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(Solution)

CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 40 Due Date: 26/08/2005

Q.1.

For the circuit shown in the figure below, all the resistors are given in Ohms; (a) Find the equivalent resistance seen by the supply (b) Find the power in the source and the 10 Ω resistor and state if it is delivered or absorbed. Draw the circuit diagram of each step otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

Q.2.

Determine i1, i2 , v1 and v2 in the network given below, calculate the power dissipated in the 2Ω resistance.

Sol. First, we will label the diagram

i1 = 28/14 = 2A V1 = i1 x 6 = 2 x 6 = 12V To find Va from Fig B We will apply voltage division rule Va = (V1 x 6) / 6+6 = 72 /12 = 6V To find Vb from Fig A We will apply voltage division rule Vb= (Va x 6) / 6+4 = 3.6V Hence V2 = (3.6 x 13)/ 13+2 = 3.12V So, i2 = 3.12/13 = 0.24A and P2i = (i2)2 (2) = 0.115 W

So,

Q.3.

Use nodal analysis to find voltage at each node also finds current IO as indicated in the given network. Identify and label each node otherwise you will lose your marks.

Sol. First, we will label the diagram

In the above network we found that there is a voltage between two non reference nodes, so we will consider it a super node, we will redraw the figure as Now Constrain Equation will be V1 – V2 = 10V KCL equation at Node V3 will be, (V3 – V2)/3Ω - 6 = 0 OR V3 - V2 = 18 (2) Now we will write the equation for super node, (V1)/6Ω +2 + V2/5Ω + (V2-V3)/3Ω = 0 OR 5V1+ 60 + 6V2+10V2 -10 V3 = 0 5V1 + 16V2 - 10V3 = - 60 (3) After solving equation (1) (2) and (3) simultaneously we have We have at V1 V1 = 16.36V , V2 = 6.36V and V3 = 24.36V I0 = 16.36 /6 I0 = 2.72A

(1)

------ Good Luck -----

**Assignment 2(Summer session 2005)
**

(Solution)

CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 30 Due Date: 11/09/2005

Q:1.

Use Mesh analysis to find currents through all Meshes also calculate the voltage VO across 6kΩ resistance and current IX in the following network. Draw the circuit diagram of each step otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol. First, we will label the diagram

From the figure it is clear that I2=IX For mesh 1: 3kI1 + 4k(I1-I2) - 3kIx = 0 3kI1 + 4kI1 – 4kI2 - 3kIx = 0 7kI1 – 7kI2 = 0 ------(1) For mesh 2: 6kI2 + 4k(I2-I1) – 12 = 0 10kI2 – 4kI1-12 = 0 10kI2 – 4kI1= 12 -----(2) Solving equation (1) and (2) simultaneously we have I2 = 2mA Where I2= Ix = 2mA Vo = 6kIx = 6 (2) = 12 Volts

Q.2.

Use Mesh analysis to find currents through each resistance in the following network. Draw the circuit diagram of each step otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol. First, we will label the diagram

I1

I2 I3

**From Mesh 3 I 3 = −4mA
**

For Mesh 1 6kI1 + 3k ( I1 − I 2 ) = 6 6kI1 + 3kI1 − 3kI 2 = 6 9kI1 − 3kI 2 = 6 − − − − − − − − − (1) For Mesh 2

**12kI 2 + 12k ( I 2 − I 3 ) + 3k ( I 2 − I1 ) = 0 12kI 2 + 12kI 2 − 12kI 3 + 3kI 2 − 3kI1 = 0 27kI 2 − 12(−4) − 3kI1 = 0 27kI 2 − 3kI1 = −48 − − − − − − − − − (2)
**

Multiply eq(2) by 3 and add in eq(1),we get;

**9kI1 − 3kI 2 = 6 −9kI1 + 81kI 2 = −144 78kI 2 = −138 I 2 = −1.76mA
**

Put the value of I2 in eq(1), we get;

**9kI1 − 3(−1.76) = 6 9kI1 = 6 + 3(−1.76) 9kI1 = 6 − 5.28 I1 = 0.08mA
**

Current through all resistences will be I 6 k Ω = 0.08 mA I 3k Ω = I1 − I 2 = 0.08 mA − (−1.76mA) = 1.84mA I12 k Ω = − 1.76mA I12 k Ω = I 2 − I 3 = −1.76 + 4 = 2.24mA

------ Good Luck -----

**Assignment 3(Summer session 2005)
**

(Solution)

CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301) MARKS: 80 Due Date: 28/09/2005

Q:1.

In the following network find Vout by Superposition. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step, otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of calculation to get maximum marks also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol. 88V voltage source act alone

From the above figure it is clear that 120Ω || 30 Ω and 60Ω || 30 Ω so,

To find the voltage across 20 Ω resistance we will use Voltage division rule, Va1= 88 x 20/(20+24) = 40V Now we can easily find out Vout1 by voltage divider rule, Vout1 = 2(Va1) 90/(90+10) = 2(40) x 90/100

Now 55V voltage source acts alone,

Vout1 = 72V

From the above figure it is clear that 120Ω || 60 Ω and 30Ω || 30 Ω so,

To find the voltage across 15 Ω resistance we will use Voltage division rule, Va2= -55 x 15/(15+40) = -15V Now we can easily find out Vout2 by voltage divider rule, Vout2 = 2(Va2) 90/(90+10) = 2(-15) x 90/100 Vout2 = -27V Vout = Vout1 +Vout2 = 72 - 27 Vout = 45Volts

Q:2.

Transform the following network to a single voltage source. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step, otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of calculation to get maximum marks also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

From the above figure it is clear that 3Ω|| 6Ω

Q.3.

Find the Vo in the network below using Thevenin’s Theorem. Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step, otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of calculation to get maximum marks also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

First step: Removing R to calculate V L th

Second step: Calculating V

th

by Nodal analysis

V1-V3/2k = 4mA + 2mA therefore V1-V3 = 12 ------------- (1) At node 2 V2/1k + V2-V3/1k + 4mA=0 2V2 –V3=-4 ---------------- (2) At node 3 V3-V2/1k + V3-V1/2k+ V3-Vx/1k =1mA 5V3 -2V2-V1-2Vx=2 ----------------- (3) At node x Vx-V3/1k + 2 mA =0 Vx –V3 = -2 ------------ (4) Writing equitation 3 in terms of V3 and Vx we have from (1) and (2) 5V3 +4-V3-V3-12-2Vx = 2 3V3 -2Vx = 10 Putting value of V3 from (4) 3Vx +6-2Vx=10 Vx =4V so Voc= Vx =4V Third step : Calculating Rth by open circuiting the current source and short circuiting the voltage source

At node 1

Rth =3KΩ Fourth Step : Calculating unknown quantity. After calculating V and R , re-inserting the load resistance R in th th L the circuit in series with R and considering the V as a battery in series with th th these two resistances

Vo =2k (4V) / 2k+3K Vo =8/5V= 1.6V Ans

Q.4.

Calculate the current Io by using Norton’s theorem .Draw and label the circuit diagram of each step. Otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of calculation to get maximum marks also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

First step: Replacing R with a short circuit to find I L N.

Second Step:

I2= 4mA ----- (a) From Mesh I 4k(I1-IN) + 2k (I1-I2) – 2 = 0 6kI -4kI -2kI =2 1 N 2 Putting the value of I 2 6kI -4kI -2k(4mA) = 2 1 N 6kI -4kI = 10 ----- (1) 1 N From Mesh 3 6k(I -I )+ 4k(I -I )=0 N 2 N 1 -4kI +10kI – 6k I2 =0 1 N Putting the value of I2 -4kI +10kI = 24 --------(2) 1 N Solving equations for loops 1 and 2 6kI -4kI =10 1 N -6kI +15kI = 36 1 N 11kI =46 N I = 4.18 mA N Third Step: To calculate RN we will short circuit all voltage sources and open the current sources.

From Mesh II

2k is parallel to 4k Hence = 1.33Kohm

1.33 and 6k are in series Hence =7.33 kohm

Fourth step

After calculating I and R , re-inserting the load resistance R in the circuit in N N L parallel R and considering the I current source parallel with these two N N resistances.

I = (7.33m) (4.18k) / (3+7.33)k) o I =2.966mA o

Q.5.

A germanium junction diode with n=2 has V=0.3 volts at I =1mA. Find the voltage drop at i = 0.1mA, i=5mA. And i = 10mA

Sol.

v –v = nV ln(i /i ) 2 1 T 2 1 v = 0.3 V 1 i = 1mA 1

and n =2 For

thus v = 0.3 +2 V ln(i ) 2 T 2

i = 0.1mA 2 VT= 25 mV=0.025 volts v = 0.3 + (2) (0.025) ln(0.1) 2 v = .184 volts 2 For i = 5mA 2 v = 0.3 + (2) (0.025) ln(5) 2 v = 0.380volts 2 i =10mA 2 v = 0.3 + (2) (0.025) ln(10) 2 v = 0.3 + (2) (0.025)(2.30) 2 v = 0.415volts 2

For

------ Good Luck -----

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