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Ken Hultgren


Construction, Action Analysis.Caricature

\Nith 759 Illustrations


Tips on O(Qwing Animals
Mood end Feeling
The Use of Line 11
Action Ancly!is IS
Brush Technique 17
The Horse Family 19
The Deer family 48
The Cat Family 57
COws and 8ulls 77
Giraffes. 82
Comels 84
Gorillas 86
Pigs 89
Dogs 92
Foxes 101
KongO(005 10'
Rabbits 108
Squirrels 111
elephants 112
The 'Bear family 119
Composition in Animol Grouping 128 Ir il well to divide the body into three part,_Forequorter,!, beny, ond reOf quorlerL Since thi,i,o noturol division, it oid. in ochiev;ng prope, propo,tion. Draw in dorsa! ,tripe (line of venebrae). Thil help. 10 centar the animal


Alway. indicota .hletonbonel, thue • will holdrhe,kerch together. Once you ore fomilior with the relative uae el the voriou.bones,drowingbecomeseo,ier

Beorohova 0 tendancyto ba pigeon. toed. The powlofrha cotlamilyspr~od outsllghtly .

. MOllhoaFedonimol,oreslighrlyknock knead_more.o when they·,e young

~ivide th~ skull inlo three ports also,

e muzz e, the long part 01 th .

and the base of the skull, e nose,

Fasten ears onto the b k

For simplicity indo oc h of the heed. on oval. . rcote t e base with

Bear in mind that th

on th id I e eyes ore usually

, e s' e 0 the head. Draw gUide lines when constructing your

With bears, cots, and dogs th'e

are more forward, ,eyes

t' fff·--·:~' i···

/. \ Y ._ I I

, "

. -


When drawing c nirnojs, try 10 gel variety in leg positions. Note the addf!d interest in 0 sketch when th.e legs ore placed 01 different cnqles, ,In contrast with the stiff, stilted pose with the legs parallel.

II is well to keep these box forms in mind when working with ongle, shots. If in doubt about a pose, rough In y~ur box lightly, and check your perspective ..


Bejcre 00,,""'0"" lED SKElETO

o",mol.,i. ,. h.lpf,1 • 9 on individuol NS

concerning the slcelel~nn~!e some Foels

Once you have cc . In general. edge 01 the Pivolqu'r~d some knowl· a skeleton, your dPo'~ts or joints in more easily. rowing will come

legs are very I"

doubling up liable, capable f

on stretching out. 0


0, .h. lecp pose '\

.h. "b oog, ,10' below, '0," how \\

P"'"'' go tes " ° .'co"h,d ''\

;f' . ~


/~ "~~



A diagram such as the one above will prove helpful when you hove forms behind one another. Keep this in mind when drawing any animol in this position.

Every artist is an actor, in that he conveys 10 the observer the mood or attitude of his animal choraclers and must feel the situation before he con put it down on paper. If the mood is 0 ter-se one, such as Ihol of the deer

-. group, then you strive for 0 lout; tense mood in your characters. At such a time, animals drop lower on their hindquarters, prepared for a quick departure if the situation warrants. The ears and toil are perked up. The whites of the eyes are seldom visible in animals except when they are extremely tense and frightened in the deer sketch, the stretched necks 0150 help 10 convey tension.


In a very tired pose, like that of the horse, the effect requires as much droop as possible. Anirncls shift their weight from leg to leg when tired. Their heods hong low. Keeping the withers high accents that effect.

To ccnvev excitement, flaring the manes of the horses was helpful. The nostrils are wide, ears bock, and the whites of the eyes visible. The neck muscles are loul.

for ~~: best way to stage the c .

h dogs seemed to b owermg pose

ecds low, with their cttenti e to keep the rear qucrters are d Ion drown up. The between the legs. ropped, and the toils are

The lions below

co~tentmenl. like the~xdress 0 mood of lcz

~o::~ ,wi,h their loil,' in o,:'''"''d cousins, lioo: ese. The head of th faxe moods such on. the other cot's ba:k ort,her animal resting quiet peece. gIVes the scene a

Whotever the mood .

you start to work. It rna ,see It menially before

sev.eral rough poses \be necessary to sketch

which you feel. . elcre you find

~~e good test q~e,;~~~:o~o", The folio::::

I IS pose convey the ,ask .yourself: Will s my staging clearz ~eonlng In silhouette" pose stronger? . ow can I make thiS


Fig:. 3 is 0 good on I

weight in horizontol ~ie:~o to crecte

Fig. 2


Fig, 2

Fig. 3

Fig. 3

Fig. 4


. :i~~:I;:t'm~:~ne is else very good, -':,/

so necesso /'

tee opposition. Note beer' rt. contrast ~~

leg and the lin f h r s right reor [,

eo Ie stomach. 4


To creole more

the arc. movement, reverSe

/ »->: '\l, Ir-x_t/ \_

For rhythm and sweep In your drewings always establish a line of action. Some of the accepted lines are the.e

P,asically the line af action is the flow oFo graceFul line

The ned and toil are excelleot Fcr establishing this flow; either can be used in different ways. In these two poses, both are port of the line of ectico.

InlhiscoselheloiliSLJsedmonoccent Note leg leading into li;,e of c cncn

Accents are good, for they relieve the somen",ss of now al octian-like a touch of red on on cll-creen bock. groLJ"d



Feel weight, stress ond strain, oction and reaction

Arcs ore important in animation. There is always a pivot point, but even thai pivot point is movable, as below. ,

Arrows indicate the flow of action

The use of reverse action is good practice.

Note .the bunching up and elongating of forms, as in a rabbit taking off.

Overlapping oction is another irnp ortant factor in animation, where parts of the body lake different paths of action. Note legs.



like CI rubber boll which elongates in failing and squashes on impoct, so a living body will react in comparable circumstances. In his descent, the horse has thrown his head bock,

~. his strejcbed forelegs ore reoc~ing.l~ .prepore_ for the impact, cod his body elongales in his foU. The legs ore First to react.loking his weight at the first shock of his fall. His head pulls downward, and his whole body reverses as he storts his roll. The boll on the rebound elongates ogo;;"; olthoi/gh nol as' much as in the ';riginal fall, since it ,hos.lost some of its momentum. Similarly, the horse in this case regains more of his norma! shape as he slows down in the roll.


Brush and ink is on excellent medium for drawing cnimcls. Since the fur textures of cnimcls vary, your brush technique will vary also. To show the high sheen of a race horse, for example, t keep my brush' stroke thin, dose together, and even, leoving open crecs 10 suggest high lights.

Shagginess, which is a characteristic of some comeis, dogs, etc., may be conveyed by a dry_brush style. This is obtained by thinning cut your brush on scratch paper after

you have dipped it In ink, The desire here is to hove the tip of the brush not, with the thin edges of the hairs of the brush jusl wet enough 10 give a soft tone. The wetness of the brush and the pressure of the brush on the poper determine the tone value you will cchieve

Regordless of the technique, I clwovs hold my brush cs I would a pencil, using wrist oction for my brush strokes.

Here ore some proctice exercises for the two styles described



THE HORSE FAMILY- Bone Structure

Without knowledge of the principles 01 bone structure, it would be difficult 10 show cons+ruction, animation, or eerieetcre. Naturally the skeleton vor· ies with the conformation of each type of animal, but there is a basic similarity in the skeletons of all animals. Here is a simplified approach for the skeleton of a horse.

Starting with the spinal column, treat it, for the Joke of simplicity, like a rubber hose, tapering down to a point 01 the toil end

Next odd the verlebrae, simplified again. Note variety in shape. The two high poinls ore support for leg bones.

View showing shope of skull

Build on the rib cage (here the rib detoils ore omitted).

Now attach skull.

Next attach the sccpulc. Arrow points 10 socket for humerus bone.


Add humerus, elbow, and foreleg.

Finished leg.


For sketching purposes, you can think of it as simply as this.

Next step: odd the bock plate for rear legs. Note sockets for legs.

Perspective view of bock plote o"d socket.

Bone fits into socket.

With the building downward of the reor leg, the skeleton is completed



Note underlayer of mUlciesleodingt wovld be (I good tMarcile t drewin the skeleton overth" dra",i"~ since it would show deCl~Y wherl h musde5 WfOP around-various bon~


Thinking of the horse in separate units will help you to visualize the oni~ol es 0 solid, end to see the relative Size

...... ~f yorioys, R?rl~; :.". __ " ....

Note the position of the scopulc.

Filthe stomach under.



Th.~ .... nO eo.), _"Y 1<> i;.lock ,n '"

horse's head, since there are so many planes to consider. Once you are familiar with rhe skull, rhe fob will be relatively simple, especially since much of the 'bone slrucrure of the head is very pronounced.

Thinking of the head in two sections may help you. In the lower right-hond sketch, note how both the neck muscle and the bone behind the eye follow around the eor




A common mistake of b .

place the eye of th egmners is to

forward. When rou :. ho.rse 100 far check the divisions i mg In the head, .p:.~~.e.~ .per,S~!etive~ be sure it is in



like 0 lout rubber bond, the muscles elongote in stretched positions. In crouched positions, as in the first sketch, the muscles bunch up.

When the horse pushes off with his forefeet, not only do the legs stretch cut, but the whole forequarter section as well. The neck becomes longer, with a lot of tension on the under muscles connecting 10 his head.



Tendons else pr'ay on imporlont port.

There ore points to reme~b=~i;' d~:~~

jng uction p~ses, ~q~:f~re but are

been mentlo~~ hare,

worth repealing. T ey

51"'$$ ~nd s,roin6unching of form Elongating and


Action and r~OdjO~nin Ih!! imDoct hom Wllion' f8octlon. 0

a high foil.

Bo"incin.<,..h"'_,.,h ...... ;."'Q~<>dQ";d. in keeping your figure, in per$pe~li ... e. Without it, it's very eosy to miss.

Arcs in perspective, os shown below, ore worth putting in once you've determined the perspective of your figure. Your eye is 0 pretty good judge.



Animated step in perspective.

As 0 proctice exercise, give yourself o problem such os 0 horse pulling 0 hecvv lood forword. Get c s much drive in the pose cs possible. Then reverse your pose by having the horse pull ogainst the load, bockwards.



~j' """ '",

lo~." (, l~,~~


Right rear leg ond left foreleg pushing off, right foreleg toking weight

Note dip of reor 0$ legs pull through, right foreleg pulling body.

Back to beginning of cycle


'Feel" YOvr drowin $1 '

p, .... ch 10 II. 9 . G,ve plenty f renslon in rh~ "'jtched 'e9~, o"d 0

cv Is on mvsdes. PU,I

~~e i~~~r pose mer'ltcliy befor

. e rcvah-


These boxed·in drawings show the

d;fFe~enc::e in .ize end ",,,,,,f,,, • ..,,,!;on

between the draft and soddle types of hor~o.

The draft horse is mcssive in neck and shoulders. For show purposes, the legs are Feathered out.

Note width of rear.


Colis ore very long-legged in proportion to the body. Note boxed-in figures for compori$on. In drawing colis, keep in mind large joints on legs, small hoofs, slightly larger ears, short toil and mane, small muzzle, end slight dome of head.



Beeeuse he is young, there is on owk. word legginess to 0 colt's actions, os though he is never quite sure of his bolonce. Try to cectore thot ~eeling in

your poses.

Approoch, getting the attitude or pose and·plating pivot points

Feeling form - solidifying drowing.

Working in the detail of the forms.



When you hove your horses sketched in and you desire tone, block in your planes. Concentrate on basic planes first, and then work to the minor ones. When doing this, sketch in yovr lines, Following the contours of the body.

If the basic planes ore right, the lesser ones will not be difficult



b.,,,,ulHul 0"''''01 rr.; ... .,b ... , I:: :esign and markings. because of

. d end is higher in

thot the hin f the horse.

~r~;ortion thon thai 0


the zebra ore lorge, Chorocler;sli:~o:: head, and, as 0 rule,

round -bcc] h n the horse. . smaller ho~ s to.

II "\


b low was done p.vr~ The drawing e "d ccnst-ucnc

ccselv withou~ out:~ee stripes follow lines, 10 sh~7he ::imoL

the form 0

Note lorger stripes on reor.


On the dnJft horse, exoggerote chest and try 10 keep on 011. around short

To me, the zebra suggests cuteness and de c crotivene s s. The points of exoggerolion are: large ears, small muzzle, short body, large rear, rather smoll, tapering legs, and small feet. The end of the toil is full and bushy.

Note how small knees accent the fullness of feathering 01 the legs.

To suggest toll, sleek, oristocrotic thoroughbred, all proportions have been kept slim and tapering.

Nole Rare gillen to loil for a peacocklike impression.


~"IY"'rb", .. ", .h:" ...... 1.., I~~,.,e he .. "!, .. ",..I knock.knees with large hoofs.

The Trojan mane accents the thick neck of the droit horse. I slenderized hi' leg' to accentuate the fullness of the hoofs.

On the colt, I exaggerated the length of the legs, the shortness of the body, and the high crown and small muzzle.

The teeth have it in this one. Horses' teeth do protrude at nearly a .45° angle.


D_~·. f_c .. _ •• 1,_ .I.,.~ .I:~:':~A' _f .1,_


The leg is very thin between tendon ond leg bone.

! '


~~:r ~~I.,t~:: .~!et ~igh at the begin-

p nol .. o,,;s.

-, tr .. - ... ~ ,(\ £\~-~~,

,.. _. /.

__ l

- "

Slow. motion pic;tures reveal some very extreme positions, like the one cbove.




Work for rhythm - their bodies are full of it.


The bone structure of the ~Iog is nolurr.dly h~C1ViIH thM thM 6F ;htl ...lea Its neck is thicker, the muscles are

"",,,·e pronounced, ond ;. ;~ bcood"r

generally throughout th. body.

The cntlers vary in size and number of prongs, in accordance with the age and type of deer. They furnish a nice decorative occent to the drawing.

A few lines can suggest many forms

have a strong line of It is helpful,to 'from the rear leg to action, leading

the head,

~,""oIlY, 011 col> 0" 10 THE CAT FAMILY·

TI W In body, with I ng and ncr-

in;: ~'h;\:~-"~~ ::e~~o;,e~~ngb~:~~

Y In one graceful line.

To get rhythm'

flow of line on~n tyour cats, work for opering forms.

For the f~e!ing of rhythm, weave your forms together. /t no: only unifies YOu~ drawing but gives It movement an grace as. well.


.. ~ ~~r ir:

,...- .' -. . ... ' . ~ . -,.

Baby puma, spotted when young.

Particularly on the lion, the upper lid overhangs quite far, making a good visor for the eye.

Difference between noses:

lion Tiger



. less brood thon the male

The lioneu 15 ccelul.

and looks more gr


Head of lioness

If the grOllndwork ;s right, the drawing will be solid.


Lion Cub

Cute and· killen. like in oppearance, the lion cub is always [un. Note how body is broken up into three parts; the shoulders ond forefeet, the bodv, the hindquarters

~ ..


T" .. ~"'~$ ... p .... b .. ~k .. ~ ... tho ",,;.h e rs. On on adult lion, it olso grow. lome distance bock on the underside.

Becou,ehe'i,heovyond,olid,thelion appears ,obe shorter·bodiedthon



Body in push-off. Note 5tr~ng line of ccticn through the whole body. Forequarters drow close 10 body in forward thrust.

Forelegs arch up, preparing to kmd.

RighI foreleg tokes weight in landing_ left foreleg stretches lor ground Hindquarters pull through from stretch position.

Right hind leg stretches in landing, This pose would leod inlo a pose similar to number CIne if the tal were to jump ogoin.


The lines are shaded in, following the contours of the forms.

Work for brood planes at Hrst, See that your forms relote to eoch other. Dividing the head down the middle will help, since it,will give you a line

t ~L~~~~~:;:~nerb~e7;~:~tr:~,kee~ your ..



As in 011 boby onimols, the body is short, the foreheod lorge


I like to empho$ize the $Ie~kness and rhythm of the black panther - the

long, tapering leg. ond long body.

The open mouth at the left gives a comic effect. In this sketch, J mode the mouth brood at the top and narrow at the bottom to give variety of shcpe, and to emphasize the open, stretched position.

bove I emphcsiz ed In th~ comic ~Phee:d, m~ne, ond chest

the stze of ~I~in whiskers ore .exogerz: :~~ the tip of the tcil is full ~: ob'toin 0 Hore effect.


and BULLS -


Nature built th

lood. Note pr~;~: 10 c~rry a heavy

~h~:' structur is o:,;p,,01 ,olomo.

ughout the body. y prominent



1111 prolrudlng They're very onguIO;;e:, deal of bulk

bone areas and ~ basket-like drew, in the stomach. T e ests the monne~ in ing at the 10: SUhQ n s from the spinal


. of the loil full gives a Moking the lip

nice accent.



Here I hove emohasil"l!d the ne<::~ ond forequarter 'ecliol1 and dwarFed the size of the legs to give more bulk to the body. The length of the horns is exaggerated, and the tip of the tail

I. mode very full 10 serve as on accent.

For on incongruous effect, I hove used very thin legs on the choracters below.


The 9lratfe is very angular onimol, with a wide ;ow and 0 pointed, v.shcpe d nose. The upper lip is 5pii!, and the eyes protrude .omewhot from the side of the heed The hindquarter section is set low, in contrast to the high withers.


Paints of exaggeration; Spread horns

Long neck

Very angular Knock-knees

Split Ihi~ h at the shoulder Very 19

Very low in rear Flared toil

_ong split hoof



A come] has many dominont chcreerertsucs. lie is a very leggy animol with a deep chest. Tome, his most unusual feature is the very small area on which the hindquarters ore set. Unlike most animols, the angle of the eye is different from thot of the mouth. The eyes ore wide-set, and protrude from the head, somewhat like those of the giraffe.


The hump is 0 fotty subs+once ond is not attached to the b·ockbone.


Being caricatures in themselves, camels are comparotively eosy. I emphasize the following points: very smoll pelvic region where hind legs attach tc body, long lower lip, hump (occentuoted by making it wider at top.)


M",,;vecnd barrel. like body.

The cheekbones are very pronounced, the eyes deep and inset, the nostrils wide, and the forehead law.


For the comic type, J hove exaggerated the size of the chest and arms, in relation 10 the small Jegs. The points which I believe give this drawing 0 siUy appearance are: the long upper lip, brood mouth, small pointed crown, end long arms in ccmrcst tc short legs.

To convey the feeling of formidable power to this "menace" type, t hove' exaggerated his powerful ,shoulders end arms. The heod is buried right in the body, and the size of the mouth is exaggerated. The small crown helps to accentuate, by contrast, the mcssfveness of the body.



The bone structure is very similar to thot of its domestic cousin. The nose is longer; the ears ore more erect, end do nol hong like the domestic pig's.

There is hair funning from the forehead olmost 10 the middle of the bock.


From the bock the wart hog closely resembles the common pig.


Jowls and cll-crccnd beefiness ere good points of exaggeration, as well os smell eyes ond heavy, floppy eors. On the dowoger type cbcve, the top of the head is small 50 thot the curls will hove more flore. On the pig below the narrow' shoulders emphasize, by contrcsf the size of the stomach.

In "menace" wort hog type, note volume of chest and how head is buried right in the chest

In caricature, mcke use of controsting types as much as possible. Contrast establishes types more definitely,


Dogs 'lory in conformation and size, but are closely alike in mony respects. Below ore two simplified skeletons for two different types. They ore kept the some except for relative size of port. of the skeletons. Keep in mind the chorocler of the dog - for excmple, the long bock and shorl legs of 0 dachshund contrasted with the relative short squereness of on English bull.


The English bulldog is brood of chest with 0 flat nose and over-oil blun; features.

Note the bowlegs.


111 the greyhound ond whIppet br"ed~, the bone structure is very pronounced. They are extremely flexible in body.