodes can be used in FM circuits. which varies in accordance with the input audio frequency.Diode Applications in Frequency Modulation (FM) Detection Circuits + vin − C1 R1 C2 R2 + v out − Figure 2. Typical AM Envelope Detector circuit The operation of an AM audio frequency signal is shown in Figure 2.54. In the circuit of Figure 2. Foster-Seely discriminator circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-35 .54 where v in is the modulated signal shown as waveform (a). Audio Frequency Frequency modulated carrier Figure 2. and produce the audio frequency at its output.55 is known as the Foster-Seely discriminator and it is used to remove the carrier. Audio signal Carrier frequency (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. Input and output signals for the circuit of Figure 2. the diode removes the lower envelope and the upper envelope is as shown in waveform (b).

10 below illustrates how a Zener diode accomplishes this. The Zener diode is always connected as a reverse-biased diode and its voltage rating V Z and the maximum power it can absorb are given by the manufacturer. Example 2. Zener diode operating region These diodes are called Zener diodes and they are designed to operate in the breakdown region.Diodes 2. Symbol for a Zener diode Zener diodes from small voltage ratings of 5 volts to large voltage ratings of 250 volts are commercially available and we can calculate the maximum current that a Zener diode can withstand from its voltage and power ratings. For instance. i VZ 0 v Figure 2. The Zener diode symbol is shown in Figure 2.56. + IZ − VZ Figure 2.56.58 it is required that the output voltage v out remains constant at 25 volts regardless of the value variations of the load resistor R L .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .57. a 2 watt. Calculate the output voltage v out for both circuits and then show how a 25 volt Zener diode can be used with these circuits to keep the output voltage constant at 25 volts. One important application of the Zener diode is in voltage regulation. 25 volt Zener diode can withstand a maximum current of 80 milliamperes.57.10 For the circuits (a) and (b) of Figure 2.13 Zener Diodes By special manufacturing processes the reverse voltage breakdown of a diode can be made almost vertical as shown on the i – v characteristics curve of Figure 2. 2-36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A voltage regulator is a circuit or device that holds an output voltage constant during output load variations. Example 2.

VS = ------------------------------------.58.11 below is a more realistic example and shows that a Zener diode may or may not conduct depending on the value of the load resistor. 20 KΩ load v out1 = -------------------------. To improve the regulation we connect a 25 volt Zener diode in parallel with the load as shown in Figure 2. for the circuit of Figure 2. Thus.59. RS RS + VS − 40 V 20 KΩ R load 20 KΩ IZ + V = 25 V − Z VS + − 40 V + 20 KΩ R load + IZ + − 60 KΩ − V Z = 25 V (a) (b) Figure 2.58(a) the output voltage v out1 is found by application of the voltage division expression.40 V = 30 V 20 KΩ + 60 KΩ RS + R load2 R These calculations show that as the load R load varies from 20 KΩ to 60 KΩ the output voltage varies from 20 volts to 30 volts and this variation indicates a poor voltage regulation. Example 2.10 Solution: For the circuit of Figure 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-37 .10 we did not take into consideration the manufacturer’s specifications.10 with Zener diodes to improve regulation In Example 2.40 V = 20 V 20 KΩ + 20 KΩ RS + R load1 R Likewise. Circuits for Example 2.Zener Diodes RS RS + 20 KΩ VS R load v out1 − 40 V 20 KΩ − + (a) + 20 KΩ VS v out2 R load − 40 V 60 KΩ − + (b) Figure 2. Circuits for Example 2.59 and the output voltages v out1 and v out2 will be the same. 25 volts. The Zener diode model is very similar to the junction diode model and it is shown in Figure 2.58(b) the output voltage v out2 is 60 KΩ L v out2 = -------------------------.VS = ------------------------------------. that is.60.

Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .11 For the circuit of Figure 2. RS + VS 1 KΩ 24 V IZ + VZ R load + − V load − − Figure 2. VZ0 i 0 Slope = 1 ⁄ r D v Figure 2.60.63 represents the current where the Zener diode begins entering the breakdown region. The current I ZBD in Figure 2. The Zener diode model where V Z0 and r Z are as shown in Figure 2.11 2-38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example 2. V Z0 is v -axis intercept of the straight line with slope 1 ⁄ r Z and r Z = ∆v ⁄ ∆i . the manufacturer’s datasheet for the Zener diode shows that V Z = 10 V when I Z = 6 mA . Definitions of V Z0 and r Z Thus. the incremental resistance r Z of a Zener diode is typically about 20 Ω and it is specified by the manufacturer. Like the incremental resistance r D of a junction diode.Diodes + IZ VZ + V − Z0 rZ V = V + rZ I Z Z0 Z − Figure 2.62.62. Circuit for Example 2. The datasheet provides also the i – v characteristics but the value of V Z0 is not given.61.61.

c.Zener Diodes VZ0 0 i v ∆i Slope = -----. Graph for Example 2. From Figure 2.11 Compute: a. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-39 . The minimum value of the load resistor R load for which the Zener diode will be conducting in the breakdown region. d. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is connected and adjusted to 1 KΩ .63. VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ (2.60.04 r Z = ∆v ⁄ ∆i = 1 ⁄ 0.34) and replacing the Zener diode by its equivalent we get the circuit shown in Figure 2.04 ∆v I ZBD = 0.64 where the slope is 1 ⁄ r Z = ∆i ⁄ ∆v = 0.34). The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is disconnected.04 = 25 Ω RS + VS 1 KΩ 24 V IZ + − VZ0 rZ + V load − − Figure 2.= 0. Solution: a.3 mA Figure 2.64. b. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is connected and adjusted to 200 Ω . Zener diode replaced by its equivalent circuit and the load is disconnected From (2.

V load 8.4 × 10 ' –3 = 8.66.5 V and VS – VZ0 24 – 8. When the load resistor is connected and adjusted to 1 KΩ the circuit is as shown in Figure 2.53 8. When the load resistor is connected and adjusted to 200 Ω the circuit is as shown in Figure 2.4mA ' and thus the output voltage will be V load = VZ0 + rZ I Z = 8.8 % change = -------------------.5 + 25 × 15.= ----------------------.= ------.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . Circuit of Example 2.5 V The percent change in output voltage is 8.65.2 × 10 –3 = 8.2 mA 1000 + 25 RS + rZ Thus v out = VZ0 + rZ IZ = 8.8 V b.8 mA 3 R load 10 This means that the Zener diode current I Z will be reduced to I Z = 15.× 100 = – 3.5 c.8 = 6. Then. RS VS + − 1 KΩ 24 V VZ0 + − rZ I load R load + V load − 1 KΩ IZ Figure 2.8 I load ≈ -----------.2 – 8.11 with load resistor connected and adjusted to 1 KΩ We will assume that the Zener diode still operates well within the breakdown region so that the addition of the load resistor does not change the output voltage significantly.65.5 + 25 × 6.5 IZ = ------------------.5 – 8.= 15.Diodes VZ0 = VZ – rZ IZ = 10 – 25 × 6 × 10 –3 = 8.= 8. 2-40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Therefore. Then.7 I RS = -------------------------. with the Zener diode branch being an open circuit. Circuit of Example 2. From the graph of Figure 2. V load 8. by the voltage division expression we get R load 200 V load = -----------------------.3 mA 3 RS 10 This is the total current supplied by the V S source and since I ZBD = 0.11 with load resistor connected and adjusted to 200 Ω We will again assume that the Zener diode still operates well within the breakdown region so that the addition of the load resistor does not change the output voltage significantly.3 mA . whose value is to be determined.3 = 14 mA Therefore. d. the current I RS through the resistor which would allow the Zener diode to conduct will be V S – V ZBD 24 – 9.V S = -------------------------. then V ZBD ≈ 9.2 mA found in (a).66.7 V .7 R load = ------------.= 693 Ω –3 I load 14 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-41 .8 I load ≈ -----------.× 24 = 4 V 1000 + 200 R S + R load and since this voltage is less than 10 V the Zener diode does not conduct.= -------.= -----------------.= 14.63 it is reasonable to assume that when I ZBD = 0.3 – 0.3 mA . the current through the load resistor.= ---------------------. will be I load = I RS – I ZBD = 14. Then.Zener Diodes RS VS + − 1 KΩ 24 V VZ0 + − I load R load + V load − IZ rZ 200 Ω Figure 2. we conclude that the Zener diode does not conduct and.= 44 mA R load 200 But this is almost three times higher than the current of IZ = 15. V ZBD 9.

metal n – type electrode material (a) (b) Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . Figure 2. Figure 2.Diodes Zener diodes can also be used as limiters. v in v out v out vin + VZ + − VZ − – 0. The components of a Schottky diode and its symbol 2-42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .68.14 The Schottky Diode A Schottky diode is a junction of a lightly doped n -type semiconductor with a metal electrode as shown in Figure 2.67 shows how a single Zener diode can be used to limit one side of a sinusoidal waveform to V Z while limiting the other side to approximately zero.7 V Figure 2. Zener limiter with one Zener diode Figure 2. Zener limiter with two opposing Zener diodes 2.69.69(a). v in + + v out − v out – VZ vin − VZ Figure 2.68 shows a circuit with two opposing Zener diodes limiting the input waveform to V Z on both polarities.69(b) shows the Schottky diode symbol.67.

70. In 1958.15 The Tunnel Diode The conventional junction diode uses semiconductor materials that are lightly doped with one impurity atom for ten-million semiconductor atoms.5 volt compared to the 0.70. The forward voltage drop of a conducting Schottky diode is typically 0. Leo Esaki. Also because of the heavy doping.with a special metal electrode can produce a very fast switching diode which is mainly used in high (up to 5 MHz) frequency circuits or high speed digital circuits.8 found in silicon junction diodes. Since there are no minority carriers (holes) the conduction stops quickly and changes to reverse-bias. a tunnel diode exhibits an unusual current-voltage characteristic curve as compared with that of an ordinary junction diode. a Japanese scientist. When the diode is forward-biased.usually n -type . Tunnel diode characteristics and symbol Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-43 . In a tunnel diode the semiconductor materials used in forming a junction are doped to the extent of one-thousand impurity atoms for ten-million semiconductor atoms. Schottky diodes find wide application as rectifiers for high frequency signals and also are used in the design of galliun arsenide circuits. This heavy doping produces an extremely narrow depletion zone similar to that in the Zener diode.6 to 0. the electrons move from the n -type material to the metal and give up their energy quickly. then the current decreases with an increasing forward bias to a minimum current (point 2 to 3). The characteristic curve for a tunnel diode and its symbol are shown in Figure 2. it will have a region of negative resistance. Conduction occurs in the normal junction diode only if the voltage applied to it is large enough to overcome the potential barrier of the junction.) i 2 4 3 1 v Figure 2.3 to 0. This low doping level results in a relatively wide depletion region. discovered that if a semiconductor junction diode is heavily doped with impurities. From Figure 2. This type of diode is known as tunnel diode.70 we see that the current increases to a peak value with a small applied forward bias voltage (point 1 to 2). 2.The Tunnel Diode The junction of a doped semiconductor . and it starts increasing again with further increases in the bias voltage point 3 to 4.

The unijunction transistor.71. silicon is not used in the manufacturing of tunnel diodes. a tunnel diode whose i – v characteristics are as shown. and 150 mV respectively.72. Typical values of I P ⁄ V P are 3.Diodes The portion of the characteristic curve between points 2 and 3 is the region of negative resistance and an explanation of why a tunnel diode has a region of negative resistance is best understood by using energy levels discussed in semiconductor physics texts.12 A DC voltage source. and a resistor are connected in series as shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . Tunnel diode oscillator circuit Because the negative resistance region of the tunnel diode is its most important characteristic.65 V . 55. 6 for germanium. has similar oscillator characteristics. Find the current i 2-44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it is desirable that the so-called peak-to-valley ratio I P ⁄ V P must be quite high. and the corre- sponding values of V P are 65. to be discussed in Chapter 4. Example 2. The voltage at which the current begins to rise again is denoted as V V and typical values for silicon. 350. The “reverse” direction corresponds to the conventional forward direction so that the “reverse” breakdown voltage is typically 0. and 500 mV respectively. and 15 for gallium arsenide (GaAs). germanium. For this reason.71. The backward diode is also used in circuits with small amplitude waveforms. The negative resistance characteristic makes the tunnel diode useful in oscillators and microwave amplifiers.5 for silicon. A variation of the tunnel diode is the backward diode that is used as a rectifier in which “forward” (p side negative) direction occurs without the usual voltage offset of a conventional junction diode. A typical tunnel diode oscillator is shown in Figure 2. R1 Tunnel diode i + DC bias R2 R3 L C + v out − v out DC bias point v − Figure 2. and GaAs are 420.

(2. i ≈ 4 mA .73. Then.5 0. and with these values we draw the load line shown in Figure 2.29 V . and when V TD ≈ 0.1 0. the symbol for a varactor is as shown in Figure 2.4 0.6 V 20 Ω 30 20 10 0 v (V) i ( mA ) 0.11 V .3 0. i = 0.6 V (2.35) reduces to V TD = 0. Graphical solution for the determination of the current i for the circuit of Figure 2. Circuit and tunnel diode i – v characteristics for Example 2. We observe that when V TD ≈ 0. V TD + V R = 0.12 Solution: Let the voltage across the tunnel diode be V TD and the voltage across the resistor be V R . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-45 .The Varactor 40 i 0. i ≈ 16 mA .6 0. is a diode that behaves like a variable capacitor.72.73.52 V .6 and when V TD = 0 . or varicap.1 0.3 0.4 0.16 The Varactor The varactor. i ( mA ) 30 20 10 0 v (V) 0.72 2.6 V or V TD + 20i = 0.2 0. i ≈ 25 mA . with the PN junction functioning like the dielectric and plates of a common capacitor.7 Figure 2.5 0.6 ⁄ 20 = 30 mA .7 Figure 2. when V TD ≈ 0.74. For this reason.2 0.6 0.35) When i = 0 .

A light-emitting diode. Typical capacitance values are small. was developed to replace the fragile. or away from them.76. or amber.76 where the arrows indicate light leaving the diode. when forward biased. green. + + R vin − VC L v out − Figure 2.75 shows a typical varactor tuning circuit where the DC control voltage V C changes the capacitance of the varactor to form a resonant circuit. Figure 2. if they produce light. Symbol for LED 2-46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Symbol for varactor A varactor diode uses a PN junction in reverse bias and has a structure such that the capacitance of the diode varies with the reverse voltage. Presently. produces visible light. The first of these. short-life incandescent light bulbs used to indicate on/off conditions on instrument panels. The circuit symbols for all optoelectronic devices have arrows pointing either toward them.Diodes Figure 2. Figure 2. depending upon the material used to make the diode. in the order of picofarads.75.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .17 Optoelectronic Devices Optoelectronic devices either produce light or use light in their operation. The LED is designated by a standard diode symbol with two arrows pointing away from the cathode as shown in Figure 2. varactors are replacing the old variable capacitor tuning circuits as in television tuners. A voltage controlled capacitance is useful in tuning applications. the light-emitting diode (LED).74. The light may be red. A varactor tuner circuit 2. if they use light.

In total darkness. Basically. Laser diodes are LEDs specifically designed to produce coherent light with a narrow bandwidth and are suitable for CD players and optical communications. which produces light. However. it has a relatively high resistance and therefore conducts little current. and as displays for pocket calculators where they form seven-segment displays. the photodiode is a light-controlled variable resistor. For this reason. if negative voltage is applied to all cathodes the number 8 is produced. Seven-segment displays are also available in common-cathode form.77. a number is formed. frequency counters. The life expectancy of the LED is very long. when the PN junction is exposed to an external light source.77.000 hours of operation. over 100.77 the anodes are internally connected. the manufacturer’s number should be checked. and if a negative voltage is changed and applied to all cathodes except LED b and e the number 5 is displayed. about 1. Since both types look alike.Optoelectronic Devices The LED operating voltage is small. internal resistance decreases and current flow increases. etc. one must ensure the replacement display is the same type as the faulty display. in which all cathodes are at the same potential. When replacing LED displays. a f g e d c b Figure 2. Another optoelectronic device in common use today is the photodiode. LEDs arranged for seven segment display In Figure 2. as shown in Figure 2. The photodiode is operated with reverse-bias and conducts current in direct proportion to the intensity of the light Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-47 . When a negative voltage is applied to the proper cathodes. LEDs are used widely as “power on” indicators of digital voltmeters. the photodiode receives light and converts it to electrical signals. For example. Unlike the LED.6 volts forward bias and generally about 10 milliamperes.

The device is finding widespread application in communications satellites and solar-powered homes.79.78. Like the photodiode. The symbol for a photodiode is shown in Figure 2. a typical light-to-dark resistance ratio for a photocell is 1: 1000. for example. A phototransistor is another optoelectronic device that conducts current when exposed to light. An older device that uses light in a way similar to the photodiode is the photoconductive cell. Figure 2.78 where the arrows pointing toward the diode indicate that light is required for operation of the device. The symbol for a photocell is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .Diodes source. We will discuss phototransistor in the next chapter. the automatic street light controllers in most cities. shown with its schematic symbol in Figure 2. Of course.80. A solar cell acts much like a battery when exposed to light and produces about 0.79. with current capacity determined by its size. Symbol for photocell A solar cell is another device that converts light energy into electrical energy. solar cells may be connected in series or parallel to produce higher voltages and currents. or photocell. and for this reason are extremely useful in digital applications such as photographic light meters and optical scanning equipment. and so forth.79. or from 2000 ohms in the light to 2000 kilohms in the dark. This means that its resistance could range from 1000 ohms in the light to 1000 kilohms in the dark. Symbol for solar cell 2-48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . other ratios are also available.80. Symbol for photodiode Switching the light source on or off changes the conduction level of the photodiode and varying the light intensity controls the amount of conduction. Photodiodes respond quickly to changes in light intensity. Figure 2. the photocell is a light-controlled variable resistor. However.45 V volt across its terminals. As with batteries. Photocells are used in various types of control and timing circuits as. The symbol for a solar cell is shown in Figure 2.

81. Their most important application is in fiber optic communications links. sometimes referred to as an optoisolator.Optoelectronic Devices Figure 2.81 shows an optical coupler. An optical coupler Isolation between the input and output is desirable because it reduces electromagnetic interference. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-49 . LED Photodiode Figure 2. The latter name is derived from the fact that it provides isolation between the input and output. It consists of an LED and a photodiode and each of these devices are isolated from each other.

v D is the voltage drop across the diode.Diodes 2.18 Summary • In a crystal of pure silicon that has been thermally agitated there is an equal number of free electrons and holes. q = 1. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow on the diode symbol. and antimony. and T is the o absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin. are added to melted silicon. k = 1. that is.38 × 10 – 23 – 19 joule ⁄ Kelvin . A free electron is one which has escaped from its valence orbit and the vacancy it has created is called a hole. the coefficient n varies from 1 to 2 depending on the current level and the nature or the recombination near the junction. When a junction diode is forward-biased. that is. It is conve- 2-50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . aluminum. • A junction diode is formed when a piece of P-type material and a piece of N-type material are joined together. T = 273 + temperature in C . • The electrostatic field created by the positive and negative ions in the depletion region is called a barrier. or atoms with three valence electrons such as boron. • A forward-biased PN junction is formed if we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the P-type material and the minus (−) side to the N-type. arsenic. that is. • The P-type side of the junction diode is also referred to as the anode and the N-type side as the cathode. • Doping is a process where impurity atoms which are atoms with five valence electrons such as phosphorous. k = Boltzmann's constant . and gallium.6 × 10 coulomb . • An N-type semiconductor has more free electrons than holes and for this reason the free electrons are considered to be the majority carriers and the holes the minority carriers. the current which would flow through the diode if the polarity of v D is reversed. • The i D – v D relationship in a forward-biased junction diode is the nonlinear relation iD = Ir [ e ( qv D ⁄ nkT ) – 1] where i D is the current through the diode. that is. The area between the P-type and N-type materials is referred to as the depletion region. I r is the reverse current. q is charge of an electron. • A P-type semiconductor has more holes than free electrons and thus the holes are the majority carriers and the free electrons are the minority carriers. • A reverse-biased PN junction is formed if we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the N-type material and the minus (−) side to the P-type.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .

65 volt or greater. the current through the diode is i D ≈ 1 mA . diodes. denoted as r D . Commercially available diodes are provided with a given rating (volts.8 V . A bias point.1 .65 ≤ v D ≤ 0. A filter is used at the output to obtain a relatively constant output with a small ripple. • The ratio I D ⁄ nV T . In a typical junction diode at v D = 0. is called incremental resistance.0 are biased to operate at some point in the neighborhood of the relatively linear region of the i – v characteristics where 0. The current i D ( t ) can be found from the relation ID i D ( t ) ≈ I D + --------.v D ( t ) nV T provided that v D ⁄ nVT ≤ 0. • Junction diodes are extensively used in half-wave and full-wave rectifiers to convert AC voltages to pulsating DC voltages. usually with 1. the diode will burn-out in either the forward-biased or the reversebiased direction. a very small current will flow and if the applied voltage exceeds a certain value the diode will reach its avalanche or Zener region. watts) by the manufacturer. • When a junction diode is reverse-biased. • The maximum reverse-bias voltage that may be applied to a diode without causing junction breakdown is referred to as the Peak Reverse Voltage (PRV) and it is the most important rating.Summary nient to combine q . and if these ratings are exceeded. denoted as Q . V T ≈ 26mV • In a junction diode made with silicon and an impurity. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow of the diode as long as the voltage drop v D across the diode is about 0. and T into one variable V T known as thermal voltage where V T = kT ⁄ q and thus iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) – 1] and at T = 300 °K .7 V . is established at the intersection of a load line and the linear region. denoted as g D . is referred to as incremental conductance and its reciprocal nV T ⁄ I D . • The analysis of electronic circuits containing diodes can be performed by graphical methods but it is greatly simplified with the use of diode models where we approximate the diode forward-biased characteristics with two straight lines representing the piecewise linear equivalent circuit. k .8 ≤ n ≤ 2. • When used with AC circuits of low frequencies. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-51 .

6 to 0. • A tunnel diode is one which is heavily doped with impurities. or varicap. and an AC voltage source where the output voltage across the capacitor is approximately equal to the peak value of the input AC voltage. the peak rectifier circuit will behave like an AC to DC converter. • A Schottky diode is a junction of a lightly doped n -type semiconductor with a metal electrode. and a diode. and sometimes DC sources to clip or limit the output to a certain level. a diode. a capacitor. A voltage controlled capacitance is useful in tuning applications. resistors. • Zener diodes are designed to operate in the reverse voltage breakdown (avalanche) region. Typical 2-52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it will have a region of negative resistance.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . Their most important application is in voltage regulation. Voltage triplers and voltage quadruplers are also possible with additional diodes and capacitors.3 to 0. • The backward diode is a variation of the tunnel diode.with a special metal electrode can produce a very fast switching diode which is mainly used in high (up to 5 MHz) frequency circuits or high speed digital circuits. or during both the positive and negative half-cycles of the input voltage.Diodes • A peak rectifier circuit is a simple series circuit with a capacitor. If a resistor R is placed in parallel with the capacitor C and their values are chosen such that the time constant τ = RC is much greater than the discharge interval. is a diode that behaves like a variable capacitor. • Zener diodes can also be used as limiters and limiting can occur during the positive half-cycle of the input voltage. • A DC restorer (or clamped capacitor) is a circuit that can restore a DC voltage to a desired DC level. • A voltage doubler circuit is a combination of a DC restorer and a peak rectifier. The junction of a doped semiconductor . The forward voltage drop of a conducting Schottky diode is typically 0. A varactor diode uses a PN junction in reverse bias and has a structure such that the capacitance of the diode varies with the reverse voltage. • A varactor. Clipper circuits are used in applications where it is necessary to limit the input to another circuit so that the latter would not be damaged.usually n -type . In its basic form is a series circuit with a voltage source. The negative resistance characteristic makes the tunnel diode useful in oscillators and microwave amplifiers. • Clipper (or limiter) circuits consist of diodes. It is used as a rectifier and in circuits with small amplitude waveforms. with the PN junction functioning like the dielectric and plates of a common capacitor.8 found in silicon junction diodes.5 volt compared to the 0. Schottky diodes find wide application as rectifiers for high frequency signals and also are used in the design of galliun arsenide (GaAs) circuits. during the negative half-cycle. A Zener diode is always connected as a reverse-biased diode and its voltage rating V Z and the maximum power it can absorb are given by the manufacturer. and the output is the voltage across the diode.

over 100. LEDs are used widely as “power on” indicators of digital voltmeters. depending upon the material used to make the diode. frequency counters. etc. solar cells may be connected in series or parallel to produce higher voltages and currents. in the order of picofarads. Photocells are used in various types of control and timing circuits as. the automatic street light controllers in most cities.000 hours of operation. Isolation between the input and output is desirable because it reduces electromagnetic interference. when forward biased. • A photocell is an older device that uses light in a way similar to the photodiode. Solar cells find widespread application in communications satellites and solar-powered homes. • Optoelectronic devices either produce light or use light in their operation. for example. or amber. produces visible light. and for this reason are extremely useful in digital applications such as photographic light meters and optical scanning equipment. A solar cell acts much like a battery when exposed to light and as with batteries. • A solar cell is another device that converts light energy into electrical energy. For this reason. • An optical coupler. The life expectancy of the LED is very long. • A Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is an optoelectronic device that. • A photodiode is another optoelectronic device which receives light and converts it to electrical signals. Their most important application is in fiber optic communications links. and as displays for pocket calculators where they form seven-segment displays. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-53 . Photodiodes respond quickly to changes in light intensity. green. Varactors have now replaced the old variable capacitor tuning circuits as in television tuners. sometimes referred to as an optoisolator. • Laser diodes are LEDs specifically designed to produce coherent light with a narrow bandwidth and are suitable for CD players and optical communications.Summary capacitance values are small. consists of an LED and a photodiode and each of these devices are isolated from each other. The light may be red.

At what temperature will I r double in value? What conclusion can we draw from the result? 5. V R at 40 °C 2-54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 500 KΩ Ir VS VR Find: a.5 V at 20 °C . a typical value in the reverse- A . Plot the i – v characteristics of a forward-biased junction diode with n = 2 at 27 °C . and plot in semi- log scale.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .Diodes 2. V R at 0 °C b. Show that for a decade (factor 10) change in current i D of a forward-biased junction diode the voltage v D changes by a factor of 2. and it is known that V R = 0. When a junction diode operates at the reverse-bias region v < 0 and before avalanche occurs.3nV T .19 Exercises 1. the reverse current doubles for every 10 °C rise in temperature. In the circuit below. Also. Assuming that v » V T we can show that i D ≈ – I r and for this reason I r is often referred to as the saturation current and whereas in the forward-biased region I r has a typical value of 10 biased region is 10 –9 – 14 A to 10 – 15 A at 27 °C . It is known that for a certain diode I r = 10 – 13 A at 50 °C . 3. 4. Suggest an experiment that will enable one to compute the numerical value of n . form the ratio V D2 ⁄ V D1 corresponding to the ratio I D2 ⁄ I D1 . the applied voltage V S is not sufficient to drive the diode into the avalanche region. Hint: Start with the approximate relation iD ≈ Ir e v D ⁄ nV T . and the reverse current I r increases by about 15% per 1 °C rise. the current I r is almost constant. 2.

find the value of V out assuming that all three diodes are ideal. For the circuit shown below. b.5 and T = 27 °C find: a.8 V . The percent change in V out when V S changes by ± 10 % .1 V per decade change of current. I D = 0. Compute the value of R so that V out = 3 V .65 . The percent change in V out when a load resistor V load = 2 KΩ is connected across the four diodes. the diodes are identical and it is known that at V D = 0. V out = 2. the diodes are identical and when V S = 12 V exactly. R = ? V out = 3 V V S = 12 V 8. Compare your answer with that of Example 2. It is also known that the voltage across each diode changes by 0. Assuming that n = 1. For the circuit shown below. R = 1 KΩ V S = 12 V ± 10% V out V s = 12V = 2. For the circuit below. 1 KΩ i ( ma ) V out 1V 2V 3V 0 v (V) 7. Make any reasonable assumptions.8 V Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-55 .4.5 mA .Exercises 6.

10. the angle θ by which v load lags the transformer secondary voltage v in c. Derive the equation of the straight line tangent at I D = 1 mA and the point where this straight line crosses the v D axis. the average value of v load e. R = 200 Ω .7 V at T = 27 °C . v D = 0. and the diode resistance r D « R . the diode peak current I peak b. Find: a.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . Find: a.7 V and the diode resistance r D « R load . the transformer is a step-down 10:1 transformer and the primary voltage v S = 120 RMS . For the half-wave rectifier circuit below. the minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) 2-56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) iD + vS − + vin − (a) 5 KΩ + vD − v load v load − R load + vin conduction angle (b) 11. The diode voltage v D = 0. the average value of v load e.7 V . the diode peak current I peak b. It is known that a junction diode with n = 1. the conduction angle d.92 allows a current I D = 1 mA when V D = 0.Diodes 9. For the full-wave bridge rectifier shown below v in ( peak ) = 17 V .

and r Z = 30 Ω . C 5 v in ( V ) t –5 + v in + − − iD + v out − 14. Find V Z0 of the Zener diode model Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-57 . Find V Z if I Z = 20 mA c. The nominal value of a Zener diode is V Z = 12 V at I Z = 10 mA . Find V Z if I Z = 5 mA b. R C + − v out vin 20 KΩ v in = 177 sin 377t 13. a. find the value of the capacitor so that the peak-to-peak ripple will be 1 volt . A circuit and its input waveform are shown below. For the peak rectifier shown below. Compute and sketch the waveform for the output v out .Exercises + v in ( t ) − R v out ( t ) − + + v out ( t ) − v in ( t ) 12.

the peak current. a. What should the value of the resistor be to absorb maximum power from the solar cell? Light i (mA) 40 v R 20 v (mV) 200 400 2-58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The terminal voltage characteristics are shown in Figure (b) below. and the peak forward voltage have the values I V = 1 mA .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . the valley voltage. placed in parallel with the tunnel diode. Tunnel diode R 16. Determine the value of this resistor so that this parallel circuit will exhibit no negative resistance region. V P = 50 mV . i ( mA ) IP IV VP VV VF v ( mV ) Shown below is a resistor R .Diodes 15. referred to as a tunnel resistor. Determine the approximate operating point that yields the maximum power. and V F = 500 mV respectively. I P = 10 mA . A typical solar cell for converting the energy of sunlight into electrical energy in the form of heat is shown in the Figure (a) below. What is the value of the maximum power output? b. V V = 350 mV . the peak voltage. A tunnel diode has the idealized piecewise linear characteristics shown below where the valley current.

grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-59 . volts').. amps')..3nV T log 10x on semilog scale.. ⁄e V D1 ⁄ nV T I D2 ⁄ I D1 = e = e ( V D2 – V D1 ) ⁄ nV T or V D2 – V D1 = nV T ln ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) = 2.iD)../(n. ylabel('y=VD2-VD1').3. y=2. xlabel('x=ID2/ID1').3nV T log 10( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) For convenience.. Let I D1 = I r e V D1 ⁄ nV T and I D2 = I r e V D2 ⁄ nV T V D2 ⁄ nV T . title('iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode. grid We observe that when n = 2 .*26. ylabel('Diode current iD.^(−3).. semilogx(x.y). title('Plot for Exercise 2'). plot(vD. n=2.*1. axis([0 1 0 0. vD=0: 0. 2.*10.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 2.20 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1.*(exp(vD. n=2. x=1: 10: 10^6. iR=10^(−15). VT=26*10^(−3). iD=iR.01]).*VT))−1).. we let V D2 – V D1 = y and I D2 ⁄ I D1 = x and we use the following MATLAB script to plot y = 2.3 V . Then.. 27 deg C').001: 1... the diode begins to conduct at approximately 1..*log10(x). xlabel('Diode voltage vD..

4. A 1 KΩ D VS ID VD V We can now adjust the variable power supply V S to obtain two pairs i – v . V D1 and and use the relation V D2 – V D1 = 2. a DC ammeter A and the diode D whose value of n is to be found. 10 – 13 ( 1 + 0.= 2 50 ( 1. we can adjust V S to obtain the values of several pairs. a DC voltmeter V . plot these on semilog paper and find the best straight line that fits these values. We assume that the voltmeter internal resistance is very high and thus all current produced by V S flows through the diode. for bet- ter accuracy. 1 KΩ resistor.15 ) 2-60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .15 ( x – 50 ) = 2 × 10 – 13 ( x – 50 ) x = 2 ( 1.Diodes 3.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .15 ) 1.3nVT log 10( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) to find n . connected as shown below.15 ) ------------------. say I D2. This can be done with a variable power supply V S . V D2 I D1. However.

i ( ma ) V out 1V 2V 3V 0 1 KΩ v (V) The value of V out = 3 V is unrealistic when compared with the realistic value which we found in Example 2.167 ) + 3 log 10 ( 10 ) = 0.167 × 10 ) x log 10( 1. Ir 0 °C = 0.15 ) = log 10 ( 2.25 × 10 × 500 × 10 = 0. Ir 40 °C = 2 × 2 × 1 µA = 4 µA –6 and VR 40 °C = 4 × 10 × 500 × 10 = 2V 3 b. Ir 20 °C 0.15 = 54.15 ) = log 10 ( 2.5 V = ------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises ( 1.15 ) = x log 10 ( 1. 5.25 µA –6 and VR 0 °C = 0.5 × 0.167 × 10 3 3 log 10 ( 1. are reverse-biased.4. V out = 3 V and stays at this value because diodes D 3 and D 3 . after being connected to the circuit.96 °C ≈ 55 °C Therefore. we have: a.336 ⁄ log 101. This is because we’ve assumed ideal diodes.15 ) x x 50 = 2.336 + 3 = 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-61 .15 ) = 2 × ( 1. a physical impossibility. We assume that diode D 3 and the resistor are connected first.125 V 3 6.= 1 µA 500 KΩ and since the reverse current doubles for every 10 °C rise in temperature.336 x = 3. Then. we can conclude that the reverse current I r doubles for every 5 °C rise in temperature.5 × 1 µA = 0. At 20 °C .

= 9.2 V change we find that 17 Ω ∆V out = ----------------------. a n d s i n c e t h e c h a n g e i s ∆V D = 0.8 V V S – V out 12 – 2.5 × 26 × 10 4r D = --------------------------------------------.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .2 × 10 –3 and for ± 10 % or ± 1. R = ? V out = 3 V V S = 12 V Since the diodes are identical. V S – V out 12 – 3 R = ---------------------.8 I D = ---------------------.7mV 1000 + 17 Therefore.75 – 0. for all four diodes 4 × 1. Thus.2 mA R 10 3 The incremental resistance r D per diode is found from r D = nV T ⁄ I D with n = 1.= 1. the current 0. a.65 = 0.= ------------------.Diodes 7.= -----------------. V' out = 2.8 KΩ –3 ID 5 × 10 8.5 × 10 = 5 mA .0167 V 2-62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . for the output voltage to be V out = 3 V .= 16.1 V .8 ± 0. R = 1 KΩ V S = 12 V ± 10% V out V s = 12V = 2. the voltage drop a c r o s s e a c h d i o d e m u s t b e 3 V ⁄ 4 = 0.75 V .5 . Then.= 17 Ω –3 9.

7 V .013 and thus the equation of the straight line becomes Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-63 .7 + b from which b = – 0.4 mA and the decrease in voltage across all four diodes will be ∆V out = – 1. by substitution into (2) we get 10 –3 = 0.= 0.= --------------------------------------. i D ( mA ) 1 vD ( V ) 0. Then.6 % 2. we find the i D intercept using the given data that when v D = 0. the current through the four diodes decreases by 1. For this exercise the equation of the straight line is i D = mv D + b (1) where –3 ID 10 1 m = ---.× 100 = ± 59. the equation of a straight line in an x – y plane is y = mx + b where m is the slope and b is the y intercept.8 mV 9.4 mA 2 KΩ Therefore.8 V I load = ------------.8167 – 2.92 × 26 × 10 – 3 and by substitution into (1) above i D = 0.= 1. The 2 KΩ load when connected across the four diodes will have a voltage of 2.4 mA × 17 Ω = – 23.8 %∆V out = ----------------------------.7 From analytic geometry.8 b.02v D + b (2) Next.= --------.02 × 0.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises and 2.8 V and thus the current through this load will be 2.02 r D nV T 1. i D = 1 mA .

From (2. From (2. the secondary voltage is 12 V RMS or v in = 12 2 peak = 17 V peak .65 V .7 I peak = -----------------.– -----. θ = sin – 10.013 (3) Now.7 V load ( ave ) ≈ ----. The conduction angle is π – 2θ = 180° – 2 × 2. It is given that the transformer is a step down type with ratio 10:1 . v in – v D I peak = ----------------------r D + R load and since r D « R load v in – v D 17 – 0. Then. therefore. 10.= ----.02vD – 0.06 V π 2 π 2 2-64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Then.15).02v D – 0. from (3) above we find that the v D axis intercept is 0 = 0.013 or v D = 0.36° c.Diodes i D = 0.28° d.= 3.= 5.– -----.7 V .7 ⁄ 17 = 2.= -----------------.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .36° = 175. iD + vS − + vin − (a) 5 KΩ + vD − v load v load − R load + vin conduction angle (b) a.26 mA 3 R load 5 × 10 b. θ = sin –1∆ v ⁄ V p where ∆ v = V p – V out = v D = 0.17) V p ∆v 17 0.

the last rela- Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-65 .7 × 17 ≈ 30 V 11. + v in ( t ) − R v out ( t ) − + + v out ( t ) − v in ( t ) a.= 78 mA R 200 b.( – V p cos φ – 2∆vφ ) π or 1 V out ( ave ) = -. The diode peak current I peak is v in – 2v D I peak = --------------------rD + R and since r D « R v in – 2v D 17 – 2 × 0.[ 2V p cos θ – 2∆v ( π – 2θ ) ] π Generally.[ – V p cos ( π – θ ) – 2∆v ( π – θ ) + V p cos θ + 2∆vθ π 1 = -. 1 Area V out ( ave ) = ---------------.7 × PIV = 1. the angle θ is small and thus cos θ ≈ 1 and ( π – 2θ ) ≈ π . The minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is PIV = V p = 17 V but for practical purposes we should choose the value of 1. We start with the definition of the average value. Therefore.= ---------------------------. that is.7 I peak ≈ --------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises e.= -π Period ∫θ (π – θ) ( V p sin φ – 2∆v ) dφ π–θ φ=θ 1 = -.

48 we observe that the diode conducts only when v in > 0 and thus the capacitor charges to the positive peak of the input which for this example is 5 V .= 177 ⋅ ----------------------------------------. 12. The waveform for the output voltage is as shown below.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics . Rearranging (2.29).Diodes tion above reduces to 2V p 2 × 17 V out ( ave ) ≈ --------. The minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is PIV = V p – v D = 17 – 0. and the capacitor voltage is v C = 5 V with polarity shown. v in = – 5 V .– 2 × 0. Since v out = v in – v C . C + v in + − − iD 5 v in ( V ) t + v out − –5 From the circuit of Figure 2.7 = 16. R C + − v out vin 20 KΩ v in = 177 sin 377t Here. and T = 1 ⁄ f = 1 ⁄ 60 .– 2∆v = -------------. 2-66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ω = 377 r ⁄ s or f = ω ⁄ 2π = 377 ⁄ 2π = 60 Hz . we get T 1 C = V p ⋅ -----------------------------------------------. and v out = – 5 – 5 = – 10 V .3 V but for practical purposes we should choose the value of about 30 V .42 V π π c.= 148 µF 3 V pp ( ripple ) ⋅ R ⋅ 60 1 × 20 × 10 × 60 13.7 = 9. v out = 5 – 5 = 0 and the output has shifted upwards to zero volts as shown below. when v in = 5 V . When the input voltage is negative.

Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises v out ( V ) t – 10 14. VZ I Z = 20mA = VZ I Z = 10mA – r Z ∆I Z = 12 – 30 × ( 10 – 20 ) × 10 –3 = 12. By definition r Z = ∆V Z ⁄ ∆I Z or ∆V Z = r Z ∆I Z . Then VZ0 = VZ – rZ IZ = 12 – 30 × 10 × 10 –3 = 11. Then VZ I Z = 5mA –3 = VZ I Z = 10mA – r Z ∆I Z = 12 – 30 × ( 10 – 5 ) × 10 = 11. From (2.85 V b.34) VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ where VZ and IZ are the nominal values.3 V c. a.7 V 15. i ( mA ) 10 1 50 350 500 v ( mV ) Tunnel diode R For the region of negative resistance the slope m is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-67 .

id=m*v+b.33 Ω .id.1:349.≥ 0 (2) dv for all values of v . b=11.= -------------------.03 ) R and thus the maximum value of the resistor should be R ≈ 33.03. R2=25.= ------.v..Diodes ∆i 1 – 10 m = -----. v=51:0.. i v iD iR To eliminate the negative resistance region. Since i = iD + iR = iD + v ⁄ R it follows that di D 1 di .33 Ω and R 2 = 25 Ω .(3) R dv From (1) and (3) 1 --. With this value. 2-68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . m=−0.+ --dv R dv and (2) above will be satisfied if di D 1 --. i2=id+v/R2. we must have di ----. grid and upon execution of this script we get the plot shown below.5.i2). i1=id+v/R1.= – 0. We will use the following MATLAB script for the plots.≥ – ------.≥ – ( – 0.i1.33.v.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics .03 ∆v 350 – 50 and thus di D –1 (1) ------. R1=33. Let us plot the total current i versus the voltage v with the values R 1 ≈ 33. For a positive slope greater than zero we should choose a resistor with a smaller value. plot(v.03 Ω dv where i D and v are as shown in the circuit below.= – 0..----. the slope of the total current i versus the voltage v across the parallel circuit will be zero.

Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 15 i for R=25 Ohms 10 i (mA) i for R=33.33 Ohms 5 i without resistor 0 50 100 150 200 v (mV) 250 300 350 16. Light i (mA) 40 Q v R 20 v (mV) 200 400 a. the operating point that will yield maximum power is denoted as Q where P max = 400 × 40 = 16 mw b.= 10 Ω R = ⎛ -. By inspection. The value of R that will receive maximum power is v 400 = -------.⎞ ⎝ i ⎠ max 40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-69 .

1. 3. The small and large signal equivalent circuits along with the h-parameter and T-equivalent circuits are presented.1 Introduction Transistors are three terminal devices that can be formed with the combination of two separate PN junction materials into one block as shown in Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-1 .1. The three terminals of a transistor. The NPN and PNP transistors are defined and their application as amplifiers is well illustrated with numerous examples.2 shows several possible configurations and most integrated circuits employ transistors to operate as diodes. and the Ebers-Moll model is discussed in detail. an NPN transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the P-type material at the center. N P P N P N N P N P N P N P E Emitter B Base C C Collector E Emitter B Base C B C Collector B E NPN Transistor formation and symbol E PNP Transistor formation and symbol Figure 3. whereas a PNP transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the N-type material at the center. NPN and PNP transistor construction and symbols As shown in Figure 3. and Figure 3. the base. whether it is an NPN or PNP transistor. are identified as the emitter.1. and the collector. Can a transistor be used just as a diode? The answer is yes.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors T his is a long chapter devoted to bipolar junction transistors.

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology has been under development for several years and its advantage over silicon is its speed. in addi- 3-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6 V . Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors N P N P N P E Cathode B Anode E Anode B Cathode N P N P N P B Anode C Cathode B Cathode C Anode Figure 3. a typical NPN transistor will act as a closed switch when the voltage V BE between its base and emitter terminals is greater than 0. Transistors configured as diodes Transistors are used either as amplifiers or more commonly as electronic switches. V CC = 5 V RC V in = V BE = 5 V V in B C V out = V CE = 0 V E V CC = 5 V RC Figure 3.2.3.4. most transistors are made of silicon. being a deadly poison. We will discuss these topics on the next section. The disadvantages of GaAs over silicon is that arsenic.7 V but no greater than 5 V to avoid possible damage. about six times faster than silicon. The transistor will act as an open switch when the voltage V BE is less than 0. and lower power consumption. and it inverts an input of 0 V to an output of 5 V when it behaves like an open switch as in figure 3. NPN transistor as electronic closed switch . Briefly. requires very special manufacturing processes and. the transistor inverts (changes) an input of 5 V to an output of 0 V when it behaves like a closed switch as in Figure 3.3 shows an NPN transistor used as an electronic switch to perform the operation of inversion.inverts 5 V to 0 V Like junction diodes.3. that is.

inverts 0 V to 5 V 3. the NPN and PNP transistors must be biased as shown in Figure 3. Biased NPN and PNP Transistors for proper operation The bias voltage sources are V BB for the base voltage and V CC for the collector voltage. V CC = 5 V V CC = 5 V RC V in = V BE = 0 V V in B C V out = V CE = 5 V E RC C E Figure 3. Typical values for V BB are about 1 V or less.5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-3 .2 NPN Transistor Operation For proper operation.4. For these reasons. The difference in these bias voltages is necessary to cause current flow from the collector to the emitter in an NPN transistor and from the emitter to collector in a PNP transistor. and for V CC about 10 V to 12 V . IC Collector N Base IB V BB P Emitter N IE NPN Transistor V CC IB V BB Collector P Base N Emitter P IE IC V CC PNP Transistor Figure 3. NPN transistor as electronic open switch . GaAs is much more expensive than silicon and it is usually used only in superfast computers.NPN Transistor Operation tion.5. it requires special handling since it is extremely brittle.

5 and 3. C iB B E iC C i C iB B iE iE E PNP Transistor NPN Transistor Figure 3.2) we get i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e v BE ⁄ V T From (3. They are shown in Figures 3. denoted as i E . collector. The base. A very useful parameter in transistors is the common-emitter gain β . Its value is specified by the manufacturer.3).* the collector current. and (3. the three currents are related as iB + iC = iE (3. typically 10 A to 10 – 15 A as in junction diodes. the base current. The base current i B is much smaller than the collector current i C and these two currents are related in terms of the constant β as iB = iC ⁄ β (3. n ≈ 1 . that i D = I r [ e the collector current is iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T – 1 ] .19.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. and the emitter current.6.4) and with (3.3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier When a transistor is used as an amplifier. it is said to be operating in the active mode. denoted as i C . v BE is the base-to-emitter voltage. and V T ≈ 26 mV at T = 300 °K . there are three currents. and emitter currents in a transistor For any transistor. NPN or PNP.2) – 12 where I r is the reverse (saturation) current. equation (2.1) ( v D ⁄ nV T ) We recall from Chapter 2. Since a transistor is a 3-terminal device. Please refer to Section 3. 3-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In a transistor.3) we get * It is customary to denote instantaneous voltages and currents with lower case letters and the bias voltages and currents with upper case letters. a constant whose value typically ranges from 75 to 300. denoted as i B .3) (3.1) and (3.6.

I r e BE T α (3.6) Another important parameter in transistors is the common-base current gain denoted as α and it is related to β as β α = ----------β+1 (3.7) i C = αi E (3.12) (3.5) and with (3.9) and we can express β in terms of α by rearranging (3.I r e BE T β (3.8) Also.5) and (3. Find the β range corresponding to this α range.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier β+1 i E = i B + i C = i C ⁄ β + i C = ----------.i C β (3. Thus.7) it is obvious that α < 1 and from (3.995.7) From(3.11) (3.6) and (3.14) Example 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-5 .13) and their relationships are β α = ----------β+1 γ = β+1 (3.10) Another lesser known ratio is the common-collector current gain ratio denoted as γ and it is defined as the ratio of the change in the emitter current to the change in the base current.992 to 0. α β = ----------1–α (3. from (3. Then. di C α = ------di E di C β = ------di B di E γ = ------di B α β = ----------1–α (3.1 A transistor manufacturer produces transistors whose α values vary from 0.7).7) 1 v ⁄V i E = -.2) β + 1 v ⁄V i E = ----------.

10). i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e v BE ⁄ V T (3.= --------------------.1) which are repeated here for convenience.1 Equivalent Circuit Models . Orchard Publications.3.7. and (3. i B .995 the corresponding β range is 124 ≤ β ≤ 199 3. for the range 0.17) If we know I r .3).992 ≤ α ≤ 0. we can find the other parameters for the circuit model of Figure 3.10) yields α 0. (3. * Dependent sources are discussed in detail in Chapters 1 through 4.16).992 (3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.1) through (3.= 199 1 – 0.995 0. and (3.4).= --------------------. To illustrate.= 124 1–α 1 – 0.15).995 1–α Therefore. NPN transistor equivalent circuit model for relations (3.NPN Transistors We can draw various equivalent circuit models with dependent voltage and current sources* for NPN transistors using the relations (3.992 β = ----------.16) i C = βi B i E = i B + i C = ( I r ⁄ β )e B v BE ⁄ V T + βi B iC C (3. 3-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ISBN 0-9709511-2-4.15) (3. let us draw an equivalent circuit using relations (3. β .992 and for α = 0.7.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Solution: For α = 0.995 α β = ----------.17) iB v BE iE ( I r ⁄ β )e v BE ⁄ V T i C = βi B E Figure 3. and the operating temperature. (3.

15). and (3. E iE ( I r ⁄ β )e v EB ⁄ V T v EB iB iC i C = βi B C B Figure 3. β = 200 .e. I r = 2 × 10 shown) is 10V ..15).2 Equivalent Circuit Models .61 + 23. PNP transistor equivalent circuit model for relations (3.1.64 V –3 The collector bias voltage V CC is used for proper transistor operation and its value is not required for the above calculations.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier Example 3.= 10 β 200 – 14 . and (3. Solution: – 14 I – 16 2 × 10 --r = --------------------.8.16).2 For a given NPN transistor. i B = 5 µA .15). i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e v BE ⁄ V T Then.3.17) For easy reference we summarize the current-voltage relationships for both NPN and PNP transistors in the active mode in Table 3. (3. i.= 5 × 10 ------------------– 16 10 10 –6 v BE ⁄ V T = ln ( 5 × 10 ) v BE = V T ( ln 5 + 10 ln 10 ) = 26 × 10 ( 1. (3.16). 3.03 ) ≈ 0.PNP Transistors Relations (3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-7 .17) apply also to PNP transistor equivalent circuits except that v BE needs to be replaced by v EB as shown in Figure 3. Find the numerical values of the parameters shown in Figure 3.8. The collector bias voltage V CC (not We find v BE from (3.7. 5 × 10 e v BE ⁄ V T –6 = 10 – 16 v BE ⁄ V T e 10 = 5 × 10 . and T = 27 °C .

9. we use upper case letters for DC (constant) values. I C = 1. Example 3. our circuit is as shown in Figure 3.6 mA V CC RC C VC = 4 V 12 V E B IB IE RE 12 V V EE Figure 3.= ---β+1 iE iC α β = ----------.Computations for R C Application of Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) on the collector side of the circuit with * As stated earlier. I C = 1.⎞ e T ⎝ β⎠ v BE ------- iC = Ir e v BE ------VT iB Ir V = ⎛ -.= ---β+1 iE iC α β = ----------. The circuit operates at T = 27 °C .⎞ e T ⎝ β⎠ v EB ------- iC = Ir e v EB ------VT iB = iC ⁄ β iB = iE ⁄ ( β + 1 ) iB = ( 1 – α ) iE i C = βi B i C = αi E iB = iC ⁄ β iB = ( 1 – α ) iE i C = βi B i C = αi E i E = ( β + 1 )i B i B = i E ⁄ ( β + 1 ) V T = 26 mV at T = 27 °C V T = 26 mV at T = 27 °C v BE = V T [ ln ( β ) – ln ( I r ) + ln ( i B ) ] v BE = V T [ ln ( β ) – ln ( I r ) + ln ( i B ) ] The relations in Table 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors TABLE 3. Transistor circuit for Example 3. A DC power supply at V S = ± 12 V is available and with two external resistors.9. one connected between the collector and V CC and the other between the emitter and V EE .3 .2 mA .= ---1–α iB iE = iB + iC Ir V i E = ⎛ -.7 V .6 mA and the collector voltage V C at 4 V . 3-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Find the values of the resistors given that when V BE = 0. after connecting the resistors and the bias voltages. and lower case letters for instantaneous values.= ---1–α iB iE = iB + iC Ir V i E = ⎛ -.1 NPN and PNP transistor current-voltage characteristics NPN Transistor PNP Transistor iC β α = ----------.⎞ e T ⎝ α⎠ iB = iC ⁄ α i E = ( β + 1 )i B v EB ------- iB Ir V = ⎛ -.1 are very useful in establishing voltage and current levels at various points on an NPN or PNP transistor. Solution: Since the transistor is to operate at the common base configuration.3 An NPN transistor with β = 150 is to operate in the common (grounded) base configuration.⎞ e T ⎝α ⎠ iB = iC ⁄ α v BE ------- iC β α = ----------. we want to keep the collector current I C * at 1.

and V E = – V BE = – 0.7 ) ⁄ V T 1.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier I C = 1.Computations for R E From Table 3.7 ) ⁄ V T ⎝ 1.1 I C = αI E or IE = IC ⁄ α and since β = 150 .6 –3 V BE = 0. V BE = V B – V E and since the base is grounded.⎞ = 0.⎞ = ( V BE – 0.2 mA Ir e V ⁄V 1.10. We find V BE from the ratio BE T ( V – 0.6 mA .708 V 12 V V EE Figure 3.6 × 10 –3 We are given that for V BE = 0. Transistor circuit for Example 3.2 mA and we need to find V BE at I C = 1.708 as shown in Figure 3.= 5 KΩ IC 1. V B = 0 .= ----------------------.6 mA and V C = 4 V yields R C I C + V C = V CC V CC – V C 12 – 4 R C = ----------------------.6 mA V CC 12 V VC = 4 V IB C E RE IE B V E = – 0.6 mA = I r e -------------------------------------.7 ⁄ V T 1. α = β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) = 150 ⁄ 151 = 0.6 ln ⎛ -----. RC I C = 1.7 + 26 × 10 ln ⎛ -----.7 V . I C = 1.2 ⎠ Next.10.3 .2 ⎠ 1.993 and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-9 .= e BE 0.708 ⎝ 1.

7 V and the emitter current I E is held constant at all temperature changes.708 R E = ---------------------.61 mA Then. v EB = V E and since this voltage decreases by 2 mV for each 1 °C temperature rise.4 Solution: Since the base is grounded.6 mA ) ⁄ 0.61 × 10 3. the change in V E is ∆V E = ( 50 – 27 ) °C × ( – 2 mV ⁄ 1 °C ) = – 46 mV and at T = 50 °C . Circuit for Example 3. R C = 5 KΩ IC V CC VC B IB VB VE C E R E = 10 KΩ IE V EE 12 V Figure 3. 3-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the base-emitter voltage v BE decreases approximately 2 mV for each 1 °C rise in temperature when the emitter current i E remains constant.654 V There is no change in the collector voltage V C because the emitter current I E is held constant. Find the changes in emitter voltage V E and collector voltage V C if the temperature rises to T = 50 °C .11. the voltage V C remains unchanged.3.993 = 1.7 – 0.4 For the PNP transistor circuit of Figure 3.3 Effect of Temperature on the i C − v BE Characteristics As with diodes. by KVL – V E + R E I E = V EE V EE + V E – ( – 12 ) – 0.= ------------------------------------.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors I E = I C ⁄ α = ( 1. V E = 0. Example 3.= 7 KΩ –3 IE 1. and since I C = αI E .11.046 = 0. at T = 27 °C the emitter to base voltage v BE = 0.

The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier 3. We recall also that a resistor serves as a current limiter and it develops a voltage drop when current flows through it. the larger the voltage V C at the collector. when the potentiometer resistance is increased (the wiper moves downwards) the current through the collector resistor R C decreases and the voltage drop across R C decreases. This voltage drop subtracts from the supply voltage V CC and the smaller the volt- age drop.18) v BE = cons tan t V IC or A r out = ------ (3. This resistance is in the order of 100 KΩ or greater.3. current-out device. and when active loads (transistors) are used. A transistor is a current-in. However.19) where V A is the Early voltage supplied by the manufacturer. Ideally. we should consider the finite output resistance that is in parallel with the collector. This voltage drop subtracts from the supply voltage V CC and the larger the voltage drop. Conversely.Early Voltage From basic circuit analysis theory. V CC RC C B E VC Figure 3. We supply current to the base of the transistor and current appears at its collector. we recall that a current source has a parallel resistance attached to it and it is referred to as output resistance. this resistance should be infinite and we can connect any passive load to the current source.12.4 Collector Output Resistance . most integrated circuits use transistors as loads instead of resistors R C . and I C is the DC collector current. the smaller the voltage V C at the collector. This output resistance looking into the collector is defined as ∂v CE r out = ----------∂i C (3. Before we consider the next example. let us illustrate a transistor in the common-emitter mode with the resistive circuit shown in Figure 3.12. Representing a transistor as a resistive circuit with a potentiometer When the potentiometer resistance is decreased (the wiper moves upwards) the current through the collector resistor R C increases and the voltage drop across R C increases. The current into the base of the transisElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-11 .

7 V . VA 80 r out = -----.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors tor is in the order of a few microamps while the current at the collector is in the order of a few milliamps.8 mA . V CC RC iB vS C vC iC vC vS RB B v BE E iE Figure 3. and for this reason the output voltage v C appears as 180° out-of-phase with the input (supply) voltage v S . Do you expect a linear relationship between I C and V CE ? Solution: Relations (3.13.18) and (3.19) are applicable here.7 V and when V CC is adjusted so that V CE = 1 V . Find the values of I C as V CE varies from 1 V to 10 V and plot I C versus V CE .14 indicates that the Early voltage is V A = 80 .8 IC 3-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the collector current I C = 0. A further increase in the supply voltage v S has no effect on v BE which remains fairly constant at 0.5 The datasheet for the NPN transistor of Figure 3.13. but the base current continues to increase causing an increase in the collector current i C . As v S decreases. The base to emitter voltage V BE is held constant at 0. The transistor circuit and the waveforms shown in Figure 3. less current flows into the base and the collector current decreases also causing the voltage drop across the resistor R C to decrease. This. But when the base-to-emitter voltage is v BE ≈ 0.= 100 KΩ 0. Thus.= -----. a small current flows into the base.7 V .65 . Transistor operation in the common-emitter mode For the circuit of Figure 3. no current flows into the base. for the base-to-emitter voltage interval 0 ≤ v BE ≤ 0. Example 3. and consequently the collector voltage v C increases.13 will help us understand the transistor operation in the common-emitter mode. in turn causes the voltage drop across the resistor R C to increase and thus the collector voltage v C decreases.

The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier

RC C IB VS RB B V BE E IC V CE V CC

and

Figure 3.14. Circuit for Example 3.5 ∆v CE –5 ∆i C = ------------ = 10 ∆v CE r out

This expression shows that there is a linear relationship between I C and V CE . The MATLAB script below performs all computations and plots I C versus V CE . The plot is shown in Figure 3.15.

vCE=1: 10; vA=80; iC1=0.8*10^(−3); r0=vA/iC1; iC=zeros(10,3);... iC(:,1)=vCE'; iC(:,2)=(vCE./r0)'; iC(:,3)=(iC1+vCE./r0)'; fprintf(' \n');... disp('vCE delta iC new iC');... disp('-------------------------');... fprintf('%2.0f \t %2.2e \t %2.2e\n',iC');... plot(vCE,iC(:,3)); xlabel('vCE (V)'); ylabel('iC (A)'); grid;... title('iC vs vCE for Example 3.5')

vCE delta iC new iC ------------------------1 1.00e-005 8.10e-004 2 2.00e-005 8.20e-004 3 3.00e-005 8.30e-004 4 4.00e-005 8.40e-004 5 5.00e-005 8.50e-004 6 6.00e-005 8.60e-004 7 7.00e-005 8.70e-004 8 8.00e-005 8.80e-004 9 9.00e-005 8.90e-004 10 1.00e-004 9.00e-004 Generally, the i C versus v CE relation is non-linear. It is almost linear when a transistor operates in the active region, and non-linear when it operates in the cutoff and saturation regions. Table 3.2 shows the three modes of operation in a bipolar transistor and the forward or reverse-biasing of the emitter-base and collector-base junctions.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-13

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors
**

9.2 x 10

-4

iC vs vCE for Example 3.5

9

8.8 iC (A)

8.6

8.4

8.2

8

1

2

3

4

5 vCE (V)

6

7

8

9

10

Figure 3.15. Plot for Example 3.5

**TABLE 3.2 Region of operation for bipolar transistors
**

Region of Operation Active Saturation Cutoff Emitter-Base junction Forward Forward Reverse Collector-base junction Reverse Forward Reverse

Example 3.6 For the circuit of Figure 3.16, β = 120 and V BE = 0.7 . Find V E , I E , I C , V C , and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active, saturation, or cutoff mode. Solution: From the given circuit, by observation

V E = V B – V BE = 5 – 0.7 = 4.3 V

and

VE 4.3 I E = ------ = --------------------- = 1.72 mA 3 RE 2.5 × 10

**It is given that β = 120 . Then,
**

β 120 α = ----------- = -------- = 0.992 β+1 121

and

3-14

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier

RC RB VS IB C IC

4 KΩ

V CC

B

10 V VC

E VB = 5 V VE

V BE

IE

RE 2.5 KΩ

Figure 3.16. Circuit for Example 3.6 I C = αI E = 0.992 × 1.72 = 1.71 mA

Then,

I B = 1.72 mA – 1.71 mA = 0.01 mA = 10 µA

**Finally, we find the collector voltage V C as
**

V C = V CC – I C R C = 10 – 1.71 × 10

–3

× 4 × 10 = 3.16 V

3

We observe that the transistor is an NPN type and for the active mode operation the base-collector junction PN must be reverse-biased. It is not because V C < V B and thus we conclude that with the given values the transistor is in saturation mode. Example 3.7 For a PNP transistor circuit with the base grounded, it is given that V EE = 12 V , V CC = – 12 V ,

R E = 5 KΩ , R C = 3 KΩ ,and β = 150 . Find V E , I E , I C , V C , and I B . Is the circuit operating in

the active mode? Solution: The circuit is as shown in Figure 3.17. With V EE = 12 V it is reasonable to assume that the emitter-base junction is forward-biased and since the base is grounded, we have

V E = V EB = 0.7 V

and

V EE – V E 12 – 0.7 I E = ---------------------- = ------------------ = 2.3 mA 3 RE 5 × 10

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-15

Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors

RE V EB E B IB

5 KΩ

V EE

IE IC VC C

VE

12 V

3 KΩ V CC 12 V

RC

Figure 3.17. PNP transistor for Example 3.7

With β = 150 Then, and

**β -------α = ----------- = 150 = 0.993 151 β+1 I C = αI E = 0.993 × 2.3 × 10
**

3 –3

= 2.28 mA

–3

V C = R C I C – V CC = 3 × 10 × 2.28 × 10

– 12 = – 5.16 V

With this value of V C , the collector-base junction is reverse-biased and the PNP transistor is in the active mode. The base current is

I B = I E – I C = 2.3 × 10

–3

– 2.28 × 10

–3

= 20 µA

Example 3.8 For the circuit of Figure 3.18, it is known that β = 120 . Find I B , I E , I C , V B , V C , and V E . Is the transistor operating in the active mode? Solution: To simplify the part of the circuit to the left of the base, we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y as shown in Figure 3.19, and denoting the Thevenin equivalent voltage and resistance as V TH and R TH respectively, we find that

R2 30 V TH = V xy = ------------------ V S = ----------------- 12 = 4 V R1 + R2 60 + 30

3-16

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier

RC

8 KΩ

V CC

C

R1 VS 60 KΩ 12 V 30 KΩ R2 IB B V BE VB VE IC IE E RE VC 12 V

**5 KΩ Figure 3.18. Circuit for Example 3.8
**

R1 60 KΩ VS 12 V R2 30 KΩ V TH

x 4V

R TH 20 KΩ

x

y

y

Figure 3.19. Application of Thevenin’s theorem to the circuit of Example 3.8

and

R1 × R2 60 × 30 R TH = ------------------ = ----------------- = 20 KΩ R1 + R2 60 + 30

**The circuit of Figure 3.18 is reduced to that of Figure 3.20.
**

RC 8 KΩ V CC

C

R TH V TH 20 KΩ 4V VB VE IB B V BE IC E VC 12 V

IE

RE

5 KΩ

Figure 3.20. The circuit of Figure 3.18 after application of Thevenin’s theorem

**Application of KVL around the left part of the circuit of Figure 3.20 yields
**

R TH I B + V BE + R E I E = V TH

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-17

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors
**

( 20 × 10 )I B + 0.7 + ( 5 × 10 )I E = 4

–3 3.3 4I B + I E = ---------------- = 0.66 × 10 3 5 × 10 3 3

**From Table 3.1, I E = ( β + 1 )I B . Then,
**

4I B + ( β + 1 )I B = 0.66 × 10 125I B = 0.66 × 10 I B = 5.28 × 10

–6 –3 –3

A = 5.28 µA

–6

and

I E = ( β + 1 )I B = 121 × 5.28 × 10 = 0.639 mA

–3

Then,

V E = R E I E = 5 × 10 × 0.639 × 10

3

= 3.2 V

and

V B = V BE + V E = 0.7 + 3.2 = 3.9 V

Also,

I C = I E – I B = 0.639 × 10

–3

– 5.28 × 10

3

–6

= 0.634 mA

–3

and

V C = V CC – R C I C = 12 – 8 × 10 × 0.634 × 10 = 6.93 V

Since this is an NPN transistor and V C > V B , the base-collector PN junction is reverse-biased and thus the transistor is in active mode.

**3.4 Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing
**

In our previous discussion, for convenience, a separate voltage source V BE has been used to provide the necessary forward-bias voltage and another voltage source V CC to establish a suitable collector voltage V C where V C = V CC – R C I C . However, it is not practical to use a separate emitter-base bias voltage V BE . This is because conventional batteries are not available for 0.7 V . For this reason we use resistors in the order of kilohms to form voltage dividers with desired values. In addition to eliminating the battery, some of these biasing methods compensate for slight variations in transistor characteristics and changes in transistor conduction resulting from temperature irregularities.

3-18

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing Figure 3.21 shows the basic NPN transistor amplifier where resistor R B provides the necessary forward bias for the emitter-base junction. Conventional current flows from V CC through R B to the base then to the grounded emitter. Since the current in the base circuit is very small (a few hundred microamperes) and the forward resistance of the transistor is low, only a few tenths of a volt of positive bias will be felt on the base of the transistor. However, this is enough voltage on the base, along with ground on the emitter and the large positive voltage on the collector to properly bias the transistor.

+

RB RC C V CC VC E VC 0V V CC v out

−

+

Vp 0

C

−

B

– Vp

v in = V p sin ωt

Figure 3.21. The basic NPN transistor amplifier biased with a resistive network

With the transistor properly biased, direct current flows continuously, with or without an input signal, throughout the entire circuit. The direct current flowing through the circuit develops more than just base bias; it also develops the collector voltage V C as it flows from V CC through resistor

R C and, as we can see on the output graph, the output signal starts at the V C level and either

increases or decreases. These DC voltages and currents that exist in the circuit before the application of a signal are known as quiescent voltages and currents (the quiescent state of the circuit). The DC quiescent point is the DC bias point Q with coordinates ( V BE, I B ) . We will discuss the Q point in detail in a later section. The collector resistor R C is placed in the circuit to keep the full effect of the collector supply voltage off the collector. This permits the collector voltage V C to change with an input signal, which in turn allows the transistor to amplify voltage. Without R C in the circuit, the voltage on the collector would always be equal to V CC . The coupling capacitor C is used to pass the ac input signal and block the dc voltage from the preceding circuit. This prevents DC in the circuitry on the left of the coupling capacitor from affecting the bias on the transistor. The coupling capacitor also blocks the bias of the transistor from reaching the input signal source. The input to the amplifier is a sine wave that varies a few millivolts above and below zero. It is introduced into the circuit by the coupling capacitor and is applied between the base and emitter. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-19

Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors As the input signal goes positive, the voltage across the base-emitter junction becomes more positive. This in effect increases forward bias, which causes base current to increase at the same rate as that of the input sine wave. Collector and emitter currents also increase but much more than the base current. With an increase in collector current, more voltage is developed across R C . Since the voltage across R C and the voltage across the transistor (collector to emitter) must add up to V CC , an increase in voltage across R C results in an equal decrease in voltage across the transistor. Therefore, the output voltage from the amplifier, taken at the collector of the transistor with respect to the emitter, is a negative alternation of voltage that is larger than the input, but has the same sine wave characteristics. During the negative alternation of the input, the input signal opposes the forward bias. This action decreases base current, which results in a decrease in both collector and emitter currents. The decrease in current through R C decreases its voltage drop and causes the voltage across the transistor to rise along with the output voltage. Therefore, the output for the negative alternation of the input is a positive alternation of voltage that is larger than the input but has the same sine wave characteristics. By examining both input and output signals for one complete alternation of the input, we can see that the output of the amplifier is an exact reproduction of the input except for the reversal in polarity and the increased amplitude (a few millivolts as compared to a few volts). Figure 3.22 shows the basic PNP transistor amplifier. As we already know, the primary difference between the NPN and PNP amplifier is the polarity of the source voltage V CC . With a negative V CC , the PNP base voltage is slightly negative with respect to ground, which provides the necessary forward bias condition between the emitter and base.

−

RB RC C V CC

+

+

Vp 0

C

−

B E

0V

VC

v out

–VC – V CC

– Vp

v in = V p sin ωt

Figure 3.22. The basic PNP transistor amplifier

When the PNP input signal goes positive, it opposes the forward bias of the transistor. This action cancels some of the negative voltage across the emitter-base junction, which reduces the

3-20

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Fixed Bias current through the transistor. Therefore, the voltage across R C decreases, and the voltage across the transistor increases. Since V CC is negative, the voltage on the collector V C goes in a negative direction toward V CC . Thus, the output is a negative alternation of voltage that varies at the same rate as the sine wave input, but it is opposite in polarity and has a much larger amplitude. During the negative alternation of the input signal, the transistor current increases because the input voltage aids the forward bias. Therefore, the voltage across R C increases, and consequently, the voltage across the transistor decreases or goes in a positive direction. This action results in a positive output voltage, which has the same characteristics as the input except that it has been amplified and the polarity is reversed. In summary, the input signals in the preceding circuits were amplified because the small change in base current caused a large change in collector current. And, by placing resistor R C in series with the collector, voltage amplification was achieved.

3.5 Fixed Bias

The biasing method used in the transistor circuits of Figures 3.21 and 3.22 is known as fixed bias. Even though with modern technology transistors are components (parts) of integrated circuits, or ICs, some are used as single devices. To bias a transistor properly, one must establish a constant DC current in the emitter so that it will not be very sensitive to temperature variations and large variations in the value of β among transistors of the same type. Also, the Q point must be chosen so that it will allow maximum signal swing from positive to negative values. Figure 3.23 shows an NPN transistor with fixed bias.

+

RC R1 V CC

−

C

B

R2

E RE

Figure 3.23. NPN Transistor with fixed bias

Following the procedure of Example 3.8 we can simplify the circuit of Figure 3.23 with the use of Thevenin’s theorem to the circuit of Figure 3.24.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-21

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors
**

+

RC IB C B V BE RE E IE IC

−

V CC

+

V BB

RB

−

Figure 3.24. The circuit of Figure 3.23 after application of Thevenin’s theorem

**With reference to Figures 3.23 and 3.24 we obtain the following relations:
**

R2 V BB = ------------------ V CC R1 + R2 R1 R2 R B = -----------------R1 + R2

(3.20) (3.21)

It was stated earlier that it is imperative to keep variations in temperature and changes in β values to a minimum and this can be achieved by making the emitter current I E fairly constant. Therefore, let us now derive an expression for I E . From Figure 3.24 with application of KVL we get

R B I B + V BE + R E I E = V BB

**and from Table 3.1
**

1 I B = ⎛ ----------- ⎞ I E ⎝β+1⎠

Then, or

1 R B ⎛ ----------- ⎞ I E + V BE + R E I E = V BB ⎝ β + 1⎠ V BB – 0.7 V BB – V BE I E = ----------------------------------------- = ----------------------------------------RE + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) RE + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 )

(3.22)

**From expression (3.22) we see that the emitter current I E will be fairly constant if V BB » 0.7 and
**

R E » R B ⁄ ( β + 1 ) . Accordingly, R B must be small and since R B = R 1 R 2 ⁄ ( R 1 + R 2 ) , we should

use small resistance values for R 1 and R 2 . Designers recommend that the sum of R 1 and R 2 is

3-22

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Fixed Bias such that the current through them (assuming that the base current is zero) is about half of the emitter current I E . It is also recommended that V BB , V CB or V CB , and the product R C I C each be close to one-third of the value of V CC . It is often said that the emitter resistor R E provides a negative feedback action which stabilizes the bias current. To understand how this is done, let us assume that the emitter current I E increases. In this case, the voltages R E I E and V E will also increase. But the base voltage being determined by the voltage division provided by resistors R 1 and R 2 will remain relatively constant and according to KVL, the base-to-emitter voltage V BE will decrease. And since I C = I r e

V BE ⁄ V T

, both

the collector current I C and emitter current I E will decrease. Obviously, this is a contradiction to our original assumption (increase in I E ) and thus we say that the emitter resistor R E provides a negative feedback action. Let us consider the transistor circuit of Figure 3.23 which is repeated as Figure 3.25 for convenience.

+

R1 B IR R2 IB ≈ 0 RE IE RC C IB B V BE RE IE V CC

+

RC C

−

−

V CC

+

E V BB

RB

−

E

Figure 3.25. NPN transistor with fixed bias

Circuit designers maintain that if we specify the V CC voltage, the I E current, and the value of β , we can determine the appropriate values of the four resistors for proper biasing by letting the values of V BB , V CB or V CB , and the product R C I C each be close to one-third of the value of V CC , and assuming that the base current is negligible, the current I R through resistors R 1 and R 2 is

I R = 0.5I E . For convenience, we will denote the sum of R 1 and R 2 as R eq .

Example 3.9 For the transistor circuit of Figure 3.26 β = 120 . Find the values of the four resistors for appropriate fixed biasing.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-23

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors
**

+

RC R1 15 V −

V CC

C

B

R2

E RE 1 mA

IE

Figure 3.26. Transistor circuit for Example 3.9

Solution: The given circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are shown in Figure 3.27. The Thevenin equivalent is shown just to indicate the value of V BB which will be used in the calculations.

+

RC R1 B 15 V − V CC

+

RC 15 V − V CC

C IB ≈ 0

RE

IB ≈ 0 +

RB

C B V BE RE E IE IC

IR

R2

E 1 mA

V BB

IE

−

Figure 3.27. The transistor circuit of Example 3.9 and its Thevenin equivalent

As stated above, it is suggested that the values of V BB , V CB or V CB , and the product R C I C each be close to one-third of the value of V CC , and assuming that the base current is negligible, the current I R through resistors R 1 and R 2 is I R = 0.5I E . Then,

1 1 V BB = -- V CC = -- 15 = 5 V 3 3

**and with reference to the Thevenin equivalent circuit above, since I B ≈ 0 by KVL
**

V BE + R E I E = V BB

3-24

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

This reaction to temperature is undesirable because it affects amplifier gain (the number of times of amplification) and could result in distortion.= ------------------.7 R E = -------------------------.5I E 0. known as selfbias is obtained by inserting the bias resistor directly between the base and collector.= ----------------------.V CC = -----------------. R eq I R = ( R 1 + R 2 )I R = V CC V CC V CC 15 R eq = ( R 1 + R 2 ) = --------.6 Self-Bias The fixed bias arrangement discussed in the previous section is thermally unstable.= ----------. as we will see later in this chapter.15 V R1 + R2 R1 + R2 300 KΩ R2 5V 1 ------------------. that is.3 KΩ –3 IE 1 × 10 Also. This increase in current also causes the DC quiescent point to move away from its desired position (level). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-25 .Self-Bias V BB – V BE 5 – 0.= -300 KΩ 15 V 3 and thus R 2 = 100 KΩ and R 1 = 300 KΩ – R 2 = 300 KΩ – 100 KΩ = 200 KΩ We will find the value of R C from the relation 1 R C I C = -.28. R2 R2 R2 V TH = V BB = 5 V = -----------------.5 × 10 To find R eq = ( R 1 + R 2 ) we use the Thevenin equivalent voltage expression.= ---------------------------------------------------.15 V = ------------------.96 KΩ –3 IC αI E ( β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) )I E ( 120 ⁄ 121 ) × 1 × 10 3.= 4. the collector current will increase.= ------------------------.= 300 KΩ –3 IR 0.= ---------------------------------.V CC 3 or ( 1 ⁄ 3 )V CC ( 1 ⁄ 3 )V CC ( 1 ⁄ 3 )V CC 5 R C = ------------------------.= 4.= ----------. A better method of biasing. as shown in Figure 3. If the temperature of the transistor rises for any reason (due to a rise in ambient temperature or due to current flow through it).

28.23) we see that to maintain the emitter current I E fairly constant. the collector voltage V C will fall because of the increase of voltage produced across the collector resistor R L . From Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors RC IB RB B E C IB + IC = IE V CC IC IE Figure 3. we should choose the collector and base resistors such that R B ⁄ ( β + 1 ) « R C . The exact opposite effect is produced when the collector current decreases. R C I E + R B I B + V BE = V CC 1 R C I E + R B ----------. Now.I E + V BE = V CC β+1 V CC – V BE I E = ----------------------------------------RC + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) (3. Find the values of R C and R B to meet these specifications.28. Example 3. The decrease in base current will oppose the original increase in collector current and tend to stabilize it. if an increase of temperature causes an increase in collector current. feedback voltage can be fed from the collector to the base to develop forward bias.23) From (3.29 β = 120 and we want the collector voltage to vary in accordance with V C = 3 sin ωt V + V BE and I E = 1 mA . NPN transistor amplifier with self-bias By tying the collector to the base in this manner. This drop in V C will be fed back to the base and will result in a decrease in the base current. 3-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10 For the transistor circuit of Figure 3.

= ------------------.10 with assigned current directions By inspection. V CC RC IB RB B E C 15 V IB + IC = IE IC IE Figure 3. Transistor circuit for Example 3. 1 V C = R B I B + V BE = R B ⎛ ----------.7 = 3 sin ωt + 0.= 363 KΩ –3 1 × 10 × ( 1 ⁄ 121 ) V C = V CC – R C I E V CC – V C 15 – 3.7 = 3 + 0.10 Solution: We assign current directions as shown in Figure 3. by inspection 3 R B = ---------------------------------------------. Circuit for Example 3.⎞ I E + 0.= 11.30.3 KΩ –3 IE 1 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-27 .29.30.7 R C = ----------------------.7 ⎝ β + 1⎠ or Also.Self-Bias RC 15 V V CC RB B C E Figure 3.

current. • Finite gain. 3-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .e. The two extreme values of the variable resis- tor are R tr = ∞ (open circuit) and R tr = 0 (short circuit). the transistor. A given amplifier cannot output signals above a particular level. The power supply voltages are +V CC and – V EE and thus the output voltage v out will be limited to the range – V EE < v out < +V CC From our earlier discussion we can think of the transistor as a variable resistor between the collector resistor R C and emitter resistor R E . For each amplifier there is an upper frequency beyond which it finds it impossible to amplify signals. • Distortion. The actual signal pattern will be altered due non-linearities in the amplifier. This also reduces the accuracy of measurements and communications. These conditions are shown in Figures 3.31(c). • Limited output voltage.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. we should remember that every amplifier has some unavoidable limitations on its performance. All electronic devices tend to add some random noise to the signals passing through them.31(a) shows a simple amplifier being used to drive output signals into a resistive load.. A given amplifier may have a high gain. but this gain cannot normally be infinite so may not be large enough for a given purpose. Figure 3. The most important that we need to be concerned about when choosing and using them are: • Limited bandwidth. Let us first discuss the limits to signal size. This. there is always a finite limit to the output signal size. as R tr and its value depends on the input voltage v in .7 Amplifier Classes and Operation In the previous discussions we assumed that for every portion of the input signal there was an output from the amplifier. Class B. Class AB. and Class C. • Noise. They are Class A. Before discussing the different classes of amplifiers. This is not always the case with all types of amplifiers.31(b) and 3. i. The portion of the input for which there is an output determines the class of operation of the amplifier. There are four classes of amplifier operations. in turn. hence degrading the SNR (signal to noise ratio). limits the accuracy of any measurement or communication. and power levels. We denote this variable resistor. This is why we often use multiple amplifiers or stages to achieve a desired overall gain. It may be desirable to have the transistor conducting for only a portion of the input signal.

From Figure 3. R load v out ( max ) = ------------------------.24) and the corresponding maximum current is V CC i out ( max ) = ------------------------R C + R load (3. For convenience.31.⋅ V CC R C + R load (3. Thevenin equivalent for the circuit of Figure 3. that is.25) Obviously.31(c) where the load resistor is disconnected. that is. we redraw the circuit as shown in Figure 3.32. Simple amplifier with resistive load (c) Application of the voltage division expression for the circuit of Figure 3. we must make the collector resistor R C much smaller than the load resistor R load . R C « R load to maximize the current through the load resistor. by application of Thevenin’s theorem for the circuit of Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-29 . R TH RC V CC I RE V EE V TH V TH R load v out Figure 3. R C = 0.26) Next.32.31(c).31(b) yields the maximum voltage across the load resistor. we choose R C to be one-tenth of the value of R load . therefore.1R load (3. we want the power delivered to the load resistor to be maximum.32.Amplifier Classes and Operation RC C B E RE V EE R load v out V CC RC C B R tr = ∞ E RE V EE R load V CC RC C V CC v out B R tr = 0 E RE R load v out V EE (a) (b) Figure 3. that is.

29) RC RE R TH = ------------------RC + RE and thus R load v out ( min ) = ---------------------------. or R E = 0. the Thevenin resistance R TH shown in (3.11 3-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29) should be minimized.33 is to be used as the output stage of an audio system whose load resistance is R load = 8 Ω and the supply voltages are V CC = +24V and V EE = – 24V .28) and (3.1R load .33.11 Let us suppose that the circuit of Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC + V EE I = ------------------------RC + RE R E V CC – R C V EE V TH = V CC – R C I = ---------------------------------------R +R C E (3.28) (3. Taken into account the recommendations discussed above for sizing the emitter and collector resistors.1R C . find the power absorbed by the combination of the collector resistor. that is.01R load (3. We already have minimized R C to be R C = 0.30) Example 3.29) we see that for v out ( min ) to be close to – V EE . R E = 0. the transistor.27) (3. V CC RC C v in R load B E RE V EE v out Figure 3. so let us make R E one-tenth of R C . and the emitter resistor when v out = 0 V and the amplifier is on. Circuit for Example 3.V TH R TH + R load From (3.

In a PNP transistor. please refer to Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-31 . Output signals for Class A. Figure 3. I C = 24 ⁄ 0. Class AB. This current is referred to a quiescent current and it is defined as the current in the amplifier when the output voltage is zero. this current will flow through the transistor and the emitter resistor and into the negative power supply. holes will be repelled at the PN junction and no current can flow in the collector circuit.1R load = 0. Although the output from this amplifier is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input.1 Class A Amplifier Operation Class A amplifiers are biased so that variations in input signal polarities occur within the limits of cutoff and saturation.1 × 8 = 0.Amplifier Classes and Operation Solution: With R C = 0. Biasing an amplifier in this manner places the dc operating point between cutoff and saturation and allows collector current to flow during the complete cycle (360 degrees) of the input signal. the power absorbed by the combination of the collector resistor R C . Class A Class B Class AB Class C Figure 3.7. that is. This condition is known as cutoff. there is no current through the load resistor and since R C I C + v out = 24 V .8 = 30 A . for example. the transistor.35 is an example of a Class A amplifier. Thus. the output current still flows for the complete duration of the input.44 Kw . if the base becomes positive with respect to the emitter.34 during the following discussion. the amplifier will be drawing 30 A from the positive power supply. Class A amplifiers are used as audio. and sound systems. Saturation occurs when the base becomes so negative with respect to the emitter that changes in the signal are not reflected in collector-current flow.34. and Class C amplifiers We should remember that the circuits presented in our subsequent discussion are only the output stages of an amplifier to provide the necessary drive to the load. thus providing an output which is a replica of the input.and radio-frequency amplifiers in radio. 3. The output stages of Class A amplifiers carry a fairly large current. For a comparison of output signals for the different amplifier classes of operation. radar. Class B.8 Ω and v out = 0 V . This is indeed a very large amount of power and thus this amplifier is obviously very inefficient. and the emitter resistor R E will be 30 × ( 24 + 24 ) = 1440 w = 1. Since there is no current through the load.

Push-Pull Output stage for a Class A amplifier From the circuit of Figure 3. a Class A amplifier can be made more efficient if we employ a push-pull* arrangement as shown in Figure 3. − RB RC C V CC + + Vp 0 C − B E 0V VC v out –VC – V CC – Vp v in = V p sin ωt Figure 3.35.35. to * The expression push-pull (or double ended) derives its name from the fact that one of the two transistors pushes (sources) current into the load during the positive cycle while the other pulls (sinks) current from the load during the negative cycle. it is evident that we can control the currents i 1 and i 2 by varying the input voltages v in1 and v in2 . 3-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . It is convenient to set the quiescent current. denoted as I q .36.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors From Example 3. However.36.11 we learned that the arrangement of the circuit of Figure 3. Typical Class A amplifier + R E1 − V EE i1 v in1 i load v in2 R load + v out − i2 R E2 − + V EE Figure 3.33 is very inefficient.

we can adjust the currents i 1 and i 2 to be equal and opposite. Circuit for Example 3. + R E1 i1 v in1 i load v in2 i2 R E2 − 24 V 24 V − V EE R load 8Ω + v out − + V EE Figure 3. Example 3. Then. – V EE = – 24 V .12 Solution: The maximum load current will be 24 V i load ( max ) = ----------. and R load = 8 Ω .= 3 A 8Ω and the quiescent current will be 3A I q = -------.32) The currents i 1 and i 2 in each transistor vary from 0 to 2I q . Then. therefore. i load i 1 = I Q + --------2 (3.37. the load current is within the range – 2I q ≤ i load ≤ 2I q . + V EE = 24 V .= 1.12 In the circuit of Figure 3.31) and i load i 2 = I Q – --------2 (3.5 A 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-33 .Amplifier Classes and Operation one-half the maximum current drawn by the load.37. Compute the power absorbed by the circuit if we want to apply up to 24 V to the 8 Ω load.

38. The current in the diodes is supplied by two current sources denoted as I bias . each transistor will absorb P = 24 × 1. the upper transistor is cutoff and the lower transistor conducts. and since v BE1 = v D1 . Then. the upper transistor conducts and the lower transistor is cutoff. we find that v 1 = v in for v in > 0 (3.33) When v in goes negative.2 Class B Amplifier Operation The circuit of Figure 3. then the input to the base of the lower transistor is v in – v D2 and the voltage at the emitter terminal of the 3-34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .38 shows the output stage of a Class B amplifier. Output stage of a typical Class B amplifier When v in goes positive. but it is much more efficient than the circuit of the previous example. This consists also of a push-pull arrangement but the bases (inputs) are tied by two diodes.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Then. + V − CC R C1 I bias v D1 v in v D2 + v BE1 − v1 R E1 i load R load R E2 v EB2 + v 2 − i1 R C2 + v out − I bias − + V CC Figure 3.5 = 36 w and the total power absorbed by the circuit will be P total = 2 × 36 = 72 w This is not very efficient. 3. the input to the base of the upper transistor is v in + v D1 and the voltage at the emitter terminal of the upper transistor is v 1 = v in + v D1 – v BE1 .7.

3 Class AB Amplifier Operation We’ve seen that Class A amplifiers are very inefficient.35) Therefore. and v 2 = 0 also. v 1 = 0 . In Figure 3.34) we conclude that v 1 = v 2 = v in (3. assuming that R E1 = R E2 . Accordingly. Then.40. Crossover distortion in Class B amplifier 3. we find that v 2 = v in for v in < 0 (3. they produce crossover distortion. The efficiency of a typical Class B amplifier varies between 65 to 75 percent. we find that v 1 = v in + v D and similarly for the lower transistor v 2 = v in – v D . However.37) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-35 .39.33) and (3.39. and since v EB2 = v D2 .7.Amplifier Classes and Operation lower transistor is v 2 = v EB2 + v in – v D2 . There exists a range where both transistors are cutoff when the input signal changes polarity and this results in crossover distortion as shown in Figure 3. and the current and the output of both transistors including the quiescent currents I bias will be zero also. and the power absorbed by the circuit will be zero. and since v BE1 = v D1 = v D2 . we have v 1 – v 2 = 2v D (3.40(a) the voltage v 1 at the upper transistor is v 1 = v in + v D1 + v D2 – v BE1 . will be 2v D v D v1 – v2 I bias = -----------------------. it appears that this arrangement has perfect efficiency. this ideal condition is never achieved because no two diodes or two transistors are exactly identical. when v in = 0 .= --------. Crossover distortion v in v out Figure 3.36) and the quiescent current.= -----R E1 + R E2 2R E R E (3. and Class B amplifiers although are efficient. when v in = 0 . Class AB amplifiers combine the advantages of Class A and Class B amplifiers while they minimize the problems associated with them. Two possible arrangements for the output stage of a typical Class AB amplifier are shown in Figure 3.34) From (3. This distortion is due to the non-linearities in transistor devices where the output does not vary linearly with the input.

we should make R E as small as possible. 3-36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . so let R E = 0. + − I bias V CC R C1 I bias V CC + v D1 v D2 v in v D3 v D4 v BE1 − R E1 + v in v1 i load R1 R adj R2 B A + + v BE1− R E1 v1 v AB R E2 + − v EB2 − v2 i1 R load + v out − R E2 v EB2 + − v2 i1 R load + v out − I bias R C2 − V + CC (a) I bias − V + CC (b) Figure 3. one transistor will conduct and supply the current required by the load.5 V . for large signals the circuit of Figure 3.5 Ω .⋅ R load 2 RE 2 (3.38) and the output power will be P load 2v D = -------.40(a) acts like a Class B amplifier and hence the name Class AB amplifier.39) For maximum power. But for larger signals. In other words.40.⋅ R load RE (3. Then. Two possible arrangements for the output stage of a typical Class AB amplifier For sinusoidal signals into the load R load . the RMS voltage will be 2v D v out ( RMS ) = ------------. while the other will be cutoff.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors For small output signals that require currents in the range – 2I bias < i load < 2I bias both transistors will conduct and will behave as Class A amplifier. and let R load = 8 Ω and v D = 0.

the transistor in Figure 3. During the negative half-cycle the transistor behaves like an open switch. Class AB amplifiers are the most commonly used amplifier designs due to their attractive combination of good efficiency and high-quality output (low distortion and high linearity close to but not equal to Class A amplifiers). The adjustable resistor R adj is set to a position to yield the desired value of the quiescent current I bias . and phase and pulse amplification.Amplifier Classes and Operation 2v D 0.⋅ R load = --------. Class AB designs are about 50 percent efficient (half of the power supply is power is turned into output to drive speakers) compared to Class A designs at 20 percent efficiency. current i L flows through the inductor and creates a magnetic field. we have seen that the Class AB amplifier maintains current flow at all times so that the output devices can begin operation nearly instantly without the crossover distortion in Class B amplifiers. From the above discussion.7.41. in frequency modulation (FM). During the positive half-cycle the transistor behaves like a closed switch. the magnetic Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-37 .4 Class C Amplifier Operation Class C amplifiers have high efficiency and find wide applications in continuous wave (CW) laser and radar applications. + − − iL + v BE − L V CC iC C iC + iL + Load v in Figure 3. The load can be thought of as an antenna.41 behaves as a open-closed switch. However. A typical Class C output stage is shown in Figure 3.× 8 = 20 w 2 0. the voltage v AB can be adjusted to any desired value by selecting appropriate values for resistors R 1 and R 2 . complete current is not allowed to flow at any one time thus avoiding much of the inefficiency of the Class A amplifier. Class C amplifiers cannot be used with amplitude modulation (AM) because of the high distortion. Output stage of a typical Class C amplifier In Class C amplifier operation. However.25 RE 2 P load If we let V CC = 24 V and I bias = 1 A . and at the same time the capacitor discharges and thus the two currents i C + i L flow through the emitter to the ground. the total power absorbed will be P total = 24 × 1 + 20 = 44 w For the circuit of Figure 3. 3.41.5 = -------.40(b).

and others have been developed by some manufacturers. This equation can be expressed as V BB 1i B = – -----.v BE + --------RB RB (3. Circuit showing the variables used on the graphs of Figures 3. RC RB iC + v CE − + − V CC v in V BB + v BE iB − + − Figure 3. These are for special applications and will not be discussed in this text.43 and 3.42) as the equation of a straight line of the form y = mx + b with slope – 1 ⁄ R B .40) are shown in Figure 3. Class E. We will use the circuit of Figure 3. 3.8 Graphical Analysis The operation of a simple transistor circuit can also be described graphically. the interested reader may find information on the Internet.40) and the equation of the straight line intersect V BB – v BE i B = ------------------------RB (3.42.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors field in the inductor collapses and the current i L will flow through the capacitor and the load.42) We recognize (3.42 for our graphical analysis. For more information on these. This equation and the curve of equation (3.41) was obtained with the AC source v in shorted out.44 We start with a plot of i B versus v BE to determine the point where the curve i B = ( I r ⁄ β )e v BE ⁄ nV T (3. 3-38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .43. Other classes of amplifiers such as Class D.41) The equation of (3.

I B ) IB V BE V BB Figure 3.*exp(vBE. iR=10^(-15). grid From Figure 3. iB=(iR.Graphical Analysis V BB --------RB Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B ( V BE. plot(vBE. n=1../(n.43) v CE = V CC – R C i C V CC i C --------RC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C i Bn … i B4 i B3 iB = IB i B2 i B1 V CE V CC IC Q v CE Figure 3. xlabel('Base-Emitter voltage vBE.*VT)).. vBE=0: 0...42) We used the following MATLAB script to plot the curve of equation (3. VT=27*10^(-3)..42'). volts').44. title('iB-vBE characteristics for the circuit of Figure 3. axis([0 1 0 10^(-6)])./beta).01: 1..40). ylabel('Base current iB. Plot showing the intersection of Equations (3..44. we refer to the family of curves of the collector current i C versus collector-emitter voltage v CE for different values of i B as shown in Figure 3. beta = 100. Family of curves for different values of i B Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-39 .43. where the straight line with slope – 1 ⁄ R C is derived from the relation (3. amps')...40) and (3. Next.iB).43 we obtain the values of V BE and I B on the v BE and i B axes respectively.

45. and the third at v in = – V p as shown in Figure 3. one corresponding to input v in = 0 .44) As shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Solving (3. Example 3. the input voltage v i is a sinusoidal waveform. * We observe that (3. Obviously.40) describes an equation of a straight line of the form y = mx + b where the slope is m = – 1 ⁄ RC and the ordinate axis intercept is b = VCC ⁄ RC . 3-40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the second at v in = V p . + RC iC RB i B v BE + + + V CC v CE v in V BB Figure 3. sketch the waveforms for v BE .13 For the circuit of Figure 3. and iC .* RC RC (3. i B .44.43) for i C we get V CC 1 i C = – -----. We draw three parallel lines with slope – 1 ⁄ R B . Circuit for Example 3.46. commonly known as load line. this straight line. and the curve i B = I B intersect at point Q whose coordinates are the DC bias values V CE and I C . The input voltage v in is superimposed on the DC bias voltage V BB .45.13 Solution: Let v in = V p sin ωt . Using the i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves shown in Figure 3.v CE + --------. the value of the collector resistor R C must be chosen such that the load line is neither a nearly horizontal nor a nearly vertical line.47. v CE .

47.46.13 iB V BB RB --------- Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B IB Q iB v BE V BE V BB v BE v in Figure 3. i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves for Example 3.Graphical Analysis iB iC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B V CC RC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C V BB RB --------- --------- … IB Q v BE V BE V BB IC Q iB = IB V CE V CC v CE Figure 3. Graphical representation of v BE and i B when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-41 .

Graphical representation of v CE and i C when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid 3.49. We will represent average (DC) values with upper case letters and upper case subscripts. 3-42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iC V CC RC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C --------… iC IC Q iB = IB V CE V CC v CE v CE Figure 3.45) (3. Let us consider the circuit of Figure 3.46) and v CE = V CE + v ce where I C and V CE are the average values i c and v ce are time-varying components whose average value is zero.9 Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier In our subsequent discussion we will denote time-varying quantities with lower case letters and lower case subscripts. The collector current and the collector-to-emitter voltage can be expressed as iC = IC + ic (3. We will use lower case letters with upper case subscripts for the sum of the instantaneous and average values.48.

* Therefore.Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier + − V CC + v CE − iE RC RB iC v in V BB + i B v BE − + − Figure 3.49) The term 2R LOAD I C i c is zero since 2RLOAD I C is constant and the average of i c is zero. ⎝ 0 ⎠ T Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-43 .50) The power absorbed by the transistor at each instant is p C = v CE i C = ( V CC – R LOAD i C )i C = V CC i C – R LOAD i C = p CC – p LOAD 2 (3.52) * By definition Average = Area ⁄ Period = ⎛ ∫ i dt⎞ ⁄ T and thus if the value of the integral is zero.48) and if there is negligible or no distortion. hence the average power absorbed by the load is P LOAD = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c ) ave = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c RMS ) 2 2 2 2 (3.51) Therefore. the average value of the term V CC i c is zero. Circuit for the derivation of power relations The power drawn from the collector supply at each instant is p CC = V CC i C = V CC I C + V CC i c (3. the average power drawn from the collector supply is P CC = V CC I C (3.49. the average power absorbed by the transistor is P C = P CC – P LOAD (3. The power absorbed by the load at each instant is p LOAD = R LOAD i C = R LOAD ( I C + i c ) = R LOAD I C + 2R LOAD I C i c + R LOAD i c 2 2 2 2 (3.47) Since V CC is constant and i c has zero average value. the current I C and power P CC are both independent of the signal amplitude. the average is also zero.

= β + 1 1–α and by substitution into (3.55) From Table 3.= β 1–α Also.51. i C = αi E + I CO (3.50 may be redrawn as shown in Figure 3. I CO is the current into the reverse-biased collector with i E = 0 . the equivalent circuit of Figure 3.50.55) i C = βi B + ( β + 1 )I CO (3.50 is a model to represent the transistor where the two ideal diodes are included to remind us of the two PN junctions in the transistor. 3-44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .56) Thus.+ 1 = β + 1 1–α 1 ---------.10 Piecewise-Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier The circuit shown in Figure 3.54) or α 1 i C = ---------------.50. I CO B iB αi E iE E iC C Figure 3. By KCL. A transistor model In Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3.53) and since i E = i C + i B i C = α ( i C + i B ) + I CO i C – αi C = αi B + I CO ( 1 – α )i C = αi B + I CO (3. α ----------.1 α ----------.I CO (1 – α) (1 – α) (3.i B + ---------------.

52 is for an NPN transistors. An alternative transistor model. referred to as the base spreading resistance. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-45 . voltage polarities. A more accurate model for the transistor Analogous to the base resistance r b are the emitter diffusion resistance defined as ∂v E r e = -------∂i E (3.Piecewise-Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier ( β + 1 ) I CO iB βi B iE iC C B E Figure 3. The transistor amplifier of Figure 3.51 are essentially ideal models.51.52 where for silicon type of transistors V D ≈ 0. is included to account for the small voltage drop in the base of the transistor. It applies also to PNP transistors provided that the diodes. and r c is very high. An improved transistor model is shown in Figure 3. The transistor models shown in Figures 3.50 and 3. The model of Figure 3. in excess of 1 MΩ . ( β + 1 )I CO rb iB βi B VD E B iC C iE Figure 3.7 V and r b . and current directions are reversed.52.58) i E = cons tan t Typical values for r b are between 50 Ω to 250 Ω .57) i C = cons tan t and the collector resistance ∂v C r c = -------∂i C (3.52. for r e are between 10 Ω to 25 Ω .53 can be analyzed by piece-wise linear methods with the aid of the transistor model of Figure 3.

βi B is Rs B IB R1 DE + − iC DC iC C RC V CC + − V CC I CS = -------RC Emitter diode open circuited is = –IB Collector diode short circuited v CE iE (a) vs V1 E is (b) CS i s = -----. Basic transistor amplifier to be analyzed by piece-wise linear methods For convenience.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iB is Rs V1 + − R1 v BE + v CE − − + RC + − V CC vs Figure 3. and ( β + 1 )I CO in Figure 3. we neglect the small effects of r b .54. B iB βi B iC C E iE Figure 3.52 and thus the model is now as shown in Figure 3. we obtain the circuit shown in Figure 3. Let us now suppose that the source current i s reaches a value that causes the reverse voltage across the collector diode D C to become zero and the emitter diode D E is conducting and allows 3-46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . V D .53 and its current transfer characteristics The current transfer characteristics are constructed by determining the points at which the diodes change from the conducting to the non-conducting state. Piecewise linear model for the circuit of figure 3. The piece-wise linear model of Figure 3. The current I CS represents the collector saturation current.52 where r b .53 is replaced by the piece-wise linear model of Figure 3.53. and ( β + 1 )I CO are neglected When the transistor in the amplifier of Figure 3.54.55(a).– I B β I Figure 3.55.54. V D .

= -----βRC β V I and since the base is grounded. (3. and the base terminal is at ground potential. let us now suppose that the source current i s becomes negative and reaches a value that causes the collector diode D C to become reverse-biased and the current in the emitter diode D E to reach a zero value. The resistor R 1 provides a suitable current to sustain the breakdown condition of the Zener diode.59) reduces to is = –IB (3.= βi B = I CS - V RC or CC CS i B = --------. Therefore.59) Next. Any change in supply voltage causes a compensating change in the voltage drop across the transistor from collector to emitter and the load voltage v load is thereby held constant in spite of changes in the input voltage or load resistance R load . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-47 . When this occurs. V BE = 0.61) Example 3. This condition establishes the left-hand break on the transfer characteristics and its value is determined as follows: i B = – i C = – βi B (3. the collect-to-emitter voltage v CE . and the power P C absorbed by the transistor.= -----. For β ≠ – 1 . This condition establishes the right-hand break on the transfer characteristics and its value is determined as follows: The collector current under the conditions stated above is CC i C = --------. with the base terminal at ground potential and i B = 0 . 1 CS i s = i B – ----.60) But this equation is true only if β = – 1 . this equation is satisfied only if i B = 0 . all three terminals of the transistor are at ground potential. there is no voltage drop across either diode. When this occurs.14 A DC power supply with a transistor regulator is shown in Figure 3. there is no current in either diode. Find the values of the load voltage v load . r b = 75 Ω .7 V and the current I CO into the reverse-biased collector is negligible.Piecewise-Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier a current i E to flow through it.– I B R1 β V I (3. The transistor parameters are β = 100 . and the current in the collector diode D C is zero.56.

and the voltage regulation action of the transistor will fail.7 V β iB iE = ( β + 1 ) iB + − R1 35 V − rb 75 Ω + − iB R load + v load 100 Ω − V Z = 25 V Figure 3.4 × 10 –3 = 24.57.57. The piece-wise linear model for the transistor in Figure 3.3 25 – 0.56. the collector-base junction will no longer be reverse-biased.14 Solution: We replace the transistor with its piece-wise linear model as shown in Figure 3.55 From Figure 3. the breakdown state will not be sustained in the Zener diode.4 = 240 mA 3-48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . DC power supply for Example 3.24V We observe that the load voltage is independent of the supply voltage of 35 V . iC + V BE = 0. Also.= ----------------------------------. r b i B + V BE + R load i E = V Z V Z – V BE = r b i B + ( β + 1 )R load i B V Z – V BE 24.4mA 10175 75 + 101 × 100 r b + ( β + 1 )R load v load = ( β + 1 )R load i B = 101 × 100 × 2. when this occurs. However. The collector current is i C = βi B = 100 × 2.= -------------.7 i B = ---------------------------------------. if the supply voltage falls below the Zener voltage of 25 V .= 2.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors R1 + V Z = 25 V C R load + 100 Ω − v load V C = 35 V − Figure 3. This occurs because the collector can be represented as an ideal current source βi B .57.

58 w 3. However. The base-to-emitter voltage v BE and the collector current i C are functions of the base current i B and collector-to-emitter voltage v CE . v CE ) (3. Then.di B + ----------.64) has the dimensions of resistance and it is denoted as r n . and that in the second term has the dimensions of conductance and it is denoted as g o .Incremental linear models and the collector-to-emitter voltage is v CE = Supply Voltage – Load Voltage = 35 – 24. Also.64) and the increment in i C can be written as ∂i C ∂i C ∆i C ≈ di C = ------.dv CE ∂i B ∂v CE (3. (3. v CE ) If i B and v CE are changed in small increments. Then. It is also convenient to denote these derivatives in lower case letters with lower case subscripts.66) v be = r n i b + µv ce Likewise.24 = 2. For these reasons the incremental model for the transistor provides a better approximation than the piece-wise linear approximation. In other words. (3. and that in the second term is a dimensionless voltage ratio denoted as µ . the partial derivative in the first term of (3. the resulting increment in v BE can be expressed as ∂v BE ∂v BE ∆v BE ≈ dv BE = ----------. the small voltage drop between base and emitter is small in comparison with the bias voltage and thus can be neglected. the base-to-emitter voltage cannot be neglected when only the increments of voltage and currents is considered.76 × 0.64) is expressed as (3.76 V The power absorbed by the transistor is P C = v CE i C = 10. it is often necessary to account for the small effects of variations in collector voltage on both the input and output circuits.dv CE ∂i B ∂v CE (3.di B + ----------. when calculating increments of current and voltage.62) (3.65) The partial derivative in the first term of (3.11 Incremental linear models In our discussion on piece-wise linear models on the preceding section.63) and i C = f ( i B. v BE = f ( i B.65) is a dimensionless current ratio denoted as β .24 = 10.65) is expressed as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-49 .

and thus the model reduces to that shown in Figure 3. the output conductance g o is the slope of the output current and voltage characteristics. and g o = 2 × 10 –5 –4 Ω .67). It is referred to as hybrid model because of the mixed set of voltages and currents as indicated by the expressions of (3.59.66) and (3. and since the value of µ is a very small number. the voltage –1 source µv ce in Figure 3.67) along with i e = i b + i c suggest the circuit shown in Figure 3.66) and (3.67) are r n = 2 KΩ .59.58 can be replaced by a short circuit.67) The relations of (3. and the current amplification factor β is related to the output characteristics caused by a change in i B .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i c = βi b + g o v ce (3. The hybrid incremental model for the transistor with µv ce = 0 3-50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .58 known as the hybrid incremental network model for the transistor.58. The hybrid incremental model for a transistor in the common-emitter configuration The voltage amplification factor µ is related to the input characteristics caused by a change in v CE . Typical values for the parameters of relations (3. B ib v be rn βi b ie go ic v ce C E Figure 3. B ib v be rn go ic v ce µv ce E C βi b ie Figure 3. µ = 5 × 10 . The input resistance r n is the slope of the input voltage and current characteristics and it accounts for the voltage drop across the base-emitter junction.66) and (3. β = 100 . Likewise.

Therefore.69) and µv ce = – µR eq βi b Hence. currents. for example.60 can be redrawn as shown in Figure 3.Incremental linear models The transistor hybrid parameters* provide us with a means to evaluate voltages. the voltages and currents in the collector side of the circuit are not affected. Then.53.60 with the voltage source µv ce replaced by the resistance – µβR eq The negative resistance – µβR eq is always much smaller than r n and thus the net input resistance to the transistor is always positive.60 which is an incremental model for the transistor amplifier in Figure 3. the voltage of the µv ce is proportional to the current flowing through the source. ib B Rs ic rn – µβ R eq βi b E C R load is go R eq v ce Figure 3. and from this fact we can replace the voltage source with a resistance – µβR eq . ib B ic rn µv ce E C go βi b ie R load is Rs v ce Figure 3.61. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-51 . and thus the model of Figure 3. consider the circuit of Figure 3. The current amplification A c is defined as * We will introduce the h-equivalent transistor circuits in Section 3. and assuming that the base current i b is unaffected by this assumption. The circuit of Figure 3. Transistor incremental model with external devices Now. the negative resistance – µβR eq can be replaced by a short circuit.61.15.60. and power in devices that are connected externally to the transistor. we let R eq represent the parallel combination r o = 1 ⁄ g o and R load . v ce = – R eq βi b (3.68) (3. Let us.

= ---------------------------------------.i ---------------------. Orchard Publications. i b = i 1 . y . the subscript f denotes the forward transfer current ratio with the output short circuited. and the * For a detailed discussion of the z . and g o = h 22 = h oe .70) where R1 1 i c = g o v ce + βi b = --. 3-52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .c ⎝ R1 + rn s ro ⎠ R1 ⎛ r o + R load ⎞ i = β ---------------. β = h 21 = h fe .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ic A c = --is (3. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9.c ⎝ ⎠ R1 + rn s ro ro R1 ic β ( R1 ⁄ ( R1 + rn ) ) βR 1 r o --.73) the subscript i denotes the input impedance with the output short-circuited. provide a symmetrical form for the relations of (3.( – R load i c ) + β ---------------. h .i .i s ro R1 + rn R1 R load i c + ----------. the subscript r denotes the reverse transfer voltage ratio with the input terminals open-circuited.β --------------------------( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) is ( r o + R load ) ⁄ r o ( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) and thus the current amplification A c is ro R1 ic A c = --. and i c = i 2 .73) or v 1 = h ie i 1 + h re v 2 i 2 = h fe i 1 + h oe v 2 In (3. v ce = v 2 .= --------------------.66)and (3.72) (3.= -------------------------------------------------.67) as follows: v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 (3.71) The parameters r n . µ = h 12 = h re .β --------------------------( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) is (3. and g parameters refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. and g o are normally denoted by the h (hybrid) parameters * as r n = h 11 = h ie .= --------------------. µ .i s ro R1 + rn R1 R load ⎛ 1 + ----------. β .⎞ i = β ---------------. These designations along with the additional notations v be = v 1 .i c = β ---------------.

62 it is known that r n = h 11 = 2 KΩ . TABLE 3.63 where 3 3 ( 1 ⁄ g o )R load 50 × 10 × 2 × 10 R eq = -----------------------------.= ------------------------------------------. Table 3. i load is v CE Rs − + –4 –5 Ω .= 1. β = h 21 = 100 . A similar set of symbols with the subscript b replacing the subscript e denotes the hybrid parameters for a transistor operating in the common-base mode. Find the small signal current amplification –1 RC 16 V + 2 KΩ − V CC R1 2V + − 10 KΩ vs Solution: The incremental model of this transistor amplifier is shown in Figure 3. Values for the hybrid parameters at a typical quiescent operating point for the common-emitter mode are provided by the transistor manufacturers. Please refer to the last section of this chapter.15 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-53 .923 KΩ 3 1 ⁄ g o + R load 52 × 10 Figure 3.Incremental linear models subscript o denotes the output admittance with the input terminals open-circuited. The second subscript e indicates that the parameters apply for the transistor operating in the common-emitter mode. Transistor amplifier for Example 3.3 lists the h-parameter equations for the three bipolar transistor configurations. and a set with the subscript c replacing the letter e denotes the hybrid parameters for a transistor operating in the common-collector mode.15 For the amplifier circuit of Figure 3.3 h-parameter equations for transistors Parameter Common-Base Common-Emitter Common-Collector h 11 h 12 h 21 h 22 h ib h rb h fb h ob h ie ≈ h 11 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h re ≈ h 11 h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) – h 12 h fe ≈ – h 21 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h oe ≈ h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h ic ≈ h 11 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h rc ≈ 1 h fc ≈ – 1 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h oc ≈ h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) Example 3. µ = h 12 = 5 × 10 . and g o = h 22 = 2 × 10 A c = i load ⁄ i s .62.

12 Transconductance Another useful parameter used in small signal analysis at high frequencies is the transconductance.64. Thus.06465 KΩ 3 and since this is much smaller than r n = h 11 = 2 KΩ . ro R1 i load 50 10 A c = --------.62 and thus the magnitude of the equivalent resistance reflected into the input part of the circuit is µβR eq = 5 × 10 –4 × 100 × 1.70) di C g m = ----------dv BE iC = IC 1 v ⁄V = I r -----. denoted as g m .= ----. we denote time-varying quantities with lower case letters and lower case subscripts.71). it can be neglected.= --------------------.= 80 52 ( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) 12 is 3.75) (3. An approximate value for the transconductance at room temperature is g m ≈ 40I C .e BE T VT 3-54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the transconductance g m is the slope at point Q on the i C versus v BE characteristics at i C = I C as shown in Figure 3. and defined as di C g m = ----------dv BE (3.63.74) iC = IC and as a reminder.65 Ω = 0. This relation is derived as follows: From (3. Then.× 100 × ----.76) and with (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ib B Rs R1 i load rn go C R load 2 KΩ R eq 10 KΩ v ce is – µβ R eq E βi b Figure 3. The incremental model for the transistor circuit of Figure 3.β --------------------------.2) iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T (3.293 × 10 = 64. The current gain A c can be found from the relation (3.

65.77) (3. Alternative forms for the transistor model Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-55 .75) into (3.64. B ib r' b v be v' be ic C B ib r' b v ce v be v' be ic C v ce r be βi b E (a) ro r be g m v' be E (b) ro ie ie Figure 3. Figures 3.65(b) are alternative forms for representing a transistor.High-Frequency Models for Transistors iC IC Q Slope = g m V BE ic v BE v BE Figure 3. The transconductance g m defined By substitution of (3.65(a) and 3. Therefore.13 High-Frequency Models for Transistors The incremental models presented in the previous section do not take into consideration the high-frequency effects in the transistor.78) and with V T = 26 × 10 –3 V g m ≈ 40i C and thus we see that the transconductance is proportional to the collector current i C . 3.76) we get gm = iC ⁄ VT (3. a transistor can be viewed as an amplifier with a transconductance of 40 millimhos for each milliampere of collector current.

83) or β β r be = ----. when i C = 1 ma .65(b). r n = r' b + r be (3. From (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors In Figure 3.65(a) can also be represented as that of Figure 3.v' be = g m v' be * r be (3. accounts for the ohmic base spreading resistance. B ib r' b v' be 1 + + C1 − C2 ic ro v be r be v ce C − g m v' be E ie Figure 3. denoted as r be . is a nonlinear resistance and accounts for the voltage drop v' be across the emitter junction.66 shows a model for the transistor at high frequencies referred to as hybrid− π model.65(a) and thus v' be i b = ------r be β βi b = ----. and in general.81) and thus the model of Figure 3.82) (3.76) g m = β ⁄ r be (3. it follows that --------v ce = 0 v' r be i v ' be di c = -----------dv ' be = gm v CE = cons tan t 3-56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .79) (3. the effects of junction capacitances must be taken into account.65(a) the input impedance r n is separated into two parts. the other part.80) From Figure 3. one part.66.84) The incremental models we have discussed thus far are valid only for frequencies of about 2 MHz or less. The hybrid− π model for the transistor at high frequencies be c * Since i c = βi b = β --------. denoted as r' b .= ---------gm 40i C Thus. r be = 25β Ω . For higher frequencies. Figure 3. when i C is in milliamps.. Thus. r be = ( 25β ) ⁄ i C (3.

C 1 is typically 100 times as large as C 2 and it can be neglected. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-57 . Also. it is customary to represent C 1 as C e . At low frequencies the capacitors act as open circuits and thus do not affect the transistor performance. We can derive some useful relations by determining the short-circuit collector current i c when a sinusoidal input current is applied between the base and emitter terminals. The coefficient of I b in (3.87) Thus. therefore the quantity 1 ⁄ r be C 1 has the dimensions of frequency. This reduction in v' be causes in turn a reduction in the strength of the controlled source g m v' be and a reduction in the collector current i c . capacitor C 2 is in parallel with C 1 between Node 1 and ground. and it is helpful to define a new symbol ω β as * Phasors are rotating vectors and are used to represent voltages and currents in complex form. Impedances and admittances are complex quantities but not phasors.85) and denoting the phasor* quantities with bolded capical letters. if the amplitude of the input current is held constant as the frequency is increased.High-Frequency Models for Transistors The capacitor C 1 represents the capacitance that exists across the forward-biased emitter junction while the capacitor C 2 represents a much smaller capacitance that exists across the reverse-biased collector junction. At high frequencies.86) and g m r be I c = g m V ' be = ---------------------------. we obtain r be V ' be = Z be I b = ---------------------------. With the output short-circuited.86) must be a dimensionless constant. the capacitors present a relatively low impedance and thereby reduce the amplitude of the signal voltage v' be .I b r be jω C 1 + 1 Using the relation of (3. however. r be Z be = ---------------------------r be jω C 1 + 1 (3.I b r be jω C 1 + 1 (3. the amplitude of the collector current decreases and approaches zero at very high frequencies. Then.I b r be jω C 1 + 1 β I c = ---------------------------. refer to Circuit Analysis I.= --------------------------------------------r be + 1 ⁄ jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) r be jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) + 1 However. For a detailed discussion. and the equivalent impedance is r be × 1 ⁄ jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) r be Z be = r be || 1 ⁄ jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) = jω ( C 1 + C 2 ) = ------------------------------------------------.82) we get (3.

the frequency at which I c = I b .82). ω β serves as a useful measure of the band of frequen- cies over which the short-circuit current amplification remains reasonably constant and nearly equal to its low-frequency value. and (3.92) The relation of (3.87) we get β I c = ------------------------.93) or gm f T = -----------2πC e (3.92) gm ω T = ----Ce (3. the current gain-bandwidth prod* The figure of merit is useful in comparing different devices for their overall performance. from (3. at the frequency ω = ω β . Also.88) into (3.90) as β = ( ω ⁄ ωβ ) + 1 2 2 (3.91) As we know. a typical value for β is 100 .88) By substitution of (3. (3. 3-58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .90) Therefore. Thus.I b 2 ( ω ⁄ ωβ ) + 1 (3. the magnitude of the collector current I c is reduced to 1 ⁄ 2 times its low-frequency value.89) and the magnitute of the collector current is β I c = ---------------------------------. Letting ω = ω T . is found from (3.94) Example 3.88). ω β is referred to as the β cutoff frequency.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 1 ω β ≡ -----------r be C e (3. that is. therefore. The frequency at which the current amplification is unity.92) is referred to as the current gain-bandwidth product for the transistor and it is an important figure of merit* for a transistor. in (3.16 The specifications for a certain transistor state that β = 100 .I b jω ⁄ ω β + 1 (3. For this reason.91) the term ( ω ⁄ ω β ) is much larger than unity and ω » ω β . we get ω T ≈ βω β f T ≈ βf β (3.

i B1 i C1 α1 β1 iT i C2 α2 β2 i E1 = i B2 i E2 Figure 3.The Darlington Connection uct is f T = 200 MHz .= 2 MHz 100 β and this indicates that at this frequency the current amplification is still large.67. The Darlington connection The combined α T and β T are evaluated as follows: Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-59 .= ---------------------. the base-emitter resistance r be d. The circuit has high input impedance and low output impedance. the transconductance g m b. From (3.= ----------------------------. From (3. 3.67 shows two transistors in a common collector configuration known as the Darlington connection.92) 6 fT 200 × 10 f β = ---.83) 100 βr be = ----. the β cutoff frequency Solution: a.= ---------------------.≈ 32 pF 8 2πf T 2π × 2 × 10 c. From (3. the base-emitter capacitance C e c. and the collector current is i C = 1 mA .14 The Darlington Connection Figure 3. From (3. find: a.94) –3 gm 40 × 10 C e = ----------.5 KΩ –3 gm 40 × 10 d.= 2. Using the hybrid− π model of Figure 3.78) g m ≈ 40i C = 40 millimhos b.66.

103) (3.= ---iB 1–α (3. then.96) (3.101) From (3.= α 1 ( 1 – α 2 ) + α 2 = α 1 + α 2 – α 1 α 2 i E2 (3.106) From Table 3.= α 1 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 + α 2 i E2 1 – α1 1 – α2 1 – α2 (3. i E2 = i C2 + i B2 = α 2 i E2 + i B2 i B2 i E2 = -------------1 – α2 Then.+ -------------.+ -------------1 – α1 1 – α2 (3.= α 1 i B2 + -------------1 – α1 1 – α2 1 – α2 (3.107) and with (3.98) (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i E1 = i B2 = i C1 + i B1 i C1 = α 1 i E1 = α 1 i B2 i B2 = α 1 i B2 + i B1 i B1 i B2 = -------------1 – α1 (3.100) Also.105) by i E2 we get iT α T = -----.99) (3. (3.97) (3.103) α 1 ( 1 – α 1 )i B2 α 2 i B2 α 2 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 i T = --------------------------------.105).102) and by substitution into (3. (3.105) Let the overall α value be denoted as α T .104).95) (3.104) Also.98) i B1 = ( 1 – α 1 )i B2 (3.1 iC α β = ----------. and (3. α 1 i B1 α 2 i B2 i T = i C1 + i C2 = α 1 i E1 + α 2 i E2 = α 1 i B2 + α 2 i E2 = -------------.101) α 2 i B2 α 1 ( 1 – α 1 )i B2 α 2 i B2 i T = --------------------------------. from (3.+ -------------.102).= α 1 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 + --------------------------------.107) 3-60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .100) i B2 = ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 and by substitution into (3. α T = i T ⁄ i E2 and dividing (3.

= ------------------. v eb h ib h rb v cb h fb i e h ob v cb Figure 3.1 The h-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Base Transistor Figure 3. The h-parameter equivalent circuit for common-base transistor From Figures 3.= --------------------------------------.69. and we will derive the equations for input resistance.+ ------------------. se observe that h ib = r e h ob = g 0 h fb = α h rb = µ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-61 .108) (3. output resistance.69. ie E C B ic v cb ie re v eb µv cb αi e (b) ic g0 v cb v eb ib (a) Figure 3. Common-base transistor circuit and its equivalent From the equivalent circuit of Figure 3. and common collector transistor circuits by their h-equivalent and T-equivalent circuits.15.Transistor Networks iT α1 α2 α 1 ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 + α 2 i E2 α1 ( 1 – α2 ) + α2 β T = -----. and current gain. common-emitter.68.68 and (3.+ ----------------------------.109) Also.= ------------------.69).------------------.15 Transistor Networks In this section we will represent the common-base. 3.68 shows the common-base configuration of an NPN transistor.= β 1 + ( β 1 β 2 ) ⁄ α 1 ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ⁄ α1 ( 1 – α2 ) and since α ≈ 1 βT ≈ β1 + β1 β2 (3.+ --------------------------------------i B1 ( 1 – α 1 ) ( 1 – α 2 )i E2 ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) α1 α2 α2 α1 α1 1 = ------------------.= ----------------------------------------------------.------------------. voltage gain.68(b) we can draw the h-parameter equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3. since β 1 « β 1 β 2 βT ≈ β1 β2 3.

113) Normally.x .117) 3-62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . This can be shown as follows: From (3.110) v BE ⁄ V T or iC = IC + ic = Ir e ( v BE + v be ) ⁄ V T = Ir e ⋅e v be ⁄ V T (3.v be VT (3.⎞ = I C + -----.+ … 2! 3! 4! 2 3 4 Retaining only the first two terms of this series.112) and since IC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T by substitution of (3.v be ⎝ VT VT ⎠ (3.v be αV T VT α VT v be r e = -----.+ ---.116) For V T = 26 mV and I E = 1 mA r in = r e = 26 Ω (3.= ---------.+ x .98 h ob = 6 × 10 –6 Ω –1 As indicated above.v be = -----.2) iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T (3.111) we get iC = IC e v be ⁄ V T (3. v be « V T and we recall that x x . by substitution into (3.115) Also. and thus IC IE ic i e = --.113) IC v be i C = I C ⎛ 1 + -----.= -----ie IE (3. typically in the 25 to 35 Ω .---e = 1 + x + ---.114) and the signal component of i C is IC i c = -----.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Typical values for the h-parameter equivalent circuit for the common-base transistor are: h ib = 30 Ω h rb = 5 × 10 –4 h fb = 0.112) into (3.111) (3. the input resistance h ib = r e has a small value.

119) into (3.120) and since α ≈ 1 and r e ≈ 26Ω .119) and –vs –vs i e = ------------------.70. it can be neglected (open circuit). v out = – R C h fb i e = – R C αi e (3.5 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r o = 2 MΩ . we connect a voltage source v s with its internal resistance R s at the input.70 is simplified to that of Figure 3. With these observations.71. the voltage gain depends on the values of R S and R C . Also. Simplified circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common base transistor From Figure 3.118) and division by v s yields the overall voltage gain A v as v out αR C A v = -------. Circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common base-transistor amplifier The conductance h ob = g o is in the order of 0. and a load resistor R C at the output as shown in Figure 3. h rb = µ = 5 × 10 and the voltage source h rb v cb can also be neglected (short circuit). and since it is much –4 larger than R C .= ---------. The current gain A i is i out – αi e A i = ------. i in RS h ib = r e i e h fb i e = αi e i out RC vs v out Figure 3. RS v eb h ib h rb v cb ie h fb i e h ob v cb R C v out vs Figure 3.118) (3. the circuit of Figure 3.121) and the output resistance R out is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-63 .= α i in –ie (3.Transistor Networks To find the overall voltage gain.= ---------------vs RS + re (3.71.= ---------------R S + h ib RS + re Substitution of (3.70.71.

992 β+1 121 h ib = r e = V T ⁄ i E = 26 mV ⁄ 1 mA = 26 Ω 3 αR C 0.122) Example 3.026 ) × 10 A i = α = 0.72. and R C = 5 KΩ . T-equivalent model for the common-base transistor We will assume that r e « r c – αr c rb « rc R L < r c – αr c 3-64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ----------------------------------------.992 R i = r e = 26 Ω R o = R C = 5 KΩ 3.17 An NPN transistor is connected in a common-base configuration with V T = 26 mV . R S = 2 KΩ .992 × 5 × 10 A V = ---------------.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors R out = R C (3. Find the voltage and current gains.2 The T-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Base Transistor Transistor equivalent circuits can also be expressed as T-equivalent circuits. Solution: β 120 α = ----------.45 3 RS + re ( 2 + 0.15. and input and output resistances.= -------.= 2. Figure 3. i E = 1 mA .= 0. β = 120 .72 shows the common-base T-equivalent circuit. ie RS αi e rb ib rc ic RL re vs Figure 3.

73(c).74. and since it is –4 much larger than a typical R C resistance.73(b) is shown in Figure 3. we can represent the circuit of Figure 3.73. it can be neglected.Transistor Networks and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T-equivalent model for the common-base transistor are: Input resis tan ce = r in = r e + r b ( 1 – α ) re + rb ( 1 – α ) + RS Output resis tan ce = r out = r e ⋅ -------------------------------------------re + rb + RS α RL Voltage gain = A v = -------------------------------re + rb ( 1 – α ) Current gain = A i = α (3. Also.125) (3.73 shows the common-emitter configuration of an NPN transistor.74 where h ie = r n ib v be h ie h re v ce h fe i b h oe v ce h oe = g 0 h fe = β h re = µ ic Figure 3.73(b) as that of Figure 3. Common-emitter transistor circuit and its equivalent From the equivalent circuit of Figure 3.123) (3. The h-parameter equivalent circuit of Figure 3.15. The h-parameter equivalent circuit for common-emitter transistor Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-65 .124) (3. Therefore.73(b).4 × 10 and the dependent voltage source µv ce can also be neglected. The conductance g o is in the order of 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r o = 40 KΩ .3 The h-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Emitter Transistor Figure 3. h re = µ = 3. for simplicity and compactness. same as Figure 3. ic ib v be B C B ib v be r n µv ce re E A ic βi b ie (b) v ce C ib rn A ic βi b v ce g0 C v ce E ie (a) (c) Figure 3.58 with the addition of the emitter resistor re .126) 3.

5 KΩ h re = 3. and –4 since it is much larger than R C it can be neglected. and a load resistor R L connected on the right side. 3-66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .74 with a signal source v s and its internal resistance R S connected on the left side.75 we can compute the exact voltage and current gains. we connect a voltage source v s with its internal resistance R s at the input.75. and R' S represents the series combination of R S and r n . Using the circuit of Figure 3. and a load resistor R C at the output as shown in Figure 3. Therefore.73(c). RS h ie v be h re v ce h fe i e h oe v cb R L v out vs Figure 3. the conductance h oe = g o is in the order of 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r o = 40 KΩ .4 × 10 –4 h fe = 80 h oe = 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 Figure 3.4 × 10 and the voltage source h re v ce can also be neglected. Also.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Typical values for the h-parameter equivalent circuit for the common-emitter transistor are: h ie = 1. to compute the input and output resistances and overall voltage and current gains to a fairly accurate values. h re = µ = 3. The simplified common-emitter transistor equivalent circuit * Typically. and input and output resistances. rn « r e + R E .* B RS ib re βi b ie ic C v be E RE RC v ce Figure 3.75 shows the h-parameter equivalent circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for exact computation of voltage and current gains and input and output resistances As stated above.76.76 where an additional resistor R E is connected in series with the emitter resistor r e to increase the input resistance. we can use the simplified circuit of Figure 3.

⋅ ---vb vS vS v out = v ce = – βi b R C v b = ( r e + R E )i e = ( r e + R E ) ( i b + i c ) = ( r e + R E ) ( i b + βi b ) = ( r e + R E ) ( 1 + β )i b From (3. That is.= ----------------.76.= ------------------------.132) The overall voltage gain is From Figure 3.128) indicates that the input resistance r in can be controlled by choosing an appropriate value for the external resistor R E . But a decrease in the voltage drop across the resistor r e means a decrease in the emitter current i e and consequently a decrease in the collector current i c .= -------.= -------------------------------------------.130) (3.129) (3.131) (3.127) ( re + R E ) ( β + 1 ) vb r in ---.= ------------------------------------------. that is.= --------------------------------------------------vS r in + R s ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) + Rs (3.134) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-67 .= ( r e + R E ) ( β + 1 ) ib ib ib ib (3.76 we observe that the output resistance is the collector resistance R C . r in v b = ----------------.132) – βi b R C – βR C v out -------.133) Also. the voltage drop across the resistor R E will rise and the voltage drop across the resistor r e will decrease to maintain the voltage v be relatively constant. Thus.= ----------------------------------------. the emitter current i e will also increase since i c = αi e and any increase in the base current i b will be negligible.127) and since β » 1 r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) (3.= --------------------------------------vb ( r e + R E ) ( 1 + β )i b ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) (3.76 and v out v b v out .Transistor Networks From the equivalent circuit of Figure 3. From Figure 3.A V = -------.128) The resistor R E is referred to as emitter degeneration resistance because it causes negative feedback. Relation (3. r out = R C (3.131) and (3. if the collector current i c increases. v be ( r e + R E )i e ( re + RE ) ( ib + ic ) ( r e + R E ) ( i b + βi b ) r in = -----.v S r in + R s and with (3.

136).135) and the minus (−) sign indicates that the output is 180° out-of-phase with the input.130) yields v out v b – βR C ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) v out . and input and output resistances if R E = 200Ω .12 KΩ and from (3.⋅ --------------------------------------------------vb vS ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) + Rs vS –( β + 1 ) RC –β RC A V = --------------------------------------------------.135) and (3.136) Example 3. i E = 1 mA .= ---------.⋅ ---. Find the maximum value of the applied signal v S so that v be or v b under the conditions of (a) and (b) will not exceed 5 mV . with R E = 0 . Find the voltage and current gains. From (3.18 An NPN transistor is connected in a common-emitter configuration with V T = 26 mV . From (3.129) r out = R C = 5 KΩ The voltage and current gains are found from (3. c. β = 120 . and R C = 5 KΩ .≈ ------------------------------------( β + 1 ) ( re + RE ) + Rs β ( re + RE ) + Rs (3. Solution: a.133) and (3.A V = -------.= --------------------------------------. Thus. b. Find the voltage and current gains.116) h ie = r e = V T ⁄ i E = 26 mV ⁄ 1 mA = 26 Ω From (3.= – β ib ib (3.134) into (3. and input and output resistances if R E = 0 . the voltage gain is 3-68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . R S = 2 KΩ .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Substitution of (3. a.134) we observe that the introduction of the external resistor R E results in reduction of the overall gain. The current gain is i out – βi b A i = ------.128) r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 0 ) = 3.= -------.

12 + 2 v s ( max ) = ----------------.5% in input resistance.2 mV r in 3. r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 200 ) = 27. r in ≈ βr e = 120 × 26 = 3.= – 117. the maximum value of the applied signal v S decreases by 51. the voltage gain has decreased by 82.= -------------------------------------------.12 r in We observe that for an increase of 88.4 mV 27.v s r in + R s r in + R s 3.12 KΩ and r in v be = ----------------.= ---------------------------------------------------------.12 + 2 v s ( max ) = ----------------.8% . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-69 . A i = – β = – 120 r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 200 ) = 27.12 KΩ Then.5% .12 KΩ r out = R C = 5 KΩ 3 –β RC – 120 × 5 × 10 A V ≈ ------------------------------------.v be = ---------------------.v be = ------------------.× 5 mV = 5. r in + R s 27.4% .2 βr e + R s 120 × 26 + 2 × 10 3 and the current gain is b.= – 20.6 β ( r e + R E ) + R s 120 ( 26 + 200 ) + 2 × 103 A i = – β = – 120 We observe that whereas the addition of R E has increased the input resistance by 88. Without R E . c.Transistor Networks 3 –β RC – 120 × 5 × 10 A V ≈ ------------------.× 5 mV = 8.12 With R E .

T-equivalent model for the common-emitter transistor We will assume that r e « r c – αr c rb « rc R L < r c – αr c and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T-equivalent model for the common-emitter transistor are: re Input resis tan ce = r in = r b + ----------1–α αr c + R S Output resis tan ce = r out = r c ( 1 – α ) + r e ⋅ -------------------------re + rb + RS –α RL Voltage gain = A v = -------------------------------re + rb ( 1 – α ) Current gain = A i = – β (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. 3-70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .77 shows the common-emitter T-equivalent circuit.5 The h-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Collector (Emitter-Follower) Transistor Figure 3. The emitter-follower is useful in applications where a high-resistance source is to be connected to a low-resistance load.77. βi b rc re E C RL B RS ib rb ic vs v be ie Figure 3.138) (3.137) (3.78 shows the common-collector or emitter-follower configuration of an NPN transistor.15.140) 3.139) (3.4 The T-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Emitter Transistor Figure 3.15.

Transistor Networks V CC C B B ib re ie βi b ic C ic vb ib v in = v b E E RE ie RL go v out RL v ec (a) (b) Figure 3.79 where h ic = r e h oc = g 0 h fc = β h rc = µ ib h ic v bc h rc v ec h fc i b ic h oc v ec Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-71 .79 with a signal source v s and its internal resistance R S connected on the left side. The h-parameter equivalent circuit for common-collector transistor Typical values for the h-parameter equivalent circuit for the common-collector transistor are: h ic = 1.80 shows the h-parameter equivalent circuit of Figure 3.79. Common-collector or emitter-follower transistor circuit and its equivalent From the equivalent circuit of Figure 3.78.78(b) we can draw the h-parameter equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3. and a load resistor R L connected on the right side.5 KΩ h rc = 1 h fc = – 45 h oc = 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 Figure 3.

81.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors h ic v bc vs h rc v ec h fc i b h oc v ec RL v out Figure 3.142) Relation (3. ( r e + r 0 || R L )i e ( r e + r 0 || R L ) ( i b + i c ) vb r in = ---. B RS ib re ie C βi b i out ic vb vS E r0 RL v out Figure 3. 3-72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .141) and since β » 1 r in ≈ ( r e + r 0 || β R L ) Also. Circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common-collector transistor amplifier To find the input and output resistances and overall voltage and current gains.142) indicates that the input resistance r in can be controlled by choosing an appropriate value for the load resistor R L . we denote the conductance h oc = g o with its reciprocal r o in the circuit of Figure 3. since r 0 » R L and r e « R L r in ≈ β R L (3. and the circuit is as shown in Figure 3. we connect a voltage source v s with its internal resistance R s at the input.81.81. The simplified common-collector transistor amplifier equivalent circuit From the equivalent circuit of Figure 3.78(b).= ( r e + r 0 || R L ) ( β + 1 ) ib (3.= -------------------------------------------------ib ib ib ( r e + r 0 || R L ) ( i b + βi b ) = -----------------------------------------------------.= ----------------------------------.80.

–RS ( 1 – α ) ie = re ie + vx vx = –RS ( 1 – α ) ie – re ie vx – ---.= R S ( 1 – α ) + r e ie –vx i e = ---------------------------------RS ( 1 – α ) + re (3.– i e r0 (3.* RS ( 1 – α ) ie B ib re E C βi b ie ix vx r0 Figure 3. and we will connect a test voltage source v x across the emitter to ground terminals. or r0 ( ie + ix ) = vx vx i x = ---.143) into (3.82. Equivalent circuit for the computation of the output resistance From Figure 3.144) yields vx vx i x = ---.+ ---------------------------------r0 RS ( 1 – α ) + re and division of both sides by v x gives * See Table 3.Transistor Networks The output resistance r out cannot be determined by inspection. that is.82 we obverse that the voltage drop across R S is equal to the sum of the voltage drops across r e and r 0 .1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-73 .82 where the current i b is shown as ( 1 – α )i e . across the resistor r o and we will find the output resistance from the relation of the equivalent circuit derive it from the relation r out = v x ⁄ i x as shown in Figure 3.143) Also.144) Substitution of (3. therefore we will remove the load resistor R L and the voltage source v s . that is.

Then.A v = -------.= -------.145) and obviously the output resistance is quite low.81 and relation (3.⋅ ---vb vS vS where from Figure 3.141).= --------------------.+ r e ≈ r o || ----. RS RS ro ⋅ RS ⁄ β r out = r o || R S ( 1 – α ) + r e = r o || ----------.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ix 1 1 1 ---.A v = -------.⋅ ---.⋅ ---------------------. The current gain is i out A i = ------ib where by the current division expression ro ro i out = ---------------. The voltage gain is v out v b v out .+ ---------------------------------vx r out ro RS ( 1 – α ) + re The last relation above reminds us of the formula for the combination of two parallel resistors.146) (3.147) and thus 2 β RL RL v out v b β RL v out .= ----------------------β+1 β ro + RS ⁄ β (3.= --.≈ ---------------.≈ ---------------ro + RL ro + RL ib 3-74 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----------------------------------------------------vb vS re + RL RS + β RL ( re + RL ) ⋅ ( RS + β RL ) vS (3.148) reveals that the voltage gain of the emitter-follower is less than unity.= -------.⋅ ( β + 1 )i b ro + RL ro + RL and thus βr o ( β + 1 )r o i out A i = ------.≈ ---------------------R S + r in R S + β R L vS r o || R L v out = -------------------------.⋅ v b r e + r o || R L r o || R L RL v out -------.≈ ---------------|| R L r e + R L re + ro vb (3. r in v b = -----------------.= ------.= -----------------.148) Relation (3.= -------------------------.⋅ i e = ---------------.v S R S + r in βRL r in vb ---.

= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. is reduced to r in ≈ β ( r e + r 0 ) (3.83 shows the equivalent circuit of a typical emitter-follower and it is given that β = 80 . (3.= -----------------------------------------------------.4 Ω r o + R S ⁄ β 30 × 10 3 + 5 × 10 3 ⁄ 80 From (3.142) r in ≈ β R L = 80 × 2 × 10 = 160 KΩ 3 From (3.148) 6 β RL 80 × 4 × 10 A v ≈ -----------------------------------------------------. Emitter-follower transistor amplifier equivalent circuit for Example 3.965 ( r e + R L ) ⋅ ( R S + β R L ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 3 ) ( 5 × 10 3 + 80 × 2 × 10 3 ) 2 This is the voltage gain with a load resistor connected to the circuit.150) (3.152) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-75 . the input resistance as given by (3. Find the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains.= -------------vb re + ro (3.Transistor Networks Since r o » R L Ai ≈ β (3.146) becomes r in β ( re + r0 ) vb ---.149) Example 3.141) where β » 1 .19 Solution: From (3.≈ ----------------------------------R S + r in R S + β ( r e + r 0 ) vS Also. With this resistor disconnected.83.= 62.147) becomes v out ro -------.19 Figure 3.= 0.151) and (3.145) r o ⋅ R S ⁄ β 30 × 10 3 × 5 × 10 3 ⁄ 80 r out ≈ ----------------------.= -----------------. RS 5 KΩ B ib re 10 Ω C βi b ie i out RL 2 KΩ ic vb vS E r0 30 KΩ v out Figure 3.

⋅ ----------------------------------vb vS re + ro RS + β ( re + r0 ) vS (3.149) 3.84 shows the common-collector T-equivalent circuit. ib RS ie re rc βi b RL rb ic v out vs Figure 3.155) (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Then.84. T-equivalent model for the common-collector transistor amplifier We will assume that r e « r c – αr c rb « re r e « R L « r c – αr c and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T-equivalent model for the common-collector transistor amplifier are: L Input resis tan ce = r in = ----------1–α R (3.= -------------.998 3 3 5 × 10 + 80 × 30 × 10 A i ≈ β ≈ 80 and from (3.= -------.156) Output resis tan ce = r out = r e + ( r b + R S ) ( 1 – α ) 3-76 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .15.153) and since r e « r 0 this relation reduces to Av RL → ∞ βr o = -------------------R S + βr o 3 (3.154) With the given values Av RL → ∞ 80 × 30 × 10 = -------------------------------------------------------. the voltage gain with the load resistor disconnected is Av RL → ∞ ro v out v b β ( re + r0 ) v out .= -------.= 0.6 The T-Equivalent Circuit for the Common-Collector Transistor Amplifier Figure 3.⋅ ---.

16. active. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-77 .85. and voltage and current gains for transistor amplifiers Common-Base Common-Emitter Common Collector Input/Output Phase 0° 180° 0° Input Resistance r in Output Resistance r out Voltage Gain A v Current Gain A i Low Equal to R C Depends on ratio R C ⁄ R S Close to unity Moderate High High High High Low Close to unity Large 3.Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions Voltage gain = A v ≈ 1 Current gain = A i ≈ β (3. Transistor circuit for defining the regions of operation 3.157) (3.85. and transistor will be in the cutoff mode.1 Cutoff Region If v S is such that v BE < 0. or saturation region.2 and are repeated below for convenience. the collector-base junction will also be reverse-biased. input and output resistances. a transistor can be in a cutoff. TABLE 3. We will refer to it in our subsequent discussion to define the cutoff. RC iC + + − v CE − V CC iB vS − + RB + v BE − iE Figure 3.16 Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions As mentioned earlier.4 summarizes the three possible transistor amplifier configurations. The conditions are shown in Table 3.4 Phase. Region of Operation Active Saturation Cutoff Emitter-Base junction Forward Forward Reverse Collector-base junction Reverse Forward Reverse Let us consider the transistor circuit of Figure 3.6 V . Then.158) Table 3. the emitter-base junction will be reverse-biased and since V CC is positive. and saturation regions. active.

any further increase in the base current will result in a very small increase in the collector current.16. if v CB < 0. it follows that I BM = I CM ⁄ β (3.7 V v S – 0.7 I CM = ------------------------.7 (3. the emitter-base junction will be forward-biased and since V CC is positive.= -----------------RB RB i C = βi B v C = V CC – R C i C v CB = v C – v BE and if v CB ≥ 0. and we can then determine whether the transistor is in the active mode or the saturation mode.2 Active Region If v S is such that v BE ≥ 0. the collector-base junction will be reverse-biased. With reference to the circuit of Figure 3. v C will decrease and if it falls below the value of v BE .7 v S – V BE i B = --------------------. the maximum current I CM the collector can have while in the active mode can be found from the relation R C I CM + v BE = V CC or V CC – v BE V CC – 0.85.160) We can also find the maximum value of the applied signal voltage v S that will keep the transistor in the active mode from the relation v S max = R B I BM + 0. 3.6 V . the collector-base junction will become forward-biased and if it reaches a value of 0. and transistor will be in the active mode. we can see that this relation does not hold when the transistor 3-78 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the transistor will be in the active mode.7 V .7 V . there will be a corresponding increase in I CM and since v C = V CC – R C I C .161) If we increase the base current above I BM .3 Saturation Region The saturation region is reached by supplying a base current larger than I CM ⁄ β where I CM is the maximum current the collector will deliver while in the active mode. the transistor will be in the saturation mode which is discussed in the next subsection.= ----------------------RC RC (3. if v BE = 0. Thus. and whereas β = di C ⁄ di B in the active mode.16.7 V . However.159) and if I BM is the base current corresponding to the collector current I CM .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iB = 0 iE = 0 iC = 0 v CE = V CC 3. Then. we can find the maximum current the collector can have while in the active mode.

7 = 7. RC 5 KΩ + − 12 V iB vS + − C B + + − iC vC + + − RB v v B BE− E 8 V RE 3 KΩ iE vE − Figure 3. Find v E .86 it is known that in the active mode β > 50 .2 V (3. that is. we get v E = v B – v BE = 8 – 0.3 i E = -----. When a transistor is deeply into saturation. in active mode of operation Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-79 .162) and the corresponding collector current i C sat is found from the relation V CC – v CE sat i C sat = -------------------------------RC (3.2 V . the collector to emitter voltage is denoted as v CE sat and its value is approximately 0. Circuit for Example 3. or saturation region. it is safe to assume that it operates either in the active or saturation region. v CE sat ≈ 0.20 Solution: We do not know whether the transistor operates in the cutoff. let us assume i C ≈ 2. v C . and i B .Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions is in the saturation mode. In this case β is referred to as the current gain at saturation and it is denoted as β sat .163) Example 3. i E .20 For the transistor circuit of Figure 3.= 2. but since v B = 8 V . active.86.3 mA Then. Assuming active mode of operation.43 mA 3 RE 3 × 10 and since i C = αi E .= ---------------.3 V vE 7. i C .

and β F and β R denote the normal and inverted operations respectively of the common-emitter gains.5 V V CC – v C -----------------i C = ---------------------. we conclude that the transistor is deeply into saturation. R = ------------------1 – α F.90 mA 3 3 5 × 10 5 × 10 and i B = i E – i C = 2. 3. base. We now can find the value of β at saturation.2 + 7.43 – 0.59 1. transitioning between them smoothly.5 = 0.3 × 10 3 –3 = 0.17 The Ebers-Moll Transistor Model The Ebers-Moll model of the bipolar transistor provides a simple. and a reverse component I R .90 = 1. Then.3 = 7.= 0. Then. The Ebers-Moll bipolar transistor model expresses each of the terminal currents in terms of a forward component I F .164) These current gains are related to one another by β F.= 12 – 7. and emitter currents of a bipolar transistor in terms of the terminal voltages. closed-form expression for the collector. R + 1 α F. which only depends on the base-to-emitter voltage.90 = 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors v C = V CC – R C i C = 12 – 5 × 10 × 2. R = ------------------β F. Let α F denote the current amplification in the normal operation ( V BE = forward – biased and V CB = reverse – biased ) and α R denote the inverted operation ( V BE = reverse – biased and V CB = forward – biased ) common-base current gains of the bipolar transistor.+ ----βF βR (3. in saturation v C = v CE sat + v E = 0. R (3.5 V and since this value is much less that v B = 8 V .53 mA and this is indeed a very large base current. iC --------β sat = --. R α F.53 iB This value also indicates that the transistor is deeply into saturation. R β F. the terminal currents can be expressed as IR I C = I F – -----αR IF I E = -----. which only depends on the base-to-collector voltage.165) 3-80 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . It is valid in all regions of operation of the bipolar transistor.– I R αR IF IR I E = ----.

In this case. and I B are positive and are flowing in the directions indicated. To bias a PNP bipolar transistor into the forward-active region. In this case. By using (3.87 shows how an NPN and a PNP transistors are biased.166) and (3. then I F » I R and the bipolar transistor is said to be in the forward-active mode of operation. that is.166) and (3. we can show that the Ebers-Moll model satisfies Kirchhoff’s current law.167) Figure 3. I C . IE = IC + IB (3. I E .164). In this case the terminal currents are given by IC = –IR ⁄ αR IE = –IR IB = IR ⁄ βR (3.166) If the emitter-base junction is forward biased and the collector-base junction is reverse biased.87. Biased bipolar transistors showing the direction of conventional current flow To bias an NPN bipolar transistor into the forward-active region.169) By using (3.= -------------βF βF + 1 (3. we can express the terminal currents in terms of one another as IE = –βR IB = αR IC I C = – ( β R + 1 )I B = I E ⁄ α R (3. and the emitter-base junction is reverse biased. In this case. and I B are positive and are flowing in the directions indicated. we can express the terminal currents in terms of one another as IC = βF IB = αF IE IC I E = ----. then I R » I F and the transistor is said to be in the reverse-active mode of operation in which the collector and emitters effectively reverse their roles. C B + − + IC − VC C B − + IC − + VC IB VE IB E + − VB E IE VE − IE VB + NPN Transistor PNP Transistor Figure 3. we should ensure that V EB > 4V T and V C ≤ V B .170) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-81 . the terminal currents are given by IC = IF IF I E = ----αF IF I B = ----βF (3.168) If the collector-base junction is forward biased. I E .169).167). we should ensure that V BE > 4V T and V C ≥ V B .= ( β F + 1 )I B αF IC IE I B = ----. I C .The Ebers-Moll Transistor Model By substituting these relationships into (3.

( e B E T ) – I S ( e B C T ) αF IS (V – V ) ⁄ V IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ----. Then for the NPN bipolar transistor biased as shown in Figure 3.174) If V BC > 4V T and V E > V B .( e B E T – 1 ) – ----.( e B C T – 1 ) βF βR (3. is given by IF = IS ( e V BE ⁄ V T ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT – 1 ) = IS ( e – 1) (3.( e B C T ) βR (3.( e B E T – 1 ) – I S ( e B C T – 1 ) αR IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I B = ----.173) reduces to IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I C ≈ – -----. the transistor is biased deeply into the forward-active region and (3.87.173) can be expressed as IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V ) – -----.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors If both junctions are forward biased simultaneously.( e B E T ) αF IS (V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ----.( e B C T ) βF βR (3. Let I S be the saturation current and V T the thermal voltage.164) we express the terminal currents in terms of the terminal voltages as IC = IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V – 1 ) – -----. the transistor is biased deeply into the reverse-active region and (3.172) reduces to IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I E ≈ ----.171) and (3.( e B E T ) βF (3.( e B C T – 1 ) αR IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V (V – V ) ⁄ V I E = -----.172) into (3.172) By substitution of (3. I F .171) Likewise.173) If V BE > 4V T and V C ≥ V B .( e B E T ) + ----. the forward current component. the transistor is deeply saturated and (3.( e B C T ) αR IE ≈ –IS ( e ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT ) IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ----. the reverse current component I R is IR = IS ( e V BC ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT – 1) (3.( e B C T ) αR IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V (V – V ) ⁄ V I E ≈ ----.175) If V BE > 4VT and V BC > 4V T .176) 3-82 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the transistor is said to be in saturation.

173) can be expressed as IS I C ≈ ----βR IS I E ≈ ----βF IS IS I B ≈ – ----.= ⎛ --------= ⎜ -----.----.177) For the PNP transistor shown in Figure 3.( e ⎜ VT βF ⎟ ⎝ ∂V B ⎠ ∂I B ⎝ ⎠ IB VT r b = -----IB ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ or (3. I R .182) we obtain this incremental emitter resistance by differentiating – I E with respect to V E .( e ( V B – V E ) ⁄ V T ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎜ αF ⎝ ⎠⎠ IE ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-83 . which yields ⎛ ⎞ –1 ∂I B ⎞ – 1 ∂V B 1 I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ⎟ ) r b = --------.174). the forward current component. From (3. First.( e B E T ) βF (3.( e B E T ) αF (3.174). that is.86. we shall compute the incremental resistance seen looking into the emitter terminal with the base voltage held constant. I F . is given by IR = IS ( e V CB ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( VC – VB ) ⁄ VT – 1) (3.⎞ = – ⎜ ⎛ – -----⎝ ∂V E ⎠ ⎜⎝ V ∂ ( –IE ) T ⎝ ⎞ –1 IS ⎞ ⎛ ----. the transistor is deeply into the cutoff region and (3.179) From the Ebers-Moll model equations we can derive relationships for small signal parameters.181) Next. IS ( V – V ) ⁄ V I B ≈ ----. From (3.178) and the reverse current component. we will find the incremental resistance seen looking into the base terminal of an NPN transistor with the emitter voltage held fixed. which yields ⎛ ∂I E –1 ∂V E 1 r e = --------------. IS (V – V ) ⁄ V I E ≈ ----.= – ⎛ --------. is given by IF = IS ( e V EB ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( V E – V EB ) ⁄ V T – 1) (3. that is.– ----βF βR (3.180) we obtain this incremental base resistance by differentiating I B with respect to V B .The Ebers-Moll Transistor Model If V BE < – 4 V T and V BC < – 4 V T .

184) we can obtain this incremental transconductance gain as ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ∂I C 1 ) g m = --------.⋅ I S ( e VT ∂V B IC (3. when a transistor is in the saturation region.= ( β F + 1 )r e gm αF rb r e = ----.88.188) 3. Schottky diode C Schottky diode C B E NPN Transistor B PNP Transistor E Figure 3. The Schottky diode alleviates this problem if connected between the base and the collector as shown in Figure 3.174) IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) (3. The Schottky diode has the property that it turns on at a lower voltage than the PN junction.= ----rb re (3.186) (3.185) or Using the relations IC g m = -----VT IC = βF IB = αF IE IC I E = ----. NPN and PNP transistors with Schottky diodes 3-84 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -------------gm βF + 1 βF αF g m = ----.88. the current between the base and the collector is carried by the Schottky diode. the collector-base diode is forward-biased.187) we can also express these small-signal parameters in terms of one another as βF r b = ----.= -----. we shall define the incremental transconductance gain of the NPN transistor as the partial derivative of the collector current with respect to the base voltage.= -------------βF βF + 1 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (3.18 Schottky Diode Clamp In the saturation region. From (3. Due to the large diffusion capacitance.183) Now.= ( β F + 1 )I B αF IC IE I B = ----.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors re = VT ⁄ IE (3. Therefore. it takes a considerably long time to drive the transistor out of saturation.

I C = 10 mA h re (Voltage feedback ratio): min 0.5 × 10 . For example. collector current. I C = 10 mA h ie (Input impedance): min 1 KΩ .Transistor Specifications 3. breakdown voltages. collector-emitter. max 400 at V CE = 10 V . e. NPN Silicon Epitaxial Planar Transistor for switching and amplifier applications. saturation voltages. e.g.. and the values given are typical. f T (Gain-Bandwidth product): 300 MHz at V CE = 20 V . max 40 µΩ f = 1 KHz –1 –1 at V CE = 10 V . and emitter base voltages. I C = 10 mA . and packaging options. each with its own unique characteristics.. f = 100 MHz Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-85 . delay. weight. noise figure. max 10 KΩ at V CE = 1 V . f = 1 KHz h oe –4 –4 at V CE = 10 V. case. collector-base. e. typical 300 at V CE = 1 V . max 8 × 10 f = 100 MHz h fe (Small signal current gain): min 100 . 3.19 Transistor Specifications Transistors are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. and mechanical data.g. etc. e. 1. 2. thermal resistance. I C = 1 mA . (Output admittance): min 1 µΩ . Maximum Ratings and Thermal Characteristics..g. fall. Electrical Characteristics.. cutoff currents.g. I C = 1 mA . The specifications usually cover the items listed below. and storage times. power dissipation at room temperature. Features. some of the electrical characteristics for the 2N3904 NPN are listed as follows: h FE (DC current gain): min 100 . etc. rise. I C = 1 mA .

the three currents are related as iB + iC = iE • In a transistor the collector current is defined as iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T where I r is the reverse (saturation) current. and the emitter current. are identified as the emitter. and the collector. • An NPN transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the P-type material at the center. there are three currents. v BE is the base-to-emitter voltage. about six times faster than silicon. Its value is specified by the manufacturer. and V T ≈ 26 mV at T = 300 °K . whereas a PNP transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the N-type material at the center. typically 10 – 12 A to 10 – 15 A as in junction diodes. • A very useful parameter in transistors is the common-emitter gain β . • The three terminals of a transistor. a constant whose value ranges from 75 to 300. the base current. most transistors are made of silicon. The disadvantages of GaAs over silicon is that arsenic. the collector current. whether it is an NPN or PNP transistor. being a deadly poison. denoted as i B . Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology has been under development for several years and its advantage over silicon is its speed. the base. The base current i B is much smaller than the collector current i C and these two currents are related in terms of the constant β as iB = iC ⁄ β • Another important parameter in transistors is the common-base current gain denoted as α and relates the collector and emitter currents as i C = αi E 3-86 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • Like junction diodes. denoted as i C .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3.20 Summary • Transistors are three terminal devices that can be formed with the combination of two separate PN junction materials into one block. • For any transistor. • Transistors are used either as amplifiers or as electronic switches. NPN or PNP. and lower power consumption. requires very special manufacturing processes. • Since a transistor is a 3-terminal device. denoted as i E .

and Class C. • Class C amplifiers are biased so that the collector current flows for less than one-half cycle of the input signal. • The average power drawn from the collector supply is P CC = V CC I C Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-87 . Class B. Class AB. Class B amplifiers are used in amplifiers requiring high power output. Class A amplifiers are used for audio and frequency amplification. Class AB amplifiers are normally used as push-pull amplifiers to alleviate the crossover distortion of Class B amplifiers. • Class AB amplifiers are biased so that the collector current is cutoff for a portion of one cycle of the input and so the efficiency is higher than that of a Class A amplifier. the output resistance looking into the collector is defined as ∂v CE r out = ----------∂i C VA = -----IC v BE = cons tan t where V A is the Early voltage supplied by the manufacturer. • Class B amplifiers are biased so that the collector current is cutoff during one-half of the input signal. • The operation of a simple transistor circuit can also be described graphically using i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves. In a Class A amplifier the efficiency is very low. the base-emitter voltage v BE decreases approximately 2 mV for each 1 °C rise in temperature when the emitter current i E remains constant. and I C is the DC collector current. • Two common methods of biasing a transistor are the fixed bias method and the self-bias method. Therefore. • In a transistor. the efficiency in a Class B amplifier is higher than that of a Class AB amplifier. Class C amplifiers have the highest efficiency and are used for radio frequency amplification in transmitters. • There are four classes of amplifier operations: Class A.Summary • The parameters α and β are related as β α = ----------β+1 α β = ----------1–α • As with diodes. • Class A amplifiers operate entirely in the active region and thus the output if a faithful reproduction of the input signal with some amplification.

• In the incremental model for the transistor the input resistance r n is the slope of the input voltage and current characteristics and it accounts for the voltage drop across the base-emitter junction. i b = i 1 . µ = h 12 = h re . µ . Likewise. currents. provide a symmetrical form for the relations of (3. and g o = h 22 = h oe . v ce = v 2 . and defined as di C g m = ----------dv BE iC = -----VT iC = IC An approximate value for the transconductance at room temperature is g m ≈ 40I C . • Transistor hybrid parameters provide us with a means to evaluate voltages. These designations along with the additional notations v be = v 1 . The voltage amplification factor µ is related to the input characteristics caused by a change in v CE . and power in devices that are connected externally to the transistor. • The incremental model for the transistor provides a better approximation than the piece-wise linear approximation. and the current amplification factor β is related to the output characteristics caused by a change in i B .63) as follows: v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 • In the incremental model for the transistor the current amplification A c is defined as ic A c = --is • The transconductance.62)and (3. denoted as g m . 3-88 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the output conductance g o is the slope of the output current and voltage characteristics. The parameters r n . β .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors • The average power absorbed by the load is P LOAD = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c RMS ) 2 2 • The average power absorbed by the transistor is P C = P CC – P L • The piecewise-linear analysis is a practical method of analyzing transistor amplifiers. β = h 21 = h fe . and i c = i 2 . and g o are normally denoted by the h (hybrid) parameters as r n = h 11 = h ie .

and emitter currents of a bipolar transistor in terms of the terminal voltages. and common collector transistor circuits can also be represented by their h-equivalent and T-equivalent circuits. transitioning between them smoothly. 25β r be = -------iC • The current gain-bandwidth product. Accordingly. and the capacitance C e that exists across the forward-biased emitter junction. is an important figure of merit for a transistor and it can be found from the relations gm ω T ≈ βω β = ----Ce • The Darlington connection consists of two transistors with a common collector point and exhibits a high input impedance and low output impedance. the current between the base and the collector is carried by the Schottky diode. closed-form expression for the collector. is defined as 1 ω β ≡ -----------r be C e • If i C is in milliamps. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-89 . denoted as ω β . when a transistor is in the saturation region.Summary • The high-frequency models for transistors take into consideration the nonlinear resistance r be that accounts for the voltage drop across the emitter junction. It is valid in all regions of operation of the bipolar transistor. • The Ebers-Moll model of the bipolar transistor provides a simple. denoted as ω T . the effects of junction capacitances must be taken into account. Therefore. For higher frequencies. • The Schottky diode has the property that it turns on at a lower voltage than the PN junction. The combined α T and β T are αT = α1 + α2 – α1 α2 and βT ≈ β1 + β1 β2 • The common-base. common-emitter. base. the β cutoff frequency.

it is known that V E = – 0. the collector current i C = 1. the emitter current i E = 1. Find β . It is known that in a NPN transistor. For the PNP transistor circuit below. 2. I C = 5 mA 3-90 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3.2 mA at temperature T = 27 °C . and I r .7 V . β .7 V .7 V . when the base-to-emitter voltage v BE = 0. when the base-to-emitter voltage v BE = 0. R C = 5 KΩ IC V CC 12 V VC VB RB B VE IB 12 V C E R E = 10 KΩ IE V EE 5. α . V E = 2 V and V EB = 0.1 mA b. The circuit operates at T = 27 °C . and V C . Find the range of changes in v BE at this temperature for the range 0. and i B = 12 µA at temperature T = 27 °C . It is known that in a NPN transistor. Find the output resistance r out of a bipolar junction transistor whose Early voltage is V A = 75 V and the DC collector current is a. it is known that R B = 130 KΩ .2 ≤ i C ≤ 5 mA . I C . R C = 6 KΩ IC V CC 10 V VC B C E R E = 8 KΩ IE IB VE 10 V V EE 4.21 Exercises 1. Find α . and V C .2 mA . I C = 1 mA c.72 V and β = 115 . For the NPN transistor circuit below. I B . Find I E . The circuit operates at T = 27 °C . 3. I C = 0.

I C . saturation. I E . I C . I B . β = 110 .Exercises 6. V C . Hint: The collector-base junction will still be reversebiased if we make V B = V C . V C . Find the highest voltage to which the base can be set so that the transistor will be in the active mode. V B = 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-91 . Find V E . Find I E . For the circuit below. and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active. V E . R E = 3 KΩ . or cutoff mode.7 V . and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active. Hint: The base-toemitter junction of an NPN transistor is considered to be reverse-biased if V B = V E = 0 RC 5 KΩ 10 V IB V BE VE IC E V CC B VC RE 3 KΩ IE 8. β = 150 . RC C RB VS VB B IB V BE E IC IE RE VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC VE 7. I B . For the circuit below. or cutoff mode. saturation. For the circuit below. and β = 110 .

For an NPN transistor circuit β = 100 .8 V we want the collector current to be I C = 0. What should the values of R C and R E be to achieve this value? 10. V CC = – 12 V . V CC = 11. V B = 0 V . I E = 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors RC C B IB VS RB VB V BE VE 5 KΩ 12 V IC E IE RE 3 KΩ V CC VC 9.8 mA . what should the values of R C and R E be so that the tran- sistor operates at the active mode? 12. it is known that β = 120 for both transistors. For the circuit below. V B = 0 V .3 V . V B = 3. and V CB = – 3 V .8 mA . and R E = 3 KΩ . Find all indicated voltages and currents.5 V and with the reversebiased collector-base junction set at V CB = 1. V EE = 12 V . Are both the transistors operating in the active mode? What is the total power absorbed by this circuit? 3-92 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . what would the largest value of R C be so that the transistor operates at the active mode? 11. V EE = 12 V . For a PNP transistor circuit with β = 150 . V CC = – 12 V . For a PNP transistor circuit with β = 120 .

β = 100 and the output volt-ampere characteristic curves are approximately horizontal lines.Exercises R C1 R1 60 KΩ C1 B1 I B1 30 KΩ R E2 8 KΩ I B2 10 µA E2 V EB2 B2 I 5 KΩ 12 V V CC E2 V E2 C2 I C2 R C2 8 KΩ V B2 I C1 V C1 V C2 V BE1 E1 V E1 I E1 R E1 5 KΩ V B1 R2 13. and indicate the current and the voltage at which the load line intersects the axes. Determine graphically and plot i C versus i s for – 15 < i s < 15 µA . 7.5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-93 . b. RC 2 KΩ + 20 V − V CC iC is vs Rs R1 2 MΩ RE 5 KΩ + V BB 10 V − a. For the NPN transistor circuit below. For the PNP transistor circuit below. 5. Construct a load line. 14. β = 70 and the output volt-ampere characteristic curves are approximately horizontal lines. Sketch a family of these curves for i B = 2. c. Find the quiescent collector current I C and collector-to-emitter voltage V CE .0. and 10 µA .5.

B ib v be r' b r be v' be ro ic v ce C g m v' be E ie a. r' b = 50 Ω . i c = 5 mA .5 KΩ . approximately what is the greatest amplitude that the signal i s can have without waveform distortion at the output? 15.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors − RC 15 V + V CC is Rs 15 V − R1 RE V BB iC vs + a. c. Repeat part (a) for β = 60 . If the input signal is a sinusoidal current. and r 0 = 100 KΩ . Sketch the load line on the i C versus v EC coordinates. 3-94 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . It is not necessary to draw the collector characteristics. b. r' b = 50 Ω . For the transistor model shown below. µ = 2 × 10 . Find the transconductance g m and the base-emitter resistance r be . –4 a. Find the values of R B and R C required for a quiescent point Q at i C = 1 mA and v CE = 5 V . Find the values of R 1 and R C required to locate the quiescent operating point Q at i C = 1 mA and v EC = 5 V . Show the current and voltage at which the load line intersects the axes. and r o = 30 KΩ . 16. β = 100 . i c = 1 mA . For the transistor circuit below. and indicate the quiescent point on this line. and r o = 30 KΩ . it is known that β = 80 . b. i C = 1 mA and the hybrid parameters are r n = 2.

active. Find the current amplification A c . 17.2 KΩ h 12 = 2 × 10 h 21 = 50 h 22 = 50 × 10 –6 h 11 h 12 v 2 –4 v1 − + − h 21 i 1 h 22 v2 − Ω –1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-95 . or saturation region RC RB C B E RE 10 V 2 KΩ + − 5 KΩ 10 V − + V CC 10 KΩ V B V EE 18. and a 5 KΩ load is connected at the output (right side). The equations describing the h parameters can be used to represent the network shown below. i1 + i2 + h 11 = 1. This network is a transistor equivalent circuit for the common-emitter configuration and the h parameters given are typical values for such a circuit. c. Using the hybrid representation for the transistor. Determine whether the PNP transistor shown below is operating in the cutoff. draw an incremental model.Exercises + RC 20 V − V CC is Rs RB + RE vs 20 V − V BB b. Compute the voltage and current gains for this network if a voltage source of v 1 = cos ω t mV in series with 800 Ω is connected at the input (left side).

7 – 3⎠ ⎝ 1.7 ) ⁄ V T iC ln ⎛ ----------------------. v BE = 0.⎞ = v BE – 0.2 × 10 – 3⎞ –3 ln ⎜ ----------------------.2 × 10 e ln ( i C ) = ln ( 1.2 ≤ i C ≤ 5 mA .2 × 10 ) + ( v BE – 0. the v BE range is 0.427 = 0.792 ) = 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. v BE = 0.2 × 10 ⎠ Therefore.= ---------------–3 0.⎞ – 3⎠ – 3⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 1.2 × 10 ) = ( v BE – 0.2 × 10 iC iC –3 v BE = 0.2) iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T (1) and as we know from Chapter 2 at T = 27 °C .7 ⁄ V T (2) Division of (1) by (2) yields v ⁄V iC e BE T ----------------------.2 × 10 1.⎞ = 0. V T = 26 mV .7 ) ⁄ V T ) = ln ( 1. for 0.737 V 3-96 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 + 26 × 10 × ( – 1. From (3.7 + 26 × 10 ln ⎛ ----------------------.653 ≤ v BE ≤ 0.2 × 10 ⎠ and with i C = 5 mA .2 × 10 –3 (3) With i C = 0.7 ) ⁄ V T –3 ln ( i C ) – ln ( 1.2 × 10 iC V T ln ⎛ ----------------------.2 mA .737 V –3 ⎝ 1.⎞ = ( v BE – 0.7 + 26 × 10 × 1.7 ) ⁄ V T – 3 ( v BE – 0.7 ) ⁄ V T – 3⎠ ⎝ 1.2 × 10 –3 = Ir e 0. from (3).653 V –3 ⎝ 1.7 + 26 × 10 –3 ⎛ 0.7 + V T ln ⎛ ----------------------.7 + 26 × 10 –3 ⎛ 5 × 10 –3 ⎞ –3 ln ⎜ ----------------------.2 × 10 e – 3 ( v BE – 0.⎟ = 0.2 × 10 e i C = 1.7 ⁄ V T 1.22 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1.⎟ = 0. From the given data 1.

= ----------------------------.15 × 10 –3 = 1.188 mA From (3. α = β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) = 99 ⁄ ( 99 + 1 ) = 0.16 mA 3 RE 8 × 10 From Table 3.1.72 I E = ---------------------.92 11 0.15 × 10 3 –3 = 3.7).16 × 10 –3 – 10 –5 = 1.7 ⁄ ( 26 × 10 ) e 4.188 × 10 1. iB = iC ⁄ β β = i C ⁄ i B = 1.= ----------------------------.188 mA ⁄ 12 µA = 99 From (3.1 V Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-97 .188 × 10 = 1.012 × 10 = 1.3). we get V C = V CC – R C I C = 10 – 6 × 10 × 1. R C = 6 KΩ IC V CC 10 V VC B IB VE – 0.2).2 × 10 –3 –3 –3 – 0.= 10 A = 10 µA 115 + 1 I C = I E – I B = 1. iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T –3 –3 –3 iC – 15 1.911 × 10 e e 3.16 mA I B = --------------------.15 mA By application of KVL on the collector (left) side of the circuit above.188 × 10 1.= 1.72 V C E R E = 8 KΩ IE 10 V V EE – V E + R E I E = V EE V EE + V E 10 – 0.= --------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 2.= 2. I B = I E ⁄ ( β + 1 ) and with β = 115 we find that –5 1. From (3.99 From (3.= -----------------------------.188 × 10 I r = ---------------.42 × 10 A –3 v BE ⁄ V T 26.1) iB + iC = iE i C = i E – i B = 1.

01 mA RB 130 KΩ I C = I E – I B = 1 – 0. a.7 = 1.01 = 0. I B .= --------.= 99 IB 0.99 IE 1 IC 0.99 α = ---.1.3 V I B = -----.99 × 10 3 –3 – 12 = – 7.3 V .99 mA IC 0.= 0. R E I E + V E = 12 V 12 – 2 I E = ---------------.= 1 mA 10 KΩ VB 1. and V B = V E – V BE = 2 – 0.= ------------------. R C = 5 KΩ IC V CC 12 V VC VB 130 KΩ B 2V IB 12 V C E R E = 10 KΩ IE V EE From Table 3. and I C . Therefore.05 V 5. we need to find I E .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 4.01 V C = R C I C – 12 = 5 × 10 × 0. V C = R C I C – 12 . VA r out = -----IC I C = 5 mA 75 = ------------------. β = I C ⁄ I B .= 750 KΩ –4 10 75 = --------.= --------.1 mA 75 = --------.= 5 KΩ –3 5 × 10 3-98 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . α = I C ⁄ I E .99 β = ---.= 0. VA r out = -----IC I C = 1 mA c.= 75 KΩ –3 10 b. and from the circuit above. VA r out = -----IC I C = 0.

Then.7 V . RC C RB VS 3.= ------------------. the transistor is indeed operating in the active mode and our assumption that the base-emitter junction is forward-biased.7 – 0.991 × 1 = 0.991 mA The collector voltage is V C = V CC – R C I C = 12 – 5 × 10 × 0. Then.991 = 9 µA Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-99 . β -------α = ----------.05V This is an NPN transistor and the collector (N) to base (P) must be reverse-biased for the transistor to operate in the active mode.7 V it is reasonable to assume that the base-emitter junction is forward-biased and thus V BE = 0. Since V C > V B .Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 6.7 = 3 V and VE 3 I E = -----. V E = V B – V BE = 3.991 × 10 3 –3 = 7.991 111 β+1 and I C = αI E = 0.= 1 mA –3 RE 3 × 10 It is given that β = 110 . I B = I E – I C = 1 – 0. is correct.= 110 = 0.7 V B IB V BE E IC IE RE 3 KΩ VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC VE Since V B = 3. Finally.

= -------. V B = 0 . The collector current I C is also zero because I C = I E – I B = 0 and thus V C = V CC – R C I C = 10V . I B = 0 .= 0.7V and for V B ≤ V C .991 β+1 111 and V B = V BE + V E = V BE + R E I E V B – V BE V B – 0. 8. I E = 0 . RC C B IB VS RB VB V BE VE IC E IE RE 3 KΩ VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC The transistor will be in the active mode for V B > 0.= -------------------3 RE 3 × 10 3-100 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Since β = 110 .7 I E = ----------------------. and V E = 0 . Under those conditions the transistor behaves like an open switch and thus it is operating in the cutoff mode. V BE = 0 . the emitter-base junction does not conduct. β 110 α = ----------.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 7. RC C B IB V BE VE IC E IE RE 3 KΩ VC 5 KΩ 10 V V CC Since the base is grounded.

8 × 10 R C (1) –3 Also V C = V CB + V B = 1.= 1.99 = 0.= 7.= 4.652 9.= 0.= -------.991 -------------------.7 = 2.7 3 V B = 12 – 5 × 10 × 0.3 V (2) From (1) and (2) 11.09 V 2.3 – 0.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises Then.7 V B – 0.7 ) = 12 2.8 V and thus VE 2. I E = I C ⁄ α = 0.3 R C = ----------------------.991 -------------------3 3 × 10 V B – 0.5 = 5.84 or 10.= 12 – 1.81 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-101 .5 – 0.84 V B = -----------.652 ( V B – 0.5 KΩ –3 IE 0.991 -------------------.652V B = 10.7 I C = αI E = 0.7 ) 3 3 3 × 10 V B + 1.8 R E = -----.8 + 3.652 ( V B – 0. V C = V CC – R C I C = 11. V B – 0.= 12 – 5 × 0.7 V B – 0.7 ) 3 3 3 × 10 V B – 0.= 3.5 KΩ –3 0.991 -------------------.= 5 × 0.8 ⁄ 0.= -------------------------.7 3 V C = V CC – R C I C = V B = 5 × 10 × 0.652 ( V B – 0.81 mA The emitter voltage is V E = V B – V BE = 3.8 × 10 With β = 100 . β 100 α = ----------.991 -------------------.3 – 5.99 β+1 101 then.

21 KΩ –3 αI E 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 10. RE V EB E IE C IC 3 KΩ V CC VE 5 KΩ 12 V V EE IB B VC RC 12 V A PNP transistor will still be in the active mode if V C = V B .77 mA (3) 3 3 × 10 and by substitution of (2) and (3) into (1) 12 12 R C = -------.7 = 3.= ---------------------------------------------.= -------.7 = V EE – R E I E = 12 – R E I E we get -----------------I E = 12 – 0.= 0. For this exercise the base is grounded so V B = 0 and we can let V C = 0 also.992 (2) β+1 121 and from V E = V EB = 0.(1) αI E where β 120 α = ----------. V C = R C I C – V CC = R C αI E – 12 = 0 or 12 R C = -------.992 × 3.77 × 10 3-102 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 3. Then.

8 × 10 Also.I E = 0.7 R E = ----------------------.795 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-103 .7 V Then.795 mA β+1 then.8 = 0. V C = V CB = – 3 V and V E = V EB = 0. R E I E + V E = V EE = 12 V 12 – 0. since β I C = αI E = ----------.= 11. V C + R C I C = – V CC or – ( – 12 ) – 3 R C = ----------------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 11. RE V EB E IE C IC V CC VE 12 V V EE IB B VC RC 12 V Since the base is grounded.3 KΩ –3 0.= 14 KΩ –3 0.993 × 0.

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 12.
**

R E2 8 KΩ 5 KΩ 12 V V CC

R1

R2

E2 V EB2 60 KΩ I B2 B2 V E2 I E2 10 µA C2 C1 V B2 I C2 I C1 V C1 B1 V C2 R C2 I B1 8 KΩ V BE1 E1 V B1 I E1 30 V E1 R E1 KΩ 5 KΩ

R C1

The left part of the circuit above is the same as that of Example 3.8 where we applied Thevenin’s theorem. Therefore the given circuit is redrawn as shown below.

R E2 5 KΩ 12 V V CC

R TH V TH 4V 20 KΩ

E2 V I' C1 I B2 EB2 10 µA I E2 C1 B2 C2 V C1 I B1 I C2 B1 I C1 V V C2 R

R C1

8 KΩ

V E2

V BE1 E1

V B1 I E1

B2

C2

8 KΩ

V E1

R E1 5 KΩ

**Application of KVL around the left part of the circuit yields
**

R TH I B1 + V BE1 + R E1 I E1 = V TH ( 20 × 10 )I B1 + 0.7 + ( 5 × 10 )I E1 = 4

–3 3.3 4I B1 + I E1 = ---------------- = 0.66 × 10 3 5 × 10 3 3

3-104

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises From Table 3.1, I E = ( β + 1 )I B . Then,
**

4I B1 + ( β + 1 )I B1 = 0.66 × 10 125I B1 = 0.66 × 10 I B1 = 5.28 × 10

–6 –3 –3

A = 5.28 µA

–6

and

I E1 = ( β + 1 )I B1 = 121 × 5.28 × 10 = 0.639 mA

–3

Then,

V E1 = R E1 I E1 = 5 × 10 × 0.639 × 10

3

= 3.2 V

and

V B1 = V BE1 + V E1 = 0.7 + 3.2 = 3.9 V

Also,

I C1 = I E1 – I B1 = 0.639 × 10

–3

– 5.28 × 10

–6

= 0.634 mA

Then,

I' = I C1 – I B2 = 0.634 mA – 10 µA = 0.614 mA C1

and

V C1 = V CC – R C1 I' = 12 – 8 × 10 × 0.614 × 10 C1

3 –3

= 7.09 V

Since this is an NPN transistor and V C1 > V B1 , the base-collector PN junction is reversebiased and thus the transistor is in active mode. The emitter voltage V E2 of the PNP transistor is

V E2 = V EB2 + V C1 = 0.7 + 7.09 = 7.79 V

**and the emitter current I E2 is
**

V CC – V E2 --------------------I E2 = ------------------------- = 12 – 7.79 = 0.842 mA 3 R E2 5 × 10

**It is given that β = 120 . Then,
**

β I C2 = αI E2 = ----------- I E = 0.992 × 0.842 = 0.835 mA β+1

and

V C2 = R C2 I C2 = 8 × 10 × 0.835 × 10

3 –3

= 6.68 V

To find V B2 we observe that Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-105

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors
**

V EC2 = V E2 – V C2 = 7.79 – 6.68 = 1.11 V

Then,

V BC2 = V EC2 – V EB2 = 1.11 – 0.7 = 0.41 V

and

V B2 = V BC2 + V C2 = 0.41 + 6.68 = 7.09 V

As expected, this is the same value as that of V C1 as it can be seen from the circuit above. This is an PNP transistor and since V C2 < V B2 the base-collector junction is reverse-biased and the PNP transistor is also in the active mode. The total power absorbed by this circuit is

P = V CC I T = V CC ( I B1 + I' + I E2 ) = 12 ( 5.28 µA + 0.614 mA + 0.842 mA ) = 17.5 mw C1

13.

RC 2 KΩ

+

20 V −

V CC

iC is vs

Rs R1 2 MΩ RE V BB

10 V +

−

**a. With β = 100 , i C = βi B = 100i B and for i B = 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 µA , we get
**

i C = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mA

**and these are shown on the plot below.
**

1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25

i C ( mA )

i B = 10 µA i B = 7.5 µA Q i B = 5.0 µA i B = 2.5 µA

5

10

15

20

v CE ( V )

3-106

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises The load line is obtained from the relation
**

v CE + R C i C = V CC = 20 V

When i C = 0 , v CE = 20 V , and when v CE = 0 , i C = V CC ⁄ R C = 20 ⁄ 20 KΩ = 1 mA . The load line then intercepts the v CE axis at 20 V and the i C axis at 1 mA . b. As shown in Figure 3.46, the Q point is the intersection of the load line and the line i B = I B . Thus with reference to the circuit above and i s = 0 , I B = 10 V ⁄ 2 MΩ = 5 µA , and the Q point is as shown above and we observe that I C = 0.5 mA and V CE = 10 V . c.

V BB i B = I B + i s = --------- + i s = 5 + i s R1

and

i C = βi B = β ( 5 + i s )

Then, for the range – 15 < i s < 15 µA , we obtain the corresponding collector current values as shown on the table below.

i s ( µA ) i C ( mA ) −15 0 −10 0 −5 0 0 5 5 10 10 10 15 10

**The plot below shows the current transfer characteristics
**

i C ( mA ) 10 5 i s ( µA )

– 15

– 10

–5

5

10

15

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-107

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 14.
**

RC 15 V

− +

V CC

is

Rs 15 V − R1 RE V BB

iC

vs

+

v EC + R C i C = V CC v EC + R C i C = V CC 5 + 10 R C = 15 15 – 5 R C = -------------- = 10 KΩ –3 10

–3

and with β = 70

BB R 1 = --------- = -------------- = ----------------- = 1.05 MΩ -

V IB

15 I C ⁄ 70

15 × 70 10

–3

b.

i C ( mA )

1.50 1.00 0.50 5 10 15 Q

v EC ( V )

**The slope of the load line is
**

i C2 – i C1 0–1 m = ---------------------------- = -------------- = – 0.1 v EC2 – v EC1 15 – 5

**The i C intercept, denoted as i CQ , is found from the straight line equation
**

i C = mv EC + i CQ

where

3-108

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises
**

i CQ = i C – mv EC

**and with i C = 1 mA and v CE = 5
**

i CQ = 1 – ( – 0.1 ) × 5 = 1.5 mA

**c. From the plot of part (b) we see that when v EC = 0 (short circuit) the collector current is
**

i C = 1.5 mA , and since i B = i C ⁄ β = 1.5 ⁄ 70 = 21.4 µA , and V BB 15 i B = I B + i s = --------- = ------------------------ + i s = 14.3 µA + i s 6 R1 1.05 × 10

we get

i s = i B – I B = 21.4 – 14.3 = 7.1 µA

15.

B

ib v be r' b r be

v' be ro

ic

v ce

C

g m v' be

E

ie

a. From (3.78),

g m ≈ 40i c = 40 × 5 × 10

–3

= 200 millimhos

and from (3.83)

80βr be = ----- = -------- = 400 Ω 200 gm

b.

g m ≈ 40i c = 40 × 10

–3

= 40 millimhos

and

β 60 r be = ----- = ----- = 1.5 KΩ gm 40

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-109

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 16.
**

RC 20 V

+ −

V CC

is

Rs 20 V + RB RE V BB

vs

−

a.

R C i C + v CE = V CC V CC – v CE -------------R C = ------------------------- = 20 – 5 = 15 KΩ –3 iC 10 I B = I C ⁄ β = 10

–3

⁄ 100 = 10 µA

V BB 20 R B = --------- = --------- = 2 MΩ –5 IB 10

b. The incremental model circuit of Figure 3.61 is applicable here and it is shown below with the given parameters and the values obtained in part (a).

B RB 2 MΩ

rn

2.5 KΩ

iB

β iB 100 i B E

iC

R eq

C RC 15 r oKΩ 100 KΩ

Rs

is

– µβR eq – 26 Ω

v CE

c. From (3.67)

ro RB ic A c = --- = ---------------------- β ---------------------( RB + rn ) ( ro + RC ) is

or

10 2 × 10 A c = ------------------------------ × 100 × ------------------------ ≈ 87 6 5 2.0025 × 10 1.15 × 10

6 5

3-110

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 17.
**

RC IB RB C B 5 KΩ I C 10 V VC

− +

V EE

10 KΩ V B

E VE RE IE 2 KΩ

+ −

10 V

V CC

**Let us assume that the transistor is in the active mode. Then,
**

V EB = 0.7 V

B B I B = ------ = --------------- = 0.1V B mA 10 KΩ RB

V

V

(1)

V E = V EB + V B = 0.7 + V B

Also,

V E = 10 – ( 2 KΩ ) I E

10 – V E 10 – ( 0.7 + V B ) I E = ------------------ = ------------------------------------- = 4.65 – 0.5V B mA 2 KΩ 2 KΩ

(2)

where the numerical value of V B in the last expression above is in mA , but since we’ve assumed that the transistor is in the active mode, its value should be just a few microamps. Therefore,

I E ≈ 4.65 mA

and this value implies that the transistor operates in the saturation mode. In this case, V CE sat ≈ 0.2 V , and thus

V C = V E – V CE sat = 0.7 + V B – 0.2 = V B + 0.5 V

**The collector current is
**

V B + 0.5 + 10 V C – ( – 10 ) I C sat = -------------------------- = -------------------------------- = 0.2V B + 2.1 mA (3) 5 KΩ 5 KΩ

**and with I E = I B + I C and (1), (2), and (3)
**

4.65 – V B = 0.1V B + 0.2V B + 2.1

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-111

**Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Solving for V B ,
**

2.55 V B = --------- = 1.96 V 1.3

Then

1.96 I B = --------------- = 0.196 mA

10 KΩ

I C sat = 0.2V B + 2.1 ≈ 3.03 mA

Also,

I C sat 3.03 β sat = ----------- = ------------ ≈ 15.5 0.196 IB

**18. We recall that
**

v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 (1) i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 (2)

**With the voltage source v 1 = cos ωt mV in series with 800 Ω connected at the input and a
**

5 KΩ load connected at the output the network is as shown below.

800 Ω 1200 Ω

+ v1

1 ∠0° mV −

i1

2 × 10 v 2

–4

i2

+ −

+

50 i 1

v2

50 × 10

–6

5000 Ω

Ω

–1

−

**The network above is described by the equations
**

( 800 + 1200 )i 1 + 2 × 10 v 2 = 10

–4 –3

–v2 –6 50i 1 + 50 × 10 v 2 = i 2 = ----------5000

or

2 × 10 i 1 + 2 × 10 v 2 = 10 50i 1 + 250 × 10 v 2 = 0

–6 3 –4 –3

We write the two equations above in matrix form and use MATLAB for the solution.

A=[2*10^3 2*10^(−4); 50 250*10^(−6)]; B=[10^(−3) 0]'; X=A\B;... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('i1 = %5.2e A \t',X(1)); fprintf('v2 = %5.2e V',X(2))

3-112

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises i1 = 5.10e-007 A Therefore,
**

i 1 = 0.51 µA (3) v 2 = – 102 mV (4)

v2 = -1.02e-001 V

**Next, we use (1) and (2) to find the new values of v 1 and i 2
**

v 1 = 1.2 × 10 × 0.51 × 10 i 2 = 50 × 0.51 × 10

–6 3 –6

+ 2 × 10

–6

–4

× ( – 102 × 10 ) = 0.592 mV

–3

–3

× 50 × 10

× ( – 102 × 10 ) = 20.4 µA

**The voltage gain is
**

v2 – 102 mV G V = ---- = ------------------------ = – 172.3 v1 0.592 mV

and the minus (−) sign indicates that the output voltage in 180° out-of-phase with the input. The current gain is

i2 20.4 µA G I = --- = -------------------- = 40 0.51 µA i1

and the output current is in phase with the input current.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-113

Chapter 4

Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices

T

his chapter begins with a discussion of Field Effect Transistors (FETs), characteristics, and applications. Other PNPN devices, the four-layer diode, the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), the silicon controlled switch (SCS), and the triac are introduced with some of their applications. The chapter includes also a brief discussion on unijunction transistors, and diacs.

**4.1 The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET)
**

The Field-Effect Transistor (FET) is another semiconductor device. The Junction FET (JFET) is the earlier type and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) is now the most popular type. In this section we will discuss the JFET and we will discuss the MOSFET in the next section. Figure 4.1(a) shows the basic JFET amplifier configuration and the output volt-ampere characteristics are shown in Fig. 4.1(b). These characteristics are similar to those for the junction transistor except that the parameter for the family is the input voltage rather than the input current. Like the old vacuum triode, the FET is a voltage-controlled device.

iD + N iG + Rs vs vG (a) P P vD RL V DD 15 12 9 6 3 10 20 i D ( mA ) vG = 0 vG = –1 vG = –2 vG = –3 vG = –4 (b) vD ( V )

Figure 4.1. Pictorial representation and output volt-ampere characteristics for a typical JFET

The lower terminal in the N material is called the source, and the upper terminal is called the drain; the two regions of P material, which are usually connected together externally, are called gates. P-N junctions exist between the P and N materials, and in normal operation the voltage applied to the gates biases these junctions in the reverse direction. A potential barrier exists across the junctions, and the electrons carrying the current i D in the N material are forced to flow through the channel between the two gates. If the voltage applied to the gates is changed, the width of the transition region at the junction changes; thus the width of the channel changes, resulting in a change in the resistance between source and drain. In this way the current in the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

4-1

Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices output circuit is controlled by the gate voltage. A small potential applied to the gates, 5 to 10 volts, is sufficient to reduce the channel width to zero and to cut off the flow of current in the output circuit. One of the most attractive features of the JFET is the fact that the input resistance, measured between gate and source, can be made very large, from 1 to 100 megohms. This high input resistance results from the fact that the input voltage v G biases the junctions in the reverse direction and consequently is required to deliver only the small leakage current across the junctions. There are many circuits in which a high input resistance is required, and the ordinary junction transistor is not suitable for such applications. JFETs have been made with input resistances exceeding 1 megohm, with transconductances in the range of 1 to 5 millimhos, and with the ability to provide a voltage amplification of about 10 at frequencies up to 10 MHz . The current in a JFET is carried only by majority carriers and for this reason the FET is also known as unipolar transistor, in contrast to the ordinary transistor in which both majority and minority carriers participate in the conduction process, and it is known as bipolar transistor. To better understand the JFET operation, let us review the depletion region which we discussed in Chapter 2. Figure 4.1 shows a PN junction and the depletion region when no bias is applied.

Junction P N Hole Free E lectron Negative Ion Positive Ion

Depletion Region

Figure 4.2. PN junction and depletion region of a typical PN junction

The width of the depletion region depends on the applied bias. Forward-biasing, where a voltage source is connected with the plus (+) on the P side and the minus (-) on the N side, makes the depletion region narrower by repelling the holes and free electrons toward the junction, and if the bias is about 0.65 V , the free electrons will cross the junction and join with the holes. Thus, the forward biasing causes the depletion region to decrease resulting in a low resistance at the junction and a relatively large current across it. If a reverse-biasing is applied, where a voltage source is connected with the plus (+) on the N side and the minus (-) on the P side, the free electrons move towards the right side while the holes move towards the left side causing the depletion region to widen. A high resistance between the terminals is developed, and only a small current flows between the terminals.

4-2

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Let us assume that under those conditions the drain-to-source current through the channel is I DS = 0. JFET operation with adjustable gate bias In Figure 4. In our discussion above. This is illustrated in Figure 4.1 mA or R DS = 100 KΩ . This reverse-bias condition cause the depletion region to expand even more and that reduces further the effective cross-sectional area of the channel.1 mA . the gate is grounded. described the operation of an N-channel JFET. Let us assume that under those conditions the drain-to-source current through the channel is I DS = 10 mA . we conclude that the drain-to-source resistance R DS is R DS = V DD ⁄ I DS = 10 V ⁄ 10 mA or R DS = 1 KΩ . A P-channel JFET operates similarly except that the voltage polarities are reversed as shown in Figure 4.01 mA or R DS = 1 MΩ . Next.Therefore. is referred to as the pinch-off voltage and it is denoted as V P . that is.4 which also shows the symbols for each. and set the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V . In other words.Therefore. The voltage at the gate which causes the drain-to-source resistance R DS to become infinite. Let us assume that under those conditions the drain-to-source current through the channel is I DS = 0. we see that the drain-to-source resistance R DS can be controlled by the voltage applied at the gate. we conclude that the drain-to-source resistance R DS is now R DS = 10 V ⁄ 0.01 mA .3.3. we conclude that the drain-to-source resistance R DS is now R DS = 10 V ⁄ 0. no current flows through the channel. and maintain the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V . Therefore. Drain ( D ) N Gate ( G ) V GG P P + - V DD + Depletion region Source ( S ) Figure 4. This reverse-bias condition cause the depletion region to expand and that reduces the effective cross-sectional area of the channel. Now.3.Therefore. let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = – 4 V . let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = 0 . let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = – 2 V . and maintain the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V . when V GG = V P .The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) The cross-sectional area of a typical JFET channel can be controlled by variations in the voltage applied to the gate. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-3 .

one important parameter in FETs is its transconductance g m defined as the ratio of the change in current i DS to the change of voltage v GS which produced it.5.1 Figure 4. In other words. Common-source N-channel JFET amplifier for Example 4. N-Channel and P-Channel JFETs Like in bipolar transistors.1 4-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices D N G P P + D D G G N P − D P + S G S N – Channel JFET S P – Channel JFET S Figure 4. ∂i DS g m = ----------∂v GS (4.1) v DS = cons tan t Example 4. + 15 V RD D G 1 KΩ − V DD v out + − + v in − i DS S Figure 4.4.5 shows a common-source N-channel JFET amplifier circuit and Table 4.1 shows several values of the current i DS corresponding to the voltage v GS .

1 From Figure 4. Therefore.8 V . iDS=[0 2 8 20 35]. title('Plot for Example 4...7.1:0. 1 KΩ RD D G + 15 V − V DD v out + − + v in = v GS − i DS S Figure 4. v out = V DD – R D i DS (4. Find the output voltage v out if the input signal is v in = – 2.2) but we do not know all values of i DS for the interval 0 ≤ i DS ≤ 35 mA .1 v GS ( V ) i DS ( mA ) 0 35 –1 20 –2 8 –3 2 –4 0 a. % Plot the fourth degree polynomial xlabel('vGS (volts)'). grid The generated plot is shown in Figure 4.. let us use the following MATLAB script to plot a suitable curve for this interval.. ylabel('iDS (milliamps)').1'). Find the transconductance using the results of (a) and (b). Find the output voltage v out if the input signal is v in = – 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-5 .4).1 curve=polyfit(vGS. Is this an inverting or a non-inverting amplifier? d. c.. Plot i DS versus v GS and indicate how the transconductance can be calculated from this plot...6. Circuit for the solution of Example 4..polcurve). e.0:0..iDS.. % These are the data in Table 4. % Creates horizontal (vGS) axis polcurve=polyval(curve.The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) TABLE 3.1 Current i DS versus voltage v GS for Example 4. % Computes the polynomial for vGS axis values plot(vGSaxis. % Fits the data to a polynomial of fourth degree vGSaxis=-4... vGS=[−4 −3 −2 −1 0].. b.4 V .6...vGSaxis). Solution: a.0.

7.7 shows the slope of g m and it is calculated as in (4. 4. From the plot of Figure 4. Another less frequently name for the MOSFET is Insulated-Gate FET or IGFET. Therefore.4 V = V DD – R D i DS = 15 – 10 × 5 × 10 3 –3 = 10 V (4.= -----------------------------------.1 From the plot of Figure 4. MATLAB generated plot for Example 4.4 – ( – 1. v out v GS = – 2.8 V .4) c.1 35 30 25 iDS (milliamps) 20 15 10 5 0 -5 0 -4 -3 -2 vGS (volts) -1 Figure 4.8 ) d. 4-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The plot of Figure 4.= 0. (4.4 V . –3 ∆i DS –1 ( 5 – 10 ) × 10 g m = -----------. i DS ≈ 5 mA .3) b.8 V 3 –3 = V DD – R D i DS = 15 – 10 × 10 × 10 = 5V (4.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices Plot for Example 4.0083 Ω ∆v GS – 2. v out v GS = – 1.2 The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) The most popular type of a FET is the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET.7 we see that for v in = v GS = – 1. Therefore. we conclude that the given JFET circuit is an inverting amplifier.7 we see that for v in = v GS = – 2. The results of (a) and (b) indicate that an increase in the input voltage results in a decrease of the output voltage.5) e. i DS ≈ 10 mA . Therefore.5).

9. A MOSFET can be constructed that will operate in either mode depending upon what type of bias is applied. Cross section of an n-channel MOSFET In Figure 4. indicated by n + . D B S n – channel D B S p – channel D B S n – channel D B S p – channel G G G G Depletion MOSFET Enhancement MOSFET Figure 4. are diffused into a P-type substrate or base. one can be formed by applying positive voltage V G and attracting electrons to a thin surface layer. increasing the resistance from source to drain.8. if no channel exists with V G = 0 . Conversely. MOSFET types and symbols The voltage at which the channel is closed is known as the pinch-off voltage V P .8. The minimum voltage required to form a conducting channel between the drain and source is referred to as the threshold voltage and it is denoted as V T .9. The JFET also operates in this manner. A negative gate voltage will then drive electrons out of the channel.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Figure 4. The symbols for the four basic variations of the MOSFET are shown in Figure 4. Metal Source ( S ) Gate ( G ) w OX Drain ( D ) n+ Channel L p – type substrate n+ Substrate ( B ) Figure 4. An n conducting channel may be formed and exist with the gate voltage V G = 0 . The complementary p -channel MOSFET or PMOS FET is similar but opposite in polarity. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-7 . heavily doped N-type regions. thus allowing a greater range of input signals. The enhancement mode MOSFET has a lightly doped channel and uses forward bias to enhance the current carriers in the channel.8 shows a cross section and the symbol for an n -channel MOSFET or NMOS FET device. This is termed depletion-mode operation. This is termed enhancement-mode operation.

Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4.7) * The subscript n is used here as a reminder that the relation that follow apply to n-channel MOSFETs 4-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 0 5 10 vG S = 5 V vGS = 4 V vGS = 3 V vG S = 2 V vG S = 1 V vDS ( V ) Figure 4.5 1. W is the width of the structure perpendicular to the paper in Figure 4.2. and µ is the mobility of carriers in the channel. the drain current i D in a MOSFET can be written approximately as εµW 1 2 i D = ------------. The values for the channel length and width depend on the voltage v GS and typical values are 2 µm ≤ L ≤ 10 µm and 100 µm ≤ W ≤ 100 µm . and typical values of k n are around 20 µA ⁄ V .6) is expressed as W 1 2 i D = k n ---. w OX is the oxide thickness.0 1.( v GS – V T )v DS – -. Typical values for V T are 2 to 4 volts for high voltage devices with thicker gate oxides. Current-voltage characteristics for typical MOSFET The voltage at which the channel is closed is known as the pinch-off voltage V P . ε is its dielectric constant. Then (4.v DS L 2 for v DS ≤ v GS – V T 2 (4.2.0 0.( v GS – V T )v DS – -. and 1 to 2 volts for lower voltage devices with thinner gate oxides. It is convenient to represent the quantity εµ ⁄ w OX as k n *.10. and the minimum voltage required to form a conducting channel between the drain and source is referred to as the threshold voltage and it is denoted as V T .5 2. i D S ( mA ) 2. In terms of this.10 shows the drain-to-source current i DS versus the drain-to-source voltage v DS for different values of gate-to-source voltage v GS .6) where L is the channel length as shown in Figure 4.v DS Lw OX 2 for v DS ≤ v GS – V T (4.1 The N-Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode Figure 4.8.

11. 2 L Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-9 . When v GS < V T . and its value can be found from * This name is carried over from the old days of the vacuum tube triode whose characteristics are as shown in Figure 4. relation (4.8) where v DS ≥ v GS – V T defines the so-called saturation or pentode region. the MOSFET is said to be in the cutoff region.( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≥ v GS – V T † (4.7) can be written as W i D ≈ k n ---. the triode region starts as a linear function where the drain-to-source resistance r DS is linear but it changes to a curve because the resistance changes with changes in the drain-to-source voltage v DS . and 1 W 2 i D = -. † The drain current i D is not exactly independent of the drain-to-source voltage v DS .8) is an approximation to the exact drain current i D 1 W 2 given by i D = -. in that range of v DS the MOSFET behaves as a linear resistor.15 V .⋅ k n ----. and since i D is inversely proportional to the channel length.11.05 ≤ v DS ≤ 0. the saturation region is sometimes referred to as the pentode region.11. say 0. The quadratic (triode) and saturation regions are as shown in Figure 4. i D increases with v DS and thus (4. Figures 4. i D S ( mA ) Triode region Saturation region v DS ≥ v GS – V T v DS ≤ v GS – V T v DS = v GS – V T 0 vD S ( V ) Figure 4. typically 0.01 .The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) where v DS ≤ v GS – V T defines the so-called quadratic or triode region*. usually denoted as r DS .⋅ k n ---.10 and 4.11 reveal that for small values of v DS . Triode and saturation regions for an enhancement type NMOS where v GS > V T As shown in Figure 4. It increases with increasing v DS due to the so-called channel width modulation caused by reduction of the effective channel length.[ ( v GS – V T )v DS ] L for v DS ≤ v GS – V T (4.( v GS – V T ) ( 1 + λv DS ) where λ is a small quantity. The saturation region starts where for any further increases in v DS there is no increase in the drain current i D .9) Thus. It is also referred to as the quadratic region.11. Likewise.

^(−3). the drain current i D is independent of the drain voltage v DS 1 W 2 i D = -.5−VT)).^(−3)..5.*(3. and W do not change significantly for this interval.5 1.5 9. MATLAB displays the following: vGS (Volts) rD (KOhms) ------------------------1.*W. plot(vDS./(kn.11) Therefore.. 2 Assume that k n . L .. vDS.5 ≤ v GS ≤ 3.5. iD5=rD5*vDS.0 2.iD1. rD1 = 10..iD3../(kn.^(−3). rD5 = 10. % Display vGS and rD values disp('-------------------------')..rD4..0..*(3−VT)). W=60*10^(−6)..85 The plot is shown in Figure 4.*(1.*L. 4-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .63 2.26 2. VT=1..rD5) vDS=(0:0.01:100)*10^(-2). we conclude that in the saturation mode the n – channel MOSFET behaves as an ideal current source whose value is as in (4.5.. L = 5 µm . rD4 = 10.*L.⋅ k n ---.*W.1f %10. iD3=rD3*vDS. iD4=rD4*vDS.0. title('Linear region for typical MOSFET').% Kilohm values rD3 = 10.^(−3). represents an n – channel MOSFET and we observe that..2 Compute and plot the values of r DS for an NMOS device where k n = 18 µA ⁄ V .^(−3).5 V in steps of 0./(kn. xlabel('vDS in V').iD5).2f \n'.10) Example 4.*(2. fprintf('%6.*W. Solution: The MATLAB script for Example 4. iD2=rD2*vDS. 1. in saturation. vDS.rD3. fprintf(' \n').*W.2.*W. vDS. Relation (4.. grid When this program is executed. W = 60 µm .= -------------------------------------iD k n W ( v GS – V T ) (4.iD2.rD2..rD1./(kn.*L..3.*(2−VT)).09 3. ylabel('iD in mA').*L.11).2.. vDS.2 is given below. L=5*10^(−6). kn=18*10^(−6).5−VT)).*L.. disp('vGS (Volts) rD (KOhms)').iD4.5 V .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices v DS L r DS ≡ -------.5−VT)).3.12.8) which is repeated below for convenience./(kn. iD1=rD1*vDS.( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≥ v GS – V T (4.5 3. rD2 = 10. V T = 1 V as v GS varies in the interval 1.0 4..31 3.

4 0.0 V V GS = 2.12.5 V V GS = 3.12) v DS = cons tan t In other words.= ------------------------. As indicated in the previous chapter.( V GS + v gs – V T ) = -.( V GS – V T ) + k n ---. Plot for Example 4.6 vDS in V 0.= -----v gs2 – v gs1 ∂v gs v gs Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-11 .⋅ k n ---.5 V V GS = 2.11) can be expressed as 1 W 1 W 2 2 i D = -.⋅ k n ---. and subscripts in lower case represent just the small signal parameters. the MOSFET transconductance is defined as ∂i D g m = ----------∂v GS (4.⋅ k n ---.8 1 Figure 4.2 In analogy with the transconductance in bipolar junction transistors.2 0.5 V 0.[ ( V GS – V T ) + v gs ] 2 L 2 L W W 1 W 2 1 2 = -.v gs L L 2 L 2 For small signals. v GS = V GS + v gs and (4.⋅ k n ---. transconductance is defined in terms of the second term of the above expression and thus W i d = k n ---.( V GS – V T )v gs + -. Thus.0 V V GS = 1.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Linear region for typical MOSFET 10 9 8 7 iD in mA 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 V GS = 3. the transconductance is a measure of the sensitivity of drain current to changes in gate-to-source bias.( V GS – V T )v gs L Letting ∂i d id i d2 – i d1 --------. subscripts in upper case represent the sum of the quiescent and small signal parameters.

( v GS – V T )v DS – -.v DS L 2 Therefore the output conductance is found by differentiation of the last expression above as ∂i D W g o = ----------.13(b).15) is g o ( sat ) = 0 (4. 4-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .( v GS – V T – v DS ) L ∂v DS (4. The negative value of v GS that causes the channel to be entirely depleted is the threshold voltage V T of the n – channel MOSFET and obviously has a negative value.15) v GS = cons tan t At saturation the slope of (4. and this mode of operation is referred to as the depletion mode. At this threshold negative voltage V T .7) for the triode region W 1 2 i D = k n ---. Typical values of drain current i D versus the gate-to-source voltage v GS characteristics for an n – channel MOSFET that operates in the enhancement mode only are shown in Figure 4. however we want to decrease the channel conductivity.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices and substituting the last expression above into (4.= k n ---. the channel conductivity increases until we reach saturation.12) we get id k n ( W ⁄ L ) ( V GS – V T )v gs g m = -----. in the enhancement mode we apply a positive voltage v GS and as this value increases.( V GS – V T ) L v gs (4.= k n ---.= ----------------------------------------------------------v gs v gs (4. If.2 The N-Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode As we’ve learned.2. However.17) 4.13) or id W g m = -----.14) The output conductance is defined as ∂i D g o = ----------∂v DS (4.16) From (4. we can apply a sufficiently negative v GS to deplete the implanted channel. a MOSFET can also be fabricated with an implanted channel so that drain current i D will flow if we apply a voltage v DS even though the voltage v GS is zero. the drain current i D is zero although v DS may still be present.13(a) and one that operates in both the depletion and enhancement modes are shown in Figure 4.

L = 10 µm .3 It is known that for a depletion-type n – channel MOSFET.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) i D ( mA ) Enhancement mode 30 25 20 15 10 5 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 ( a ) Enhancement mode only v GS ( V ) Depletion mode Enhancement mode i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 I DSS 10 5 –3 0 2 1 –1 –2 ( b ) Depletion – Enhancement mode v GS ( V ) Figure 4. Example 4. Typical n – channel MOSFET i D vs v GS characteristics As noted in Figure 4.13. 2 a.3 mA ⁄ V . k n = 0. W = 100 µm . Figure 4.14 shows typical i D vs vDS characteristics for a depletion-type n – channel MOSFET. and V T = – 3 V . At what value should the voltage v DS be set so that this device will be operating in the saturation region when v G S = 2 V ? Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-13 . I DSS is the value of the drain current in saturation with v GS = 0 .13(b).

100 1 W 1 2 2 i D = -. or v SD > 0 .2.3 ⋅ -------. Therefore. Therefore.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices i D ( mA ) 27 v DS < v G S – V T 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 1 2 3 4 5 v DS > v G S – V T vG S = 2 V v DS = v G S – V T vG S = 1 V vG S = 0 V vG S = –1 V vG S = –2 V vG S = –3 V vG S = –4 V 6 vD S ( V ) vG S = –5 Figure 4.[ 2 – ( – 3 ) ] = 37.⋅ k n ---.11) indicates that at saturation the current i D is independent of the voltage v DS . to create a channel we must have v GS ≤ V T and v DS < 0 .3 The P-Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode For the p – channel MOSFET the threshold voltage V T is negative and the drain-to-source voltage v DS must also be negative or the source-to-drain voltage v SD must be positive. Typical i D vs v DS characteristics for a depletion-type n – channel MOSFET b. Therefore.5 mA 10 2 L 2 4. In a p – channel MOSFET device operating in triode mode the drain current i D is found from 4-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .14. What would the drain current i D be if the voltage v DS is set to its minimum value to keep the device in the saturation region? Solution: a. The dotted curve of the i D vs vDS characteristics of Figure 4.⋅ 0.( v GS – V T ) = -. Relation (4.14 separates the saturation region from the triode region. the voltage v DS should be such that v DS ≥ v GS – V T ≥ 2 – ( – 3 ) ≥ 5 V b.

⋅ k p ---. the drain current i D is not exactly independent of the drain-to-source voltage v DS .18) is an approxi1 W 2 mation to the exact drain current i D given by i D = -.19) we will determine whether the device is in the triode or saturation mode.v DS L 2 for ( v DS ≥ v GS – V T ) (4. and since i D is inversely proportional to the channel length. It increases with increasing v DS due to the so-called channel width modulation caused by reduction of the effective channel length.18) and (4.5 V c. V T . k p = 8 mA ⁄ V . to create a channel v GS must be equal or less than V T . v D = 0 V d. and v DS must be negative and using the conditions specified in (4. and V T = – 1. v D = 1. the drain current i D is found from 1 W 2 i D = -.18) and if the device operates in the saturation mode. 2 L Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-15 . For convenience.( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≤ v GS – V T * (4. W = 100 µm . and v S = 5 V .4 It is known that for an enhancement-type p – channel MOSFET.( v GS – V T ) ( 1 + λv DS ) where v GS . v D = 4 V b.( v GS – V T )v DS – -. If v G = 0 . compute the drain current i D if: 2 2 a.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) W 1 2 i D = k p ---. and λ are all negative. i D increases with v DS and thus (4.5 V .18) and (4. Example 4. v DS . L = 10 µm . we list the following conditions: v GS = v G – v S v GS < V T v DS = v D – v S v GS – V T * As with the n-channel MOSFET.19) The constant k p in relations (4.19) is analogous to k n for the n – channel MOSFET and typical values of k p are around 10 µA ⁄ V .⋅ k n ----. v D = – 5 V Solution: As stated above.

5 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 and we conclude that the device operates well in the saturation region. with (4.49 mA 2 L c.5 – 5 = – 3.( v GS – V T ) = 0.5 V v DS = v GS – V T = – 3.5 ) ] = 0.5 V v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ – 5 < 3. with (4.5 and we conclude that the device operates in the triode mode. v DS = v D – v S = – 5 – 5 = – 10 V 4-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 ) = – 3.19) we get 1 W 2 2 i D = -.17) we get W 1 2 10 2 i D = k p ---. Then.v DS = 8 × ----. Then.( v GS – V T )v DS – -.5 ) ) × ( – 1 ) ] – 0.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 v DS = v D – v S = 4 – 5 = – 1 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.19) we get 1 W 2 2 i D = -.Then.5 ) = – 3.× [ ( – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ] = 0. with (4. v DS = v D – v S = 0 – 5 = – 5 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 V v DS > v GS – V T ⇒ – 1 > – 3.⋅ k p ---.⋅ k p ---.24 mA L 2 1 b. v GS = v G – v S = 0 – 5 = – 5 V v GS < V T ⇒ – 5 < – 1.( v GS – V T ) = 0.5 V and we conclude that the device operates at the point where the triode mode ends and the saturation region begins.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices v DS > v GS – V T a. v DS = v D – v S = 1.49 mA 2 L d.5 × ( – 1 ) = 0.5 ) = – 3.

4.5 ) ] = 0.Then.( v GS – V T ) = 0. with (4.15.5 and we conclude that the device operates deeply in the saturation region. this is a common practice with MOSFET devices. 16 shows typical i D vs vDS characteristics for a depletion-type p – channel MOSFET.4 The P-Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode Depletion type p – channel MOSFETs operate similarly to depletion type n – channel MOSFETs except that the polarities of all voltages are reversed and the current i D flows from source to drain.5 Voltage Gain The voltage gain in a MOSFET device is defined as the ratio of the small signal quantities v d to v gs .⋅ k p ---.5 V v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ – 10 < 3. Figure 4. v D = V DD – R D i D iD = ID + id v D = V DD – R D ( I D + i d ) V DD = V D + R D i D v D = V DD – R D ( I D + i d ) = V D + R D i D – R D ( I D + i d ) = V D – R D i d Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-17 .19) we get 1 W 2 2 i D = -. RD iD + vD D B S + − − V DD G v GS + − Figure 4.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1. Circuit for the derivation of the voltage gain Figure 4.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.2.15 shows that the substrate is connected to the source.15. We will derive it with the aid of the MOSFET in Figure 4.49 mA 2 L 4.15. From Figure 4.5 ) = – 3.2.

Typical i D vs v DS characteristics for a depletion-type n – channel MOSFET and vd = –RD id From relation (4.14) id g m = -----v gs i d = g m v gs v d = – R D i d = – R D g m v gs 4-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .16.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices i D ( mA ) Enhancement mode 30 25 20 15 10 5 v GS ( V ) –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 ( a ) Enhancement mode only Depletion mode Enhancement mode i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 I DSS 10 5 –3 0 2 1 –1 –2 ( b ) Depletion – Enhancement mode v GS ( V ) Figure 4.

MOSFET devices can be used as amplifiers provided that they operate in the saturation region.17. Relation (4. However.17. Typical circuit of a current mirror A current mirror is essentially an adjustable current regulator.= ------------------i2 ( W ⁄ L )2 and if the two MOSFETs have the same geometry. that is.20) and the minus (−) sign indicates 180° phase reversal. However. Thus. the CMOS devices.20) reveals that high gains can be achieved with increased drain resistance R D .3 Complementary MOS (CMOS) Complementary MOS or CMOS technology combines one NMOS device and one PMOS device into a single device referred to as CMOS. both MOSFETs share the same voltage v GS and the ratio of the currents i 1 and i 2 is directly related to the ratio of the geometry of the transistors. and integrated circuits.17. external resistors are not used in IC MOSFETS because they require large areas and their tolerance may cause some undesirable effects. RD V DD D B S i1 G G D i2 B v GS S Figure 4. CMOS chips require less power than Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-19 . i1 ( W ⁄ L )1 --. 4. then i 1 = i 2 . that is. A typical current mirror is shown in Figure 4. Instead. constant current sources are used. In CMOS devices only one of its components is on at any given time. either the NMOS device is on and the PMOS device is off. the voltage gain A v is A v = v d ⁄ v gs = – R D g m (4. In the circuit of Figure 4. are the most common amplifiers in the FET technology. A similar current mirror circuit can be implemented with bipolar transistor. and the most commonly used current sources are the so-called current mirrors.Complementary MOS (CMOS) Then. or vice versa. discussed on the next section. and hence the name current mirror. These devices are used extensively in both analog and digital circuits.

It exhibits a low input resistance. In this section we will briefly discuss the three types of CMOS amplifiers.2 The CMOS Common-Gate Amplifier Figure 4.2. and the output is in-phase with the input. It is referred to as common-drain amplifier because there is no signal at the drain of the upper MOSFET device.2. The DC voltage V DC at the gate provides a bias voltage but the AC signal is zero and this is the reason that the circuit is referred to as CMOS common-gate amplifier.19 shows how a CMOS device is configured as a common-gate amplifier. the voltage V DD just provides a bias. V SS B D S G S B G i2 D v out B i1 v in S Figure 4. Personal computers also contain a small amount of battery-powered CMOS memory to hold the date. such as portable computers.20. 4-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Its voltage gain is less than unity.1 The CMOS Common-Source Amplifier Figure 4.3 The CMOS Common-Drain (Source Follower) Amplifier A typical common-drain (source follower) CMOS amplifier is shown in Figure 4. 4.2. time. and the output is in-phase with the input. and a high output resistance. It exhibits both high input and high output resistances.18 shows how a CMOS device is configured as a common-source amplifier where the upper two MOSFETS serve as a current mirror to perform the function of a resistor. 4. A typical common-source CMOS amplifier can provide gains of 20 to 100 . and unlike bipolar transistors. It exhibits a low output resistance. 4. and in subsequent chapters we will see how CMOS devices are used as logic inverters and gates. and system setup parameters.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices chips using just one type of a MOSFET. and thus it can be used as a buffer amplifier. This makes CMOS devices particularly attractive for use in battery-powered devices. and the output is 180° out-of-phase with the input. Typical CMOS common-source amplifier A typical common-source CMOS amplifier can provide gains of 20 to 100 .18. a CMOS has almost no static power dissipation.

The main advantage of the MESFET is the higher mobility − also referred to as surface mobility − Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-21 . because holes have a slower mobility. The carrier flow from source to drain is controlled by a Schottky metal gate. Typical CMOS common-gate amplifier D B V DD v in i2 S D B S V SS D B S v out i1 Figure 4. V SS S G S G B D D v out V DC v in Figure 4. The control of the channel is obtained by varying the depletion layer width underneath the metal contact which modulates the thickness of the conducting channel and thereby the current. MESFETs use GaAs (gallium arsenide) technology.The Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET) It is also referred to as source follower because the lower right MOSFET device acts as a load for the upper MOSFET device.3 The Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET) The Metal-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MESFET) consists of a conducting channel positioned between a source and drain contact region. Typical common-drain (source follower) amplifier 4.20.19. Only n – channel MESFETS are available.

The use of GaAs rather than silicon MESFETs provides two more significant advantages: first of all the room temperature mobility is more than 5 times larger. 4-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .21. the UJT consists of a bar of n-type silicon having ohmic contacts designated Base 1 ( B 1 ) and Base 2 ( B 2 ) on either side of a single PN junction designated the emitter. 4. the limitation by the diode turn-on is easily tolerated. However. B2 Emitter Base 1 p n Structure E iE i B2 Base 2 E B2 Equivalent Circuit B1 B1 Symbol Figure 4. so that threshold control is not a limiting factor. The threshold voltage therefore must be lower than this turn-on voltage. the presence of the Schottky metal gate limits the forward bias voltage on the gate to the turn-on voltage of the Schottky diode. Unijunction transistor structure. The higher transit frequency of the MESFET makes it particularly of interest for microwave circuits. While the advantage of the MESFET provides a superior microwave amplifier or circuit. single-junction device which exhibits negative resistance and switching characteristics totally unlike those of conventional bipolar transistors. while the saturation velocity is about twice that in silicon.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices of the carriers in the channel as compared to the silicon-type MOSFETs. and second it is possible to fabricate semi-insulating (SI) GaAs substrates which eliminates the problem of absorbing microwave power in the substrate due to free carrier absorption. As a result it is more difficult to fabricate circuits containing a large number of enhancement-mode MESFET. The buried channel also yields a better noise performance as trapping and release of carriers into and from surface states and defects is eliminated.4 The Unijunction Transistor The unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three-terminal. symbol.21. This turn-on voltage is typically 0. and equivalent circuit In operation. a positive voltage is applied to B 2 and B 1 is placed at ground potential. Typically depletion-mode devices are used since they provide a larger current and larger transconductance and the circuits contain only a few transistors. The higher mobility results in a higher current. The B 2 – E – B 1 junctions then act like a voltage divider which reverse-biases the emitter junction. transconductance and transit frequency of the device.7 V for GaAs Schottky diodes. As shown in Figure 4.

i 21 1 1 i 21 VS IS i IS VS P N P 2 v i 12 Structure 2 Symbol Characteristics Figure 4. Figure 4. in turn. UJT emitter characteristics curve with important parameters (Courtesy of General Electric) On the emitter characteristics curve of Figure 4. and characteristics Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-23 . The region to the left of the peak point is called the cutoff region. and in this region the emitter is reverse biased and only a small leakage current flows. the diac closely resembles a PNP transistor without an external base terminal.5 The Diac The diac is a two-terminal. symbol. the resistance in this region is positive. Device 2N2646 is a popular UJT and can be used for the design of pulse and sawtooth generators. and a negative resistance characteristic is obtained as shown in Figure 4. The region to the right of the valley point is the saturation region and as we can see. can have their parameters set by external components such as resistors and capacitors. and the valley point. Device 2N6027 is known as a programmable UJT. transistor-like component which exhibits bistable switching for either polarity of a suitably high applied voltage. As shown in Figure 4.23.B 1 resistance then decreases. and this.The Diac An external voltage having a potential higher than this reverse bias will forward-bias the emitter and inject holes into the silicon bar which move toward B 1 .23. the points of interest are the peak point.22. The emitter. Diac structure. relay time delay circuits.22. and frequency dividers. causes the emitter voltage to decrease as the emitter current increases.22. 4. referred to as programmable UJTs. The region between the peak point and the valley point is referred to as the negative resistance region. Other UJT devices. analog-to-digital converters.

labelled anode and cathode. typically about 5 volts.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices Basically the diac does not conduct (except for a small leakage current) until the breakover voltage V S is reached. with each layer consisting of an alternately N or P-type material. the SCR will remain on as long as current flows through it. and 100 A or higher The SCR is a four-layer semiconducting device. to produce ac phase-control circuits useful for motor-speed control. called the gate.24. If the current falls to zero. typically 20 to 40 volts.6 The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) The silicon controlled rectifier. Parts of an SCR. It is similar to a diode with an additional terminal that is used to turn it on.8. are across the full four layers. and the voltage drop across the diac snaps back. Another name for the SCR is thyristor†.24. Once turned on. is attached to one of the middle layers as shown in Figure 4. † An earlier gas filled tube device called a Thyratron provided a similar electronic switching capability. creating a breakover current I S in the order of 50 to 200 µA sufficient to trigger a triac or SCR. but its major application is in conjunction with a triac. typically 1. and its symbol * Relaxation oscillators. is one of the family of semiconductors that includes transistors and diodes. 000 V or higher. This device is much larger in size than a transistor or a MOSFET and it is designed to operate at higher voltages and currents. are circuits that generate non-sinusoidal waveforms such as pulse and sawtooth generators. and other AC power-control functions. Anode P N Gate P N P N P N Cathode Gate Anode Anode P N Gate Cathode Cathode Figure 4. At that point the diac goes into avalanche conduction also at that point the device exhibits a negative resistance characteristic. 4. the SCR behaves like an open switch. to be discussed in Section 4. usually referred to as an SCR. 4-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the two-transistor equivalent circuit. The negative-resistance characteristic of the diac makes it useful for very simple relaxation oscillators* and pulse generators. and the control terminal. where a small control voltage could switch a large current. light dimming. for example N-P-N-P. The main terminals.

The turn-on signal is a small positive voltage and the turn-off is a negative small signal. Modern SCRs can switch large amounts of power (up to megawatts). SCRs are poor candidates due to large switching times arising out of bipolar conduction. to be discussed on the next section. called a triac.25 shows the volt-ampere characteristics of a typical SCR. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-25 .25. If the negative bias exceeds the peak-inverse voltage indicated as PIV . the SCR becomes a non-conductive device and the signal at the gate. will not change the non-conductive state of the device. has much faster switching capability because of its unipolar conduction (only majority carriers carry the current). In the realm of very high power applications. and a positive signal is applied to the gate. variable frequency drives. when the forward bias voltage from anode to cathode reaches a value indicated as + V . even if present. The dotted line shows the interval of the voltages from anode to cathode in which the SCR will be conducting after the trigger signal has been removed. It is recommended that the PIV value should be at least three times the RMS value of the applied voltage. and are often used to control alternating currents. In high-frequency applications. A similar 5-layer device. high horsepower. While an SCR is that is it not a fully controllable switch in the sense that triggering current direction need to be reversed to switch it off. the SCR will be damaged. on the other hand. an SCR conducts only in one direction. in low and medium power (from few tens of watts to few tens of kilowatts) they have almost been replaced by other devices with superior switching characteristics like MOSFETs. +I i PIV +V v Figure 4. the gate turn-off SCR (GTO) can be turned on and off with a signal applied to the gate. they are still the primary choice. conducts current in both directions. or the SCR will be damaged.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) SCRs are mainly used where high currents and voltages are involved. GTOs are used for the output stages of medium-voltage. The voltage-current characteristics of a typical SCR As shown in Figure 4. Like a diode. a newer device. When the forward bias from anode to cathode is reduced to zero or becomes negative. Figure 4. However. the device reverts to a low impedance and current flows from the anode to cathode.25. where the change of sign of the current causes the device to automatically switch off. MOSFETs. The current must be limited by the load to the value + I .

26 shows sinusoidal waveform applied to the gate of an SCR where during the positive half cycle the SCR is triggered at 45° after the sinewave starts from zero and increases in the positive direction. the voltage applied to the load is no longer sinusoidal. an Error Detector Circuit computes the required firing angle based on the system setpoint and the actual system output. many new control systems now use a microprocessor based. digital. delay the firing pulse until the proper time in the cycle to provide the desired output voltage.cathode across the device. rectifier fuses recommended by the manufacturer be employed.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices Figure 4. Current limiting fuses are designed to sense a 4-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . has a very high one-cycle surge rating. In closed-loop systems. the SCR firing would be random in nature and the system response will be erratic. like a conventional diode. and. Typically. In analog control systems the error detector circuit is usually an integrated circuit operational amplifier which takes reference and system feedback inputs and computes the amount of error (difference) between the actual output voltage and the desired setpoint value. the device will carry from eight to ten time its continuous current rating for a period of one electrical cycle. and the number of degrees that the SCR remains conducting is known as the conduction angle. such as motor control. current-limiting. Even though the SCR is an analog device. Also. SCR gate control As shown in Figure 4. Another consideration is SCR protection. based on an input from the Error Detector. measure feedback and compare it with the setpoint. when the firing angle is greater than zero. For accurate SCR gating.26. the number of degrees from the beginning of the cycle until the SCR is gated to the on condition is referred to as the firing angle. The firing circuit is able to sense the start of the cycle. the firing circuit must be synchronized with the AC line voltage being applied anode-to. θ = 45 ° θ Conduction angle Firing angle Figure 4. and generate the required firing angle to hold the system in a balanced state. This presents no problem in the case of motor loads.26. but for radio and television an interference is created and usually the manufacturer of the SCR equipment will include an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter to rectify the problem. one should never substitute with another type fuse. The SCR. It is extremely important that the proper highspeed. firing circuit to sense the AC line zero -crossing. Without synchronization. An analogy of a firing circuit would be an automobile distributor which advances or retards the spark plug firing based on the action of the vacuum advance mechanism.

27 is switched to the on (conducting) state by applying a positive triggering pulse at v in and with the SCR on. which may exceed the device PIV rating.28. 4.6. in Figure 4. High voltage capacitors are also often employed as a means of absorbing these destructive spikes and provide a degree of electrical noise suppression as well. and another positive pulse applied at v in1 turns the SCR on the left On. such as the GE Metal-Oxide-Varistor (MOV).28 a positive triggering pulse applied at v in1 turns the SCR on the left On. The capacitor then charges to voltage v C and this voltage is approximately equal to V S . for repetitive operation at fast rates the switch S in Figure 4.27. with the aid of the capacitor this action turns the SCR on the right Off. R3 C R4 S VS R1 R2 vC v in Figure 4. the anode to cathode voltage must be zero or negative. are extremely effective in absorbing these short-term transients. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-27 . this action is equivalent to closing the switch in Figure 4.27. Obviously. Since the capacitor voltage cannot change instantly. The SCR will be turned off by closing the switch S . and it switches the SCR on the left off.27 shows a possible arrangement for switching the SCR to the off position. A switching circuit using an SCR The SCR in the circuit of Figure 4. Switching spikes and transients. are also a serious concern with semiconductor devices. Surge suppressors.27 can be replaced by another controlled rectifier as shown in Figure 4. there is there is a very small voltage drop from anode to cathode. the anode of the SCR becomes negative with respect to the cathode. thereby protecting the SCR from damage due to short circuits. We recall that to switch the SCR to the off position. The capacitor now charges with the opposite polarity. The anode current no longer flows. and the SCR is turned Off. As with the circuit of Figure 4.1 The SCR as an Electronic Switch The SCR circuit of Figure 4. we observe that the positive side of the capacitor is connected to the ground.27. Then a subsequent positive pulse applied at v in2 turns the SCR on the right On.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) fault in a quarter-cycle and clear the fault in one-half of a cycle. and when this occurs.

the current source delivers a constant current to the capacitor. They are used in oscilloscopes to provide the sweep voltage for horizontal deflection.28. An ideal sawtooth generator and its output waveform When the switch S is open. A practical sawtooth generator is shown in Figure 4.28. The switch is reopened immediately. + vC S v out C I + v out T t Figure 4. with the aid of the capacitor this action turns the conducting SCR off. SCR circuit for repetitive operation at fast rates If a train of positive pulses is applied simultaneously at v in1 and v in2 they have no effect on the rectifier that is conducting. a periodic sawtooth waveform of voltage appears at v out . but they turn the nonconducting SCR on. If the switching is not periodic. * We recall that v C = ∫ I dt = It ( ramp ) 4-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the successive peaks in the waveform are not of the same amplitude. 4. however.2 The SCR in the Generation of Sawtooth Waveforms Another important application for SCRs is in circuits for the generation of sawtooth waveforms. the amplitude of each peak is directly proportional to the duration of that particular switching interval.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices + VS R3 C R4 vC R1 R2 + R5 R6 v in1 v in2 Figure 4. If the closing of the switch is periodic.* At a certain instant the switch is closed momentarily.29. Again.30.6. and the capacitor begins to charge again. Sawtooth generators have many important engineering applications.29 shows an ideal sawtooth generator. and the capacitor discharges through the switch. and as a result the voltage across the capacitor increases linearly with time as shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. and they are used in circuits for the measurement of the time interval between the occurrence of two events. Thus a train of positive pulses applied simultaneously to the gates of the SCRs causes them to switch on and off alternately.

the extinction voltage V x .30 the SCR performs the function of the switch in the ideal generator of Figure 4. A practical sawtooth generator using an SCR as a switch In the circuit of Figure 4.31.31 is not exactly linear. and the capacitance C .31. Resistor R 4 is a large resistor in the order of 1 MΩ and this with the voltage source VS approximate the current source in the ideal sawtooth generator. Since the firing voltage depends on the control voltage v in . and the cycle repeats itself. When the capacitor is discharged to the critical voltage V x . The duration of the charging interval T c is determined by the firing voltage Vf .29. and the capacitor voltage rises exponentially with time. For a practical circuit triggering pulses of voltage can be applied at v in to control Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-29 . When the capacitor voltage reaches the critical value Vf . the amplitude and frequency.30. the SCR fires and discharges the capacitor rapidly. known as firing voltage. the capacitor charges with a current from the DC supply voltage V S that is almost constant. the SCR switches off. of the sawtooth wave can be adjusted by adjusting v in .The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) i + R3 R1 vC R2 iC C R4 VS + + v out v in Figure 4. When the SCR is switched off. The waveforms of voltage and current are shown in Figure 4. the output voltage shown in Figure 4.30 The voltage v in is the control voltage for the rectifier. referred to as the extinction voltage. VS Vf Vx v out V = Vf – V x t I C max Tc Td iC Figure 4. the capacitor current i C . and R 3 is a resistance that limits the rectifier current to a safe value when the capacitor is discharging. Waveforms for the circuit of Figure 4. since a true current source is not used.

4-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .25) The exponential factor in (4. For rapid discharging. however. The duration of the discharging interval T d depends on the amplitude of the sawtooth voltage. and V S . choosing t = 0 at the beginning of the charging interval.22) Relation (4.25) can now be expanded in a power series to obtain the following more useful expression: * For an introduction to transient analysis. All applications for the sawtooth generator require a highly linear sawtooth waveform and a short discharge time. C . v out has its minimum value V x as shown in Figure 4.21) When t = 0 .22) v out = V' S + V x – V' S e ( –t ⁄ R4 C ) (4. which is highly desired. These two quantities can be related in a very simple way to the important parameters of the circuit.21) we get v out = V S + A = V x or A = Vx – VS and by substitution into (4. Next.21) v out = V S – ( V S – V x )e ( –t ⁄ R4 C ) (4. the SCR is switched off. During the charging interval T c . the current must be limited to a value that is safe for the SCR.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices the firing of the SCR and thereby synchronize the sawtooth with an external signal. and the circuit is a simple series connection of R 4 .22) defines the output voltage v out during the charging interval T c . the discharging current should be as large as possible. Thus. hence letting t = 0 in (4. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4. and the capacitance C .23) (4. the discharging current.26. the equation for the output voltage v out during that interval has the form v out = V S + Ae ( –t ⁄ R4 C ) * (4. Thus. we let ( V S – V x ) = V' S (4.24) Then V S = V' S + V x and by substitution into (4. for good performance the SCR should have a high current rating and short switching times. refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.

33) reveals that the fractional error depends only on the relative sizes of the sawtooth amplitude and the effective DC supply voltage. our sawtooth generator must be designed so that the second term on the right side of (4.V' S ⎛ ---------.⎞ ⎝ R 4C ⎠ 2 (4.V' S ⎛ ---------.33) Relation (4.26) should be sufficiently small. t v out = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------R 4C (4.30).– -.26) is a converging alternating series. Good linearity is often obtained by the direct expedient of using a large supply voltage or by generating a Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-31 .V' S ⎛ ---------.∆v out = -..The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) 2 2 1 1 t t t t . the magnitude of the error at any instant is smaller than 1 t 2 ∆v out = -.29) It now follows from (4.⎞ + … ⎝ R 4C ⎠ ⎝ R 4C ⎠ R 4C 2 R 4C 2 (4.32) From (4.32) Tc ∆v out V -----------. in order to have good linearity it is necessary to have an effective supply voltage much larger than the required amplitude of the sawtooth.+ -.30) and (4. Then.29) and Figure 4. hence the error in truncating the series at any point is smaller than the first term in the part out off.30) for T c ⁄ ( R 4 C ) and substituting the result into (4.26) Since we want the output voltage v out to be a linear function of time.30) and the error at the end of the charging interval.30 that the amplitude of the sawtooth wave is V = Vf – V x = V' S ⋅ ---------R 4C Tc (4.⎛ ---------. Thus. which is the amount by which the actual amplitude is less than the amplitude given by (4.⎞ – … = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------.31) we get 1V .28) At the end of the charging interval t = T c the output voltage is Tc v out = V f = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------R 4C (4.27) The right-band side of (4.⎞ ⎝ R 4C ⎠ 2 (4.------2 V' S 2 (4.v out = V' S + V x – V' S 1 – ---------.31) Solving (4. is smaller than Tc 2 1 ∆v out = -.= ------------V 2V' S 2R 4 C (4.= ----------.

With this approximation the average value of the current during the discharging interval is I C max ⁄ 2 .29 held constant. The time constant R 4 C can then be chosen to produce the desired slope to the sawtooth. During the discharging interval the voltage across the capacitor changes by the amount Qf – Q x V = Vf – V x = ----------------C (4. since the capacitor current I C max is approximately equal to the current I max through the SCR. With a fixed slope. the effective supply voltage is the open-circuit voltage of the source. is simulated by the use of additional circuitry in which amplifiers are frequently used.28.36) Also.35) The duration of the discharging interval T d can be determined from this relation.37) 4-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In designing a sawtooth generator. V S and V' S must be chosen so that the fractional error given by (4. we can express (4. T c is determined by the interval between the pulses.34) and when a train of triggering pulses is applied at v in .30). often thousands of volts. To simplify the calculation we will approximate the discharging current pulse. Thus (4. In more sophisticated designs the effect of a very large supply voltage. When the capacitor is charged from an ideal current source. shown in Figure 4.30. this voltage is infinite. One method of simulating a large supply voltage is illustrated in Example 4. and the charge removed from the capacitor during this interval is T d I C max ⁄ 2 . With the control voltage v in in Figure 4.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices sawtooth wave of small amplitude.33) can be written as T d I C max V ≈ --------------------2C (4. and the capacitor discharges exponentially through the SCR at a rate determined by the resistance R 3 in Figure 4. V is a measure of the time interval T c . and the slope of the sawtooth determines the amplitude V . the firing voltage V f and the sawtooth amplitude V are also constant. as in Figure 4. giving zero error.29. V T c = R 4 C ------V' S (4.33) is sufficiently small. From Equation (4. At the end of the charging interval the SCR switches on. with a pulse that decreases linearly with time from the peak value I C max to zero. and the slope of the sawtooth determines the length of the charging period.36) as T d I max V ≈ ----------------2C (4.5 at the end of this section.

and V' S ⁄ R 4 is very nearly the charging current I C for the capacitor. Any load that is connected across the output terminals of the sawtooth generator in Figure 4.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) or 2CV T d = ----------I max (4.37) can be expressed as 2I C Td ----. To provide a relatively short discharge time.34) yields Td 2V' S ----. Figure 4.30 will affect the operation of the circuit. (4.32(a) shows a sawtooth generator with a load resistor R L connected across the output terminals.= ---------Tc I max (4.38) Division of (4.38) by (4.39) For good linearity we must have V « V' S .= ----------------Tc R 4 I max (4. i R3 SCR Circuit x iC C + R4 + RL vC VS + y v out (a) i SCR Circuit R3 + iC C + R TH vC + V TH (b) Figure 4.40) where I C is the charging current for the capacitor. and any leakage resistance that develops across the capacitor has a similar effect. the peak SCR current must be much greater than the capacitor charging current. A sawtooth generator with resistive load and its Thevenin equivalent Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-33 . and since the voltage drop across R 4 during the charging interval is approximately V' S .32. and I max is the peak discharging current through the SCR.

but the SCR remains switched off until the cathode potential drops below the gate potential.⋅ VS R 4 + RL (4. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x – y and we obtain the circuit of Figure 4. Accordingly. The presence of R L affects the effective DC supply voltage.41) and R 4 RL R TH = -----------------R 4 + RL (4. then the rectifier never fires. It is quite possible in such cases for the effective voltage V TH to be less than the firing voltage V f .42) It is then evident that the addition of the load resistor R L affects both the slope and the linearity of the sawtooth waveform. the output from the sawtooth generator must be connected to a very high impedance device such as a MOSFET. and hence on the linearity. Therefore. The capacitor then discharges almost to zero volts. is especially severe. and the SCR switches off. The output can also be delivered to a bipolar junction transistor. and its cathode is at a potential of 20 volts.to-cathode voltage becomes positive and the SCR switches on. Figure 4. the potential at the cathode of the SCR drops. and no sawtooth wave is generated. but a very special circuit configuration must be used to provide the required high input resistance. Example 4. thus a reverse bias is applied to the gate. it becomes necessary to make R L greater than 1 MΩ .5 A sawtooth generator is shown in Figure 4. As the capacitor charges through the transistor from the 20-volt supply. thus the rectifier is switched off. The SCR can be assumed ideal with a maximum permissible current rating of 100 mA .33(b) shows how an SCR can be used as the discharge switch for the capacitor.33(a). for the SCR. and it is less than 20 volts. The cycle then repeats itself periodically. The capacitor is charged through a transistor in order to approximate a current source supply. The potential at the gate terminal of the rectifier is fixed by R 2 and R 3 . 4-34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . At this point the gate.32(a). A load resistor of about 100 KΩ would reduce the effective supply voltage and will increase the fractional error by a factor of more than 10 . Solution: With the capacitor in Figure 4. provided the current drawn by the collector of the transistor is less than the holding current for the SCR.32(b) where RL V TH = -----------------.33(b) discharged there is no voltage across the SCR.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices To simplify the circuit of Figure 4. We want to design the circuit to produce a 1 KHz sawtooth wave having a fractional error smaller than 1 per cent.

+ C + 20 V C + v out rC 20 V rC v out αi E rC i E = 1 mA R1 E αi E VS B (a) (b) Figure 4. it is helpful first to simplify and rearrange the circuit.33 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-35 . During the charging interval the SCR conducts no current. the transistor can be represented to a very good approximation by the model shown in Figure 4. and it can be omitted from the circuit. Circuits for Example 4. If V S is much larger than the small emitter-to-base voltage drop. C .33 in more detail.34(a) where E . Piecewise-linear and equivalent circuits for the sawtooth generator of Figure 4.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) 20 V C S 1 mA VS R1 (a) v out 20 V C R4 R2 1 mA VS R1 (b) R3 v out Figure 4.5 In order to examine the circuits of Figure 4.33.34. and B are the transistor terminals. The resistance rC in this model is the collector resistance of the transistor.

V S = 20 + αi E rC The equivalent circuit of Figure 4. the effective supply voltage is V' S = V S – V x (4.45) is obtained. is a negligible fraction of a volt. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4.45) yields V' S = 20 + 980 = 1000 V (4. relation (4. to avoid possible non linearities in the transistor characteristics at low voltages and to allow for possible variations in the supply voltage. The extinction voltage V x . To limit the SCR current to the maximum safe value of 100 ma. this is not the case in the circuit of Figure 4.= 150 Ω I max 0. Thus taking typical values of α = 0. Thus when i E is known. the current source and its shunt resistance can be converted to an equivalent voltage source with a series resistance. And finally. As the next step in the simplification of the circuit. and the emitter current (4. however.01 = ----------V 2V' S (4. however. the value of resistor R 4 should be V 15 R 4 = --------. the emitter circuit affects the collector circuit only through the action of the controlled source αi E . a value of 15 volts might be chosen for V . Accordingly.98 and rC = 1 MΩ .23).43) (4.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices In most circuits the collector resistance is in parallel with a much smaller load resistance and it can be neglected. in principle the amplitude of the sawtooth output can be as large as the DC supply voltage.34(a).33) yields ∆v out V -----------.49) For a sawtooth frequency of 1 KHz .34(b). it is noted that because of the short circuit between base and ground.47) (4. From relation (4. and the collector resistance has an important effect.44) and for our example. 4-36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----. the values of resistors R 2 and R 3 should be chosen to make the gate-terminal potential about 5 volts when the SCR is switched off.48) and thus V = 20 V Thus.= 0.46) For a fractional error of 1 per cent in the amplitude of the sawtooth.34(b) shows that by charging the capacitor through the transistor an effective supply voltage of V' S = 20 + αi E rC – V x i E is 1 ma. relation (4. the emitter circuit can be ignored.1 (4.

00098 1000 C = -----. 1 i 21 2 i 12 Figure 4. A triac is essentially two SCRs connected back to back with a common gate and common terminals where each terminal is the anode of one SCR and the cathode of another.001 ⎝ 100 ⎠ (4.40) 2I C Td ----.35.35. and output of these two devices.The Triac Td 1 T c + T d = T c ⎛ 1 + ----.⎞ = -.= 0.= ---------Tc I max (4.001 sec ⎝ Tc ⎠ f (4.------.34) VT c = R 4 C ------V' S or T c V' S 0. The diode D in the SCR circuit ensures a positive trigger voltage.52) (4.53) and thus T c = 0.50) and (4. As can be seen in Figure 4. Figure 4.= -----------------.02T c = 0. gate. from (4. I max = 100 mA and using (4.⋅ ----------.= 0.51) we get 1 T c ⎛ 1 + 2 -------.51) With I C ≈ αi E = 1 mA .36 shows an SCR circuit and a triac circuit for comparison. the triac has a single gate lead and is therefore the AC equivalent of the SCR. 4.7 The Triac The triac is a device capable of switching on for either polarity of an applied voltage.00098 sec Finally.54) where R 4 = rC = 1 MΩ is as shown in Figure 4. Triac symbol Figure 4.⎞ = 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-37 .50) From (4.0655 µF 6 R4 V 15 10 (4.33(b).37 shows a comparison of the waveforms at the input.

Comparison of SCR and Triac waveforms The triac exhibits voltage-current characteristics similar to those of the SCR. or PNPN diode. and general AC power-control applications.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices SCR Triac AC Power Supply R1 D R2 RL R1 RL R2 v out AC Power Supply v out Figure 4. AC light dimmers.36. 4-38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the two-layer metal-semiconductor device known for its high switching speed. * The Shockley diode should not be confused with the Schottky diode. is a four-layer sandwich of P-N-P-N semiconductor material very similar to the SCR but without a gate as shown in Figure 4. 4.38.8 The Shockley Diode* The Shockley diode or four-layer diode.37. Applications for triacs include AC motor-speed control. We discussed the Schottky diode in Chapter 2. Comparison of SCR and Triac circuits SCR Input voltage Triac Gate trigger level Gate voltage Output voltage Figure 4.

A latched Shockley diode is reset back into its nonconducting state by reducing current through it until low-current dropout occurs. In order to get a Shockley diode to latch. sealing both transistors in the off state as they were before any voltage was applied at all.38. If the applied voltage across a Shockley diode rises at too fast a rate. the term breakover is used instead because the end result is a pair of transistors in mutual saturation rather than destruction as would be the case with a normal transistor. Capacitors. ultimately latching both transistors on where they will tend to remain. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-39 . The term firing refers to the initiation of a latched state. as are all thyristors. The voltage rise limit of a Shockley diode is referred to as the critical rate of voltage rise and it is provided by the manufacturer. There is no in-between or active mode in its operation: it is a purely on or off device. the Shockley diode tends to stay on once it's turned on. Parts of a Shockley diode. the two-transistor equivalent circuit. and can be minimized by filtering highfrequency (fast voltage rises) from the diode with series inductors and/or parallel resistor-capacitor networks. It should be noted that Shockley diodes may be fired in a way other than breakover: excessive voltage rise. Usually. There are a few special terms applied to Shockley diodes and all other thyristor devices built upon the Shockley diode foundation. at which point one of the transistors will cutoff. or dv ⁄ dt . the applied voltage must be increased until breakover is attained. Despite the fact that this action is best described in terms of transistor breakdown.The Shockley Diode Anode Anode P N P N Cathode P N P N P N Cathode Anode Cathode Figure 4. which tends to keep the door closed once it has been pushed shut. First is the term used to describe its on state: latched. as we recall. and its symbol A Shockley diode can be to turned on by applying sufficient voltage between anode and cathode. those tiny capacitances will draw enough current during that time to activate the transistor pair. This is when the applied voltage across the diode increases at a high rate of change. The word latch is reminiscent of a door lock mechanism. This is able to cause latching (turning on) of the diode due to inherent junction capacitances within the transistors. oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current. In other words. which then halts base current through the other transistor. The two transistors can be turned off again by reducing the applied voltage to a much lower point where there is too small current to maintain transistor bias. this form of latching is undesirable. which then turns the other transistor on. and stay off once it's turned off. This voltage will cause one of the transistors to turn on. turning them both on.

4-40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . These devices are unique in that exceptionally simple optical pulse sources can be fabricated since the source is also the switching element. with the addition of a second gate lead. The SUS is an SCR with an anode gate instead of the usual cathode gate and a self-contained low-voltage avalanche diode between the gate and cathode. The SCS has two advantages over the SCR and the Shockley diode. Light-emitting four-layer diodes are gallium-arsenide devices which emit recombination radiation when they are switched on. First. the two-transistor equivalent circuit.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. as shown in Figure 4. Anode Anode P N Gate 2 Gate 1 P N P N P Gate 2 Gate 1 Anode G1 P N Cathode N G2 Cathode Cathode Figure 4. silicon unilateral switch (SUS).39. A particularly interesting device of this kind is the PNPN injection laser. The light-activated silicon controlled switch (LASCS) is an LASCR with both anode and cathode gate terminals. Operation of the LASCR is similar to that of a conventional SCR except an optical signal replaces the gate electrical signal. Thus the SCS has an anode.9 Other PNPN Devices Other PNPN devices include the light-activated SCR (LASCR). Parts of an SCS. Second. and light-emitting four-layer diodes. and a cathode gate. an anode gate. since we can now control both end junctions. they can be biased so as to completely cancel the rate effect we described with the four-layer diode. The LASCR is a conventional SCR installed in a housing having a transparent window or collection lens. and its symbol As shown in Figure 4.39. silicon bilateral switch (SBS). The silicon controlled switch (SCS) is very similar to the SCR but all four regions are accessible to the external circuit. LASCRs exhibit very-high gain and permit relatively large amounts of current to be controlled by a relatively weak optical signal. a cathode. The SBS is two SUS devices arranged in inverse-parallel to permit bidirectional switching. the basic construction of the SCS is the same as for the SCR. we can actively turn the SCS off without the need to reduce the applied voltage or current. because both gate regions are accessible.39.

• One important parameter in FETs is its transconductance g m defined as the ratio of the change in current i DS to the change of voltage v GS which produced it.⋅ k n ---. the quadratic or triode. • In a MOSFET. • In a MOSFET. thus allowing a greater range of input signals. and the saturation or pentode. source.( v GS – V T ) 2 L for v DS ≥ v GS – V T Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-41 . v GS < V T and no drain current flows. A MOSFET can be constructed that will operate in either mode depending upon what type of bias is applied. The JFET also operates in this manner. the voltage at which the channel is closed is known as the pinch-off voltage V P .The Junction FET (JFET) is the earlier type and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) is now the most popular type. gate and substrate. and the minimum voltage required to form a conducting channel between the drain and source is referred to as the threshold voltage and it is denoted as V T . Typical values for V T are 2 to 4 volts for high voltage devices with thicker gate oxides. measured between gate and source. A MOSFET is said to operate in the enhancement mode if a positive voltage is applied at the gate. the transconductance is a measure of the sensitivity of drain current to changes in gate-to-source bias. can be made very large.10 Summary • The Field-Effect Transistor (FET) is another semiconductor device. In other words. • A MOSFET is said to operate in the depletion mode when a negative voltage is applied at the gate. ∂i DS g m = ----------∂v GS v DS = cons tan t In other words. • N-channel FETs are the most common.v DS L 2 for v DS ≤ v GS – V T and in the saturation region from the expression 1 W 2 i D = -.( v GS – V T )v DS – -. The FET is a voltage-controlled device. and 1 to 2 volts for lower voltage devices with thinner gate oxides.Summary 4. from 1 to 100 megohms. the three regions of operation are the cutoff. drain. • One of the most attractive features of the FET is the fact that the input resistance. In the cutoff mode. In the quadratic region the drain current is determined from the expression W 1 2 i D = k n ---. P-channel FETs operate similarly except that the voltage polarities are reversed. The substrate is normally connected to the source and thus a FET is essentially a three-terminal device. A FET has four terminals.

that is. around 10 µA ⁄ V . for k p . Thus. either the NMOS device is on and the PMOS device is off. For p-channel MOSFETs this parameter is denoted as k p . and for W ⁄ L about 10 . Typical values of k n are around 20 µA ⁄ V .( V GS – V T ) L v gs 2 2 • The output conductance is defined as ∂i D g o = ----------∂v DS v GS = cons tan t • The voltage gain A v in a MOSFET device is defined as vd A v = -----. • The Metal-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MESFET) consists of a conducting channel positioned between a source and drain contact region.= – R D g m v gs and the minus (-) sign indicates 180° phase reversal. a CMOS has almost no static power dissipation. or vice versa. and common-drain or source follower. 4-42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . CMOS devices are the most common amplifiers in the FET technology. common-gate amplifier.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices where k n is a constant depending on electron mobility. permittivity. The control of the channel is obtained by varying the depletion layer width underneath the metal contact which modulates the thickness of the conducting channel and thereby the current MESFETs use GaAs (gallium arsenide) technology. and integrated circuits. transconductance is defined as id W g m = -----. • A CMOS device can be configured as a common-source amplifier. and capacitance for n-channel MOSFETs. The ratio W ⁄ L denotes the ratio of the channel width W to channel length L . CMOS chips require less power than chips using just one type of a MOSFET. These devices are used extensively in both analog and digital circuits. • In CMOS devices only one of its components is on at any given time. and unlike bipolar transistors. • In high density integrated circuits. Also. current mirrors are normally used in lieu of resistors. and oxide thickness. The carrier flow from source to drain is controlled by a Schottky metal gate. • For small signals. Only n – channel MESFETS are available because holes have a slower mobility. • Complementary MOS or CMOS technology combines one NMOS device and one PMOS device into a single device referred to as CMOS.= k n ---.

• The Shockley diode. It is similar to a diode with an additional terminal that is used to turn it on. and the control terminal. If the current falls to zero. • The diac is a two-terminal. called the gate. relay time delay circuits. referred to as programmable UJTs. labelled anode and cathode. or four-layer diode. analog-to-digital converters. (not to be confused with the Schottky diode). are across the full four layers. is attached to one of the middle layers. • The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is a four-layer semiconducting device. and other ac power-control functions. • The triac is a device capable of switching on for either polarity of an applied voltage. or PNPN diode. with each layer consisting of an alternately N or P-type material.Summary • The unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three-terminal. The diac closely resembles a PNP transistor without an external base terminal. Other UJT devices. the SCR behaves like an open switch. Its major application is in conjunction with a triac to produce AC phase-control circuits useful for motor-speed control. transistor-like component which exhibits bistable switching for either polarity of a suitably high applied voltage. and frequency dividers. the SCR will remain on as long as current flows through it. can have their parameters set by external components such as resistors and capacitors. for example N-P-N-P. light dimming. is a four-layer sandwich of P-N-P-N semiconductor material very similar to the SCR but without a gate. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-43 . single-junction device which exhibits negative resistance and switching characteristics totally unlike those of conventional bipolar transistors. UJTs can be used for the design of pulse and sawtooth generators. The main terminals. It is the AC equivalent of the SCR. Once turned on. Another name for the SCR is thyristor. • The silicon controlled switch (SCS) is very similar to the SCR but all four regions are accessible to the external circuit.

An enhancement-type p – channel MOSFET with k p = 10 × 10 . Over what range may the load DC current be continuously varied if the frequency is 60 Hz ? –6 –6 4-44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For the JFET amplifier circuit below. Compute the output conductance g o if V DS = 0 V 5. In the circuit below. the gate supply V GG is adjustable. Compute the value of r DS for an NMOS device where k = 18 µA ⁄ V . that is. As shown. V T = 2 V .11 Exercises 1. and V T = – 2 V . show that A V = – g m R D . is biased with v G = 0 V and v S = 5 V . W = 10 µm . L = 1 µm . Compute the drain current i D b. Compute the output conductance g o if V DS = 2 V d. is biased with v GS = 3 V and v DS = 5 V . a. L = 5 µm . What is the highest voltage of v D that will keep the device in saturation? 6. and V T = 1 V . W = 10 µm . Draw an equivalent circuit that represents the n – channel MOSFET in the saturation mode. W = 60 µm . a. Compute the transconductance g m c. L = 1 µm .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. and v GS = 4 V . 4. An n – channel MOSFET with k n = 50 × 10 . 2 3. + D G V DD v out S + v+ in 2. the SCR is used to control the power delivered to the 50 Ω load by the sinusoidal source. prove that the voltage gain A V depends only on the transconductance g m and the value of the drain resistor R D . Over what range may the conduction angle of the SCR be continuously varied? a.

If the anode potential of the SCR must remain negative for 10 µs to ensure that the SCR switches to the non-conducting state. The circuit below is in steady state with the switch open and the SCR is in the conducting state. and it is assumed that the SCR switches instantly to the non-conducting state and remains non-conducting thereafter. The switch is then closed at t = 0 . The voltage drop across the SCR is 1 V while it is conducting. a. what is the minimum value of the capacitor C that should be used? V DC R3 1 KΩ R1 10 KΩ R2 100 sin ωt 20 KΩ C S 50 V R4 50 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-45 .Exercises R load 50 Ω 100 sin ωt RG V GG 7. What are the initial and final values of the voltage across the capacitor with the polarities shown? b.

3 KΩ –6 –6 iD kW ( v GS – V T ) 18 × 10 × 60 × 10 ( 4 – 2 ) 3.= 2.⋅ k n ---. W – 6 10 –1 g m = k n ---.( v GS – V T ) = -. –6 v DS L 5 × 10 r DS ≡ -------.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. 1 W 1 2 – 6 10 2 i D = -.⋅ k n W ( v GS – V T ) 2 ---2 L v DS = cons tan t 4.= ----------------------------------. G iD v GS S D 1 -. Since v DS > v GS – V T ⇒ 5 > 3 – 1 .11) and it can be represented by the equivalent circuit shown below. a. In the saturation mode the n – channel MOSFET behaves as an ideal current source whose value is as in (4. From (4.11).= -------------------------------------------------------------------. the device is in saturation and the drain current i D is found from (4.13).12 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1. The transconductance g m is found from (4.10).= – g m R D dv in 2.⋅ 50 × 10 ⋅ ----.( 3 – 1 ) = 1 mΩ 1 L 4-46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the voltage gain is dv out A v = -----------. Thus. By definition g m = di DS ⁄ dv GS = di DS ⁄ dv in (1) and since v out = V DD – R D i DS it follows that dv out = – R D di DS and with (1) dv out = – g m R D dv in Thus.( v GS – V T ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----.( 3 – 1 ) = 1 mA 1 2 L 2 b. Then.

With reference to Figure 4. If V DS = 0 V . The output conductance g m is found from (4. The device will be in saturation as long as v DS ≤ v GS – V T .( 3 – 1 – 0 ) = 1 mΩ L 1 5.14 we observe that for v DS ≥ v G S – V T the slope is zero. The SCR will fire for the interval 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π ⁄ 2 or not at all depending on the value of V GG . the device is in the triode region since v DS < v G S – V T ⇒ 0 < 3 – 1 . W – 6 10 –1 g o = k n ---.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises c.( – cos ωt ) 50 π α π α If α = 0 . W – 6 10 g o = k n ---. b. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-47 .16). v GS = v G – v S = 0 – ( – 5 ) = 5 V v DS = v D – v S = v D – ( – 5 ) = v D + 5 v D + 5 = v GS – V T = 5 – ( – 2 ) = 7 vD = 2 V 6. Then. Then.( 3 – 1 – 2 ) = 0 1 L This result is not surprising. The load DC current I DC is the average value for the interval 0 ≤ α ≤ π ⁄ 2 and its value is determined by the integral 1I DC = ----2π ∫ π 100 sin ωt 1 ---------------------. d.( v GS – V T – v DS ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----.d( ωt ) = -.( v GS – V T – v DS ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----. V GG α firing angle π 2π 100 sin ωt ωt a. For this exercise.

and the SCR will be Off. b. Just before the switch closes. Using the general formula for the capacitor voltage. that is.637 A If α = π ⁄ 2 . V DC R3 1 KΩ R1 10 KΩ R2 100 sin ωt 20 KΩ C S 50 V R4 50 KΩ a. The capacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously so immediately after the switch is closed. the capacitor voltage will be – 49 V as shown in the figure below. until the voltage across the capacitor reaches the value of 0 V . We want the SCR anode to remain negative for 10 µs . R3 V DC 50 V 1 KΩ C R4 50 KΩ The capacitor voltage will eventually charge to 50 V with respect to the ground and thus it will undergo a change from – 49 V (initial value) to +50 V (final value). the voltage drop across the SCR is 1 V and the voltage drop across the capacitor is 49 V with the polarity as shown.318 A If SCR never fires.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices I DC = 2 ⁄ π = 0. I DC = 0 7. we must have v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V initial )e t ⁄ ( RC ) or 0 = 50 – [ 50 – ( – 49 ) ]e –t ⁄ R3 C 4-48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . I DC = 1 ⁄ π = 0.

683 ln ( 50 ⁄ 99 ) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-49 .Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises e –t ⁄ R3 C = 50 ⁄ 99 – t ⁄ R 3 C = ln ( 50 ⁄ 99 ) –6 3 –t ⁄ R3 .( – 10 × 10 ) ⁄ 10 C = ------------------------.= -----------------------------------------.= 14.64 nF – 0.

Its symbol is shown in Figure 5. 5. These are the voltage sources required to power up the op amp. − V+ 7 6 2 3 + 4 V− Figure 5. single ended output amplifier. It is also the basic block in analog computer design. and applications. For this reason it is referred to as differential input. Figure 5. and analog computers. analysis of circuits in the inverting and non-inverting configurations.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers T his chapter begins with an introduction to operational amplifiers (op amps). These terminals are not shown in op amp circuits since they just provide power. is the most versatile electronic amplifier. differentiation. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter. It derives it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many mathematical operations such as addition. 5. characteristics. integration.1.2 shows the internal construction of the popular 741 op amp. V + is +15 volts and V − is −15 volts.1.2 An Overview of the Op Amp The op amp has the following important characteristics: 1. and do not reveal any other useful information for the op amp’s circuit analysis. Typically. This figure also shows terminals V + and V − . and gain and bandwidth on circuit performance. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. Symbol for operational amplifier As shown above the op amp has two inputs but only one output. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-1 . multiplication. We will also introduce some circuits consisting of op amps and non-linear devices. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. analog-to-digital conversion or vice versa.1 The Operational Amplifier The operational amplifier or simply op amp. We will discuss the ideal op amp.

Very good stability 6. and so on. diodes.3. The 741 op amp (Courtesy National Semiconductor) 5. Figure 5. Operation to be performed. integration etc. The non-inverting (+) input is grounded through an external resistor R as shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4.3 The Op Amp in the Inverting Mode An op amp is said to be connected in the inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the inverting (−) input through an external resistor R in whose value along with the feedback resistor R f determine the op amp’s gain. capacitors. the voltage gain G v is v out Rf G v = --------.3. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5.. addition.1) 5-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For the circuit of Figure 5.= – ------v in R in (5.e. i.2. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors.

Therefore. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.The Op Amp in the Inverting Mode + v in − R in − + R Rf + v out − Figure 5.3. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be negative (−) and vice versa. these designations imply that an input voltage of any waveform may be applied at the input terminals and the corresponding output voltage appears at the output terminals. For AC (sinusoidal) signals. hence the name inverting amplifier.4. Circuit of inverting op amp Note 1: In the inverting mode.1). should not be interpreted as open circuits. if the input is +1 volt DC and the op amp gain is 100. Thus. Circuit for Example 5. The minus (−) sign in the gain ratio – R f ⁄ R in implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. the resistor R connected between the non-inverting (+) input and ground serves only as a current limiting device. So its presence or absence in an op amp circuit is immaterial. Example 5. the output will be −100 volts DC.4. the output will be 180° out-of-phase with the input.3. given that v in = 1 mV .1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-3 . As shown in the relation of (5. Note 2: The input voltage v in and the output voltage v out as indicated in the circuit of Figure 5. the gain for this op amp configuration is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the input. if the input is 1 volt AC and the op amp gain is 5. Rf 120 KΩ + v in − R in 20 KΩ − + + v out − Figure 5. the output will be −5 volts AC or 5 volts AC with 180° out-of-phase with the input.1 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. and thus it does not influence the op amp’s gain. For example.

Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.2 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.5.= – -------------------. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5.5. given that v in = sin t mV .2 5-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= – 6 20 KΩ R in and since G v = v out ⁄ v in the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × 1 or v out = – 6 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5. + v in − R in 20 KΩ Rf 120 KΩ − + + v out − Figure 5.6. Circuit for Example 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Solution: This is an inverting amplifier and thus the voltage gain G v is Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.1 Example 5.6. 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 vOUT / vIN (millivolts) vIN = 1 mV vOUT = −6 mV Time Figure 5.

Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5.8. In our subsequent discussion. that is.= – ------------------. Circuit of non-inverting op amp For the circuit of Figure 5. Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.The Op Amp in the Non-Inverting Mode Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example except that the input is a sine wave with unity amplitude and the voltage gain G v is the same as before.7.7.2 5.8.8. the resistor R will represent the internal resistance of the applied voltage v in when this voltage is applied at the non-inverting input. 8 6 v OUT / v IN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 vOUT = −6sint vin = sint Time Figure 5. and the inverting (−) input is grounded through an external resistor R in as shown in Figure 5.4 The Op Amp in the Non-Inverting Mode An op amp is said to be connected in the non-inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the non-inverting (+) input through an external resistor R which serves as a current limiter.= – 6 R in 20 KΩ and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × sin t = – 6 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5. the voltage gain G v is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-5 . R in Rf − R + v − in + v out+ − Figure 5.

the name non-inverting amplifier. the output will be also negative.= 1 + ------. given that v in = 1 mV . hence.9.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers v out Rf G v = --------.5 V AC and the op amp gain is G v = 1 + 19 KΩ ⁄ 1 KΩ = 20 . if the input is +1 mV DC and the op amp gain is 75 . when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be also positive and if the input is negative. the output will be 10 V AC and in-phase with the input. 5-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3 Solution: The voltage gain G v is v out Rf -------------------G v = --------. if the input is 0.2) As indicated by the relation of (5. Circuit for Example 5.= 1 + ------v in R in (5.= 1 + 120 KΩ = 1 + 6 = 7 20 KΩ v in R in and thus v out = G v v in = 7 × 1 mV = 7 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5. Example 5. in the non-inverting mode the op amp output signal has the same polarity as the input signal.3 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. the output will be +75 mV DC . R in 20 KΩ Rf 120 KΩ − + + v − in R + v out − Figure 5. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. For example.10. Thus.9. For AC signals the output will be in-phase with the input. For example. the gain for the non-inverting op amp configuration is 1 + R f ⁄ R in and therefore.2).

11.= 1 + ------.4 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. R in 20 KΩ Rf 120 KΩ − + +v in − R + v out − Figure 5. v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = --------.10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-7 .= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = 7 × sin t = 7 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5.The Op Amp in the Non-Inverting Mode 8 vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 vOUT = 7 mV vIN = 1 mV Time Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. the voltage gain G v is the same as before. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5. Therefore. given that v in = sin t mV . that is.11.12.3 Example 5.= 1 + -------------------.4 Solution: This is the same circuit as in the previous example except that the input is a sinusoid.

5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 8 6 vOUT = 7sint vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Time vIN = sint Figure 5.4 Quite often an op amp is connected as shown in Figure 5.13 it is called unity gain amplifier. Operational amplifiers are used extensively as active filters.5 Active Filters An active filter is an electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and other devices such as resistors and capacitors. For the circuit of Figure 5.13. The unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. capacitors and inductors. For example.13. A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff) frequency denoted as 5-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and if the input voltage is 2 mV AC .12.8. the voltage gain G v is v out G v = --------. a passive filter is a circuit which consists of passive devices such as resistors. An application will be presented as Example 5. if the input voltage is 5 mV DC the output will also be 5 mV DC . Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5. Circuit of unity gain op amp and thus v out = v in For this reason. the output will also be 2 mV AC . the op amp circuit of Figure 5.= 1 v in − +v − in R + + v out − Figure 5.13. In contrast.

the gain G v . An active high-pass filter and its amplitude frequency response Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-9 .15. A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c . the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) low-pass filter characteristics.2 0.707 × Gv . and as mentioned before. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity.4 0. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency.14(b).15(b). falls to 0. Low Pass Filter Frequency Respone 1 Ideal 0.2 0 Realizable vin vout ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω (a) (b) Figure 5. this is the half-power or the – 3 dB point.14(b).4 0. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in .0 0. An active low-pass filter and its amplitude frequency response In Figure 5. An op amp high-pass filter is shown in Figure 5.6 0. High-pass Filter Frequency Response 1. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. that is. An op amp low-pass filter is shown in Figure 5.15(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5.Active Filters ω C .14(a) and its amplitude frequency response in Figure 5.6 0.0 Realizable vout ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω (a) (b) Figure 5.14.8 |vOUT / vIN| Half-Power Point 0.8 Ideal Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| vin 0.

while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band.3 0. the gain G v .. vin (a) Band Pass Filter Frequency Response 1 0.9 0. An op amp band-stop filter is shown in Figure 5.16.707 × G v . falls to 0.2 0.17(b).15(b).4 0.8 0. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in . An active band-pass filter and its amplitude frequency response 5-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .17(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5.16(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5. i.1 0 vout Ideal Half-Power Points Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| Realizable ω ω ωcω1 ω2 Radian Frequency (log scale) (b) Figure 5. A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . An op amp band-pass filter and its frequency response are shown below. An op amp band-pass filter is shown in Figure 5. that is.5 0.7 0.707 × G v . falls to 0.6 0. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) high-pass filter characteristics.16(b). where the maximum value of G v which is unity.e. the half-power or the – 3 dB point. where the maximum value of G v which is unity.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers In Figure 5.707 × G v . falls to 0. A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band.

7 0. An active band-elimination filter and its amplitude frequency response 5. superposition. For simplicity. That is. the terminals of the power supplies will not be shown.1 0 Ideal Half-Power Half-Power PointPoints Realizable |vOUT / vIN| ω1 ωc ω2 ω ω Radian Frequency (log scale) (b) Figure 5. we must remember that in any op-amp: a.4 0. this will be discussed in a later section.6 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits The procedure for analyzing an op amp circuit (finding voltages. The currents into both input terminals are zero b.17.5 0. currents and power) is the same as for the other circuits which we have studied thus far.9 0. For circuits containing op amps.3 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-11 . The voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp is zero c. KCL and KVL. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. we can apply Ohm’s law. we will assume that the reference (ground) is the common terminal of the two power supplies. When analyzing an op amp circuit.6 0.8 0.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits vin vout (a) Band-Elimination Filter Frequency Response 1 0. In this section we will provide several examples to illustrate the analysis of op amp circuits without being concerned about its internal operation.2 0.

therefore the current i which flows through resistor R in flows also through resistor R f .= – ------v in R in The input and output parts of the circuit are shown in Figure 5. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.= – ------v in R in (5.22. Also. v out = – R f i where v in i = ------R in and thus Rf v out = – ------. + R in Rf i v out − v − in i R − + + Figure 5.19 with the virtual ground being the same as the circuit ground. 5-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Example 5.3) Proof: No current flows through the (−) input terminal of the op amp. Circuit for deriving the gain of an inverting op amp v out Rf G v = --------.5 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.3) below. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (5. From the circuit of Figure 5.18 is called inverting op amp.v in R in or v out Rf G v = --------. since the (+) input terminal is grounded and there is no voltage drop between the (−) and (+) terminals.18. the (−) input is said to be at virtual ground.

Circuit of non-inverting op amp v out Rf G v = --------. This is the equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp and the dependent source is a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS). and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.22.20.= 1 + ------v in R in (5. Equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp Example 5.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits + v in − R in + − i i − + v out − + Rf Figure 5. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4.6 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.4) Proof: Let the voltages at the (−) and (+) terminals be denoted as v 1 and v 2 respectively as shown in Figure 5. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (5. Input and output parts of the inverting op amp These two circuits are normally drawn with the output as a dependent source as shown in Figure 5.v in v out R in Rf + − Figure 5.19. * For a definition of dependent sources see Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.4) below. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-13 .21 is called non-inverting op amp.* + v in − R in − + ------. R in Rf − v − in + + + v out − Figure 5.21.20.

5) then can be written as v in v in – v out ------. The dependent source of this equivalent circuit is also a VCVS. therefore.= 0 Rf R in 1 1 ⎛ ------.5) There is no potential difference between the (−) and (+) terminals. Relation (5.+ ---------------------.6) Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers + R in i1 v −in + i2 v1 − v2 − Rf + v out − + Figure 5. v 1 – v 2 = 0 or Rearranging.22.4) By application of KCL at v 1 i1 + i2 = 0 or v 1 v 1 – v out ------.⎠ v in R in v out − Figure 5.+ -------------------.= 0 Rf R in v 1 = v 2 = v in .+ ----. Equivalent circuit of the non-inverting op amp 5-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Non-inverting op amp circuit for derivation of (5.= 1 + ------v in R in (5. we get v out Rf G v = --------.23.22. + + Rf ⎞ + ⎛ v in − − ⎝ 1 + ------.⎞ v = v out --------⎝R Rf R f ⎠ in in (5.23 shows the equivalent circuit of Figure 5.

24.6. then v out = v in . the non-inverting amplifier of the previous example reduces to the circuit of Figure 5.22 with R in open and R f shorted The voltage difference between the (+) and (−) terminals is zero.7) and thus v out = v in Proof: With R in open and R f shorted.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Example 5. letting R f → 0 . Circuit of Figure 5. compute the open circuit voltage v ab b. With the load connected. prove that the voltage gain G v is v out G v = --------.= 1 v in (5.7 If. in the non-inverting op amp circuit of Example 5.25: a. the gain reduces to G v = 1 and for this reason this circuit is called unity gain amplifier or voltage follower. − v − in + + + v out − Figure 5. Example 5.= 1 + ------v in R in Then. With the load R load disconnected. we replace R in with an open circuit ( R in → ∞ ) and R f with a short circuit ( R f → 0 ).24. It is also called buffer amplifier because it can be used to “buffer” (isolate) one circuit from another when one “loads” the other as we will see on the next example. compute the voltage v load across the load R load Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-15 . We will obtain the same result if we consider the non-inverting op amp gain v out Rf G v = --------.8 For the circuit of Figure 5.

With the insertion of the buffer amplifier between points a and b and the load. the circuit now is as shown in Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. Circuit for Example 5.16 V and this voltage may not be sufficient for proper operation of the load.27. 7 KΩ a × R load b × 5 KΩ − v in 12 V + 5 KΩ Figure 5.16 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ Here.25. 7 KΩ − v in 12 V a × b × + 5 KΩ R load 5 KΩ Figure 5.28. we observe that the load R load “loads down” the load voltage from 5 V to 3. Then.× 12 = 5 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ b. 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ v LOAD = ------------------------------------------------------. Insert a buffer amplifier between a and b and compute the new voltage v load across the same load R load 7 KΩ a × b × + v in − 12 V 5 KΩ R load 5 KΩ Figure 5.26. With the load R load reconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 5.8 with the load reconnected c.× 12 = 3.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers c. Circuit for Example 5.8 with the load disconnected The voltage across terminals a and b is 5 KΩ v ab = ---------------------------------. With the load R load disconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 5.26.27.8 Solution: a. 5-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

we observe that the voltage across the load is 5 V as desired.8) R in 1 R in 2 − Rf + v in 1 + + v out + − − v in 2 − Figure 5.+ --------. we get v in 1 v in 2 v out --------.8 with the insertion of a buffer op amp From the circuit of Figure 5. Then.28.⎞ ⎝R R ⎠ in 1 in 2 (5. we can apply the principle of superposition to derive this relation. Circuit for Example 5.28. by application of KCL at the (−) terminal. Alternately. Example 5.+ --------.29. We also observe that the (+) input is grounded.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits − 7 KΩ 5 KΩ v in − 12 V a × 5V + + R load 5 KΩ + v load = v ab = 5 V − × b Figure 5.= 0 R in 1 R in 2 Rf (5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-17 .29 is called summing circuit or summer because the output is the summation of the weighted inputs.9) and solving for v out we get (5.9 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. and thus the voltage at the (−) terminal is at “virtual ground”. v in 1 v in 2 v out = – R f ⎛ --------.+ --------.8). Two-input summing op amp circuit Proof: We recall that the voltage across the (−) and (+) terminals is zero. Prove that for this circuit.

31. Circuit for Example 5.11) 5-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .30.30. and v out 3 be the output due to v in 3 acting alone. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5. Then by superposition. Circuit for Example 5.31. v out 2 be the output due to v in 2 acting alone.10 Compute the output voltage v out for the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 (5.10) First.10 with v in 1 acting alone We recognize this as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 100 and thus v out 1 = ( 100 ) ( – 1 mV ) = – 100 mV (5. R in 1 Rf 1 MΩ v in 1 − 1 mV + 10 KΩ R in 2 R in 3 20 KΩ − + 30 KΩ − +v out v in 2 − + v in 3 + − 10 mV 4 mV Figure 5. R in 1 Rf 1 MΩ v in 1 + − 10 KΩ 1 mV R in 2 − + R in 3 20 KΩ v out 1 − + 30 KΩ Figure 5. with v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 and v in 3 shorted.10 Solution: Let v out 1 be the output due to v in 1 acting alone.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Example 5.

with v in 3 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 2 shorted.12) Finally. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 2 acting alone Then. with v in 2 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 3 shorted.4 mV (5.34 is also a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 5. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5. R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 Rf 1 MΩ − + R in 3 20 KΩ 30 KΩ v out 2 − + v in 2 + − 4 mV Figure 5.32.4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 2 = 101 × 2.× 4 mV = 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-19 . R in 2 v in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + 30 KΩ − To v ( + ) + − 4 mV Figure 5.32 as a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 5. The circuit of Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5.34.35.× v in 2 = ---------------.33.10 with v in 2 acting alone The circuit of Figure 5. R in 3 30 KΩ v ( + ) = --------------------------.33.4 mV = 242. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5.32.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Next.

× v in 2 = ---------------.10 with v in 3 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + 30 KΩ To v ( + ) + v in 3 − 10 mV − Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Rf 1 MΩ R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 30 KΩ − + + v out 3 − + v in 3 − 10 mV Figure 5.12) and (5.× 10 mV = 4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 3 = 101 × 4 mV = 404 mV Therefore. from (5. Circuit for Example 5.4 + 404 = 546. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 = – 100 + 242. R 3 .34.35. and R f .36. R1 Rf +v − in R2 R3 − + v out − + Figure 5.11).11 For the circuit shown in Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. derive an expression for the voltage gain G v in terms of the external resistors R 1 .4 mV Example 5.35. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 3 acting alone From Figure 5.36. (5.11 5-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .13). R in 2 20 KΩ v ( + ) = --------------------------. R 2 .

15) Equating the right sides of (5.= 0 R2 R3 or R 3 v in v 2 = -----------------R2 + R3 (5.+ -------------------.13) At node v 2 : v 2 – v in v 2 ----------------.= 0 R1 Rf v out 1 1 ⎛ ----.14) and since v 2 = v 1 . R1 v1 v2 R3 Rf +v − in R2 − + v out − + Figure 5.+ ----.15) we get R f v in + R 1 v out R 3 v in --------------------------------.13) and (5.37.= -----------------R2 + R3 R1 + Rf Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-21 . we rewrite (5.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Solution: We apply KCL at nodes v 1 and v 2 as shown in Figure 5. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 5.37.11 At node v 1 : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out ----------------.14) as R 3 v in v 1 = -----------------R2 + R3 (5.+ ---.⎞ v = v in + -------------⎝R ⎠ 1 Rf Rf R1 1 ⎛ R 1 + R f⎞ v = R f v in + R 1 v out -------------------------------------------------⎝ R1 Rf ⎠ 1 R Rf 1 or R f v in + R 1 v out v 1 = -----------------------------------R1 + Rf (5.

12 Compute the input resistance R in of the inverting op amp amplifier shown in Figure 5.12 Solution: By definition.38. The input resistance R in of a circuit is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit.38 in terms of R 1 and R f . we must make the input resistance R in as high as possible. we want i S to be as small as possible. in an op amp circuit the input resistance provides a measure of the current i S which the amplifier draws from the voltage source v S .16) 5. accordingly.17) Therefore. vS R in = ---iS (5. R1 Rf + vS − iS − + v out − + Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers or 3 in R f v in + R 1 v out = -----------------. Of course. Circuit for Example 5. R in = v S ⁄ i S and since no current flows into the minus (−) terminal of the op amp 5-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 Input and Output Resistances The input and output resistances are very important parameters in amplifier circuits. we get v out R 3 ( R 1 + R f ) R f --------.– ----R1 ( R2 + R3 ) R1 v in and after simplification v out R1 R3 – R2 Rf G v = --------. Example 5.= ------------------------------R1 ( R2 + R3 ) v in (5. that is.( R 1 + R f ) R v R2 + R3 Dividing both sides of the above relation by R 1 v in and rearranging.= -----------------------------.

it follows that iS = vS ⁄ R1 From the above relations we observe that R in = R 1 (5. v in 0R in = -----.40. Therefore. However. Fortunately. Obvi- ously. say 100 . desirable to make R 1 as high as possible. for a large gain.13 Solution: In the circuit of Figure 5.39. and we treat v in as the source voltage.39.18) It is therefore. if we make R 1 very high such as 10 MΩ .13 Compute the input resistance R in of the op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.Input and Output Resistances and this terminal is at virtual ground. Therefore. this is an impractical value. not the source voltage v S .39. v in is the voltage at the minus (−) terminal. v in Rf 100 KΩ iX − + v out − + Figure 5. Rf 100 KΩ + v in − − + v out − + Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. there is no current i S drawn by the op amp.40.13 with a test current source We observe that v in is zero (virtual ground). Example 5. the value of the feedback resistor R f should be 1 GΩ . a large gain can be achieved with the circuit of Exercise 8 at the end of this chapter.= 0 iX iX Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-23 . In this case. Circuit for Example 5.= ---. we apply a test (hypothet- ical) current i X as shown in Figure 5.

the output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current.× v out R out + R load (5.= 0. − R out + v out − + Figure 5.22) Therefore.41. that is. Solution: Consider the output portion of the op amp shown in Figure 5.× G v v in R out + R load (5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers By definition. the load voltage v load is R load v load = ----------------------------.41. Partial circuit for Example 5. The output resistance provides a measure of the change in output voltage when a load which is connected at the output terminals draws current from the circuit.14 With no load connected at the output terminals.20) With a load R load connected at the output terminals.14 The output voltage of an op amp decreases by 10% when a 5 KΩ load is connected at the output terminals. It is desirable to have an op amp with very low output resistance as illustrated by the following example.20) and (5.9 = ------------------------------v OC R out + 5 KΩ and solving for R out we get R out = 555 Ω 5-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .19) The output resistance R out is not the same as the load resistance. Compute the output resistance R out . we observe that v out = v OC = G v v in (5.21) and from (5. v OC R out = -------i SC (5.21) R load v load = ----------------------------. v load 5 KΩ ---------. Example 5.

Op Amp Open Loop Gain From (5. v load = G v v in and with (5. All circuits that we considered in the previous sections of this chapter operate in the closed loop configuration. Also. As an amplifier.20).42. This open-loop configuration is practical only when the operational amplifier is used as a comparator − a circuit which compares two input signals or compares an input signal to some fixed level of voltage. The specification sheets for operational amplifiers state the open-loop at DC or 0 Hz . the gain is much lower and decreases quite rapidly as frequency increases as shown in Figure 5. the open-loop configuration is not practical because the very high gain amplifies also electrical noise and other unwanted signals. that is. Operational amplifiers are used with negative (degenerative) feedback. Although the negative feedback reduces the gain of the operational amplifier. The operation − closed-loop or open-loop − is determined by whether or not feedback is used. At higher frequencies. Typical op amp open-loop frequency response curve (log scales) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-25 . the negative feedback causes the inverting and non-inverting inputs to the operational amplifier will be kept at the same potential.22) we observe that as R out → 0 . it greatly increases the stability of the circuit. Without feedback the operational amplifier has an open-loop configuration. with feedback.8 Op Amp Open Loop Gain Operational amplifiers can operate either a closed-loop or an open-loop configuration. Gain 3 dB point 10 5 10 10 4 3 Unity Gain frequency 10 2 10 1 1 f ( Hz ) 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 Figure 5. 5. operational amplifiers operate in the closed-loop configurations. and creates poor stability. Accordingly. Negative feedback has the tendency to oppose (subtract from) the input signal.42 where both frequency and gain are in logarithmic scales. v load = v OC . The gain of any amplifier varies with frequency.

Closed-loop frequency response for a gain of 100 5. Gain 3 dB point ( open loop ) 10 5 10 10 4 3 dB point ( closed loop ) 3 Unity Gain frequency 10 2 10 1 f ( Hz ) 1 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 Figure 5.23) as A ol ⋅ BW 3 dB = f ug (5.24) The use of negative feedback increases the bandwidth of an operational amplifier circuit but decreases the gain so that the gain times bandwidth product is always equal to the unity gain frequency of the op amp.46 the unity gain frequency is 1 MHz .000 for the operational amplifier without feedback).44. The unity gain frequency is the frequency at which the gain is unity. Of course.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The frequency-response curve of Figure 5. We observe that the frequency response curve shows that the gain falls off with frequency at the rate of – 20 dB ⁄ decade . that is.9 Op Amp Closed Loop Gain An ideal op amp is shown in Figure 5. the unity gain frequency. and this product is equal to 1 MHz . Figure 5. an ideal op amp does not exist but the outstanding characteristics of the op amp allow us to treat it as an ideal device. the 3 dB bandwidth as BW 3 dB . we can express (5. We observe that the half-power point of this curve is slightly above 10 KHz . An exact equivalent 5-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and the unity gain frequency as f ug . In Figure 5. for any op amp Gain × Bandwidth = Unity Gain Frequency (5. The frequency-response curve shown in Figure 5. Thus.42 reveals also the gainbandwidth product is constant at any point of the curve.23) Denoting the open-loop gain as A ol .43 is for a circuit in which negative feedback has been used to decrease the circuit gain to 100 (from 100.42 shows that the bandwidth is only 10 Hz with this configuration.43.

45.. v1 v in = v 2 – v 1 v2 R in R out Ideal Conditions v out R in = ∞ R out = 0 A ol ( v 2 – v 1 ) v out = A ol v in Figure 5. any voltage or current. i. The ideal op amp From Figure 5.44 v out = A ol ( v 2 – v 1 ) (5. Circuit for Example 5. for the popular 741 device. R − v in − + + C1 C2 R1 Rf v+ out − Figure 5. and the norator for the output.45 shows a circuit that can be used as a high-pass filter.15 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-27 . A ol = 200. i. However.e. resistors and capacitors should be chosen for a closed-loop gain of about onetenth to one-twentieth of the open loop gain at a given frequency. i.25) We observe that when v 2 > v 1 .. if v 2 = v 1 .15 Figure 5. The external devices.e. v out is negative. Example 5. The open-loop gain A ol of an op amp is very high. We want to find the range of the open-loop gain A ol for which the system is stable. In other words. v out = 0 and we call this condition common-mode rejection. 000 .. we call the lower terminal v 2 the non-inverting input and the upper terminal v 1 the inverting input.e.Op Amp Closed Loop Gain of the ideal op amp is referred to an a nullor consists of two new elements − the nullator for the input. the op amp rejects any signals at its inputs that are exactly the same.44. the output voltage v out is positive and when v 1 > v 2 . Assume that the input impedance is infinite and the output impedance is zero. Accordingly. no voltage or current. This will ensure that the op amp will operate in a stable condition and without distortion.

46. V3 = 0 (5.30) into (5. we transform the given circuit into its s – domain equivalent as shown in Figure 5.32) for V 1 .28) (5.+ s C 2 ( V 1 – V out ⁄ A ol ) = 0 Rf V out ⁄ A ol s C 2 ( V out ⁄ A ol – V 1 ) + ---------------------R1 (5.30) Also.27) and since there is no voltage drop across resistor R .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Solution: For stability.31) (5.29) (5. and rearranging.27) yields V 1 – V out s C 1 ( V 1 – V in ) + ---------------------.32) Solving (5.26) and (5. V out = A ol ( V 2 – V 3 ) = A ol ( V 2 – 0 ) = A ol V 2 or V 2 = V out ⁄ A ol Substitution of (5.+ s C 2 ( V 1 – V 2 ) = 0 Rf (5. R V3 V2 R1 Rf − + − V1 1 ⁄ s C2 + + V out V in 1 ⁄ s C 1 − Figure 5. The s – domain equivalent circuit of Figure 5.26) At Node V 2 2 s C 2 ( V 2 – V 1 ) + ----- V R1 (5. To derive the transfer function.31) and (5. the coefficients on the denominator of the transfer function must all be positive.49 Application of KCL at Node V 1 yields V 1 – V out s C 1 ( V 1 – V in ) + ---------------------. equating right sides.46. we get the transfer function 5-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 V in [ R 1 R f C 1 C 2 ]s + [ R 1 C 2 ( 1 – A ol ) + R f C 1 + R f C 2 ]s + 1 2 (5.= --------. 101 5. and C 2 = 0.34) (5. Figure 5.Transresistance Amplifier V out A ol [ R 1 R f C 1 C 2 ]s G ( s ) = ---------. the circuit for Example 5. a test current i x at the inverting input produces an output voltage v out whose value is v out = v in – R f i x . the coefficient of s in the denominator of (5.36) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-29 .33) For stability.34) becomes 10 .01 µF .13.47 is v out v out R m = --------. The simple op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.47 is the same as that of Figure 5. current gain i out ⁄ i in . As in Example 5.33) must be positive. Rf + v in − − − + v out − + Figure 5. R 1 = 1 KΩ .-----------------------A ol < 1 + ------. C 1 = 1 µF .+ 10 × 10 3 3 –8 10 × 10 10 5 5 –6 or A ol < 10.48 shows the circuit model of the transresistance amplifier which was introduced in Exercise 4 of Chapter 1. With these values (5.47. the transresistance R m of the circuit of Figure 5. R 1 C 2 ( 1 – A ol ) + R f C 1 + R f C 2 > 0 (5.39. Transresistance amplifier The circuit of Figure 5. Another term used with amplifiers is the transresistance gain v out ⁄ i in .+ -----------R1 R1 C2 Let R f = 100 KΩ .13. and since v in = 0 . where we found that R in = 0 . that is.35) or Rf Rf C1 A ol < 1 + ----.47 is known as a transresistance amplifier. and transconductance i out ⁄ v in .= – R f i in ix (5.10 Transresistance Amplifier In our previous chapters we introduced voltage gain v out ⁄ v in .

the closed loop transfer function G ( s ) is V out ( s ) Zf ( s ) G ( s ) = ----------------. Thus. Solution: To derive the transfer function. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 5. the external devices in the op amp circuits were resistors. for the inverting input mode. 5-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .37) where Z f ( s ) and Z 1 ( s ) are as shown in Figure 5. differentiators. However. The s – domain inverting amplifier Example 5. In this case it is convenient to denote devices in series as an impedance in the s – domain as Z ( s ) .= – -----------V in ( s ) Z1 ( s ) (5. several other circuits such as integrators. Z1 ( s ) Zf ( s ) V in ( s ) − + − I( s) + V out ( s ) − + Figure 5.16 Derive the closed-loop transfer function for the circuit of Figure 5. we first convert the given circuit to its s – domain equivalent.49. Likewise.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers i in v in R out R in R m i in i out v out out R m = -------i out = 0 v i in Figure 5.48. and for convenience we denote the series devices as Z 1 ( s ) and the parallel devices as Y f ( s ) . Transresistance circuit model and the minus (−) sign indicates that them output voltage v out and the test current i x are 180° out-of-phase with each other.51. 5.49. and in the jω – domain as Z ( jω ) . it is also convenient to denote devices in parallel as Y ( s ) or Y ( jω ) .11 Closed Loop Transfer Function In all of the previous sections of this chapter. and active filters contain capacitors in addition to resistors.50.

39) (5.12 The Op Amp Integrator The op amp circuit of Figure 5.The Op Amp Integrator Rf Cf + v in − R1 − C1 + v out − + Figure 5.= – ----------------------------------------.16 Yf ( s ) Z1 ( s ) R1 Rf + V in ( s ) − 1 ⁄ s C1 1 ⁄ s Cf − + V out ( s ) − + Figure 5.= – --------------------------------------------------------( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ⁄ s C1 ( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ( s Cf Rf + 1 ) V in ( s ) Z1 ( s ) (5.38).= ---.51.= – ------------. Z1 ( s ) = R1 + 1 ⁄ s C1 = ( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ⁄ s C1 1 1 1 Y f ( s ) = ---. For the integrator circuit of Figure 5.= ----------------------1 + s Cf Rf Yf ( s ) (5.40) s C1 Rf Rf ⁄ ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) Zf ( s ) V out ( s ) G ( s ) = ----------------.+ s C f = ( 1 + s C f R f ) ⁄ R f Rf 1 ⁄ s Cf Rf Rf 1 Z f ( s ) = -----------.52 is known as the Miller integrator.+ -------------.50 From Figure 5.52. (5. the voltage across the capacitor is 1 v C = --C ∫–∞iC dt t (5. The s – domain equivalent circuit of Figure 5.50.41) 5.42) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-31 .40) From (5. Circuit for Example 5. and (5.37).38) (5.51.

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers iC = i i v out R1 C v in Figure 5.43) Since the inverting input is at virtual ground.44) v in i C = i = ------ (5. the voltage across the capacitor is V 0 .45) we rewrite (5. that is. since ∫0 iC dt – V0 R1 (5. v out = – v C . R1 v in 1 MΩ v out (a) (b) 3 t (s) C 1 µF 2 v in ( V ) Figure 5. Find and sketch the output voltage assuming that the initial condition is zero.43) as 1 v C = --C ∫0 i C d t + V 0 t (5. Circuit and input waveform for Example 5.17 5-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .52. the output voltage v out is the negative of the capacitor voltage v C .53(b). and thus 1 v out = – --C t Also.44) as 1v out = – --------R1 C ∫0 vin dt – V0 t (5. V 0 = 0 . that is.53(a) is as shown in Figure 5.17 The input voltage to the amplifier in Figure 5.53.46) Example 5. The Miller integrator and assuming the initial condition that at t = 0 . we can express (5.

Now. let us suppose that the input to the op amp integrator circuit of Figure 5. The output voltage of the circuit of Figure 5.54.57(a) is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * as shown in Figure 5.54. the above integral reduces to v out = – ∫0 vin dt t = – This result shows that the output voltage v out decreases linearly from zero to – 6 V in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 3 s and remains constant at – 6 V for t > 3 s thereafter as shown in Figure 5. Output waveform for the integrator circuit of Figure 5.57(a) when the input is the unit step function * For a detailed discussion on the unit step function refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. it behaves like an open circuit and effectively the negative feedback is an open circuit.57 The output voltage waveform in Figure 5. v out ( V ) 3 t (s) –6 Figure 5.The Op Amp Integrator Solution: From (5.55.55(a).46) 1 v out = – --------R1 C ∫0 vin dt – V0 ∫0 2 dt = –2 t 0 = –6 3 3 t and with R 1 C = 10 × 10 6 –6 = 1 and V 0 = 0 . ISBN 09709511-6-7. ideally the output would be a negative ramp towards minus infinity as shown in Figure 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-33 . Then.55(b). v in ( V ) u0 ( t ) v out ( V ) t (s) t (s) (a) (b) Figure 5.54 indicates that after the capacitor charges to 6 V .

56(a) is as shown in Figure 5. and in this case the circuit behaves like a lowpass filter as shown in Exercise 13 at the end of this chapter. Find and sketch the output voltage for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s assuming that the initial condition is zero.5 5-34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .56(b). the output voltage saturates at the power supply voltage of the op amp.R f = ------------.05 ) = – 10 ( 0.18 Solution: This is the same circuit and input voltage waveform as in Example 5.17 except that a 5 MΩ feedback resistor has been added and the capacitor value was changed to 0. the capacitor charges in accordance with the relation vC = V∞ ( 1 – e – ( 1 ⁄ R f C )t ) (5.56.47) where v in –2 V ∞ = – iR f = – -----.× 5 MΩ = – 10V 1 MΩ R1 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 3 s . The output voltage for this time interval is v out = – v C = – 10 ( 1 – e –( 1 ⁄ Rf C ) t ) and at t = 3 s v out t=3 s = – 10 ( 1 – e –3 ⁄ 1 ) = – 10 ( 1 – 0.2 µF 2 v in ( V ) v in 1 MΩ (a) v out (b) 3 t (s) Figure 5. This feedback resistor should be at least as large as the input resistance R 1 .95 ) = – 9. This problem can be rectified if we place a feedback resistor R f in parallel with the capacitor. Example 5.18 The input voltage to the amplifier in Figure 5. typically ± 15 V depending on the polarity of the input DC signal. Since it is stated that the initial condition is zero. Circuit and input waveform for Example 5. that is. V 0 = 0 . i Rf R1 C 5 MΩ 0.2 µF to simplify the computations.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers In reality.

the addition of the feedback resistor makes the circuit of Figure 5.= C --------dt dt Also.18 As we can see from Figure 5.58.57.57. Output waveform for the circuit of Example 5.58. v out ( V ) 3 10 t (s) – 9. 5. v out = – R f i C dv in v out = – R f C --------dt (5. Basic differentiator circuit We observe that the right side of the capacitor is virtually grounded and therefore the current through the capacitor is dv in dv C i C = C -------.13 The Op Amp Differentiator The op amp can also be configured to perform differentiation.48) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-35 . iC Rf v out − C + v in − iC + Figure 5.4 µV The output waveform is shown in Figure 5.56 somewhat less than an ideal integrator.5 Figure 5.54 × 10 –5 = – 45.57. The basic differentiator circuit is shown in Figure 5.The Op Amp Differentiator At t = 10 s v out t = 10 s = v out t=3 s ×e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t = – 10e – 10 ⁄ 1 = – 10 × 4.

= 1 MΩ –9 C 10 b. Find the magnitude and phase at f = 1 KHz d. Find the value of the feedback resistor R f b. 5-36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The circuit of Figure 5. Differentiator circuit for Example 5. refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9.59 is τ = 1 ms . If a resistor is added in series with the capacitor to limit the high frequency gain to 100 . and v C ( 0 ) = 0 a.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers and we observe that the output voltage v out is the derivative of the input voltage v in .59. what should the value of that resistor be? Rf C 1 nF t = 0 v (t) C − + v in − + − − + + v out − Solution: a. minus the initial value of f ( t ) at t = 0− .* Thus. Differentiation in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by s in the complex frequency domain. dv C -------.19 τ = R f C = 10 –3 –3 s τ 10 R f = --.19 The time constant τ of the differentiator circuit of Figure 5.⇔ sV C ( s ) – v C ( 0 − ) dt * For all Laplace transform properties. We could connect a resistor is series with the capacitor but the circuit then becomes a non-ideal differentiator. the capacitive reactance X C decreases and the ratio of the feedback resistance R f to the capacitive reactance increases causing a gain increase without bounds. and with C = 10 –9 Figure 5. Example 5.= --------.58 is not a practical differentiator because as the frequency increases. Derive the transfer function V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) c.

from (5. d. With s = jω . the transfer function can be expressed in magnitude and phase form as V out ( jω ) --------------------. R 1 = 10 KΩ . the closed loop voltage gain G v is Gv = –Rf ⁄ R1 and with R f = 1 MΩ . for a gain of 100 . As f → ∞ .14 Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits The circuit of Figure 5.60. the total current is i = i1 + i2 + … + iN Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-37 . the capacitor behaves as a short circuit and so with the addition of a resistor R 1 in series with the capacitor. Basic inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit In the circuit of 5.48) V out ( s ) = – sR f CV in ( s ) − or V out ( s ) ----------------.= – jωR f C V in ( jω ) V out ---------.60.Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits and since v C ( 0 ) = 0 .= ωR f C V in θ = – 90° V out ---------V in = 2π × 10 × 10 × 10 f = 1 KHz 3 6 –9 = 2π × 10 × 10 3 –3 = 2π and the phase angle is – 90° at all frequencies. v in1 + − v in2 + R1 R2 RN i1 i2 iN i i Rf − − v inN + + v out + − − Figure 5.60 shows the basic inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit. 5.= – sR f C V in ( s ) c.

relation (5.60 can be used to find the negative sum of any number of input voltages. v inN ⁄ R N .51) and this indicates that the circuit of Figure 5.60 can also be used to find the average value of all input voltages. v inN and their series resistances R 1. …. The circuit of Figure 5. if R1 = R2 = … = RN = R the relation of (5.61 can now be represented as in Figure 5.50) If R f = R . …. and their parallel resistances R 1.49) If all input resistances are equal. v in2 ⁄ R 2. …. R N .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers where v in1 i 1 = -------R1 v in2 i 2 = -------R2 … v inN i N = --------RN Also v out = – R f i = – R f ( i 1 + i 2 + … + i N ) Then. Rf Rf Rf v out = – R f i = – R f ( i 1 + i 2 + … + i N ) = – ⎛ ----.v in2 + … + -----. R 2. v in2.49) reduces further to v out = – ( v in1 + v in2 + … + v inN ) (5. R N can be replaced by current sources whose values are v in1 ⁄ R 1. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4 5-38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .61 shows the basic non-inverting summing and non-inverting averaging op amp circuit.61 the voltage sources v in1.v in1 + ----.49) reduces to R v out = – ----f ( v in1 + v in2 + … + v inN ) R (5. * For voltage source with series resistance to current source with parallel resistance transformation see Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.62. In Figure 5. R 2. that is. …. The circuit of Figure 5.* The circuit of Figure 5.v inN⎞ ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 RN (5. The ratio R f ⁄ R is selected such that the sum of the input voltages is divided by the number of input voltages applied at the inverting input of the op amp.

52) 5. Rf v in1 + R1 − − + v in2 R 2 − + R3 v out + − Figure 5. the voltage V 2 at the non-inverting input is V 2 = R eq I eq and thus the output voltage is R R v out = ⎛ ----f + 1 ⎞ V 2 = ⎛ ----f + 1 ⎞ ( R eq I eq ) ⎝R ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ (5.15 Differential Input Op Amp The circuit of Figure 5.62.63 is a differential input op amp.62.63. Equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure 5.Differential Input Op Amp Rf R + R1 R2 − v in1 + v in2 v out + − − + − v inN + RN − Figure 5.61 In the circuit of Figure 5. Differential input op amp Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-39 .61. Basic non-inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit Rf R V2 − + R eq v out + − Figure 5.

63 reduces to that of Figure 5. Rf R1 v in2 + − v2 R2 R3 − + v out 2 + − Figure 5.63 with v in1 acting alone The circuit of Figure 5. With the input voltage v in1 acting alone and v in2 grounded. The circuit of Figure 5.54) 5-40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .63.64.v in2 R2 + R3 (5.53) Next.65.v in1 R R1 (5. with the input voltage v in1 grounded and v in2 acting alone. we denote the voltage at the non-inverting input as v 2 . Rf v in1 + R1 − − + R2 R3 v out 1 + − Figure 5.64 is an inverting amplifier and thus f v out 1 = – ----.64.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The differential input configuration allows input signals to be applied simultaneously to both input terminals and produce an output of the difference between the input signals as shown in Figure 5.65 and as indicated. The circuit of Figure 5. by the voltage division expression.63 reduces to that of Figure 5.67 with v in2 acting alone Then. R3 v 2 = -----------------. the circuit of Figure 5. the circuit of Figure 5. We will apply the superposition principle to derive an expression for the output voltage v out . Differential input op amps are used in instrumentation circuits.

CMR ( dB ) = 20 log ( A v ⁄ Acm ) = 20 log CMRR . relation (5.v in2 ⎞ = – ----. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-41 .* A cm Common mode gain (5. that is. from (5.65 is a non-inverting amplifier and thus Rf v out 2 = ⎛ ----.+ 1⎞ v 2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ (5. this is referred to as common-mode rejection. We also want a non-zero output when v in2 ≠ v in1 . It is highly desirable that the differential input op amp of Figure 5. (5.v in1 + ⎛ ------------------------. Ideally. that is.54). A cm is zero but in reality is finite and much smaller than unity.63 produces an output voltage v out = 0 when v in2 = v in1 .+ 1⎞ R = ⎛ R 2 + 1 ⎞ R ----⎝ R1 ⎠ 1 ⎝R ⎠ f 3 R f + R 1 = R f + ----.v in1 + ⎛ ------------------------------.v in1 + ⎛ ----.57) where the differential gain A v is the gain with the input signals applied differentially.+ 1 ⎞ ⎛ -----------------. when v in2 = v in1 and v out = 0 .= --------. and as we now know.R f 2 R 1 = ----.R f R2 R3 R R3 * The common mode rejection is normally expressed in dB. If the common-mode rejection condition is achieved.57) above reduces to Rf ⁄ R1 + 1 Rf ----. A cm = V cm out ⁄ V cm in . and common mode gain is the ratio of the output common-mode voltage V cm out to the input common-mode voltage V cm in .⎞ v in2 ⎝ R2 ⁄ R3 + 1 ⎠ R1 (5.⎞ v in2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ R2 + R3 ⎠ ⎝ R1 R2 + R1 R3 ⎠ R1 R1 or Rf ⁄ R1 + 1 Rf v out = – ----. Rf R3 + R1 R3 R3 Rf Rf Rf v out = v out 1 + v out 2 = – ----. a differential input amplifier must have a high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) defined as Ad Differential gain CMRR = ----------------------------------------------------.55) Then.56) To be useful.= ------------------------R1 R2 ⁄ R3 + 1 Rf ⎛ ----. and (5.55). that is.Differential Input Op Amp The circuit of Figure 5.56).

5-42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 5. by definition and from (5.16 Instrumentation Amplifiers High input resistance differential input amplifiers are suitable for use in differential measurement applications and the associated circuits are referred to as instrumentation amplifiers such as that shown in Figure 5. R1 Rf v in2 – v in1 i + − − R1 + Rf v out + − Figure 5. Then R 3 = R f and with these simplifications the circuit of Figure 5. For convenience in (5.58) into (5.66.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers and thus for optimum CMMR R3 Rf ----.63 is as shown in Figure 5.59) Next. Differential input op amp for derivation of the input resistance Application of KVL around the input circuit starting at the minus (−) terminal and going counterclockwise.60 and (5.( v in2 – v in1 ) R R1 (5. we must make the feedback resistor R f as large as possible and the resistance R 1 as small as possible.60) (5.61) v in2 – v in1 R in = -----------------------i R in = 2R 1 Relation (5.59) reveals that for a large differential gain.66. But with small R 1 the input impedance will also become small as we can see from (5. we get R 1 i + R 1 i – ( v in2 – v in1 ) = 0 v in2 – v in1 = 2R 1 i (5.62).58) By substitution of (5.58) we let R 2 = R 1 .62) Also.63.56) we get f v out = ----. we will derive the input resistance for the differential input op amp circuit of Figure 5.67.61) (5. and observing that there is a virtual short between the inverting and non-inverting inputs.= ----R1 R2 (5.

63) the above relation can be expressed as v1 – v2 2R 2 v o1 = ( R 1 + 2R 2 ) ⎛ ----------------⎞ + v o2 = ⎛ 1 + -------.⎞ ( v 1 – v 2 ) + v o2 ⎝ ⎝ R1 ⎠ R ⎠ 1 2R 2 v o1 – v o2 = ⎛ 1 + -------.63) We also have made the assumption that there is no voltage difference between the amplifiers A 1 and A 2 input terminals.67 we have made the assumption that there is no current flowing at the inputs of amplifiers A 1 and A 2 and thus the same current flows through the resistive R 2 – R 1 – R 2 network.= ---------------R1 R2 R2 (5. v o1 – v 1 v1 – v2 v2 – v1 I = -----------------.⎞ ( v 1 – v 2 ) ⎝ R ⎠ 1 (5. High input resistance differential input op amp for use with instrumentation circuits In the circuit of Figure 5.67. The output voltage v o1 of amplifier A 1 is v o1 = R 2 I + R 1 I + R 2 I + v o2 = ( R 1 + 2R 2 )I + v o2 and with the second term on the right side of (5. Thus.= ---------------.59) as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-43 .⎞ ( v 2 – v 1 ) ⎝ R ⎠ 1 To find the output v out of amplifier A 3 we express (5.Instrumentation Amplifiers + v1 + − A1 v o1 R2 R3 R4 − v1 – v2 I R1 − + A3 v out + − − − v2 R2 + + A2 R3 R4 v o2 Figure 5.65) 2R 2 v o2 – v o1 = ⎛ 1 + -------.64) (5.

The fixed resistor will ensure that the maximum gain is limited. The interested reader may refer to Exercise 16 at the end of this chapter.66) Therefore.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4 v out = ----.68.( v o2 – v o1 ) R R3 and with (5.68. 5.⎛ -------. as shown in Figure 5.67) To make the overall gain of the circuit of Figure 5. op amp manufacturers recommend that the resistor R 1 be replaced with a fixed value resistor in series with a variable resistor. The offset null connections (pins 1 and 5) provide a simple way to balance out the internal variations and zero out the output offset which might be apparent with zero input voltage.2 shows that pins 1 and 5 in the 741 op amp are identified as offset null.= ----.+ 1⎞ ( v 2 – v 1 ) ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 (5. To adjust for zero offset. the slider on the potentiometer is connected to the negative power supply.65) R4 2 R2 v out = ----. the output voltage with respect to ground can be 100 × ± 6 × 10 –3 = ± 0.6 V and this value can be either positive or negative even though the input signal is zero volts. the maximum input offset voltage is ± 6 mv and assuming that the closed loop gain is 100. As shown. 5-44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ 1⎞ ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 ( v2 – v1 ) (5. It is used simply by connecting a trimmer potentiometer between pins 1 and 5. we must set the input voltage to zero and use the offset null potentiometer to set the output voltage precisely to zero.67 variable while maintaining CMRR capability. 2 3 1 5 6 V− Figure 5. while the variable resistor (a potentiometer) can be adjusted for different gains. the differential gain is R4 2 R2 v out A d = -------------------.17 Offset Nulling Figure 5. Offset nulling terminals of the 741 op amp V− According to the 741 op amp specifications.⎛ -------.

that is.18 External Frequency Compensation General purpose op amps like the 741 op amp. the compensating components alter the open loop gain characteristics so that the roll-off is about 20 dB ⁄ decade over a wide range of frequencies.70. By definition.69. Figure 5.70. and C 3 . C 2 . are without internal frequency compensation and require external connection of frequency compensating components to the op amp. Frequency responses with and without external frequency compensation 5. Typical op amp with externally connected capacitors for frequency compensation 100 90 80 Open-loop gain (dB) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3 10 10 4 No compensation With compensation 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 5 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 5. With the appropriate selection of capacitors C 1 . Figure 5.19 Slew Rate There is a limit to the rate at which the output voltage of an op amp can change. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-45 . manufacturers specify a new parameter referred to as the slew rate. the slew rate (SR) is the maximum rate of change of an output voltage produced in response to a large input step function and it is normally expressed in volts per microsecond. Therefore. are normally internally frequency compensated so that they will be stable with all values of resistive feedback. we can alter the frequency response as shown in Figure 5. Other types of op amps like the 748 op amp.69 shows a typical op-amp with external frequency compensation where 3 external capacitors can be used as frequency compensating components.External Frequency Compensation 5. Typically.

A ol ⋅ BW 3 dB = f ug .69) where V f is the final value of the output voltage as shown in Figure 5. zener diodes.68) Of course.1 V ⁄ µs to 100 V ⁄ µs . the slew rate will be a rising exponential such as the rising voltage across a capacitor. v in ( V ) 10 − v out ( V ) Slew rate = Slope +v − t in R + + v out − 10 t Figure 5.71.72. Plot for expression v out = V f ( 1 – e – ω ug t ) 5.71 will not be produced if the input voltage is smaller than that specified by the manufacturer.20 Circuits with Op Amps and Non-Linear Devices Op amps are often used in circuits with non-linear devices. The resultant slew rate when a step function is applied to a unity gain op amp The linearly rising slew rate shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. Vf v out t ∆t = 1 ⁄ ω ug Figure 5. relation (5. In most op amps the slew rate is set by the charging rate of the frequency compensating capacitor and the output voltage is v out = V f ( 1 – e – ω ug t ) (5. and most internally compensated op amps have slew rates in the order of 1 V ⁄ µs . Typical slew rates range from 0.. and f ug is the unity gain frequency as defined in (5. ω ug = 2πf ug .71. 5-46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In this section we will introduce just a few. and the waveform at the output of this op amp.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers dv out Slew Rate = SR = -----------dt max (5. and MOSFETs.e.24). bipolar transistors.71 shows a step function of amplitude 10 V applied to the input of a unity gain op amp.68) is the slope of the output voltage under maximum rate of change conditions. There are many circuits that can be formed with op amps and non-linear devices such as junction diodes. In this case. i.

v in = 0.Circuits with Op Amps and Non-Linear Devices Figure 5.3 + 0.6 cos 100 t c. Thus.7 = 7 V 1 and the output peaks on negative half-cycles are limited to – ( V Z + V F ) = – ( 6. V Z = V Z = 6. its value is limited to the value –( VZ + VF ) . when the output voltage is positive.7 V . v in = 3 cos ( 1000 t + π ⁄ 6 ) Solution: Since this is an inverting amplifier.20 In the circuit of Figure 5.73. the output peaks on positive half-cycles are limited to V Z + V F = 6. In the voltage limiting circuit of Figure 5. Likewise.7 V . A positive and negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Example 5.73 shows a positive and negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics. v in = 0. With the given values. when the output voltage is positive.3 V . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-47 . its gain is R f ⁄ R 1 = 100 ⁄ 5 = 20 * and since we are interested in peak values. V F = 0. The minus sign simply implies inversion. 1 2 Describe the output waveforms when a.73 the Zener diodes D 1 and D 2 limit the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage.3 + 0. the frequencies and phase angles are immaterial for this example.73.3 sin 10 t b. R 1 = 5 KΩ .7 ) = – 7 V 2 * The gain is always expressed as a positive quantity. and R f = 100 KΩ . its value is limited to the value V Z + V F where V F is the voltage drop across the forward-biased Zener diode and it is typically 1 about 0. 2 D1 D2 Rf v out VZ + VF 1 v in + − R1 − + v out + − v in –( VZ + VF ) 2 Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 Figure 5.

v out cannot rise above the voltage level V Z + V F because the Zener 1 diode enters the Zener (avalanche) region and the output is clipped. But with the Zener diodes present.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers a. the op amp would saturate. Therefore. v out ( peak ) = + 7 V . the output voltage is an unclipped sinusoid. b.3 V peak. With v in = ± 3 V peak.74. However. the negative halfcycles are not clipped unless the op amp is driven into negative saturation.6 V peak. With v in = ± 0.6 ) = − 12 V + and this would be the output peak voltage if the Zener diodes were not present. D1 D2 VZ + VF 1 v out + v in R1 − Rf − + v out + − v in Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 Figure 5.74 shows a positive voltage limiter and its transfer characteristics where both the Zener diode and the junction diode limit the positive half-cycle of the output voltage.75 shows a negative voltage limiter and its transfer characteristics. the output peak voltage is clipped to v out ( peak ) = − 7 V . A positive voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Figure 5. As shown by the transfer characteristics.3 ) = − 6 V + This value is lower than ± 7 V and neither Zener diode conducts. v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 )v in = – 20 × ( ± 0. 5-48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Figure 5. With v in = ± 0. v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 )v in = – 20 × ( ± 3 ) = − 60 V + This is indeed a very large voltage for the output of an op amp and even without the Zener − diodes. + c. v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 )v in = – 20 × ( ± 0. Since they are.

75. A half-wave rectifier with limited negative output and its transfer characteristics Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-49 . and during the negative half-cycles of the output voltage is limited by the Zener diode forward voltage drop V F . A half-wave rectifier with limited positive output and its transfer characteristics In the circuit of Figure 5. D v out VZ v out + − v in R1 − Rf 1 + + Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 –VF v in − Figure 5.76 shows a limiter where only a single Zener diode is used. D VF v in v out + − R1 − Rf + v out + − –VZ Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 v in Figure 5.76. the output is limited by the Zener diode during the positive halfcycles of the output voltage. Figure 5.Circuits with Op Amps and Non-Linear Devices D1 D2 v out + v in R1 − Rf − + v out + v in Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 –( VZ + VF ) 2 − Figure 5.77 shows another limiter where only a single Zener diode is used. This circuit is often referred to as a half-wave rectifier with limited positive output.76. A negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Figure 5.77.

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The circuit of Figure 5. and the Schmitt trigger and multivibrators in Chapter 7. and during the positive half-cycles of the output voltage is limited by the Zener diode forward voltage drop V F .79 is known as Wien bridge oscillator. the op amp is used in the open loop configuration.78 shows a differential input amplifier without feedback used as a comparator. Figure 5. and the analog-to-digital converter in the next sections.78. A differential input op amp without feedback used as a comparator As shown in Figure 5. In the circuit of Figure 5. 5. and multivibrators.77is often referred to as a half-wave rectifier with limited negative output. Schmitt trigger. Wien bridge oscillators. square-wave generators. the digital-to-analog converter. sawtooth-wave generators. the output is limited by the Zener diode during the negative half-cycles of the output voltage.21 Comparators A comparator is a circuit that senses changes in a varying signal and produces an output when a threshold value is reached. This circuit produces a sinusoidal output.77. Twin-T oscillators. and v out = – V CC if v ref < v in . It is beyond the scope of this text to describe all.22 Wien Bridge Oscillator The circuit shown in Figure 5. that is. v out = +V CC if v ref > v in . 5. triangular-wave generators. sample and hold circuits. The switching time from – V CC to +V CC is limited by the slew rate of the op amp. We will discuss the Wien bridge oscillator*. Comparators are used extensively in analog-to-digital conversion as we will see in a subsequent section. an op amp is used without feedback. * We will revisit the Wien bridge oscillator in Chapter 8. 5-50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . variable frequency signal generators. v out +V CC v in +V CC 6 2 v ref > v in + 7 4 – V CC − − v ref + 3 v out + − v ref v ref < v in – V CC Figure 5.78. Op amp applications are limitless. It will suffice to say that other applications include zero-crossing detectors also known as sine-wave to squarewave converters. As a comparator.

Example 5. From (5. The values of capacitors C 1 .70) provided that and R = R1 = R2 C = C1 = C2 The Wien bridge oscillator requires precision resistors and capacitors for reliable operation.79 shows that the Wien bridge oscillator uses two RC networks connected to the noninverting input of the op amp to form a frequency selective feedback circuit and this causes oscillations to occur. and C 2 must also be equal. what values of R 2 . The amount of negative feedback to the inverting input of the op amp and amplitude can be adjusted with the 50 KΩ potentiometer. The Wien bridge oscillator Figure 5. The input signal to the non-inverting input is in phase with the output V of the op amp at the particular frequency 1 f 0 = -------------2πRC (5. 1 1 f 0 = 1 KHz = -------------. C 1 . and C 2 are required to obtain a frequency of approximately 1 KHz ? Solution: The value of resistor R 2 must also be 100 KΩ .80.= -----------------------------5 2πRC 2π × 10 × C Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-51 .Wien Bridge Oscillator V R1 C1 C2 R2 10 KΩ D1 50 KΩ D2 V out Figure 5.79. The diodes prevent excessive feedback amplitude.21 For the oscillator circuit of Figure 5.70). It also amplifies the signal with two negative feedback resistors. The feedback signal at the non-inverting input of the op amp leads the output V of the op amp at frequencies below f 0 and lags V at frequencies above f 0 .

switches A and C are HIGH (5 volts) and switches B and D are LOW (0 volts).80.= 15. This two-level scheme works well with the binary number system. V B = 0 . that is.1.9 µF 5 3 2π × 10 × 10 5. and their decimal equivalents are shown in Table 5. Circuit for Example 5. The first 16 binary numbers representing all possible combinations of the four switches with voltage settings V A (least significant position) through V D (most significant position). Orchard Publications.23 Digital-to-Analog Converters As we will see in Chapter 6.81.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers V 100 KΩ C1 C2 R2 10 KΩ D1 D2 V out 50 KΩ Figure 5. V C = 1 . digital systems* recognize only two levels of voltage referred to as HIGH and LOW signals or as logical 1 and logical 0.81. VN VD VC VB VA 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V Figure 5. Digital circuit represented by SPDT switches In Figure 5.21 and thus 1 C = C 1 = C 2 = ----------------------------------. and V A = 1 . * Refer also to Logic Circuits. It is customary to indicate the HIGH (logical 1)and LOW (logical 0) by Single-Pole-Double-Throw (SPDT) switches that can be set to a positive non-zero voltage like 5 volts for HIGH and zero volts or ground for LOW as shown in Figure 5.81 V D = 0 . ISBN 0-9744239-5-5 5-52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Digital-to-Analog Converters TABLE 5. For example. Figure 5. The DAC with binary-weighted resistors shown in Figure 5. the analog device should have 16 possible values. an analog equivalent voltage of 1010 must be double the analog voltage representing 0101. since the binary number 1010 (decimal 10) is twice the value of the binary number 0101 (decimal 5).tage levels for the circuit of Figure 5.1 Vo.82 shows a DAC with binary-weighted resistors. Digital-to-analog converter using binary-weighted resistors We can prove that the equivalent analog voltage V analog shown in Figure 5. If there are 16 combinations of the voltages V D through V A .82 has the disadvantage that it Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-53 .81 and binary and decimal equivalents Voltage Level VD LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH VC LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH VB LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH VA LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH Binary Equivalent A B C D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Decimal Equivalent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A digital-to-analog (D/A or DAC) converter is used to convert a binary output from a digital system to an equivalent analog voltage.82 is obtained from the relation V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8V D + … Vanalog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… (5.82. R ----R --8 VD VC R --4 V analog R --2 VB VA R 2 VN n Figure 5.71) The proof is left as an exercise at the end of this chapter.

Typical R-2R DAC circuit Example 5. Digital-to-analog converter using the R−2R ladder network We can prove that the equivalent analog voltage V analog shown in Figure 5.83.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers requires a large number of precision resistors.2. 2R R 2R VA R 2R VB VC 2R R V analog 2R VD Figure 5. The DAC of Figure 5. The op amp shown is an inverting amplifier and in this case the reference voltage V ref should be negative so that the amplifier output will be positive. Find the analog voltage value at the output of the unity gain amplifier for each of the sets of the switch positions shown in Table 5.84 shows a four-bit R-2R ladder network and an op-amp connected to form a DAC. but only two sets of precision resistance values. requires more resistors.72) where n is the number of digital inputs. Fill-in the right-most column with your answers. Rf 2R V analog 2R 2R R 2R R 2R R V ref Figure 5.85 shows a four-bit DAC where all four switches are set at the ground level. 5-54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Figure 5.83.83 is obtained from the relation V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8V D + … Vanalog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 (5.84. Alternately.22 Figure 5. The proof is left as an exercise at the end of this chapter. a non-inverting op amp could be used with a positive value of V ref . known as R−2R ladder network. R and 2R.

2 Switch positions for Example 5.= 1 × 8 + 2 × 0 +4 4 × 0 + 8 × 8 = 4.5 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 c.5 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 d. V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8V D Vanalog = ----------------------------------------------------------------.22 TABLE 5. DAC circuit for Example 5. From (5. V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8V D Vanalog = ----------------------------------------------------------------.85.0 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-55 .Digital-to-Analog Converters 20 KΩ 10 KΩ 20 KΩ D ( lsb ) 10 KΩ 20 KΩ C 0 1 10 KΩ V analog 20 KΩ B 0 1 20 KΩ A ( msb ) 0 1 0 1 8 VDC Figure 5.72): a. V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8V D Vanalog = ----------------------------------------------------------------.= 1 × 0 + 2 × 8 +4 4 × 0 + 8 × 0 = 1.= 1 × 8 + 2 × 0 +4 4 × 8 + 8 × 0 = 2.5 V ------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 2 4 b.22 (a) (b) (c) (d) A2 1 1 1 0 0 B2 1 0 0 1 1 C2 1 0 1 0 2 D2 1 1 0 0 3 Solution: This is a 4-bit DAC and thus we have 2 = 16 distinct binary values from 0000 to 1111 corresponding to decimals 0 through 15 respectively. V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8V D Vanalog = ----------------------------------------------------------------.= 1 × 8 + 2 × 8 +4 4 × 8 + 8 × 8 = 7.

and the Delta-Sigma algorithmic con- 5-56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . inputs for an R−2R network with levels 0 to 4 volts A typical DAC must include an op amp to match the resistive network to a low-resistance load and to provide gain also. There are different types of analog-to-digital converters. such as the flash converter.0 2.87 shows an R−2R type DAC with buffered output and gain.0 0. the principle of the previously discussed digital-to-analog or D/A converter or simply DAC can be reversed to perform analog-to-digital A/D conversion.86. usually referred to as ADC.0 3. In such cases. the successive approximation converter.5 3. we can now fill-in the right-most column with the values we obtained. Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Based on these results. Figure 5. such as in a digital voltmeter.86.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V in ( V ) Figure 5. V out ( V ) 4.0 1. Output vs. Placing an impedance-matching device (the op amp in this case) at the output of the resistive network is called buffering the output of the network.5 2.87.5 1. the dual-slope converter. Op amp placed between the resistive network and output for buffering and gain 5. and we can plot the output versus inputs of the R−2R network for the voltage levels 0 V and 4 V as shown in Figure 5.24 Analog-to-Digital Converters Often an analog voltage must be converted to a digital equivalent.

5 V V x = V y Previous Value Vx > Vy Ai = 0 Vx < Vy Ai = 1 For Example. ISBN 0-9744239-5-5 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-57 . the interested reader may refer to http://www.24.5 V Comparator 9V 7. We will not discuss the latter. A typical circuit for a flash type ADC The truth table of the 8-to-3 line encoder is shown in Table 5. 5.1 The Flash Analog-to-Digital Converter Figure 5.5 V A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Analog Input Vx Vy Ai B2 8 – to – 3 Line Encoder Inputs Output 6V B1 B0 4. if Analog Input = 5. comparators.allaboutcircuits.2 V. We begin our discussion with the flash converter because of its simplicity. * For a detailed discussion of line encoders please refer to Logic Circuits.3. and an 8to-3 line encoder.5 V 3V 1.com/vol_4/chpt_13/9. 12 VDC Supply 12 V A8 A7 Overflow 10. a practical ADC would require a circuit with many more comparators and a suitable line encoder.Analog-to-Digital Converters verter. then A0 = A1 = A2 = A3 = 1 and A4 = A5 = A6 = A7 = A8 = 0 0 V Figure 5.html.* The flash ADC is so named because of its high conversion speed. Obviously.88 shows a typical flash type ADC consists of a resistive network.88.

5 V 4.5 V 7.89. Conversely.0 V 3.0 V 9.0 to less than 4. it counts down with each clock pulse when its count-up line is LOW and its count-down line is HIGH.5 to 12 V Greater than 12 V † Underflow ‡ Overflow A8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 A6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 A5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 A4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 A3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 A2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B2 x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x B1 x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x B0 x† 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x‡ 5.5 to less than 9.2 The Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter Figure 5.0 V 6.0 to less than 10.3 Truth table for the 8-to-3 line encoder of Figure 7. refer to Logic Gates and Digital Circuits.88 Analog Input Less than 0 V 0 to less than 1. its output goes LOW when its inverting input I becomes slightly * For a detailed discussion on up-down counters.5 V 10. Conversely.0 to less than 7.24. ISBN 0-9744239-5-5. 5-58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A1 X V analog Count – up command Up – Down Counter Inverter Line amplifier Clock Count – down command A2 Figure 5.5 to less than 6. A typical circuit for a successive approximation ADC The up-down counter* has a digital output that increases with each clock pulse when the countup line is HIGH and the count-down line is LOW. Op amp A 2 is a comparator and its output goes HIGH when its inverting input becomes slightly more negative than its non-inverting input.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers TABLE 5.5 to less than 3.5 V 1.89 shows a typical successive approximation type ADC.

this ADC is also known as the feedback-type ADC. Thus. in steps. to the analog input V analog .The output voltage of the resistive network is applied to the non-inverting input of A 1 and subsequently to inverting input of A 2 and it is compared with the analog input voltage V analog which is the voltage to be digitized. when the output of A 2 is LOW (negatively saturated). But if V analog is less than the resistive network’s output voltage the output of A 2 goes LOW.3 The Dual-Slope Analog-to-Digital Converter The dual-slope ADC is designed with an integrating dual-slope architecture. When the counter is counting downward. The simplest form of an integrating ADC uses a single-slope architecture as shown in Figure 5. In this way the output of the up-down counter is always a digital equivalent of the analog input V analog . Op amp A 1 serves as a voltage follower and it buffers the DAC resistive network. In a typical ADC of this type. and the Zener diodes are selected to clip the comparator’s output to levels compatible with the up−down counter. respectively.90(b). the count-up line is LOW also. depending on whether the output of A 2 is HIGH or LOW. the time it takes for the integrator to cause the comparator to change state is proportional to the input voltage v in . the count-up line is also HIGH. an upward staircase voltage appears at point X. the output of A 2 goes HIGH. Op amp A 1 is a Miller integrator and we recall that charging a capacitor with a constant current produces a linear voltage across it.Analog-to-Digital Converters more positive than its non-inverting input.It has the advantage of providing a straightforward approach to converting a low bandwidth analog signal into its digital representation. and the up-down counter counts up. Likewise. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-59 . As shown in Figure 5.24. a downward staircase is present at point X. the output of the counter is fed to a circuit to provide a digital readout. the up-down counter counts digitally up or down. When the up-down counter is counting up.90(a) where an unknown input DC voltage v in is integrated and the value is compared with a known reference value v ref . 5. When its output is HIGH (positively saturated). bringing the resistive network’s output voltage up. Because this system has feedback which keeps the voltage output of the resistive network approximately equal to the analog input voltage V analog . and the up-down counter counts down. If V analog exceeds the voltage of the resistive network. The line amplifiers are required just in case the maximum value of V analog exceeds the level of output voltages of the up-down counter. bringing the voltages at the input of the comparator in line with each other. The junction diodes prevent excessive differential inputs to the comparator.

The single-slope converter of Figure 5. To overcome these sensitivities.91. temperature. An ADC with dual-slope architecture T1 (b) T2 t v max v in v ref R S2 In the circuit of Figure 5. Thus. The binary counter counts the pulses from a fixed clock frequency f C and the counting is proportional to time T 1 .91(b).91(a) Switch S 1 is used to discharge the capacitor before the start of the conversion cycle and thus v int = 0 . Figure 5. At the end of time T 1 the binary counter is reset to zero and Switch S 2 is placed to the v ref position where v ref has a negative value. the dual-slope integrating architecture is used. S1 C v int v out (a) Figure 5. the circuitry of the this ADC translates a voltage level into a time measurement which can be counted with the binary counter.90(a) is not practical because it is subject to errors caused by variation of the timing components R and C. These errors will change the conversion results and make measurement repeatability difficult to attain.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers C v in R v int v ref (a) Figure 5.90. The current into the integrator reverses direction and its value is 5-60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The conversion cycle begins with opening Switch S 1 and placing Switch S 2 to the v in position. An ADC with single-slope architecture v out (b) t int t v int v ref The output voltage v out is fed to a logic circuit which initiates counting in a binary counter. and aging.91 shows a typical dual-slope ADC. A constant current whose value is I N = v in ⁄ R charges the capacitor for a reference time T 1 as shown in Figure 5. The output voltage v out is fed to a logic circuit which initiates counting in a binary counter.

it follows that v in n 2 = n 1 ⎛ ------. But with the quantization we chose. and Resolution I REF = v ref ⁄ R . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-61 . v = 1. for instance. we do not know intermediate values. the comparator initiates a signal to stop the binary counter.0 0 (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (b) 8 9 10 v ( mV ) t ( µs ) t ( µs ) Figure 5. we do not know what the amplitude of the voltage at t = 1. Accuracy. The subdivision is referred to as quantization.73) and this expression indicates that the content of the counter at the end of the conversion procedure is directly proportional to the voltage v in to be digitized.6 µs .5 mv . v max ⁄ T 2 = v ref ⁄ ( RC ) . Let n 1 be the counter reading at the end of T 1 and n 2 be the counter reading at the end of T 2 . Figure 5. there will always be a small number that will fall between the time intervals. The major advantage of the dualslope architecture ADC over the single-slope architecture ADC is that the entire cycle of the conversion is insensitive to errors since any error introduced by the components R and C during time T 1 will be cancelled out during time T 2 .5 1. Since v max ⁄ T 1 = v in ⁄ ( RC ) . The voltage v int at the output of the integrator decreases linearly during time T 2 as shown in Figure 5. and so on. 5.5 4. We assumed that the analog signal is continuous in both time and amplitude. and Resolution In the previous section we’ve learned how to convert an analog signal to its digital equivalent.⎞ ⎝ v ref ⎠ (5.Quantization. An analog voltage quantized in time and amplitude From Figure 5.5 2.91(b) and when this voltage reaches zero volts. at t = 2 µs . v = 2. we could quantize the time axis in smaller intervals but no matter how small the intervals are. Quantization Error. To express this signal to a digital form we must subdivide both time and amplitude (for instance volts) into a number of equally spaced intervals.92 shows how an analog voltage is quantized in both time and amplitude. Of course. Accuracy.0 mv .0 3. and n 1 ⁄ T 1 = n 2 ⁄ T 2 . Quantization Error. Subdividing the time axis into a finite number of intervals is known as sampling.92. The intervals on the time and voltage axes are equally spaced but need not be the same.25 Quantization.92(b) we see that at t = 1 µs . v ( mV ) 4.

before conversion to a digital. In practice. Example 5. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Resolution is the smallest change in the parameter being measured that causes a detectable change in the output of the instrument. Accuracy and resolution have different meaning. we must sample it at least at 20 KHz rate and in this case the Nyquist rate is 20 KHz. Accuracy is the degree with which an instrument measures a variable in terms of an accepted standard value or true value. it is a theoretical value and because of electronic equipment limitations and component imperfections.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers We may wonder what sampling rate one must choose to faithfully (exactly) reproduce an analog signal such as that of Figure 5. Solution: The LSD represents increments of 16 ⁄ 2 = 16 ⁄ 256 = 1 ⁄ 16 so the LSD is 1 ⁄ 16 . or at most twelve bits of digital output provides adequate resolution.23 What is the accuracy of an 8-bit ADC if the converter encodes an analog voltage between 0 and +15 volts.92(a) from its digital equivalent of Figure 5. must be sampled at least twice the frequency of the highest frequency component of the signal. The output of an ADC is accurate to within ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the least significant bit (LSD). This minimum frequency is known as the Nyquist rate. the Nyquist rate is not sufficient. And how do we know the highest frequency component of a signal? The answer is from Fourier* series. to reproduce exactly a 10 KHz sinusoid. The difference between an exact analog value and the closest discrete value after sampling is known as quantization error. Obviously. this theoretical value cannot be achieved. the analog signal. The answer to this question is provided by the well known sampling theorem which states that to faithfully reproduce an analog signal from it digital equivalent. theoretically. Typically. Thus. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7. ten. The linearity of an ADC or DAC is a measure of accuracy and it is an indication of how close the converter’s output is to the ideal input-output transfer characteristics.3 mV . A general rule is to sample at five to ten times the highest frequency of the analog signal. usually measured in terms of inaccuracy but expressed as accuracy. often expressed as a percentage of full-scale range. 8 * For a thorough discussion on Fourier series and the Fourier transform. an eight. 5-62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . every ADC suffers from a quantization error no matter how small.92(b). Another term used in ADCs and DACs is resolution. this ADC produces a digital output that represents the analog input within ± 1 ⁄ 32 = 31. With an accuracy of ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the LSD.

This means that this value is the step size of the voltmeter’s measuring capability.x b2 b2 (5. Example 5.y a1 a1 c2 a2 y = ---.26 Op Amps in Analog Computers Present day analog computers are build with op amps. a voltmeter is said to have a resolution may be 0.25 Using two op amps and resistors.24 How many clock cycles would we need to obtain a 10-bit resolution with a dual-slope ADC? Solution: The integration time T 1 would require 2 10 = 1024 clock cycles and also another 2 10 10 = 1024 clock cycles for integration time T 2 for a maximum conversion of 2 × 2 = 2048 clock cycles. a 2 . We will not discuss analog computers in this section. By comparison. Solution: We observe that the arithmetic operations involved in (5. the accuracy of. and if the coefficient is less than unity. say 0. design an analog computer that will solve the equations a1 x + b1 y = c1 a2 x + b2 y = c2 (5.– ---. We will simply present two simple examples to illustrate how op amps are used in analog computation.75) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-63 . and c 2 are constant coefficients. Example 5. b 2 . c 1 . In other words. b 1 .2 mV refers to the degree to which this value may differ from the true value.74) are addition and multiplication by constant coefficients. In an analog computer the numbers representing the variables are voltages.74) where a 1 .– ---.1 mV . It is convenient to express the given equations as c1 b1 x = ---. Multiplication by a coefficient greater than unity can be performed with an op amp with feedback. 5. The two additions can be performed by summing op amps. we can use a voltage divider. it is the value with only one decimal place which can be measured and possibly recorded against other voltage records as the voltmeter is not able to detect any smaller step size in voltage changes.Op Amps in Analog Computers For example.

V S1 R adj1 R1 R f1 A1 –c1 ⁄ a1 R2 x R adj3 ( a 2 ⁄ b 2 )x R3 V S2 R adj2 R f2 A2 –c2 ⁄ b2 R4 y ( b 1 ⁄ a 1 )y R adj4 Figure 5.V 0 R1 (5. A similar summation is obtained by amplifier A 2 . It is also necessary to provide means to stop the integrator at any time. and denoting the initial condition as V 0 .93 the scaling factors chosen must ensure that the voltages representing the unknowns do not exceed the output capability of the op amps.76) 5-64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .93. This procedure can be extended to the solution of simultaneous equations with more than two unknowns. we need to discuss a practical integrator circuit that provides some means of setting a desired initial value at the beginning of the integration cycle. the output of op amp A 1 is a voltage representing the unknown x and the output of op amp A 2 is a voltage representing the unknown y .93. and for the integrator output to remain constant at the value it has reached at that time.93. The fraction b 1 ⁄ a 1 of y is obtained from the potentiometer R adj4 and this is summed in op amp A 1 with the fraction – c 1 ⁄ a 1 obtained from potentiometer R adj1 and voltage source V S1 . The voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers and these equations can be solved using two summing amplifiers as shown in Figure 5.94(a). Before we consider the next example for a circuit to solve a simple differential equation. the integrator sets the initial condition with the switches as shown in Figure 5.94. Analog computer for the solution of two simultaneous equations with two unknowns In Figure 5. As shown in Figure 5. and thus R2 v out ( t = 0 ) = – ----. Initially. An integrator circuit that provides these means is shown in Figure 5.

26 Using one op amp. –0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-65 . Example 5. Integrator circuit mode control When switched to the compute mode.94. the circuit integrates the input voltage and the value of the output voltage is 1 v out = v out ( t = 0 ) – ----------R in C ∫0 vin dt t (5.Op Amps in Analog Computers VS R1 R2 VS R1 R2 S1 C S1 C v in R in S2 v out v in R in S2 v out ( a ) Set Initial Condition Mode R2 ( b ) Compute Mode R1 VS S1 R in S2 C v out v in ( c ) Hold Mode Figure 5. and switches design an analog computer that will solve the simple differential equation dv C 1 -------. capacitors.i C C dt (5. We observe that the switches in the hold mode are positioned as in the set initial condition mode.= --.78) where C is a constant representing the value of a capacitor. resistors.77) The integrator is then switched to the hold mode and remains constant at the value reached at the end of the compute mode. dv C is the voltage across the capacitor and i C is the current through the capacitor and the initial condition is v C ( t ) = V 0 .

Integrator circuit for Example 5. VS V0 S1 R in S2 C R1 R2 iC 1 --.26 Initially. 5-66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Solution: The given differential equation can be solved with the circuit of Figure 5. Then.95.i C C Figure 5. the output is multiplied by 1 ⁄ C and fed back to the input.95. a voltage representing the value of dv C ⁄ dt is applied to the integrator and the output of the integrator will be a voltage representing i C .

that is. • The gain of an inverting op amp is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. with feedback. A unity gain op amp is used to pro- vide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. capacitors. the gain is much lower and decreases as frequency increases at the rate of – 20 dB ⁄ decade . and so on. diodes. that is. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-67 .27 Summary • The operational amplifier (op amp) is the most versatile amplifier and its main features are: 1. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. The output signal has the same polarity from that of the input signal. • Operational amplifiers can operate either a closed-loop or an open-loop configuration. addition. i. R in = v S ⁄ i S . integration etc. • The output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current. • The gain of an non-inverting op amp is 1 + R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input which is grounded through the R in resistor. R out = v OC ⁄ i SC . • In a unity gain op amp the output is the same as the input. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2.Summary 5. is the frequency at which the gain is unity. that is.. • The gain of any amplifier varies with frequency. Very good stability 6. Most operational amplifiers operate in the closed-loop configurations. Operation to be performed. The specification sheets for operational amplifiers state the open-loop at DC or 0 Hz . At higher frequencies. • Op amps are also used as active filters. The operation − closed-loop or open-loop − is determined by whether or not feedback is used.e. • The input resistance R in is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. • The unity gain frequency. The minus (−) sign implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3.

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers • The gain-bandwidth product is an important op amp parameter and is related to the unity gain frequency as Gain × Bandwidth = Unity Gain Frequency . then v out = 0 . Other types of op amps are without internal frequency compensation and require external connection of frequency compensating components to the op amp. • High input resistance differential input amplifiers are suitable for use in differential measure- ment applications and the associated circuits are referred to as instrumentation amplifiers. the compensating components alter the open loop gain characteristics so that the roll-off is about 20 dB ⁄ decade over a wide range of frequencies. In other words.e. • A summing amplifier in the inverting mode produces the negative sum of any number of input voltages. and common mode gain is the ratio of the output common-mode voltage V cm out to the input commonmode voltage V cm in . a summing amplifier in the non-inverting mode produces the positive sum of any number of input voltages. • The transresistance gain is defined as the ratio v out ⁄ i in . • The closed loop transfer function G ( s ) is defined as G ( s ) = V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) and in the invert- ing input mode G ( s ) = – Z f ( s ) ⁄ Z 1 ( s ) . Typically. Likewise. • A differential input op amp allows input signals to be applied simultaneously to both input ter- minals and produce an output of the difference between the input signals. if v in2 = v in1 .= --------Common mode gain A cm where the differential gain A v is the gain with the input signals applied differentially. • The output voltage of an op amp integrator is the integral of the input voltage. that is. A cm is zero but in reality is finite and much smaller than unity.. Ideally. i. A differential input amplifier must have a high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) defined as Ad Differential gain CMRR = ----------------------------------------------------. A cm = V cm out ⁄ V cm in . 5-68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • Common-mode rejection refers to the condition that if the inputs to the op amp are exactly the same. • The use of negative feedback increases the bandwidth of an operational amplifier circuit but decreases the gain so that the gain times bandwidth product is always equal to the unity gain frequency of the op amp. • The output voltage of an op amp differentiator is the first derivative of the input voltage. the op amp rejects any signals at its inputs that are the same. • General purpose op amps are normally internally frequency compensated so that they will be stable with all values of resistive feedback.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-69 . but only two sets of pre- cision resistance values. The Nyquist rate is not sufficient. requires more resistors. It also amplifies the signal with two negative feedback resistors. The difference between an exact analog value and the closest discrete value after sampling is known as quantization error. connected to the non-inverting input of the op amp to form a frequency selective feedback circuit and this causes oscillations to occur. the analog signal. • The sampling theorem states that to faithfully reproduce an analog signal from it digital equiv- alent. and the dual-slope. • Quantization is the process where an analog signal is subdivided into small discrete time and amplitude intervals. half-wave rectifier with limited positive or negative output. that is. This minimum frequency is known as the Nyquist rate. • A DAC formed with an R−2R ladder network. • A DAC with binary-weighted resistors has the disadvantage that it requires a large number of precision resistors. If there are 16 combinations of the voltages V D through V A . R and 2R. the successive approximation. the op amp is used in the open loop configuration. We have introduced the positive and negative voltage limiters. This oscillator uses two RC networks • A digital-to-analog converter (D/A converter or DAC) is used to convert a binary output from a digital system to an equivalent analog voltage. this theoretical value cannot be achieved. must be sampled at least twice the frequency of the highest frequency component of the signal. • An analog-to-digital converter (A/D converter or ADC) converts an analog signal to its binary equivalent. because of electronic equipment limitations and component imperfections. • A DAC must include an op amp to match the resistive network to a low-resistance load and to provide gain also. Popular types of ADCs are the flash converter. dv out SlewRate = SR = -----------dt max • Op amps can also be used in circuits with non-linear devices. As a comparator. A general rule is to sample at five to ten times the highest frequency of the analog signal.Summary • The slew rate (SR) is defined as the maximum rate of change of an output voltage produced in response to a large input step function and it is normally expressed in volts per microsecond. Placing an impedance-matching device (the op amp in this case) at the output of the resistive network is called buffering the output of the network. that is. before conversion to a digital. the analog device should have 16 possible values. • A comparator is a circuit that senses changes in a varying signal and produces an output when a threshold value is reached. Subdividing the time axis into a finite number of intervals is known as sampling. an op amp is used without feedback. • A Wien bridge oscillator produces a sinusoidal output.

standard value or true value. The output of an ADC is accurate to within ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the least significant bit (LSD). Typically. 5-70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . or at most twelve bits of digital output provides adequate resolution. ten. In an analog computer the numbers representing the variables are voltages.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers • The linearity of an ADC or DAC is a measure of accuracy and it is an indication of how close the converter’s output is to the ideal input-output transfer characteristics. • Present day analog computers are build with op amps. • Accuracy is the degree with which an instrument measures a variable in terms of an accepted • Resolution is the smallest change in the parameter being measured that causes a detectable change in the output of the instrument. an eight.

For the circuit below. For the circuit below compute i 5KΩ . R in1 R in2 Rf v in1 + − R in3 − + + vout − v in2 + − v in3 + − Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-71 . v in 2 . Derive an expression for v out in terms of the input voltage sources. and the feedback resistance R f .Exercises 5. their internal resistances. 4 KΩ − + 6 KΩ 5 KΩ + − i 5KΩ 3 KΩ 60 mV 3. 90 KΩ v in 1 3 KΩ 27 KΩ 10 KΩ 10 mV + − − − + + v ou t1 − + v out 2 − + 2. R in 1 .28 Exercises 1. and R in 3 represent the internal resistances of the input voltages v in 1 . and v in 3 respectively. R in 2 . For the circuit below compute v out 2 .

84 KΩ 100 KΩ 12 KΩ + 4 KΩ − − 72 mV 5 KΩ v 5KΩ − + + 20 KΩ v out − + 5-72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The op-amp circuit (a) below can be represented by its equivalent circuit (b). For the circuit below compute v 5KΩ using Thevenin’s theorem. R1 Rf + − v in − + (a) v out − + v in − + R1 − + ----.v in v out R 1 Rf + − (b) 20 KΩ + − 2 KΩ v in − 5 KΩ 15 KΩ (c) R load + v out − + 6. For the circuit below compute v out . For the circuit (c). compute the value of R load so that it will receive maximum power.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4. 50 KΩ 10 KΩ − + + − 40 mV 20 KΩ 40 KΩ v out − + 5.

+ 1 ⎞ ⎝R ⎠ R1 v in 3 R3 + v in R1 R2 R4 − + + v out 9. Find v out if v in1 = 2 mV and v in2 = – 3 mV Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-73 .Exercises 7. 10. 000 and the unity gain frequency is 1 MHz . Find v in2 if v in1 = 2 mV and v out = – 5 V c. R2 40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ R3 40 KΩ + v in − R1 200 KΩ R5 + + v out − 8.= – ----.R 4 + R 2 ⎛ ----. v in1 v in2 v out a. Find v in1 if v in2 = 3 mV and v out = 5 V b. 000 . Plot the frequency response for open-loop gain versus frequency curve and the closed-loop frequency response for a gain of 10 . For the op amp shown below the open-loop gain is 100. The specifications for the popular 741 op amp state that the open-loop gain is 200. For the circuit below compute the gain G v = v out ⁄ v in . For the circuit below show that the gain is given by v out R4 1G v = --------.

compute the values of R f and C f such that the circuit will have a DC gain of 40 dB and 1 KHz 3 dB frequency 5-74 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Determine whether the op amp circuit below is stable or unstable. For the op amp circuit below: Rf + v in − R1 Cf − + + v out − a. Derive the closed-loop transfer function b. For the op amp circuit below.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 11. + v in1 + v out v in2 C+ + Rf 100 KΩ 10 µF 12. Derive an expression for the 3 dB frequency d. If R 1 = 1 KΩ . Derive an expression for the DC gain c. the transresistance R m b. Assume infinite input impedance and zero output impedance. the output voltage v out i in + v in 1 mA − 10 KΩ − + + v out − 13. find: a.

Find the frequency at which the magnitude of the gain is unity 15.16. C R1 v in 10 KΩ v out a. The phase angle at the frequency where the gain is 0 dB 14. and R 2 to meet these specifications. For the op amp integrator circuit below the time constant is τ = 100 µs . Suggest a nulling circuit other than that of Exercise 16 for: a. As stated earlier in Section 5. R 1 . R1 R fix R var Choose appropriate values for the fixed value resistor R fix and the variable resistor R var so that the overall voltage gain can vary from 10 to 100 .67 variable. a non-inverting mode op amp Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-75 . 17. Compute the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB f. Select appropriate values for resistors R f . Find the magnitude and phase angle of the gain at f = 1 KHz c. v in1 + R1 if Rf R2 − v in2 + − + + v out − − 16. and the output voltage should be such that v out = – ( 4v in1 + 3v in2 ) ≤ 12 V . to make the overall gain of the circuit of Figure 5. it is required that the current i f should not exceed 1 mA . For the circuit below. we replace resistor R 1 with a fixed value resistor R fix in series with a variable resistor R var as shown below. Find the value of the capacitor C b.Exercises e. an inverting mode op amp b.

derive the transfer function G v ( s ) = V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) and the magnitude and phase of G v ( jω ) = V out ( jω ) ⁄ V in ( jω ) at unity gain. R ---n 2 VN VD R --8 VC R --4 V analog R --2 VB VA R Prove that V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8VD + … V analog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… 5-76 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Find appropriate values of all external resistors so that the differential input op amp circuit below will have an input resistance R in = 50 KΩ and voltage gain G v = 40 . R1 Rf v in + − C + R2 − v out + − 20. The resistors and capacitors are of equal value. R C R C V out ( s ) V in1 ( s ) + − V in2 ( s ) + + − − 21. R1 Rf v in1 + − R2 − v in2 + + R3 v out + − − 19. The circuit below is referred to as a differential input integrator.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 18. For the circuit below. The figure below shows a digital-to-analog converter with binary-weighted resistors. Derive an expression for V out ( s ) in terms of the input voltages and the circuit constants.

24. For the op amp circuit shown below. Design an op amp circuit whose input is v in whose output is v out = – 5v in – 3dv in ⁄ dt 25. 2R 2R VA VB R 2R VC R 2R VD R 2R V analog Prove that V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8VD + … V analog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 where n is the number of digital inputs. 23.5 µF v in v out Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-77 . derive an expression for the output voltage v out in terms of the input voltage v in . v out = – ∫0 ( vin1 + 2vin2 + 10vin3 ) dt t Assume ideal op amp action and that the integrating capacitor has a value of 1 µF . Design an analog computer circuit to perform the following integration. The figure below shows a digital-to-analog converter with known as R−2R ladder network.Exercises 22. derive an expression for the output voltage v out in terms of the input voltage v in . C R2 L v in R1 v out 26. For the op amp circuit shown below. 1 MΩ 1 MΩ 0.

29 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1. v load .9 V ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2. 4 KΩ − + 6 KΩ + − 3 KΩ 60 mV v1 − + i 5KΩ + v load − R load 5 KΩ 3 KΩ || 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ and by the voltage division expression 2 KΩ v 1 = ---------------------------------.= 4 × 10 A = 4 µA 3 R load 5 KΩ 5 × 10 5-78 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ---------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 5. 27 KΩ 10 KΩ 90 KΩ v in 1 3 KΩ 10 mV + − − − + + v ou t1 − + + v in 2 − v out 2 − + v out1 = – ( 27 ⁄ 3 ) × 10 = – 90 mV and thus v in2 = v out1 = – 90 mV Then 90 v out2 = ⎛ 1 + ----. We assign v 1 . we get v load = v 1 = 20 mV Then –3 v load –6 20 mV 20 × 10 i 5KΩ = ----------.⎞ × ( – 90 ) = – 0.× 60 mV = 20 mV 4 KΩ + 2 KΩ and since this is a unity gain amplifier. and R load as shown below.= ---------------------.

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 3.
**

R in1 R in2 Rf

v in1

+ −

R in3

− +

+ vout −

v in2

+ −

v in3

+ −

By superposition

v out = v out1 + v out2 + v out3

where

v out1

v in2 = 0 v in3 = 0

Rf = – --------- v in1 R in1

We observe that the minus (−) input is a virtual ground and thus there is no current flow in R in1 and R in2 . Also,

v out2

v in1 = 0 v in3 = 0

Rf = – --------- v in2 R in2

and

v out3

v in1 = 0 v in2 = 0

Rf = – --------- ( – v in3 ) R in3

Then,

v in3 v in2 v in1 v out = R f ⎛ --------- – --------- – --------- ⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3

**4. We assign voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below. At the minus (−) terminal
**

v 1 – 40 mV v 1 – v out ---------------------------- + -------------------- = 0 10 KΩ 50 KΩ 1 6 ------------------- v 1 – ------------------- v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3 3 50 × 10 50 × 10

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-79

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers

10 KΩ

v1 v2

50 KΩ

−

+

+

−

40 mV

20 KΩ 40 KΩ

v out −

+

**At the plus (+) terminal
**

v2 v 2 – 40 mV ---------------------------- + ---------------- = 0 20 KΩ 40 KΩ 3 -------------------- v 2 = 2 × 10 – 6 3 40 × 10 80 × 10 v 2 = ---------------------3

–3

**Since v 2 = v 1 we equate the nodal equations and we get
**

1 6 - ---------------------------------------- ⎛ 80 × 10 - ⎞ – ------------------- v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 50 × 10 50 × 10

–3

Multiplication by 50 × 10 yields

–6 3 2 × 80 × 10 × 50 × 10 ---------------------------------------------------------- – v out = 4 × 10 × 50 × 10 3 50 × 10 –3 3

3

v out = – 40 mV

**Check with (5.16) using MATLAB:
**

R1=10000; R2=20000; R3=40000; Rf=50000; Vin=40*10^(−3); Vout=(R1*R3−R2*Rf)*Vin/(R1*(R2+R3))

Vout = -0.0400 5. We attach the 5 KΩ , 15 KΩ , and R load resistors to the equivalent circuit as shown below. By Thevenin’s theorem,

15 KΩ v TH = v OC = v ab = ------------------------------------- ( – 10v in ) 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ

5-80

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises
**

× a

15 KΩ

+

v in −

2 KΩ

+

−

10v in

5 KΩ

b ×

R load

or

v TH = – 7.5v in

Because the circuit contains a dependent source, we must compute the Thevenin resistance using the relation R TH = v TH ⁄ i SC where i SC is found from the circuit below.

−

5 KΩ 15 KΩ

× a b × i SC

+

10v in

**We observe that the short circuit shorts out the 15 KΩ and thus
**

– 10v in –3 i SC = --------------- = – 2 × 10 v in 5 KΩ

Then

– 7.5v in R TH = ----------------------------- = 3.75 KΩ –3 – 2 × 10 v in

**and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown below.
**

R TH

− v TH

+

3.75 KΩ R load

Therefore, for maximum power transfer we must have R load = R TH = 3.75 KΩ 6. The given circuit is a non-inverting op amp whose equivalent circuit is shown below.

v in −

+

+

+

⎛ ⎞ − ⎝ 1 + ------- ⎠ v in R

in

Rf

v out −

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-81

**Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers For this circuit v in = v 5KΩ and the output is
**

Rf ⎞ ⎛ 100 v out = ⎜ 1 + ------- ⎟ v 5KΩ = ⎛ 1 + -------- ⎞ v 5KΩ = 6v 5KΩ ⎝ 20 ⎠ R in ⎠ ⎝

**Attaching the external resistors to the equivalent circuit above we get the circuit below.
**

12 KΩ

+

84 KΩ 4 KΩ

a×

5 KΩ

+

−

72 mV

v 5KΩ b ×−

+ − 6v 5KΩ

To find the Thevenin equivalent at points a and b we disconnect the 5 KΩ resistor. When this is done there is no current in the 4 KΩ resistor and the circuit simplifies to the one shown below.

12 KΩ a

×+

84 KΩ

+ −

72 mV

i

v ab ×− b

+ −

6v 5KΩ

By KVL

( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ )i + 6v 5KΩ = 72 mV

or

72 mV – 6v 5KΩ i = --------------------------------------------( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ )

Also

72 mV – 6v 5KΩ v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 72 mV – ( 12 KΩ )i = 72 mV – 12 KΩ ⎛ -------------------------------------- ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 96 KΩ 3 v TH = 72 mV – 9 mV + -- v 5KΩ 4

or

3 v 5KΩ – -- v 5KΩ = 63 mV 4

and thus

v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 252 mV

5-82

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises The Thevenin resistance is found from R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC where i SC is computed with the terminals a and b shorted making v 5KΩ = 0 and the circuit is as shown in Figure (a) below. We also perform voltage-source to current-source transformation and we get the circuit shown in Figure (b) below.

12 KΩ 4 KΩ 12 KΩ 6 µA 84 KΩ 4 KΩ

+ −

72 mV

a i SC b (a)

84 KΩ

a i SC b

(b) 12 KΩ || 84 KΩ = 10.5 KΩ

Now,

**and by the current division expression
**

126 10.5 KΩ i SC = i ab = ------------------------------------------ × 6 µA = -------- µA 29 10.5 KΩ + 4 KΩ

Therefore,

v OC 252 R TH = -------- = ------------------ = 58 KΩ 126 ⁄ 29 i SC

**and the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the 5 KΩ resistor is shown below.
**

R TH

a

12 KΩ + 5 KΩ v 5KΩ v TH 252 mV − b

+ −

**Finally, by the voltage division expression
**

5 v 5KΩ = -------------- × 252 = 20 mV 58 + 5

**7. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that
**

v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-83

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers

R2

+ v in −

R1

v1

40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ

R3

40 KΩ

v2

+ + v out −

200 KΩ R5

Node 1 at v 1 :

v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – 0 v1 ------------------- + -------------------- + ---------------- + ---------------- = 0 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ

or

v in v out 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ------------------- + ---------------- + ---------------- + ---------------- ⎞ v = ------------------- + ---------------- 1 ⎝ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ ⎠ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ

**Multiplication of each term by 200 KΩ and simplification yields
**

1v 1 = ----- ( v in + 5v out ) (1) 14

Node 2 at v 2 :

0 – v 1 0 – v out ---------------- + ----------------- = 0 50 KΩ 40 KΩ

or

5 v 1 = – -- v out (2) 4

**Equating the right sides we get
**

1----- ( v in + 5v out ) = – 5 v out -14 4

or

1 37 ----- v out = – ----- v in 14 28

**Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get
**

v out 2 G v = -------- = – ----v in 37

**8. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that
**

v 1 = 0 (virtual ground).

5-84

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises
**

v2 R2 v1 R3 − R4

+

R1

v in −

+

v out −

+

Node 1 at v 1 :

0 – v in 0 – v 2 --------------- + ------------- = 0 R1 R2

**Solving for v 2 we get
**

R2 v 2 = – ----- v in (1) R1

Node 2 at v 2 :

v 2 – 0 v 2 v 2 – v out ------------- + ----- + -------------------- = 0 R2 R4 R3 1 1 1 ⎛ ----- + ----- + ----- ⎞ v = v out -------⎝R R4 R3 R4 ⎠ 2 2 1 v 2 = ------------------------------------------------ v out (2) R4 ⁄ R2 + R4 ⁄ R3 + 1

**Equating the right sides we get
**

R3 1 ------------------------------------------------ v out = – ----- v in R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 R1

**Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get
**

v out R4 1G v = --------- = – ----- R 4 + R 2 ⎛ ----- + 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ R1 v in 3

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-85

**Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 9.
**

Gain 3 dB point ( open loop )

10

5

10

4

3 dB point ( closed loop )

10

3

**Unity Gain frequency
**

10

2

10 1

f ( Hz )

1 10 100 10

3

10

4

10

5

10

6

10.

v in1 v in2

v out

**From (5.25) v out = A ol ( v in2 – v in1 ) , and we are given that A ol = 100, 000 . Then,
**

5 out a. v in1 = v in2 – -------- = 3 × 10 – ------- = 2.95 mV 5

–3

v A ol

10

**– 5out b. v in2 = v in1 + -------- = 2 × 10 + ------- = 1.95 mV 5
**

–3

v A ol

10

c. v out = A ol ( v in2 – v in1 ) = 10 ( – 30 – 20 ) × 10

5

–6

= –1 V

5-86

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 11. The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown below.
**

V in1

+

V in2

+

Rf

V out

+

10 ⁄ s

5

C +

100 KΩ

From (5.25)

V out = A ol ( V in2 – V in1 ) (1)

By KCL

sV in2 V in2 – V out ------------ + -------------------------- = 0 5 5 10 10 V out = ( s + 1 )V in2 V out V in2 = ---------s+1

**and by substitution into (1)
**

V out V out = A ol ⎛ ---------- – V in1⎞ ⎝s+1 ⎠ A ol ⎛ 1 – ---------- ⎞ V = – A V ol in1 ⎝ s + 1⎠ out – A ol ( s + 1 ) V out G ( s ) = ---------- = --------------------------V in1 s + 1 – A ol

The pole of G ( s ) is located at s = – ( 1 – A ol ) = A ol – 1 and it is positive for A ol > 1 . Therefore, the circuit is unstable since the pole is located on the right half-plane. 12.

i in + v in 1 mA −

10 KΩ

− +

+ v out −

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-87

**Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers This circuit is the same as that of Figure 5.47 where we found that R m = – R f . Then, a. R m = – 10 KΩ
**

out b. R m = --------- = – 10 KΩ or

v

i in

v out = R m i in = ( – 10 KΩ ) ( 1 mA ) = – 10 V

**13. The s – domain circuit is shown below.
**

Yf( s ) Z1 ( s ) R1 Rf

1 ⁄ s Cf −

+

V out ( s )

+ V in ( s ) −

+

−

a.

Z1 ( s ) = R1 1 1 1 Y f ( s ) = ---- + -------------- = ---- + s C f = ( 1 + s C f R f ) ⁄ R f Rf 1 ⁄ s Cf Rf

Rf 1 Z f ( s ) = ------------ = ---------------------1 + s Cf Rf Yf ( s ) Rf ⁄ ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) Rf V out ( s ) Zf ( s ) G ( s ) = ----------------- = – ------------ = – ------------------------------------- = – --------------------------------- (1) R1 V in ( s ) Z1 ( s ) R1 ( s Cf Rf + 1 )

**b. The DC gain is defined at the point where the frequency is zero, that is, s = 0 . Then, (1) above reduces to
**

Rf V out Gain DC = ---------- = – ----R1 V in

c.

**We rewrite the transfer function of (1) above as
**

Rf 1 G ( s ) = – ----- ⋅ -------------------------R1 s + 1 ⁄ Cf Rf

5-88

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises and we recognize this as the transfer function of a low-pass filter whose cutoff 3 dB frequency is f 3 dB = 1 ⁄ 2π C f R f and falls of at the rate of 20 dB ⁄ decade as shown below. Therefore, the 3 dB frequency can be determined by proper selection of the feedback resistor and feedback capacitor.

V out ---------V in

dB scale

1 f 3 dB = ----------------2πR f C f

log scale

– 20 dB ⁄ decade

Pass band

Stop band

**d. 40 dB represents a ratio of 100 . Therefore, R f ⁄ R 1 = 100 and with R 1 = 1 KΩ , we find that R f = 100 KΩ . Also, since
**

1 f 3 dB = ----------------2πR f C f

**for f 3 dB = 1 KHz and R f = 100 KΩ , we find that
**

1 1 C f = ----------------------- = ----------------------------------- = 1.59 nF 5 3 2πR f f 3 dB 2π × 10 × 10

e. The sketch above shows that the gain drops at the rate of 20 dB ⁄ decade and thus the drop of the gain from 40 dB to 0 dB represents two decades. And since at 40 dB , f 40 dB = 1 KHz ,

f 0 dB = 100 × f 40 dB = 100 × 1000 = 100 KHz

**f. It is shown in Circuit Analysis texts* that for low-pass filters
**

V out 1 1 1 G ( jω ) = ---------- = ----------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- = -------------------------------- ∠– atan ( ωRC ) 2 2 2 V in 1 + jωRC 2 2 2 1+ω R C ( 1 + ω R C ) ∠ atan ( ωRC )

The following MATLAB script will plot the phase angle θ = – atan ( ωRC ) as a function of frequency ω with RC = 1 . The script expresses the frequency normalized to the 3 dB frequency where f 3 dB = 1 KHz . Then, the normalized phase angle can be expressed as

θ n = – atan ( f ⁄ f 3 dB ) .

* See Chapter 7 in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications, ISBN 0-9709511-2-4

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-89

**Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers
**

f=(0.1:0.01:10); f3dB=1; theta=−atan(f./f3dB).*180./pi; semilogx(f,theta); grid

0

-15

-30 Degrees

-45

-60

-75

-90 0.1

1 Normalized frequency f/f3dB (log scale)

10

The plot above shows that the f 3 dB = 1 KHz frequency occurs at θ = – 45° and the asymptotic (dotted) line indicates that it drops at the rate of 45° ⁄ ( decade ) . Therefore, the phase at 100 KHz is – 90° and because this is an inverting amplifier, we must add – 180° so the total phase shift is – 270° or +90 ° . 14. The s-domain equivalent circuit is shown below.

IC ( s ) C

R 1 = 10 KΩ

V in ( s )

I(s)

V out ( s )

**a. The time constant is the product of R 1 and C , that is, τ = R 1 C = 10
**

C = τ ⁄ R 1 = 10

–4

–4

s , and thus

⁄ 10 = 0.01 µF

4

b.

1 V in ( s ) 1 1 V out ( s ) = – ----- I C ( s ) = – ----- I ( s ) = – ----- --------------sC R 1 sC sC V out ( s ) 1 ----------------- = – -----------V in ( s ) sR 1 C

5-90

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

49) f f f v out = – ⎛ ----.v in1 + ----.≈ 1. v in1 + R1 if Rf R2 − v in2 + i − + + v out − − From (5.6 KHz 2π 4 4 15. From (1) above we observe that the gain will be unity when ω = 10 r ⁄ s or 10 f = ------.= --------.v in2 ⎞ (1) ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 R R Since the magnitude of v out must 12 V or less and the feedback current i f must be limited to 1 mA .= 12 KΩ - v 12 if 10 –3 and with this value (1) becomes 12 KΩ 12 KΩ v out = – ⎛ ---------------.59 3 2π × 10 4 f = 1 KHz θ = 90° c.= – ------4 V in ( jω ) jωR 1 C jω jω10 4 V out 10 ---------.≈ 1.v in1 + ----.= – -------------.v in1 + ---------------. there must be out R f = -----------.v in2⎞ (2) ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-91 .Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 8 4 V out ( jω ) 1 10 10 --------------------.= – ---------------.(1) ω V in θ = 180° – 90° = 90° V out ---------V in 10 = -------------------.v inN ⎞ ⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 RN R R R and with only two inputs it reduces to f f v out = – ⎛ ----.= ------.v in2 + … + -----.

16. we can make R 4 = R 3 and the above relation reduces to 2 R2 A d = ------------------------. 10 for our case.67). the potentiometer must be set for zero resistance.+ 1 R fix + R var Let us choose a 100 KΩ potentiometer for R var .+ 1⎞ ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 ( v in2 – v in1 ) so we need to replace R 1 with R fix + R var . R1 R fix R var The overall voltage gain can be found from relation (5.5R fix = 4.+ 1 = 10 (2) 5 R fix + 10 Rearranging (1) and (2) for simultaneous solution. that is. the potentiometer must be set for full resistance. 2 R2 A d max = -------. the condition v out = – ( 4v in1 + 3v in2 ) can be satisfied if we choose R 1 = 3 KΩ and R 4 = 4 KΩ . Then.5R fix = 0 R 2 – 4. in other words. 100 for our case.= ----. in other words.⎛ -------.+ 1 = 100 (1) R fix For minimum gain. Then.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Then. we get R 2 – 49. R var = 100 KΩ . For convenience. R4 2 R2 v out A d = ----------------------------. 2 R2 A d min = ----------------------. R var = 0 . For maximum gain.5 × 10 5 and the solution yields R 2 = 495 KΩ ≈ 500 KΩ and R fix = 10 KΩ 5-92 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

we must make R 1 + R 2 = 50 KΩ . Since for the circuit above we want R in = 50 KΩ . then R 1 = R 2 = 25 KΩ . R1 v in R2 –V 10 KΩ Pot +V Rf v out b. v in1 + R1 − R2 Rf − v in2 + + R3 v out + − − From (5. we must make R 3 = R f = 1 MΩ .62) R in = 2R 1 and this relation holds only if R 2 = R 1 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-93 . the potentiometer can be adjusted to provide the value and polarity of the DC input voltage required to null the output to zero volts.= ----- R R2 and if we make R 2 = R 1 and R 3 = R f .Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 17. The circuit above will perform as a differential input op amp if R R1 3 f ----. for R 1 = R 2 = 25 KΩ and G v = 40 . and if R 2 = R 1 . +V 10 KΩ Pot –V v in R1 R2 Rf v out In both circuits of (a) and (b) above. 18. a.

⎞ = --------------.V in ( s ) – R f --------------.– ------------------------. letting s = jω .⎛ -------------------------⎞ = -----------------------------------⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2⎠ V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R 1 R 1 ( 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ) s – Rf ⁄ C R1 R2 V out ( s ) sC R 2 – R f ⁄ R 1 R 2 – R f ⁄ sC R 1 G v ( s ) = -----------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 19. V out ( s ) = V 1 – R f I ( s ) R2 V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC V out ( s ) = ------------------------.V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R and since it follows that V1 = V2 2 V 1 = ------------------------.⎛ -----------------------⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 1 ⁄ sC + R ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R R1 R1 2 2 Next.= ------------------------.⎛ -------------------------⎞ R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2⎠ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 V out ( s ) Rf R2 R 1 R 2 – R f ⁄ sC 1 ⁄ sC G v ( s ) = -----------------. R1 I(s) 1 ⁄ sC V1 V2 R2 I(s) Rf V out ( s ) V in ( s ) + − − + + − By the voltage division expression 2 V 2 = ------------------------.⎞ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ R1 R1 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ⎠ V in ( s ) V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R2 1 ⁄ sC s) = --------------.V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R This is a differential input amplifier and the current I ( s ) is V in ( s ) – V 1 I ( s ) = --------------------------R1 R2 V in ( s ) R2 1I ( s ) = ----.– ----.= ---------------------------------sC R 2 + 1 s + 1 ⁄ C R2 R 2 + 1 ⁄ sC V in ( s ) Now.= ---------------------------------.⎛ ------------------------. we get 5-94 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .V in ( s )⎞ = --------------.= ---------------------------------.⎛ 1 – ------------------------.⎛ V in ( s ) – ------------------------. The s – domain circuit is shown below.

= – -----------sR 1 C V in ( s ) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-95 .= -------------------------------------jω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 V in ( jω ) and for unity gain there must be R f = R 1 . this circuit is referred to as first order all-pass filter. The phase angle is θ = 180° – ∠– 2 tan ( ωC R 2 ) –1 where the angle of 180° is due to the fact that the feedback resistor is connected to the inverting input. this circuit is also referred to as a phase shifter. V out ( jω ) --------------------.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------.= ----------------------------. Because of this phase shift. V in1 ( s ) + R C R C V out ( s ) − V in2 ( s ) + + − − We will apply the superposition principle. With V in1 ( s ) acting alone and V in2 ( s ) = 0 . 2 2 2 V out ( jω ) jω – 1 ⁄ C R 2 ω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 ∠ tan ( – ωC R 2 ) –1 G v ( jω ) = --------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises jω – R f ⁄ C R 1 R 2 V out ( jω ) G v ( jω ) = --------------------.52. Then.= 1 V in ( jω ) and because the magnitude is independent of frequency. 20.= 1 ∠–2 tan ( ωC R 2 ) jω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 V in ( jω ) 2 2 2 ω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 ∠ tan ( ωC R 2 ) Therefore. the circuit reduces to that shown below. R V in1 ( s ) + − C V out 1 ( s ) − + R + − C The circuit above is essentially a Miller integrator like that shown in Figure 5. and in Exercise 14 we found that V out ( s ) 1 ----------------.

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Therefore.V in1 ( s ) (1) sRC Next. 1 ⁄ sC 1 ⁄ sC 1 ⁄ sC V out 2 ( s ) = ⎛ 1 + -----------.+ … R R⁄2 R⁄4 R⁄8 R eq 5-96 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .V in2 ( s ) (2) sC R From (1) and (2) 1 V out ( s ) = V out 1 ( s ) + V out 2 ( s ) = --------. for the circuit above 1 V out1 ( s ) = – ---------.⎞ ⎛ ---------------------.+ ---------. R VN VD -8 VC -4 R R VB -2 VA R IT R eq V analog VC VD VA VB 1 I T = -----. the given circuit reduces to that shown below. with V in2 ( s ) acting alone and V in1 ( s ) = 0 .+ ---------.+ ---------. R V in2 ( s ) + R VC C − C V out 2 ( s ) + + − − By the voltage division expression 1 ⁄ sC V C = ---------------------.+ ---------.= --.V in2 ( s ) R + 1 ⁄ sC and since this is a non-inverting amplifier.+ ---------.⎞ ⎛ -------------------⎞ V in2 ( s ) = ⎛ -------------------⎞ ⎛ -------------------⎞ V in2 ( s ) ⎝ ⎝ sC R ⎠ ⎝ sC R + 1⎠ sC R⎠ ⎝ sC R + 1⎠ 1V out 2 ( s ) = --------.+ ---------.+ … = --.( V in2 ( s ) – V in1 ( s ) ) sC R 21.⎞ V C = ⎛ 1 + -----------.( V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … ) R R R⁄2 R⁄4 R⁄8 1 1 1 1 1 ------.⎞ V in2 ( s ) ⎝ ⎝ R ⎠ R ⎠ ⎝ R + 1 ⁄ sC⎠ sC R + 1 1 1 1 V out 2 ( s ) = ⎛ 1 + --------.

= 0 2R R 2R V2 – V1 V2 – VB V2 – V3 -----------------.= -------.+ ------------------.V analog = R eq I T = -----------------------------------------.⋅ --.( V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … ) 1+2+4+8+… R V A + 2VB + 4V C + 8VD + … V analog = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… 22. 2.+ -----------------. Orchard Publications. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-97 .= 0 R 2R R V3 – V2 V3 – VC V3 – VD -----------------.+ ------------------.( 12V A + 24V B + 48V C + 32V D ) 128 4 –2 0 –2 5 –2 0 – 6 11 * For a review of matrices and determinants please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Spreadsheets. 2R V1 2R VA VB 1 R V2 2 2R R 3 V3 2R VC R 2R VD V analog We write nodal equations at Nodes 1. V1 V1 – VA V1 – V2 -----.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises or R R eq = -----------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… R 1 . and 3.= 0 R 2R R + 2R Simplifying and collecting like terms we get 4V 1 – 2V 2 = V A – 2 V 1 + 5V 2 – 2V 3 = V B – 6 V 2 + 11V 3 = 3V C + 2V D By Cramer’s rule* 4 –2 –2 5 VA VB 0 – 6 ( 3V C + 2V D ) 1V 3 = ---------------------------------------------------------. ISBN 0-9709511-1-6.+ ------------------.+ ------------------.+ -----------------.

23.( 3V A + 6V B + 12V C + 8V D ) + -.V D 3 3 32 1= ----.( 3V A + 6V B + 12V C + 8V D ) 32 By the voltage division expression. V3 – VD 1 2 V analog = ------------------.V analog = -.V 3 + -.+ C --------. v out = – 4 n ∫0 ( vin1 + 2vin2 + 10vin3 ) dt t This integration can be performed by a summing integrator such as that shown below where the factor 1 ⁄ RC was chosen to form the coefficients of v in1 . Reset v in1 v in2 v in3 1 MΩ 500 KΩ 100 KΩ 1 µF v out 24.V D 3 3 R + 2R and 1 2 1 . v in2 .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers or 1V 3 = ----.⋅ ----. and v in3 in the given expression.( V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D ) 16 where 16 = 2 = 2 .(1) dt R1 5-98 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . C i v in R1 i RF v out dv in v in i = -----.⋅ 2R + V D = -.

⎟ 2 R 1 dt dt ⎝ R1 dt ⎠ 2 26.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises v out = – R F i (2) Substitution of (1) into (2) yields dv in RF v out = – ----.v in + R F C --------.--------.(1) R1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-99 .---.--------.(3) 2 R 1 dt dt dt 2 and from (1).v in – R F C --------dt R1 Since we want v out = – 5v in – 3dv in ⁄ dt . and (3) d v in⎞ ⎛ RF dv in L dv in .+ C ----------.v out = – ⎜ ----.+ LC ----------.+ ----. RF R1 i C 0.5 µF i 1 MΩ v in 1 MΩ v out v in i = -----.+ C --------. (2).(2) dt Differentiating (1) with respect to t we get d v in 1 dv in di .= ----.(1) dt R1 di v out = – R F i – L ---. we choose R F = 5R 1 and R F C = 3 25. C R2 L i v in R1 i v out dv in v in i = -----.

v in – --------.+ 2v in ⎞ ⎝ dt ⎠ dt 5-100 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 1 v out = – R F i – --.= – ⎛ --------.i dt (2) C ∫ Substitution of (1) into (2) yields RF 1 v out = – ----.v in dt = – v in – 2 v in dt R1 C R1 ∫ ∫ or dv out dv in -----------.

and Exclusive NOR (XNOR). ANDing.1. also referred to as the false condition. and hexadecimal number systems. it follows that A = 0 (false). known as NAND. ISBN 0-94242395-5 is reviewed. emitter-coupled logic (ECL). true. The symbols for these gates are shown in Figure 6. Typical voltage signal for a digital computer * For this and the remaining chapters it is assumed that the reader has prior knowledge of the binary. the octal. complements of numbers. digital computers do not understand logical 1 . logical 0 . CMOS.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits T his chapter begins with an introduction to electronic logic gates and their function in terms of Boolean expressions and truth tables. and the OR gate. Exclusive OR (XOR). and when that variable is complemented. the fundamentals of Boolean algebra. also referred to as the true condition. and the transistor-transistor logic (TTL).2. and truth tables. Thus. if A = 1 (true). Inverter AND gate OR gate Figure 6. they only understand voltage signals such as that shown in Figure 6. NOR. The basic logic gates are the inverter or NOT gate. it is strongly recommended that a good book like our Logic Circuits and Applications. and BiCMOS logic families are discussed. 6.1 The Basic Logic Gates* Electronic logic gates are used extensively in digital systems and are manufactured as integrated circuits (IC’s). 6. Earlier logic families are presented in the exercises section.2. 5 volt level 0 volt ( ground ) level Figure 6. The three basic logic gates Four other logic gates. Of course. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-1 . and ORing operations respectively. or false. and these perform the complementation.1. it represents a logical 0 . If not. binary codes.2 Positive and Negative Logic Generally. the AND gate. Positive and negative logic are defined. an uncomplemented variable represents a logical 1 . are derivatives of the basic AND and OR gates and will be discussed later in this chapter.

and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor ( CMOS ) logic. or logical 0 to H and logical 1 to L.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits With reference to the voltage waveform of Figure 6. For our present discussion it will suffice to list the High and Low voltage levels for the Transistor-Transistor Logic ( TTL or T 2 L ).75 0 6.0 Low voltage (Volts DC) 0. Thus. Symbol for the inverter 6-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0 to 15.3. Figure 6.1 Typical values of High and Low voltage levels for three IC families IC Family TTL ECL CMOS High voltage (Volts DC) 5.4. Typical values are shown in Table 6. and the latter as negative logic.0 −0.1.9 5.4(a) represents positive logic and Figure 6.3.5. A A Figure 6. Emitter-Coupled Logic ( ECL ). the logic circuitry designer has the option of assigning a logical 1 to H and logical 0 to L. The former convention is known as positive logic.5. Positive and negative logic defined We will discuss the three common IC logic families in subsequent sections.2 −1.4(b) represents negative logic. log ical 1 L positive log ic (a) log ical 0 H L log ical 0 log ical 1 negative log ic (b) H Figure 6.2. and the truth table is shown in Table 6. TABLE 6.3 The Inverter The symbol for the inverter (NOT gate) is shown in Figure 6. H L Figure 6. High (H) and Low (L) assignments in a voltage waveform With the H and L assignments as shown in Figure 6. integrated circuit manufacturers assign the letter H (High) to the 5 volt level and the letter L (Low) to the ground level as shown in Figure 6.2.3.

6 shows the TTL SN7404 Hex Inverter IC where SN identifies the packaging and Hex implies that there are 6 inverters within the IC.3 The truth table for the inverter when positive logic is assumed Input 0 1 Output 1 0 With negative logic.4 The truth table for the inverter when negative logic is assumed Input 1 0 Output 0 1 Figure 6. To insure that this value is not exceeded. We recall from Chapter 2 that a practical diode. TABLE 6. the truth table for the inverter is written as shown in Table 6. when forward-biased. diode D 1 is included to clamp the input voltage to less than – 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-3 .2 V with respect to the ground. The SN7404 Hex Inverter IC One important parameter is the input clamp voltage denoted as V IK and this refers to the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals without damaging the IC.The Inverter TABLE 6. Vcc A6 1A 1Y 2A 2Y 3A 3Y GND 14 13 Y6 A5 12 11 Y5 A4 10 9 Y4 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 6A 6Y 5A 5Y 4A 4Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A1 Y1 A2 Y2 A3 Y3 GND Figure 6.7.2 V . TABLE 6. the truth table for the inverter is written as shown in Table 6.6.3. may be represented as an ideal diode in series with a 0.2 The truth table for the inverter Input L H Output H L With positive logic. A typical value for this parameter is – 1.7 V source and a small resistance as shown in Figure 6.4.

7.9. The inverter circuit of Figure 6. +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1.2 = 0. henceforth Low will mean a nominal 0 V input or output signal and High will mean a nominal 5 V input or output signal.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits i D ( mA ) slope = R 0.8 functions as follows: We assume that the input voltage is the output of a previous stage and it is Low at V in = 0. Figure 6. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF.8.7 V R Figure 6.2 V with respect to the ground as shown in Figure 6.2 + 0. Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter Note: Unless otherwise noted. transistor T 1 is ON and the voltage V 1 at the collector of transistor T 1 is V 1 = V CE sat + V in = 0.8 shows the internal details of the TTL IC 7404 inverter. Practical and ideal diode representation The data sheets provided by the manufacturer list several parameters and we will discuss the most important later in this chapter. With this input.6 ΚΩ 130 Ω T4 T1 Input A D2 Output Y T2 D1 T3 1 ΚΩ + - Figure 6. This is because if transistors T 2 and T 3 were 6-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 Practical diode vD ( V ) Ideal diode vD 0.4 V and under this condition.

2 V D2 D1 OFF T3 1 ΚΩ + Output Y V out = 4.2 V .1 V and thus the output is High and the inversion operation has been performed. However.9.6 ΚΩ 130 Ω ON V in = 0. with the input High the circuit is as shown in Figure 6.0 – 0.7 = 0. we conclude that transistor T 4 is OFF.7 = 1. the current I that flows through the 1. the voltage V 1 would have to be V 1 = V BE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. is sufficient to turn it ON.2 – 0.7 + 0. transistor T 1 is said to be operating at the inverse active mode. Under these conditions. the base-emitter junction of transistor T 1 is reversebiased. we accept the fact that with the input Low.7 + 0.6 KΩ resistor and then into the base of transistor T 4 . However. Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter for Low-to-High inversion Next.9 V . V out = 0.2 V Input A T1 I OFF V1 T2 T4 ON V CE sat 0.2 = 1.0 V with respect to the ground. current flows from V CC through the 4 KΩ resistor and thus the base-collector junction is forward-biased. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF. and thus the output is Low and the inversion operation has been performed. Accordingly. Then. The voltage V 2 at the collector of transistor T 2 is V 2 = V CE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. The current that flows through the base collector junction of transistor T 1 is sufficient to turn transistor T 2 ON and this causes transistor T 3 to turn ON also. Therefore. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-5 .1 V - Figure 6.10 and the circuit functions as follows: We assume that the input voltage is the output of a previous stage and it is High at V in = 5.6 V . +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1.The Inverter both ON.2 + 0.4 V . this voltage is not sufficient to turn transistor T 4 ON because for transistor T 4 to be ON there should be V 2 = V BE T4 + V D2 + V out = 0.7 = 4. V out = V CC – V CE T4 – V D2 = 5.7 + 0. With this input.

Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter for High-to-Low inversion It should be noted that it is the diode D 2 that prevents transistor T 4 from being ON. 6-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A B C D Figure 6.11. and the truth table is shown in Table 6.2 = 0. T 4 would be also ON since there would be V BE T4 = 0.0 V Input A T1 T4 OFF ON T2 Acts as diode 0.6 ΚΩ 130 Ω V2 V in = 5.10. Figure 6.2 V D2 Output Y D1 T3 1 ΚΩ ON + V out = 0.9 – 0.5.6 shows that the output of an AND gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 1 . Table 6. the truth table for a 3-input AND gate is written as shown in Table 6.4 The AND Gate The symbol for a 3-input AND gate is shown in Figure 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1.2 V 0.6.12 shows the TTL SN7408 Quad 2-input AND gate where Quad implies that there are 4 AND gates within the IC. 3-input AND gate symbol With positive logic.7 V - Figure 6.11.7 V which is just sufficient to turn T 4 ON. if D 2 were not being there. 6.

6 Truth table of 3-input AND gate when positive logic is used A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. The SN7408 Quad 2-input AND gate Figure 6.5 Truth table for 3-input AND gate A L L L L H H H H Inputs B L L H H L L H H C L H L H L H L H Output D L L L L L L L H TABLE 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-7 .12.The AND Gate TABLE 6. We will defer the analysis of this circuit and the reason for deferring the discussion after we introduce the NAND gate.13 shows the internal details of a two-input TTL AND gate.

Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Figure 6.7. 6-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.7 Truth table for 3-input OR gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table 6.14. Symbol for 3-input OR gate TABLE 6.14.7 shows that the output of an OR gate is logical 1 (true) whenever one or more of its inputs are logical 1 .13. Circuit for the SN7408 Quad 2-input AND gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) 6. A B C D Figure 6.5 The OR Gate The symbol for a 3-input OR gate is shown in Figure 6.

17. Circuit for the SN7432 Quad 2-input OR gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) 6. We will defer the circuit operation until we first describe the NOR gate operation in a subsequent section. We will not describe the functioning of the SN7432 Quad 2-input OR gate at this time.15. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-9 . 1A 1B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 1Y 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 4A 4B 4Y 2A 2B 3A 3B 2Y 3Y Figure 6.16.6 The NAND Gate The symbol for a 3-input NAND gate is shown in Figure 6. The SN7432 Quad 2-input OR gate Figure 6.The NAND Gate Figure 6.15 shows the TTL SN7432 Quad 2-input OR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 OR gates within the IC.8. Figure 6. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.16 shows the internal details of the TTL SN7432 Quad 2-input OR gate.

8 shows that the output of an NAND gate is logical 0 (false) only when all inputs are logical 1 .18 shows the TTL SN7400 Quad 2-input NAND gate where Quad implies that there are 4 NAND gates within the IC. therefore. 6-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .19.17. Figure 6.8 Truth table for 3-input NAND gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Table 6. they are fabricated as a single device with 2 emitters but only one collector and one base as shown in Figure 6.19 shows the internal details of the IC SN7400 NAND gate where transistor T 1 is equivalent to two identical NPN transistors with their bases and collectors tied together. The SN7400 Quad 2-input NAND gate Figure 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A B C D Figure 6. 1A 1B 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 1Y Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 4A 4B 4Y 2A 2B 3A 3B 2Y 3Y Figure 6. Symbol for 3-input NAND gate TABLE 6.18.

Circuit for the TTL SN7400 Quad 2-input NAND gate We observe that.0 – 0. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF. V out = V CC – V CE T4 – V D2 = 5.2 = 0. This is because if transistors T 2 and T 3 were both ON. when transistor T 3 is ON transistor T 4 is OFF and vice versa.1 V and thus the output is High and this satisfies the 2-input NAND gate operation.4 V .7 = 4. Accordingly.6 KΩ resistor and then into the base of transistor T 4 is sufficient to turn it ON. the voltage V 1 would have to be V 1 = V BE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. that is.19.4 V and thus transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF.8 where transistor T 4 is stacked on top of transistor T 3 and the operation is complementary.20. this circuit is practically the same as that of the inverter circuit of Figure 6. transistor T 1 is ON and the voltage V 1 at the collector of transistor T 1 is V 1 = V CE sat + V in = 0. The current I that flows through the 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-11 .The NAND Gate +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1. The 2-input TTL NAND gate circuit of Figure 6. Then.7 = 1. we accept the fact that under any of these three conditions. However. with the exception of two inputs for the 2-input NAND gate.7 + 0.2 V with respect to the ground as shown in Figure 6.6 ΚΩ 130 Ω T4 T2 Input A Input B D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 + Output Y T1 - Figure 6.2 – 0.19 functions as follows: Let us assume that either Input A or B or both are Low at V in = 0. Under any of these three conditions. This arrangement is referred to as totem-pole configuration.2 + 0.

7 + 0. It should be noted that it is the diode D 3 that prevents transistor T 4 from being ON.6 V . the base-emitter junction of transistor T 1 is reverse-biased.2 V . T 4 would be also ON since there would be V BE T4 = 0. with both inputs High the circuit is as shown in Figure 6.7 V which is just sufficient to turn T 4 ON.7 + 0.7 = 0.2 = 1. transistor T 1 is operating at the inverse active mode.2 + 0. Therefore. In other words.1 V - Figure 6. this voltage is not sufficient to turn transistor T 4 ON because for transistor T 4 to be ON the voltage V 2 should have the value V 2 = V BE T4 + V D2 + V out = 0.6 ΚΩ 130 Ω I ON T1 V in = 0.2 V Input A Input B T4 ON OFF V1 V CE sat 0. 6-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and this satisfies the 2-input NAND gate operation. The voltage V 2 at the collector of transistor T 2 is V 2 = V CE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. However. V OUT = 0. transistor T 4 is OFF.2 = 0.0 V at both inputs.20.21 and the circuit functions as follows: With V in = 5. The current that flows through the base collector junction of transistor T 1 is sufficient to turn transistor T 2 ON and this causes transistor T 3 to turn ON also.9 V .9 – 0. Circuit of the SN7400 2-input NAND gate when either Input A of B or both are Low Next.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1. current flows from V CC through the 4 KΩ resistor and thus the base-collector junction is forward-biased. if D 3 were not being there.2 V T2 D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 OFF + Output Y V out = 4.

The components of a 2-input AND gate We mentioned earlier that one of the parameters specified by the manufacturer is the input clamp voltage denoted as V IK and this refers to the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals without damaging the IC.2 V 0.21.2 V D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 ON + Output Y V out = 0. To insure that this value is not exceeded.7 V - Figure 6. Circuit of the SN7400 2-input NAND gate when both inputs are High Now. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.7 The NOR Gate The symbol for a 3-input NOR gate is shown in Figure 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-13 . we observe that this circuit essentially consists of a NAND gate followed by an inverter as shown in Figure 6.The NOR Gate +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1.2 V with respect to the ground.9. A B AB AB Y Figure 6. diodes D 1 and D 2 are included in the circuit of the 2-input NAND gate to clamp the input voltage to less than – 1.0 V Input A Input B Acts as diode 0.22. 6.13.22. A typical value for this parameter is – 1.2 V .23.6 ΚΩ 130 Ω OFF T1 V2 ON T2 T4 V in = 5. referring back to the AND gate circuit of Figure 6.

Symbol for 3-input NOR gate TABLE 6.9 Truth table for 3-input NOR gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 6.24. Figure 6. The TTL SN7402 Quad 2-input NOR gate Figure 6. 1A 1Y 1A 1B 2Y 2A 2B GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4Y 4B 4A 3Y 3B 3A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6.23.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A B C D Figure 6.25 shows the internal details of the TTL IC SN7402 NOR gate.9 shows that the output of an NOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 0 (false). 6-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .24 shows the TTL SN7402 Quad 2-input NOR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 NOR gates within the IC.

6. we find that V out = 0. However.6 ΚΩ 130 Ω T5 T2 T4 D1 D2 1 ΚΩ T6 Input B + Output Y - Figure 6. Circuit for the TTL SN7402 Quad 2-input NOR gate The TTL 2-input NOR gate circuit of Figure 6. Symbol for the XOR gate with positive logic Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-15 . transistor T 1 will be ON and transistor T 3 will be OFF. and thus transistors T 3 and T 4 are OFF.The Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 4 ΚΩ T1 Input A T3 D3 1. and thus V out = 0. 0.10.26.8 The Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates The exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output.25 functions as follows: When both inputs are Low at 0.0 – 0. The symbol for the XOR gate is shown in Figure 6. and a voltage drop across the 1 KΩ resistor will be developed and it will be sufficient to turn transistor T 6 ON.1 V .2 – 0.2 V . We observe that the output of an XOR gate is logical 1 (true) when only one of the inputs.26. But transistor T 2 will behave as a junction diode turning transistor T 4 ON. If Input A is Low and Input B is High. but not both. V out = V CC – V CE T5 – V D5 = 5. transistors T 1 and T 2 are both ON. is logical 1 . A B C Figure 6. The voltages at the base of transistors T 3 and T 4 are the same as the collector voltages of transistors s T 1 and T 2 . transistor T 5 is ON and therefore. that is. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.2 V . If Input A is High and Input B is Low or both inputs are High.25.2 V also.7 = 4.2 V with respect to the ground.

The symbol for the XNOR gate is shown in Figure 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits TABLE 6. The exclusive-NOR (XNOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. The TTL SN7486 Quad XOR gate Figure 6.11 shows that the output of a XNOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when the inputs are the same. For this reason. Table 6. 6-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29. both logical 0 or both logical 1 . 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. We can also implement the XNOR function using the TTL SN7486 IC with negative logic.27. the XNOR gate is also known as equivalence gate. There is no IC XNOR gate in the TTL family but one can be formed with an XOR gate (SN7486) followed by an inverter (SN7404).28 shows the internal details of the TTL IC SN7486 XOR gate.27 shows the TTL SN7486 Quad XOR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 XOR gates within the IC. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6. that is.11.10 Truth table for 2-input XOR gate Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C 0 1 1 0 Figure 6.

Thus. TTL Unit Load. Fan-Out. a typical TTL gate has a fan-out of 10.29. When this is the case. TTL Unit Load. Generally. TTL gates can feed up to 10 other digital gates or devices. Fanout is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed. Fan-Out. In some digital systems. a 3-input NAND gate has a fan-in of 3. it is necessary for a single TTL logic gate to drive more than 10 other gates or devices. Sourcing Current. a device called a buffer can be used between the TTL gate and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-17 . Sourcing Current. and Sinking Current Typical of all outputs VCC Equivalent of each input VCC 4 KΩ 130 Ω Input Output Figure 6.Fan-In. Thus. and Sinking Current The fan-in of a gate is the number of its inputs.28. Circuit for the SN7486 XOR gate A B C Figure 6. Symbol for 2-input XNOR gate TABLE 6.9 Fan-In.11 Truth table for 2-input XNOR gate with positive logic Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C 1 0 0 1 6.

6-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1) Thus.6 mA when output is in Low state (6.e. A unit load for TTL logic gates is defined as 1 Unit Load = ⎨ ⎧ 40 µA when output is in High state ⎩ 1. The passive pull-up arrangement is often used with open collector TTL devices such as the one shown in Figure 6. when the output is in High state.. is an active device. for a fan-out of 10 which is typical for TTL gates.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits the multiple devices it must drive.31(a). like all other transistors. A driver gate* is said to be sourcing current when it’s output is a logic 1 as shown in Figure 6.30. a resistor. A passive pull-up circuit. and when the output in Low state there is a current of . * A driver gate is a gate whose output serves as an input to another gate referred to as a unit load. Figure 6. The arrangement in Figure 6.33.6 mA = 16 mA We often hear the expressions “passive pull-up” and “active pull-up”. A buffer of this type has a fan-out of 25 to 30. The advantage of the open-collector configuration over the totem-pole configuration is that the outputs of two or more open-collector TTL gates can be tied together to realize the AND function as shown in Figure 6. 0 × 1.31(a) is often referred to as active pull-up since when transistor T 1 is ON. it pulls the output up towards V CC . Sourcing and sinking currents refer to the current flow in TTL circuits. there is a current of 10 × 40 µA = 0. +Vcc R OFF T Figure 6.30 is an example of passive pull-up where the resistor pulls-up the output voltage towards V CC . and the word “passive” is used to indicate that the pull-up device used is passive. An inverter (NOT gate) can serve this function in most digital circuits if complementation is also required.4 mA . The word “active” is used here to indicate that transistor T 1 .32. A driver gate is sinking current when it’s output is a logic 0 as shown in Figure 6.31(b). i.

32.Fan-In.6 ΚΩ T1 T2 Input A Input B X (open collector point) D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 + Output Y - Figure 6. TTL Unit Load. Sourcing Current. Fan-Out.31.4 V - V OL = 0.4 V I sin k I sin k = 16 mA - (a) ( 10 unit loads ) (b) Figure 6.4 mA D ( 10 unit loads ) Output Y D + T2 Output Y + T2 V OH = 2. Open-collector TTL configuration Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-19 . Current sourcing and current sinking +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1. and Sinking Current +Vcc +Vcc T1 T1 I source = 0.

let us consider the arrangement shown in Figure 6.34. 6-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .34.10 Data Sheets Table 6. Therefore. The reader is cautioned that these values are provided just for instructional purposes. because per manufacturer’s specifications these transistors can sink only 16 mA . For actual values.33. and we have already discussed Item 2. the manufacturer’s latest data sheet should always be used since the values change from time to time.12 lists some important parameters listed in the data sheets provided by the manufacturer with typical values for a TTL 2-input NAND gate. Wired AND connection To see why the outputs of two or more totem pole TTL gates should not be tied together for wired AND operation. SN7400. we will continue with Items 3 through 13. With the collectors of transistors T 2 and T 4 as shown. Improper wired AND connection 6. +Vcc +Vcc 130 Ω T1 130 Ω T3 ON OFF OFF T2 T4 ON I Figure 6. the current I can be as high as 55 mA which most likely will damage transistors T 1 and T 4 . Item 1 in the table is self-explanatory.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Wired AND X Y Figure 6.

V IN = 0 12 Propagation Delay V CC = 5.4 0.5 Units V V V V IK High Level Input Voltage V IH Low Level Input Voltage V IL High Level Output Voltage V OH Low Level Output Voltage V OL High Level Input Current I IH Low Level Input Current I IL V CC = Min V CC = Min V CC = Min . V IN = 2. 4.4 1.5 V V CC = Max . V IN = 0 V .12 Typical parameters for TTL logic circuits provided by IC manufacturers Parameter 1 2 3 4 5 Supply voltage V CC T A = 25°C Input clamp voltage V CC = Min .8 2. The high level input voltage V IH .35. I OH = – 0. V IN = 0. T A = 25°C . I IN = – 12 mA Conditions Min Typical Max 4.4 40 1 – 1.0 0.6 – 18 2. V IL = 0.Data Sheets TABLE 6.8 7 – 55 4. T A = 25°C .4 V V CC = Max .4 V 2.High to Low C L = 15 pF Level t PHL 13 Propagation Delay V CC = 5. R L = 400 Ω Time .4 mA V CC = Min .00 5. The low level input voltage V IL .8 V . I OL = 16 mA V CC = Max .0 V . R L = 400 Ω Time . T A = 25°C . V IN = 5.6 15 V V 6 7 V µA mA mA mA mA mA ns 8 9 Output Short Circuit V CC = Max .0 V .2 0. V IH = 2.75 5.5 V V CC = Max . also referred to as logical 1 input voltage is the minimum input voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 1 input as shown in Figure 6.35.4 0.Low to High C L = 15 pF Level t PLH 11 22 ns 3. also referred to as logical 0 input voltage is the maximum input voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 0 input as shown in Figure 6. V OUT = 0 Current I OS 10 Low Level Supply Current I CCL 11 High Level Supply Current I CCH V CC = Max .0 V . V IN = 4.25 – 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-21 .4 3.

Part of a typical NAND gate showing current sinking 6-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . representing a fan-out of 10 . +Vcc 130 Ω T1 Output = 0. 6.8 V Logical 0 input region 0.0 V Excluded region Neither log ical 1 nor log ical 0 0. also referred to as logical 0 output voltage is the maximum output voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 0 output when a current of 16 mA .36.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 5.36. Valid logical 1 and valid logical 0 input regions for a typical IC gate 5.0 V V IL Maximum log ical 0 input Figure 6. The low level output voltage V OL .4 V T2 I sin k = 16 mA Figure 6.0 V V IH Minimum log ical 1 input V CC = 5.35. is sinked by transistor T 2 as indicated in Figure 6. The high level output voltage V OH .0 V Logical 1 input region 2. also referred to as logical 1 output voltage is the minimum output voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 1 output.

7. The data sheet specifies an output short circuit current of 55 mA maximum. VCC 16 mA 1. An illustration of the input current I IL for a 2-input NAND gate 9. and the single gate on the left “sinks” (accepts) – 1.6 mA where the minus sign indicates the direction of the current flow as shown in Figure 6. The Low Level Supply Current I CCL is the current that the voltage supply V CC must furnish when only one of the four TTL 2-input NAND gates within the IC SN7400 has its output at logical 0 . and the output voltage is grounded.37 where for a logical 0 input voltage the ten gates at the right side “source” (supply) – 1. The output short-circuit current I OS is the output current when the output is shorted to ground as shown in Figure 6. the maximum value of the sum of the currents I IH furnished by the input lines should not be greater than 1 mA for ten unit loads. the resistor will act as a current limiter to limit the current in the range 18 mA to 55 mA . 8. V CC must furnish twice the amount of current specified in the data sheet.37. the maximum value of the current I IL should not exceed – 1.8 mA . the resistor provides short circuit protection.6 mA 1.6 mA ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ 10gates ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Figure 6.6 mA 1. when the input voltage is 2. when the input voltage is 5. If two outputs are at logical 0 .Data Sheets 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-23 .38.a. the maximum value of the sum of the currents I IH furnished by the input lines should not be greater than 40 µA for ten unit loads. 10. For a 2-input NAND gate.6 × 10 = – 16 mA .4 = 8. transistor T 2 is OFF. that is. When transistor T 1 is ON. When the input voltage is low at 0. 2 × 4.6 mA each.4 V . Thus. For a 2-input NAND gate.5 V .4 V .b.

V out2 > V out1 and thus the differential output is negative.2 mA . 13. then I C2 = I C1 . then I C2 > I C1 . assume that transistors T 1 and T 2 are identical. then I C2 < I C1 . 2 × 1. R C2 I C2 = R C1 I C1 . a.6 = 3. c. V CC must furnish twice the amount of current specified in the data sheet. The definition of the output short-circuit current 11. and that R C1 = R C2 . If V B2 < V B1 .38. If two outputs are at logical 1 . The propagation delay time t PHL is the time required for a logical 1 Input A or logical 1 Input B to appear as logical 0 at Output Y. 12. 6.39.11 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Let us consider the differential circuit shown in Figure 6. R C2 I C2 > R C1 I C1 .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 130 Ω T1 I short circuit T2 Figure 6. b. R C2 I C2 < R C1 I C1 . If V B2 = V B1 . V out2 = V out1 and thus the differential output is zero. Then. A typical value is 7 ns . V out2 < V out1 and thus the differential output is positive. that is. The propagation delay time t PLH is the time required for a logical 0 Input A or logical 0 Input B to appear as logical 1 at Output Y. 6-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The High Level Supply Current I CCH is the current that the voltage supply V CC must furnish when only one of the four 2-input NAND gates within the IC SN7400 has its output at logical 1 . If V B2 > V B1 . A typical value is 11 ns .

1 Solution: The base-to-emitter resistance is small compared to the external resistor R E and thus V EE – V BE 13.39.6 mA RE 8 KΩ and this current divides equally between transistors T 1 and T 2 assuming that they are identical.6 I E ≈ -----------------------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-25 .40.40.4 – 0.4 V Figure 6. +Vcc RC1 1 KΩ IC1 RC2 1 KΩ IC2 VOUT1 VOUT2 T1 VB1 T2 VB2 Differential Output RE = 8 KΩ IE − + VEE = 13.Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) +Vcc RC1 RC2 IC1 IC2 VOUT1 VOUT2 Differential Output VB1 T1 T2 VB2 IE RE − + VEE Figure 6.= ----------------------.= 1. Differential circuit for Example 6.1 Find the differential voltage gain for the circuit of Figure 6. Basic differential circuit Example 6.

32 V T1 VIN VBE2 = 0. g m = 40 × 0. relation (3.41. We observe that with V BE2 = 0.75 V (Low) − + VEE = 5.032 and from Chapter 3. I C2 = I C1 = I E ⁄ 2 = 1.6 ⁄ 2 = 0. relation (3.032 = 32 v BE The differential circuit of Figure 6. depending on the state of the circuit.6 V .39 forms the basis for the emitter-coupled logic (ECL) electronic gates.78). RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω VOUT1 IC2 VOUT2 T2 VREF = −1.9 V (High) or VIN = −1.8 × 10 –3 = 0. Basic ECL circuit In contrast to TTL where the transistors are either cut off or saturated.8 mA From Chapter 3.= R C1 g m = 10 × 0. Thus. The basic ECL circuit is shown in Figure 6. in ECL the transistors always operate in the active region so they can change state very rapidly.74) di C g m = ---------dv BE iC = IC or i C = g m v BE and thus v out1 = R C1 I C1 = R C1 g m v BE The small signal voltage gain is v out1 3 A v = ---------. at room temperature g m = 40I C where I C is in milliamps.41.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Then.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE VIN = −0.2 V Figure 6. the transistor T 2 is barely turned ON or barely 6-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

75 V as logical 0 (Low).1 × 10 = – 1. However. We observe that V E – ( – V EE ) – 1. with V in = – 0. However.e. V BE2 + V E = V REF and thus V E = – 1.1 mA 800 RE and V out1 = – R C2 I C2 = – 250 × 4. The output voltage levels are not the same as input voltage levels. Therefore all current flows through transistor T 1 and the collector current of this transistor is V E – ( – V EE ) – 1. with V in = – 1. the input levels are – 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-27 .Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) turned OFF and this allows a very rapid change of state from ON to OFF or vice versa.= 4.9 V is established as logical 1 (High) and V in = – 1.03 V . 2. Because V E = – 1.75 V (logical 0 ). Because V E = – 1.92 – ( – 5. transistor T 1 does not conduct and V out1 is essentially connected to the ground. we obtain V out1 = – 1. we must first find the current I C2 .= 4. The emitter current I E is almost constant since the base-to-emitter resistance is much smaller than the emitter resistor R E and this current flows through either transistor T 2 or transistor T 2 depending on the value of V in while V REF is held constant at – 1.32 – 0.92 V . and this power is converted to energy in the form of unwanted heat. which means the circuits require high power.9 V and the outputs are 0 V and – 1. logical 1 .1 mA RE 800 and V out2 = – R C2 I C2 = – 250 × 4. we obtain V out1 = 0 V and V out2 = – 1. V out1 and V out2 are complements of each other.75 V and – 0. We observe that: 1.. Let us now assume that V in = – 1.2 ) I C2 ≈ I E = ----------------------------. logical 0 .42.= ----------------------------------.92 – ( – 5.9 V . that is.9 V (logical 1 ). and transistor T 2 is OFF. i. To find V out2 when V in = – 1.75 V .2 ) I C1 ≈ I E = ----------------------------.32 V with respect to the ground. The propagation time for this arrangement is less than a nanosecond. Next. In the circuit of Figure 6.03 V 3 Therefore.03 V .03 V and V out2 = 0 V .e. let V in = – 0.= ----------------------------------.75 V (logical 0 ). the output levels can be made comparable to the input levels by attaching two emitter followers to the outputs as shown in Figure 6.92 V . transistor T 1 conducts hard.6 = – 1. and V out2 is essentially connected to the ground. there is a disadvantage and this is that the transistors are continually drawing current.03 V 3 Therefore.92 V .41 the resistor values are approximate and for proper operation they must be very precise.1 × 10 = – 1.. The condition V in = – 0. i. Also.

let us review the basic construction and their operation. It should also be noted that ECL is not a new technology.45 = – 0.00 – 0.2 V + 0. as before.78 V ( log ical 0 ) and V out2 = V' out2 – V BE = 0.75 V (Low) − + VEE = 5.75 = – 1. Motorola introduced the MECL series in the 1980’s.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE T2 V'OUT2 − VOUT1 VREF = −1.44.12 NMOS Logic Gates We discussed MOSFETs in Chapter 4 but.75 ns and power consumption of 40 mW . the MOSFET will be shown as a 3-terminal block as in Figure 6. for convenience. The symbol for a 2-input ECL gate is shown in Figure 6. 6-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .75 V − Emitter follower VOUT2 100 Ω −2 V Figure 6.42. We recall that a MOSFET is a 4-terminal device but normally the substrate is connected to the source thus making it a 3-terminal device. the resistor values are approximate.75 V Emitter follower T1 VIN VBE2 = 0. The complete ECL circuit With the emitter-followers connected at the outputs V' out1 and V' out2 of the basic differential circuit and recalling that in the emitter-follower configuration the output voltage is essentially the same as the input. Henceforth.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω IC2 V'OUT1 + 0.9 V (High) or VIN = −1. Two types of ECL gates are the ECL 10K and ECL 100K. 6.32 V 100 Ω −2 V VIN = −0. the outputs at the emitter-followers are V out1 = V' out1 – V BE = – 1.45.43 shows a typical 2-input ECL gate and.75 V ( log ical 1 ) Figure 6. the latter having a propagation delay time of 0.03 – 0.

5 V and it is referred to as the threshold voltage.2 V Figure 6. Symbol for ECL gate D B S n – channel G D N G S S D B G D P G p – channel S Figure 6.44. as shown in Figure 6. when V GS < V T .46. where V T = 1.and p-channel MOSFETS An n-channel MOSFET or simply NMOS device. V DD D G + V GS _ S S N 10 10 D D Ω or S Open switch V GS < V T Figure 6.45.43. Typical 2-input ECL gate A B A+B A+B Figure 6.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE T3 VREF = −1. Designations for n. behaves like an open switch.NMOS Logic Gates RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω IC2 Emitter follower Emitter follower A+B A+B A T1 B T2 VBE2 = 0.46. Condition under which an NMOS device behaves as an open switch Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-29 .32 V − + VEE = 5.

Condition under which a PMOS device behaves as an open switch An PMOS device behaves like a closed switch. we will represent these with resistor symbols with a typical value of 100 KΩ .5 V is the threshold voltage.49. when V GS > V T .47. D V DD N S S D D G V GS + _ 10 Ω 3 or S Closed switch V GS > V T Figure 6.48. as shown in Figure 6. as shown in Figure 6.48.47. V DD D G + V GS _ S S S D D P 10 Ω 3 or Closed switch V GS < V T Figure 6. Condition under which an NMOS device behaves as a closed switch A p-channel MOSFET or simply PMOS device.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits An NMOS device behaves like a closed switch. since in integrated circuits resistors are being replaced by NMOS or PMOS devices because these devices require much less space than physical resistors. Condition under which a PMOS device behaves as a closed switch For convenience. 6-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .49. We will denote these as N L or P L where the subscript L stands for load. where V T = 1. Also. behaves like an open switch. as shown in Figure 6. when V GS > V T . V DD D G + V GS _ S S S D D P 10 10 Ω or Open switch V GS > V T Figure 6. when V GS < V T . in our subsequent discussion we will the state of an NMOS or PMOS device ON or OFF (closed or open switch) by a low resistance ( 1 KΩ ) or a very high resistance ( 10 10 Ω ) respectively.

the NMOS device N is ON.12. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-31 . Typical NMOS inverter and again the inversion operation is performed. N L = R D = 10 5 Ω .50 where with V IN = 0 V (logical 0 ).14. The truth table for positive logic is shown in Table 6. the NMOS device N is OFF.V DD = ---------------------. With V IN = 5 V (logical 1 ).13 Truth table for NMOS inverter V in 0 1 V out 1 0 A PMOS inverter has a similar arrangement where the NMOS devices are replaced by PMOS devices.× 5 ≈ 5 V 10 5 RX + RD 10 + 10 10 Thus.V DD = -------------------.NMOS Logic Gates 6.51. and the output is RX 10 V out = ------------------. the inversion operation has been performed.13. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.12.× 5 ≈ 0.2 The NMOS NAND Gate A 2-input NMOS NAND gate is shown in Figure 6. TABLE 6. R X = 10 10 Ω .50. and the output is RX 10 V out = ------------------.05 V 3 5 RX + RD 10 + 10 V DD = 5 V RD D + V in _ G N S + V out _ + V in _ G V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V 10 Ω 5 3 or G S D N S D NL RD + + V out _ 10 Ω 3 or 10 RX V out _ 10 Ω Figure 6. R X = 10 3 Ω . By application of the voltage division expression as with the NMOS inverter. N L = R D = 10 5 Ω . 6.1 The NMOS Inverter A typical NMOS inverter is shown in Figure 6.

By application of the voltage division expression as with the NMOS NAND gate. 6. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.52. This allows to integrate many more CMOS gates on an IC than in NMOS or bipolar technology.3 The NMOS NOR Gate A 2-input NMOS NOR gate is shown in Figure 6. 6-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . resulting in much better performance.14 Truth table for 2-input NMOS NAND gate A B V out 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 6. Power is only dissipated in case the circuit actually switches.12.51.13 CMOS Logic Gates CMOS logic uses both NMOS and PMOS devices to form logic functions. CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for the manufacturing of microprocessors. The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and bipolar technology is the much smaller power dissipation. memories and application specific integrated circuits.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits V DD = 5 V D G S D + A _ G N S D G S N _ V out NL + V DD = 5 V 10 Ω 10 Ω 3 5 RD + or 10 3 10 Ω V out 10 Ω or 10 + B _ 10 Ω _ Figure 6. 2-input NMOS NAND gate TABLE 6. a CMOS circuit has almost no static power dissipation. Unlike NMOS or bipolar circuits.15.

V DD = 5 V S G V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V P D + D 10 Ω + 10 10 3 10 10 Ω + + V in _ G S V out or 10 Ω 3 Ω V out ≈ 5 V _ V out ≈ 0 V _ N _ V in = 0 V V in = 5 V Figure 6.1 The CMOS Inverter A typical CMOS inverter is shown in Figure 6. Typical CMOS inverter In Figure 6.53 with V in = 0 V (logical 0 ). and the output is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-33 .53.13. device N is OFF.53. 2-input NMOS NOR gate TABLE 6. device P is ON.CMOS Logic Gates V DD = 5 V D G NL S D + V _ A G N S + VB _ G D N S V out _ _ + 10 Ω 3 V DD = 5 V 10 Ω + 10 Ω 3 5 or 10 or 10 V out Ω 10 Ω 10 Figure 6.52.15 Truth table for 2-input NMOS NOR gate A B V out 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 6.

16 Truth table for CMOS inverter V in 0 1 V out 1 0 6. device N is ON. 2-input CMOS NAND gate 6-34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . device P is OFF.× 5 ≈ 5 V 10 3 10 3 10 + 10 10 + 10 10 10 and the inversion operation has been performed. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.V DD = ---------------------.V DD = ---------------------.16.17. With V in = 5 V (logical 1 ).2 The CMOS NAND Gate A 2-input CMOS NAND gate is shown in Figure 6.× 5 ≈ 0 V 3 10 RX + RD 10 + 10 3 and again the inversion operation is performed. The truth table for positive logic is shown in Table 6.13. By application of the voltage division expression as with the CMOS inverter.54. and the output is RX 10 V out = ------------------. V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V G S P D D N S D N S G S 10 Ω 3 P D + or 10 10 Ω 10 10 3 or 10 Ω Ω + 10 Ω 3 + _ + _ G VA G or 10 3 10 V out Ω V out _ 10 Ω or 10 VB _ 10 Ω Figure 6.54. TABLE 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 10 10 V out = ---------------------.

Tri-State Devices.3 The CMOS NOR Gate A 2-input CMOS NOR gate is shown in Figure 6. G VA G VB S V DD = 5 V 10 Ω 3 V DD = 5 V + P D S or 10 3 10 Ω + P D + G D V out 10 Ω or 10 10 Ω 10 Ω 3 + D G S 10 Ω 10 10 3 N N S or or 10 Ω 10 Ω V out Figure 6.Buffers. the output of a logic circuit needs to be buffered. 2-input CMOS NOR gate TABLE 6. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.14 Buffers.17 Truth table for 2-input CMOS NAND gate VA 0 0 1 1 VB 0 1 0 1 V out 1 1 1 0 6. A buffer or line driver is normally used to change (amplify) the voltage level at the output of a logic circuit as shown in Figure 6.18.56. and Data Buses In certain applications. and Data Buses TABLE 6.13.55.55. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-35 . By application of the voltage division expression as with the CMOS inverter.18 Truth table for 2-input CMOS NOR gate VA 0 0 1 1 VB 0 1 0 1 V out 1 0 0 0 6. Tri-State Devices.

Symbol for a buffer gate TABLE 6. Figure 6. and also are characterized for use as buffers for driving TTL inputs. Figure 6.58. and average propagation delay time is 14 ns . A B=A B Figure 6. which simplifies design. Voltage amplification with the use of a buffer The symbol of a buffer gate is shown in Figure 6.19 Truth table for buffer amplifier with positive logic A 0 1 B 0 1 The TTL ICs SN7407 and SN7417 are a hex buffers meaning that each contains 6 buffers featuring high-voltage. The maximum sink current is 40 mA for both the SN7407 and SN7417.57 and its truth table is shown in Table 6. Typical power dissipation is 145 mW .19. Circuit for the IC SN7407/SN7417 buffer (Courtesy of Texas Instruments) The circuits for the SN7407/SN7417 are completely compatible with most TTL families.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Logic Circuit Buffer ( Line Driver ) Figure 6. open-collector outputs for interfacing with high-level circuits (such as CMOS) or for driving high-current loads (such as lamps or relays). 6-36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .56. The SN7407 has minimum breakdown voltages of 30 V. and the SN7417 has minimum breakdown voltages of 15 V. Inputs are diode clamped to minimize transmission-line effects.57.58 shows the circuits for these ICs.

TABLE 6. G A B Figure 6.59 shows the symbols for ICs SN74125 and SN74126 quad bus buffers with 3-state outputs. and V out = High Z . and Table 6. Symbol for the SN74366 hex tri-state inverting buffer TABLE 6. logic 0. and Data Buses Other examples of buffered gates are the TTL SN7406/SN7416 Hex Inverter buffers with opencollector high-voltage outputs. When Control = 1 the switch is closed. both the NMOS and PMOS devices are ON. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-37 . Figure 6. an open circuit.60 shows the symbol for the TTL SN74366 hex tri-state inverting buffer.21 is the truth table for that device. Tri-State Devices. that is. when Control = 0 the switch is open.60. and V OUT = V IN . the SN7428 quad 2-input positive-nor buffers. and the output of the SN74126 is disabled when G is Low. logic 1.59. and High-Z (high impedance). and the SN7440 dual-four input positive-NAND buffers. Thus.20 Truth table for the SN74125 3-state buffer A B G 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 High Z High Z Figure 6.21 Truth table for the TTL SN74125 3-state buffer A B G 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 High Z High Z Another tri-state device is the CMOS transmission gate shown in Figure 6.61 where the control input serves as an open or closed switch. Some other ICs are tri-stated buffers or gates. The output of these devices can assume three states. The truth table for the SN74125 device is shown in Table 6. G A SN74125 B G A SN74126 B Figure 6.Buffers.20. Symbols for the TTL SN74125 and SN74126 devices The output of the SN74125 device is disabled when G is High. both the NMOS and PMOS devices are OFF.

or bidirectional where data can flow in either direction where each direction can be controlled by tri-state devices as shown in Figure 6.61. the CMOS transmission gate circuit consists of one NMOS and one PMOS connected in parallel and controlled by inverted gate voltages. The CMOS transmission gate As shown in Figure 6. 6-38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Symbol for the CMOS transmission gate A data bus is a group transmission paths such as groups of wires used as a common path to interconnect several devices.62. If they are ON. A data bus. there is no path from the input to the output. that is. both NMOS and PMOS can be switched ON of OFF at the same time rather than alternately. the CMOS transmission gate can be used for both analog and digital signals and the only requirement is that the signal does not exceed the power supply voltages.61. If they are OFF. one in which data can flow in one direction only. Figure 6. or simply a bus can be unidirectional. C VIN VOUT C Figure 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Control D G N S V in D G P S V out Figure 6.63 where the control line C A → B directs the data flow from left to right and C B → A from right to left. With this arrangement. the resistance between V IN and V OUT is very low and the signal is transmitted without degradation. Also.62 shows the symbol for the CMOS transmission gate.

64. Typical bidirectional bus 6.Present and Future Technologies A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn CA → B CB → A Figure 6. the Low-power Schottky 2-input NAND gate is identified as SN74LS00 whose internal construction is shown in Figure 6.64. the resistances are considerably higher in the upgraded versions of the TTL family and the ICs are identified with the LS designation which stands for Lowpower Schottky device.15 Present and Future Technologies The IC devices that we described in previous sections of this chapter have been around for over forty years. Since speed and low-power consumption are the most desirable characteristics. Thus. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-39 .65. we saw how the addition of a Schottky diode can be used to prevent transistor saturation as shown in Figure 6.63. Bipolar NPN transistor with Schottky diode and its representation as Schottky transistor To achieve low-power consumption. In Chapter 3. just about all of these devices have been replaced with newer devices even though the ICs that we described are still in use by experimenters and laboratory work in colleges and universities. Schottky C diode Schottky transistor B E E C B Figure 6.

19 with SN74LS00 2-input NAND gate shown in Figure 6. Let us consider the terminal voltages of the Schottky transistor shown in Figure 6.8 V C V CE = 0. V BC = 0.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits T4 T5 Figure 6.66. Schottky transistor terminal voltages We observe that these values satisfy KVL since V BC + V CE – V BE = 0 (6. This is because transistor T 5 never goes into saturation as it is explained below.5 V B V BE = 0. and all transistors except T 5 .3 V E Figure 6.65. have been replaced by Schottky transistors. the conventional diodes have been replaced by Schottky diodes. reveals that in the latter all resistances are higher.66. Internal construction of the SN74LS00 2-input NAND gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) A comparison of the SN7400 2-input NAND gate shown in Figure 6.65.2) 6-40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

bipolar transistors offer high speed. The propagation delay time is about 4 ns compared to about 11 ns for the standard TTL. and this combination results in low-power logic gates. Another recent technology is the BiCMOS.2 V . We will not discuss the BiCMOS technology in detail. a 2-input NAND gate in this technology is indicated as SN74ALS00. by application of (6. This inverter functions as follows: V DD = 5 V S G D + V _ in G S P T1 + V out _ N T2 D Figure 6. V out = V DD – V CET1 ≈ 5 – 0. This device can be used with both analog and digital signals.65. Then. Basically.2) and noting that V CB = – V BC .67. When V in = 0 V . We will only show the BiCMOS inverter and the BiCMOS 2-input NAND gate. The BiCMOS inverter circuit is shown in Figure 6. It combines bipolar and CMOS to give the best balance between available output current and power consumption. Then. Basic BiCMOS inverter circuit. a BiCMOS is a two-stage amplifier that uses a CMOS device in the first stage and a bipolar transistor in the second stage.8 V . and low output resistance. Thus. high gain.1 V and therefore we conclude that transistor T 5 never enters the saturation region. V out = V CET2 ≈ 0. As we know. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-41 . the NMOS device and transistor T 2 are OFF while the PMOS device and transistor T 1 are ON. the PMOS device and transistor T 1 are OFF while the NMOS device and transistor T 2 are ON.Present and Future Technologies From Figure 6. and the power consumption is about 1 mW compared to about 10 mW for the standard TTL. When V IN = 5 V . A more recent advancement in TTL technology is the Advanced Low-power Schottky denoted as SN74ALSXX.3 + 0.67. whereas CMOS technology offers high input resistance.2 = 4.8 = 1. we find that V CET5 = V BCT5 + V BET5 = V CET4 + V BET5 = 0.

gallium arsenide (GaAs) is the fastest technology with propagation delay times about 20 ps and even though prices for these devices have fallen considerably during the last few years.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits The BiCMOS 2-input NAND gate has the same arrangement as the 2-input CMOS NAND gate with the addition of two NPN transistors at the outputs of the NMOS and PMOS devices as shown in Figure 6. Fairchild. 6-42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . National Semiconductor. and other IC manufacturers for new products. Undoubtedly.68. Motorola. the cost is still very high in comparison with other IC families. V DD = 5 V S G D P G S P D R D + VA _ _ + V _ B G S D G S R _ N N V out + Figure 6. The basic BiCMOS NAND gate As we mentioned in Chapter 3.68. faster and with lower power consumption devices will emerge in the future. The interested reader is urged to check occasionally the Internet for new products developed by Texas Instruments.

the logic circuitry designer has the option of assigning a logical 1 to H and logical 0 to L. • The output of an AND gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 1 . known as NAND. it follows that A = 0 (false). The earlier SN7400 Quad 2-input NAND gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS00 device. are derivatives of the basic AND and OR gates. • The output of an OR gate is logical 1 (true) whenever one or more of its inputs are logical 1 . All SN74 series devices are TTL devices. • Generally. and when that variable is complemented. • The Inverter performs the complementation operation. that is. The output of a XNOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when the inputs are the same. and these perform the complementation. diodes are included at the inputs of gates. To insure that this value is not exceeded. The TTL SN7404 Hex Inverter is a popular transistor-transistor logic (TTL) IC device. The SN7402 Quad 2-input NOR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS02 device. also referred to as the true condition.Summary 6. also referred to as the false condition. Thus. ALS stands for Advanced Low power Schottky transistor. and ORing operations respectively. ANDing. The basic logic gates are the inverter or NOT gate. • The output of an NAND gate is logical 0 (false) only when all inputs are logical 1 . • The exclusive-NOR (XNOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. an uncomplemented variable represents a logical 1 . • The exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. • Four other logic gates. the AND gate. With the H and L assignments. • The output of an NOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 0 (false). is logical 1 . NOR. However. The SN7486 XOR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS86 device. The output of an exclusive-OR gate is logical 1 (true) when only one of the inputs. followed by an Inverter. • Integrated circuit manufacturers assign the letter H (High) to the 5 volt level and the letter L (Low) to the ground level. The former convention is known as positive logic. and the latter as negative logic. or logical 0 to H and logical 1 to L. The newer SN74ALS04 device is faster and consumes less power. it represents a logical 0 . Exclusive OR (XOR). • The input clamp voltage denoted as V IK is the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals of a typical TTL gate without damaging the IC. The earlier SN7432 Quad 2-input OR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS32 device. AND and OR gates consist of NAND and NOR gates respectively. The earlier TTL SN7408 Quad 2-input AND gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS08 device.16 Summary • Electronic logic gates are used extensively in digital systems and are manufactured as integrated circuits (IC’s). both logical 0 or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-43 . but not both. if A = 1 (true). and the OR gate. and Exclusive NOR (XNOR). Thus if the input is A the output will be A and vice versa.

6-44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The advantage of the open-collector configuration over the totem-pole configuration is that the outputs of two or more opencollector TTL gates can be tied together to realize the AND function. • The fan-in of a gate is the number of its inputs. A driver gate is said to be sourcing current when it’s output is High. • A buffer can be used when it becomes necessary for a single TTL logic gate to drive more than 10 other gates or devices. a 3-input NAND gate has a fan-in of 3. that is. An inverter (NOT gate) can serve this function in most digital circuits if complementation is also required. the emitter-coupled logic (ECL) is another logic family employing bipolar transistors. For this reason. Thus. and 1. • Active pull-up refers to the condition where a transistor rather than a resistor is used to pullup the output voltage towards V CC . and with the exception of gallium arsenide technology. TTL gates can feed up to 10 other digital gates or devices. • Totem pole TTL gates should not be tied together for wired AND operation. one unit load is defined as 40 µA when the output is in High state. A typical buffer has a fan-out of 25 to 30. Generally.6 mA when the output is in Low state. a typical TTL gate has a fan-out of 10. This arrangement is referred to as wired-AND operation. when one transistor is ON the other transistor is OFF.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits both logical 1 . is the fastest logic family. A driver gate is sinking current when it’s output is Low. • Passive pull-up refers to the condition where a resistor pulls-up the output voltage towards V CC . • Fan-out is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed. • Totem-pole configuration refers to the arrangement where at the output stage of a TTL gate one transistor is stacked on top of another and their operation is complementary. • The data sheets provided by IC device manufacturers contain very important parameters that designers must take into consideration. There is no IC XNOR gate in the TTL family but one can be formed with an XOR gate (SN7486) followed by an inverter (SN7404). • Besides the TTL. Thus. the XNOR gate is also known as equivalence gate. We can also implement the XNOR function using the SN7486 IC with negative logic. • Sourcing and sinking currents refer to the current flow in TTL circuits. The passive pull-up arrangement is often used with open collector TTL devices. • For TTL logic gates. • Some TTL logic gates are designed with the collector of transistor at the output stage unconnected and are referred to as open collector TTL devices.

in ECL the transistors always operate in the active region so they can change state very rapidly. • The earlier NMOS and PMOS logic gates have now been superseded by CMOS logic gates. that is. CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for the manufacturing of microprocessors.75 ns and power consumption of 40 mW . • Two types of ECL gates are the ECL 10K and ECL 100K. or simply a bus can be unidirectional. • Some other ICs are tri-stated buffers or gates. memories and application specific integrated circuits. Bipolar transistors offer high speed. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-45 . depending on the state of the circuit. • A data bus is a group transmission paths such as groups of wires used as a common path to interconnect several devices. The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and bipolar technology is the much smaller power dissipation. a BiCMOS is a two-stage amplifier that uses a CMOS device in the first stage and a bipolar transistor in the second stage. • The BiCMOS technology combines bipolar and CMOS to give the best balance between available output current and power consumption.Summary • In contrast to TTL where the transistors are either cut off or saturated. • Gallium arsenide (GaAs) still remains the fastest technology with propagation delay times about 20 ps and even though prices for these devices have fallen considerably during the last few years. a 2-input NAND gate in this technology is indicated as SN74ALS00. CMOS logic uses both NMOS and PMOS devices to form logic functions. and High-Z (high impedance). The basic ECL circuit is essentially a differential amplifier. • A more recent advancement in TTL technology is the Advanced Low-power Schottky denoted as ALS. • The CMOS transmission gate is another tri-state device where the control input serves as an open or closed switch. high gain. the latter having a propagation delay time of 0. Thus. Motorola introduced the MECL series in the 1980’s. one which implements the OR function. one in which data can flow in one direction only. A data bus. This device can be used with both analog and digital signals. the cost is still very high in comparison with other IC families. whereas CMOS technology offers high input resistance. or bidirectional where data can flow in either direction where each direction can be controlled by tri-state devices. and this combination results in low-power logic gates. logic 0. and the other implements the NOR function. • The ECL gate provides two outputs. The output of these devices can assume three states. • A buffer or line driver is normally used to change (amplify) the voltage level at the output of a logic circuit. It should also be noted that ECL is not a new technology. and low output resistance. Basically. logic 1. and the power consumption is about 1 mW compared to about 10 mW for the standard TTL. The propagation delay time is about 4 ns compared to about 11 ns for the standard TTL.

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. State some of the deficiencies of this circuit when used as a logic gate. V1 V2 15 KΩ 5V V out Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 3 V with respect to the ground. c. V1 V2 1 KΩ V out Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. d. The circuit below is known as Diode Logic (DL) gate. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 3. The circuit below is another Diode Logic (DL) gate. State the conditions under which this circuit can be classified as an AND gate.17 Exercises 1. 1 KΩ V1 V2 1 KΩ 1 KΩ V out a. b. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 6-46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 6. 2. The circuit below is known as Resistor Logic (RL) gate. State the conditions under which this circuit can be classified as an OR gate.

Hint: Start with an equivalent circuit.Exercises 4. For the circuit of Exercise 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-47 . 750 Ω V1 750 Ω T2 750 Ω T3 5V T1 1 KΩ V out V2 V3 Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 5. derive an expression for V out1 High level when the driving gate has a fan-out of 2. 750 Ω V3 T3 V4 750 Ω V1 750 Ω T1 T4 1 KΩ V out2 750 Ω V2 T2 1 KΩ V out1 5V 5V 6. For the circuit below find V out1 and V out2 when each of V 1 through V 4 assumes the values of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. The circuit below is a 3-input Resistor-Transistor Logic (RTL) gate.

Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 8. The circuit below is a 3-input Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL) gate. Calculate the levels of the output voltage v out when the levels of the input voltage v in are 0 and 12 volts. V CC = 5 V R1 D1 V1 V2 V3 D2 D3 2 KΩ D5 D4 R2 2 KΩ V out R3 20 KΩ Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 7. It is known that the inverter circuit shown below has the value h FE = 30 minimum. You may first assume that v out ( sat ) = 0 V to obtain approximate values and then assume that v out ( sat ) = 0.2 V for exact values. V CC = 12 V RC R1 2.2 KΩ v out v in 15 KΩ R2 100 KΩ V BB = – 12 V 6-48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 6. V out = 0 V . With V 1 = 0 V . V1 0V 0V 5V 5V V2 0V 5V 0V 5V V out 0V 1.5 KΩ R 2 + R 1 || R 3 With V 1 = 5 V .34 V c. R 1 is in parallel with R 3 and by the voltage division expression V out V1 = 0 V R 1 || R 3 0.18 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1.67 = 3.67 V 1 KΩ + 0. With the above arrangement for instance. R 2 is in parallel with R 3 and by the voltage division expression V out V2 = 0 V R 2 || R 3 0.34 V and if this output becomes the input of another gate shown below as Gate 3.72 V as shown in parentheses. 1 KΩ V1 V2 1 KΩ 1 KΩ V out a.⋅ 5 V = 1.34 V With these values we construct the truth table below.67 V 1.5 KΩ = ---------------------------.⋅ 5 V = 1. the outputs drop to 2.67 V 1 KΩ + 0.34 V b. This circuit can be classified as an AND gate if V out ≥ 3. with V 1 = V 2 = 5 V the output is V out = 3.⋅ V 1 = -----------------------------------. Moreover. more different output levels result. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-49 . This circuit can be classified as an OR gate if V out ≥ 1. there is no compatibility between the input and output levels.67 V 3. With V 1 = V 2 = 0 V .67 + 1.⋅ V 2 = -----------------------------------. This circuit is not practical for use as a logic gate because if more than two inputs exist. and V 2 = 0 V .5 KΩ R 1 + R 2 || R 3 With V 1 = V 2 = 5 V .67 V d.5 KΩ = ---------------------------. we apply the principle of superposition and we find that V out V1 = V2 = 5 V = V out V1 = 0 V + V out V2 = 0 V = 1. and V 2 = 5 V .

the output is V out = 3. 6-50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 V .34 V (2. the output is V out = 0. When V 1 = V 2 = 3 V .7 V and thus the truth table is as shown below. or V 1 = 0 V and V 2 = 3 V . when V 1 = V 2 = 0 V . 0.7 V 0.34 V (2. or V 1 = 3 V and V 2 = 0 V . V1 0V 0V 3V 3V V2 0V 3V 0V 3V V out 0.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 5V 5V 5V 5V 3.72 V) 2.7 V 0.7 V 15 KΩ 5V V CC V out By inspection.7 V 3.7 V The truth table indicates that this circuit could be used as an AND gate.23 V (1.7 V V1 V2 0.72 V) 3 2 3. V1 V2 15 KΩ 5V V out Both diodes are forward-biased for any combination of the inputs since the value of V CC is greater than 3 V and can be represented as in the circuit below.81 V) 1 2.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-51 .3 V The truth table indicates that this circuit could be used as an OR gate.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 3.3 V and thus the truth table is as shown below. one or both diodes conduct and the output is V out = 5. none of the three transistors conduct and thus V out = 5 V . or V 1 = V 2 = 5 V . the output is V out = 0 V .0 – 0. V1 0V 0V 5V 5V V2 0V 5V 0V 5V V out 0V 4. or V 1 = 5 V and V 2 = 0 V .3 V 4. When one or more of the input voltages is 5 V one or more of the transistors will saturate and the output will be V out = 0. When V 1 = 0 V and V 2 = 5 V . when V 1 = V 2 = 0 V . V1 V2 1 KΩ V out By inspection. 750 Ω V1 750 Ω T2 750 Ω T3 5V T1 1 KΩ V out V2 V3 By inspection.3 V 4. The truth table is as shown below and thus this circuit behaves as a 3-input NOR gate.2 V ≈ 0 V . 4.7 = 4. when V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = 0 V .

or V 1 = V 2 = 5 V . Thus. one of both transistors T 1 and T 2 conduct and thus V out1 = 0. when V 1 = 0 V and V 2 = 5 V . We recall that fan-out is the number of gate inputs that can be driven by a single gate output. or V 1 = 5 V and V 2 = 0 V . When V 3 = 0 V and V out1 = 0 V .2 V ≈ 0 V .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Inputs Output V1 0V 0V 0V 0V 5V 5V 5V 5V V2 0V 0V 5V 5V 0V 0V 5V 5V V3 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V V out 5V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V 5. By inspection. 6-52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . V out = 5 V . 750 Ω V3 T3 V4 V1 750 Ω T1 750 Ω T4 1 KΩ V out2 750 Ω V2 T2 1 KΩ V out1 5V 5V This circuit is a 2-input NOR gate with fan-out of 1. in the circuit above the output of the first 2-input NOR gate drives (is connected to) one of the inputs of the second 2-input NOR gate.

4.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises Next.7 V 1 KΩ 750 ⁄ 2 Ω 5V 5V I (b) 0.3 5 – 0.= --------------------------------1000 + 750 ⁄ 2 1000 + 750 ⁄ 2 and 1000 V out1 = 5 – --------------------------------.46 × 10 3 –3 = 2.7 V (a) 750 Ω 0.= 2. the equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure (a) below and its Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure (b). For a fan-out of 2. 6.= ----------.7 I = --------------------------------. Under this condition V out1 < 5 V because current flows through the 750 Ω at the base of transistor T 4 which now conducts. V out1 = 5 – 10 × 2.54 V .7 4. We can now find that current from the equivalent circuit below.87 V 1000 + 750 ⁄ 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-53 .7 V .3 = 1.3 I = -------------------------.7 V I 5 – 0.54 V We see then that by connecting one input of a gate to the output of another gate causes the high level to decrease from its open circuit value of 5 V to the value of 2.7 V From Figure (b) 4. and and V BET4 = 0. 750 Ω 1 KΩ 5V 0. Thus.46 mA 1000 + 750 1750 The actual value of V out1 is 5 V minus the voltage drop across the 1 KΩ resistor. 1 KΩ 750 Ω 0. let us examine the case where V 1 = V 2 = 5 V .

V CC = 5 V R1 0. or V 3 at 0 V .7 + 0. by replacing the resistance 750 ⁄ 2 by 750 ⁄ N .9 V .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits The equivalent circuit of Figure (a) can be extended to the situation where there are N gates driven by one output of a gate.7 + 0.2 V + 0. the transistor is OFF.2 V VA 2 KΩ D4 D5 VB R3 R2 2 KΩ V out = 5 V 20 KΩ With V A = 0.3 1000 + 750 ⁄ N Note: RTL is no longer used as a logic family.2 V is assumed to be the output of a previous logic gate with logical 0 . Then. the given circuit becomes as shown below where the 0. 7.7 V = 0.7 = 2. It is one of the earlier families employed years ago with a maximum fan-out of 5 and fan-in of 4.1 V 6-54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4. For the transistor to be ON. V 2 . V CC = 5 V R1 D1 V1 V2 V3 D2 D3 2 KΩ D5 D4 R2 2 KΩ V out R3 20 KΩ With one or more of the inputs V 1 .7 V 0. the voltage V A with respect to the ground would have to be V A = V D4 + V D5 + V BE = 0. 1000 V out1 = 5 – --------------------------------. that is a fan-out of N.

the voltages V A and V B would be as shown below. Next. by KVL R 1 I – 0. However. when at least one of the input voltages is Low. and D 3 are reverse-biased and thus do not conduct.7 + 0.7 V 0.2 V and thus the transistor will be OFF. Therefore.7 ) V B = V BE = R 3 I = 20 KΩ × ------------------------------------. V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = 5 V .9 – 0. the three input diodes D 1 . D 2 . V BE = V B = V B – V B = 0. But this would not be a good design since any small noise voltage such as 0.= 3.2 V . In this case.2 V To determine the output voltage V OUT we need to find out whether the transistor is ON or OFF.27 V 2 KΩ + 20 KΩ This voltage is more than sufficient to turn the transistor on and thus V out = 0. VA VD 0. V out = 5 V . we will consider the case where all three inputs are high.7 V R3 20 KΩ I R2 2 KΩ V out = 0. that is. The two diodes D 4 and D 5 in series are both necessary for the following reason: If only one diode were used.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises above ground. Let us assume that it is OFF.5 V when Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-55 .9 V R3 VB From the circuit above.7 V – 0. Then.7 V + R 3 I = V CC = 5 V 5 – ( 0.7 = 0. diodes D 4 and D 5 are forward-biased and the equivalent circuit is as shown below. V CC = 5 V R1 2 KΩ VB 0.

DTL is no longer used as a logic family.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits added to 0.57 V 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ and this voltage will certainly keep the transistor at cutoff.7 V and this would turn the transistor ON. The truth table for this 3-input DTL gate is shown below and we see that it behaves like a 3input NAND gate. v out = 12 V and the inversion operation has been performed.2 V would result to 0.2 + 0. Therefore. 8. for v in = 0 V .⋅ ( – 12 V ) = – 1.5 = 0. It is one of the earlier families employed years ago with power consumption of about 10 mW and propagation delay time of approximately 30 ns . V CC = 12 V 2.2 KΩ 15 KΩ V B 100 KΩ V BB = – 12 V v out = 12 V By the voltage division expression 15 KΩ V B = V BE = ------------------------------------------. With v in = 0 V the circuit is as shown below. 6-56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Inputs Output V1 0V 0V 0V 0V 5V 5V 5V 5V V2 0V 0V 5V 5V 0V 0V 5V 5V V3 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V V out 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 0V Note: Like the RTL.

= 5. First let us assume that v out ( sat ) = 0 V to obtain approximate values and verify the assumption that the transistor is indeed in saturation.= 0.7 V and with these values.2 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-57 . we accept the fact that the transistor is in saturation.= 5. we assume that v out ( sat ) = 0. Then.12 = 0. The circuit then is as shown below.45 mA = 0.12 mA 100 KΩ and I B = I 1 – I 2 = 0. 12 V – 0. V CC = 12 V 2. there must be v BE ( sat ) = 0.2 I C = -----------------------. We find that 12 V I 1 = ---------------.1 mA 2.2 KΩ and thus IC --------------------I B ( min ) = ------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises With v in = 12 V the circuit is as shown below. I B ( min ) = I C ⁄ h FE where 12 V I C = ---------------. Next.= 0. and since the transistor is in saturation.80 – 0.68 mA Since this value is considerably larger than I B ( min ) .182 mA 30 h FE The actual base current can be found from the circuit above.2 V to obtain more exact values.= 5.2 KΩ IC I1 VB IB 100 KΩ v out ( sat ) = 0 V v in = 12 V 15 KΩ I2 V BB = – 12 V Let the minimum base current for saturation be denoted as I B ( min ) .45 mA 2.80 mA 15 KΩ 12 V I 2 = ------------------.

= 0.2 KΩ IC I1 VB IB 100 KΩ v out ( sat ) = 0. v out ( sat ) = 0.17 mA h FE 30 12 V – 0.2 V v in = 12 V 15 KΩ I2 V BB = – 12 V IC 5.7 V – ( – 12 V ) I 2 = --------------------------------------.1 mA I B ( min ) = ------.= -----------------. Therefore. when v in = 12 V .= 0.= 0.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits V CC = 12 V 2.2 V and again the inversion operation is performed.13 = 0.75 mA 15 KΩ 0.75 – 0. 6-58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .62 mA We observe that the more exact computations do not differ significantly from those obtained by assuming that the transistor in saturation is essentially a short circuit.7 V I 1 = ------------------------------.13 mA 100 KΩ and I B = I 1 – I 2 = 0.

1. integrators. logic circuits. V CC RC Output 1 C Q1 C Q2 RB RB RC Output 2 Figure 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-1 . shown in Figure 7.1. 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators T his chapter is an introduction to several pulsed circuits and waveform generators also known as relaxation oscillators. These circuits are part of a family of circuits that include differentiators. Output waveforms of the astable multivibrator Let us now consider Output 1 and assume that the time ON T 1 and time OFF T 2 are equal and the period is T as shown in Figure 7. pulse-timing and delay circuits.1 Astable (Free-Running) Multivibrators An astable or free-running multivibrator. and switching circuits. is essentially a digital clock which has two momentarily stable states which alternate continuously thus producing square pulses as shown in Figure 7.3. Astable multivibrator Output 1 Output 2 Figure 7. the 555 Timer. clipping and clamping circuits.2.1 are identical. We have assumed that all devices in the circuit of Figure 7. In this chapter we will discuss the three types of multivibrators. We will discuss sinusoidal oscillators in Chapter 10.2. and the Schmitt trigger.

4.= ----------------. the pulse repetition frequency f is given by 1 1 1 1 f = -. V CC 2 ⁄ 3 V CC R Threshold Comparator 1 + R 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R S Q Q Output Trigger R Disch arg e + Comparator 2 Figure 7.1.= ------------------------------. A simplified diagram is shown in Figure 7.= --------------------------------0.1 If in Figure 7.3.3 T 1 = T 2 . Waveform showing period T and times ON and OFF for the multivibrator circuit of Figure 7.4.2 The 555 Timer The 555 Timer circuit is a widely used IC for generating waveforms. Simplified circuit for the 555 Timer 7-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 7.69 × R B × C ln 2 × R B × C T1 + T2 T where R B and C are as shown in Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators Output 1 T1 T T2 Figure 7.

Accordingly. T1 T T2 Figure 7.5. if Q is High (Set state). the transistor will be saturated and it will provide a path to the ground. Thus. and if Q is Low. From our previous discussion. Period = T = T 1 + T 2 1 Pulse Repetition Frequency = f = -T T Duty Cycle = ----1 T Figure 7. and if the input Discharge is High.6 let us first assume that the capacitor is uncharged and the SR flip-flop is Set. We will see that with this circuit the duty cycle will always be greater than 0.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer We observe that this IC includes a resistive voltage divider consisting of three identical resistors and this divider sets the voltage at the plus (+) input of the lower comparator at 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and at plus (+) input of the upper comparator at 2 ⁄ 3 V CC . For the circuit of Figure 7. and Trigger at the minus (−) input of Comparator 2.5 as shown in Figure 7. the flip-flop is Set or Reset depending on the outputs of the two comparators. Typical waveform for an astable multivibrator For the waveform of Figure 7. The output of the 555 Timer is the Q output of the SR flip-flop and when it is Low.5. Q will be High (Reset state) or vice versa.6 shows an astable multivibrator employing a 555 Timer. In this case the output is High and the transistor is does not conduct.3 Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer A useful application of the 555 Timer is as an astable multivibrator. Q is Low. 7. The SR flip-flop is Set when a High level is applied to the S input. and these outputs are determined by the inputs Threshold at the plus (+) input of Comparator 1. The outputs of the comparators determine the state of the SR flip-flop whose output is either Q or Q . The capacitor then will charge towards V CC through the resistors R A and R B .7.5. we recall that the astable multivibrator is a pulse generator producing waveforms such as that shown in Figure 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-3 . and it is Reset when a High level is applied to the R input. Q will be High. When the capacitor reaches the value v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC the output of Comparator 2 goes Low and the SR flip-flop remains Set.

Implementation of an astable multivibrator with a 555 Timer v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC T1 T2 Output waveform Figure 7. the capacitor begins to discharge through resistor R B and the collector of 7-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and since it appears at the common node of resistors R A and R B .7. Input and output waveforms for the astable multivibrator of Figure 7.6. the output of Comparator 1 goes High and resets the SR flip-flop and thus the output Q goes Low.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators V CC RA R 2 ⁄ 3 V CC RB + R Comparator 1 T1 T 2 vC C 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + Comparator 2 R Figure 7. Q goes High.6 When the capacitor reaches the value v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC . the transistor becomes saturated. its collector voltage becomes almost zero.

and its voltage rises exponentially with time constant t r = ( R A + R B )C and when it reaches the value v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC it resets the flip-flop and the cycle is repeated. The capacitor voltage v C decreases exponentially with time constant t d = R B C and when it reaches the value v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC . the capacitor voltage as a function of time is given by v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in )e – t ⁄ R eq C (7.8. Then. the transistor is turned OFF. V CC RA RB vC ( t ) C Figure 7.3) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-5 . Circuit for the charging interval For this interval.69 ( R A + R B )C (7.2)becomes 2 ⁄ 3 V CC = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e ( 2 ⁄ 3 )e e – T 1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C – T1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C = 1⁄3 – T1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C = 1⁄2 – T 1 ⁄ ( R A + R B )C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2 or T 1 = ln 2 ⋅ ( R A + R B )C = 0. V in = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC . We are interested in the pulse repetition frequency f = 1 ⁄ T and the duty cycle T 1 ⁄ T where T = T 1 + T 2 and the desired values are dependent on appropriate values of resistors R A and R B and the capacitor C . V ∞ = V CC . the output of Comparator 2 goes High and Sets the SR flip-flop. the capacitor begins to charge through the series combination of resistors R A and R B .2) At t = T 1 . The output Q goes High. For the charging interval T 1 the circuit is as shown in figure 7. Q goes Low. v C ( t ) = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7. relation (7.1) where V ∞ is the final value and V in is the initial value of the voltage across the capacitor. As we know.8.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer the transistor. and R eq = R A + R B .1) becomes v C ( t ) = V CC – ( V CC – 1 ⁄ 3 V CC )e = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e – t ⁄ ( R A + R B )C – t ⁄ ( R A + R B )C (7.

1) becomes v C ( t ) = 0 – ( 0 – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e –t ⁄ R B C = ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e – t ⁄ RB C (7.5) we observe that T 1 and T 2 cannot be equal.4) At t = T 2 .4)becomes 1 ⁄ 3 V CC = ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e ( 2 ⁄ 3 )e e –T2 ⁄ RB C –T2 ⁄ RB C = 1⁄3 –T2 ⁄ RB C = 1⁄2 – T 2 ⁄ R B C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2 or T 2 = ln 2 ⋅ ( R A + R B )C = 0. v C ( t ) = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7. with the circuit of Figure 7.69R B C (7. V in = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC . Example 7.5 of 50 percent.69 ( R A + R B )C + 0.3) and (7.5) The period T is the summation of (7. T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.9. Moreover.5).9 cannot achieve the condition T 2 > T 1 .69R B C = 0. 7-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3) and (7. Therefore.9.10 the capacitor has the value of 10 nF . But we can achieve a duty cycle close to 50 percent if we choose resistor R A to be much smaller than resistor R B .69 ( R A + 2R B )C (7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators For the discharging interval T 2 the circuit is as shown in figure 7. Thus. and R eq = R B . relation (7. accordingly.9 T 1 will always be greater than T 2 and the duty cycle will always be greater than 0.6) The right side of (7. V CC RA RB C vC ( t ) Figure 7. Then. Determine appropriate values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce a pulse repetition frequency of 200 KHz with a duty cycle of 60%. Circuit for the discharging interval For this interval. from (7.1 For the astable multivibrator of Figure 7. V ∞ = 0 V . the circuit of Figure 7.6) cannot be negative.

6 = ----.443 × 10 1 5 f = 10 = -----------------------------------------.= ---------------------.69 ( R A + 2R B )C R A + 2R B 14. Astable multivibrator for Example 7.10.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer V CC RA R 2 ⁄ 3 V CC RB + R Comparator 1 T1 T 2 vC C 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + Comparator 2 R Figure 7.= -----------------------0.69 ( R A + R B )C RA + RB R A + RB T1 Duty cycle = 0.69 ( R A + 2R B )C The pulse repetition frequency is f = 1 ⁄ T and thus 1.43 KΩ T Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-7 .= 14.3) and (7.1 Solution: The period T = T 1 + T 2 is a function of the capacitor and resistor values as shown in relation (7. T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.43 KΩ 5 10 8 8 (7.= --------------------------0.7) The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T and from relations (7.= -----------------------------------------.6).69 ( R A + 2R B )C R A + 2R B 1. that is.443 × 10 R A + 2R B = --------------------------.6) we get 0.

Then.11 we can obtain any desired value for the duty cycle as we will see from the relations below.43 – 8. and R eq = R A .9) and from (7. relation (7. V CC RA RB R 2 ⁄ 3 V CC Comparator 1 T1 T 2 + vC C R 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + Comparator 2 R Figure 7.8) Subtraction of (7. Alternate form of an astable multivibrator with a 555 Timer With the circuit of Figure 7.1) becomes 7-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .66 KΩ (7.7) yields R B = 14.89 KΩ Figure 7.77 KΩ (7.12.6 × 14. V ∞ = V CC .77 = 2.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators R A + R B = 0.8) from (7. For this interval.66 – 5.8) R A = 8.43 = 8. For the charging interval T 1 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.11. V in = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC .11 shows an alternate form of an astable multivibrator using the 555 Timer.66 = 5.

⎞ V CC – ⎛ ------------------.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer V CC RA C vC ( t ) Figure 7.1) becomes RB RB – t ⁄ ( R A || R B )C v C ( t ) = ⎛ ------------------. Then. v C ( t ) = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.12. V in = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC . V ∞ = ( R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) )V CC . Circuit for the charging interval v C ( t ) = V CC – ( V CC – 1 ⁄ 3 V CC )e –t ⁄ RA C = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e –t ⁄ RA C (7.10) becomes 2 ⁄ 3 V CC = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC )e ( 2 ⁄ 3 )e e –t ⁄ RA C –t ⁄ RA C = 1⁄3 –t ⁄ RA C = 1⁄2 – T 1 ⁄ R A C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2 T 1 = ln 2 ⋅ R A C = 0.⎞ V CC – ⎛ ------------------. V CC RA vC ( t ) C RB Figure 7.⎞ V CC – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC e ⎝ RA + RB ⎠ ⎝ RA + RB ⎠ (7.13.69R A C (7.⎞ V CC – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC e 2 A B ⎝ RA + RB ⎠ ⎝ RA + RB ⎠ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-9 .13. v C ( t ) = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.12)becomes RB RB – T ⁄ ( R || R )C 1 ⁄ 3 V CC = ⎛ ------------------. Circuit for the discharging interval For this interval. and R eq = R A || R B .12) At t = T 2 .10) At t = T 1 .11) For the discharging interval T 2 the circuit is as shown in figure 7. relation (7.

the period T is the summation of (7.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ or 2R A – R B RA ⋅ R B T 2 = ------------------. there is one restriction as we can see from relation (7. a waveform with duty cycle at 50 % .. the term R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) must be less than 1 ⁄ 3 .Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators e – T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B )C R A – 2R B [ 1 ⁄ 3 – R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) ]V CC = --------------------------------------------------------------------.14) However.⎞ ⎝ 2RA – R B ⎠ [ 2 ⁄ 3 – R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) ]V CC e –T2 ⁄ RB C (7. Solution: To achieve a duty cycle at 50 % . and this condition can be simplified as shown below. we must make T 1 = T 2 and this condition will be satisfied if we 7-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .⋅ C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.11) and (7.e.13) = 1⁄2 R A – 2R B – T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B )C = ln ⎛ ---------------------.69R A + ------------------.15) subject to the condition that R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) < 1 ⁄ 3 . RB ------------------.C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.13).⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 2R A – R B RA ⋅ R B T = 0.14) from which we obtain the relation 2R A – R B RA ⋅ RB T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.69R A C + ------------------. Therefore. that is.11 find an appropriate ratio for resistors R A and R B so that the output will be a square waveform.C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.< 1 ⁄ 3 RA + RB 3R B < R A + R B 2R B < R A R B < RA ⁄ 2 (7.16) Example 7.⎞ = ln ( R A – 2R B ) – ln ( 2RA – R B ) ⎝ 2R A – R B ⎠ 2R A – R B T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B )C = ln ( 2R A – R B ) – ln ( R A – 2R B ) = ln ⎛ ---------------------.2 Using the astable multivibrator of Figure 7. i.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB (7.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB (7.= ⎛ ---------------------.

plot(x. y=(x+1)*log(2)−log((2.1:0.363 = 2. x=2.69R A C = 0.5.16).11) or (7.42 nF 0./(x−2)).11) is simpler.y).⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RB 2R A – R B ------------------.1 × 10 C –6 3 from which 5 × 10 C = -------------------------------------3 = 1. we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value.⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.⎞ = ln 2 ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RA + RB 2R A – R B ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ ------------------. let us plot relation (7.14 indicates that x-axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 2.14) subject to the constraint of (7.*x−1).1 ⁄ 2.363 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 50 % .1 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-11 . The value of the capacitor can be found from either expression (7. we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as 2x – 1 ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = ln ⎛ -------------.01:2.+ 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------.C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.16 KΩ .⎞ ⎝ RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ For convenience.1 KΩ .⎞ = ln ⎛ ---------------------.69 × 5. then R B = 5.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer equate relations (7.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 RA ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ -----.grid Figure 7. Therefore. 2R A – R B RA ⋅ RB ln 2R A C = ------------------. Let us choose R A = 5.11) and (7.69 × 5. T 1 = 5 × 10 –6 = 0. if we require that T 1 = 5 µs .17) This is a non-linear equation and we could try to solve it with the MATLAB symbolic expression syms x.17) with the following MATLAB script to find the x-axis zero crossing. Then.14) but (7. then. Thus. solve('(x+1)*log(2)=log((2*x−1)/(x−2))') but this returns the value of – 1 which obviously is meaningless for this example.⎞ ⎝ x–2 ⎠ solve(‘eqn’) as (7.

+ -------.4 2.= ------R1R2 R2 7-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .17) -0. V ( + ) sat Rf C V ( − ) sat v out t (b) v(−) v(+) R1 R2 (a) v out a V ( + ) sat a V ( − ) sat a V ( + ) sat a V ( − ) sat v(+) t (c ) v(−) t (d) Figure 7.45 2.1 2. Plot for finding the ratio R A ⁄ R B to achieve 50 % duty cycle for the circuit of Figure 7.15(a).= 0 R2 R1 v out ( R 1 + R 2 )v ( + ) -------------------------------.8 -1 -1.5 Figure 7.2 0 -0.3 x= RA / RB 2.4 0.2 Relation (8.14.2 2.4 -0.15 2.2 -1.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 0. application of KCL at the non-inverting input of the op amp yields v ( + ) – v out v ( + ) ----------------------.25 2.15.4 2.35 2. An unstable multivibrator using an op amp From the circuit of Figure 7.15.6 -0.14 An unstable multivibrator can also be constructed with an op amp as shown in Figure 7.

The voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously and rises exponentially as shown in Figure 7. Accordingly.15(c) and 7. The capacitor C and the feedback resistor R f form a simple RC circuit and when the voltage v ( − ) at the inverting input is at a higher than the voltage v ( + ) at the non-inverting input.= a v out ( R1 + R2 ) (7.18) where a is the attenuation factor since it is less than unity. then t 1 = t 2 and the period of the pulse repetition becomes 1+a T = t 1 + t 2 = 2RC ln ----------1–a (7. the capacitor charges through R f towards the negative saturation value aV ( − ) sat .15(d) and when it reaches the value aV ( + ) sat the output switches back to the negative saturation state.15(b) yields the appropriate expressions for the timing periods as indicated below. the positive and negative saturation values are denoted as aV ( + ) sat and aV ( − ) sat respectively.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer R1 v(+) -------. When the potential difference between the inverting and non-inverting inputs of the op amp approaches the zero value the op amp comes out of saturation and subsequently the positive feedback from the output to the inverting input of the op amp drives the op amp to positive saturation.18) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-13 .21) Relations (7.21) indicate that if the positive and negative values of the saturation voltage have the same amplitude.= RC ln --------------------------------------V ( + )sat – a V ( + ) sat V ( + )sat ( 1 – a ) V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat t 2 = RC ln --------------------------------------. V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat t 1 = RC ln --------------------------------------.20) and (7. For the astable multivibrator of the op amp circuit of Figure 7.20) (7.= ---------------------. Assuming that the initially the op amp is in negative saturation. the voltage at the non-inverting input is aV ( − ) sat .15(a) and 7.= RC ln --------------------------------------V ( + ) sat – a V ( + ) sat V ( − ) sat ( 1 – a ) (7.1) v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in )e – t ⁄ R eq C Taking the natural log of both sides and solving for the time t we get ( V ∞ – V in ) t = RC ln ----------------------------( V∞ – vC ( t ) ) (7.15(a) we can derive the period of the pulse repetition frequency as follows: From relation (7.15(d).19) Substitution of the voltages shown in Figures 7. and are shown in Figures 7.22) and with (7.

R f = 50 KΩ .1 × 10 ln ⎛ ------------------------------------.35 ms ⎝ – 25 ⁄ 6 ⎠ 7-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and V ( − ) sat = – 5 V .18) the attenuation factor is R1 10 1 a = ---------------------.3 For the astable multivibrator circuit of Figure 7. R 1 = 10 KΩ .= 50 × 10 × 0.⎞ ⎝ 10 × ( 1 – 1 ⁄ 6 ) ⎠ V ( + ) sat ( 1 – a ) 65 ⁄ 6 –2 = 5 × 10 ln ⎛ -----------. Unstable multivibrator circuit for Example 7. Rf C v out v(−) v(+) v out V ( − ) sat R2 (a) (b) V ( + ) sat t R1 Figure 7.3 Solution: From (7.31 ms ⎝ 50 ⁄ 6 ⎠ V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat – 5 – ( 1 ⁄ 6 ) ( 10 ) 4 –6 t2 = R F C ln --------------------------------------.1 × 10 ln ⎛ -------------------------------------.1 µF .= 50 × 10 × 0.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 2R 1 T = t 1 + t 2 = 2RC ln ⎛ 1 + -------. V ( + ) sat = 10 V .21) V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat 10 – ( 1 ⁄ 6 ) ( – 5 ) 4 –6 t 1 = R F C ln --------------------------------------.⎞ = 1.⎞ = 2.20) and (7.= -( R1 + R2 ) 10 + 500 6 and with (7.23) Example 7. R 2 = 50 KΩ .16 compute the timing periods given that C = 0.= -------------------.⎞ ⎝ 2R 2 ⎠ (7.16.⎞ ⎝ –5 × ( 1 – 1 ⁄ 6 ) ⎠ V ( − ) sat ( 1 – a ) – 40 ⁄ 6 –2 = 5 × 10 ln ⎛ --------------.

time period that the output will stay High is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X . A 2 . In Figure 7. Device SN74121 is a typical monostable multivibrator circuit and it is shown in Figure 7. and then returns to its normal state. Figure 7. As stated above. Typically. the output reverses states.5 A 1 and A 2 are both active low and the B input is active high.17 shows a block diagram of a typical monostable and its input and output waveforms. that is. the 74121 has three trigger inputs: A 1 . Input B A Q Output Q Output T C D Q Output Input Monostable Multivibrator Figure 7. the capacitor value is greater than 1 µF and the resistor value is greater than 10 KΩ and the pulse width period T at the output is determined from the relation Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-15 . the monostable multivibrator will produce the output pulse shown. The 74121 monostable multivibrator As shown in Figure 7.17.18. CX Input 5 B 10 A1 4 9 RX 14 Q 7 6 V CC Output 74121 A2 3 Figure 7. and B . Depending on the desired circuit operation.Monostable (One-Shot) Multivibrators 7.18.4 Monostable (One-Shot) Multivibrators A monostable or one-shot multivibrator is an electronic circuit with two output states in which only one state is stable.18. Under those conditions. any or all of these three pins may be connected to the input trigger signal. changes from 0 to 1 for a short period of time. depending upon the circuit parameters which are discussed below. This circuit stays in its normal state (usually a logical 0) until a signal is applied to its input.18. When triggered by an input signal. Block diagram and typical input and output waveforms for a monostable multivibrator We observe that a positive going pulse at the input signal (transition from A to B) which is often referred to as the leading edge of the pulse (the transition from C to D is referred to as the trailing edge of the pulse) makes the 0 output to change state momentarily from state 0 to state 1 for a time period designated as T which is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X as shown in Figure 7.

resistors R 1 and R 2 are chosen such that R 2 ⁄ R 1 = 10 and thus v ( + ) » v ( − ) . With the 74121 device.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators T = 0. the output pulse width can be varied from 40 ns to 28 s . i. By the voltage division expression.19. It can be used to widen a narrow pulse as shown in Figure 7.V ( + ) sat R1 + R2 (7. and this is the stable state of the circuit.e.33 × R X × C X For instance. Input Output Figure 7. v in = 0 . diode D 1 is forward biased and the voltage across the capacitor C 1 is the same as that of diode D 1 . the op amp remains in positive saturation. Also the 74121 is retriggable meaning that the input may be a train of periodic pulses. Accordingly. hence the name monostable. if R X = 20 KΩ and C X = 5 µF . 7-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .24) Usually. the output of the op amp is held at positive saturation. that is. At this state.. v out = V ( + )sat . The use of a monostable multivibrator to block unwanted input pulses A monostable multivibrator can also be constructed with an op amp as shown in Figure 7. the pulse width will be T = 100 ms .19. and to block unwanted input pulses as shown in Figure 7.20. The monostable multivibrator is used primarily in pulse shaping applications.20.7 V and thus the voltage across the inverting input of the op amp is v ( − ) = 0.20.7 V . D1 C1 Rf C2 v(-) v(+) D2 R3 R2 v out R1 v in Figure 7. A monostable multivibrator using an op amp In the circuit of Figure 7.18. the voltage at the non-inverting input of the op amp is R2 v ( + ) = ----------------. while the input pulse is zero. about 0.

the voltage v ( + ) at the non-inverting input will also become negative. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-17 .Monostable (One-Shot) Multivibrators Next. we can form a monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer circuit as shown in Figure 7.21. and the time t is determined by the time constant of capacitor C 1 and feedback resistor R f .18) or (7.25) where a is the attenuation factor defined as before as R1 a = ---------------------( R1 + R2 ) Alternately. This voltage at the non-inverting of the op amp will go momentarily negative and will drive the output of the op amp into negative saturation V ( − ) sat . The output Q will also be Low. if a negative going pulse is applied at the input. The expression for the timing period can be derived from relations (7. So. and also by the ratio R 1 ⁄ R 2 .26) simplifies to the approximate expression t ≈ 0.⎞ ⎝ R2 ⎠ (7. the multivibrator will be returned to it stable state at zero volts level. But this condition is only temporary because diode D 1 is now reverse-biased and allows capacitor C 1 to charge negatively. the transistor will go in saturation. the flip-flop will be Set and its output Q will go High and output Q will go Low and the transistor will be at cutoff. relation (7. the capacitor will begin charging through resistor R 1 and will rise exponentially towards the supply voltage V CC . the output of this comparator will go High. and the capacitor will discharge. in the stable state the SR flip-flop will be in the Reset state keeping the transistor in saturation and thus the capacitor voltage will be close to zero volts.= R F C 1 ln ---------( V ( − ) sat – aV ( − ) sat ) 1–a (7. Thus. let us assume that a negative going pulse whose amplitude exceeds the voltage v ( + ) . Once the capacitor voltage exceeds the threshold voltage of Comparator 1.25) as R1 t = R F C 1 ln ⎛ 1 + ----. and when v ( − ) becomes slightly more negative v ( + ) . the flip-flop will be Reset. We see then that the output of the op amp remains at negative saturation V ( − ) sat only long enough for capacitor C 1 to charge to approximately the value of v ( + ) . Now.1R F C 1 (7.21. As shown in Figure 7. we may express (7. The voltage at the input terminal is sufficiently high to keep the output of Comparator 2 Low.27) As with astable multivibrators. At this time.26) and if we choose R 2 ⁄ R 1 = 10 .19) which for the monostable multivibrator is appropriately expressed as ( V ( − ) sat – 0 ) 1 t = R F C 1 ln -------------------------------------------. the output of Comparator 2 will go High. and the output of the op amp is once again driven into positive saturation. with the output at negative saturation.

28) 7. v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in )e –t ⁄ R1 C and assuming that the negative going pulse is applied at the input at t = 0 when V in = 0 . From (7. or more commonly referred to as flip-flops. 7-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . this threshold voltage is 2 ⁄ 3 V CC .1R 1 C (7. when charging.5 Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops) Bistable multivibrators. ISBN 0-9744239-5-5. The outputs will change only when * The logic diagrams and characteristic tables for the Set-Reset. Because the three resistors have the same value. We can find the pulse width T for the time that the monostable multivibrator changes momentarily from its stable state by observing that the capacitor voltage.21. J-K. reaches the threshold voltage at the minus (−) input of Comparator 1. A monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer circuit.1). Data. at t = T the above relation becomes ( 2 ⁄ 3 )V CC = V CC – V CC e e –T ⁄ R 1 C –T ⁄ R1 C = 1⁄3 – T ⁄ R 1 C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 3 ) = ln 1 – ln 3 T ≈ 1.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators V CC R1 R2 Comparator 1 C R2 R Q S Q Comparator 2 R2 RB Figure 7. and Toggle flip-flops are described in Logic Circuits.* are electronic circuits with two stable outputs one of which is the complement of the other.

Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops) directed by an input command.22 is one of the earlier types.24(a). Assume that the transistors have a minimum h FE value of 50. Solution: This circuit consists of two cross-coupled inverter circuits such as that of Exercise 8 in Chapter 6. 7.23. The cutoff and saturation characteristics are specified by the manufacturer. Example 7. * This circuit is also known as Ecless-Jordan configuration Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-19 . and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure 7. and the Schmitt trigger circuit. Fixed-bias flip-flop circuit We will illustrate the operation of the circuit of Figure 7.4 Compute the stable-state currents and voltages for the flip-flop circuit of Figure 7.24(b). and the bias voltage V BB are selected so that in one state the base current is adequate to drive one transistor into saturation and in the second state the base-emitter junction must be below cutoff.1 The Fixed-Bias Flip-Flop The fixed-bias circuit shown in Figure 7. the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure 7. + V CC RC V C1 T1 R2 R2 T2 R1 R1 RC V C2 – V BB Figure 7.22* with the following example. In this section we will introduce the fixed-bias flip-flop. The triggering signal which is used to induce a transition from one state to another will be discussed later in this section. The analysis is facilitated by breaking the given circuit into two parts. the selfbiased flip-flop.5.22. For this circuit it is assumed that the value of the collector resistance R C is chosen such that the collector current I C ≈ V CC ⁄ R C does not exceed the maximum permissible current. It is also assumed that the values of resistors R 1 and R 2 .

2 KΩ I2 OFF T1 V B1 100 KΩ – 12 V (a) 15 KΩ T2 ON I1 I C2 V C2 ≈ 0 V V C1 T1 OFF + 12 V 2.2 KΩ 15 KΩ V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ T2 15 KΩ V C2 2.2 KΩ – 12 V Figure 7.2 KΩ Also.23.⋅ ( – 12 V ) = – 1.4 Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON.45 mA 2. + 12 V 2. Since the saturation voltages are small (about 0.20(b) respectively. 7-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4.20(a) and 7. we calculate I C2 by first finding I 1 and I 2 as follows: 12 V I 1 = ---------------.2 KΩ I3 15 KΩ V B2 ≈ 0 V 100 KΩ (b) I B2 I4 ON T2 – 12 V Figure 7. Circuits for the computation of the stable states for Example 7.24.57 V 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ and this voltage will certainly keep transistor T 1 at cutoff. To verify that with transistor T 1 beyond cutoff transistor T 2 is in saturation.2 V ). we will initially neglect them and we let V C2 ( sat ) ≈ 0 V and V B2 ( sat ) ≈ 0 V as shown in Figures 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators + 12 V 2.= 5. By the voltage division expression 15 KΩ V B1 = ------------------------------------------. Fixed-bias flip-flop circuit for Example 7.

we have shown that transistor T 2 is deeply into saturation.58 mA Since ( I B2 = 0. I C2 5.24(b). and V C2 = 10. The second stable state is the one in which transistor T 1 is ON and transistor T 2 is OFF.11 mA h FE 50 Let us now compute the value of I B2 from Figure 7.= 0.1.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops) 0 – ( – 12 ) I 2 = ------------------------------------------.70 × 10 3 3 –3 = 10.5 V and this value is close to the collector supply voltage of 12 volts.35 mA I B ( min ) = ------.10 = 5.2 × 10 × 0. With the assumption that the saturation are zero volts.2 × 10 × I 3 = 12 – 2. The analysis is the same as above where the voltages and currents are interchanged between transistors T 1 and T 2 .= 0. IC2 = I 1 – I 2 = 5. Usually.12 = 0. the voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip-flop of this example are summarized in Table 7. we will use the given minimum value of h FE . Thus. the value of I B2 exceeds the minimum base current value of I B ( min ) required for saturation.12 mA 100 KΩ Then. that is.2 KΩ + 15 KΩ and 12 I 4 = ------------------.= 0.10 mA 15 KΩ + 100 KΩ Then.= 0. Finally.35 mA We observe that the value of I 2 is much less than the value of I 1 and in a practical flip-flop design this may not be the case.11 mA ) .= --------------------.70 – 0.5 V . the collector voltage V C1 if found from Figure 7. the minimum base current I B2 is read from the collector characteristics curve for a particular transistor and since no curves were given. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-21 .for the minimum value of I B2 for saturation.58 mA ) > ( I B ( min ) = 0.70 mA 2. IB2 = I 3 – I 4 = 0. We find that 12 I 3 = -----------------------------------------.45 – 0.20(b) as V C1 = 12 – 2.

1 Voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip-flop of Example 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators TABLE 7.25.56 V 0. a common emitter resistor R E . as shown in Figure 7. Example 7.25. is used to provide self-bias and thus the need for a negative power supply is eliminated. 7-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In a self-bias flip-flop.58 mA 0V 7. + V CC RC V CN1 T1 R2 R2 T2 R1 R1 RC V CN2 RE Figure 7. Find the minimum value of h FE which will keep the ON transistor in saturation. Self-bias flip-flop circuit The procedure for calculating the stable states is similar to that for a fixed-bias flip-flop and it is illustrated in Example 7.5 V 5.5.26 which uses P-N-P identical transistors.2 The Self-Bias Flip-Flop This is also one of the earlier types of flip-flops.3 Parameter I C1 V C1 I C2 V C2 I B1 V B1 I B2 V B2 Value 0 mA 10.5 Compute the stable-state currents and voltages for the flip-flop circuit of Figure 7.5.35 mA 0V 0 mA −1.

Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON. The circuit of Example 7.5 Solution: This circuit consists of two cross-coupled inverter circuits such as that of Exercise 8 in Chapter 6. Self-bias flip-flop circuit for Example 7.27 we observe that V EN2 = V EN1 and from Figure 7.27.27. the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure 7.29) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-23 .5 KΩ N Figure 7.28. – V CC – 12 V RC R1 OFF T1 V BE1 V EN1 V BN1 R2 10 KΩ 30 KΩ ON I B2 4 KΩ I C2 T2 RE V CE2 V CN2 V EN2 I B2 + I C2 0. We must first compute the voltage V EN1 shown in Figure 7.26. and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure 7.5 showing the connections between the base of T 1 and collector of T 2 From the circuit of Figure 7.28 V EN2 = – ( I B2 + I C2 ) R E (7.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops) – V CC – 12 V RC 4 KΩ V CN1 T1 R2 10 KΩ V EN1 RE 500 Ω R2 10 KΩ V EN2 R1 30 KΩ R1 30 KΩ T2 RC 4 KΩ V CN2 Figure 7.27. The analysis is facilitated by breaking the given circuit into two parts.

Collector circuit for the computation of Thevenin equivalent. The circuit of Example 7.9 V ( R1 + R2 + RC ) ( 30 + 10 + 4 ) (7.29 ( R1 + R2 ) ( 30 + 10 ) V TH1 = V xy = ----------------------------------.30) 7-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 From Figure 7. combining these two.( – V CC ) = ------------------------------. the Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure 7.28.29. To find the saturation currents I B2 and I C2 we will apply Thevenin’s theorem by first replacing the collector circuit of transistor T 2 by its equivalent. With transistor T 2 and emitter resistor R E disconnected. and inserting the transistor T 2 between them. then by replacing the base circuit of T 2 by its equivalent.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators – V CC RC 4 KΩ – 12 V R1 30 KΩ T1 V CN1 V EN1 OFF V BN2 R2 10 KΩ ON I B2 V EB2 RE 500 Ω N T2 V EN2 Figure 7.29.5 showing the connections between the base of T 2 and collector of T 1 where the minus (−) sign indicates that the neutral point (ground) is at a higher potential than the emitter.9 V – 12 V 4 KΩ x y y V CC y Figure 7.64 KΩ V TH1 10.( – 12 ) = – 10. Example 7. – V CC RC R1 OFF T1 R2 10 KΩ 30 KΩ x RC 4 KΩ 12 V R2 R1 30 KΩ x 10 KΩ R TH1 3.

31 where have assumed that V EC ( sat ) = 0. R TH1 3.5 KΩ V TH1 0.= ----------------. Example 7.73 V I B2 + I C2 R TH2 0.30.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops) ( R 1 + R 2 )R C 40 × 4 R TH1 = ( R 1 + R 2 ) || R C = ------------------------------.64 KΩ I C2 7. R TH1 .5 From Figure 7.30.73 KΩ v V TH2 w 2.64 KΩ R 1 + R 2 + RC 44 (7.73 KΩ RC + R1 + R2 44 (7.73 KΩ I B2 V TH2 2.31) Next.32) (7.5 when transistor T 2 is in saturation Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-25 .31. and R TH2 .( – V CC ) = ------------------------------.= 7. The composite Thevenin equivalent circuit of Example 7.7 V .9 V Figure 7.30 R2 10 V TH2 = V vw = ----------------------------------.( – 12 ) = – 2. we replace the base circuit of T 2 by its equivalent as shown in Figure 7. – V CC RC 4 KΩ R1 30 KΩ T1 OFF R2 10 KΩ N RC 4 KΩ R1 30 KΩ R2 10 KΩ R TH2 – 12 V v w v w V CC 12 V 7. Base circuit for the computation of Thevenin equivalent.= -------------.= 3.73 V ( R1 + R2 + RC ) ( 30 + 10 + 4 ) ( R C + R 1 )R 2 34 × 10 R TH2 = ( R C + R 1 ) || R 2 = ------------------------------.2 V 10.2 V and V EB ( sat ) = 0.7 V RE 0.73 V Figure 7.33) The Thevenin equivalent voltages and resistances of V TH1 . combined with transistor T 2 and resistor R E yield the circuit of Figure 7. V TH2 .

57 ) × 0.09 With these values.5 I B2 0. fprintf(' \n') IB2=0.73 0.7 – 1.03 V From Figure 7.73I B2 = 2. R2 10 V BN1 = ----------------. I C2 = 2.09 + 2.2 – 1.95 V and with this value.574 mA Thus. 7-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . fprintf(' \n').5. 0.41) From Figure 7. V CN2 = V CE2 + V EN2 = – 0. we get 8.57 (7.27 and 7.38) (7.53 V ) = – 0.7 + 7.3f mA \t'.28.. From Figure 7. the PNP transistor is OFF.9 Rearranging and simplifying.3f mA \t'.64I C2 = 10.37) (7. A=[8.33 = – 2.V CN2 = ----------------. I C2 2.090 mA IC2=2. B=[2.34) (7...39) (7.27.27.40) (7.35) and I B2 = 0.5 = – 1. we now find the value of h FE .28.x(1)).5 ( I B2 + I C2 ) + 0.31..= --------.. fprintf('IC2=%2.03 10.03 0.5I B2 + 4.5I C2 = 2.7 Using MATLAB with the matrix left division operator. fprintf('IB2=%2.57 h FE = -----. V BN2 = V BE2 + V EN2 = – 0.23IB2 + 0.7]'..33 V (7.23 0.= 28.33 = – 1.x(2)). 0.18) V EN1 = V EN2 = – ( I B2 + I C2 ) R E = – ( 0.2 + 3.5 4.38 – ( 1.36) The voltages can now be found from the circuits of Figures 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators We find the values of I B2 and I C2 by application of KVL around the loops indicated in Figure 7.38 V R1 + R 2 30 + 10 and V BE1 = V BN1 – V EN1 = – 0.14].09 (7.5 ( I B2 + I C2 ) + 0.26 we observe that V EN2 = V EN1 and from relation (7.( – 1.14I C2 = 10.53 V From Figure 7.33 ) = +0. x=A\B. we get write and execute the following script which produces the values of the currents I B2 and I C2 .

5 are summarized in Table 7.59 V RC + R 1 4 + 30 Therefore.83 V (7.53 V 0 mA −1.V BN2 = -------------.4 From the circuit of Figure 7. V CN1 = V CN1a + V CN1b = – 10.03 ) = – 0.4 Parameter Value 0 mA I C1 V CN1 I C2 V CN2 I B1 V BN1 I B2 V BN2 V EN1 = V EN2 −10.03 V – 12 V (a) Figure 7.32(a) we find that RC 4 V CN1a = -----------------. for simplification is redrawn into two simple resistive networks as shown in Figure 7.28 which. to find the value of V CN1 we apply superposition to the circuit of Figure 7.03 V −1.V CC = -------------.( – 12 ) = – 10.33 V We see that the output changes from V CN2 = – 1.42) The stable state values of the circuit of Example 7. R1 V BN2 30 KΩ RC 4 KΩ V CN1a RC V CC 4 KΩ R1 30 KΩ (b) V CN1b – 2.83 V or vice versa.24 R1 + RC 30 + 4 and from the circuit of Figure 7.53 V to V CN1 = – 10.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops) Finally.09 mA −2.32.2 Voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip-flop of Example 7.2 TABLE 7.57 mA −1.32(b) we find that R1 30 V CN1b = -----------------. Example 7. Circuits for the computation of V CN1 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-27 .( – 2.32.83 V 2.56 V 0.

In practice. a negative pulse is applied at the base of T 2 denoted as point X 2 . denoted as point Y 2 will rise rapidly and it is desirable that this rapid rise will be transmitted with minimum delay to the base of T 1 denoted as point X 1 .33. 7-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Let us assume that in the flip-flop circuit of Figure 7. The interval time during which conduction transfers from one transistor to the other is known as the transition time. the circuit configuration consisting of resistors R 1 and R 2 . In some applications it is desired to have a change of state occur immediately after the application of an abrupt triggering signal. This pulse or step may be used in a man* For a discussion on compensated attenuators.33. and input capacitor C i constitutes an uncompensated attenuator. the maximum frequency f max of operation is given by the relation R1 + R2 1 f max = ----. Fixed-bias flip-flop circuit including speed-up capacitors The smallest allowable interval between triggers is referred to as the resolving time of the flip-flop. Transistor T 1 has an input capacitance C i and in the absence of the parallel capacitor C 1 .Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7. It is always desirable to reduce the transition time and this can be accomplished by inserting small capacitors.43) The triggering signal which is usually employed to initiate a transition from one state to the other is either a pulse of short time duration or a step voltage. please refer to Appendix B. The collector voltage of T 2 .5. in parallel with the coupling resistors R 1 as shown in Figure7.* + V CC RC V C1 Y1 T1 C' 1 C1 RC V C2 R1 X1 R2 R2 R1 Y2 X2 T2 – V BB Figure 7. and to initiate a transition. and its reciprocal is the maximum frequency at which the flip-flop will respond. referred to as speed-up capacitors.3 Triggering Signals for Flip-Flops A flip-flop will remain in one of its stable states indefinitely until a triggering signal is applied to make a transition.= --------------------2τ 2C 1 R 1 R 2 (7.33 transistor T 1 if OFF and transistor T 2 is ON.

34 show a method of triggering unsymmetrically an NPN and a PNP bipolar transistor. +V CC RC D3 RC C T D1 T1 OFF (a) ON D2 T2 R2 D3 R2 OFF T1 ON T2 C T D1 D2 – V BB (b) Figure 7.35.35 show how a flip-flop may be triggered in a symmetrical manner. In unsymmetrical triggering signal is effective in initiating a transition in only one direction (polarity). Methods of symmetrical triggering through diodes at the collectors or the bases of the transistors Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-29 . The circuits of Figure 7. A second triggering signal from a separate source must be initiated in a different manner to achieve the reverse direction.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip-Flops) ner that will produce either symmetrical or unsymmetrical triggering.34. each successive triggering signal initiates a transition. The circuits of Figure 7. regardless of the state in which the flip-flop happens to be. RC RS Trigger input + V CC C1 ON T2 R2 C T1 OFF (a ) R1 – V BB C1 ON T2 R2 – V CC RS Trigger input RC C T1 OFF R1 (b) + V BB Figure 7. A method of triggering unsymmetrically an NPN or a PNP transistor In symmetrical triggering.

C v in R1 R3 (a ) v in v out v out (b ) R2 Figure 7. 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7. vS V+ V out V+ upper V out V out R2 V ref R1 vS V+ lower vS (a) (b) (c) Figure 7. Op amp configured as a bistable multivibrator The stable states for the bistable multivibrator of Figure 7.5.36(b) causes the circuit to switch states.4 Present Technology Bistable Multivibrators The bistable multivibrator (flip-flop) circuits we’ve discussed thus far are the original circuits and were in use in the 1960s. It assumes either positive or negative saturation by the positive feedback formed by resistors R 2 and R 3 . The circuit of Figure 7. We have included them in this text because they are the circuits from which present technology bistable multivibrators such as those with CMOS technology and op amps have evolved.37. A positive or negative going pulse as shown in Figure 7.36.37(a). It provides an voltage when its input signal v S reaches some predetermined value set at the non-inverting 7-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Schmitt trigger circuit and waveforms for increasing and decreasing input signals The Schmitt trigger circuit and transfer characteristics are similar to the comparator.36(a) are the conditions where the output is at positive or negative saturation. We will briefly discuss a bistable multivibrator with an op amp in this subsection.6 The Schmitt Trigger Another bistable multivibrator circuit is the Schmitt trigger shown in Figure 7.36 shows how an op amp can be configured to behave as a bistable multivibrator.

Thus.e.37(b). is compatible with commercially available IC digital devices.38(b). V+ = V+ lower . V+ = V+ upper .⎞ V = V out + ---------------+ ⎝ R1 R2 ⎠ R1 R2 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out R1 + R2 ⎛ ----------------. The zener voltages are chosen so that the output swing from positive to negative or vice versa.+ ----. the output is positively saturated as long as the input signal v S is less than the upper threshold V+ upper . the output drop abruptly to – V out ( max ) and stays there until v S drops below a lower threshold voltage V+ lower . when the input signal v S exceeds this value. when V out is the maximum positive output voltage.24 V R1 + R2 10250 That is. with (7. the peak-to-peak output voltage of the Schmitt trigger of Figure 7. These threshold voltages can be found by application of KCL at the non-inverting input of the op amp. and the reference voltage V ref . The threshold voltages V+ upper and V+ lower are determined by the resistors R 1 and R 2 .39.= -------------------------------------------. Normally.= 0 R2 R1 V ref 1 1 ⎛ ----.⎞ ⋅ V = -------------------------------------+ ⎝ R1 ⋅ R 2 ⎠ R 1 ⋅ R2 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out V+ = -------------------------------------R1 + R2 (7. the input signal v S is as shown in Figure 7. the output abruptly swings to negative saturation..44) 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 10 × 2 + 250 × 12 V+ upper = ------------------------------------.37 is often limited by the use of back-to-back zeners across the output terminal and ground. As shown in Figure 7.44) In (7.+ --------------------.= 2. i. – 12 V as shown in Figure 7. and when V out is the maximum negative output voltage. The output of the op amp changes from the positive saturation voltage V out ( max ) to its negative saturation voltage – V out ( max ) and vice versa. Then.6 For the Schmitt trigger circuit of Figure 7.38(a).44).The Schmitt Trigger input of the op amp. Find and sketch V+ upper and V+ lower . If the input signal v S rises slightly above this threshold voltage. Example 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-31 . V+ – V ref V+ – V out --------------------. Solution: It is given that the Schmitt trigger saturates positively at +12 V .

66 V R1 + R2 10250 That is.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators vS ( V ) 4 R1 R2 10 KΩ 250 Ω 2 0 4 7 vS V+ V out = ± 12 V t ( ms ) –2 V ref = 2 V (a ) (b) Figure 7.24 V .39.3 When the output saturates negatively at – 12 V the lower threshold voltage is 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 10 × 2 + 250 × ( – 12 ) V+ lower = ------------------------------------.6 12 V out ( V ) 4 2 0 vS 2.39. Schmitt trigger circuit and input signal waveform for Example 7. and when the input signal v S rises again to 2. 7-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ---------------------------------------------------. the output abruptly swings back to positive saturation. Waveforms for Example 7..24 V 4 7 t ( ms ) –2 – 12 Figure 7. the output drops again to – 12 V as shown in Figure 7.38. +12 V .= 1.24 V 1.e. when the input signal v S drops below this value.66 V 2. i.

• Both astable and monostable multivibrators can constructed with a 555 timer circuit.. monostable. • A bistable multivibrator. • A monostable multivibrator is an electronic circuit with two output states in which only one state is stable. • IC device SN74121 is a popular monostable multivibrator where the time period that the output will stay High is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X . depending upon the circuit parameters. • The Schmitt trigger is another bistable multivibrator circuit. This circuit stays in its normal state until a signal is applied to its input. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-33 . can be constructed with op amps employed as comparators.7 Summary • An astable multivibrator is essentially a digital clock which has two momentarily stable states which alternate continuously producing square pulses. • All three types of the multivibrators. commonly referred to as flip-flop. When triggered by an input signal. is an electronic circuits with two stable outputs one of which is the complement of the other. and bistable. A monostable multivibrator is used primarily in pulse shaping applications and to widen narrow pulses. The outputs will change only when directed by an input command. • The 555 Timer circuit is a widely used IC for generating waveforms.e. the output reverses states for a short period of time.Summary 7. astable. i.

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7.8 Exercises 1. V CC RA R 2 ⁄ 3 V CC RB + R Comparator 1 T1 T 2 vC C 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + Comparator 2 R v (V ) 5 t ( µs ) 0 1 2 3 4 7-34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For the astable multivibrator below V CC = 5 V and C = 1 nF . Find the values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce the waveform shown.

Find the values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce the waveform shown. For the astable multivibrator below V CC = 5 V and C = 1 nF . Repeat Exercise 2 to design a circuit that will produce the following waveform. v (V) 5 t ( µs ) 0 1 2 3 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-35 . V CC RA RB R 2 ⁄ 3 V CC Comparator 1 T1 T 2 + vC C R 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + Comparator 2 R v (V) 5 t ( µs ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 3.Exercises 2.

Using these voltages.15 V and V BE2 ( sat ) = 0. 6.2 KΩ The transistors are identical and the curves supplied by the manufacturer specify that V CE2 ( sat ) = 0. + 12 V 2. Assume that the transistors have a minimum h FE value of 50. 5. For the Schmitt trigger circuit of Figure (a) below. the input signal v S is as shown in Figure (b).7 V . 7-36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The fixed-bias flip-flop circuit below is the same as that of Example 7. a capacitor with value C = 1 nF and appropriate resistor values to produce an output pulse of 20 µs duration.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 4. Design a monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer.2 KΩ 15 KΩ V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ – 12 V T2 15 KΩ V C2 2. vS V+ R1 40 KΩ R2 10 KΩ –5 V ref = – 1 V (a) (b) V out = ± 10 V vS ( V ) 5 π 3π ⁄ 2 2π ωt ( r) 0 π⁄2 Find and sketch V+ upper and V+ lower .4. recalculate the stable-state currents and voltages.

33 KΩ (2) Subtraction of (2) from (1) yields R B = 5.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 7.44 KΩ and from (2) R A = 4.33 = 3.69 × 10 The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T and from relations (7.69 ( R A + R B )C RA + RB RA + RB T Duty cycle = 0. v (V) 5 T1 0 1 2 T2 3 4 5 t ( µs ) T The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 1 + 3 = 4 µs .3) and (7.6) T = 4 × 10 –6 = 0.= --------------------T 0.77 = 4.77 KΩ (1) –9 0. we must make T 2 = 3T 1 and this condition will be satisfied if we multiply relation (7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-37 .33 – 3.69 ( R A + 2R B )C R A + 2R B 5.69 × 10 ( R A + 2R B ) –6 –9 4 × 10 R A + 2R B = -------------------------.9 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1.16).= 5.6) we get 0. Then. v (V) 5 T1 0 1 2 3 T2 4 t ( µs ) T The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 3 + 1 = 4 µs and the duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 3 ⁄ 4 = 0.77 – 4.11) by 3 and equate it to relation (7. To achieve a duty cycle at 25 % .25 = 25 % .75 = 75 % From relation (7.44 = 890 Ω 2.75 × 5.14) subject to the constraint of (7.77 KΩ R A + R B = 0.75 = ----1 = -----------------------------------------.69 ( R A + 2R B )C = 0. The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 1 ⁄ 4 = 0.= ---------------------.

0052 2.16 2. y=3.⎞ ⎝ x–2 ⎠ Therefore.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 2R A – R B RA ⋅ R B 3 ln 2R A C = ------------------.0051 2.04 0.006 The plot above indicates that the x-axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 2. x=2.06 -0.0053 2.005:0.*x−1).⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ RA 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 3 ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ -----./(x−2)).1 -0.+ 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------.0058 2.0059 2. let us plot the above relation with the following MATLAB script to find the x-axis zero crossing.*log(2).02 0 -0.*(x+1)−log((2.12 -0.C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.04 -0.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 2R A – R B RB ------------------. we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value but not exactly equal or less than 2.y).0055 2.⎞ = ln ⎛ ---------------------.grid 0.0057 2.0001:2.0056 x = RA / RB 2.⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.02 Relation for 3T1 = T2 -0.0058 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 25 % . The value of the capacitor can be 7-38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .005 2.08 -0.⎞ ⎝ RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ For convenience.0054 2.14 -0.⎞ = 3 ln 2 ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RA + RB 2R A – R B 3 ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ ------------------. we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as 2x – 1 3 ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = ln ⎛ -------------. plot(x.006.

y).69 × 5. we get T 1 = 10 –6 = 0.1 × 10 3.11) or (7.grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-39 .⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.*log((2.14) but (7. We require that T 1 = 1 µs and assuming R A = 5.69 × 5.11) is simpler.1 KΩ .C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------./(x−2)).69R A C = 0.⋅ ⎛ ------------------.16).⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 2R A – R B RB ln 2 ------------------. Then.⎞ ⎝ RA ⁄ R B – 2 ⎠ ⎠ 3 ⎝ RB For convenience.11) subject to the constraint of (7.⎞ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ 3 ⎝ RB ⎠ 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 ln 2 R A ------. y=log(2).1 × 10 C –6 3 10 C = -------------------------------------3 = 284 pF 0.⎞ = ------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 3 2R A – R B ln 2 R A + R B ------.*x−1). let us plot above relation with the following MATLAB script to find the x-axis zero crossing.14) by 3 and equate it to relation (7.⎞ ⎝ x–2 ⎠ Therefore. 2R A – R B RA ⋅ RB ln 2 ⋅ R A C = 3 ⋅ ------------------.01:6.75 = 75 % Here. x=2.⋅ ⎛ -----. we must make T 1 = 3T 2 and this condition will be satisfied if we multiply relation (7. v (V) 5 T1 0 1 2 3 T2 4 t ( µs ) T The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 3 + 1 = 4 µs and the duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 3 ⁄ 4 = 0.+ 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------.*(x+1)−3. we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as 2x – 1 ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = 3 ln ⎛ -------------.1:0. plot(x.⎞ = ln ⎛ ---------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises found from either expression (7.

21 which is repeated below for convenience.69 × 5.11) is simpler.69 × 5. we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value.1C 1.1 × 10 –6 7-40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We will use the monostable multivibrator of Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 2 0 -2 T1 = 3T2 -4 -6 -8 -10 2 2.2 KΩ –9 1.25 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 75 % . resistor R 1 must have the value of T 20 × 10 R 1 = ----------.5 4 x = RA / RB 4. T ≈ 1.5 6 The plot above indicates that x-axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 4.1 × 10 Example 7. we get T 1 = 3 × 10 –6 = 0. The value of the capacitor can be found from either expression (7.1 KΩ .= ----------------------. We require that T 1 = 3 µs and assuming R A = 5.11) or (7. this ratio approaches the value of 11.1 × 10 C –6 3 3 × 10 C = -------------------------------------3 = 853 pF 0.14) but (7.1R 1 C With a capacitor of value C = 1 nF to produce an output pulse of T = 20 µs duration.28).5 3 3. From relation (7. and as the duty cycle increases.= 18.5 5 5. 4.2 and Exercises 2 and 3 reveal that as the duty cycle decreases the ratio R A ⁄ R B approaches the value of 2.69R A C = 0.

2 KΩ V C2 – 12 V Figure 7. and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure (b). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-41 . the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure (a).3.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises V CC R1 R2 Comparator 1 C R2 R Q S Q Comparator 2 R2 RB 5. As in Example 7. + 12 V 2.40. Fixed-bias flip-flop circuit for Example 7.4. we break the given circuit into two parts.2 KΩ 15 KΩ V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ T2 15 KΩ 2.

= 5.⋅ ( – 12 V ) + ------------------------------------------.43 V 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ 100 KΩ + 15 KΩ and this voltage will certainly keep transistor T 1 at cutoff. 7-42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .28 mA I B ( min ) = ------. we calculate I C2 by first finding I 1 and I 2 as follows: 12 V – 0.11 mA h FE 50 Let us now compute the value of I B2 from Figure (b).= --------------------.13 mA 100 KΩ Then.39 mA 2.66 mA 2.7 – ( – 12 ) I 4 = -------------------------. I C2 = I 1 – I 2 = 5. 15 KΩ 100 KΩ V B1 = ------------------------------------------. We find that 12 – 0.2 KΩ I3 15 KΩ V B2 ≈ 0.11 mA 15 KΩ + 100 KΩ Then. By the voltage division expression and the superposition principle.39 – 0.= 0.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators + 12 V 2.7 V 100 KΩ (b) I B2 I4 ON T2 – 12 V Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON.7 I 3 = -----------------------------------------.11 = 5.2 KΩ 0. To verify that with transistor T 1 beyond cutoff transistor T 2 is in saturation.15 V V C1 T1 OFF + 12 V 2.2 KΩ I2 OFF T1 V B1 100 KΩ – 12 V (a) 15 KΩ I C2 T2 ON I1 V C2 ≈ 0.= 0.2 KΩ + 15 KΩ and 0.= 0.28 mA and I C2 5.15 V I 1 = --------------------------------.= 0.15 – ( – 12 ) I 2 = ------------------------------------------.⋅ 0.15 = – 1.

1 and those of the table above reveals that the error in assuming that a transistor in saturation behaves as an ideal short circuit is very small and this error can be neglected. we have shown that transistor T 2 is deeply into saturation.7 V A comparison of the values of Table 7.15 V 0 mA I C1 V C1 I C2 V C2 I B1 V B1 I B2 V B2 −1.2 × 10 × I 3 = 12 – 2.11 mA ) . and V C2 = 10.66 – 0.5 V . the value of I B2 exceeds the minimum base current value of I B ( min ) required for saturation. Parameter Value 0 mA 10.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises I B2 = I 3 – I4 = 0.5 V 5. the collector voltage V C1 if found from Figure (b) as V C1 = 12 – 2.5 V and this value is close to the collector supply voltage of 12 volts. that is.53 mA Since ( I B2 = 0.53 mA 0. Finally. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-43 . Therefore.53 mA ) > ( I B ( min ) = 0.28 mA 0. with the values given the more accurate voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip-flop of this example are summarized in the table below.66 × 10 3 3 –3 = 10.2 × 10 × 0.43 V 0. The analysis is the same as above where the voltages and currents are interchanged between transistors T 1 and T 2 .13 = 0. The second stable state is the one in which transistor T 1 is ON and transistor T 2 is OFF.

e. i..8 V V ref = – 1 V (a) – 10 (b) 4 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 4 × 10 × ( – 1 ) + 10 × 10 V+ upper = ------------------------------------. V out ( V ) vS V+ R1 40 KΩ R2 10 KΩ 10 V out = ± 10 V 5 vS 0 –5 1. the output abruptly swings to negative saturation.= -------------------------------------------------------------------. when the input signal v S exceeds this value. and this cycle repeats.8 V 4 R1 + R2 5 × 10 That is.= -----------------------------------------------------------. the output abruptly swings back to positive saturation. 7-44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 V 4 R1 + R2 5 × 10 That is. when the input signal v S drops below this value. i.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 6.= – 2. 4 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 4 × 10 × ( – 1 ) + 10 × ( – 10 ) V+ lower = ------------------------------------.e.2 V – 2. +10 V .. – 10 V as shown.= 1.

frequencies. and so on. For these waveforms we attempt to represent the signals as a superposition of sinusoidal components of appropriate amplitudes. Figure 8. and so on. is the second harmonic. 3ω is the third harmonic.1 Properties of Signal Waveforms In the study of electronic systems we encounter an extremely wide variety of signal waveforms. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-1 . ω is the fundamental frequency or first harmonic. for instance. The simplest are sinusoidal with frequencies of 60 Hz or 400 Hz but in most cases we are concerned with a more complicated class of periodic but nonsinusoidal waveforms. Unfortunately.2) where V is the DC component of the composite signal.1) where V is the DC component of the composite signal.Chapter 8 Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers T his chapter presents certain basic concepts and procedures that are applicable to frequency dependent single-stage and cascaded amplifiers. are not harmonically related. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7. not all signals consist of harmonically related components. referred to as the frequency spectrum of the signal reveals information about the frequencies and amplitude. the sinusoidal composition of the sound is continuously changing.1. In this case. the Fourier transform. In the case of speech or music.* Fourier transform. Periodic signals can be represented as the superposition of sinusoidal components by a Fourier series of the form v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ωt + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( 2ωt + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( 3ωt + θ 3 ) + … (8. ω 2 . 8. * For a thorough discussion on Fourier series. ω 3 . very powerful techniques for this purpose are available such as the Fourier series. and ω 1 . but it contains no information about the phase angles of the components. and phases. and the Laplace transformation please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. The intent is to provide the basic principles of the frequency dependence that is an essential prerequisite for the effective design and utilization of most electronic circuits. Fortunately. and the Laplace transformation. 2ω . the composite signal can be approximated by the superposition of a number of sinusoidal components expressed as v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t + θ 3 ) + … (8.

the third. the average power in the harmonics of relation (8.3) What percentage of the average power is absorbed by a. the fundamental frequency b.1 The frequency components of the frequency spectrum of Figure 8.2.3) below. Typical frequency spectrum Example 8. The average power P over a period T is 1 P = -T ∫ T 0 1 2 2 v dt = -.1 represents the square waveform shown in Figure 8.sin 5ωt + …⎞ = -----⎝ ⎠ π 5 3 π ∑ n = odd 1 -. Thus. A T π 0 2π ωt Figure 8. and the fifth harmonic Solution: The instantaneous power is p = v 2 ⁄ R and for simplicity let us assume that R = 1 . Typical frequency spectrum The frequency spectrum of Figure 8.1. 4A 1 1 4A v ( t ) = -----.1 are as shown in relation (8.sin 3ωt + -.2. the fundamental and the third harmonic c.⎛ sin ωt + -.4) We recall that the RMS value of a sinusoid is the amplitude of the sinusoid divided by 2 .3) is 8-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v t T T = v 0 2 (8.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers bn 4/π 0 1 3 5 7 9 nω t Figure 8.sin nωt n (8. the fundamental.

but it is delayed in time. the third.2) with the introduction of a constant time delay T .⋅ ⎛ 1 + 1 ⎞ × 100 = 90% -2 9⎠ π ⎝ c. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency and the third harmonic components: 8---. the power absorbed would be considerably higher if the signal includes a DC component.+ …⎞ -.⎞ × 100 = 93% -2 ⎝ 9 25 ⎠ π This example indicates that most of the power is absorbed by the fundamental frequency and the first two non-zero harmonics. It turns out that if an amplifier retards the phase of each sinusoidal component of the signal in direct proportion to the frequency of that component. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency. Also.3 shows a typical curve of amplification versus frequency. the amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the circuit.⋅ -.⋅ -. Figure 8.⋅ ⎛ 1 + 1 + ----.⎞ + ⎛ ---------.⋅ 1⎞ + ⎛ ---------. This can be illustrated by expressing relation (8.Properties of Signal Waveforms 2 4A 4A 1 2 4A 1 2 2 2 P 1 + P 3 + P 5 + … = V 1 + V 3 + V 5 + … = ⎛ ---------. Then. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency component: 8 ⎛ ---.⋅ 1 ⎞ × 100 = 81% ⎝ π2 ⎠ b. and the fifth harmonic components: 8 1 ---. then the waveform of the output signal is an exact copy of the input waveform. the amplification near the lower and near the higher band of frequencies should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the middle of the band. and decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. Typical frequency characteristics of an amplifier As shown in Figure 8. v ( t – T ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 ( t – T ) + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 ( t – T ) + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 ( t – T ) + θ 3 ) + … Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-3 .3.3. for a good designed amplifier.⎞ + … ⎝ 2π ⎠ ⎝ 2π 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2π 5 ⎠ 8A = --------.⎛ 1 + 1 + ----. Figure 8. Of course.12 ⎝ ⎠ 9 25 π 2 a.

gm vg v in R1 (a) vg v1 R3 R2 v2 v out R4 v in vg R1 v1 R3 R2 (b) v2 v out gm vg R4 gm vg Figure 8. the analysis and design of linear amplifiers is concerned with the characteristics of amplification and phase shift versus frequency.4. medium.5) Relation (8. the signal is not distorted. directly proportional to the frequency of that component. Example 8. For the remaining of this chapter and Chapter 9. Subsequently.4(a) and 8. Equivalent circuits for Example 8.2 * Frequency response and Bode plots are discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. 8-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and if the amplification is the same for all frequencies.4(b) are equivalent. then φ = Kω . In conclusion. and high frequencies is to first define the transfer function G ( s ) gain and the frequencies as the poles of the transfer function and draw the Bode plot using MATLAB. it is merely delayed in time.5) reveals that the introduction of a constant delay adds a phase lag φ k to each component. and the amplifier produces a time delay T = K . ISBN 0-9709511-5-7. Reversing the above process we can see that if an amplifier introduces a phase lag that increases linearly with frequency.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers Letting φ k = ω k T we get v ( t – T ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – φ 1 + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t – φ 2 + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – φ 3 + θ 3 ) + … (8. an easy method to begin with the design of amplifiers at low.* The results of the following example will be useful in our analysis and development of equivalent circuits.2 Prove that the circuits of Figure 8. we will develop procedures for constructing these characteristics.

2 The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies Figure 8.5 shows a transistor amplifier and its equivalent circuits that can be used as a low frequency amplifier.7) We observe that equations (8. Transistor amplifier and equivalent circuits at low frequencies The behavior of the amplifier of Figure 8.4(b) yields v1 – v2 v1 ----.+ g m v g + ----.5(a) at low frequencies is affected by the action of capacitor C 3 .+ ----. An incremental model for the amplifier that is valid at low and medium frequencies is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-5 .= 0 R2 R3 v2 – v1 v2 --------------.6) and (8.6) Application of KCL at v 1 and v 2 of Figure 8.+ --------------.The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies Proof: Application of KCL at v 1 and v 2 of Figure 8.= 0 R4 R3 (8. 8. RA R2 rn V CC I1 IB R1 R3 (b) C β IB C3 R2 I2 v in RB R3 (a) C3 rn I1 R1 IB R2 I1 R1 I2 rn IB ( 1 + β )R 3 (d) 3 --------------(1 + β) R2 β IB R3 (c) C3 β IB β IB I2 Figure 8.– g m v g = 0 R2 R3 v2 – v1 v2 --------------.5.4(a) and 8.+ g m v g = 0 R4 R3 (8.– g m v g + --------------.4(b) are equivalent.4(a) yields v1 v1 – v2 ----.7) are the same and thus the circuits of Figures 8.

The current amplification is reduced accordingly. ( 1 + β )R 3 ( 1 + β )R 3 × 1 ⁄ jω ( C 3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) ) Z eq = --------------------------------------------------------------------------.10) We now recall that the amplitude of a low-pass filter is given by† 1 G ( jω ) = V out = ---------------------------------------2 2 2 V in 1+ω R C and the half-power ( 3 dB ) frequency is defined at G ( jω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 which occurs when ω = 1 ⁄ RC . The reduction theorem* is then applied to obtain the simplified equivalent circuit of Figure 8.5(b). most of the signal current flows through R 1 rather than into the base of the transistor. Accordingly. they are used primarily for estimating how large C 3 must be for satisfactory performance.10) let us define the frequency * The reduction theorem is discussed in Appendix C.5(c). please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. By inspection of the circuit in Figure 8. As we’ve learned in Example 8.⋅ I 1 ( 1 + β )R 3 R 1 + r n + --------------------------1 + jωR 3 C 3 (8. in (8. In a typical circuit R 1 may be 5 or 10 kilohms.5(b) can be replaced by an equivalent pair of sources to obtain the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8. 8-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers shown in Figure 8. where C 3 acts as an open circuit. It follows that for large. the current source βI B in the circuit of Figure 8. it is good engineering practice to use coarse approximations whenever they contribute a substantial simplification of the problem without destroying the usefulness of the results. uniform amplification. For such purposes. † For derivation.⋅ I 1 R 1 + r n + Z eq where Z eq is the parallel combination of resistance ( 1 + β )R 3 and capacitance C 3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) .8) (8. Thus.5(d).= --------------------------1 + jωR 3 C 3 ( 1 + β )R 3 + 1 ⁄ jω ( C 3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) ) R1 I b = --------------------------------------------------. and ( 1 + β )R 3 may be 50 or 100 kilohms. the current gain is A C = I 2 ⁄ I 1 = βI b ⁄ I 1 (8. hence at very low frequencies. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7.9) and R1 I b = -----------------------------. C 3 should be chosen to act as a short circuit at all frequencies in the band occupied by the sinusoidal components of the signal. The parameters shown are approximations and this circuit should not be used for precision calculations.5(d).2.

**The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies
**

ω3 = 1 ⁄ R3 C3

(8.11)

**Factoring R 1 + r n out of the denominator in (8.10) and multiplying both numerator and denominator by 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 , we get
**

1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 R1 I1 I b = --------------- ⋅ --------------------------------------------( 1 + β )R 3 jω R1 + rn 1 + ----------------------- + ----R1 + rn ω3

(8.12)

**and with (8.8) we find that the current gain is given by
**

βI b 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 βR 1 I2 A C = --- = ------- = --------------- ⋅ --------------------------------------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β )R 3 jω I1 I1 1 + ----------------------- + ----R1 + rn ω3

(8.13)

In the medium-frequency range the term ω ⁄ ω 3 is very large, and the second factor on the right side in (8.13) approaches unity; hence the first factor is the current gain at medium frequencies. Relation (8.13) can be expressed in a more convenient form by defining two new terms as

βR 1 A m = --------------R1 + rn

(8.14) (8.15)

and

( 1 + β )R 3 k 3 = ----------------------R1 + rn

**Substitution of (8.14) and (8.15) in (8.13) and factoring 1 + k3 out the denominator yields
**

1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 Am A C = ------------- ⋅ -------------------------------------------1 + k 3 1 + jω ⁄ ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3

(8.16)

Relation (8.16) can be used as a guide in the design of transistor amplifiers for low-frequency responses once the quiescent operating point has been established. The bypass capacitor is then chosen to make the break in the amplitude characteristic at ω = ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 occur at a suitable point below the band of frequencies occupied by the signal. Changing the value of C 3 does not change the shape of the ramp in the amplitude characteristic; it only shifts the ramp parallel to the frequency axis. Example 8.3 For the transistor amplifier of Figure 8.5, it is known that R 1 = 3 KΩ , r n = 12 KΩ , R 3 = 1 KΩ , β = 80 , and C 3 = 2.5 µF . Construct the logarithmic amplitude characteristic for this amplifier in the low- and medium-frequency range. Solution: The amplification at medium frequencies is given by (8.40). Thus Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8-7

**Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers
**

βR 1 80 × 3 A m = --------------- = -------------- = 18 3 + 12 R1 + rn

and in decibels

A m ( dB ) = 20 log 18 = 20 × 1.25 = 25 dB

**The break frequency ω 3 in (8.16) is
**

1 1 ω 3 = ----------- = ----------------------------------------- = 400 rad/sec –6 R3 C3 1000 × 2.5 × 10

or

ω3 400 f 3 = ----- = -------- ≈ 64 Hz 2π 2π

**The factor k 3 is found from (8.15), that is,
**

( 1 + β )R 3 ( 1 + 80 ) × 1 k 3 = ----------------------- = ---------------------------- = 5.4 3 + 12 R1 + rn

**and the break frequency for the factor ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 in the denominator of relation (8.16) is
**

( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 = ( 1 + 5.4 ) × 400 = 2560 rad/sec

or

( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = ( 1 + 5.4 ) × 64 = 410 Hz

**The amount by which the amplification at low frequencies is less than its value at medium frequencies is
**

20 log ( 1 + k 3 ) = 20 × 0.8 = 16 dB

Therefore, from DC to the break frequency at 64 Hz , the gain is 25 – 16 = 9 dB . The amplitude characteristic is shown in Figure 8.6 where the frequency is shown in logarithmic scale and the gain is in dB scale.

Gain ( dB ) 30 20 64 Hz

( 1 + k 3 )f 3 f3

10 0 1

410 Hz

10

100

1000

f ( Hz )

Figure 8.6. Amplitude characteristic for the amplifier of Example 8.3

8-8

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies A smooth curve shown in Figure 8.7 can be obtained with the following MATLAB script:

f=1:10:10^(6); w=2.*pi.*f; beta=80; R1=3000; R3=1000; C3=2.5.*10.^(−6); rn=12000;... w3=1./(R3.*C3); Am=(beta.*R1)./(rn+R1); k3=((1+beta).*R3)./(rn+R1);... Ac=(Am.*(1+j.*w./w3))./((1+k3)*(1+j.*w./((1+k3).*w3))); y=20*log10(abs(Ac)); semilogx(f,y); grid

26 24 22 20 18 Gain (dB) 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 10

10

1

10

2

10 Frequency (Hz)

3

10

4

10

5

10

6

Figure 8.7. Gain versus frequency plot for Example 8.5 with MATLAB

**8.3 The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies
**

In Chapter 3, Section 3.13, we introduced the hybrid- π model for a transistor at high frequencies and this model is repeated in Figure 8.8 for convenience.

B

ib r' b

v' be = v

1

+

−

C2

ic ro ie

v be

r be

C1

+

v ce

C

−

E

gm v

Figure 8.8. The hybrid− π model for the transistor at high frequencies

An incremental model for the transistor amplifier of Figure 8.9(a) that is valid at medium and high frequencies is shown in Fig. 8.9(b).

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8-9

**Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers
**

I b r' b V CC R1 I1 RB R3 (a) C3

RA

R2

v b' r be

Ce

I Cc

b

ro gm v

I2

v out

R2

v in

(b) ( 1 + A )C c C eq Ce (d)

v

R1 I1

I Cc Ce (c)

v ro gm v

I2 R eq

r be

v out

R2

ro gm v

I2

I1

R1

r be

v out

R2

Figure 8.9. Transistor amplifier and equivalent circuits at high frequencies

The transistor circuit of Figure 8.9(a) is represented by the hybrid- π model of Figure 8.9(b), where the resistance R 1 represents resistances R A , R B , and the resistance associated with the source I 1 . The behavior of this amplifier is affected at high frequencies by the parasitic capacitances C e and C c . At high frequencies, these capacitances tend to short-circuit node b' to ground and this results in a significant reduction of the voltage v and the current g m v . In the circuit of Figure 8.9(b), resistance r' b is typically in the order of 50 to 100 ohms while resistance R 1 is in the order of several kilohms and thus we can eliminate r' b by replacing the portion of the circuit on the left of r be with a Norton equivalent circuit and Figure 8.9(c) shows the circuit after this modification. The current I flowing through capacitor C c is given by

I = jωC c ( v – v out )

(8.17)

and for the useful frequency range this current is much smaller than the current g m v . Therefore, with the assumption that I « g m v , we find that

ro R2 v out = --------------- ( – g m v ) ro + R2

(8.18) (8.19) (8.20)

and letting we get

–gm ro R2 A = -------------------( ro + R2 ) v out = – Av

8-10

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies Typically, the gain A in (8.20) is in the range of 10 to 1000. Also, r o » R 2 , and thus A ≈ g m R 2 . Therefore, we can express (8.17) as

I = jωC c ( v + Av ) = jωC c ( 1 + A )v ≈ jωC c Av

(8.21)

This relation enable us to replace the current I by a capacitor of the value ( 1 + A )C c as shown in Figure 8.9(d), and as we know from Appendix C, this amplifying property of the transistor which increases the apparent value of the collector capacitance is known as the Miller effect. From the circuit of Figure 8.9(d),

ro I 2 = --------------- g m v ro + R2 C eq = C e + ( 1 + A )C c r be R 1 R eq = ----------------r be + R 1 R eq 1 ⁄ jωC eq v = ⎛ ----------------------------------- ⋅ I 1 ⎞ R eq = ------------------------------- ⋅ I 1 ⎝ R eq + 1 ⁄ jωC eq ⎠ 1 + jωR eq C eq

(8.22) (8.23) (8.24) (8.25)

**The current gain A c is now found by division of (8.22) by (8.25). Thus,
**

g m R eq ro I2 A c = --- = --------------- ⋅ ------------------------------r o + R 2 1 + jωR eq C eq I1

(8.26) (8.27)

Next, we let

ro A m = --------------- g m R eq ro + R2

**and we define the half-power ( 3 dB ) frequency as
**

1 ω 1 = --------------R eq C eq

(8.28)

**Substitution of (8.27) and (8.28) into (8.26) yields
**

1 A c = A m -----------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω 1

(8.29)

At medium frequencies ω is small, that is, ω « ω 1 , and the second factor on the right side in (8.26) is close to unity; hence the quantity A m in relation (8.27) is the current gain at medium frequencies. The useful frequency range for the amplifier is considered to extend up to the halfpower frequency given by (8.26). Therefore, the magnitude of the frequency characteristics for the transistor amplifier at medium and high frequencies have the form shown in Figure 8.10.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8-11

**Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers
**

A ( dB ) Am 3 dB

ω1

ω ( log scale )

Figure 8.10. Typical logarithmic amplitude characteristics for the transistor amplifier at high frequencies

**Substitution of (8.23) and (8.24) into (8.28) yields
**

r be + R 1 ω 1 = ------------------------------------------------------[ C e + ( 1 + A )C c ]r be R 1

(8.30)

**and since A is much larger than unity, (8.30) can be expressed as
**

1 - 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 ω 1 = ----------- ⋅ -----------------------------r be R 1 1 + AC c ⁄ C e

(8.31)

**In Chapter 3 we defined the β cutoff frequency (relation 3.88) as ω β = 1 ⁄ r be C e ; hence we can express (8.31) as
**

1 + r be ⁄ R 1 ω 1 = ω β ⋅ -----------------------------1 + AC c ⁄ C e

(8.32)

or

1 + r be ⁄ R 1 f 1 = f β ⋅ -----------------------------1 + AC c ⁄ C e

(8.33)

Thus, relation (8.33) provides us the half-power point for the current gain of a transistor at high frequencies. Obviously, the half-power point frequency f 1 can be greater or smaller than the β cutoff frequency f β depending on the values of resistor R 1 and the gain A = g m R 2 . Example 8.4 The model for a transistor amplifier at high frequencies is shown in Figure 8.11.

r' b

R1 I1

v b' r be

Ce Cc

b

ro gm v

I2 R2

v out

Figure 8.11. Model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8.6

8-12

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies For this circuit it is known that R 1 = 5 KΩ , R 2 = 1 KΩ , the quiescent collector current is I C = 5 mA , β = 80 , r' b = 50 Ω , C c = 3 pF , r o = 50 KΩ , and the current gain-bandwidth frequency is f T = 400 MHz . Determine: a. the Miller effect ( 1 + A )C c at high frequencies b. the medium frequency current amplification A m c. the half-power frequency f 1 Solution: Since R 1 » r' b and r o » R 2 , the given model circuit can be simplified to that shown in Figure 8.12.

Cc Ce I2 R2

I1

R1

r be

gm v

Figure 8.12. Simplified model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8.6

**From Chapter 3, relation (3.78),
**

g m = 40I C = 40 × 5 × 10

–3

= 0.2 Ω

–1

From relation (3.83),

β 80 r be = ----- = ------ = 400 Ω gm 0.2

and from (3.92),

fT -------f β = --- = 400 = 5 MHz 80 β

**This indicates that large current amplification is provided at frequencies up to 5 MHz . From (3.93),
**

gm 0.2 C e = ----- = ----------------------------- = 79.6 pF 8 ωT 2π × 4 × 10

**a. The Miller effect is ( 1 + A )C c where
**

A = g m R 2 = 0.2 × 1000 = 200

Thus,

( 1 + A )C c = 201 × 3 × 10

– 12

= 603 × 10

– 12

= 603 pF

and this indicates that the dominant effect at high frequencies is the Miller effect. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8-13

**Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers b. From Figure 8.12,
**

3 r be R 1 400 × 5 × 10 R eq = ----------------- = ------------------------------- = 370 Ω 3 r be + R 1 5.4 × 10

**and the medium frequency current amplification A m is given by (8.27) as
**

ro A m = --------------- g m R eq ro + R2

and since r o » R 2 ,

A m ≈ g m R eq = 0.2 × 370 = 74

This value is close to the value of β of the transistor and thus it is near the maximum value that can be obtained by this transistor. c. The half-power frequency f 1 is found from (8.33). Then,

1 + r be ⁄ R 1 6 1 + 400 ⁄ 5000 f 1 = f β ⋅ ------------------------------ = 5 × 10 ⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ = 0.635 MHz – 12 – 12 1 + AC c ⁄ C e 1 + 200 × 3 × 10 ⁄ ( 80 × 10 )

**8.4 Combined Low- and High-Frequency Characteristics
**

The frequency dependence of various amplifier circuits is examined by treating the low-frequency characteristics separately from the high-frequency characteristics. However, the combined low- and high-frequency characteristics can be displayed on a single set of coordinates as shown in Figure 8.13

40 20 A ( dB )

0 10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

10

8

f ( log scale )

Figure 8.13. Combined low- and high-frequency amplitude versus frequency characteristics

**8.5 Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers
**

The magnitude of the signal amplification obtainable from single-stage voltage and current amplifiers is limited to a factor of a less than 100 depending on the type of transistor employed. Since there are many applications requiring greater signal amplifications than this, it is common

8-14

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers practice to connect a number of stages in cascade so that each stage amplifies the signal in succession; the total amplification is then the product of the amplifications of the individual stages. However, cascading amplifiers in this manner introduces some additional considerations in circuit design, and it requires the use of additional circuit components that affect the behavior of the circuit. In most cases, it is possible to analyze, or design, each stage in a multistage amplifier as a separate part of the overall circuit and to determine the overall properties of the amplifier by combining the results of these separate analyses. Thus, the results obtained in the previous sections of this chapter are to a large extent directly applicable in the analysis of cascaded amplifiers; they are usually modified in some respects, however, by the networks used to couple the individual stages in cascade. The properties of cascaded amplifiers are usually such that the signal transmission tends to zero at both low and high frequencies; hence these amplifiers are referred to as bandpass networks. In some cases cascaded amplifiers are required to amplify signals occupying a wide band of frequencies; the principal design problem is then to obtain uniform amplification over a sufficiently wide band of frequencies. It is also possible to design a particular circuit to amplify signals in a certain frequency range and to exclude of all other signals at other undesirable frequencies; the design problem in these cases is to obtain uniform amplification in the desired band with sufficiently strong discrimination against signals in adjacent bands. Figure 8.14 shows an RC-coupled transistor amplifier circuit and its high-frequency equivalents.

V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB (a) R3 C3 R 4 v out

v in

RB R3 C3

v1

I1

I2

v2 CE

Cc

I3 G e q3

G e q1 I1 G e q1

CE

Cc

G e q2

v3

gm v1

(b) I2 G e q2

gm v2 v2 CE

C2 I3 G e q3

v1

CE

Cc

R1 C1

v3

gm v1

(c)

gm v2

Figure 8.14. Circuit of a cascaded RC-coupled transistor amplifier and its high frequency models

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8-15

Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers In Figure 8.14(a), capacitor C 4 is referred to as the interstage coupling capacitor and its function is to block the DC component through the RC coupling network. Transistors can also be direct coupled under certain conditions. A high-frequency model for the cascaded transistor stages is shown in Figure 8.14(b) where we have assumed that the base spreading resistance r' be is negligible. The conductances G e q1 , G e q2 , and G e q3 , are the equivalent conductances connected between the three nodes v 1 , v 2 , v 3 , and ground. Thus,

1 1 1 G e q1 = ------ + ----- + ----R A R B r be 1- 1- 11 G e q2 = ------ + ----- + ----- + ----R A R B r be R 2

(8.34) (8.35) (8.36)

and

1 1 G e q3 = ----- + ----R2 R4

The model for the second stage of the amplifier has the same form as the model for a single-stage amplifier shown in Figure 8.9(c); hence the effect of the collector capacitance in this stage can be accounted for by a Miller capacitance as shown in Figure 8.9(d). When this is done, the second stage has the simplified representation shown in Figure 8.14(c). The Miller capacitance has the value (8.37) C 2 = ( 1 + A 2 )C C where (8.38) A2 = v3 ⁄ v2 Similarly, (8.39) A1 = v2 ⁄ v1 The model for the first stage of the amplifier differs from that of the second stage in that its load has a capacitive component as well as a resistive component; hence the Miller effect is slightly different in the first stage. The first stage is as shown in Figure 8.14(c) where C 1 is the shunt capacitance that is present in the load of the first stage transistor, and the resistor R 1 is negligible in comparison to the reactance of capacitor C 1 . Typically, R 1 is one kilohm or less. The value of R 1 depends on the mid-band value of the gain A 1 as defined in (8.39), the collector capacitance C c , and the half-power frequency for the output circuit of the first stage defined as

G e q2 ω 2 = ------------------------------CE + C2 + CC

(8.40)

In terms of relations (8.39) and (8.40), the values of R 1 and C 1 can be found from

8-16

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers
**

CE + C2 + CC 1 R 1 = ------------------- = ------------------------------ω2 A1 CC gm CC

(8.41) (8.42)

and

C1 = A1 CC

**We can also express R 1 in terms of C 1 using (8.42), that is,
**

1 R 1 = ----------ω2 C1

(8.43)

If the resistance R 1 in the circuit of Figure 8.24(c) were negligible in comparison with the reactance of C 1 , then the simplified representation for the first stage would reduce to the same form as that for the second stage, and the process could be repeated for each stage in a cascade of any number of stages. However, relation (8.43) shows that at ω = ω 2 , R 1 = 1 ⁄ ω 2 C 1 where ω 2 is the half-power frequency for the output circuit of the first stage. Thus, it is convenient to neglect R 1 at frequencies up to ω 2 . If R 1 is not neglected, and if the amplifier of Figure 8.24(c) is preceded by yet another transistor stage, the Miller effect in this stage has a still more complicated form. Of course, the Miller effect computations become more and more complicated as more stages are cascaded. To avoid these complications, it is practical to neglect R 1 and consider all computations as approximations. Then with these approximations, the representation for each stage in the cascade takes a simple form, and stage-by-stage analysis is easy. From Figure 8.14(c),

I3 = –gm v2 I 2 = [ G e q2 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ]v 2

(8.44) (8.45)

**and division of (8.44) by (8.45) yields
**

gm I3 –gm 1 A c2 = --- = ----------------------------------------------- = – ---------- ⋅ -----------------------------------------------------I2 G e q2 1 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G e q2 G e q2 + jω ( C E + C 2 )

(8.46)

**Also, from Figure 8.14(c),
**

I2 = –gm v1

(8.47) (8.48)

and neglecting R 1 ,

I 1 = [ G e q1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ]v 1

division of (8.47) by (8.48) yields

gm I2 –gm 1 A c1 = --- = ----------------------------------------------------------- = – ---------- ⋅ -----------------------------------------------------------------1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G e q1 I1 G e q1 G e q1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 )

(8.49)

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8-17

Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers

Example 8.5 For the cascaded amplifier circuit of Figure 8.15, the transistors are identical with R A = 15 KΩ , R B = 3.3 KΩ , R 2 = 2.6 KΩ , R 3 = 0.68 KΩ , and R 4 = 0.5 KΩ . The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 4 mA , and at this operating point β = 100 , r' b = 50 Ω , C C = 4 pF , f T = 100 MHz , and the output resistance r o is very large and it can be neglected. Compute the overall current gain A c at medium and high frequencies. Sketch and dimension the asymptotes for the high-frequency amplitude characteristics.

V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB R3 C3 R 4 v out

v in

RB R3 C3

Figure 8.15. Cascaded amplifier for Example 8.7

**Solution: From Chapter 3, relation (3.78),
**

g m = 40I C = 40 × 4 × 10

–3

= 0.16 Ω

–1

From relation (3.83),

β 100 r be = ----- = --------- = 625 Ω gm 0.16

and from (3.93),

gm 0.16 C E = ----- = -------------------- = 255 pF 8 ωT 2π × 10

**For the second stage of the amplifier, from (8.36),
**

–1 1 1 1 1 G e q3 = ----- + ----- = ------------------ + ------------------ = 2.4 mΩ R2 R4 2.6 KΩ 0.5 KΩ

From (8.27)

ro A m = --------------- g m R eq ro + R2

8-18

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

16 = – ----------------------.g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 .+ -----------------.5 With the frequency expressed in MHz .+ -----------.+ ----.4 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second.4 × 10 1 + jω ( 255 + 272 ) × 10 ⁄ 2.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------1 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G e q2 I2 G e q2 1 1 0. the current gain of the first stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.4 × 10 From (8.72 For the first stage of the amplifier we found above that G e q2 = 2.= 67 –3 G e q2 2.= 2.46).2 × 10 2.29) ro A m = --------------.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers and since r o » R 2 .4 mΩ –1 From (8.+ -----------------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-19 .4 × 10 From (8. we find that 1 A c2 = – 67 -------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 4.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 2 = ( 1 + A m2 )C C = ( 1 + 67 )4 = 272 pF From (8. the current gain of the second stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0. –1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G e q2 = -----.4 mΩ R A R B r be R 2 15 KΩ 3.= ----------------------.= ----------------------.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 = – 67 --------------------------------------– 12 – –7 –3 1 + jω2. gm I3 1 A c2 = --.= ---------------.6 KΩ From (8. we get 1 A c2 = – 67 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 0.= – ---------.= 67 –3 G e q3 2.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 1 = ( 1 + A m1 )C C = ( 1 + 67 )4 = 272 pF From (8.+ ----.+ ----.35).16 A m1 = g m R eq = ---------.3 KΩ 50 Ω 2.34).16 A m2 = g m R eq = ---------.

16 = – -----------------.+ ----.7 Figure 8.8 With the frequency expressed in MHz .+ -----------------. we get 1 A c1 = – 80 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 0.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers –1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G e q1 = -----. we find that 1 A c1 = – 80 -------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 3.17 shows a cascaded transistor amplifier circuit and its model that is valid at low and medium frequencies.⎞ ⎛ – 67 --------------------------.3 KΩ 625 Ω From (8.+ ----.66 × 10 2 × 10 1 + jω ( 255 + 4 + 272 ) × 10 ⁄ 2 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second. With r o assumed to be very large. Thus.49).60 1 + jf ⁄ 0.60 ⎠ ⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 0. we used the same procedure as in the 8-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ --------------.= ---------------.⋅ --------------------------⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 0.= – 80 -----------------------------------------– 12 –3 –7 –3 1 + jω2.60 The overall current gain A c is obtained by multiplying A c1 by A c2 .⋅ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.⎞ = 5360 ⋅ --------------------------. gm I2 1 A c1 = --.72 Figure 8.72 ⎠ 1 + jf ⁄ 0.= 2 mΩ R A R B r be 15 KΩ 3. Asymptotes for the high-frequency characteristics of the amplifier for Example 8. and the slope of each high-frequency asymptote is – 20 dB per decade.16 shows a sketch showing the asymptotes for the high-frequency amplitude characteristics where the frequency is shown in a log scale and the gain in dB where A c ( dB ) = 20 log 5360 ≈ 75 .= – ---------. A ( dB ) 80 40 f = 720 KHz f = 600 KHz 0 10 0 – 20 dB ⁄ decade – 40 dB ⁄ decade 10 5 10 6 f ( log scale ) Figure 8.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------------------I1 G e q1 1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G e q1 1 1 0.16. 1 1 1 1 A c = A c1 A c2 = ⎛ – 80 --------------------------.

50) as R2 jω ⁄ ω 4 I4 --. Thus.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers simplification of Figure 8. the interstage network has the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-21 .= ----------------. V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB (a) I1 I b1 C4 R1 I2 R2 C4 I b2 R3 C3 R4 v out v in RB R3 C3 3 ---------------(1 + β) C I3 R2 C4 I4 R4 v in rn R3 C3 rn β I b2 v out β I b1 R1 ( 1 + β ) R3 (b) Figure 8.= ----------------.⋅ ------------------------R 2 + R 4 1 + jω ⁄ ω 4 I3 (8. RC-coupled amplifier circuit and its model at low frequencies The effect of the coupling capacitor at the output of the amplifier is determined from right side part of Figure 8.50) Defining the frequency ω 4 as 1 ω 4 = ---------------------------C4 ( R2 + R4 ) (8.⋅ I 3 R 2 + R 4 + 1 ⁄ jω C 4 R or jω C 4 ( R 2 + R 4 ) R2 R2 I4 --.= -----------------------------------------. The characteristics of the amplifier are affected at low frequencies by the coupling and bypass capacitors. and with this choice C 4 acts as a short circuit while C 3 is making the transition from a short circuit to an open circuit.⋅ -------------------------------------------R 2 + R 4 1 + jω C 4 ( R 2 + R 4 ) I3 R 2 + R 4 + 1 ⁄ jω C 4 (8.5(a) to derive the simple equivalent circuit of Figure 8. we choose the capacitors so that the low-frequency half-power point is determined by C 3 . and with this transition.17.17(b) with the use of the current division expression as follows: 2 I 4 = -----------------------------------------.52) To simplify the procedure of deriving an expression for the gain I 3 ⁄ I 2 we make use of the fact that the value required for the bypass capacitor C 3 is much larger than the value required for the coupling capacitor C 4 .5(d).51) we express (8.

27(b) has a direction opposite to the current I 2 in Figure 8.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers same form as the amplifier shown in Figure 8. with C 4 acting as a short circuit.15(d).16).58) (8. R1 R2 R' 1 = ----------------R1 + R2 (8. Thus. 8-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .54) (8.61) and with the factor contributed by the interstage coupling capacitor C 4 .⋅ -------------------------------------------. R' 1 is the parallel combination of R 1 and R 2 in Figure 8. and thus 1 ω 5 ≈ ----------------------------( R 1 + R 2 )C 4 (8.57) At very low frequencies C 3 acts as an open circuit and the interstage coupling capacitor C 4 contributes the factor jω ⁄ ω 5 ------------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω 5 (8.55) (8.* 1 + k 3 1 + jω ⁄ ( 1 + k3 )ω 3 (8.59) where 1 ω 5 = ------------R eq C 4 and R eq is the equivalent resistance when C 4 acts as a short circuit and C 3 as an open circuit.17(b). ( 1 + β )R 3 is much larger than the other resistors in that group. Thus.53) (8.56) where ω3 = 1 ⁄ R3 C3 and βR' 1 A m = --------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β )R 3 k 3 = ----------------------R' 1 + r n where. R eq = R 1 || R 2 + r n + ( 1 + β )R 3 (8. and the current gain for each stage has the same form as (8.60) Usually. with C 4 acting as a short circuit we find that 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 Am A C = – ------------. Thus. the complete expression for the current gain is * The minus (-) sign stems from the fact that the current I 3 in Figure 8.5(d).

R 3 = 2. and the output resistance r o is very large in comparison with R 2 and thus it can be neglected. Finally.⋅ -------------------------------------------. The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 1 mA . The coupling and bypass capacitors are to be chosen to yield suitable performance at low frequencies.2 KΩ .Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers 1 + jω ⁄ ω 3 jω ⁄ ω 5 Am A C = – ------------. Example 8. C 3 is chosen to make the break at ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 occur at a desired point below the band of the high frequencies of the signal. Then. V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB (a) I1 I b1 C4 R1 I2 R2 C4 I b2 R3 C3 R4 v out v in RB R3 C3 3 ---------------(1 + β) C I3 R2 C4 I4 R4 v in rn R3 C3 rn β I b2 v out β I b1 R1 ( 1 + β ) R3 (b) Figure 8.⋅ ------------------------1 + k 3 1 + jω ⁄ ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 1 + jω ⁄ ω 5 (8. The transistors are identical with R A = 56 KΩ . and the transistor parameters are β = 200 . Cascaded amplifier circuit and its low-frequency equivalent for Example 8. C 4 is chosen to make the break at ω 5 occur at some frequency below ω 3 where C 3 acts as an open circuit. Find the values of the resistances in the simplified low-frequency model in Figure 8. The break frequency associated with the coupling capacitor C 4 at the output of the amplifier is to occur at 16 Hz .62) Normally. The highest break frequency associated with the interstage coupling network is to be Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-23 . f T = 8 MHz .18. a. Compute the value of C 4 required in the output circuit. and R 4 = 1 KΩ . r' b = 200 Ω .8 KΩ . R 2 = 6.18.8. C C = 20 pF . b.28(b). c. R B = 12 KΩ . the design process begins with the selection of the proper resistor values to establish a suitable quiescent point.6 A cascaded transistor amplifier circuit and its model that is valid at low and medium frequencies are shown in Figure 8.

Find ω 3 .9 × 6. R 3 = 2.28µF 3 ( R 2 + R 4 )ω 4 ( 6. C 4 = ---------------------------. The values of R 2 = 6.1 4.33 = 21 rad/s 8-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . find the minimum value for C 4 in the interstage network.2 R' 1 + r n We are given that ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = 160 Hz .= ( 1 + 200 ) × 2.87). The break frequency associated with the coupling capacitor C 4 in the interstage network.78). r n = r' b + r be = 200 Ω + 5 KΩ = 5.2 = 48. 160 f 3 = --------.= 3.= -------------------.= 1. Then. treating C 4 in the interstage network as a short circuit.= 4.0 + 5. and.8 KΩ .51).56). 200 βr be = ----.= --------------------. g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 40 mΩ –1 From relation (3. d.= 5 KΩ –3 gm 40 × 10 and from (3. and R 4 = 1 KΩ are given. is to be at least as small as ω 3 .8 and from (8.= -----------------------------------------------------------. denoted as ω 5 in relation (8.2 KΩ b.= ----------------.0 KΩ R1 + R2 9.33 Hz 48. ( 1 + β )R 3 -----------------------------------k 3 = ----------------------.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = 160 Hz .57).8 + 1 ) × 10 × 2π × 16 1 1 c. Treating C 3 as an open circuit. From relation (8.9 + 6. find the required value for the bypass capacitor C 3 .= 9.79). RA RB 56 × 12 R 1 = ------------------. From relation (8.1 or ω 3 = 2πf 3 = 2π × 3.2 = 442 KΩ From Chapter 3.9 KΩ RA + RA 56 + 12 ( 1 + β )R 3 = ( 1 + 200 )2. Solution: a. relation (3.83).2 KΩ . R1 R2 9.8 R' 1 = ----------------. Also.

9 + 6..2f K \t'. w=1:10:10^5..2f mmho \t'. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n')..= 2.2f microF \t'.= ---------------------------------------------------.*w3)).. fprintf(' \n').. w5=w3.R1prime/1000). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-25 .. fprintf('rbe = %2..61).. fprintf(' \n')...R1/1000).RA/1000).. AcdB=20. fprintf('beta = %2.. fprintf('gm = %2.. fprintf(' \n')..2f rps \t'. fprintf(' \n'). R3=2200. With ω 5 = ω 3 = 21 rad/s and with (8... fprintf('f4 = %2. fprintf(' \n').. fprintf(' \n')..*w.w3).... Acden=(1+k3). fprintf(' \n').. R1=RA*RB/(RA+RB).85 µF 3 ( R 1 + R 2 )ω 5 ( 9.*w.8 ) × 10 × 21 The computations for all examples and the end-of-chapter exercises.. can be greatly simplified by writing a MATLAB script such as that shown below and plot the overall current gain.C3*10^6).. fprintf('R4 = %2. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf('k3 = %2.. R1prime=R1*R2/(R1+R2).2 × 10 d..2f microF \t'. rn=rbprime+rbe..2f Hz \t'.../w5)). fprintf('C4b = %2..Ic*1000)...54).6 µF 3 ω3 R3 21 × 2.. fprintf(' \n').. beta=200..gm*1000)./w3)./((1+k3). C4b=1/((R2+R4)*w4).0f \t'..2f \t'. 1 1 C 4 = ----------------------------.*(j.w4). Ac=Acnum......*(1+j. fprintf(' \n').2f K \t'.. fprintf('R3 = %2.2f rps \t'.. fprintf('Am = %2.. f4=16.*(1+j.2f rps \t'.2f microF \t'..2f K \t'...k3).C4d*10^6). fprintf('R1prime = %2. fprintf('C4d = %2. w3=2*pi*f3.. C4d=1/((R1+R2)*w5). w4=2*pi*f4...*w..2f K \t'..Am). fprintf(' \n'). k3=(1+beta)*R3/(R1prime+rn)./Acden. 1 1 C 3 = ----------..RB/1000)...R3/1000).. Acnum=(Am. fprintf(' \n').. fprintf('rn = %2. fprintf('R2 = %2. rbe=beta/gm.. R2=6800.*w.... fprintf('Ic = %2.. fprintf('rbprime = %2. fprintf('w3 = %2..2f K \t'..Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers and from (8. gm=40*Ic. fprintf('C3 = %2.2f K \t'. fprintf('RB = %2.*log10(abs(Ac)).2f K \t'..f4).2f Hz \t'..C4b*10^6). C3=1/(w3*R3). fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n')./w5). fprintf(' \n')...2f \t'. fprintf('RA = %2.2f K \t'.w5).rbprime/1000).rbe/1000).. fprintf(' \n')..2f K \t'. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n'). RB=12000. Ic=10^(−3).beta).. fprintf('w4 = %2.2f K \t'. fprintf('w5 = %2. fprintf(' \n'). RA=56000... fprintf(' \n').R4/1000). Am=beta*R1prime/(rn+R1prime).R2/1000)..f3).= 21.2f mA \t'.....*(1+j. rbprime=200..= --------------------------------.... fprintf(' \n').. f3=160/(1+k3).. fprintf(' \n')... fprintf('R1 = %2.... fprintf('f3 = %2... R4=1000...rn/1000).

14).20 K R4 = 1. title('Low-frequency characteristics for multistage amplifier.20 K Ic = 1.. and ω L is the low-frequency half-power point.27 Hz w3 = 20. AcdB).6 Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers The asymptotes for the amplitude and phase characteristics for a typical RC-coupled stage amplifier are shown in Figure 8..19.00 K R2 = 6..28 microF gm = 40.11). ylabel('Current gain (dB scale)').92 f3 = 3.20 where the symbols f L and f H define the low.88 K R1prime = 4.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers f=w.8') RA = 56.20 K rbe = 5.53 rps C4b = 1.00 mA beta = 200 f4 = 16.*pi)..00 K R1 = 9.03 K rbprime = 0. and A mL is as defined in relation (8. grid. For instance. ω L = ω 3 is as defined in relation (8.12 microF w5 = 20.92 microF Am = 87.and high-frequency ranges respectively.00 Hz w4 = 100. xlabel('Frequency in Hz (log scale)').5 at low frequencies.30 The plot for the current gain (in dB scale) versus frequency (in log scale) is shown in Figure 8./(2.55 rps C4d = 2. for the transistor amplifier circuit of Figure 8.00 mmho k3 = 47.. 8. At low frequencies the voltage gain A vL is obtained from the relation jω ⁄ ω L A vL = – A mL ------------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω L (8. semilogx(f.00 K RB = 12. Example 8.00 K rn = 5..80 K R3 = 2.55 rps C3 = 22. 8-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .63) where A mL depends on the circuit parameters.

ω H = ω 1 is as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-27 .20. and ω H is the high-frequency half-power point.8 30 20 Current gain (dB scale) 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -1 10 10 0 10 1 10 10 Frequency in Hz (log scale) 2 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 8. Frequency characteristics for a typical single stage amplifier At high frequencies the voltage gain A vH is obtained from the relation 1 A vH = – A mH ------------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω H (8.9 at high frequencies.19. for the transistor amplifier circuit of Figure 8.Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers 40 Low-frequency characteristics for multistage amplifier.8 A ( dB ) 40 20 0 20 dB/decade – 20 dB/decade 90 ° 45 ° 0 fL 1 2 fH f ( Hz ) fL 1 10 1 10 10 10 10 2 3 4 5 10 fH 6 10 7 1 10 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 – 45 ° – 90 ° f ( Hz ) (a) (b) Figure 8.64) where A mH depends on the circuit parameters. For instance. Example 8. Amplitude of current gain versus frequency for Example 8.

51 .65) If two identical stages such as that shown in Figure 8. are connected in cascade. If two non-identical stages are connected in cascade. For two stages the bandwidth reduction factor is 0. A ( dB ) 40 20 0 f ( Hz ) 40 dB/decade – 40 dB/decade fL fH Figure 8. We can obtain the combined low.64 . the overall voltage gain A v is obtained from the relation ( jω ⁄ ω L ) 2 A v = A m -----------------------------------------------------------------2 2 ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H ) 2 (8. thus. for three stages is 0.and high-frequency characteristics for the voltage gain A v by multiplying relation (8.18. the overall voltage gain is given by ( jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) A v = A m1 A m2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( 1 + ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H1 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H2 ) (8.28). Typical overall amplitude characteristics for two identical stages in cascade By comparing the amplitude characteristics of Figures 8.20 and 8.21.43 . 8-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .89) by (8.27).66) The overall amplitude characteristics for two identical stages in cascade is as shown in Figure 8. It can be shown* that the half-power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 (8. and for four stages it is 0. jω ⁄ ω L A v = A mL A mH -------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H ) (8.21.90). we observe that the bandwidth between the half-power points decreases as more stages are connected in cascade.21. The quantity 2 1 ⁄ n – 1 is referred to as the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages in cascade.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers defined in relation (8.68) * The proof is left as an exercise for the reader at the end of this chapter. and A mH is as defined in relation (8.67) where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half-power frequency for on stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies.

22. if the zeros of a certain voltage gain are – 1 and – 3 .71).70) is written as s A v ( s ) = K -----------------------------------( s – s L ) ( s – sH ) (8. and s H = – ω H .= K ------------------------2 (s + 2)(s + 4) s + 6s + 8 2 (8. A ( dB ) 20 40 – 20 – 40 0 f L1 f L2 f H2 f H1 f ( Hz ) Figure 8. if all the poles and zeros of a rational function are known.71). hence s L and s H are poles of the function of (8. Therefore. For all practical electric and electronic circuits. For example. and when the highest power of the denominator is greater than the highest degree of the numerator.Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers and the overall amplitude and phase characteristics are obtained by addition of the constituent characteristics. the expression is referred to as a rational function. The values of s that make rational functions infinite are called poles of the function. Replacing jω with s and defining s L = – ω L . The asymptotes for a typical amplitude characteristic are shown in Figure 8.70) Then. hence s = 0 is a zero of the function of (8. As indicated by the form of (8. The values of s that make a rational function zero are called zeros of the function. then the voltage gain is s + 4s + 3 (s + 1)(s + 3) A v ( s ) = K -------------------------------. it is convenient to substitute the symbol s for jω and after the roots of a quadratic equation in s are found. the function is completely specified except for a constant multiplier. we can let s = jω . and if the poles are – 2 and – 4 . relation (8. However. we are interested on the values that lie on the jω axis of the complex frequency plane.69) (8.72) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-29 .65) is more conveniently expressed in a pole-zero pattern by letting K = – A mL A mH ω H (8. voltage and current gains can be expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in the variable s . jω A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------------------( jω + jω L ) ( jω + jω H ) The roots of the denominator of an expression for A v ( jω ) may be purely imaginary such as jω L = – 100 or complex conjugates such as jω H = – 3 + j 2 .22 where the notations 20 and 40 stand for 20 dB/decade and 40 dB/decade respectively.71).71) and we can obtain the steady-state voltage gain for any frequency ω by letting s = jω . Typical overall amplitude characteristics for two nonidentical stages in cascade Relation (8.

7 The pole-zero pattern for the voltage gain of a certain amplifier is shown in Figure 8. The design is then completed by finding a network configuration and the parameter values that yield the desired pol-zero pattern. The amplification at high frequencies is 40 dB . the logarithmic amplitude and phase characteristics can be constructed.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------( jω + 2 ) ( jω + 4 ) 8 ( 1 + jω ⁄ 2 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 4 ) (8. For steady-state sinusoidal operation. The zero of A v ( s ) which occurs when s = 0 .23 shows the pole-zero diagram for the voltage gain of a single-stage amplifier obtained from relation (8. it adds a constant number of decibels to the amplitude characteristic. ( jω + 1 ) ( jω + 3 ) 3K ( 1 + jω ⁄ 1 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 3 ) A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------.24. Pole-zero pattern for relation (8. For instance.73) Thus if the poles and zeros of a rational function are known. the variable s = jω corresponds to some point on the imaginary axis shown as a filled circle. It is also interesting to note that the poles and zeros of A v ( jω ) correspond to the break frequencies expressed in radians per second.23. Construct the asymptotes for the logarithmic amplitude characteristic. Example 8. if it is not positive. is denoted by a circle at the origin of the complex plane. The relation between the poles and zeros of the voltage or current gain and the frequency characteristics is displayed in a useful way by the pole-zero diagram. If the constant multiplier is not unity.97) As shown in Figure 8. it adds an angle of 180° to the phase shift. and a pole corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade downward. 8-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Figure 8. the pole-zero diagram is a set of rectangular coordinates known as the complex plane. A zero corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade upward in the asymptotic characteristic.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers and for steady-state sinusoidal conditions.23. Imaginary axis s = jω sH sL Real axis Figure 8.71).= -----. The design of networks to provide a desired frequency characteristic begins with the choice of a pole-zero pattern that yields an approximation to the desired performance. The poles of A v ( s ) which occur when s = s L = – ω L and s = s H = – ω H are represented by crosses on the negative real axis. except for the effect of the constant multiplier.

200.2 0 f ( Hz ) 4.8.2 dB is shown in Figure 8.= 100 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ 128 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 812 ) × 128 × 812 ( jω + 128 ) ( jω + 812 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 30 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 200 ) A v ( jω ) = 5. Recalling that A dB = 20 log 100 = 40 it follows that K = 100 and ( 1 + jω ⁄ 30 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 200 ) × 30 × 200 ( jω + 30 ) ( jω + 200 ) A v ( jω ) = 100 ---------------------------------------------------. Logarithmic amplitude characteristic for Example 8. 128. the above relation reduces to A v ( jω ) ω→∞ = K It is given that at high frequencies the voltage gain is 40 dB . A ( dB ) 40 15. the voltage gain is Imaginary axis – 812 – 200 – 128 – 30 Real axis Figure 8. and 129 respectively. Pole-zero pattern for Example 8.Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers Solution: With the given values of the poles and zeros. 20.25. and 812 are shown in Hz as 4.77 -----------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ 128 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ 812 ) The asymptotes for the logarithmic amplitude characteristic with A v ( dB ) = 20 log ( 5.25 where the radian frequencies 30.9 ( jω + 30 ) ( jω + 200 )A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------------------( jω + 128 ) ( jω + 812 ) For very large values of the frequency ω .77 ) = 15.8 20 32 129 Figure 8. 32.24.7 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-31 .

Denoting the voltage gain as A v we get v2 A v = 20 log ---v1 (8.75) The power gain in dB is defined as p out G p = 10 log ------p in (8. Let us consider the equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier shown in Figure 8.+ 10 log ----2 2 v1 RL v1 RL v1 ⁄ R1 2 2 (8. The first four are designed to yield the greatest possible current amplification.78) Example 8. the power gain of the circuit of Figure 8. and in this case the second term on the right side of (8.77) is zero.= 20 log ---. i1 v1 R1 R2 i2 µv 1 v2 RL Figure 8.8 For the three-stage amplifier shown in Figure 8.76) Thus.26.27.77) In communications circuits it is desirable to make RL = R1 . and the fifth stage is a power amplifier designed to produce the greatest possible power output. Equivalent circuit of a typical voltage amplifier The instantaneous input power to this amplifier is v1 p in = ----R1 2 (8.26 is v2 ⁄ RL v2 R1 v2 R1 G p = 10 log -------------.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8.74) and the instantaneous output power is v2 p out = ----RL 2 (8. A typical transistor radio many employ a cascade of five amplifier stages.= 10 log ----------.26.7 Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers Transistor amplifiers are conveniently characterized as current amplifiers. find: 8-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

First stage: v2 100v 1 A v1 = 20 log ---.8 a. Find the overall voltage amplification and overall power gain of each stage in dB Solution: a. Find the voltage amplification and power gain of each stage in dB b. Overall voltage gain: v 4 = 2v 3 = 2 × 50v 2 = 2 × 50 × 100v 1 = 10000v 1 v4 10000v 1 A v = 20 log ---.= 20 log ------.27.= 20 log ---------.= 34 dB v2 v2 1 MΩ G p2 = A v2 + 10 log ---------------. Three-stage amplifier for Example 8.= 40 dB v1 v1 G p1 = A v1 + 10 log 1 MΩ = A v1 + 0 = 40 dB ------------1 MΩ Second stage: v3 50v 2 A v2 = 20 log ---.= 20 log ------------.= A v2 + 10 log 20 = 34 + 13 = 47 dB 50 KΩ Third stage: v4 2v 3 A v3 = 20 log ---.= 6 dB v3 v3 50 KΩ G p3 = A v3 + 10 log ---------------.= 20 log ------------------.= A v3 + 10 log 5000 = 6 + 37 = 43 dB 10 Ω b.Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers v1 1 MΩ 100v 1 1 MΩ v2 50v 2 v3 50 KΩ 2v 3 10 Ω v4 Figure 8.= 80 dB v1 v1 Overall power gain: ------------G p = A v + 10 log 1 MΩ = A v + 10 log 100000 = 80 + 50 = 130 dB 10 Ω Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-33 .

is the second harmonic. • The frequency dependence of various amplifier circuits is examined by treating the low-fre- quency characteristics separately from the high-frequency characteristics. but it is delayed in time.3. ω 3 . • If an amplifier retards the phase of each sinusoidal component of the signal in direct propor- tion to the frequency of that component. we use multistage amplifier circuits. are not harmonically related. • The behavior of transistor amplifier at low frequencies is affected by the action of the bypass capacitor that is in parallel with the emitter resistor. • Signals that are not can be approximated by the superposition of a number of sinusoidal com- ponents expressed as v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t + θ 3 ) + … where V is the DC component of the composite signal.8 Summary • Periodic signals can be represented as the superposition of sinusoidal components by a Fourier series of the form v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ωt + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( 2ωt + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( 3ωt + θ 3 ) + … where V is the DC component of the composite signal.2. the combined low.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8. • The amplifying property of the transistor which increases the apparent value of the collector capacitance is known as the Miller effect. 8-34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • For a good designed amplifier. ω 2 . and so on. • The frequency spectrum of a signal reveals information about the frequencies and amplitude. • Transistor amplifier circuits designed for low frequencies are discussed in Section 8. but it contains no information about the phase angles of the components. However. 3ω is the third harmonic. then the waveform of the output signal is an exact copy of the input waveform. and so on. • Transistor amplifier circuits designed for high frequencies are discussed in Section 8. and ω 1 . • Amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the cir- cuit. and decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. the amplification near the lower and near the higher band of frequencies should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the middle of the band. ω is the fundamental frequency or first harmonic. • To achieve higher gains. 2ω . The overall characteristics of multistage amplifiers can be easily approximated and displayed with the use of asymptotes.and high-frequency characteristics can be displayed on a single set of coordinates.

then the voltage gain is expressed as (s + 1)(s + 3) A v ( s ) = K -------------------------------(s + 2)(s + 4) and for steady-state sinusoidal conditions. and if the poles are – 2 and – 4 . for three stages is 0. The values of s that make a rational function zero are called zeros of the function.Summary • The bandwidth between the half-power points decreases as more stages are connected in cascade. voltage and current gains can be expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in the variable s . ( jω + 1 ) ( jω + 3 ) A v ( jω ) = K ---------------------------------------( jω + 2 ) ( jω + 4 ) • A zero corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade upward in the asymptotic characteristic. • If two non-identical stages are connected in cascade.51 . • The relation between the poles and zeros of the voltage or current gain and the frequency char- acteristics are displayed in a useful way by the pole-zero diagram. The quantity 2 1 ⁄ n – 1 is referred to as the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages in cascade. The half-power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half-power frequency for on stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies. For example. and when the highest power of the denominator is greater than the highest degree of the numerator. The last stage is used to produce the greatest possible power output.64 . the values of s that make rational functions infinite are called poles of the function. For two stages the bandwidth reduction factor is 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-35 . the overall voltage gain is given by ( jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) A v = A m1 A m2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + jω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( 1 + ( jω ⁄ ω L2 ) ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H1 ) ( 1 + jω ⁄ ω H2 ) • For all practical electric and electronic circuits. the expression is referred to as a rational function. the function is completely specified except for a constant multiplier. if the zeros of a certain voltage gain are – 1 and – 3 . and the previous stages are used for voltage amplification. • Some amplifiers require a cascade of three or more applications to achieve higher voltage amplification and power gain. and a pole corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade downward.43 . If all the poles and zeros of a rational function are known. and for four stages it is 0.

R 3 = 1 KΩ . Determine the value of R 1 c. With the value of R 1 found in part (b) what is the mid-band current amplification? Cc I1 R1 I2 r be Ce gm v ro R2 3. The amplifier circuit is to be designed so that the high-frequency half-power point for the current gain is 3 MHz . and R 4 = 1 KΩ . R A = 33 KΩ and R B = 15 KΩ . and the output resistance r o is very large in comparison with R 2 and thus it can be neglected. and the current gain-bandwidth frequency is f T = 200 MHz . 8-36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9 Exercises 1. Determine the values of g m . The quiescent collector current is I C = mA and the collector load resistor is R 2 = 1 KΩ . r' b = 50 Ω . R 2 = 6. r o = 30 KΩ . R 2 = 2 KΩ . The transistor parameters are β = 50 . and β = 80 . and the transistor parameters are β = 200 . C e . R B = 12 KΩ . a. R 3 = 2. R2 V CC RA v out v in RB R3 C3 2. r be . For the cascaded amplifier circuit below. and the Miller effect b.2 KΩ .Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8. The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 1 mA . C c = 3 pF . Find the value of capacitor C 3 so that the highest break frequency for the low-frequency model will be 1 KHz . r' b = 200 Ω . f T = 8 MHz . For the transistor amplifier below. The high-frequency model has the form shown below. the input resistance r n = 500 Ω . the transistors are identical with R A = 56 KΩ . A transistor is used as an amplifier for video signals. C C = 20 pF .8 KΩ .

4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-37 . Prove that the half-power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half-power frequency for one stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies. Will both of these amplifiers transmit DC signals? b. Imaginary axis Imaginary axis – 10ω 1 (a) –ω1 Real axis – 20 ω 1 (b) –2 ω1 –ω1 Real axis a. Hint: Begin with the assumption that the amplitude of the voltage gain of a onestage amplifier is given by Av = A = Am ⁄ ( 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) ) 2 5. Use MATLAB to obtain the plot for the amplitude characteristic for the pole-zero pattern of Figure (b) assuming that the function is multiplied by the constant K = 40.Exercises V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 R 4 v out v in RB R3 C3 RB R3 C3 a. The pole-zero patterns for the voltage gain of two transistor amplifiers are shown below. c. Neglecting the effect of the resistance R 1 in the model circuit above. 000 . Find the parameter values of the simplified high-frequency model circuit shown below. find the overall current gain A c = I 3 ⁄ I 1 . v1 I1 G e q1 I2 v2 CE C2 I3 G e q3 CE Cc R1 C1 G e q2 v3 gm v1 gm v2 b. Sketch and dimension the asymptotes for the high-frequency amplitude characteristics.

Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 6. A certain stereo amplifier delivers a sinusoidal voltage of 10 mV RMS on open circuit and has an internal resistance of 500 Ω . Use the smallest possible number of stages and show how a 1 MΩ potentiometer can be used in the first stage as a volume control. Draw the circuit diagram for a cascade of stages like those in Figures (b) and (c) that will meet the specifications of part (b) above. v1 v2 v3 RL µv 1 µv 2 (a) µv 3 50 KΩ 10 Ω v1 (b) 50v 1 v1 (c) 1v 1 8-38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . This amplifier is to deliver a signal to a loudspeaker whose resistance is 10 Ω . Two types of amplifiers shown in Figures (b) and (c) below are available for the cascade connection. a. Which of the amplifiers in Figures (b) and (c) yields the greatest no-load voltage amplification? d. how much power does it deliver to the loudspeaker? b. Which of these amplifiers can deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker with the smallest input voltage? c. A cascade of amplifier stages similar to that shown in Figure (a) below is to be used to amplify the signal from the stereo amplifier and deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker. If the amplifier is connected directly to the loudspeaker.

RA R2 V CC v out v in RB R3 C3 The low-frequency model is shown below where R 1 || ( R A + R B ) rn I1 R1 IB ( 1 + β )R 3 3 --------------(1 + β) C β IB R2 I2 Thus. and thus.= 7.3 KΩ RA + RB 33 + 15 For this exercise we must find k 3 and f 3 such that ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 = 1 KHz From (8.35 µF 3 2πR 3 f 3 2π × 10 × 118 The amplification at medium frequencies is given by (8.≈ 118 Hz ( 1 + 7. From (8. ( 1 + β )R 3 ( 1 + 80 ) × 1 k 3 = ----------------------.5 1000 f 3 = -------------------.= 10.= ---------------------------.15). Thus Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-39 .10 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1.5 ) 1 ω 3 = ----------R3 C3 1 f 3 = -----------------2πR 3 C 3 1 1 C 3 = ---------------.= ------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 8.= 1. RA RB 33 × 15 R 1 = -----------------.3 + 0.11) or Then.= ----------------------------------.14).5 R1 + rn 10.

From Chapter 3.83).78).3 10.3A m = --------------. the gain is 37. Simplified model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8. 50 βr be = ----.25 KΩ 0. g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 0.= --------.= ----------------------.28. Cc I1 R1 I2 r be R eq Ce gm v ro R2 Figure 8.04 Ω –1 From relation (3.6 – 18.6 a.= 76. The amplitude characteristics are shown below where the frequency is shown in logarithmic scale and the gain is in dB scale.3 = 20 × 1.= 200 = 4 MHz 50 β 8-40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6 = 19 dB . relation (3. from DC to the break frequency at 118 Hz .6 dB Therefore.88 = 37.= 1. 40 30 20 10 0 1 118 Hz Gain ( dB ) ( 1 + k 3 )f 3 f3 1 KHz 10 100 1000 f ( Hz ) 2. fT -------f β = --.92).6 dB The amount by which the amplification at low frequencies is less than its value at medium frequencies is 20 log ( 1 + k 3 ) = 20 × 0.5 R1 + rn and in decibels A m ( dB ) = 20 log 76.93 = 18.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers βR 1 80 × 10.3 + 0.04 gm and from (3.

25 × ------.= -----------------------------------.= ----.04 × 1000 = 40 Thus.8 pF 8 ωT 2π × 2 × 10 The Miller effect is ( 1 + A )C c where A ≈ g m R 2 = 0.04 × -------------------------.= 10 R1 R 1 = 500 Ω 3 3 3 c.= 38.= ----------------------------. From (8.7 3 ( ro + R2 ) 31 × 10 and by substitution into (8. From (3. 6 gm ro R2 0.04 × 30 × 10 A = -------------------.27) as ro ro R 1 r be 30 500 × 1250 A m = --------------.04 C e = ----.65 ) = 14 ⎝ R1 ⎠ 5 × 10 ---------------.= 31.g m R eq = --------------.8 × 10 10 4 ⎛ 1 + 1.⎞ = 3 ( 1 + 3.7 × 3 × 10 ⁄ 31. b.25 × 10 ⁄ R 1 6 6 3 × 10 = 4 × 10 ⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------– 12 – 12 1 + 38.93).8 ro + R2 r o + R 2 R 1 + r be 31 1750 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-41 . ( 1 + A )C c = 41 × 3 × 10 – 12 = 123 × 10 – 12 = 123 pF and this indicates that the dominant effect at high frequencies is the Miller effect. gm 0.× 0.g m ----------------.= 13. The medium frequency current amplification A m is given by (8.19).33) with f 1 = 3 MHz 1 + 1.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises This indicates that large current amplification is provided at frequencies up to 4 MHz .

04 C E = ----.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 3. –1 1 1 1.8 KΩ 1 KΩ R2 R4 From (8.15 × 10 From (8.36). relation (3.= --------.1G e q3 = ----.78). the current gain of the second stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.= 34.+ ----.83). The parameter values of the simplified high-frequency model circuit shown below are as follows: v1 I1 G e q1 I2 v2 CE C2 I3 G e q3 CE Cc R1 C1 G e q2 v3 gm v1 gm v2 From Chapter 3.93).= 1. V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB R3 C3 R 4 v out v in RB R3 C3 a.27) ro A m = --------------.04 Ω –1 From relation (3. gm 0.= -----------------.04 and from (3.37) the Miller effect capacitance is 8-42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 .= -------------------------.04 A m2 = g m R eq = ---------.= ----------------------------. β 200 r be = ----. g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 0. from (8.8 –3 G e q3 1.+ ------------.= 5 KΩ gm 0.= 796 pF 6 ωT 2π × 8 × 10 For the second stage of the amplifier.15 mΩ 6.

8 )20 = 716 pF From (8.34).+ -----------------.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------I2 G e q2 1 + jω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G e q2 1 1 0. –1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G e q1 = -----. we get 1 A c2 = – 67 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 47.= 0.+ ---------------.4 For the first stage of the amplifier we found above that G e q2 = 0.49).27) ro A m = --------------.+ ------------.45 × 10 1 + jω ( 796 + 716 ) × 10 ⁄ 0. gm I3 1 A c2 = --.g m R eq ro + R2 and since r o » R 2 .+ ----.46).+ ----.= 0.35).04 A m1 = g m R eq = ---------.45 × 10 From (8.3 With the frequency expressed in KHz . the current gain of the first stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 1 = ( 1 + A m1 )C C = ( 1 + 89 )20 = 1800 pF b.8 KΩ From (8. we find that 1 A c2 = – 89 -------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 0.+ ----.04 = – -------------------------.45 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second. Neglecting R 1 .= -------------------------.36 × 10 0.+ ----.= – ---------.30 mΩ R A R B r be 56 KΩ 12 KΩ 5 KΩ From (8.45 mΩ R A R B r be R 2 56 KΩ 12 KΩ 5 KΩ 6.+ ---------------.= ---------------.= 89 –3 G e q2 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-43 .+ ----.⋅ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 = – 89 -----------------------------------------– 12 – –6 –3 1 + jω3. –1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G e q2 = -----.45 mΩ –1 From (8.= ---------------.+ ------------. from (8.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises C 2 = ( 1 + A m2 )C C = ( 1 + 34.

we find that 1 A c1 = – 133. The overall current gain A c is obtained by multiplying A c1 by A c2 .4 KHz – 20 dB ⁄ decade – 40 dB ⁄ decade f = 18. A ( dB ) 80 40 f = 47.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. and the slope of each high-frequency asymptote is – 20 dB per decade.4 1 + jf ⁄ 18.04 = – -------------------------.3 --------------------------.⋅ --------------------------⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 47.3 KHz 0 10 0 10 4 10 5 f ( log scale ) 4.115 With the frequency expressed in KHz .72 × 10 0.= – 133.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers gm I2 1 A c1 = --.3 -------------------------------1 + jω ⁄ 0.⎞ = 11864 ⋅ --------------------------.30 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second.= – ---------.30 × 10 1 + jω ( 796 + 20 + 1800 ) × 10 ⁄ 0. Thus.3 ⎠ 1 + jf ⁄ 47.⎞ ⎛ – 89 --------------------------. we get 1 A c1 = – 133. Since the amplitude of the voltage gain of a one-stage amplifier is given by Am A v = A = ----------------------------------2 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) for n identical stages of this type connected in cascade.3 The sketch below shows the asymptotes for the high-frequency amplitude characteristics with the gain in dB where A c ( dB ) = 20 log 11864 ≈ 82 . the frequency in log scale.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------------------I1 G e q1 1 + jω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G e q1 1 1 0. the overall amplification will be Am A n = -----------------------------------------2 n ( 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) ) n 8-44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3 -----------------------------------------– 12 –3 –6 –3 1 + jω8.4 ⎠ ⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 18.3 c.3 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 18. 1 1 1 1 A c = A c1 A c2 = ⎛ – 133.

Hence. ω 2 1 + ⎛ ----. b. jω A V = ----------------------------------------------------( jω + ω 1 ) ( jω + 10ω 1 ) and when ω = 0 (DC condition). ( jω + ω 1 ) A V = -------------------------------------------------------( jω + 2ω 1 ) ( jω + 20ω 1 ) and when ω = 0 (DC condition). Therefore. ω1 1 A V = ------------------------------.. Imaginary axis – 10ω 1 (a) –ω1 Real axis – 20 ω 1 (b) –2 ω1 –ω1 Real axis a.⎞ ⎝ B1 ⎠ ω 2 1 + ⎛ ----. Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 Imaginary axis 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-45 . For the amplifier whose pole-zero pattern is shown in (a).^2+2200. Therefore. this amplifier will not transmit DC signals.. D=(j.*(j. this amplifier will transmit DC signals.*w+100..⎞ ⎝ B1 ⎠ n n = 2 1⁄n = 2 from which ω = B1 2 1⁄n –1 This value of ω is the half-power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages. since ω H = B 1 .*w)+400000.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises The half-power frequency for the cascade of n identical stages is the value of ω that will make the denominator of the above expression equal to 2 . The MATLAB script and resulting plot are shown below.= ----------40ω 1 ( 2ω 1 ) ( 20ω 1 ) Therefore. A V = 0 . w=1:10:100000. N=j. For the amplifier whose pole-zero pattern is shown in (b).*w).

*10.AvdB).. AvdB=20.^4.. xlabel('Frequency in rad/s (log scale)').*N. title ('Amplitude characteristic for Exercise 8. v1 µv 1 v2 µv 2 (a) 50 KΩ 10 Ω v3 µv 3 RL v1 (b) 50v 1 v1 (c) 1v 1 8-46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ... grid.Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers Av=4. Figure (b)') 30 Amplitude characteristic for Exercise 8./D. Figure (b) 25 20 15 Gain (dB scale) 10 5 0 -5 -10 0 10 10 1 10 10 Frequency in rad/s (log scale) 2 3 10 4 10 5 6.. ylabel('Gain (dB scale)')..*log10(abs(Av)). semilogx(w.

If the amplifier is connected directly to the loudspeaker.= 50 mA 10 + 10 and power will be P c = I c R c = ( 50 × 10 ) × 10 = 25 mw 2 –3 2 Therefore.= 19.6 µA 510 Ω Thus. 1. the power delivered to the loudspeaker will be p = i R = ( 19. c.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises a. the total series resistance will be R eq = 500 + 10 = 510 Ω and the current through the loudspeaker will be 10 mV i = ----------------.= 0 dB v1 Therefore. 1.84 × 10 2 –6 2 –9 w b.= 34 dB v1 2.25 mw 2 –3 2 3 2.6 × 10 ) × 10 = 3. Voltage amplification in amplifier of Figure (b) will be 50v 1 A b = 20 log ---------. Voltage amplification in amplifier of Figure (c) will be 1v 1 A c = 20 log ------. the amplifier of Figure (b) will produce the greatest voltage amplification. Let us assume 1 v input to each of the amplifiers in Figures (b) and (c). Current in amplifier of Figure (b) will be 50 × 1 I b = -------------------------. the amplifier of Figure (c) will deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker with the smallest input voltage. Current in amplifier of Figure (c) will be 1×1 I c = ----------------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-47 .= 5 mA 10000 + 10 and power will be P b = I b R b = ( 5 × 10 ) × 10 × 10 = 0.

⋅ 10 mV ≈ 10 mV 1 MΩ + 500 Ω The first and second stages were so chosen as to provide the greatest voltage amplification. Therefore. 8-48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and L V L = 10 V . v 4 = 10 + 10 = 20 V .Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers d. 500 Ω v2 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v3 50v 3 v4 1v 4 10 Ω RL 10 Ω v1 1 MΩ 50v 2 For last stage we must have P L = I 2 R L = 10 w and since R L = 10 Ω . and 1 MΩ v 2 = ---------------------------------. I L = 1 A .

active filters with op amps are very popular. 9. We will examine the properties of various tuned amplifiers that find applications to telecommunications systems employing narrowband modulated signals. as between two cities or between a space vehicle and a ground station. Various systems of this kind operate throughout the frequency spectrum from 10 KHz to about 10 GHz although at the higher end of this range ordinary transistors are not used. automatic pilots. A tuned amplifier is essentially a bandpass filter. effective use of the transmission medium requires the use of narrowband systems operating at high frequencies. In this section we will introduce the properties of various tuned amplifiers that find application in telecommunication systems. When signals must be transmitted over long distances.1 Introduction to Tuned Circuits The amplifiers discussed in previous chapters are sufficient for most applications in which it is not required that the signals be transmitted over long distances. For these higher frequencies it is necessary to use tuned amplifiers with RLC coupling to overcome the effects of parasitic capacitances and to provide a filtering operation in the form of frequency-selective amplification. efficient utilization of the transmission medium requires the use of high-frequency. when the signals must be transmitted over long distances. resistors. We will develop new tools for the analysis and design of tuned amplifiers. To generate these signals a high-frequency carrier wave. servomechanisms. they are the amplitude.Chapter 9 Tuned Amplifiers T his chapter begins with an introduction to tuned amplifiers. electronic instruments.e. The process by which the carrier wave is made to change in accordance with the information signal is called modulation. inductors. i. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7. the frequency. For small signals. Tuned amplifiers can also be designed with bipolar junction transistors and MOSFETs. usually a sinusoid. A sinusoid has three characteristics that can be modulated. and our subsequent discussion will be based on these devices. and thus it provides no gain. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. and a host of similar applications. Thus they are adequate for audio amplifiers used in public address and home entertainment systems.* A passive bandpass filter is constructed with passive devices. However. and capacitors. is caused to change instant by instant in accordance with the information signal to be transmitted. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-1 . either by wire or wireless. narrowband signals. and * For a thorough discussion on passive and active filters..

and they give rise to amplitude-modulated (AM). or modulating. The information can be recovered by recovering the waveform of the envelope. the peak rectifier circuit that we discussed in Chapter 2 is used for this purpose. please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Spreadsheets. ISBN 0-9709511-1-6.1 we observe that the waveform of the envelope of the modulated signal is the same as the waveform of the modulating signal v m ( t ) . and in this application it is frequently called an envelope detector.1) v S ( t ) = [ V C + v m ( t ) ] cos ω C t where ω C is the carrier frequency. it is convenient to assume that the modulating signal is a sinusoid expressed as v m ( t ) = V m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) (9. vm ( t ) Modulating signal Carrier Envelope vC ( t ) t t Figure 9.1. hence the envelope of the modulated wave never drops to zero. The peak rectifier is also known as diode detector. and V C is the amplitude of the unmodulated carrier. FM* and PM waves have similar properties. The waveform of such an AM wave is shown in Figure 9. wave is a voltage v m ( t ) . Thus if the information in the modulated carrier is to be preserved.2) * FM and PM systems are best described by Bessel functions. In an AM system the magnitude of v m ( t ) is always less than V C .1. 9-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Tuned Amplifiers the phase. For an introduction to these functions. frequency-modulated (FM). and phasemodulated (PM) signals. To examine the properties of the AM wave further.1) and Figure 9. From relation (9. To understand the requirements that must be met by tuned amplifiers it is necessary to examine the nature of these waves and to understand the way in which they are used in telecommunication systems. If the information. Signal and carrier wave that is amplitude-modulated by the signal. then an AM carrier can be expressed as (9. The properties of AM waves are developed in the paragraphs that follow. although they are not discussed specifically. the waveform of the envelope must be preserved.

it can be expanded in a Fourier series. In (9.2.3) as v S ( t ) = V C [ 1 + m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) ] cos ω C t and the quantity m is known as the modulation index in an AM system. a carrier wave at the carrier frequency.V C cos [ ( ω C – ω m )t – θ m ] 2 2 (9. and two side waves at frequencies on either side of the carrier frequency.3) (9.* and the analysis of an AM system can be performed by the superposition of the effects of each sinusoidal component known as harmonics. refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.6) Relation (9. Frequency spectra of AM waves Figure 9.V C cos [ ( ω C + ω m )t + θ m ]t + --. it conveys no useful information. In the more general case there are many pairs of side waves. except that usually the side waves are much closer to the carrier wave than it is possible to show in the diagram.1) yields v S ( t ) = [ V C + V m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) ] cos ω C t (9. a typical AM radio station * For a detailed discussion and applications in Fourier series.5) we have assumed that the modulating signal v m ( t ) is sinusoidal and as such.5) and letting m = Vm ⁄ VC we express (9. it predictable for all times.2(a) shows the relative amplitudes and frequencies of the carrier and side waves. and it is always less than unity. m m v S ( t ) = V C cos ω C t + --. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7. v m ( t ) is non-sinusoidal but if it is periodic in nature as most physical phenomena are.Introduction to Tuned Circuits Substitution of (9. and these are referred to as the upper and lower sidebands of the AM wave.5) can be simplified by using the trigonometric identity for the product of two cosines.2) and (9.2) into (9. In most AM waves the carrier frequency is much larger than the highest frequency in the modulating signal. The frequency spectrum of a typical sinusoidally modulated AM wave is shown in Figure 9. Thus. hence. In practice. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-3 .4) (9.6) reveals that a sinusoidally modulated AM wave is the superposition of three sinusoidal components. Relation (9. vS ( t ) vS ( t ) Ideal bandpass filter (a) ωc ω (b) ω Figure 9. Thus.2.

The advantage of AM signals is that they are narrowband signals. their total bandwidths are small compared to their center frequencies. Tuning a radio receiver is the operation by which the passband of the amplifier is shifted from one place to another in the frequency spectrum.2(b) shows the frequency spectra of three AM signals indicated as 1 . then the upper-sideband vector rotates counterclockwise at ω m rad ⁄ sec .Tuned Amplifiers broadcasting speech and music with frequencies up to 5 KHz has a carrier frequency of 1 MHz and a total bandwidth of 10 KHz centered at 1 MHz . If these components are to add up to give the original AM wave. 2 . The sidebands have equal amplitudes.3(a) the sum of the two sideband vectors (represented by the dotted line) is at every instant colinear with the carrier vector and it gives a sinusoidal variation in the amplitude of the total voltage. The significance and importance of this symmetry is illustrated further by the phasor diagrams in Figure 9. the sum of the sideband vectors (represented by the dotted line) is at every instant nor- 9-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Optimum performance is concerned with the rejection of adjacent channels as well as with faithful amplification of the desired channel. and normally the difference between these frequencies is great enough so that the spectra of the signals are completely separated and occupy different frequency bands. To illustrate what may happen when the symmetry is destroyed. However. Amplifiers of this kind are called bandpass amplifiers. that is.3(b) shows the case in which the sidebands have been shifted 90° out-of-phase in phase with respect to the carrier. that this result depends on the symmetry between the sidebands. Relation (9. in which each sinusoidal component of the wave is represented by a rotating vector. this symmetry must be preserved. ωm VC ωm (a) ωm VC (b) ωm (c) Figure 9. These signals can be separated by frequency-selective amplification.3. and the lower-sideband vector rotates clockwise at the same speed. If the carrier vector is taken as the reference and is assumed to be stationary. the idealized gain characteristic for such an amplifier is indicated in Figure 9. In this case. Figure 9. and 3 . Figure 9. A narrowband allows the transmission of many simultaneous telephone conversations on a single pair of conductors in a coaxial cable and for the simultaneous use of space by all radio transmitters.6) shows that a symmetry exists between the upper and lower sidebands of an AM wave.2(b). Each signal uses a different carrier frequency. The study of tuned amplifiers in the sections that follow is concerned with the response of the amplifiers to modulated waves and with design techniques for obtaining optimum performance. Phasor representation of an AM wave In Figure 9. and they have phase angles with respect to the carrier that are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.3.

7) into (9. and they should provide no phase shift in this band. and the amplitude of the total voltage becomes almost constant as indicated in Figure 9. … .2 except that in this case each sideband contains a sinusoidal component corresponding to each sinusoidal component of the modulating signal. each pair of sideband components exhibits the symmetry discussed above. amplifiers for AM signals should provide uniform amplification over the band of frequencies occupied by the signal. such that v m ( t ) = V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t – θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – θ 3 ) + … (9.7) becomes v m ( t ) = V 1 cos [ ω 1 ( t – T ) – θ 1 ] + V 2 cos [ ω 2 ( t – T ) – θ 2 ] + V 3 cos [ ω 3 ( t – T ) – θ 3 ] + … (9. the signal recovered by an envelope detector at the receiving end is very small. then.Introduction to Tuned Circuits mal to the carrier vector. are subject to this kind of fading and distortion as a result of the properties of the transmission medium. If the modulating signal is allowed a constant time delay T. but our intent here is to illustrate that poorly designed amplifiers can degrade the signal.V 1 cos [ ( ω C – ω 1 )t – θ 1 ] 2 2 1 1 + -. ω3.10) Since T is a constant. ω2. The amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the tuned amplifier. Ideally.8) The frequency spectrum for this signal is similar to the spectra shown in Figure 9. The no phase shift requirement stated above can be somewhat controlled by the fact that a linear phase-shift characteristIc produces a pure delay in the envelope waveform without distorting it.V 1 cos [ ( ω C + ω 1 )t – θ 1 ] + -.9) or v m ( t ) = V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – ω 1 T – θ 1 ) + V 2 cos cos ( ω 2 t – ω 2 T – θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – ω 3 T – θ 3 ) + … (9. not necessarily harmonically related. Just about all radio signals.3(c) occurs. and it is badly distorted. It also decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors.V 2 cos [ ( ω C + ω 2 )t – θ 2 ] + -. Single sideband systems are discussed in communications systems text.3(c) where the dotted vectors represent the vector sum of the carrier and the sidebands. This fact can be illustrated by considering a modulated signal consisting of the sum of a number of sinusoids of frequencies ω1.1) yields 1 1 v S ( t ) = V C cos ω C t + -.V 2 cos [ ( ω C – ω 2 )t – θ 2 ] + … 2 2 (9. it follows from (8-30) that imposing a constant time delay on v m ( t ) is equivElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-5 . When the condition of Figure 9. when transmitted over long distances.7) Substitution of (9. In a properly designed tuned circuit. System performance can be improved in this respect by transmitting only one of the two sidebands. the amplification at the ends of the band of frequencies occupied by the signal should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the center of the band. with single-sideband systems the need for coherence between two sidebands is eliminated. then (9.

a constant phase shift rotates all vectors in the diagrams of Figure 9. Example 9.28) with the delayed envelope can be expressed as 1 1 v S ( t ) = V C cos ω C t + -. Show the amplitude and frequency for each component of the AM wave. … are directly proportional to the separation of the side frequency from the carrier frequency.cos [ ( 2π × 10 + π × 2 × 10 )t + θ m ]t + -.2.4.cos [ ( 2π × 10 – π × 2 × 10 )t ] 2 2 and the frequency spectrum is as shown in Figure 9. 9-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . φ2. Alternatively. A good amplifier for use with modulated signals should have uniform gain in the frequency band occupied by the signal.cos [ ( 2π × 10 – π × 10 )t ] 2 2 5 5 6 3 6 3 + -.V 1 cos [ ( ω C + ω 1 )t – φ 1 – θ 1 ] + -. Thus if we let ω 1 T = φ 1 . proportional to the frequency of that component.Tuned Amplifiers alent to imposing a lagging phase shift on each sinusoIdal component. The results obtained in the preceding discussion are useful guides in judging the merits of various tuned amplifiers and in designing these amplifiers for optimum performance. Thus. Solution: From relation (9. It can also be shown that a constant phase shift added to the linear phase characteristic produces a delay in the carrier. if an AM signal is transmitted through an amplifier having a linear phase characteristic with a negative slope.V 2 cos [ ( ω C + ω 2 )t – φ 2 – θ 2 ] + -.3 by the same amount and leaves the relations among them unchanged.6) 3 3 6 6 3 6 3 v S ( t ) = 10 cos 2π × 10 t + -. it can be shown by going through this process in reverse that the result is a pure delay in the envelope. the corresponding AM wave of (8.11) where φ 1.V 1 cos [ ( ω C – ω 1 )t + φ 1 + θ 1 ] 2 2 1 1 + -.V 2 cos [ ( ω C – ω 2 )t + φ 2 + θ 2 ] + … 2 2 (9.1 A carrier v C ( t ) = 10 cos 2π × 10 t 6 is amplitude-modulated with a signal v m ( t ) = 3 cos 1000πt + 5 cos 2000πt Sketch a diagram of the frequency spectrum of the amplitude-modulated wave similar to that of Figure 9. ω 2 T = φ 2 and so on.cos [ ( 2π × 10 + π × 10 )t + θ m ]t + -. and it should have a linear phase characteristic in that frequency band.

please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.2 2 f 1 MHz + 1 KHz 1 MHz + 500 Hz Figure 9. Q 0P = ω 0 C ⁄ G or 5 – 12 2 π f0 C –1 2 π × 8.-.1 × 10 × 77. what is the ratio of the voltage at 810 KHz to the voltage at 740 KHz ? Solution: a. Chapter 2.1 Example 9.5 × 10 × ( 810 × 10 ) b.4 µΩ 75 Q 0P * For a block diagram of a typical AM radio receiver and description.= 5. The resonant frequency is given by ω 0 = 1 ⁄ LC and the quality factor at parallel resonance is given by Q 0P = ω 0 C ⁄ G a.16. What is the value of the capacitor of this circuit at this resonant frequency? b. If a nearby radio station transmits at 740 KHz and both signals picked up by the antenna have the same current amplitude I ( µA ). Figure 2.2 pF –3 3 2 4 π 0. What is the value of conductance G if Q 0P = 75 ? c. ω 0 = 1 ⁄ ( LC ) 2 or f 0 = 1 ⁄ 4 π LC 2 2 Then.= --------------------------------------------------------------------. Frequency spectrum for Example 9.5 mH is tuned to a radio station transmitting at 810 KHz resonant frequency.2 × 10 G = -------------.Introduction to Tuned Circuits 10 5 3 -. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9.2 A radio receiver* with a parallel GLC circuit whose inductance is L = 0. 1 C = --------------------------------------------------------------------2 = 77.2 2 1 MHz – 1 KHz 1 MHz – 500 Hz 1 MHz 5 3 --.4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-7 .

24 × 10 (9. and the losses in the inductor. the biasing transistors.15) that is.2 × 10 ⎝ –6 2 2 1 – -----------------------------------------------------------------3⎞ 3 – ⎠ 2π × 740 × 10 × 0.Tuned Amplifiers c.= -------------------------.13) where Y 740 KHz = G + (ωC – 1 ⁄ (ωL) ) 3 – 12 2 2 or Y 740 KHz = ( 5. the voltage developed across the parallel circuit when it is tuned at f = 810 KHz is 13.= 13. The resistance R 1 is in the order of 1 kilohm or less and represents the internal resistance of the current source. the input resistance of the transistor.5. I III V 810 KHz = --------------------.= -------------------------–6 Y0 G Y 810 KHz 5.2 × 10 (9.= --. I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 Figure 9. Small signal tuned transistor amplifier circuit In the circuit of Figure 9.6 –6 –6 V 740 KHz I ⁄ 71.= ----.5. The admittance Y ( s ) on the left side of the circuit is 9-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 × 10 ---------------------.= -------------------------------. I V 740 KHz = --------------------Y 740 KHz (9.24 × 10 ) + ⎛ 2π × 740 × 10 × 77.6 times larger than the voltage developed at f = 740 KHz . and with this assumption this circuit is good at frequencies up to a few hundred KHz.2 µΩ –1 and I V 740 KHz = -------------------------–6 71.14).12) Also. 9.5 × 10 or Y 740 KHz = 71.2 × 10 5.24 × 10 (9. we assume that the parasitic capacitances are negligible.5.2 Single-tuned Transistor Amplifier The small signal model for a single-tuned transistor amplifier is shown in Figure 9.24 × 10 71. –6 –6 V 810 KHz I ⁄ 5.12) and (9.14) Then from (9.

.e.19) For convenience. Therefore. gm s A c ( s ) = – ----.17) (9.16) and (9. (9.Single-tuned Transistor Amplifier 1 1 Y ( s ) = ----. the poles of (9. i.14) the current gain A c is I2 ( s ) –gm A c ( s ) = ---------. in our subsequent discussion we will be concerned with circuit parameters which will yield complex poles. and (9.19) has the same form as relation (8. we define two new symbols as 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC (9.23) (9.25) and we find that and s1 = – α + α – ω0 s2 = – α – α – ω0 2 2 2 2 Depending on the values of the circuit parameters.+ sC R 1 sL (9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-9 . relation (9.24) (9. If they are real.21) and 12α = ------RC Substitution of (9.71) in Chapter 8.13).18) and thus I 1 ( s ) = Y ( s )V ( s ) Also.+ ----.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------C s 2 + ( 1 ⁄ RC )s + 1 ⁄ LC (9. hence the pole-zero pattern and the frequency characteristics of the tuned amplifier with real poles are the same as those of the RC-coupled amplifier which cannot provide a truly narrow-band characteristic.⋅ ---------------------------------C ( s – s1 ) ( s – s2 ) (9.17) into (9.16) (9.⋅ -------------------------------C s 2 + 2αs + ω 2 0 (9.18) may be either real or complex.15) yields gm s A c ( s ) = – ----.= -------------------------------------------------I1 ( s ) 1 ⁄ R 1 + 1 ⁄ ( sL ) + sC or gm s A c ( s ) = – ----.18) can be expressed as the product of two linear factors. I2 ( s ) = –gm V ( s ) From (9.20) (9.12).22) The quadratic denominator in (9.

Also. The quality factor Q 0 † at parallel resonance.3 The equivalent circuit of single-tuned amplifier is shown in Figure 9. we observe that at parallel resonance inductive susceptance* and capacitive susceptance cancel each other and the admittance of the parallel R 1 LC circuit reduces to R 1 and thus A c0 = I 2 ⁄ I 1 = – g m R 1 (9. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. b.6.26) As in the case of the RC amplifier in Chapter 8.27) Example 9. and the half-power frequency is the frequency at which the amplification is A = A c ( max ) ⁄ 2 . I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 Figure 9. For the specified bandwidth it is necessary that 4 1 BW = --------. and the amplification at resonance so that the half-power bandwidth will be BW = 10 KHz and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz . the half-power frequencies provide a measure of the bandwidth of the circuit.= 2π × 10 R1 C * The inductive susceptance is defined as BL = 1 ⁄ jωL and the capacitive susceptance as B C = jωC † For a detailed discussion on quality factor Q. one above and the other below the resonance frequency and thus the bandwidth between the two half-power frequencies is given by 1 BW = 2α = ------RC (9. there are two half-power frequencies.2 a. Find the values of L . Transistor equivalent for the tuned amplifier of Example 9. C .6 and has a transconductance g m = 40 mΩ –1 and R 1 = 500 Ω . Solution: a.5. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9 9-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . From the parallel network of Figure 9.Tuned Amplifiers We are also interested in the current gain at the resonant frequency denoted as A c0 .

and a relatively high quality factor Q 0 . Resistors R A and R B provide the necessary biasing but they also include coils in series with these resistors (not shown) and these coils are known as radio frequency chokes (RFCs). Figure 9.2. 1 L = ------------------------------------------------------9 = 0.5 × 10 LC and with C = 32 × 10 –9 .Single-tuned Transistor Amplifier and with R 1 = 500 Ω . the very low value of R 1 = 500 Ω makes a large value of C necessary to obtain the narrow bandwidth BW = 10 KHz . Moreover. the coefficient of coupling* among the turns is close to unity. and the transformation ratio is * For a detailed discussion on transformers. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9.8 × 10 6 –6 = 5Ω Fortunately.7(a) shows a practical tuned transistor amplifier in which a tapped inductor is used as a step-down autotransformer. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-11 . An RFC blocks radio frequencies but passes audio frequencies when both frequencies are applied to the same circuit.8 µH 12 – 39. The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR 1 = 2π × 10 × 32 × 10 × 500 = 100 6 –9 In Example 9. the very low value of L causes the inductive reactance at 1 MHz to have a very low value of ω 0 L = 2π × 10 × 0. 1 C = ----------------------------------. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. The inductors used in the autotransformer have ferrite cores.= ( 2π × 10 ) = 39.= 32 nF 4 2π × 10 × 500 For the specified center frequency 2 6 2 12 1 ω 0 = ------. we can transform values required by the specifications into practical values of the circuit parameters by the use of a transformer.5 × 10 × 32 × 10 The current gain at the resonant frequency is A c0 = g m R 1 = 40 × 10 × 500 = 20 –3 b.

and the secondary side is the portion of the coil below the tap. Let the resistance in series with the coil in the primary be denoted as R P and the resistance in series with the coil in the secondary be denoted as R S .= ----.+ ---------.= a < 1 L N (9. In Figure 9. a2 RP RS R' = ----------------------a2 RP + RS (9. From Figure 9.30) (9.s R' a 2 Ls a 2 I1 ( s ) ---------.28) where L is the total inductance. and the capacitance C and the total inductance L are transformed by the factor a 2 . that is. it assumes the value a 2 R P .+ ---. The resistance R P includes the internal resistance of the source supplying the input signal. The resistance R' shown in Figure 9.Tuned Amplifiers V CC I1 RC RA I1 ⁄ a v' C L RB vs RP v out RE CE C v s ---a2 a2 L v' R' R2 L1 (a) gm v (b) I2 Figure 9.29) The input signal current is also transformed to I 1 ⁄ a as shown in Figure 9. a practical inductor contains some resistance in series with it.7(b) C 1 1 Y' ( s ) = ---. and when it is referred to the secondary.7(b) represents the parallel combination of a 2 R P with R S . we observe that the current amplification is increased by the transformer action.7(b) and since a is less than unity. Impedance transformation in a tuned transistor amplifier and its model V1 ----.= Y' ( s )V' ( s ) a (9. the primary side of the step-down autotransformer is the total inductance and this represents the primary side of the autotransformer. N is the number of turns in the coil. L 1 is the inductance portion of the coil below the tap. and N 1 is the number of turns in the coil below the tap.= V L1 N1 ---.7. the small signal model assumes the form shown in Figure 9. When the portion of the circuit on the left of the transformer coil in Figure 9.7(a) is transferred to the right side.7(b).7(a). As we know.31) 9-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

but the bandwidth becomes 2 a2 RP + RS a BW = -------.32) (9. Therefore.⋅ --------------------------------------------------------2 C s + ( a ⁄ R'C )s + 1 ⁄ LC (9.Single-tuned Transistor Amplifier Also. Therefore. maximum amplification is obtained when the value of a is chosen so that a2 RP = RS (9. I1 ⁄ a C v s ---a2 –1 a2 L v' R' R2 g m v' I2 Figure 9.2 A c ( s ) = – -------.= ---------------------------------------------------------2 2 I1 ( s ) ⁄ a 1 ⁄ R' + 1 ⁄ a Ls + Cs ⁄ a ag m s . Circuit for Example 9.34) The LC combination in Figure 9.4 The equivalent circuit of single-tuned amplifier shown in Figure 9.33) reduces to g m R' A co = – ---------a (9. transconductance g m = 40 mΩ .33) Therefore.35) At resonance.4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-13 .7(a) forms a lossless coupling network and if R P and R S are fixed.8 has the transformation ratio a = 1 ⁄ 20 . and this condition occurs when maximum power is delivered to R S .37) Example 9.8. the transformer action leaves the resonant frequency ω 0 unchanged.= ----------------------R'C RP RS C (9. I 2 ( s ) = – g m V' ( s ) I2 ( s ) –gm A c ( s ) = ----------------. the inductive susceptance and capacitive susceptance cancel out and thus the admittance is just R' . the coupling network can be adjusted for maximum amplification. and R' = 500 Ω . relation (9.36) The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR' (9.

When two identical stages like the one shown in Figure 9.23). 1 ⁄ 400 C = ----------------------------------.Tuned Amplifiers a.5 × 10 × 80 × 10 The current gain at the resonant frequency is –3 g m R' 40 × 10 × 500 A c0 = ---------. We have assumed that the Miller effect is negligible.= 400 1 ⁄ 20 a b. and the amplification at resonance so that the half-power bandwidth will be BW = 10 KHz and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz . C . 1 L = -------------------------------------------------------. they are chosen to act as short circuits in the passband of the amplifier. Find the values of L .= 80 pF 4 2π × 10 × 500 For the specified center frequency 2 6 2 12 1 ω 0 = ------. When coupling capacitors are used. The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR' = 2π × 10 × 80 × 10 6 – 12 × 500 = 100 9. b. Solution: a.32 mH 12 – 12 39. 9-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the two stages are said to be synchronously tuned. In this form.= ( 2π × 10 ) = 39.3 Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers To achieve higher selectivity it is necessary that tuned amplifiers are connected in cascade by means of a coupling capacitor or transformer coupling.= ------------------------------------. The corresponding pole-zero diagram has the form shown in Figure 9.= 2π × 10 R'C and with R' = 500 Ω .9 where the numbers in parentheses indicate double poles and zeros. hence the zero at the origin and the poles s 1 and s 2 each appear twice in the overall current gain. For the specified bandwidth it is necessary that 4 a2BW = -------.The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance. the overall current gain is given by the square of relation (9.= 0.5 are cascaded.5 × 10 LC and with C = 80 × 10–12 .

44) and letting we get β = α – ω0 s 1 = – α + jβ s 2 = – α – jβ 2 2 2 From relation (9. However. that is. They are very useful in the analysis and design of practically all narrowband amplifiers and filters.42) we observe that ω 0 is the hypotenuse of a right triangle.3.39) Since we are concerned with complex numbers.10(a).43) (9.40) (9. Pole-zero pattern for two synchronously tuned amplifiers in cascade In the study of tuned amplifiers.1 Synchronously Tuned Amplifiers The amplitude characteristic for two synchronously tuned amplifiers is the characteristic for one stage but with the amplification squared at each point. s1 = – α + α – ω0 s2 = – α – α – ω0 2 2 2 2 (9.41) (9. To understand these approximations. The phase characteristic is the characteristic for one stage with the angle multiplied by 2.38) (9. we refer back to relations (9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-15 . and in the complex frequency plane it represents the distance of the poles s 1 and s 2 from the origin as shown in Figure 9. we express these as s1 = – α + j α – ω0 s2 = – α – j α – ω0 2 2 2 2 (9. two important relations are the narrowband approximations.42) (9. ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) Im Re Figure 9. For the typical narrowband amplifier they are very good approximations.9.24) and (9.25). the half-power bandwidth is less than the bandwidth of one stage.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers 9.

10(b).46) and s – s 2 ≈ 2jω 0 When these approximations are substituted into relation 9.48) and since ω 0 = 200α . since the vector s – s 2 is relatively further away. However.47) shows that in narrowband operation the ratio s ⁄ ( s – s 2 ) can be expressed as the constant 1 ⁄ 2 and that the narrowband approximations reduce the quadratic factor in the denominator to a linear factor.49) and by substitution into (9. the vector s – s 1 gets smaller and experiences large percentage variations. Now.10. we obtain the simplified expression jω 0 gm gm 1 A ( s ) = – ----. let us consider the sinusoidal operation where s = jω and as jω moves along the imaginary axis near the pole s 1 .23. for sinusoidal operation s = jω and relation (9.⋅ --------------2C jω – s 1 (9.10(a) that β ≈ ω 0 . and thus s 1 = – α + jβ ≈ – α + jω 0 (9. s 2 = – α – jβ . the percentage variations are much smaller and the variations in s and s – s 2 tend to cancel. Also. for sinusoidal operation in the passband we obtain the narrowband approximations s = jω ≈ jω 0 (9.45) (9. and β 2 = α 2 – ω2 0 A typical AM signal has a center frequency that is 100 times the bandwidth of the signal to be transmitted. An amplifier suitable for use with this signal will have a resonant frequency of ω 0 = 200α and as we can see from Figure 9.47) can be expressed as gm 1 A ( jω ) = – -----.47) Relation (9. Therefore.= – -----. Graphical representation of the relations s 1 = – α + jβ . This reduction is very important when more complex circuits are to be analyzed. the poles s 1 and s 2 are extremely close to the imaginary axis.⋅ ---------------------------.⋅ ---------------C ( s – s 1 )2jω 0 2C ( s – s 1 ) (9.Tuned Amplifiers s1 β Im α Im ( s – s1 ) Re ω0 s = jω Re s2 (a) ( s – s2 ) (b) Figure 9. we see from Figure 9.48) 9-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

53) Substitution of (9.58) from which BW 1 1 ⁄ n ∆ω = ± ----------.= ---------2C jβ + α – jβ 2αC (9. 1 A ( jω ) = – A 0 ⋅ --------------------------------------1 + j2Q 0 ∆ω ⁄ ω 0 (9. the magnitude of the amplification for one stage is 1 A 1 = A = A 01 ⋅ ----------------------------------------------2 1 + ( 2∆ω ⁄ BW 1 ) (9.50) as gm gm 1 1 A ( jω ) = – -----.⋅ -------------------------2C α + j∆ω 2αC 1 + j∆ω ⁄ α (9. Thus.53) into (9. BW = ω 0 ⁄ Q 0 .= – ---------.52) We also recall that the bandwidth is given by BW = 2α (9.2 – 1 2 (9.54) This relation can also be expressed in terms of the quality factor at resonance.⋅ ------------------.⋅ -------------------------------2C jω + α – jω 0 2C α + j ( ω – ω 0 ) (9.51) yields 1 A ( jω ) = – A 0 ⋅ -----------------------------------1 + j2∆ω ⁄ BW (9.52) and (9.54).51) Also.56) where the subscript unity denotes a single stage. at resonance the amplification is given by gm gm 1 A 0 = A c ( jω 0 ) = -----. i.55) In terms of the bandwidth (relation9. For n stages connected in cascade.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers gm gm 1 1 A ( jω ) = – -----. at the half-power frequency 2∆ω 2 1 + ⎛ ----------.e.57) equals 2. Then. the magnitude of the amplification is 1 n n A 1 = A = A 01 ⋅ ----------------------------------------------n 2 1 + ( 2∆ω ⁄ BW 1 ) (9.57) The half-power frequency for n identical stages connected in cascade occurs when the square of the denominator in (9.50) Letting ω – ω 0 = ∆ω we can express (9. since β ≈ ω 0 .= – -----.59) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-17 .⋅ ----------------------------..⋅ -------------------------.⎞ = 2 ⎝ BW 1 ⎠ (9.

. Solution: The half-power bandwidth of each stage can be determined from relation (9.. BWn=2*pi*10^5. is larger than the overall half-power bandwidth of 100 KHz .62e−006 H BW1 = 9. the bandwidth reduction for synchronous tuning of two stages connected in cascade is about 0... R). for three stages it is 0. R=1/(BW1*C).55e+005 Hz R = 4.L). n=2. and the capacitors will have a value of C = 80 pF for each stage. BW1= BWn/sqrt(2^(1/n)−1). fprintf('L = %5..10e+004 Ohms The half-power bandwidth of each stage is 155 KHz and.2e F \t'. one above and one below the resonant frequency. 9-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .76e+005 rad/sec BWf = 1.5 Two synchronously tuned stages connected in cascade are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f 0 = 25 MHz .2e Ohms \t'..50e−011 F L = 1. BW1). BWf=BW1/(2*pi).51 .64 and this is confirmed by the ratio 100 KHz ⁄ 155 KHz .2e rad/sec \t'... Determine the values of L and R and the half-power bandwidth for each stage so that the overall half-power bandwidth will be 100 KHz .. Synchronous tuning for two stages connected in cascade does not provide the best approximation to the ideal bandpass.. MATLAB displays the following results: C = 2. Figure 9. As stated above. fprintf('R = %5.. C=25*10^(−12). for two stages it is 0. as expected. fprintf('BW1 = %5.43 . and for four stages it is 0.2e Hz \t'.60) The square root of this expression is the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages connected in cascade.Tuned Amplifiers There are two half-power frequencies.. Example 9. fprintf('C = %5. For convenience.2e H \t'.C). fprintf(' \n'). we will 0 let the following MATLAB script do the calculations for us. The bandwidth between these two half-power frequencies is BW n = 2∆ω = BW 1 2 1⁄n –1 (9. BWf)..11 shows the frequency response of a synchronous tuning for two stages in cascade in comparison to a single stage. the values of R from the relation BW 1 = 1 ⁄ RC and the values of L from ω 2 = 1 ⁄ LC ..60). L=1/((2*pi*25*10^6)^2*C).... fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n') Upon execution of this script. fprintf('BWf = %5.64 ..

12(a). With this arrangement. and it is under the control of the designer. for example the relations (9. Pole-zero pattern and amplitude characteristic for two stagger-tuned amplifiers Poles s 1 and s 2 in Figure 9.20) and (9.12(b). The top flatness of the characteristic depends on the spacing between the poles in Figure 9. Im s1 s3 (2) Re Ac (dB scale) Single stage responses s4 s2 ω0 (a) (b) Overall response for two stagger tuned amplifiers ω (log scale) Figure 9.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers Ac (dB scale) Single stage response Overall response for two synchronously tuned amplifiers ω0 ω (log scale) Figure 9. and poles s 3 and s 4 are the poles of the other stage. We observe that the passband of such stagger-tuned amplifier is wider and flatter than the passband of the synchronously tuned amplifier.12.11.61) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-19 .12(a) are the poles one of the stages. all four poles lie on a line parallel to the imaginary axis.21) which are repeated below for convenience. Frequency responses for single stage and two synchronously tuned amplifiers.3.10(a). Consider. the amplitude characteristic of the stagger-tuned amplifier will be shown in Figure 9.12. 9.2 Stagger-Tuned Amplifiers We can obtain a much better approximation by staggering the tuning of the stages to produce a pole-zero configuration like the one shown in Figure 9. and the pole-zero pattern of Figure 9. 2 1ω 0 = ------LC (9.

64) where s 1 = – α + jβ 1 . Figure 9. Hence. is given by relation (9. Frequency characteristic for two stagger-tuned stages 9-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .48). the poles must move on a path parallel to the imaginary axis. that is.10(a). and the narrowband approximations have reduced a fourth-degree polynomial in the denominator to a second-degree polynomial.61) we observe that a change in L will result in a change in ω 0 but since α remains constant. s 3 = – α + jβ 3 . C 1 and C 2 are the capacitances of the first and second stages respectively. the staggering of the poles along the vertical line can be adjusted by adjusting the inductances in the two stages for slightly different values.62) we observe that if R and C remain constant. the current gain of a two stagger-tuned amplifier is gm 1 A ( jω ) = --------------.Tuned Amplifiers 1 2α = ------RC (9. β is as shown in Figure 9. The narrowband approximations and relation (9. the spacing α from the imaginary axis remains constant also.⋅ -----------------------------------------4C 1 C 2 ( jω – s 1 ) ( jω – s 3 ) 2 (9.62) From relation (9.⋅ --------------2C jω – s 1 (9. Im s1 2λ λ ρ1 φ s jω c ρ3 2β s3 (a) α ωc (b) ω Figure 9. We found that the current gain of one stage under sinusoidal conditions and after the narrowband approximations have been applied.13(a) shows an enlarged view of the pole-zero pattern in the vicinity of the poles s 1 and s 3 .63) Therefore. and the poles s 2 and s 4 together with the zeros at the origin contribute the constant 1 ⁄ 4 in the scale factor of that relation. gm 1 A ( jω ) = – -----.13. From relation (9.64) reveal that the frequency characteristics of the amplifier in the passband are determined by the two poles s 1 and s 3 .

the semicircle does not intersect the imaginary axis and the amplitude Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-21 . and the vectors ρ 1 and ρ 3 correspond to the linear factors jω – s 1 and jω – s 3 . can be expressed as gm 1 A = --------------.65) As the variable s = jω moves along the imaginary axis. If α is less than β .66) and (9. as shown by the dotted semicircle in Figure 9.70) where g 2 R 1 R 2 is the resonant amplification of two stages with synchronous tuning.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers The frequency ω c .= ---------ρ1 ρ3 2αβ Substitution of (9.⋅ ---------4C 1 C 2 2αβ 2 (9. which is the center frequency of the passband.68) and from (9. The amplification.⋅ ---------4C 1 C 2 ρ 1 ρ 3 2 (9.67) 1 sin φ ---------.13(a).69) The poles for the two stages have the same real parts. this circle will intersect the imaginary axis at two points. The amplification at the peaks occurs when sin φ = 1 and thus α2 A p = g m R 1 R 2 ----2β (9.71) (9.68) into (9.70). α = 1 ⁄ 2R 1 C 1 = 1 ⁄ 2R 2 C 2 and thus relation (9.67) (9.13(b). Therefore.64).66) The area can also be expressed in trigonometric form as 1 a = -. the area of the triangle s 1 s s 3 remains constant and its value is a = αβ (9. corresponds to a point on the imaginary axis equidistant from s s 1 and s 3 .sin φ 2β (9.72) In general. given by (9. a circle with center at the middle of the line joining poles s 1 and s 3 that is parallel to the imaginary axis and with radius β .65) yields gm sin φ A = --------------.ρ 1 ρ 3 sin φ 2 (9.69) can be expressed as α2 A = g m R 1 R 2 ----. sin φ is the only factor that varies with changes in ω . in m relation (9. A = A p sin φ If α is greater than β . and the amplitude characteristic has two peaks as shown in Figure 9.

The frequencies at which the double peaks occur are denoted as ωp = ωc ± λ (9. denoted as A c is (9.77) The angle φ c is related to the pole positions by φc β tan ---. the amplification at the center frequency. a simpler and in some respects more useful measure of the bandwidth is the so-called triplepoint bandwidth shown by the dotted lines in Figure 9.73) and since the radius of the semicircle is β . In this case. In the case of the overstaggered pair of tuned stages. and this condition marks the transition from the overstaggered (double peaks) to the understaggered adjustment. however. We are mostly interested on the flat-staggered and the overstaggered cases. It is defined as W = 2 2λ * (9.74) The triple-point frequencies ω t are the frequencies outside the double peaks at which the amplification has the same value as at the center frequency are obtained by ω t = ω c ± 2λ (9.= -----------Ac sin φ c (9. the amplifier is also said to be flatstaggered. the semicircle is tangent to the imaginary axis. 9-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .79) * We reserve the notation BW for the 3 – dB bandwidth and we will use W for the triple-point bandwidth. Then.Tuned Amplifiers characteristic has only one peak.75) Let φ c be the value of the angle φ when ω = ω c . In all of the amplifiers studied up to this point. and the amplitude characteristic is maximally flat.78) When the amplifier is adjusted so that α = β . it follows that λ = β –α 2 2 2 (9.76) A c = A p sin φ c The peak-to-valley ratio for the double-peaked amplitude characteristic is Ap 1 ----.13(b). it is located at ω = ω c and it is less than A p .= -. the half-power bandwidth has been related in a simple way to the circuit parameters.= r α 2 (9.

⎞ = 2 ⎛ -.⎞ + 2β – 1 ----⎝ 2α ⎠ ⎝α ⎠ α (9. In these cases the half-power frequencies can be taken as the frequencies at which A = A p ⁄ 2 . Im b Radius = BW 2β a o 2β BW --------2 2β b s1 s3 a β–α (b) o (a) Figure 9.14(b) is an enlarged version of the small right triangle oab and by the Pythagorean theorem ⎛ BW ⎞ = 2β 2 – ( β – α ) 2 --------⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 (9.79) W = 8λ = 8 [ β – α ] 2 2 2 2 (9.76) that this condition occurs when φ = 45° .80) we get W 2 β 2 ⎛ -----. Figure 9.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers From relations (9.81) When the amplifier is flat-staggered or overstaggered.14.⎞ – 1 = 2 ( r 2 – 1 ) ⎝ 2α ⎠ ⎝α⎠ (9. the peak amplification is A p .83) Since r = β ⁄ α .80) It is convenient to express relation (9.⎞ = ⎛ -. and the center of the circle lies a distance β – α to the right of the imaginary axis.77).80) in terms of the design parameter r = β ⁄ α which is related to the peak-to-valley ratio in relation (9. Rearranging relation (9.74) and (9. The corresponding half-power bandwidth in terms of the design parameter r = β ⁄ α can be determined from the geometrical constructions in Figure 9. the radius of the circle is 2β . and it follows from relation (9.14(a) the line segment joining the poles s 1 and s 3 subtends the angle 2φ = 90° .83) as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-23 .82) or BW 2 β 2 ⎛ --------.14. Determination of the half-power frequencies of flat-staggered and overstaggered amplifiers In Figure 9. we can express (9.

13. α 1. flat-staggered and overstaggered amplifiers can be designed for a specified half-power bandwidth. Both transistors have a transconductance of g m = 40 mΩ –1 .81) reveals that the half-power bandwidth and the triple-point bandwidth are nearly equal except for cases of very slight overstaggering.6 A transistorized two-stage stagger-tuned amplifier has a pole-zero pattern like the one shown in Figure 9. relation (9. Then. a comparison of (9.. The pertinent dimensions are ω c = 10 6 rad/s . i. the ratio A p ⁄ A c defines r = β ⁄ α through relations (9.= -.75 × 10 ) × -----.= -2 α 1.77) and (9.75 KΩ .71). Solution: The peak amplification A p is found from (9. The relations derived above provide a simple.= ( 40 × 10 ) × ( 0.78).= r = -----.⎞ = r 2 + 2r – 1 ⎝ 2α ⎠ 2 (9. and the triple-point frequencies.84) Using relation (9. and the third can be chosen as desired to satisfy the other requirement as it was illustrated in the previous examples. and hence the circuit parameters. L . Find the peak amplification A p . the triple-point bandwidth W .78) φc β 2.5 3 φ c ⁄ 2 = tan ( 5 ⁄ 3 ) = 59° φ c = 118° –1 The peak-to-valley ratio A p ⁄ A c is given by relation (9.84) with (9. α = 1500 rad/s . the triple-point bandwidth W .84). Example 9. The design requirements specify the center frequency ω c . Thus. and the peak-to-valley ratio A p ⁄ A c .Tuned Amplifiers BW ⎛ --------. Also. the peak-to-valley ratio A p ⁄ A c . Specifically.81) gives the required value of α .5 –3 2 3 2 2 A p = g m R 1 R 2 ----.e. and the total shunt resistance in each stage is R 1 = R 2 = 0. and the required value of β is obtained from the relation β = αr .= 270 2β 5 From relation (9. direct design procedure for overstaggered stages.77) 9-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and C are determined. and β = 2500 rad/s . the half-power bandwidth BW .These specifications are sufficient to define the poles of the amplitude gain A . the two of the three parameters R .5 5 tan ---.

5 ⎠ α 1.78 × 10 rad/s ⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 1.= 1. Solution: From relation (9.997 × 10 rad/s 6 The procedure for finding all pertinent data. is given by relation (9.= ----------R1 C1 R2 C2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-25 .= -----------.5 The triple-point frequencies are given by relation (9.5 2 5 3 3 BW = 2α ⎛ -.5 – 1. ω t = ω c ± 2λ = 10 ± 2 × 2 × 10 ω t2 = 1.27) 1BW = 2α = ------RC and thus 1 1 2α = ----------.– 1 = 2 × 1. β 2 BW 2 ⎛ --------..13 sin 118° Ac sin φ c Therefore.e. the amplifiers are overstaggered.⎞ + -----.e.– 1 = 6.66 × 10 rad/s 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 The half-power bandwidth BW is given by relation (9.= -----------------.7 The pole locations for a two-stage stagger-tuned amplifier and the values of R 1 and R 2 are as given in Example 9.79).⎞ = ⎛ -.⎞ + 2β – 1 ----⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 2α ⎠ α β 2 2β 2. Example 9. Thus. except the values of L and C .⎞ + ----.74) λ = β – α = ( 2. was well illustrated in Example 9.. Determine the values of L and C required for each stage.83).6.75). The triple-point bandwidth W .003 × 10 rad/s 6 6 3 ω t1 = 0. W = 2 2λ where from relation (9.5 × 10 ⎛ -----. i. i.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers Ap 1 1 ----. The following example illustrates the procedure for finding of L and C to meet all design specifications.5 ) × 10 = 4 × 10 (rad/s) λ = 2 × 10 rad/s W = 2 2λ = 4 2 × 10 = 5.6.

Curve 2 is for understaggering with φ c = 70° .15.15 shows the normalized amplitude characteristics for two tuned stages under four different adjustments.85) Letting B fs denote the bandwidth of two stages with flat staggering and BW the 3 – dB bandwidth of one of the stages.71) and (9.1 . r = 1 . α = 1500 rad/s and R 1 = R 2 = 0.003 × 10 × 0. α is held constant while β is increased in steps. A -----Ac 1 2 3 4 ωc ω Figure 9.= ---------------------------------------------------------------. For the flat-staggered case β = α . and Curve 4 is for overstaggering with A p ⁄ A c = 1. from (9.= 2.44 × 10 Figure 9.997 × 10 × 0. and sin φ c = 1 . from relations (9.75 KΩ .= 2.72) we get 1 2 A c = A p = -.= ---------------------------------------------------------------.75 × 10 and 1 1 L 1 = ------------.44 × 10 1 1 L 2 = ------------.= -----------. Curve 3 is for flat staggering.27 µH 2 12 –6 2 ω t2 C 2 1.15. The half-power bandwidths are indicated by the solid dots on these curves. Curve 1 is for synchronous tuning.28 µH 2 2 12 –6 ω t1 C 1 0.g m R 1 R 2 2 (9. Amplitude characteristics for two tuned stages with different degrees of staggering For the curves in Figure 9. Thus.84) we get 9-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Tuned Amplifiers With ω c = 10 6 rad/s .= -----------------------------------------------3 = 0. we find that 1 1 1 C 1 = C 2 = -----------.44 µF 3 2αR 1 2αR 2 3 × 10 × 0.

16. in the usual case.86) The gain-bandwidth product for the flat-staggered amplifier is given by A c B fs = ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( g m R 1 R 2 )BW 2 (9. in accordance with the discussion in Section 9. and five stages are shown in Figure 9. Thus. three. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.60) we get A c B syn = A 1 BW 1 2 2 1⁄2 – 1 = 0. for the gain-bandwidth product. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-27 .88) The foregoing discussion of stagger-tuned amplifiers considers only the case in which the poles are staggered along a line parallel to the imaginary axis. By a more extensive treatment* it can be shown that for a maximally flat amplitude characteristic. for narrowband amplifiers the frequency characteristics are determined entirely by the poles lying near the segment of the imaginary axis corresponding to the passband. the poles of the signal gain must be uniformly spaced on a semicircle having its center on the imaginary axis. ISBN 0-9709511-6-7.16. 9. Then.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers B fs = 2 2BW (9.1. skewed frequency characteristics result.87) For two synchronously tuned stages we denote the bandwidth of two stages as B syn .3.16. Maximally flat multistage tuned amplifiers In Figure 9. and no matter how many stages are cascaded.64 ( g m R 1 R 2 ) ( BW ) 2 (9. the relations encountered are similar in many respects to those encountered in the two-stage case.3 Three or More Tuned Amplifiers Connected in Cascade When three or more tuned stages are to be connected in cascade. the half-power frequencies are * For a detailed discussion on this topic. this fact may cause distortion of the envelopes of AM signals. and. If the poles do not lie on the same vertical line. The center frequency ω c of the passband corresponds to the center of the circle on which the poles lie. In particular. the zeros at the origin and the poles in the lower half plane contribute only a constant to the gain in the narrow passband. The amplitude characteristics for one. A 1 3 5 ωc ω Figure 9. using relation (9.

the flatter the amplitude characteristic in the passband and the steeper the characteristic at the edges of the band.Tuned Amplifiers the frequencies at which the circle intersects the imaginary axis. The distribution of poles producing these characteristics is known as the Butterworth configuration. The more stages cascaded in this way. 9-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

.sin φ 2β • The amplification at resonance for a two stagger-tuned amplifier is given by where g 2 R 1 R 2 is the resonant amplification of two stages with synchronous tuning. α 2 A = g m R 1 R 2 ----. Tuned amplifiers can also be designed with bipolar junction transistors and MOSFETs. • The analysis and design of tuned amplifiers is greatly facilitated with the small signal models. They are very useful in the analysis and design of practically all narrowband amplifiers and filters. • When two identical stages are cascaded.e. A passive bandpass filter is constructed with passive devices. inductors. • Tuned amplifiers are connected in cascade to achieve higher selectivity. • For synchronously tuned amplifiers the bandwidth between the half-power points is given by BW n = 2∆ω = BW 1 2 1⁄n –1 • The passband of such stagger-tuned amplifier is wider and flatter than the passband of the syn- chronously tuned amplifier and thus provides a better approximation to the ideal bandpass. active filters with op amps are very popular. m • For stagger-tuned amplifiers. the frequencies at which the double peaks occur given by ωp = ωc ± λ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-29 . two important relations are the narrowband approximations.4 Summary • A tuned amplifier is essentially a bandpass filter. • A radio frequency choke (RFC) blocks radio frequencies but passes audio frequencies when both frequencies are applied to the same circuit. For small signals. the two stages are said to be synchronously tuned. and capacitors. • The amplitude characteristic for two synchronously tuned amplifiers is the characteristic for one stage but with the amplification squared at each point. and thus it provides no gain. we can transform values required by the specifications into practical values of the circuit parameters by the use of a transformer. resistors. • In the study of tuned amplifiers.Summary 9. i. • For a single stage tuned amplifier the current gain at the resonant frequency is given by A c0 = I 2 ⁄ I 1 = g m R 1 and the bandwidth BW between the two half-power frequencies is given by BW = 2α = 1 ⁄ RC • In the design of tuned amplifiers.

Tuned Amplifiers • For stagger-tuned amplifiers. • For an overstaggered pair of tuned stages the triple-point bandwidth is defined as W = 2 2λ and half-power bandwidth BW is given by β 2 BW 2 ⎛ --------. We are mostly interested on the flat-staggered and the overstaggered cases. and this condition marks the transition from the overstaggered (double peaks) to the understaggered adjustment.⎞ + 2β – 1 ----⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 2α ⎠ α • For uniform amplification over a wide band of frequencies we can cascade 3 or more amplifiers where the distribution of poles produce characteristics is known as the Butterworth configuration. the frequencies outside the double peaks at which the amplifica- tion has the same value as at the center frequency are obtained by ω t = ω c ± 2λ • For stagger-tuned amplifiers adjusted so that α = β .⎞ = ⎛ -. the amplifier is also said to be flat-stag- gered. 9-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Find the resonant amplification.e.Exercises 9. I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 For this mode. i. Find the resonant amplification.5 KΩ are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f c = 25 MHz . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-31 . The quality factor at resonance.. The incremental model of a typical MOSFET tuned circuit is shown below. it is known that g m = 40 mΩ –1 and R 1 = 1 KΩ .5 KΩ are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f c = 25 MHz . the current gain at the resonant frequency.2. b. and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz . b. c. 2. 3. 4. a. Determine the current gain A c0 = I 2 ⁄ I 1 . and it is known that g m = 5 mΩ –1 V1 R2 gm V1 R1 L C V2 By a procedure similar to that in Section 9. Find the voltage amplification at resonance. the half-power frequency. Find suitable values for circuit parameters so that the half-power bandwidth will be the 10 KHz . and the voltage gain at resonance are given by the relations 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC 1 BW = 2α = --------R1 C A v0 = g m R 1 a. Determine the values of L and C so that the amplifier will have a resonant frequency of 100 KHz and a half-power bandwidth of 5 KHz . The small-signal model for a single-tuned amplifier is shown below. A two-stage flat-staggered tuned amplifier is to designed with two transistors each with transconductance g m = 40 mΩ –1 where R 1 = 1 KΩ and R 2 = 1. we can show that the resonant frequency.5 Exercises 1. Two synchronously tuned stages are connected in cascade and the transconductance of both transistors used is g m = 40 mΩ –1 where R 1 = 1 KΩ and R 2 = 1.

0 1 L = -----------------------------------------------------------.= -------------------------------------.= 31. we can choose a large value for C to overcome the parasitic capacitances.Tuned Amplifiers 9. 1 1 C = ------------------.14 × 10 RC and with R 1 = 1 KΩ . Thus.8 nF 4 3 BW ⋅ R 1 3. Let us assume that the parasitic capacitances are of 9-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 a.= 2π × 10 R1 C and for the specified center frequency we must have ω 0 = 1 ⁄ LC = ( 2π × 10 ) 2 6 2 For high gain we can choose a large value for R 1 .8 × 10 b. V1 R2 R1 L C V2 gm V1 a.= 80 µH 5 2 –9 ( 2π × 10 ) × 31. Or. or f 0 = 1 ⁄ 2πLC .6 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1. The current gain at resonance is A c0 = g m R 1 = 40 mΩ × 1 KΩ = 40 –1 2. For the required bandwidth it is necessary that 4 1 BW = 2α = --------.= 2π × 5000 = 3.14 × 10 × 10 2 The value of L is found from ω 2 = 1 ⁄ LC . The bandwidth in radians per second is 4 1 BW = 2α = ------.

5 × 10 = 30 2 2 As expected this gain is half of that of Exercise 3 where the circuit was designed with synchronously tuned stages.85) 1 2 1 –3 2 6 A c = A p = -. The voltage gain at the center-frequency is A v0 = g m R 1 = 5 × 10 × 80 × 10 = 400 –3 3 c. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-33 .( 40 × 10 ) × 1 × 1. the bandwidth requirement yields 10 1 R 1 = ------------. Therefore. Then.26) the resonant amplification of the first stage is A 1 = g m R 1 . The quality factor at resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR 1 = 2π × 10 × 200 × 10 6 – 12 × 80 × 10 = 100 3 3.= 0. the overall gain is A = g m R 1 R 2 = ( 40 × 10 ) × 1 × 1.g m R 1 R 2 = -.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises more concern to us and choose a 200 pF capacitor.125 mH 2 2 ω 0 C ( 2π × 10 6 ) × 200 12 b. By relation (9. and that of the second stage is A 2 = g m R 2 .= -----------------------------------------.5 × 10 = 60 2 –3 2 6 4.= ----------------------------------. By relation (9.= 80 KΩ 4 BWC 2π × 10 × 200 12 The value of L to meet the center-frequency requirement is 10 1L = --------.

These are known as the LC oscillators and use tank circuits*. amplifier characteristics. heavy. and amplitude stability. a sinusoidal oscillator produces a sine-wave output signal. square. Sinusoidal oscillators generate signals ranging from low audio frequencies to ultrahigh radio and microwave frequencies. and we will describe the Armstrong. An ideal oscillator should produce an output signal with constant amplitude with no variation in frequency. unless otherwise specified. and costly to manufacture. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-1 . 10. crystal. In Chapter 5 we introduced the Wien bridge oscillator. Subsequently. and sawtooth waveforms. Colpitts. are commonly used for the higher radio frequencies. The crystal-controlled oscillator provides excellent frequency stability and is used from the middle of the audio range through the radio frequency range. frequency stability. They are not suitable for use as extremely low-frequency oscillators because the inductors and capacitors would be large in size. and in Chapter 7 the family of multivibrators. * The term tank circuit stems from the fact that a network consisting of inductors and capacitors store energy same way as liquids and gases are stored in tanks. triangular. we will discuss the RC phase-shift and LC oscillator families. Oscillators are classified in accordance with the waveshapes they produce and the circuitry required to produce the desired oscillations. 10. Other types of employ inductors and capacitors for its frequency-determining network. An oscillator is essentially an amplifier circuit that provides its own input signal. the degree to which the ideal is approached depends on the class of amplifier operation. Many low-frequency oscillators use resistors and capacitors to form their frequency-determining networks and are referred to as RC oscillators. In this chapter we will be concerned with oscillators that produce sinusoidal waveforms. But a practical oscillator cannot meet these criteria. A third type of sinusoidal oscillator is the crystal-controlled oscillator. and the crystal-controlled Pierce oscillators.1 Introduction to Oscillators An oscillator may be defined as a class of wave generators that produce sinusoidal. These are used in the audio-frequency range. Henceforth. the term oscillator will mean a sinusoidal oscillator. Hartley.2 Sinusoidal Oscillators As the name implies. Non-sinusoidal oscillators are known as relaxation oscillators.Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Oscillators T his chapter begins with an introduction to sinusoidal oscillators.

and the amplifier is provided with negative feedback. and since this network can be constructed with accurate devices such as precision resistors and capacitors. v in ± v = v in ± v f vf β Figure 10.1) where A denotes the open-loop gain of the amplifier. Block diagram of a typical feedback amplifier Σ A v out From Figure 10.1. In a practical amplifier. v out = Av (10. With negative feedback. If v f subtracts from v in . If v f is added to v in . then v = v in – v f and the feedback is known as degenerative or negative. the gain A f can be designed precisely.2) where β is known as the feedback factor. then v = v in + v f and the feedback is known as regenerative or positive. and v = v in – v f . Also.4) and with positive feedback as v out A A f = ------.3) is expressed as v out A A f = ------.= -------------v in 1 ±β A (10.5) 10-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and the amplifier is provided with positive feedback From (10.= ---------------v in 1 + βA (10. and 1 ± β A is known as the amount of feedback.3) where the quantity βA is known as the loop gain.1).1. the open loop gain A is much greater than unity and thus the gain with feedback A f is for all practical purposes equal to ± 1 ⁄ β and this means that A f is effectively dependent on the feedback network. v f = βv out (10. (10. We will briefly discuss positive and negative feedback with reference to the block diagram of a feedback amplifier shown in Figure 10. relation (10.Sinusoidal Oscillators An oscillator must provide amplification where the amplification of signal power occurs from the input to the output of the oscillator and a portion of the output is fed back to the input to sustain a constant input.2).1. we obtain the general expression for a feedback loop as v out A A f = ------.= ------------1 –β A v in (10.

4) the gain with negative feedback is A 70 A f = ---------------. and with feedback is 0.75 Af Thus.25% 1 + βA 1+7 New input voltage v' in with feedback is v' in = v in ( 1 + βA ) = 1 × ( 1 + 7 ) = 8 V The output voltage v out without feedback is v out = Av in = 70 × 1 = 70 V and the output voltage v' out with feedback is v' out = A f v' in = 8.= 18.0125 = 1.= 0.= 8. distortion of 10% . sinusoidal oscillators use positive feedback.06 dB 8. the introduction of negative feedback has reduced the amplifier gain by 18 dB or we can say that 18 dB of feedback has been applied to the input of the amplifier. all amplifiers employ negative feedback.1 A certain amplifier has an open-loop gain A of 70 at an angle of zero degrees.1 .75 1 + βA 1+7 The amount of distortion D without feedback is 10% of the normal input voltage v in of 1 V .75 × 8 = 70 V Actual input voltage v to amplifier is v = v' in – βv' out = 8 – 0.10 D f = ---------------. Solution: For negative feedback βA = 0.Sinusoidal Oscillators Practically. and normal input voltage of 1 V .1 × 70 = 7 and in accordance with relation (10.1 × 1 0.1 × 70 = 1 V and the reduction in gain expressed in dB is 70 A dB = 20 log ----.= 20 log --------. Example 10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-3 . but as we will see shortly.= ----------.= ----------. Determine the effects of negative feedback if the feedback factor β is 0.

2. it is possible to obtain a finite output with a very small input and this is the principle behind the operation of an oscillator. In our subsequent discussion we will be concerned with regenerative (positive) feedback. that is. To find the predetermined frequency ω 0 to produce sustained oscillations.9) β ( jω 0 )A ( jω 0 ) ≥ 1 and ∠β ( jω 0 ) + ∠A ( jω 0 ) = 2πn n = 1. a practical oscillator must oscillate at a predetermined frequency and thus the oscillator must include a frequency-determining device which essentially is a band-pass filter allowing only the desired frequency to pass.6) In an oscillator circuit the positive feedback must be large enough to compensate for circuit losses so that oscillations will be sustained.= ---------------------------1 –β ( s ) A ( s ) V in ( s ) (10. 3. The condition of relation (10. Therefore. the total phase shift in that oscillator will be 3 × 60° + 180° = 360° and the condition of relation (10.Sinusoidal Oscillators Example 10. V out ( s ) A(s) A f ( s ) = ---------------.10) will be satisfied. In the oscillator circuit of Figure 10.9) will also be satisfied.10) 10.1 above and Exercise 1 at the end of this chapter illustrate the effects of degenerative (negative) feedback. Let us again consider relation (10. provides 180° phase shift and the three RC sections can be selected that each section will provide 60° shift. This oscillator is also known as phase-shift oscillator.8) To sustain oscillations at ω = ω 0 the denominator of (10.6) above is very close to unity and in this case the closed loop A f is very large. For instance.= -----------------------------------1 – β ( jω ) A ( jω ) V in ( jω ) (10.8) must meet the Barkhausen criterion which states that to provide sinusoidal oscillations the magnitude and phase angle of the term β ( jω )A ( jω ) must be such that (10. Let us now assume that at that predetermined frequency the loop gain βA in relation (10. Moreover. v out A A f = ------. 10-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 the transistor.6) in the s-domain.2.9) can also be satisfied by making the product βA equal to unity.5) which is repeated below for convenience. if A = 10 we can make β = 1 ⁄ 10 and the condition of relation (10. we express relation (10.7) and letting s = jω we get V out ( jω ) A ( jω ) A f ( jω ) = -------------------. Accordingly. … (10. being in the common-emitter configuration.= ------------1 –β A v in (10.3 RC Oscillator An amplifier and an RC network can form an oscillator as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. However.3 shows a block diagram of a typical LC oscillator. 10. 29R 4R L β = 23 + --------. For the RC oscillator of Figure 10.+ --------R RL (10.LC Oscillators R C R C R C RL Figure 10.12) In general. the frequency of oscillation is given by 1 ω 0 = --------------------------------------2 C 4RR L + GR (10. every circuit contains some resistance and this resistance causes reduction in the amplitude of the oscillations. the amplifier is biased for Class A operation to minimize distortion of the signal.2. For an RC phase-shift oscillator. The frequency of oscillations is determined by the values of resistance and capacitance in the three sections. Simple form of an RC oscillator The output of the oscillator contains only a single sinusoidal frequency. To sustain oscillations with constant amplitude it is necessary to use regenerative feedback.4 LC Oscillators The LC type of oscillators use resonant circuits. When the oscillator is powered on.11) where G is the transistor power gain and the values of the resistors used must be such that value of the transistor gain β is such that the following relation is satisfied.13) where n is the number of RC sections. In an LC oscillator the sinusoidal signal is generated by the action of an inductor and a capacitor. for an RC phase-shift oscillator the frequency of oscillation (resonant frequency) can be approximated from the relation 1 ω 0 = --------------RC n (10.2. a resonant circuit stores energy alternately in the inductor and capacitor. As we know. The feedback signal is coupled from the LC tank of the oscillator circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-5 . and the value of the loop gain decreases to unity and constant amplitude oscillations are sustained. Eventually. Variable resistors and capacitors are usually employed to provide tuning in the feedback network for variations in phase shift. the loop gain βA is greater than unity and the amplitude of the oscillations will increase. a level is reached where the gain of the amplifier decreases.

10-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Sinusoidal Oscillators by using a coil (tickler* or a coil pair) as shown in Figure 10.4(a) and 10.4(b) or by using a capacitor pair in the tank circuit and tap the feedback signal between them as shown in Figure 10.4(c).5 The Armstrong Oscillator Figure 10. L C Feedback Amplifier Figure 10. V CC V CC Figure 10. Series and shunt fed Armstrong oscillators * A tickler coil is an inductor that is inductively coupled to the inductor of the LC tank circuit.5 shows two circuits known as Armstrong oscillators.4. Feedback signal coupling for LC type oscillators 10.3.5. Block diagram of a typical LC oscillator ( a ) Tickler coil ( b ) Coil pair ( c ) Capacitor pair Figure 10.

Figure 10.6.7 shows a simplified version of the Colpitts oscillator.4(a).6 The Hartley Oscillator Figure 10.4(b).6 the frequency of oscillation is 1 ω 0 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 C ( L 1 + L 2 + 2M ) – ( L 1 L 2 – M ) ( h ob ⁄ h ib ) (10. the feedback is provided through a tickler coil as shown in Figure 10.6 shows a simplified version of the Hartley oscillator. as discussed in Chapter 3. Simplified circuit for the Hartley oscillator In a Hartley oscillator the feedback is provided through a coil pair as shown in Figure 10.7 The Colpitts Oscillator Figure 10. For the oscillator circuit of Figure 10.4(c).The Hartley Oscillator In an Armstrong oscillator.5. please refer to Circuit Analysis II. Figure 10. * For a detailed discussion on mutual inductance. As we’ve learned in Chapter 3. In a Colpitts oscillator the feedback is provided through a capacitor pair as shown in Figure 10. The transistor is operating as Class C amplifier. power through V CC is supplied to the transistor and the tank circuit begins to oscillate. 10. that is. 10. In either of the oscillator circuits of Figure 10. the transistor conducts for a short period of time and returns sufficient energy to the tank circuit to ensure a constant amplitude output signal. L1 M L2 C V CC Figure 10.14) where M is the mutual inductance* and h ob and h ib are the h-parameters representing the output admittance with open-circuit input and input impedance with short circuit output respectively. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-7 . Class C operation provides the highest efficiency among all amplifier operations.5(b) is referred to as shunt fed tuned collector Armstrong oscillator and it is so-called because the power supply voltage V CC supplied to the transistor is through a path parallel to the tank circuit.5(a) is known as series-fed tuned-collector Armstrong oscillator and it is so-called because the power supply voltage V CC supplied to the transistor is through the tank circuit.

* The Q of a crystal may vary from 10.000 to 100.000. as discussed in Chapter 3. Accordingly. temperature compensation must be applied to crystal oscillators to improve thermal stability of the crystal oscillator.-----C 1 C 2 h ib LC 1 C 2 (10. However. Moreover. Simplified circuit for the Colpitts oscillator The Colpitts oscillator provides better frequency stability than the Armstrong and Hartley oscillators. other precision oscillators are constructed with cesium or rubidium.7 the frequency of oscillation is ω0 = C1 + C2 1 .h ob ----------------.7. the higher the frequency of oscillation. 10-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Sinusoidal Oscillators C1 L C2 V CC Figure 10. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. The frequency stability of crystal-controlled oscillators depends on the quality factor Q. ISBN 0-9709511-5-9.15) where h ob and h ib are the h-parameters representing the output admittance with open-circuit input and input impedance with short circuit output respectively. Besides the quartz crystal oscillators. the Colpitts oscillator is easier to tune and thus can be used for a wide range of frequencies. Crystal oscillators are used in applications where frequency accuracy and stability ar of utmost importance such as broadcast transmitters and radar. The amount of heating is dependent upon the amount of current that can safely pass through a crystal and this current may be in the order of 50 to 200 milliamperes. The frequency depends almost entirely on the thickness where the thinner the thickness. the power obtainable is limited by the heat the crystal will withstand without fracturing. * The quality factor Q is a very important parameter in resonant circuits and it is discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II. 10.8 Crystal Oscillators Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element is a quartz crystal.+ ----------. For the oscillator circuit of Figure 10.

17) must be very low and thus it can be omitted in relation (10. The resonance of the series branch occurs when the imaginary part of the impedance is equal to zero.18) is a quadratic and it implies the presence of two resonant frequencies which can be found by inspection of the equivalent circuit of Figure 10. Symbol and equivalent circuit for a crystal The impedance of the equivalent circuit of Figure 10.10.8.8 in the s – domain is Z ( s ) = 1 ⁄ sC 1 || ( R + sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) (10.16) which can now be expressed as ( sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) Z ( s ) = 1 ⁄ sC 1 || ( sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) = ( 1 ⁄ sC 1 ) ⋅ -------------------------------------------------1 ⁄ sC 1 + sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 or s + 1 ⁄ LC 2 Z ( s ) = ( 1 ⁄ sC 1 ) ⋅ --------------------------------------------------------------2 s + [ ( C 1 + C 2 ) ⁄ ( LC 1 C 2 ) ] 2 (10.19) We also can prove* that the resonance of the parallel combination occurs when ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 (10.18) The denominator of (10.16) We now recall that in a series resonant circuit the quality factor Q at resonance is ω 0S L Q 0S = ----------R (10. letting s = jω we get Z ( jω ) = jωL + 1 ⁄ jωC 2 = 0 and denoting this frequency as ω 0S we get 1 ω 0S = -------------LC 2 (10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-9 .8 where capacitor C 1 represents the electrostatic capacitance between the electrodes of the crystal and in general C1 » C2 .17) and since the Q of a crystal oscillator is very high. Electrode Crystal C1 C2 L R Electrode Figure 10.Crystal Oscillators The symbol and the equivalent circuit of a quartz crystal are shown in Figure 10. the value of the resistance R in (10. Thus.20) * The proof is left as an exercise for the reader at the end of this chapter.

20) – 12 1 1 C1 + C 2.9 shows a Pierce oscillator with a PNP transistor as an amplifier in the common-base configuration. The series resonance ω 0S b. The value of the resistance R Solution: a.= ---------------------------------------.8. From (10.= ---------------R R or 6 2πf 0S L 2π × 5.058 MHz 2π 50 × 10 –3 × 2 × 10 –12 × 0.= 372 Ω 3 Q 0S 85 × 10 10. it is known that L = 50 mH . 000 and with reference to the equivalent circuit of Figure 10.19). The parallel resonance ω 0P c. From (10.02 × 10 –12 2π LC 1 C 2 c.-----------------2 = ----.02 × 10 f 0P = ----.033 MHz –3 – 12 2π LC 2 2π 50 × 10 × 0.02 pF . Example 10. and for this reason is often referred to as crystal-controlled Pierce oscillator.= -------------------------------------------------------------------.02 × 10 b.= 5.033 × 10 R = ---------------. and C 2 = 0.9 The Pierce Oscillator The Pierce oscillator is a modified Colpitts oscillator that uses a crystal as a parallel-resonant circuit. C 1 » C 2 and under this condition relation (10. C 1 = 2 pF .2 A crystal oscillator has a nominal frequency of oscillation at 5 MHz with Q = 85. From (10. 10-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.17) ω 0S L 2πf 0S L Q 0S = ----------. Find: a.20) reduces to that of relation (10.= 5. Figure 10.19) 1 1 --------------------.Sinusoidal Oscillators As stated above.

9. and R C are used to establish the proper bias conditions. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-11 . Besides the crystal. R B . Pierce oscillator with PNP transistor in the common-base configuration In the oscillator circuit of Figure 10.9. feedback is provided from the collector to the emitter of the transistor through capacitor C 1 and resistors R 1 . the frequency of oscillation is also determined by the settings of the variable capacitors C E and C B .The Pierce Oscillator C1 RC V CC RB CB C2 Output R1 CE RE Figure 10.

• The output of the oscillator contains only a single sinusoidal frequency. • In an RC oscillator the frequency of oscillations is determined by the values of resistance and capacitance in the three sections. Moreover. In this chapter we discussed sinusoidal oscillators. Other types of employ inductors and capacitors for its frequency-determining network. • A third type of sinusoidal oscillator is the crystal-controlled oscillator. the feedback is provided through a tickler coil. An oscillator is essentially an amplifier circuit that provides its own input signal. • Many low-frequency oscillators use resistors and capacitors to form their frequency-determin- ing networks and are referred to as RC oscillators.Sinusoidal Oscillators 10. 10-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • In an Armstrong oscillator. • In a Hartley oscillator the feedback is provided through a coil pair. • In an LC oscillator the sinusoidal signal is generated by the action of an inductor and a capac- itor. These are used in the audio-frequency range. the amplifier is biased for Class A operation to minimize distortion of the signal. approximated from the relation • In an RC phase-shift oscillator the frequency of oscillation (resonant frequency) can be 1 ω 0 = --------------RC n where n is the number of RC sections. square. For an RC phase-shift oscillator. The feedback signal is coupled from the LC tank of the oscillator circuit by using a tickler coil or a coil pair. • In an oscillator circuit the positive feedback must be large enough to compensate for circuit losses so that oscillations will be sustained. The crystal-controlled oscillator provides excellent frequency stability and is used from the middle of the audio range through the radio frequency range.10 Summary • An oscillator may be defined as a class of wave generators that produce sinusoidal. Variable resistors and capacitors are usually employed to provide tuning in the feedback network for variations in phase shift. a practical oscillator must oscillate at a predetermined frequency and thus the oscillator must include a frequency-determining device which essentially is a band-pass filter allowing only the desired frequency to pass. are commonly used for the higher radio frequencies. Non-sinusoidal oscillators are known as relaxation oscillators. tri- angular. and sawtooth waveforms. • An oscillator must provide amplification where the amplification of signal power occurs from the input to the output of the oscillator and a portion of the output is fed back to the input to sustain a constant input. These are known as the LC oscillators and use tank circuits.

However. the power obtainable is limited by the heat the crystal will withstand without fracturing. The frequency depends almost entirely on the thickness where the thinner the thickness. the Colpitts oscillator is easier to tune and thus can be used for a wide range of frequencies. other precision oscillators are constructed with cesium or rubidium. • Crystal oscillators are used in applications where frequency accuracy and stability ar of utmost • The Pierce oscillator is a modified Colpitts oscillator that uses a crystal as a parallel-resonant circuit. importance such as broadcast transmitters and radar. • The Colpitts oscillator provides better frequency stability than the Armstrong and Hartley oscillators. Besides the quartz crystal oscillators. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-13 .Summary • In a Colpitts oscillator the feedback is provided through a capacitor pair. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. • In crystal oscillators the frequency determining element is a quartz crystal. The frequency stability of crystal-controlled oscillators depends on the quality factor Q. the higher the frequency of oscillation. Moreover. and for this reason is often referred to as crystal-controlled Pierce oscillator.

The figure below shows a crystal oscillator and its equivalent circuit. g.Sinusoidal Oscillators 10. a. 000 . and v S = 1 V . R1 RF v in vS R2 v out 2. For the op amp circuit below. Find an appropriate ratio of R F ⁄ R 1 so that the closed loop gain will be A f = 10 c.11 Exercises 1. The gain of the filter at the frequency ω 0 3. Find the output voltage v out e. The frequency ω 0 and the gain of the filter to produce sustained oscillations b. Determine a. Electrode Crystal C1 C2 L R Electrode Prove that ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 10-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Find the input voltage v in at the non-inverting input. Express the amount of feedback in dB d. the open-loop gain is A = 10. Determine the decrease in the closed-loop gain A f if the open-loop gain A decreases by 20% . Derive an expression for the feedback factor β b. Find the feedback voltage v f f. A sinusoidal oscillator consists of an amplifier with gain A = 10 and a bandpass filter whose center frequency is f 0 = 20 KHz .

01 0. The amount of feedback is 1 + βA and in dB Feedback dB = 20 log ( 1 + βA ) = 20 log ( 1 + 0.0999 β R1 ⁄ R1 1 + R F ⁄ R 1 = 10.12 Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1.= 10 = -------------------4 1 + βA 1 + 10 β 4 from which 10 – 1 β = ---------------.⎞ v out ⎝ RF + R1 ⎠ R1 β = -----------------RF + R1 and thus (1) b.= 0.= -.01 RF ----. The feedback factor β is the portion of the output voltage v out which appears at the inverting input. v out = A f v S = 10 × 1 = 10 V Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-15 .= 9.= 10. R1 v(−) v in RF v out vS R2 a.= --------------. From relation (10.0999 × 10 ) = 60 dB 4 d. and by the voltage division expression R1 v ( − ) = ⎛ -----------------.0999 (2) 4 10 3 With (1) and (2) above RF ⁄ R1 + R1 ⁄ R1 1 1 -------------------------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 10.4) and with A = 10 4 and A f = 10 we find that A 10 A f = ---------------.01 R1 c.

× 100 = – 0. Electrode Crystal C1 C2 L R Electrode ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 This is a parallel circuit and thus the resonant frequency occurs when the imaginary part of the admittance Y is equal to zero. Then. Gain ω = ω0 = 1 ⁄ 10 = 0.0999 × 0. A' 0. 000 and the percent change is 9.8 × 10.Sinusoidal Oscillators e. The voltage at the non-inverting input is v in = v S – v f = 1.1 3.025% 9.0999 × 10 = 0.001 V g.= --------------------------------------------------------------. The feedback voltage v f is v f = βv out = 0. 10-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore.26 × 10 r ⁄ s 3 5 b.999 V f.975 – 10 -----------------------. The frequency ω 0 at which sustained oscillations will be produced is the center frequency of the bandpass filter and thus ω 0 = 2πf 0 = 2π × 20 × 10 = 1. a.000 – 0.975 where the minus (−) sign implies decrease is percentage.8 × 10. 000 A' f = ----------------. 2.= 9. To sustain constant amplitude oscillations we must have β ( jω 0 )A ( jω 0 ) = 1 and with A = 10 . Let the reduced open loop gain be denoted as A' and the corresponding closed loop gain as A' f .999 = 0.975 1 + βA' 1 + 0.

= 0 2 – ω 0 LC 2 + 1 C2 C 1 = -----------------------2 ω 0 LC 2 – 1 ω 0 LC 1 C 2 – C 1 = C 2 ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-17 .= 0 jω 0 L + 1 ⁄ jω 0 C 2 jω 0 C 2 jω 0 C 1 + ---------------------------.Solutions to End-of-Chapter Exercises 1 Y = jω 0 C 1 + --------------------------------------.⎞ = 0 2 ⎝ – ω 0 LC 2 + 1 ⎠ C2 C 1 + ---------------------------.= 0 2 – ω 0 LC 2 + 1 C2 jω 0 ⎛ C 1 + ---------------------------.

2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. In this appendix we will discuss MATLAB only. important terms. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. and communications. A. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. access to MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. Simulink is a block diagram tool used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems such as controls. we are interested in the command screen which can be selected from the Window drop menu. MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems fast and efficiently. These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive. aerospace. we see the prompt >> or EDU>>. A. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB and Simulink are products of The MathWorks. and making plots. * EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-1 . we see various help topics and other information. and environmental applications. save it. electronics. telecommunications. Initially.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions. When the command screen. and MATLAB functions. comment lines. signal processing. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. finding the roots of a polynomial. Inc.

it distinguishes between upper. A-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line. The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information.m or any other similar name.m extension at the >> prompt. we type help matlab\graphics. to get information on graphics. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu.and lower-case letters. if the script performs some matrix operations. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language. we use the clc command. To get help with other MATLAB topics. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter. From the File menu on the toolbar. This takes us to the Editor Window where we can type our script (list of statements) for a new file. For instance. variables. The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic. 2. we click on the Close button. 3. Once the script is written and saved as an m-file. This command erases everything. for example. then. Thus. For instance. We should also use a floppy disk or an external drive to backup our files. MATLAB then returns to the command window. myfile01. if we want to clear all previously entered commands. Henceforth. variables and equations that we have already used. we choose New and click on M-File. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it. In other words. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® To use the Editor/Debugger: 1. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. we type the file name without the . it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. But if we want to clear all previous values. it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. Whenever we want to return to the command window. and equations without exiting. we type quit or exit. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. For example. All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program. that is. or open a previously saved file. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics. The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu. If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive. Important! MATLAB is case sensitive. To execute a program. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path. we should use the command clear. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . It is a good practice to save the script in a file name that is descriptive of our script content. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them.m.m.

or variable such as cos ( x ) . and the roots as roots_ p1. A. One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers. we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number. p1=[1 −10 35 −50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) p1 = 1 −10 35 −50 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) % Find the roots of p1(x) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-3 .0000−4. we must use the multiplication sign.q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q. such as 3-4i or 3-4j. These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order. However. Example A. For example. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order. We must include terms whose coefficients are zero. or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number. if the imaginary part is a function. % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct. We can use either i . a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. that is. the statement z=3−4j displays z = 3.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1.3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB. We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function.0000i In the above example. a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form [ a n a n – 1 … a 2 a 1 a0 ] .Roots of Polynomials conv(p.

therefore. and two complex roots.3202i * By definition. Of course. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2. where we have defined the polynomial as p2. we must enter zero as its coefficient.0000 2.7428 -1.5014 2. The roots are found with the statements below.0000 1. p2=[1 −7 0 16 25 52] p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_ p2 = 6. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A∗ = a – jb A-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots.0000 3.3366 + 1. Example A.5711 -0.0000 We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector.1.2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 ( x ) = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term.3202i -0. complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs. and the roots as a column vector.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® roots_p1 = 4.3366 .

and 4 – j5 . with the given roots as elements of this vector.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial. say r4 . Find the coefficients of this polynomial. say r3 .0000i A-5 . from a given set of roots. and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below.0000 -3.0000+ 5. 2. with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots.0000 Column 5 -4. – 3. Solution: We first define a row vector. r4=[ −1 −2 −3 4+5j 4−5j ] 2 3 4 % Find the polynomial coefficients poly_r3=poly(r3) r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1. with the given roots.1. 4 + j5. Example A.0000. Example A. Solution: We form a row vector.4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1. then. and 4 . we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below.3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1.5.Polynomial Construction from Known Roots A. r3=[1 2 3 4] % Specify the roots of the polynomial r3 = 1 poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) of Example A.0000 -4. Compute the coefficients of this polynomial. – 2. 3.0000i Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications -2.

the polynomial is p 4 ( x ) = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 A.1) at x = – 3 .x) function evaluates a polynomial p ( x ) at some specified value of the independent variable x.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® poly_r4=poly(r4) poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 Therefore. % val_minus3=polyval(p5.d) − divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and polyder(p) − produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p. A-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . % These are the coefficients % The semicolon (.) after the right bracket suppresses the display of the row vector % that contains the coefficients of p5.b) − multiplies two polynomials a and b [q. Solution: p5=[1 −3 0 5 −4 3 2]. -3) % Evaluate p5 at x=−3.r]=deconv(c. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a. Example A. remainder r.5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 ( x ) = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A.

7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 ⁄ p 4 using the [q. p1p2=conv(p1.p4) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-7 . p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 2x 11 – 6x 5 10 – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 9 8 7 6 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A.b) function.r]=deconv(c. p2=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12].d) function.p2) % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p1p2 = 2 -6 -8 34 18 -24 -74 -88 78 166 174 108 Therefore.r]=deconv(p3. [q. Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 −3 0 5 7 9].Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values Example A. p4=[2 −8 0 0 4 10 12].6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 ⋅ p 2 using the conv(a. Solution: p1=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].

= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 Den ( x ) am x + am – 1 x + am – 2 x + … + a1 x + a0 n n–1 n–2 (A.p 5 using the polyder(p) function. d ----.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx 0 -32 0 8 10 A. if A-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 Compute the derivative ----. we can write MATLAB statements in one line. As noted in the comment line of Example A. q = 0.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form. as + bn – 2 x + … + b1 x + b0 bn x + bn – 1 x Num ( x ) R ( x ) = -------------------. We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before. that is.5000 r = 0 Therefore. d dx 6 4 2 Solution: p5=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12].2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero. der_p5=polyder(p5) % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5 = 12 Therefore.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® q = 0.5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 4 -3 0 3 2 3 Example A.7.

9870i -1.4922 ) ( x + 1.1633 ) ( x + 0.= -------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form.0712 ) ( x + 1.3370 + j0.9870 ) ( x + 1.6760 + j0.9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R ( x ) = ----------.4186 + j1. we have the factored form p num = ( x – 2. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term. Solution: num=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].4922i -0.Rational Polynomials we separate them by commas or semicolons. we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-9 . the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs.0.9961i roots_den = 1. we have p den = ( x – 1.9304 ) ( x + 0.0.2108 + j0.6760 + 0.0712 ) ( x – 2.4186 – j1.4186 + 1. in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 .2108 + 0.0712i -0.9961 ) and for the denominator. % Do not display num and den coefficients roots_num=roots(num). – ( x 1 + x 2 ) = b .3370 – j0. roots_den=roots(den) % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2.9870i 1.9961 ) ( x + 0.6760 – j0.0.2108 – j 0. For the numerator. using the roots(p) function.4922 ) ( x – 1.4186 . x 1 ⋅ x 2 = c .1633 As expected.0000 2.3370 . Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display. We recall that. that is. while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c .1.9870 ) ( x + 0. Example A. den=[1 0 −4 0 2 5 6]. Accordingly.0000 ) We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors.9304 -1.4922i -0.0712i -0.2108 . that is.9961i -1.6760 .3370 + 0.

we use the following script: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2-4.0186 ) ( x + 1. Before using a symbolic expression.q) function is used with numeric expressions only. t. we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form.0712i) ans = 6.9870i) ans = 1.1058 ) ( x + 1. For our example.9961i)*(−0. 2 2 p num ( x – 4.6740x + 1.0186 Thus.4922i)*(1.8372x + 6.0712i)*(2.3520x + 3. polynomial coefficients. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator.0000 ) ( x + 1.1633 ) R ( x ) = ----------. y.9971)*(x^2+0.4186 + 1.2108+ 0. For the present.6740*x+1.9971 (−0. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual.4186 −1. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: (2.0512 (−0.3370+ 0.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® and this is done by inspection. We must remember that the conv(p.9304 ) We can check this result with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions.1058)*(x+1.3370−0.4216x + 1. and so on.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 p den ( x – 3.0512 ) ( x + 0. that is.9870i)*(−0.6760−0.9971 ) ( x + 0.6760+ 0.8372*x+6.1058 (1.9961i) ans = 1. our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form.4922i) ans = 3. we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x. A-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2108−0.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this.

353 103.1 Table for Example A.1.428 48.184 97. while the amplitude was held constant.717 46.603 81. This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x.611 51.83 266. that is.665 140. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-11 .339 52. |Z| versus radian frequency ω .1.286 44. Electric circuit for Example A.056 1014.432 38.938 469.122 42.052 145.032 187.088 73.589 71.10 TABLE A.240 54.Using MATLAB to Make Plots A. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs. The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency.437 222.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance. A R V L C Figure A.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often.751 120.481 58. The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V ⁄ A and the data were tabulated on Table A. Here.111 ω (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90.y) command that plots y versus x. where the radian frequency ω (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second. x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate). Example A.1.10 ω (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39.588 67.182 436.513 62.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A.182 40.

938 469.789 71.182 40. Also.. 90.056.588 67. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Figure A. Plot of impedance z versus frequency ω for Example A. The data are entered as follows: w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line. 1014. Of course. To plot z (y-axis) versus w (x-axis).603 81..y) command.2.. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000]. MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen and MATLAB denotes this plot as Figure 1...513 62.481 58. This plot is shown in Figure A.. we use the semicolon (.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen. When this command is executed.088 73.845]. we simply type w or z.432 38. This is illustrated below for the data of w and z..353 103..437 222.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Solution: We cannot type ω (omega) in the MATLAB command window. % z=[39. and continue to enter data.122 42. then pressing <enter> to start a new line.751 120.111.2. If a statement. as mentioned before. 48.830 266.468.286 44.611 51.240 54.. we use plot(w.. it can be continued to the next line by typing three or more periods.10 A-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . so we will use the English letter w instead. we use the plot(x.339 52. For this example.182 436.717 46. and we press <enter>..052 145.z).. if we want to see the values of w or z or both.665 140.104 97.032 187.

our plot is as shown in Figure A. however. changes from off to on or vice versa. the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm.y) command which is similar to the plot(x.y) command. and box on restores the box. The decibel unit is defined in Chapter 4. The command grid toggles them. voltage or current. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot).y) command is similar to the plot(x. The amplitude frequency response is usually represented with the x-axis in a logarithmic scale. xlabel('w in rads/sec'). the semilogy(x. The default* is off. The default is on. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-13 . and the y-axis as a linear scale. ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands. We can use the semilogx(x. The loglog(x.z). Radian Frequency'). the x-axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale. or any plot. and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). To see the graph again. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x. and the y-axis in dB (decibels).Using MATLAB to Make Plots This plot is referred to as the amplitude frequency response of the circuit. We must remember. we click on the Window pull-down menu. except that the x-axis is represented as a log scale. we press any key. Likewise.and y-axis respectively. grid. The command box toggles them.3. that is. except that the y-axis is represented as a log scale. we select MATLAB Command Window. and the x-axis as a linear scale. Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm. Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w.z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs. To return to the command window. whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x).y) command. We can make the above. and we select Figure 1. % Replaces the plot(w. or from the Window pull-down menu. and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm. If the y-axis represents power. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot.y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes. * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot. The grid off command removes the grid.

we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’). It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. The command text(x.2. and we press <enter>. using the mouse. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A.3. we can move the cross-hair to the position where we want our label to begin. The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’). Then. and this will place a cross-hair in the Figure window. A-14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window. The first line of the script below has the form linspace(first_value. An alternate function is * With the latest MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 (Student Editions 13 and 14).y. We will illustrate its use with the following example which plots a 3-phase sinusoidal waveform. we add the relation dB=20*log10(v). we can add text. and string is the label which we want to place at that location. For instance. last_value. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y-axis.dB). and we replace the semilogx(w.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure A.z) command with semilogx(w. number_of_values) This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points. and displays a cross-hair that can be moved around with the mouse.

4. box on. text(4.6 0. Three-phase waveforms In our previous examples.02: 2)*pi instead.6 -0. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A.95.65.02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0. can be added with the plot(x. and colors. u=sin(x+2*pi/3). and colors for our plots. we did not specify line styles. MATLAB has no Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-15 . plot symbols.65.2 0 -0. 'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A. 2*pi.4 -0. 60). % The x-axis must be specified for each function % turn grid and axes box on text(0. text(2.y. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)'). 0. These. or a combination of these. 0. grid on.x.v).4. % we could have used x=0:0.2 -0.4 0. However. plot(x.Using MATLAB to Make Plots x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points.s) command. 1 0. The script for the 3-phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0. markers. 0.y. % pi is a built-in function in MATLAB.8 -1 sin(x) sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A. 'sin(x)'). y=sin(x).x. v=sin(x+4*pi/3).85. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types.75.65.u.2.8 0.

y1. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white Symbol Marker point circle x-mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash-dot line dashed line . The general format is plot3(x1.y.x3.3) A-16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . These strings are the same as those of the two-dimensional plots.z2. The plot3(x.. y and z. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen. and sn are strings specifying color. TABLE A. there is no default marker.x2.s1. but does not draw any line because no line was selected.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.y3. they are drawn on two axes.y. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line.'rs') plots a red square at each data point. o x + * s d − : −. colors. The plots we have discussed thus far are two-dimensional. and plot(x.. we can select the line color.11 Plot the function z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A.z) command plots a line in 3-space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x.) where xn.z1.s2. or line style. MATLAB has also a three-dimensional (three-axes) capability and this is discussed next. we must type plot(x. But with the latest MATLAB versions. and other options directly from the Figure Window. that is.y2.. The default line is the solid line. no markers are drawn unless they are selected. Example A. where x.'rs−'). marker symbol.s3. plot(x.y. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A.y.2 Styles.2 for each additional line in the plot. yn and zn are vectors or matrices.z3. Also. line width.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® default color. y and z are three vectors of the same length. −− ∨ ∧ < > p h For example.

*x. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication. we can set the limits of the x. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-17 . For three-dimensional plots.y. y= x. or on the same line without first executing the plot command.z) commands. in a three-dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot. The three-dimensional text(x.and y-axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.y. grid on and box off are the default states.*y. It must be placed after the plot(x.5: 10. 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A. plot3(x. x= −10: 0. division. These important operations will be explained in Section A.y) or plot3(x. dot division. * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication.z. z= −2.’string’) command will place string beginning at the co-ordinate (x.5. Three dimensional plot for Example A.z).^3+x+3. This must be done for each plot. Likewise.y.z) on the plot.8.11 In a two-dimensional plot. grid % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three-dimensional plot is shown in Figure A.y.^2−1.5.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Solution: We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the script below.

/ 3. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication. and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y. The plots of Figure A. The MATLAB User’s manual contains more examples. H. volume (cubic meters)'). title('Volume of Right Circular Cone'). In this case. and dot exponentiation. that is. mesh(R.πr h 3 (A. say z = f ( x. dot division.* H) . % Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h V=(pi . To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables.* R . zlabel('z-axis. A-18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . V = f ( r. and y corresponds to the rows. [R.z) command with two vector arguments.5 and A.12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 V = -.Y]=meshgrid(x. We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X. n ] = size ( Z ) .H]=meshgrid(0: 4. y ( i ).y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x. we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y.6. We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z.6 are rudimentary. h ) The three-dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB script where.4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 ≤ r ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ h ≤ 6 meters. box on The three-dimensional plot of Figure A. Z ( i. the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples { x ( j ). ylabel('y-axis. as in the previous example.^ 2 . Example A. 0: 6). y ) .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® We can also use the mesh(x. V) xlabel('x-axis. shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased. j ) } . These must be defined as length ( x ) = n and length ( y ) = m where [ m.y. This will be explained in Section A. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated three-dimensional plots. altitude h (meters)').8. radius r (meters)'). Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h.

6. A. The possible combinations are shown in Figure A.p). This command divides the window into an m × n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active. No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m. altitude h (meters) 0 x-axis.Subplots V olume of Right Circular Cone 120 z-axis. n and p.n.7. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-19 .8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m. radius r (meters) Figure A.n. We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m.p) command following the discussion on multiplication. Volume of a right circular cone.7. 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 Default 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A. volume (cubic meters) 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 y-axis. division and exponentiation that follows.

11] or as b=[−1 3 6 11]' MATLAB produces the same display with either format as shown below. is to write it first as a row vector. An easier way to construct a column vector.9 Multiplication.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A. division. consisted of one row and multiple columns. MATLAB uses the single quotation character (′) to transpose a vector. and thus are called row vectors. 6. 3. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials. and exponentiation. 6. They are explained in the following paragraphs. division. it is called a column vector. and the element-by-element multiplication. 11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[−1 3 6 11]' % Observe the single quotation character (‘) b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element-by-Element multiplication. Thus. a column vector can be written either as b=[−1. These are the matrix multiplication. In Section A. division. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons. b=[−1. Division and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. If an array has one column and multiple rows. 3. To distinguish between row and column vectors. the arrays [ a b c … ] . and exponentiation. and then transpose it into a column vector. We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces. A-20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and exponentiation.2.

It recognizes that B is a row vector. Then. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. A=[1 2 3 4 5]. Accordingly. if A = [1 2 3 4 5] and B = [ – 2 6 – 3 8 7 ]' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. This operator is defined below. A*B % Observe transpose operator (‘) ans = 68 Now.Multiplication. not a row vector. Division and Exponentiation 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-21 . and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*). and we attempt to perform a row-by-row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. that is. Here. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = [ a1 a2 a3 … an ] and B = [ b 1 b 2 b 3 … b n ]' be two vectors. Here. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. A*B % No transpose operator (‘) here When these statements are executed. We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. as indicated by the transpose operator (′). A∗ B = 1 × ( – 2 ) + 2 × 6 + 3 × ( – 3 ) + 4 × 8 + 5 × 7 = 68 and this is verified with MATLAB as A=[1 2 3 4 5]. is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*). A*B = [ a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + … + a n b n ] = sin gle value (A. multiplication of the row vector A by the column vector B .5) For example. MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector. B=[−2 6 −3 8 7]. B=[ −2 6 −3 8 7]'. MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree.

Thus.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 2. C. Note: A dot (. C. There is no space between the dot and the multiplication symbol. are used for matrix division and exponentiation. D=[−2 6 −3 8 7].) is never required with the plus (+) and minus (−) operators.*).11 and A. A-22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . as the elements of C and D.∗ D = [ c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 … cn dn ] (A. Here. C. as illustrated in Examples A.^) are used for element-byelement division and exponentiation. division.) and the multiplication. Element-by-Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = [ c1 c2 c3 … cn ] and D = [ d1 d2 d3 … dn ] be two row vectors.6) This product is another row vector with the same number of elements./) and dot exponentiation (.12. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators. let C = [1 2 3 4 5] and D = [ –2 6 –3 8 7 ] Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result. whereas dot division (.∗ D = 1 × ( – 2 ) 2 × 6 3 × ( – 3 ) 4 × 8 5 × 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5]. and exponentiation operators.*D % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication ans = -2 12 -9 32 35 Similarly. As an example. multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (. We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (.

* sin(2 .5 4 4. ylabel('y=f(t)').5 1 1.13') The plot for this example is shown in Figure A.* exp(−4 .* t) . Solution: The MATLAB script for this example is as follows: t=0: 0. grid./ (t+1).7) in the 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 seconds interval. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression.* cos(5 . Division and Exponentiation Example A.* t) .13 Write the MATLAB script that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f ( t ) = 3e –4 t cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 2 (A. plot(t. is divided by zero Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-23 . MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero.5 t 3 3. title('Plot for Example A. in this example. say as – 3 ≤ t ≤ 3 .5 2 2.13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0.5 5 Figure A.* exp(−3 .^2 .* t)−2 .8.8 Plot for E xample A.01: 5 % Define t-axis in 0. xlabel('t').Multiplication. Plot for Example A.13 Had we.01 increments y=3 .y). defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 .* t) + t .

y). title('y=(sinx)^2').2*pi.3]). subplot(223). This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin. plot(x. Solution: The MATLAB script to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0. The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication. subplot(222). z=(cos(x). title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2'). xmax. the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.9. which is a number approximately equal to 2.w). ymin and ymax.z). To avoid division by zero. y=(sin(x).^ 2). % upper right of four subplots % Interval with 100 data points % add eps to avoid division by zero % upper left of four subplots % lower left of four subplots % lower right of four subplots These subplots are shown in Figure A. v = sin 2x ⁄ cos 2x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π using 100 data points. axis([0 2*pi 0 400]). w=y./ (z+eps).Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® when t = – 1 .2 × 10 – 16 . plot(x. title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2').100). There are no commas between these four arguments. the eps number. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). It will be used with the next example. title('z=(cosx)^2'). w = sin 2x ⋅ cos 2x. Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph. A-24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . division.* z. and exponentiation. subplot(221).v). subplot(224). and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots. v=y.^ 2). z = cos 2x. we use the special MATLAB function eps. Example A.14 Plot the functions y = sin 2x. axis([0 2*pi 0 0. plot(x. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). plot(x.

Multiplication. the abs(z).25 0.6 0.1 0. where r is the magnitude.15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A.9. Division and Exponentiation 1 y=(sinx)2 1 z=(cosx)2 0.4 0.8 0. We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy.10.2 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 400 2 4 6 w=(sinx)2 *(cosx)2 v=(sinx)2/(cosx)2 0.8 0. the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency ω can be computed from the following expression: Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-25 .10. and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r ∠θ. theta is the angle in radians.r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer.15 200 0.1 H 10 µF Figure A.2 0. We will also use the polar(theta.14 The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers.15 With the given values of resistance. and capacitance.6 0.05 100 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 2 4 6 Figure A. a 10 Ω Z ab b 10 Ω 0. inductance. Subplots for the functions of Example A. Electric circuit for Example A.4 0.2 300 0. Example A.

Example A. are denoted as z . Plot Re { Z } (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω. and flexible MATLAB is. % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z). It also produces a polar plot (part c).13 respectively. % Define interval with one radian interval z=(10+(10 . xlabel('radian frequency w'). fast. A. and A. Plot Im { Z } (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω.* 10 . a A-26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier theta=angle(z).10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files. % The last six statements (next six lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z). ylabel('Real part of Z'). Thus./ (w+eps)) .rndz). plot(w. Solution: The MATLAB script below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab which. A.15 clearly illustrates how powerful.1ω – 10 ⁄ ω ) 4 6 (A.8) a. accurate. Both types are referred to as m-files since both require the . and polar plots are shown in Figures A. make up a script file.1 . the script for each of the examples we discussed earlier. c.^ 6 .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 10 – j ( 10 ⁄ ω ) Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j ( 0./ (w+eps)))).12.* w −10. % Computes |Z| rndz=round(abs(z)). w=0: 1: 2000. and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b). Generally. % Angle is the first argument grid. grid. for simplicity. The real.^5. % % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z).m extension.11. b.* (0. A script file consists of two or more built-in functions such as those we have discussed thus far. plot(w.real_part).imag_part). grid. ylabel('Polar Plot of Z'). imaginary. Plot the impedance Z versus frequency ω in polar coordinates.^ 4 −j . % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z polar(theta. ylabel('Imaginary part of Z')./ (10 + j . xlabel('radian frequency w').

15 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A.12. 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A.11.Script and Function Files script file is one which was generated and saved as an m-file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A.15 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-27 .

but since a maximum of f ( x ) is equal to a minimum of A-28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the function file consisting of the two lines below function y = myfunction(x) y=x. that is. but the file name must have the extension .x1. MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction. For example. and the input argument enclosed in parentheses. followed by the output argument. we will use the following MATLAB functions: of a real-valued function of a single real variable. and returns that value.13. there is no fmax(f. The string f contains the name of the function to be minifzero(f. or returns NaN if the search fails.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 90 120 1015 60 812 609 150 406 30 Polar Plot of Z 203 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A.2. Note: MATLAB does not have a function to maximize a function of one variable.x) tries to find a zero of a function of one variable.x1.15 A function file is a user-defined function using MATLAB.m For the next example.x2) function in MATLAB. We use function files for repetitive tasks.^ 3 + cos(3. the equal sign ( = ). The first line of a function file must contain the word function. fmin(f. Polar plot of the impedance in Example A. such as those in Examples A.1 and A. It attempts to return a value of x where f ( x ) is minimum in the interval x 1 < x < x 2 . The function name and file name must be the same.m.x2) minimizes a function of one variable. where f is a string containing the name mized. Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only.

5 Figure A.+ --------------------------------------. Note: NaN (Not-a-Number) is not a function.5 0 0.04 (A. The Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-29 . ∞ ⁄ ∞ . maxima and minima of the function 1 1 f ( x ) = --------------------------------------. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1. fplot(fcn. Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y-axis limits.y).16 Find the zeros.^ 2 + 0.14.01) −1./ ((x−1.5 -1 -0.2 and x = 0.16 using the plot command The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0. and minima using the following script. maxima. or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph.Script and Function Files – f ( x ) .5 1 1. Example A. plot(x.2).9) Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros.5: 0. x=−1. which we mentioned earlier./ ((x−0.1 ) + 0.– 10 2 2 ( x – 0. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 ⁄ 0 . Plot for Example A.14.^ 2 + 0.3 . grid The plot is shown in Figure A. we can use fmin(f.04) −10. y=1.01 ( x – 1.x2) to find both minimum and maximum values of a function.5. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number.1).x1.lims) plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x-axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax].01: 1.2 ) + 0. The string fcn must be the name of an m-file function or a string with variable x .

5 1.y) command. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A. Plot for Example A. and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® maximum occurs at approximately x = 0. Next. y max = 90 . y min = – 34 .04)−10. 0. As expected. grid This plot is shown in Figure A. approximately. fprintf(' and r2= %3. x1). The script below must be saved with a file name.5 0 0.4f \n'.x) function to compute the roots of f ( x ) in Equation (A.lims) command to plot f ( x ) as follows: fplot('funczero01'.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f.1)^2+0. we define and save f(x) as the funczero01.15.1 where. Now.3). and then invoked with that file name. fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3.01)−1/((x−1.4f'.5 Figure A. we can use the fplot(fcn.5]). 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.15. x2= fzero('funczero01'.2)^2+0.14 that was obtained with the plot(x.m function m-file with the following script: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x−0. x2) MATLAB displays the following: A-30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . x1= fzero('funczero01'.5 1 1.5 -1 -0.2 where. approximately.2).9) more precisely. −0. [−1.

this is equivalent to the negative of the funczero01 function.04) −10 y = -34.1) ^ 2 + 0. For this example. We have placed the minus (−) sign in front of the right side of the last expression above.01)−1/((x−1.3788 Whenever we use the fmin(f.2012.2000 * Local maxima or local minima. we must first define a new function m-file that will produce – f ( x ) . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-31 . therefore.Script and Function Files The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0.01) −1 / ((x−1.0999 x=0.0999. Of course.04) −10 y = 89. are the maximum or minimum values of a function within a restricted range of values in the independent variable.01) −1 / ((x−1. To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x. the maxima and minima are considered be to the maximum and minimum values in the entire range in which the function is defined. The minimum of f(x) is found with the fmin(f. that is.1919 and r2= 0.y) or the fplot(fcn. we must remember that this function searches for a minimum and it may display the values of local minima* .2) ^ 2 + 0.x2) function as follows: min_val=fmin('funczero01'.1) ^ 2 + 0. x=1. we specify the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.1) max_val = 0. 0. we substitute it into f ( x ) .1812 To find the maximum value.x1.lims) command to find the smallest possible interval within which the function minimum lies. We define it as follows: function y=minusfunczero01(x) % It is used to find maximum value from -f(x) y=−(1/((x−0.5 rather than the interval – 1.2)^2+0.1)^2+0.5 . % Using this value find the corresponding value of y y=1 / ((x−0. so that the maximum value will be displayed.x1. It is.5 ≤ x ≤ 1. 1.2) ^ 2 + 0. 0. before displaying the function minimum.x2) function.04)−10). advisable to plot the function with either the plot(x. When the entire range is considered.5) min_val = 1.2012 This is the value of x at which y = f ( x ) is minimum. we execute the following script to get the value of x where the maximum y = f ( x ) occurs. Now. if any. y=1 / ((x−0. max_val=fmin('minusfunczero01'.

FORMAT LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits. FORMAT LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. FORMAT + The symbols +. FORMAT SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A. FORMAT HEX Hexadecimal format. MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision.and blank are printed for positive. format short 33. or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number. Same as SHORT. FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents. Imaginary parts are ignored. Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. The available formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format. FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in. FORMAT RAT Approximation by ratio of small integers. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT Default. negative and zero elements.11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number. The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations. The output format can changed with the format command. FORMAT LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits. Some examples with different format displays age given below. . FORMAT SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits.3335 Four decimal digits (default) A-32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . FORMAT SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits.

* This outstanding software package consists of many applications known as Toolboxes. If X is a string. and if %e is used.33 two decimal digits format + only + or − or zero are printed format rat 100/3 rational approximation The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name.Display Formats format long 33. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format. if %f is used.array) command displays and prints both text and arrays. the text is displayed. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed. as add-ons. ISBN 0-9709511-1-6.33333333333334 16 digits format short e 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-33 . The fprintf(format. please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Spreadsheets. With this command only the real part of each parameter is processed. * For more MATLAB applications. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format.. The MATLAB Student Version contains just a few of these Toolboxes. Inc.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent format short g 33. Others can be bought from The MathWorks.333 Better of format short or format short e format bank 33. Thus. This appendix is just an introduction to MATLAB.

denoted as t r . we will investigate the types of responses which are obtained with a step voltage input if the circuit is improperly adjusted.Appendix B Compensated Attenuators T his appendix begins with a simple resistive attenuator which may be used to reduce the amplitude of a signal waveform. We will examine the conditions under which it is possible to ensure no distortion even if shunt capacitances are taken into consideration. It is an indication of how fast a circuit can respond to a discontinuity in voltage. is defined as the time it takes the voltage to rise from 10% to 90% of its final value. This is explained below.1(a) represents an unavoidable condition since the output of the resistive attenuator in most cases if followed by the input capacitance of a stage of amplification. Using Thevenin’s theorem. in most cases.1 Uncompensated Attenuator Let us consider the simple resistor combination of Figure B. Actual and equivalent circuit for an uncompensated attenuator The presence of the stray capacitance C 2 in Figure B.1RC . R1 R R2 (a) C2 v in v out av in C2 (b) v out Figure B. we can replace the circuit of (a) with that of (b) where R represents the parallel combination of R 1 and R 2 and a in av in is the attenuation factor.1. be unacceptable. The rise time. The rise time t r is the difference between these two values and in terms of the RC time constant τ it is given by Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-1 . In an RC network the time required for the output voltage v out to reach 10% of its final value is 0. We could make both R 1 and R 2 very large so that the input impedance of the attenuator would be large enough to prevent loading down the input signal but his may produce a large rise time which would. B.3RC . Also.1(a). and the time required for the output voltage v out to reach 90% of its final value is 2.

C1 R1 C1 C2 (b) v in v in R1 R2 (a) C2 x R2 y v out v out Figure B.Compensated Attenuators 2.5 µ sec This is a very large rise time for a practical application and thus it is unacceptable. it is practical to make capacitor C 1 variable and the final adjustment for perfect compensation may be made experimentally with the testing of a square-wave.1(b) will be t r = 2.2(a) is shown as in Figure B. Figure B. With these values the rise time for the circuit of Figure B. B-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .35 t r = 2.2(a).2RC = 2.2 Compensated Attenuator We can make an uncompensated attenuator a compensated attenuator. meaning that its attenuation will once again become independent of frequency by placing a capacitor C 1 in parallel with resistor R 1 as shown in Figure B. It was stated above that we could make the input impedance of the attenuator large enough to prevent loading of the input signal. The bridge will be balanced if R1 C1 = R2 C2 (B.2(b) to form the four arms of a bridge. we form an attenuator with R 1 = R 2 = 1 MΩ and the input capacitance of a stage amplification is C 2 = 15 pF .5 × 10 × 15 × 10 6 – 12 = 16.2RC = ---------.2) and under this condition there will be no current flow in the branch connecting point x to point y .3 shows the appearances of the output signal when the input is a step voltage of amplitude V if the compensation is not precise.2τ = 2. In Figure B. Because relation (B.2 0.2τ = 2.2. A compensated attenuator and its equivalent drawn as a bridge The circuit of Figure B.3(a) the circuit is overcompensated and in Figure B.= --------2πf c fc (B. for example.3(b) is undercompensated.2) must hold precisely. If.1) where f c is the 3-dB frequency given by f c = 1 ⁄ 2πRC .2 × 0. B. so when computing the output voltage v out this branch may be omitted and the output will be equal to avin and independent of frequency.

Overcompensation and undercompensation responses of an attenuator to a step input Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-3 . amplitude V Output v out Perfect compensation Step input.3.Compensated Attenuator Step input. amplitude V Perfect compensation Output v out v out ( 0+ ) v out ( ∞ ) = aV v out ( 0+ ) v out ( ∞ ) = aV (a) (b) Figure B.

Appendix C The Substitution. or it may consist of a resistance of 3 Ω and a voltage source of 3 V of opposite polarity as shown in Figure C.1° V 24 V 2Ω y (a) v xy = 6 V i xy = 3 A y y (c) 3V y (d) 3V y (e) (b) Figure C. Other substitutions are possible also.1(a) we find by series-parallel resistance combinations that v xy = 6 V and i xy = 3 A . The current in the branch will be 3 A as before. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-1 . and Miller’s Theorems T his appendix discusses three additional theorems that are especially useful in the simplification of circuits containing dependent sources. 2Ω 4Ω 2Ω x x 3A 6V x 1Ω x 3Ω x XC = 8 ⁄ 3 Ω V' = 10 ∠53. C. Reduction. ISBN 0-9709511-2-4.1(c).1(b) and the rest of the network will be unaffected. In the * For a detailed discussion of Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems and the superposition principle please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. The most common use of this theorem is to replace an impedance by a voltage or current source.1 The Substitution Theorem The substitution theorem states that if the voltage across a branch with nodes x and y of a network is v xy and the current through this branch is i xy . the substitute branch may consist of a resistance of 1 Ω and a voltage source of 3 V as shown in Figure C. a different branch may be substituted in its place in the network provided that the voltage across the substitute branch is also v xy and the current through it is also i xy . or vice versa. According to the substitution theorem. For instance. In our previous studies* we discussed the superposition principle and Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems.1(d).1.1. The substitution theorem can best illustrated with the simple circuit and the substitute branches shown in Figure C. the 2 Ω resistor across terminals x and y can be replaced with a source with a 6 V source as shown in Figure C. Illustration of the substitution theorem For the simple resistor circuit of Figure C.

the bridge network shown in Figure C.3) The 12 equations of (C. and Miller’s Theorems The voltage source in Figure C. V ab = Z ab I ab + V S V cb = Z cb I cb V ac = Z ac I ac V cd = Z cd I cd V ad = Z ad I ad V db = Z db I db (C.The Substitution.2) and (C.2. Operation of the whole network of B branches is defined by 2B simultaneous equations.1) With the value X C = 8 ⁄ 3 Ω . Reduction. Consider.1° as shown in Figure C. C-2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . V xy = – jX C I xy + V' (C.1(e).1(e). and the last three from KVL. for example.2) If we assume that the source voltage V S and six impedances are known constants. a ZS VS c Z3 b Z5 Z1 Z2 d Z4 Figure C. Network for proof of the substitution theorem The network of Figure C. the value of the AC voltage source V' necessary to satisfy the substitution theorem must be such V xy = 6 V and I xy = 3 A and by substitution of these values into relation (C. I ab + I ac + I ad = 0 V ab + V ac + V cb = 0 I ca + I cd + I cb = 0 V ac + V cd + V da = 0 I da + I dc + I db = 0 V cb + V bd + V dc = 0 (C. we can substitute the 2 Ω resistor across terminals x and y with a branch that has capacitive reactance in series with a source V' as shown in Figure C. These are shown below. For this branch.2 has six branches and by application of Ohm’s law.2.1) we get 6 = – j ( 8 ⁄ 3 ) 3 + V' from which V' = 6 + j8 = 10 ∠53. it becomes apparent that we have 6 equations with 12 unknowns. Proof of the substitution theorem is based on the branch equations of the network.1(a) could be DC or AC.3) can now be solved simultaneously for the 12 unknowns. If it is an AC source. We can obtain 3 additional equations by application of KCL. and thus we need 6 more equations to solve for all voltages and currents in each branch.

(2B − 1) of the equations will remain the same but equation (C. let us assume a substitute branch that has some different value of impedance Z' ab . the voltage across this branch is V ab and the current is I ab . and all these voltages and currents simultaneously satisfy the 2B equations of the network. However.and voltage controlled dependent sources.4) that is. Application of the substitution theorem in current. Other branch voltages in the network are V bc . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-3 . Next. Thus.5) is satisfied by the same values of voltage and current that satisfied equation (C.3. which was to be proved. I cd .4(a).3(a) can be any network having the terminal current i . and so on. as before. The network of Figure C. and currents are I bc .5) will have replaced equation (C. and some different voltage source V' S . Consider for example the current-controlled voltage source and the voltage-controlled current source shown in Figure C. In this case the voltage-controlled current source Gv .4).3(b) shows the conditions under which the dual form can be applied.4).3. Let us now suppose that the branch for which substitution is to be made contains an impedance and a source and the equation for this branch is V ab = Z ab I ab + V S (C. let us consider the equivalent circuit of some amplifier shown in Figure C. Figure C. since equation (C. if the number of branches is B. V cd . Rest of the network (a) i Ri Rest of the network (b) v Gv Figure C. and Ri is the voltage of a current-controlled voltage source. and so on. but with Z' ab and V' S so related that the same values of V ab and I ab that satisfied equation (C. As another example. Voltages and currents of all branches of the network will therefore be the same as before substitution. which is connected across the voltage v .4) will also satisfy the new branch equation V ab = Z' ab I ab + V' S (C. The substitution theorem is especially useful in the simplification of circuits containing dependent sources. the number of unknowns is 2B. including equation (C. it follows that the whole group of simultaneous equations will be satisfied by the same voltages and currents as before.4). operation of the altered network will be defined by 2B equations.The Substitution Theorem From the foregoing discussion we conclude that it is possible to write as many equations as there are unknowns.5) When this substitution is made.

Illustration of the voltage source absorption theorem As shown in Figure C.6. Example C. the voltage source Zi can be replaced by an impedance Z .5.4(b).4. and Miller’s Theorems µ R2 i µv in R3 R1 R2 µv in R3 R1 v in i (a) R4 v out v in ( 1 + µ ) R2 (b) R4 v out Figure C.1 to be simplified Application of the voltage source absorption theorem yields the simplified branch shown in Figure C.6.7(c) below.4(a). the voltage source absorption and the current source absorption theorems.5. Branch for Example C. the voltage source absorption states that if in a branch of the network in which the current through it is i . Application of the substitution theorem in an amplifier equivalent circuit. the currents and voltages are not changed if the dependent source µ R 2 i is replaced by a resistance µ R 2 . The voltage source absorption theorem is illustrated in Figure C. Reduction. A special case of the substitution theorem is the source absorption theorem* and has two dual forms. A i aZi Z B Solution: Figure C. * This theorem is analogous to the absorption theorem in Boolean algebra which states that A = ( A + B ) = AB C-4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i Zi (a) i Z (b) Figure C.The Substitution.5. In Figure C. and the simplified equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure C.1 Use the voltage source absorption theorem to simplify the branch AB shown in Figure C.

9.9.2 to be simplified Application of the current source absorption theorem yields the simplified branch shown in Figure C. a Y v AB A Y (a) B A aY Y (b) B A ( a + 1 )Y B (c) Figure C.8.7.8. Steps for simplification of the branch for Example C.2 Use the current source absorption theorem to simplify the parallel combination shown in Figure C. Illustration of the current source absorption theorem As shown in Figure C. A Yv B A Y B v = v AB (a) v = v AB (b) Figure C. Example C. a Y v AB A B Y Solution: Figure C. Steps for simplification of the parallel combination of Example C.10(c) below. Branch for Example C.The Substitution Theorem i A aZi Z (a) B A i ( a + 1 )Z Z (b) aZ i B A (c) B Figure C. the current source absorption states that if in a branch of the network in which the voltage across it is v .2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-5 . the current source Yv can be replaced by an admittance Y .10.8.1 The current source absorption theorem is illustrated in Figure C.

inductance. inductances. positive or negative. reciprocal capacitances.11. Proof of the reduction theorem is based on the form of the loop equations. and voltage source in Network N 1 is multiplied by 1 + A or 2. after the transformation described above is completed. The theorem states that all currents in N 1 and N 2 remain unchanged if the source Av 1 is replaced with a short circuit and if: 1. reciprocal capacitances. The two networks and the voltage source are connected in series so that the voltages v 1 and Av 1 are additive with respect to the loop that they form. all resistances. reciprocal capacitance. By the same reasoning process. and all currents in N 1 and N 2 remain unchanged. and if Av 1 is replaced with a short circuit. Reduction. Obviously. if all resistances. reciprocal capacitance.11(a) is any linear two-terminal network having the terminal voltage v 1 . and Miller’s Theorems C. inductances. Thus. inductance. Each resistance. and voltage sources in the composite network N 1 - C-6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and all the loop currents remain unchanged. and voltage sources are multiplied by the same arbitrary factor. and N 2 is any other linear two-terminal network. Each resistance. The constant A of the voltage-controlled voltage source Av 1 is any real number.11. and voltage source in Network N 2 is divided by 1 + A . All voltages in N 1 are multiplied by the factor 1 + A . Any current sources in N 1 and N 2 are left unchanged in the reduction process.2 The Reduction Theorem The reduction theorem is essentially an extension of the substitution theorem. i1 Rest of the network N 1 ( 1 + A ) i1 Rest of the network N 2 v1 A v1 Rest of the ( 1 + A ) v 1 network N 2 (a) Rest of the network N 1 A i1 (b) Figure C. Network configurations that can be simplified by the reduction theorem The reduction theorem applies to the network configurations shown in Figure C. The network N 1 in Figure C.11. then the voltage applied to N 2 is still ( 1 + A )v 1 . This theorem applies to network configurations such as those shown in Figure C.The Substitution. then every term in the set of loop equations is multiplied by the same factor. if all the parameters and voltage sources in N 1 are multiplied by 1 + A as specified in Part 1 of the theorem. but the voltages in N 2 are not changed.

reciprocal inductances. and current sources in N 1 are multiplied by 1 + A or 2.12. Figure C. capacitances. and b. It states that all voltages in the network of Figure C. The terminal voltage (or current) of the network identified as Network N 1 must be the controlling quantity for the source to be eliminated.11(b) remain unchanged if the current source Ai 1 is replaced with an open circuit and if: 1. No current may enter or leave either network through any terminal other than the two terminals by which the networks and controlled source are joined in series (or parallel). In applying the reduction theorem it is essential that the two networks N 1 and N 2 be properly identified before application of this theorem. The dual form of the reduction theorem is applicable to the network configuration shown in Figure C. It should be noted that connections joining separate parts of a network carry no current and can therefore be ignored in respect to item b.12.The Reduction Theorem N 2 can be divided by the factor 1 + A without changing any of the currents in N 1 . the constant of the controlled source may be expressed as a complex number.N 2 . Typical cascode amplifier with BJTs Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-7 .11(b). reciprocal inductances. Thus. the reduction theorem holds in this case also. capacitances. A useful application of the reduction theorem is provided by the cascode amplifier shown in Figure C. When all currents and voltages in the network are sinusoidal and of the same frequency. All conductances. Part 2 of the theorem is proved. All conductances. The two necessary requirements are: a. and current sources in N 2 are divided by 1 + A Proof of the dual form of the theorem follows from nodal equations and is dual to the proof outlined above.

hence the circuit can be simplified by applying the substitution theorem to obtain the equivalent circuit shown in Figure C. To illustrate an application of the reduction theorem. and Miller’s Theorems Figure C. let us consider the the incremental model of some cascode amplifier shown in Figure C.13(b). All the conditions of the reduction theorem are satisfied by this circuit. a cascode amplifier may use MOSFETs of CMOS devices. hence applying Part 1 of the voltage-source form of the theorem yields the reduced network shown in Figure C.The Substitution. in N 1 and N 2 . connected in series with the controlled source µv 3 . Of course. C-8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .14(a) provides another illustration of the use of the reduction theorem in circuit analysis. in preparation for the reduction theorem. Incremental model of a cascode amplifier and simplification by application of the reduction theorem From the circuit of Figure C. This circuit has been separated into two networks. Reduction. The emitter follower shown in Figure C.13(a) we observe that v g1 = v in + R 2 i .13. µv g1 v g1 v in R1 R2 R3 v3 v g2 (a) µv g2 R3 i v out µv in v in R1 ( 1 + µ )R 2 R3 v3 µv 3 ( 1 + µ ) v3 R3 R4 v out Network 1 Network 2 (b) R3 ( 1 + µ ) v3 R4 µ ( 1 + µ ) v in v in ( 1 + µ )R 3 R1 ( 1 + µ ) R2 2 v out (c) Figure C.13(c).12 shows a partial circuit of a cascode amplifier where a common-base bipolar transistor sits on top of a common-emitter bipolar transistor.13.

the circuit of Figure C. The current amplification of the circuit is accounted for by the fact that the input signal current is multiplied by the factor k in the reduced circuit. by k is equivalent to multiplying the corresponding conductances by this factor.14(c).14(c). If Part 2 of the theorem is applied instead of Part 1.14(c) that the forward voltage transmittance of the emitter follower is less than unity.14(b) shows an incremental model for the circuit that is valid in the range of frequencies where the coupling capacitors act as short circuits and where the performance of the transistor is independent of frequency. and r n . Application of Part 1 of the current-source form of the theorem yields the reduced circuit shown in Figure C. Thus. Dividing the resistances R S .The Reduction Theorem ( 1 + β )i b ib rn v out iS RS R1 v in C1 RA C2 V CC v in i in iS RS RB R3 (a) R2 βi b (b) ro R3 Network 2 R 2 i out v out i out Network 1 v in ki in RS ki b rn --k (c) v in ro R3 R 2 i out v out iS i in RS R1 ib rn i outv out kr o k R 3 k R 2 ------k ki S ----k 1 ----k R (d) Figure C. It is clear from Figure C.14. and it provides current and power amplification but no voltage amplification. For large values of β the output resistance of the emitter follower is very large. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-9 . Figure C. in practice k is essentially equal β . Simplification of the emitter follower by application of the reduction theorem As we know from Chapter 3. For simplicity. and for large values of β the output resistance of the emitter follower is very small. and the circuit is separated into two networks in preparation for the reduction theorem. R 1 . The hybrid representation for the transistor is used with µ = 0 . this circuit is convenient for studying relations at the input terminals since the input voltage and current are unmodified. the principal properties of the emitter follower are that it provides a relatively low output resistance. it is capable of providing a relatively high input impedance. the factor 1 + β is denoted as k in Figure C.14(d) is obtained.14(c). The resistance R 1 represents the parallel combination of resistors R A and R B . application of the reduction theorem yields the simplified circuit of Figure C.

8) and (C. Thus. Y2 = Y ( 1 – 1 ⁄ K ) (C.11) and (C.3 Miller’s Theorem Miller’s theorem states that under certain conditions. we observe that i 1 = Y ( v A – v B ) = Y ( v 1 – v 2 ) = Y ( v 1 – Kv 1 ) = Yv 1 ( 1 – K ) (C.12) For equivalence. relations (C.9) must be equal. i1 A Y i2 B A i1 Y1 i2 B v1 (a) v2 = K v1 v1 Y2 v2 = K v1 (b) Figure C.12) must be equal. i2 = Y2 v2 (C.15. while Miller’s theorem can be applied to find the C-10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7) v 2 = Kv 1 At Node A of Figure C.15(b). relations (C.The Substitution. once established.15(b). we observe that i 2 = – i 1 = – Y ( v 1 – v 2 ) = Y ( v 2 – v 1 ) = Y ( v 2 – v 2 ⁄ K ) = Yv 2 ( 1 – 1 ⁄ K ) (C.6) or (C. the networks of Figures C. it cannot be changed.11) and at Node B of Figure C.15(a) and C. and Miller’s Theorems C. Thus. we get. i1 = Y1 v1 (C. that is. K = v2 ⁄ v1 (C. Y1 = Y ( 1 – K ) (C.13) We should remember that for the equivalent circuit of Figure C.15. Thus.15(b) are equivalent. Illustration for Miller’s theorem In the networks of Figure C. Reduction.15(b) the value of the gain K . the constant K denotes the voltage gain from Node A to Node B.10) At Node B of Figure C.15(a). to be established below.9) For equivalence. we get.8) and at Node A of Figure C.15(a).

the networks of Figures C. we get.Miller’s Theorem input impedance.16(b). we observe that v 1 = Z ( i 1 + i 2 ) = Z ( i 1 + αi 1 ) = Zi 1 ( 1 + α ) (C.19) and (C. that is.21) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-11 . Z2 = Z ( 1 + 1 ⁄ α ) (C.17) For equivalence. Thus. relations (C.17) must be equal. Z1 = Z ( 1 + α ) (C.19) and at Node B of Figure C.16. Miller’s dual theorem states that under certain conditions. Illustration for Miller’s dual theorem In the networks of Figure C.16(a). to be established below. v1 = Z1 i1 (C. i1 i 2 = αi 1 Z A i1 v1 Z1 i 2 = αi 1 B Z2 A B v1 v2 v2 (a) (b) Figure C.16. we get.15) i 2 = αi 1 At Node A of Figure C. v 2 = Z 2 i 2 = Z 2 αi 1 (C.18) At Node B of Figure C. it should not be used to determine the output impedance of an amplifier since when determining the output impedance the input signal voltage v S is normally set to zero volts. we observe that v 2 = v 1 = Zi 1 ( 1 + α ) (C.16) and (C.20) must be equal.20) For equivalence.16(a) and C. α = i2 ⁄ i1 (C.16(a). the constant α denotes the current gain from Node A to Node B.14) or (C.16) and at Node A of Figure C.16(b). relations (C. Thus.16(b) are equivalent.

it is given that R 1 = 100R 2 . Make any reasonable assumptions.17. let us consider the amplifier of the circuit in Figure C.3 For the circuit of Figure C.18 shows the equivalent circuit after application of Miller’s theorem where using relation (C. C-12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Use Miller’s theorem to replace this circuit with an equivalent circuit where resistor R 1 is being replaced with another resistor in parallel with resistor R S . This effect is very pronounced in amplifier circuits where the input capacitance caused by negative feedback from output to the input causes a significant increase in capacitance. Miller equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure C.17 Being familiar with Miller’s theorem helps us in better understanding the so-called Miller effect. Reduction.18. and Miller’s Theorems Example C. Circuit for Example C.3 Solution: Since R 1 » R 2 it is reasonable to assume that practically all the current of the current source flows through resistor R 2 and thus the output voltage is v out = – g m v 1 R 2 = Kv 1 from which K = – gm R2 Figure C.19.17. As an illustration.10) we get R' 1 = R 1 ⁄ ( 1 – K ) = R 1 ⁄ ( 1 + g m R 2 ) v1 RS R' 1 R2 v out iS gm v1 Figure C.The Substitution. v1 RS R1 R2 v out iS gm v1 Figure C.

the current i is v in – v out v in + Kv in v in ( 1 + K ) i = ------------------.19.= -----------------------.22) Relation (C.22) indicates that the input voltage v in sees an increase in capacitance by a factor of Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-13 . Amplifier to illustrate the Miller effect Assuming a sinusoidal input.= ------------------------1 ⁄ jωC f 1 ⁄ jωC f 1 ⁄ jωC f and the input admittance is i Y in = -----.= jωC f ( 1 + K ) v in Cf ( 1 + K ) . (C.Miller’s Theorem Cf i vS RS i v in K v out = – K v in Figure C.

motorola.J. Mc-Graw-Hill Book Co. Angelo. ISBN 0-75067291-9 2. ISBN 0-1379676-3-2 7. Fairchild Semiconductor. General Electric.References and Suggestions for Further Study A. Jr. MECL Device Data. SCR Manual. Texas Instruments TTL Data Book. Electronic Circuits.pdf B. Motorola. http://www. ISBN 0-19-511663-1 4. ISBN 0-0713842-1-9 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications R-1 . Manufacturers Data Books and Sheets 1. Texas Instruments. http://www.com/ 3. http://www.com/ 2.fairchildsemi. General Electric. Electronics.ti. Rectifiers and Zener Diodes Data Book. E. ISBN 9-9991969-7-7 6.com/ds/LM/LM555. Computer & Communications. National Semiconductor. Motorola. http://www. http://www. Standard Handbook of Electronic Engineering. Transistor Manual. 3.com/home/ 4.com/en/ 5. Reference Data for Engineers Radio. Microelectronic Circuits. Texts and Handbooks 1.ge. Fairchild TTL Data Book. LM 555 Timer.national. Oxford University Press.

6-17. 5-8 region in bipolar transistors 3-78 MOSFETs 4-9 UJTs 4-23 D D/A converter 5-53 DAC with with binary-weighted resistors 5-53 buffered output and gain 5-56 Darlington connection 3-59 data bus 6-38 points in MATLAB A-14 sheets from manufacturers 6-20 dB defined 1-4 decade defined 1-7 decibel defined 1-4 deconv(c. 6-2 complementary MOS 4-19 complex conjugate A-4 numbers in MATLAB A-3 conduction angle in SCR 4-26 conv(a.b) MATLAB function A-6 coupling capacitor 8-21 covalent bonding 2-1 critical frequency 5-8 crossover distortion 3-35 crystal controlled Pierce oscillator 10-10 oscillator 10-8 current amplifier 1-18 mirror 4-19 source absorption C-4 cutoff frequency 1-5. 10-2 depletion region 2-4 mode 4-7 diac 4-23 differential circuit 6-24 gain 5-41 input amplifier 5-1 integrator 5-76 op amp 5-39 differentiator 5-35 digital-to-analog converter 5-53 diode detector 9-2 ideal characteristics of 2-6 display formats in MATLAB A-32 doping 3 dot multiplication operator in MATLAB A-22 drain 4-1 driver gate 6-18 dual-slope ADC 5-60 E Early voltage 3-11 Ebers-Moll transistor model 3-80 ECL circuit 6-24.Index % (percent) symbol in MATLAB A-2 555 Timer 7-2 A A/D conversion 5-56 abs(z) MATLAB function A-25 accuracy defined 5-62 active filter 5-8 mode 3-4 pull-up 6-18 region 3-78 ADC 5-56 Advanced Low-Power Schottky devices 6-41 alternating waveform 1-2 amount of feedback 10-2 amplifier defined 1-3 amplitude-modulated signal 9-2 analog computers 5-63 analog-to-digital converter 5-56 AND gate 6-1 angle(z) MATLAB function A-25 anode 2-6 Armstrong oscillator 10-6 astable multivibrator 7-1 attenuation factor 7-13 attenuator 1-4 avalanche 2-8 average value defined 1-1 averaging op amp 5-37 axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) MATLAB command A-17 B backward diode 2-44 band-elimination filter 5-10 bandpass amplifier 9-4 filter 5-10.d) MATLAB function A-6 default settings in MATLAB A-13. 6-35 Butterworth configuration 9-28 C cascaded tuned amplifiers 9-14 cascode amplifier C-7 cathode 2-6 cesium oscillators 10-8 Class A Amplifier 3-31 AB Amplifier 3-35 B Amplifier 3-34 C Amplifier 3-37 D amplifier 3-38 E amplifier 3-38 clc MATAB command A-2 clear MATLAB command A-2 closed loop gain 5-27 transfer function 5-30 CMOS defined 4-19 Inverter 6-33 Logic Gates 6-32 NAND Gate 6-34 NOR Gate 6-35 transmission gate 6-37 CMRR 5-41 Colpitts oscillator 10-7 column vector A-20 command window in MATLAB A-1 commas in MATLAB A-9 comment line in MATLAB A-2 common base current gain 3-5 collector current gain 3-5 emitter gain 3-4 common mode gain 5-41 rejection ratio 5-41 comparator 5-25. A-16 degenerative feedback 5-25. 6-26 editor window in MATLAB A-2 editor/debugger in MATLAB A-1 effect of temperature 3-10 effective value defined 1-2 IN-1 .w) MATLAB function 1-13 bodemag(sys.w) MATLAB function 1-13 bound electrons 2-2 box MATLAB command A-13 buffer amplifier 5-15. 5-50 compensated attenuator B-2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor 4-19. 9-1 band-rejection filter 5-10 band-stop filter 5-10 bandwidth defined 1-5 Barkhausen criterion 10-4 barrier 2-5 base spreading resistance 3-45 basic differentiator circuit 5-35 beta cutoff frequency 3-58 BiCMOS devices 6-41 bistable multivibrator 7-18 bode(sys.

3-40 load resistance 5-24 log(x) MATLAB function A-13 log10(x) MATLAB function A-13 log2(x) MATLAB function A-13 loglog(x.x2) MATLAB function A-28 format command A-32 forward-biased diode 2-5 Foster-Seely discriminator 2-35 Fourier series 8-1.x) MATLAB function A-28 IN-2 G gallium arsenide 3-2 gate 4-1 gate turn-off SCR 4-25 grid MATLAB command A-13 gtext(‘string’) MATLAB command A-14 GTO SCR 4-25 H half power defined 1-5.x1. 9-3 four-layer diode 4-38 fplot(fcn. A-26 microelectronics 1-1 Miller effect 8-11.lims) MATLAB function A-29 free electron defined 2-2 movement 2-2 frequency fundamental 8-1 response 1-6 spectrum 8-1. 6-26 diffusion resistance 3-45 enhancement-mode MOSFET 4-7 envelope detector 9-2 eps in MATLAB A-24.y) in MATLAB A-18 metal oxide semiconductor defined 4-1 FET 4-6. 4-21 m-file in MATLAB A-2. nv) MATLAB MATLAB command A-14 load line 2-11.electromagnetic interference 4-26 element-by-element division in MATLAB A-22 exponentiation in MATLAB A-22 multiplication in MATLAB A-20 EMI 4-26 emitter coupled logic 6-2. 6-1 integrator 5-31 internal frequency compensation 5-45 inverse active mode 6-5 inverter 6-2 inverting mode 5-2 summing amplifier 5-37 J JFET 4-1 junction recombination 2-4 L laser diode 2-47 LC Oscillators 10-5 leading edge defined 7-15 light-emitting diode 2-46 lims = MATLAB function A-29 line driver 6-35 linear factor A-9 linearity 5-62 linspace(fv. 6-24. 5-9 frequency 8-6.x1. 9-10 points 1-5 half-wave rectifier defined 2-19 with limited negative output 5-50 positive output 5-49 hard limiter 2-30 harmonics 9-3 Hartley oscillator 10-7 h-equivalent circuit 3-61 hex buffers 6-36 high frequency amplifier 8-9 models for transistors 3-55 level defined 6-2 pass filter 1-23. 9-4 full-wave rectifier 2-22 function file in MATLAB A-26 fundamental frequency 8-1 fzero(f. 6-13 resistance 5-22 instrumentation amplifiers 5-42 insulated-gate FET 4-6 integrated circuits 1-1.z) in MATLAB A-18 meshgrid(x.y. 5-8 lower sidebands 9-4 M magnitude response 1-6 majority carriers 2-4 marginally stable 1-12 matrix multiplication in MATLAB A-20 maximum average forward current 2-8 surge current 2-8 MESFET 4-21 mesh(x. 4-7 imag(z) MATLAB function A-25 improper rational function 1-11 impurity atoms 2-3 incremental conductance 2-17 linear models 3-49 resistance 2-17 increments between points in MATLAB A-15 input clamp voltage 6-3.x2) MATLAB function A-28 fmin(f. lv. C-12 Miller integrator 5-31 Miller’s theorem C-10 minority carriers 2-4 modulation defined 9-1 index in an AM system 9-3 monostable multivibrator 7-15 MOSFET 4-1.y) MATLAB command A-13 lossless coupling network 9-13 low frequency amplifier 8-5 level defined 6-2 pass filter 1-6. 4-7 mutual inductance 10-7 . A-29 equivalence gate 6-16 equivalent circuits of op amps 5-13 transistors 3-7 error detector circuit 4-26 exclusive NOR gate 6-16 OR gate 6-15 exit MATLAB command A-2 expand(s) MATLAB function 1-14 external frequency compensation 5-45 F false condition in logic circuits 6-1 fan-in defined 6-17 fan-out defined 6-17 FET 4-1 field-effect transistor 4-1 figure window in MATLAB A-14 firing angle in SCR 4-26 first harmonic 8-1 order all-pass filter 5-96 fixed bias in transistors 3-21 flip-flops 7-19 flash converter 5-56 flat-staggered amplifier 9-22 flip-flop 7-18 fmax(f. 5-9 High-Z output of tri-state devices 6-37 hole defined 2-2 movement 2-2 h-parameter equivalent circuit 3-61 hybrid incremental network model 3-50 I ideal characteristics for diode 2-6 IGFET 4-6.

9-22 pentode region 4-9 period defined 1-2 periodic signals 8-1 time function 1-2 phase modulated signal 9-2 response 1-6 shift oscillator 10-4 shifter 5-95 photocell 2-48 photodiode 2-47 phototransistor 2-48 piecewise-linear analysis 3-44 Pierce oscillator 10-10 pinch-off 4-3. 5-24 overcompensated attenuator B-2 overstaggered amplifier 9-22 P passive filter 5-8 pull-up 6-18 peak forward current 2-8 inverse voltage 4-25 point in UJT 4-23 rectifier 2-28. 4-7. 4-8 PIV 4-27 plot(x. A-20 rubidium oscillators 10-8 S sampling defined 5-61 theorem 5-62 saturation defined 4-9 current 2-54 region 3-78 Schmitt trigger 7-30 Schottky diode 2-42.y.y.y) MATLAB command A-13 series-fed tuned-collector 10-7 Shockley diode 4-38 signal defined 1-1 silicon controlled rectifier 4-24 single ended output amplifier 5-1 sideband 9-5 slope converter 5-59 tuned transistor amplifier 9-8 sinking current 6-18 sinusoidal oscillators 10-1 slew rate 5-45 slope converter 5-59 SN7400 Quad 2-input NAND gate 6-10 SN7402 Quad 2-input NOR gate 6-14 SN7404 Hex Inverter 6-3 SN7407 hex buffer 6-36 SN7408 Quad 2-input AND gate 6-6 SN74121 Device 7-15 SN74125 device 6-37 SN7417 hex buffer 6-36 SN7432 Quad 2-input OR gate 6-9 SN7486 Quad XOR gate 6-16 SN7486 XOR gate 6-16 solar cell 2-48. 5-28 stable system 1-12 stagger-tuned amplifiers 9-19 IN-3 . 2-58 source absorption theorem C-4 in JFET 4-1 sourcing current 6-18 stability in systems 1-12. 6-39 SCR 4-24 script file in MATLAB A-26 second harmonic 8-1 self-bias 3-25 transistor 3-25 flip-flop 7-22 semicolons in MATLAB A-9 semilogx(x.N NaN in MATLAB A-28 NAND gate 6-10 narrowband approximations 9-15 signals 9-4 natural log in MATLAB A-13 negative feedback 10-2 logic 6-2 resistance 2-44 voltage limiter 5-47 NMOS Inverter 6-31 Logic Gates 6-28 NAND Gate 6-31 NOR Gate 6-32 non-inverting averaging 5-38 op amp mode 5-5.y) MATLAB command A-11 plot(x.z) MATLAB command A-16 PMOS device 6-30 PNP transistor 3-1 PNPN diode 4-38 polar plot in MATLAB A-26 polar(theta.x) MATLAB function A-6 positive feedback 10-2 logic 6-2 voltage limiter 5-48 programmable UJT 4-23 proper rational function 1-11 P-type semiconductor 2-3 pulsating DC voltage 2-24 Q quadratic factors A-9 region 4-9 quality factor 9-10 quantization defined 5-61 error 5-62 quartz crystal 10-8 quiescent voltages and currents 3-19 quit MATLAB command A-2 R R-2R ladder network 5-54 rational function 8-29 polynomials A-8 RC Oscillator 10-4 real(z) MATLAB function A-25 recombination 2-2 reduction theorem C-6 regenerative feedback 10-2 relaxation oscillators 10-1 resistive network 5-57 resolution defined 5-62 reverse-biased 2-5 rise time defined B-1 RMS value defined 1-2 roots(p) MATLAB function A-3 round(n) MATLAB function A-25 row vector in MATLAB A-3. 9-2 reverse voltage 2-8 peak-to-valley ratio 2-44.y) MATLAB command A-13 semilogy(x. 8-29 poly(r) MATLAB function A-5 polyder(p) MATLAB function A-6 polyval(p.s) MATLAB command A-15 plot3(x.r) MATLAB function A-25 poles of a function 1-11.y. 5-13 summing amplifier 5-38 NOR gate 6-13 norator 5-27 NOT gate 6-1 NPN transistor 3-1 N-type semiconductor 2-3 nullor 5-27 Nyquist rate 5-62 O octave defined 1-7 offset null 5-44 op amp 5-1 open collector configuration 6-18 loop defined 5-25 gain 5-27 operational amplifier 5-1 optical coupler 2-49 optoelectronic devices 2-46 optoisolator 2-49 OR gate 6-1 output conductance 4-12 resistance 3-11.'rs') MATLAB command A-16 plot(x.

4-11 transistor construction 3-1 networks 3-61 Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) 6-2 transition time 7-28 transresistance 1-19.n. 6-30 thyristor 4-24 tickler coil 10-6 title(‘string’) MATLAB command A-13 totem-pole configuration 6-11 trailing edge 7-15 transconductance 1-19. 4-2.y. 5-29 triac 4-37 triode region 4-9 triple-point bandwidth 9-22 frequencies 9-22 tri-stated buffers 6-37 true condition in logic circuits 6-1 tuned amplifier 9-1 tunnel diode 2-43 resistor 2-58 U uncompensated attenuator 7-28.string in MATLAB A-17 subplot(m. B-1 undercompensated attenuator B-2 understaggered amplifier 9-22 unijunction transistor 4-22 unipolar transistor 4-2 unit load 6-18 step function 5-33 unity gain amplifier 5-8. 8-29 . 4-4. 5-15 gain frequency 5-26 unstable system 1-13 unsymmetrical triggering 7-29 upper sidebands 9-4 IN-4 V varactor 2-45 varicap 2-45 VCVS 5-13 virtual ground in op amps 5-12 voltage amplifier 1-16 controlled voltage source 5-13 doubler 2-33 follower 5-15 gain 4-17 quadrupler 2-34 source absorption C-4 tripler 2-34 W Wien bridge oscillator 5-50 X xlabel(‘string’) MATLAB command A-13 XNOR gate 6-16 XOR gate 6-15 Y ylabel(‘string’) MATLAB command A-13 Z Zener diodes 2-36 region 2-8 zeros of a function 1-12. 1-24.p) MATLAB command A-19 substitution theorem C-1 successive approximation ADC 5-58 summing amplifier circuit 5-17 symmetrical triggering 7-29 synchronously-tuned amplifiers 9-15 T tank circuit 10-1 T-equivalent circuit 3-61 text(x.’string’) MATLAB command A-14 thermal voltage 2-7 third harmonic 8-1 threshold voltage 4-7. 1-23. 3-54.

by eroui331