Overview of Pressure Vessel Design

to AS 1210

Version 3 - June 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. GENERAL 2

2.1 Main Pressure Vessel Components 2

2.1.1 Shell 2

2.1.2 Dished End 6

2.1 .3 Nozzle 7

2.1 .4 Support 7

2.2 Scope of AS 1210 9

2.2.1 AS 1210 9

2.2.2 AS 1210 Supplement 1 11

2.2.3 Differences in "Design by Rule" and "Design by Analysis" 12

3. MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 15

3.1 Material Selection Factors 15

3.1.1 Strength 15

3.1.2 Corrosion Resistance 15

3.1 .3 Resistance to Hydrogen Attack 16

3.1.4 Fracture Toughness 16

3.1.5 Fabricability 17

3.2 Maximum Allowable Stress 17

3.2.1 Basis of Design Tensile Strength 17

3.2.2 AS121 0 Design Tensile Strength Tables 20

4. DESIGN 21

4.1 Design Conditions and Loadings 21

4.1.1 Pressure 21

4.1 .2 Temperature 22

4.1 .3 Other Load ings 24

4.2 Weld Joint Efficiency and Corrosion Allowance 24

4.2.1 Weld Joint Efficiency 24

4.2.2 Corrosion Allowance 26

4.3 Design for Internal Pressure 27

4.3.1 Cylindrical and Spherical Shells 29

4.3.2 Dished Ends 29

4.3.3 Conical Ends and Reducers 32

4.3.4 Unstayed Flat Ends and Covers 33

4.3.5 Vessels of Non-circular Cross-section 36

4.4 Design for External Pressure and Compressive Stresses 40

4.4.1 Overview 40

4.4.2 Shells 41

4.4.3 Dished Ends 41

4.4.4 Conical Ends and Reducers 42

4.5 Reinforcement of Openings 46

4.6 Connections and Branches 50

4.7 Inspection Openings 51

4.8 Flange Rating 55

4.9 Flange Design 56

4.9.1 AS 1210 Flange Design Procedure 58

4.9.2 Parameters That Affect Flange Design and In-Service Performance 60

4.9.3 Optimum Selection of Bolts and Flange Dimensions 64

4.9.4. Analysis of Flange Joints under External Loads 67

4.10 Flange Installation Bolt Load, Torque and Procedure 67

4.10.1 Background 67

4.10.2 Bolting Guidelines 68

4.10.3 Calculation of Installation Bolt Load and Torque 69

4.10.4 Flange Bolting Procedure 71

4.11 Flange Bolts, Nuts and Gaskets 72

4.11.1 Bolt and Nut Materials 72

4.11 .2 Bolt Lengths 73

4.11.3 Gaskets 75

5. OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 92

5.1 Vessel Support 92

5.2 Combined Loading 93

5.3 Local Loads 94

5.4 Vessel Internals 94

5.4.1 Types of Internals 94

5.4.2 Treatment of Corrosion Allowance 95

5.5 Hazard Levels 95

5.6 Design Procedure 96

6. FABRICATION 98

6.1 Acceptable Welding Details 98

6.1.1 Thickness Transitions 98

6.1 .2 Openings 98

6.1.3 Stiffener Rings 98

6.2 Welding of Pressure Vessels 98

6.2.1 The C ircu mstances of Weldi ng 99

6.2.2 Code Requirements 99

6.2.3 The Economy of Welding 99

6.2.4 Examination of Welded Joints 99

6.2.5 Welding Symbols 99

6.3 Postweld Heat Treatment Requirements 100

7. INSPECTION AND TESTING 101

7.1 Inspection 101

7.1.1 Radiographic Examination (RT) 103

7.1.2 Visual Examination (VT) 103

7.1.3 Penetrant Examination (PT) 103

7.1.4 Magnetic Particle Examination (MT) 103

7.1.5 Ultrasonic Examination (UT) 103

7.1.6 Australian NDE Standards 104

7.2 Pressure Testing 105

8. AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS 106

APPENDIX A. BOLT DATA 107

A.1 Metric Bolts 107

A.1.1 Dimensions 107

A.1.2 Room Temperature Mechanical Properties 107

A.1.3 High Tensile Washers (Sampson) 108

A.2 Unified Stud Bolts 108

A.2.1 Dimensions 108

A.2.2 Room Temperature Mechanical Properties 109

A.2.3 Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties (Diarneter s 21/2,,) 109

A.2.4 High Tensile Washers (Sampson) 109

APPENDIX B. GASKET DATA 110

B.1 Klinger 110

B.2 Garlock 112

B.3 Kempchen 113

B.4 Ucar 113

APPENDIX C. PIPE DATA 114

C.1 ANSI B16.10 Pipe Schedules 114

1. INTRODUCTION

The mechanical design of most pressure vessels is done in accordance with the requirements contained in AS 1210 - "Pressure vessels". These notes provide an overview of pressure vessel mechanical design requirements. They discuss several factors related to pressure vessel design that AS 1210 does not cover. The following summarizes the main sections of the notes:

• General

Main Pressure Vessel Components Scope of AS 121 0

• Materials of Construction Material Selection Factors Maximum Allowable Stress

• Design

Design Conditions and Loadings

- Weld Joint Efficiency and Corrosion Allowance Design for Internal Pressure

Design for External Pressure and Compressive Stresses Reinforcement of Openings

Connections and Branches

Inspection Openings

Flange Rating

Flange Design

Flange Installation Bolt Load and Torque Flange Bolts, Nuts and Gaskets

• Other Design Considerations Vessel Support Combined Loading Local Loads

Vessel Internals

Hazard Levels

Design Procedure

• Fabrication

- Acceptable Welding Details

- Welding of Pressure Vessels

Postweld Heat Treatment Requirements

• Inspection and Testing Inspection Pressure Testing

• Australian Standards for Pressure Vessels

2. GENERAL

This section describes the various components of pressure vessels. It also describes the scope of AS 1210 and AS 1210 Supplement 1.

2.1 MAIN PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS

Pressure vessels are containers for fluids that are subject to either internal or external pressure. They are used in a wide variety of industries (e.g., petroleum refining, chemical, power, pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, food, beverage, etc.)

2.1.1 Shell

The shell is the primary component that contains the pressure. Pressure vessel shells are welded together to form a structure that has a common rotational axis. Most pressure vessel shells are cylindrical, spherical, or conical in shape.

• Figure 2.1 illustrates a typical horizontal pressure vessel. Horizontal pressure vessels have cylindrical shells and are fabricated in a wide range of diameters and lengths.

• Figure 2.2 illustrates a small vertical pressure vessel. Small vertical pressure vessels are normally located at grade. The maximum shell lengthto-diameter ratio for a small vertical pressure vessel is about 5: 1.

• Figure 2.3 illustrates a typical tall, vertical pressure vessel. Tall vertical pressure vessels are constructed in a wide range of shell diameters and heights. Pressure vessels can be relatively small in diameter and very tall (e.g., a 1.2 metre diameter and 60 metre tall distillation column), or very large in diameter and moderately tall (e.g., a 10 metre diameter and 45 metre tall pipestill tower).

• Figure 2.4 shows a pressurized storage vessel with a spherical shell.

2

Dished End

Nozzles

/

Saddle Support (Sliding)

Saddle Support (Fixed)

Dished End

Horizontal Pressure Vessel on Saddle Supports Figure 2.1

3

Dished End

Support Leg

Vertical Pressure Vessel on Leg Supports Figure 2.2

4

Nozzle

Trays

Dished End

Shell

Conical Reducer

Shell -----..J

Dished End

Skirt Support

Tall Vertical Pressure Vessel Figure 2.3

5

Shell

Support Leg

Spherical Pressurized Storage Vessel Figure 2.4

2.1.2 Dished End

All pressure vessel shells must be closed at the ends by dished ends (or another shell section). Dished ends are typically curved rather than flat. Curved configurations are stronger and allow the dished ends to be thinner, lighter, and less expensive than flat ends. Figures 2.1 through 2.3 show dished ends closing the cylindrical sections of the various pressure vessels.

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2.1.3 Nozzle

A nozzle is a cylindrical component that penetrates the shell or dished ends of a pressure vessel. The nozzle ends are usually flanged to allow for the necessary connections and to permit easy disassembly for maintenance or access. Nozzles are used for the following applications:

• Attach piping for flow into or out of the vessel.

• Attach instrument connections, (e.g., level gauges, thermowells, or pressure gauges).

• Provide access to the vessel interior at manholes.

• Provide for direct attachment of other equipment items, (e.g., a heat exchanger or mixer).

Nozzles are also sometimes extended into the vessel interior for some applications, such as for inlet flow distribution or to permit the entry of thermowells.

2.1.4 Support

The type of support that is used depends primarily on the size and orientation of the pressure vessel. In all cases, the pressure vessel support must be adequate for the applied weight, wind, and earthquake loads. The design pressure of the vessel is not a consideration in the design of the support since the support is not pressurized. Temperature may be a consideration in support design from the standpoint of material selection and provision for differential thermal expansion.

2.1.4.1 Saddle Supports

Horizontal pressure vessels (See Figure 2.1) are typically supported at two locations by saddle supports. A saddle support spreads the weight load over a large area of the shell to prevent an excessive local stress in the shell at the support points. The width of the saddle, among other design details, is determined by the specific size and design conditions of the pressure vessel. One saddle support is normally fixed or anchored to its foundation. The other support is normally free to permit unrestrained longitudinal thermal expansion of the pressure vessel.

2.1.4.2 Leg Supports

Small vertical pressure vessels (See Figure 2.2) are typically supported on legs that are welded to the lower portion of the shell. The maximum ratio of support leg length to pressure vessel diameter is typically 2:1. Reinforcing pads and/or rings are first welded to the shell to provide additional local reinforcement and load distribution in cases where the local shell stresses may be excessive. The number of legs needed depends on the pressure vessel size and the loads to be carried. Support legs are also typically used for spherical pressurized storage vessels (See Figure 2.4). The support legs for small vertical pressure vessels and spherical pressurized storage vessels may be made from structural steel columns or pipe sections, whichever provides a more efficient design. Cross bracing between the legs, as shown in Figure 2.4, is typically used to help absorb wind or earthquake loads.

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2.1.4.3 Bracket Supports

Brackets that are welded to the pressure vessel shell (See Figure 2.5) may also be used to support vertical pressure vessels. The use of brackets is typically limited to vessels of small to medium diameter (0.3 metres to 3 metres.) and moderate height-to-diameter ratios in the range of 2:1 to 5:1. Bracket supports are often used for vessels of this size that are located above grade within structural steel. The brackets are typically bolted to horizontal structural members to provide stability against overturning loads; however, the bolt holes are often slotted to permit free radial thermal expansion of the pressure vessel.

Nozzles

ished End

Support Brackets

Dished End

Vertical Vessel on Bracket Supports Figure 2.5

2.1.4.4 Skirt Supports

Tall, vertical, cylindrical pressure vessels (See Figure 2.3) are typically supported by skirts. A support skirt is a cylindrical shell section that is welded either to the lower portion of the vessel shell or to the bottom dished end (for cylindrical vessels). Skirts for spherical vessels are welded to the vessel near the mid-plane of the shell. It is normally not necessary for the skirt bolt holes to be slotted (as with bracket supports). The skirt is normally long enough to provide enough flexibility so that radial thermal expansion of the shell does not cause high thermal stresses at its junction with the skirt.

8

2.2 SCOPE OF AS 1210

Pressure vessels are designed in accordance with AS 1210 or AS 1210 Supplement 1. AS 1210 is used most often since it contains sufficient requirements for the majority of pressure vessel applications.

2.2.1 AS 1210

AS 1210 sets out the minimum requirements for the materials, design, manufacture, testing, inspection, certification and dispatch of fired and unfired pressure vessels constructed of ferrous and non-ferrous metals by welding, brazing, casting, forging, or cladding and lining and includes the application of nonintegral fittings required for safe and proper functioning of pressure vessels.

AS 1210 applies to pressure vessels with design pressures that are above the curves in Figures 2.6A and 2.68 but not exceeding 21 MPa and with operating temperatures within the temperature limits for various materials and components as stated in AS 1210. At pressures below the curves AS 1210 is not applicable.

~ 1 0 0 .---------r------r-----.-----,-----,--------, .Y. 90 I----t----+---t----t----t--____i

80r----+----~----r---~-----r------i 70~---+----~----r---~-----r--~

60r----r----r----+----+----+--~ 50r-~-+----~----r---~-----r------i 40 I--\-->c--+-----+--__+_- 4-

\. r:!' =10 .. kPa

30 '" /3[0 +612 -

2 0 I----t----"a...:----+-.t---t----t----t--____i

'Z

101----+--~~~ __ ~~----+---~------i

ui a: :J. {/)

(f) W 0:. 0...

_J « z a: w IZ.

5

10

30

o

15

20

25

INSIDE DIAMETER or VESSEL [D). m

Vessels Subject to Internal Pressure (AS 1210 Figure 1.3.1)

Figure 2.SA

9

100
co
[)_ 50
x
. 25
-
~
:W
0: 10
=>
(J)
(f)
w
cc 5
10._
_J
q 2,5
z
cc
W
l- to
x
w
0,5
\
\
\ <,
..... I\--
~
\_P= ---
( .31 + Q.82}kPa
D o 5 10 45 20 25 30

INSIDE DLA.METER or VESSEL tDl. m

Vessels Subject to External Pressure (AS 1210 Figure 1.3.2)

Figure 2.68

AS 1210 is not applicable for piping system components that are attached to pressure vessels. Therefore, at pressure vessel nozzles, AS 1210 rules apply only through the first junction that connects to the pipe. This junction may be at the following locations:

• Welded end connection through the first circumferential joint.

• First threaded joint for screwed connections.

• Face of the first flange for bolted, flanged connections.

• First sealing surface for proprietary connections or fittings.

AS 1210 also does not apply to non pressure-containing parts that are welded, or not welded, to pressure-containing parts. However, the weld that makes the attachment to the pressure part must meet AS 1210 rules. Therefore, items such as pressure vessel internal components or external supports do not need to follow AS 1210 rules, except for any attachment weld to the vessel.

10

AS 1210 identifies several other specific items where it does not apply. These include:

• Liquid storage tanks

• Large low pressure gas storage tanks

• Nuclear vessels

• Machinery such as pump and compressor casings, or vessels subject to pressures caused only by static head of their contents

• Fire-tube, shell and miscellaneous boilers

• Water tube boilers

2.2.2 AS 1210 Supplement 1

The scope of AS 1210 applies to AS 1210 Supplement 1 with the following additions.

AS 1210 Supplement 1 specifies two additional classes of vessels (Class 1 Hand Class 2H with the latter subdivided into classifications 2HA and 2H 8) and for cast and forged vessels which:

a) Utilise advanced design and construction methods.

b) Generally permit design strengths higher than those specified in AS 1210.

c) Comply with the requirements specified in AS 1210 for cast, forged or Class 1 welded vessels as appropriate, except as modified by the supplement.

AS 1210 Supplement 1 does not apply to:

• Transportable vessels

• Vessels of riveted or brazed construction

Only those requirements which supplement or differ from those specified in AS 1210 for cast, forged or Class 1 welded construction are specified in AS 1210 Supplement 1 .

AS 1210 Supplement 1 applies to pressure vessels with design pressures that are above the curves in Figures 2.6A and 2.68 and having operating temperature limits of various materials and components as stated in the supplement. It does not specify a limit on pressures.

AS 1210 Supplement 1 uses design by analysis that results in more precise stress calculations than are required in AS 1210 to ensure that the higher design stresses can be tolerated and that fatigue will be avoided. AS 1210 Supplement 1 contains rules to determine the need for a detailed fatigue analysis.

11

2.2.3 Differences in "Design by Rule" and "Design by Analysis"

Descriptions of the "design by rule" and "design by analysis" terminologies are given below.

Design by Rule (or Design by Formula): "Design by rule" in AS 1210 is based on a set of simple formulas to determine the minimum thickness for pressure load conditions. The "design by rule" method provides a quick, simple, and recognized method for the design and construction of vessels for pressure service. This reduces engineering costs for vessel design.

Design by Analysis: The "design by rule" is not suitable when complex loads and shapes are encountered which are not covered by AS 1210. "Design by analysis" in AS 1210 Supplement 1 is based on the maximum shear stress theory. In general, linear elastic methods (e.g. finite element analysis), rules for stress categorization, and appropriate limits are used to evaluate the design loading conditions on a pressure vessel. This method may also require a fatigue analysis. "Design by analysis" requires a higher degree of engineering than "design by rule" since stresses in different directions and all aspects of loading must be considered and evaluated. The finite element analysis is done using special software that requires experienced and competent analysts to evaluate the results.

2.2.3.1 Design by Rule or Design by Formula

AS 1210 uses "design by rule" which basically requires that the primary membrane (or direct) stress in the circumferential and the longitudinal directions do not exceed the maximum allowable design tensile strength value. In some specific applications, such as bending in a flat head or the longitudinal stress in a flange hub, the allowable stress is permitted to go to 1.5 times the maximum allowable design tensile strength value. Basic formulas are given for determining the minimum required thickness for many geometries.

For carbon, carbon-manganese and alloy steel plate AS 1210 requires a factor of safety of 3.5 or 4 on the specified minimum tensile strength. In addition, AS 1210 requires a factor of safety of 1.5 or 1.6 on specified minimum yield strength. In the creep/rupture temperature range, AS 1210 contains design criteria based on the stress required to produce rupture in 100,000 hr with a factor of safety of 1.5 applied. The maximum allowable stress is set by selecting the least of these values. See Section 3.2.1 for full details.

2.2.3.2 Design by Analysis

The "design by analysis" procedures in AS 1210 Supplement 1 are intended to provide a safety guard against the risk of the following modes of failure by performing a detailed stress analysis of the vessel with sufficient factors of safety.

• Gross plastic deformation

• Incremental collapse

• Collapse through buckling

• Fatigue cracking

• Creep rupture

• Brittle fracture

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The "design by analysis" procedures that are given in AS 1210 Supplement 1 relate to designs based on "elastic analysis."

AS 1210 Supplement 1 uses the Maximum Shear Stress Theory. It generally requires the use of AS 1210 in conjunction with the design strengths from AS 1210 Supplement 1 to determine the required thicknesses. The "design by analysis" is required only for those configurations where there are no simpler ways to size a component or when a fatigue analysis is required. Where only the pressure load is being considered, the minimum thicknesses required by Clauses S3.7 to S3.13 of AS 1210 Supplement 1 cannot be decreased by a "design by analysis." When a fatigue analysis is required, a "design by analysis" must be done to categorize stresses because different evaluations are made for different categories of stress. Refer to Appendix SC of AS 1210 Supplement 1 for details.

When the "design by analysis" is done, consideration must be made of not only the primary membrane stress, but also of other primary, secondary, and peak stresses. All design and operating conditions, as well as steady state and transient loading conditions, must be considered. The categories and subcategories of stresses, which must be considered, are:

1. Primary stress

i. General primary membrane stress

ii. Local primary membrane stress

iii. Primary bending stress

2. Secondary stress

3. Peak stress

The need for dividing the stress into various categories is that limit analysis theory indicates that some stresses may be permitted to go to a higher allowable stress level than other stresses. The basic characteristics of the various categories of stress are:

1. Primary stress is developed by loadings required to satisfy the laws of equilibrium. It is not self-limiting.

2. Secondary stress is developed by internal constraint within the component or part and causes some yielding or distortion. It is self-limiting.

3. Peak stress is developed at points of stress concentration with little distortion. It is needed only for fatigue analysis.

The primary stress limits are intended to prevent plastic deformation (yield strength) and to provide for the prevention of ductile burst. When the secondary stress is considered along with the primary stress, limits are given to prevent excessive plastic deformation and collapse. Peak stress is considered to prevent fatigue failure from cyclic loadings.

In "design by analysis," the designer is required to classify the calculated stress into primary, secondary, and peak categories, and then apply the specified allowable stress limits. The magnitude of the allowable values assigned to the various stress categories reflects the nature of their associated failure mechanisms; therefore, it is essential that the categorization procedure be performed correctly. Stress categorization is the most difficult aspect of the "design by analysis" process.

13

Stress intensity limits are different for various categories of stress. These limits for various categories are shown in Table 2.1. Refer to Appendix SH of AS 1210 Supplement 1 for full details. For load combinations which include wind or earthquake forces the stress limits given in Table 2.1 are multiplied by a load factor k = 1.2.

Stress category Stress limit
General primary membrane (fm) f
Local primary membrane (fL) 1.5 f
Primary membrane plus primary 1.5 f
bending (fL + fb) or (fm + fb)
Primary plus secondary 3.0 f
(fL + fb + fg) or (fm + fb + fg) Stress Intensity Limits for Various Categories of Stress Table 2.1

For carbon, carbon-manganese and low alloy steels AS 1210 Supplement requires a factor of safety of 2.35 on the specified minimum tensile strength. In addition, AS 1210 Supplement 1 requires a factor of safety of 1.5 or 1.6 on specified minimum yield strength. For the basis of design strength, f, refer to Appendix SA of AS 1210 Supplement 1 .

AS 1210 Supplement 1 uses a term called "stress intensity" or equivalent intensity of combined stresses. Stress intensity is defined as twice the maximum shear stress and is equal to the largest algebraic difference between any two of the three principal stresses obtained by the maximum shear stress theory.

AS 1210 Supplement 1 does not extend to temperatures in the creep/rupture range.

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3. MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

This section discusses the primary factors that influence material selection for pressure vessels and the maximum allowable material stresses specified by AS 1210. The mechanical design of a pressure vessel can proceed only after the materials have been specified. AS 1210 does not state what materials must be used in each application. It specifies what materials may be used for AS 1210 vessels, plus rules and limitations on their use. But, it is up to the end user to specify the appropriate materials for each application considering various material selection factors in conjunction with AS 1210 requirements.

3.1 MATERIAL SELECTION FACTORS

The main factors that influence material selection are:

• Strength

• Corrosion Resistance

• Resistance to Hydrogen Attack

• Fracture Toughness

• Fabricability

Other factors that influence material selection are cost, availability, and ease of maintenance.

3.1.1 Strength

Strength is a material's ability to withstand an imposed force or stress. Strength is a significant factor in the material selection for a particular application. Strength determines how thick a component must be to withstand the imposed loads.

The overall strength of a material is determined by its yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, creep and rupture strengths. These strength properties depend on the chemical composition of the material. Creep resistance (a measure of material strength at elevated temperature) is increased by the addition of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, and/or nickel to carbon steel. Therefore, alloy materials are often used in elevated temperature applications.

3.1.2 Corrosion Resistance

Pressure vessels are affected by corrosive conditions internally and externally. Corrosion is the deterioration of metals by chemical action. A material's resistance to corrosion is probably the most important factor that influences its selection for a specific application. The most common method that is used to address corrosion in pressure vessels is to specify a corrosion allowance. A corrosion allowance is supplemental metal thickness that is added to the minimum thickness that is required to resist the applied loads. This added thickness compensates for thinning (i.e., corrosion) that will take place during service. Protective coatings or linings are also used.

The corrosion resistance of carbon steel could be increased through the addition of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, or nickel. Alloy materials, rather than carbon steel, are often used in applications where increased corrosion resistance is required in order to minimize the necessary corrosion allowance.

15

3.1.3 Resistance to Hydrogen Attack

At temperatures from approximately 150°C to 200°C, monatomic hydrogen diffuses into voids that are normally present in steel. In these voids, the monatomic hydrogen forms molecular hydrogen, which cannot diffuse out of the steel. If this hydrogen diffusion continues, pressure can build to high levels within the steel, and the steel can crack.

At elevated temperatures, over approximately 300°C, monatomic hydrogen not only causes cracks to form but also attacks the steel. Hydrogen attack differs from corrosion in that damage occurs throughout the thickness of the component, rather than just at its surface, and occurs without any metal loss. In addition, once hydrogen attack has occurred, the metal cannot be repaired and must be replaced. Thus, it is not practical to provide a corrosion allowance to allow for hydrogen attack. Instead, materials are selected such that they are resistant to hydrogen attack at the specified design conditions.

3.1.4 Fracture Toughness

Fracture toughness refers to the ability of a material to withstand conditions that could cause a brittle fracture. The fracture toughness of a material can be determined by the magnitude of the impact energy that is required to fracture a specimen using Charpy V-notch test. Generally speaking, the fracture toughness of a material decreases as the temperature decreases (i.e., it behaves more like glass). The fracture toughness at a given temperature varies with different steels and with different manufacturing and fabrication processes.

Material selection must confirm that the material has adequate fracture toughness at the lowest expected metal temperature. It is especially important for material selection to eliminate the risk of brittle fracture since a brittle fracture is catastrophic in nature. It occurs without warning the first time the necessary combination of critical size defect, low enough temperature, and high enough stress occurs.

3.1.4.1 AS 1210 and Brittle-Fracture Evaluation

The following pressure vessel components must be considered in brittle fracture evaluations:

• Shells

• Manholes

• Dished ends

• Compensating plates

• Nozzles

• Tubesheets

• Flanges

• Flat ends

• Backing strips that remain in place

• Attachments that are essential to the structural integrity of the vessel when welded to pressure-containing components (e.g., vessel supports)

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The Material Design Minimum Temperature (MDMT) is a characteristic minimum temperature of a material. It is used in design to select material with sufficient notch toughness to avoid brittle fracture and the temperature at which the material can be used at full design strength. The Minimum Operating Temperature (MOT) is the lowest metal temperature to which the vessel part under consideration is subjected to during normal operation.

Each component must be evaluated separately for impact test requirements based on its material, thickness and MOT / MDMT.

AS 1210 specifies when impact-testing is required, the test method, preparation of test specimens and impact test requirements for cases that are subject to impact testing. Refer to Clause 2.6 of AS 1210 for details.

3.1.5 Fabricability

Fabricability refers to the ease of construction and to any special fabrication practices that are required to use the material. Of special importance is the ease with which the material can be rolled or otherwise shaped to conform to vessel component geometry requirements.

Pressure vessels commonly use welded construction. Therefore, the materials used must be weldable so that individual components can be assembled into the completed vessel. The material chemistry of the weld area must be equivalent to that of the base material so that the material properties and corrosion resistance of the weld area will be the same as those of the base material.

3.2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS

One of the major factors in the design of pressure vessels is the relationship between the strength of the components and the loads (i.e., pressure, weight, etc.) imposed upon them. These loads cause internal stresses in the components. The design of a pressure vessel must ensure that these internal stresses never exceed the strength of the vessel components.

Pressure vessel components are designed such that the component stresses that are caused by the loads are limited to maximum allowable primary membrane stresses (design tensile strength) that will ensure safe operation. Maximum allowable primary membrane stress is the maximum stress that may be safely applied to a pressure vessel component. The maximum allowable primary membrane stress includes a safety margin between the stress level in a component due to the applied loads and the stress level that could cause a failure.

3.2.1 Basis of Design Tensile Strength

AS 1210 adopts a simple approach to vessel design based on thin cylinder theory and the neglect of secondary complexities such as the essential incompatibility between intersecting cylinders. This approach requires substantial safety factors, despite the secondary effects being minor within the Code's scope.

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Appendix A of AS 1210 gives the basis used to establish values for the design tensile strength of materials.

F or carbon, carbon-manganese and low alloy steel plate the basis of design tensile strength is:

• For design temperatures up to and including 50°C, the lowest of-

R * R

m e

-- --

4 '1.5

• For design temperatures between 50°C and 150°C, based on linear interpolation between the values determined for 50°C and 150°C.

• For design temperatures 150°C and above, the lowest of -

Rm * Re(T) and SR for material with specified elevated temperature

4 ' 1.5 1.5

values, or

Rm * Re(T) and SR for material without specified elevated temperature

4 ' 1.6 1. 5

values.

* Rm may be replaced by Rm under the conditions given in Clause 3.3.9 of

4 3.5

AS 1210.

Where:

=

Specified minimum tensile strength for the grade of material concerned at room temperature, in MPa

Specified minimum yield strength for the grade of material

concerned at room temperature, in MPa

=

=

Specified minimum value of Re or Rpo.z for the grade of material concerned at design temperature T, in MPa

=

Estimated mean stress to cause rupture in 100 000 h at the design temperature T for the grade of material concerned.

Refer to Appendix A of AS 1210 for the basis of design tensile strength for other materials for plates, forgings, castings, pipes, tubes and bolts.

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Minimum mechanical properties are laid down in AS 1548 - "Steel Plates for pressure equipment", a steel being referenced typically as 'AS 1548- T-YDHLX"

Where:

AS 1548 = number of the Standard

T = type of steel, as follows:

5 - silicon-aluminium fully killed, niobium-treated carbon-manganese 7 - silicon-aluminium fully killed carbon-manganese

Y = grade of steel

= specified minimum tensile strength, in megapascals, (430,460 or 490)

o = heat treatment, as follows:

N - supplied normalized by the manufacturer, after final rolling R - supplied 'as rolled'

A - supplied as rolled with mechanical tests carried out on normalized test pieces

(See Table 1 of AS 1548 for various T-YD combinations.)

H = elevated temperature tensile property required

Notes:

1. Where a tensile property at elevated temperature is not required, 'H' is omitted.

2. See Table 5 of AS 1548 for minimum lower yield or 0.2% proof stress at temperatures available.

3. Properties are slightly thickness dependent.

LX = low temperature (L) impact tests required together with test temperature (X) at or below O°C, e.g. L50 for -50°C impact tests.

Notes:

1. Where a low temperature impact test is not required, 'LX' is omitted.

2. See Table 4 of AS 1548 for minimum impact energy at test temperature.

Examples of designation:

1 AS 1548-5-490N is a silicon-aluminium fully killed niobium-treated carbonmanganese steel having a tensile strength between 490 MPa and 610 MPa, supplied normalized.

2 AS 1548-7-430NH is a silicon-aluminium fully killed carbon-manganese steel having a tensile strength between 430 MPa and 550 MPa, supplied normalized, and having a specified elevated temperature property.

3 AS 1548-7-460R is a silicon-aluminium fully killed carbon-manganese steel having a tensile strength between 460 MPa and 580 MPa, supplied as rolled.

19

3.2.2 AS1210 Design Tensile Strength Tables

Tables in AS 1210 contain the design tensile strength of materials that are acceptable for use in AS 1210 pressure vessels. The design tensile strength varies with temperature because material strength is a function of temperature.

The design tensile strengths to be used with the equations in AS 1210 are given in Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.9 of AS 1210 (Excerpted in Tables 3.1 and 3.2). The design tensile strengths of materials not listed in Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.9 are to be determined in accordance with Appendix A of AS 1210. The use of higher design tensile strengths given in Table 3.3.9 is applicable to all materials and vessels except flanges, bolts and transportable vessels.

]')iESU:iS n:.S.SlLE :SIJ(E~~C11'i. (MiP.)

(A) GARBON, CARIlON·1I1A:.>;G~"ESE AND· :LOW ALLO·Y· S;l"EEtS

llit !<Ii ~ Ii>!; '00

~@ @!i ~ ¥.1f iJii

IU W~i 1=

f> 'i$ 5;! ~

'I!l! 5;! ~~

(l.\'ij;jo.~~M·"''!II>! '" "'" P to 'I' IP lI' II' if' II' Ii!; 'm I'" m j"~ ~ ,.. 11 ~.

~Wf~~'!II>! ,~ :: : t: ~. m m ~ I!! Il1 = ~~ ~ .~ m ·fit ·iii ;1 :: - - - - -

!!!" .. & ~;ll1i;..!. "'" D ,.. '" I;» m 'j,,, m ~ 'i;~ I~ !;f ID lJ~i Q. ¥I'~ _._ - - ~"~'~~L. ~~~.~~~ __ ~~~~'L.~~~m~· ~~J~~L'L'~~~"~~#~'~~~:~~~"~l~~m~'L'~N~"~~~'~E"~'!~'~.~-~-~=-~~=-

~."""" .!\!I.,.",. :._

. ~l!'" Kl'lti'l

.i\Jl!~ f~l·

.~l~"'. ~!t

.~11"" ,~'i'

~1J~i ~'"

,lI

~u'" 'T4l'lM'i'

Ml$~ f.i~)'ij.;m,

_.~""''J ~ -~~

--~

-- ..,

_l$t 1f.<lW

,Q,1'IZ~ lJil. a!I:ID t4<"'lIUlm B\!4li) ~"'IW!jm ,1\!liI> .~~lJ!l< iliiliI> _Iffl ~~I>i<'1

=:: ~=

_l$t ~'"

=:~~=

_,ill,,!

Q.-;.[l .~."" '»i;!iW'

All (I.:'j U

.I.'tl It,;':1 J..&

..:IJ ><) ~.o:

AU III 'Ui

~jl I,J ~

~¥ ~~ i

if jJ 1

il:i" 1\} ~

iit ir.i 1

_,t;t l\:! ~

.iEri1 -'\1 1<

~. "" 1

.i£'- -'\l 1<

". M 1

~ .. ·ft~-

1:·=11,..-

!III n ,'I<, ~; -

'!$ _.

a.-·---

iO----

!oo """'"

I® ~ i~ _

!'* -

lfa ,-----< -"

iti -----< -"

ltii Y-T< ~

,.{1 - - - -

}~ j1j .......

~.!li? :~~ ,...._

AS 1210 Design Tensile Strength (AS 1210 Table 3.3.1(A) Excerpt) Table 3.1

:HIGH.ER llESWJIi TENSILE S,nENG1H (~IP'a' CARBON,.CAJRBON)·M.;L";GANESE .AND LOW AL·LOY STEEL'S

~'" .'" ,.., "'" ,y: till ,.. ,,,.

~~ m 'OIl ';J .~", ~ rn ';$

1<;1 .... Ij!!I IJ'I m ,~ ~.!~ ~

H.!~liii\'l!fl~ttl!1~ ~ • rn ~ ~ • • ~ • • . . ~ ~ . . . . .

• _ • ~ ~ _ m _ • •

• • rn m ~ m _ • • •

"" » - .

,tv ~~ ~

1-J. -

.~ -

lJ - - g

u ~ ~ ~ • • • ~ rn m ~ ~ _ • - - - - - - -

u • ~ liii\ M _ • • mum M P • - - -

... m w u • m

:::::::;;

~Jl )~ijl UJi t~ n~ ~~

1J1 • ',",,~ *' i:lil

1 .. M '" 1>1 ..

"I \bil aM li:m .~ ~000

: :::::::

n", 9;111 ~~ U.. ~l.

It! Ii:!! I1J it! I,. • ,,. l1i j#l ,,,

"" ~j~t~~~

1 'It III tll l;l!!. IJU 1 tjl III '11 l'll 1:11

1 ,.. 10) ,Ol ,.. I",

>n !II} m iw U' !I'I'

1;';-' ,~

.. !oil

:: ::

1U U.f fi!:~' HI rn rn

1:1' •

I:l' !i!i ~I 'h t,1}j U~ m 101

~ - - - - - - -

. - - - - - - -

j!!J .- - - - - - -

. - - - - -

. - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - -

~ - - - - - - - - - - ill - - - - - - - - ill - - - - - - - - - -

I;))

j~ji ....... ):4

!).~ - j~l·

J(t

"~~::;i\$ n lri~· ~ !:f. *' ~ ~ m ~ ~ -

"1"'~ d '!Ie". ~ ~ :::0!1 ~ WI· ~ ~ ill:» - -.

AS 1210 Higher Design Tensile Strength (AS 1210 Table 3.3.9 Excerpt) Table 3.2

20

4. DESIGN

4.1 DESIGN CONDITIONS AND LOADINGS

The mechanical design of a pressure vessel begins with specification of the design pressure and design temperature. Pressure imposes loads that must be withstood by the individual vessel components. Temperature affects material strength and, thus, its allowable stress, regardless of the design pressure. Some pressure vessels have multiple sets of design conditions that correspond to different modes of operation. All sets of design conditions must be specified because anyone may govern the mechanical design.

All pressure vessels must be designed for the most severe conditions of coincident pressure and temperature that are expected during normal service. Normal service includes conditions that are associated with:

• Startup.

• Normal operation.

• Deviations from normal operation that can be anticipated (e.g., process upsets).

• Shutdown.

Pressure vessels must also be designed for other loading conditions and service factors that may apply in particular situations. These are highlighted later.

4.1.1 Pressure

4.1 .1.1 Operating Pressure

The operating pressure must be set based on the maximum internal or external pressure that the pressure vessel may encounter under normal operation. The following factors must be considered:

• Ambient temperature effects.

• Normal operational variations.

• Pressure variations due to changes in the vapor pressure of the contained

fluid.

• Pump or compressor shut-off pressure.

• Static head due to the liquid level in the vessel.

• System pressure drop.

• Normal pre-startup activities or other operating conditions that may occur (e.g., vacuum), that should be considered in the design.

21

4.1.1.2 Design Pressure

Generally, design pressure is the maximum internal pressure (in MPag), that is used in the mechanical design of a pressure vessel. For full or partial vacuum conditions, the design pressure is applied externally and is the maximum pressure difference that can occur between the atmosphere and the inside of the pressure vessel. Some pressure vessels may experience both internal and external pressure conditions at different times during their operation. The mechanical design of the pressure vessel in this case is based on which of these is the more severe design condition.

The specified design pressure is based on the maximum operating pressure plus the margin that the process design engineer determines is suitable for the particular application (say 5% to 10%). A suitable margin must also be provided between the maximum operating pressure and the pressure relief device set pressure. This margin is necessary to prevent frequent and unnecessary opening of the pressure relief device that may occur during normal variations in operating pressure. The pressure relief device set pressure is normally set equal to the design pressure.

Pressure vessels, especially tall pressure vessels, may have liquid in them during normal operation. The maximum height of this liquid normally does not reach the top of the vessel. The liquid level that is required for design is specified by the process design engineer.

The hydrostatic pressure that is exerted by the liquid must be considered in the design of vessel components upon which it acts. Therefore, the pressure that is used to design a vessel component is equal to the design pressure, plus the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid in the vessel that is above the point being designed (i.e., PB = PT + rH - See Figure 4.1).

4.1.2 Temperature

4.1.2.1 Operating Temperature

The operating temperature must be set based on the maximum and minimum metal temperatures that the pressure vessel may encounter. The operation and vertical length of tall pressure vessels, and the presence of liquid in the bottom section, sometime result in large temperature reductions between the bottom and top of the vessel. It is permissible to specify different operating temperatures at different elevations of such a pressure vessel, as long as the temperatures can be accurately predicted. This approach results in dividing the vessel into sections along its vertical length. Each section is designed for the temperature that it will encounter, rather than for the most severe condition at the bottom of the vessel.

4.1.2.2 Design Temperature

The design temperature of a pressure vessel is the maximum fluid temperature that occurs under normal operating conditions, plus an allowance for variations that occur during operation.

22

H = Height of Liquid

Design Pressure Figure 4.1

23

Pr = Pressure at Top of Vessel

y = Weight Density of Liquid in Vessel

PB = Design Pressure of Bottom End

4.1.3 Other Loadings

Clause 3.2.3 of AS 1210 specifies the loadings that must be considered to determine the minimum required thicknesses for the various vessel components. These design loadings include the following:

• Internal or external (or both) design pressure.

• Maximum static head of contained fluid under normal operating conditions.

• Weight of the vessel and its normal contents under operating and test conditions.

• Superimposed static reactions from the weight of attached equipment (e.g.,

motors, machinery, other vessels, piping, linings, insulation).

• Loads at attachment of internal components or vessel supports.

• Wind, snow, and seismic reactions.

• Test pressure combined with hydrostatic weight.

• Impact reactions such as those that are caused by fluid shock.

• Temperature gradients within a vessel component and differential thermal expansion between vessel components.

4.2 WELD JOINT EFFICIENCY AND CORROSION ALLOWANCE

The weld joint efficiency and corrosion allowance are additional design parameters that are required to calculate vessel component thicknesses.

4.2.1 Weld Joint Efficiency

Welded joints are not as strong as the parent plate unless welds are thoroughly inspected and, if flawed, repaired during manufacture - all of which is expensive. This strength reduction is characterized by the weld joint efficiency, 11 = joint strength / parent strength - which varies from 100% for a perfect weld (i.e., virtually seamless) down to 70-85% for welds in which integrity is not so assured.

It is most unusual for the economics to justify increase of shell plate thickness local to the joint - the whole shell must therefore be of thickness required to cater for an isolated joint inhomogeneity. The implications of joint efficiency upon cost of raw plate materials are thus readily apparent; however it should be appreciated that away from the joint region the material really needs only to be as thick as for a seamless vessel.

Pressure vessel cylinders are usually made from flat plates which are rolled then welded along longitudinal joints. On the other hand, circumferential joints are used to attach end closures (e.g., dished ends) to the cylinder, and to weld together rolled plates for a long vessel if plate size availability or rolling machine capacity is restricted.

Weld joint efficiency (11) accounts for the quality of a welded joint and for the concentration of local stress. This higher local stress is due to local material or structural discontinuities.

24

AS 1210 defines three main classes of vessel manufacture - 1, 2 (A & B) and 3 - according to the design, manufacture, testing and inspection requirements and provides details of the weld types and efficiencies which are permissible in each class. Class 2 is subdivided into classifications 2A and 2B, primarily to enable the use of higher weld efficiency where spot non-destructive examination is utilized. Some of the major differences between the classes for medium strength carbon and carbon-manganese steel, for example, are summarized in Table 4.1. Refer to Tables 1.6 and 1.7 of AS 1210 for the full requirements for each of the classes. Figure 4.2 indicates that the most expensive Class 1 vessels are mandatory if failure is potentially lethal, no matter what the thickness. Class 2 vessels having a wall thickness greater than 32 mm are inadmissible, and so on.

Class of Vessel 1 2A I 2B 3
Plate Thickness, T mm No limit T:::;32 T:::; 12
111 (double butt) 1.0 0.85 I 0.80 0.70
11c Depends on weld type, usually less than 111
Post Weld Heat Treatment Generally required Generally not required
Radiographic Examination Required Spot I Not required Differences Between Pressure Vessel Classes Table 4.1

Major

I Class 1 I

Class 2
Class 3 Consequences of Failure

Minor

o

12

32

Vessel Maximum Thickness, mm

Pressure Vessel Requirements Figure 4.2

25

Table 3.5.1.7 of AS 1210 specifies maximum allowable weld joint efficiencies to be used to calculate component thicknesses. Figure 3.5.1.5 of AS 1210 gives some acceptable types of joint preparation for joints within shells and ends. Figure 4.3 gives types of welded joints (types A to D) according to their position.

Type A - Longitudinal Type B - Circumferential

Type C - Corner (e.g. flanges, flat ends) Type D - Branch

A full explanation of types A to D is given in Clause 3.5.1.1 of AS 1210.

Ellipsoidal or

tertsphertcai and Spherical and

Weld Joint Type - Based on Location (AS 1210 Figure 3.5.1.1)

Figure 4.3

4.2.2 Corrosion Allowance

Corrosion, erosion, or abrasion causes vessel components to thin during their operating life. To compensate for this thinning, components must have their thicknesses increased over those that are calculated using the AS 1210 design formulas. Internal corrosion/erosion-resistant linings are sometimes used as an alternative to the use of greater component thicknesses.

Process design and materials engineers typically specify the corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance is based on the expected corrosion rate for the vessel material in the anticipated process environment. For example, 1 mm is typical for air receivers in which condensation of air moisture is normally inevitable. The corrosion rate is multiplied by the nominal design life of the vessel to determine the corrosion allowance. Refer to Clause 3.2.4 of AS 1210. See also Appendix D of AS 1210 for suggested good practice regarding corrosion allowance.

26

It is important to realize that when dimensions in any formula refer to a corrodible surface, then the dimensions inserted into the formula are those at the end of the vessel's life, when all the corrosion allowance has been eaten away. So, if a plate is of nominal thickness T now, and is subject to corrosion on one side, then (T - c) must be substituted whenever nominal thickness appears in an equation. Similarly a cylinder of current inside diameter 0 which corrodes will have an inside diameter of (0 + 2c) at the end of its life.

4.3 DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE

Notwithstanding the requirements of the following and requirements for additional allowances, the thickness of pressure vessel shells is not to be less than that required by Clause 3.4.3 of AS 1210.

Table 4.2 summarizes AS 1210 equations used to calculate the minimum required thickness for common pressure vessel components. Formulas for cylindrical shells are given for the longitudinal seam, since this usually governs. The equations have also been rearranged to calculate pressure as a function of thickness.

Part Thickness, Pressure, AS 1210 Clause
t,mm P, MPa
Cylindrical shell PD 2f7]T
t= P=-- 3.7.3
2f7]-P D+T
Spherical shell PD 4f7]T
t= P=-- 3.7.4
4f7]-P D+T
Ellipsoidal dished PDK 2f7]T
end t= P= 3.12.5.1
2f7]-P DK+T
Torispherical PRM 2f7]T
t= P= 3.12.5.2
dished end 2f7]- O.SP RM +O.ST
Spherical dished PR 2fr;T
end t= p= 3.12.5.3
2f7]- O.SP R+O.ST
Conical section PD1 1 2f7]Tcosa
t= -- P= 3.10.3
(a. ::; 70°) 2f7] - r cosa o; +(Tcosa) Where:
0 =
01 =
DL =
Os =
f = Summary of AS 1210 Equations Table 4.2

Inside diameter of shell, in mm. Add twice the corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside diameter.

Inside diameter of conical section or end at the position under consideration, in mm.

Inside diameter of conical section at the large end, in mm. Add twice the corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside diameter. Inside diameter of conical section at the small end, in mm. Add twice the corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside diameter. Design tensile strength at the design temperature, in MPa.

27

h

K

M

P

R

r

T

t

a

=

One-half of the length of the inside minor axis of an ellipsoidal end, or the inside depth of a torispherical end measured from the tangent line in the fully corroded condition, in mm.

A factor in the equation for ellipsoidal ends depending on the end

t. D propor ron-s-

2h

A factor in the equation for torispherical ends depending on the end

t. R

propor Ion -.

r

Calculation pressure or the pressure under hydrostatic test, Ph, as appropriate, in MPag.

Inside spherical or crown radius of end, in mm. Add corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside radius.

Inside knuckle radius of end, in mm. Add corrosion allowance to specified uncorroded inside radius.

Actual wall thickness (less corrosion allowance) of the part under consideration, in mm.

Minimum calculated wall thickness of the pressure part (exclusive of added allowances), in mm.

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Angle of slope of conical end or reducer to the vessel axis, in degrees.

-1(O.5(DL -Ds)]

a = tan

Cone Length

Efficiency of the welded joint

=

28

4.3.1 Cylindrical and Spherical Shells

The idealized equations for the calculation of circumferential (hoop) and longitudinal stresses (See Figure 4.4), respectively, in a cylindrical shell under internal pressure are as follows:

Pr Pr

cr = - and CTI = -

c t 2t

Longitudinal joint su bjeeted

to circumferential stress

- usually the MORE critical

Ciroumferentia I joint subjected to Iloogiitud ina I stress - u5uaUy the LESS critical

Longitudinal and Circumferential Vessel Stresses Figure 4.4

These equations assume a uniform stress distribution through the thickness of the shell. Note that the longitudinal stress is half the circumferential stress. Longitudinal stress can govern the design of a cylindrical section when loadings other than internal pressure induce longitudinal stresses that are greater than one half of the circumferential stress due to internal pressure. One example where this could occur is in the lower section of a tall pressure vessel where wind or earthquake loading could cause high longitudinal stresses. In these cases, the longitudinal stress that is due to these other loads is added to the longitudinal stress due to internal pressure. The total combined longitudinal stress is then limited to the maximum allowable stress.

See Clauses 3.7.3 and 3.7.4 of AS 1210 for the design requirements of cylindrical and spherical shells, respectively.

4.3.2 Dished Ends

Dished ends normally close the ends of pressurised cylinders. Figure 4.5 shows typical types of dished ends. Ellipsoidal, spherical, and torispherical are the most commonly used dished end types. Note in Figure 4.5 that each dished end type has a straight flange section, which simplifies welding the end to the adjacent cylindrical shell section. The ellipsoidal and torispherical dished ends have an indicated head depth (h), which is measured from the straight flange to the maximum point of curvature on the inside surface.

29

[a) Ellipsoidal

-_ <, t--

It ~ ~I

Ib) Tor ls p hertc al

o

~I

00

(o} Spherical

Dimensions of Dished Ends (AS 1210 Figure 3.12.3) Figure 4.5

These shapes are considerably stronger than flat plate closures. Also, the use of a flat plate as a closure results in the plate being considerably thicker than the cylinder to which it is attached.

When considering pressure containment, the ideal shape for the shell is spherical. Therefore when designing dished ends, a spherical end would be the obvious choice, especially if the vessel was subjected to a high internal pressure. However, fabrication of spherical ends (and spherical vessels) is expensive. The most commonly used ends for pressure vessels are torispherical and ellipsoidal dished ends.

The choice of the type of head is dependent on economy and the pressure to which they are subjected. Torispherical ends are the least expensive to fabricate. They are frequently used for low design pressures below 1000 kPa. The ellipsoidal ends are the most popular for design pressures above 1000 kPa. Spherical ends are more difficult to fabricate and consequently most expensive, but require half the shell thickness of a cylindrical shell for the same pressure.

As with shells, the internal dished end dimensions that are used to calculate the required thicknesses must first be increased to account for the corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must then be added to the calculated thicknesses. See Clause 3.12 of AS 1210 for the design requirements. See Table 4.2 for the AS 1210 equations that are used to calculate the wall thickness of each dished end type.

30

The required thickness of any cylindrical portion of an end is to comply with the appropriate requirements for cylindrical shells, including any applicable weld joint efficiency.

The attachment of ends by welding is to comply with Figure 3.12.6 of AS 1210.

4.3.2.1 Ellipsoidal Dished Ends

The 2: 1 (the ratio of major to minor axes) ellipsoidal dished end is the most commonly used type but other ratios may be used. Half of its minor axis (i.e., the inside depth of the dished end minus the length of the straight flange section) equals one-fourth of the inside diameter of the dished end.

The thickness of this type of dished end is normally equal to the thickness of the cylinder to which it is attached.

4.3.2.2 Spherical Dished Ends

The required thickness of a spherical dished end is normally one-half the thickness of an ellipsoidal or torispherical dished end for the same design conditions, material and diameter. Spherical dished ends are normally fabricated from segmented sections that are welded together, spun, or pressed. Spherical dished ends are an economical option to consider when expensive alloy material is used. In carbon steel construction, spherical dished ends are generally not as economical as ellipsoidal or torispherical dished ends because of higher fabrication cost. Carbon steel spherical dished ends may be economical for thin, very largediameter vessels, or in thick, small-diameter vessels.

The thickness transition zone between the spherical dished end and shell must be contoured to minimize the effect of local stress.

For a spherical end without a straight flange, use the weld joint efficiency of the end to shell joint if it is less than weld joint efficiency of the welds in the end.

4.3.2.3 Torispherical Dished Ends

A torispherical dished end consists of a spherical portion (the crown) and a toroidal portion (the knuckle).This type of end is usually made from a disc which is held at the centre and spun and cold-formed into shape. Torispherical ends generally have a crown radius of between 80% and 100% (maximum) of the shell diameter, and a knuckle radius of between 6% (minimum permitted) and 15% of the diameter. These ratios will vary depending on the individual requirement.

A torispherical dished end is typically somewhat flatter than an ellipsoidal dished end and can be the same thickness as an ellipsoidal dished end for identical design conditions and diameter.

The inside head height, h for a torispherical end is given by:

31

The volume of a torisherical end, with relative dimensions within the general range, can be taken as:

7rf)2h Volume =-- 6.55

The weight can be approximated by finding the difference between the inner and outer volumes and multiplying this by the material density.

4.3.3 Conical Ends and Reducers

The transition between the different diameters is made in a conical section. The most common design for a conical transition does not have transition knuckles at the ends of the cone provided that the attachment is a double butt welded joint. The cylindrical sections of different diameters are welded to each end of the cone. See Clause 3.10 of AS 1210 for the design requirements for conical ends and reducers which are concentric with the cylindrical shell and where all the longitudinal loads are transmitted wholly through the conical section. Note that this Clause may also be assumed to apply to an offset cone provided that all parts of the cone fall within the projected perimeter of the large end.

The required thickness for internal pressure of a conical shell without transition knuckles is calculated using the equation shown in Table 4.2. This equation assumes that half of the cone-apex angle is no greater than 70°; otherwise the thickness of the conical section has to be determined as for a flat end. Conical ends and reducers may be constructed in several ring sections of decreasing thickness as determined by the corresponding decreasing diameter. Reinforcement may be required where the cone attaches to the cylinder without a transition knuckle. Refer to Clause 3.10.6 of AS 1210 for the design of this reinforcement.

Conical ends are sometimes used in place of dished ends, particularly if there is a requirement for a large central opening in the end - the cone provides a useful alternative to cutting and reinforcing a dished end.

Transition knuckles are sometimes used at the cone-to-cylinder junction in order to reduce localized stresses. The use of transition knuckles is mandatory when the cone half-apex angle exceeds 30°. Transition knuckles are also sometimes used for smaller angles when there is concern about potentially high local stresses at the cone-to-cylinder junction. Refer to Clause 3.10.5 of AS 1210 for the design of transition knuckles.

32

Figure 4.6 shows typical types of conical ends and reducers.

ReInforcement where required

:.... ..:F-jl· ..•.

I-~- .

"'-. or

DL. ..

(b)

[at

'L;> 0.06D

~ I

I

ec;l

[d!

Conical Ends and Reducers (AS 1210 Figure 3.10.2) Figure 4.6

4.3.4 Unstayed Flat Ends and Covers

Flat plate end closures are not suitable in larger sizes, though are often used for doors - being flat, there are no membrane stresses and pressure is resisted solely by plate bending. For a given load, bending stresses are generally much larger than direct (e.g., membrane) stresses. Flat plates therefore have to be much thicker than dished ends for similar duty.

Figures 4.7A and 4.7B show typical types of unstayed flat ends and covers. See Clause 3.15 of AS 1210 for the design requirements of both circular and noncircular unstayed flat ends, covers, plates and blind flanges.

33

As with shells, the corrosion allowance must be added to the calculated thicknesses. The AS 1210 equations that are used to calculate the thickness of unstayed flat ends and covers are as follows.

F or circular ends:

( P JO.5

t=D-

Kf1J '

except for circular bolted ends, covers and blind flanges with edge moments:

t = D(_!_ + 1. 78rn:G JO.5 , where t is the greater thickness calculated for both

Kf1J f7]D

operating and gasket seating conditions.

For rectangular, elliptical and obround ends and covers:

( ZP JO.5

t=D-

Kf1J

except for bolted flanges with edge moments:

Where:

D

K

L =
P =
t =
W = t = D( ZP + 6vV'\ JO.5 , where t is the greater thickness calculated for both Kf1J f1}LD

operating and gasket seating conditions.

=

Diameter, measured as indicated in Figure 3.15.1 of AS 1210, in mm; or short span of non-circular ends or covers measured perpendicular to the long span, in mm.

Long span of non-circular ends or covers measured perpendicular to the short span, in mm.

Design tensile strength at the design temperature, in MPa.

Gasket moment arm taken from the design of the flange to which the plate is attached (See Clause 3.21.6 of AS 1210) or if the flange is not designed, equal to the radial distance from the centerline of the bolts to the line of the gasket reaction, as shown in Figure 3.15.1 (k) and (I) of AS 1210, in mm.

A factor depending upon the method of attachment of end,

shell dimensions and other items listed in Clause 3.15.2 of AS 1210. (See Figure 3.15.1 of AS 1210)

Perimeter of non-circular bolted end measured along the centre of the bolt holes, in mm.

Calculation pressure, in MPag.

Minimum calculated wall thickness of flat end or cover (exclusive of added allowances), in mm.

Total bolt force, given for circular ends in Clause 3.21 .6.4.4 of AS 1210, in N.

=

=

=

=

34

z

=

A factor for non-circular ends or covers that depends on the ratio of short span to long span.

Z = 3.4- 2.4D , but not greater than 2.5. o;

= Lowest efficiency of any longitudinal welded joint in an end.

Typical Unstayed Flat Ends Figure 4.7A

Typical Unstayed Flat Covers Figure 4.78

35

4.3.5 Vessels of Non-circular Cross-section

Vessels of rectangular cross-section can be designed by:

a) The method described in AS 1228, but with design strength from AS 1210; or

b) The design method in Appendix 13 of ANSI/ASME BPV VIII-1.

Sample Problem 1 - Design for Internal Pressure

The geometry and design data of a vertical cylindrical pressure vessel is specified in Figure 4.8. Cost estimates are being prepared for this vessel. It is your job to estimate the required component thicknesses.

A. What are the minimum required thicknesses for the two cylindrical sections and conical section?

Spherical End

1200

18000

520

t-

9000

L

1800

DESIGN INFORMATION Design pressure = 1.7 MPag. Design temperature = 3500 C.

Shell & end material is AS 1548-7-460R. Corrosion allowance = 2 mm.

Both ends are seamless.

Shell and cone welds are double welded to Class 2A.

Cylinder dimensions shown are inside diameters.

2: 1 Ellipsoidal End

Sample Problem 1 Figure 4.8

36

Solution

1. The required wall thickness for internal pressure of a cylindrical shell is calculated using the following equation from Table 4.2:

PD

t=---

2f1J-P

2. For Class 2A, 11 = 0.85 (AS 1210 Table 3.5.1.7)

3. f = 105 MPa for AS 1548-7-460R at 3500 (AS 1210 Table 3.3.1 (A))

4. P is given as 1.7 MPag.

5. For the 1800 mm shell, calculate D (including corrosion allowance)

D = 1800 + 2x2 = 1804mm

PD 1.7x1804

t = = = 17.4mm

2f1J - P 2xl05xO.85 -1.7

t, = t + c = 17.4 + 2

t, = 19.4mm required including corrosion allowance

6. For the 1200 mm shell, calculate D (including corrosion allowance)

D = 1200 + 2x2 = 1204mm

PD 1.7x1204

t = = = 11.6mm

2f1J-P 2xl05xO.85-1.7

t, = t + c = 11. 6 + 2

t; = 13.6mm required (including corrosion allowance)

7. The required wall thickness for internal pressure of a conical shell is calculated using the following equation from Table 4.2:

PD1 1

t= x--

2f1J - P cos a

37

8. Calculate angle a

-1(0.5(DL -DS)] _1(0.5(1804-1204)) 3000

a=tan = tan = .

Cone Length 520

t = PD1 x_l_ = 1.7x1804 x 1 = 20 Omm

2f'7 - P cos a 2xl05xO.85 -1.7 cos(30.00) .

t; =t+c=20.0+2

t, = 22.0mm required including corrosion allowance

B. For the same vessel, what are the minimum required thicknesses for the top and bottom ends?

Solution

1. Since both ends are seamless, 11 = 1.0.

2. Top End - Spherical end (Equation from Table 4.2)

R = 600+ 2 = 602mm

PR 1.7x602

t = = = 4.9mm

2f'7-0.5P 2xl05xl-0.5x1.7

t; = t + c = 4.9 + 2

t; = 6.9mm required including corrosion allowance

3. Bottom End - 2:1 Ellipsoidal end (Equation from Table 4.2)

D = 1800 + 2x2 = 1804mm

For 2 : 1 Ellipsoidal end, K = 1

PDK 1. 7 x1804xl

t= = =1~7mm

2f'7-P 2xl05xl-1.7

t, = t + c = 14.7+ 2

t, = 16.7mm required including corrosion allowance

38

C. Due to the unavailability of a suitable 2:1 ellipsoidal end you are asked to determine the minimum required thicknesses for the top end if it was a unstayed flat end welded to the inside of the cylindrical shell.

Solution

1. Since the flat end is seamless, 11 = 1.0.

2. Calculate factor K.

Figures 3.15.1 (e), (f) and (g) show acceptable methods of attaching the end to the vessel shell (See Figure 4.7A).

K = 2_ but not more than 5.0 for circular ends.

m

Where:

=

Required thickness of seamless shell, for pressure, in mm. Actual thickness of shell (minus any allowance), in mm.

=

PD 1.7x1204

t = = = 9 8mm

r 2fTJ-P 2xl05xl-1.7 .

Assume, selected shell thickness is 16 mm.

ts=16-2=14mm

t 9.8

m = _r_ = - = 0.70

t, 14

3 3 K=-=-=4.3 m 0.70

2. Calculate the required thickness of the flat end.

( P JO.5 {I 7 )0.5

t=D - =120 . = 74.1mm

KfTJ 4.3xl05xl

t, = t + c = 74.1 + 2

t, = 76.1mm required including corrosion allowance

This can be compared to the required thickness of 16.7 mm for the 2:1 ellipsoidal end.

39

4.4 DESIGN FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE AND COMPRESSIVE STRESSES

Pressure vessels are subject to compressive forces such as those caused by dead weight, wind, earthquake, and internal vacuum. Pressure vessel components behave differently under these compressive forces than when they are exposed to tensile forces (e.g., from internal pressure). This difference in behavior is due to elastic instability, which makes shells weaker in compression than in tension. In failure by elastic instability, the vessel is said to collapse or buckle. The paragraphs that follow discuss buckling of cylindrical shells due to external pressure. These basic principles also apply to other forms of shells as well as to dished ends and to compressive loads other than external pressure.

Notwithstanding the requirements of the following and requirements for additional allowances, the thickness of pressure vessel shells is not to be less than that required by Clause 3.4.3 of AS 1210.

4.4.1 Overview

The critical pressure that causes buckling is not a simple function of the stress that is produced in the shell, as is true with tensile loads. An allowable stress is not used to design pressure vessels that are subject to elastic instability. Instead, the design is based on the prevention of elastic collapse under the applied external pressure. This applied external pressure is normally 101 kPag for full vacuum conditions.

The maximum allowable external pressure can be increased by welding circumferential stiffening rings (i.e., stiffeners) around the vessel shell. The addition of stiffening reduces the effective buckling length of the shell, and this length reduction increases the allowable buckling pressure. These stiffener rings may be welded on either the inside or the outside of the shell. Figure 4.9 illustrates the use of stiffeners on a pressure vessel cylinder.

Other factors also affect the design of a pressure vessel for external pressure since they also influence its resistance to buckling.

• At elevated temperature, the material stress-strain curves are nonlinear with no definite yield point and with a variable modulus of elasticity.

• The shell diameter and thickness are additional geometric parameters that affect shell stiffness.

Clauses 3.9 and 3.13 of AS 1210 contain procedures to calculate the allowable external pressure on cylindrical and spherical shells and dished ends, respectively. These calculation procedures use an iterative approach. If the pressure at which buckling will occur is less than the required design pressure, then:

• The shell may be thickened

• Stiffening rings may be added

• If rings are already present they can be placed more frequently or increased in size

• For dished ends, the thickness could be increased, or the geometry changed

40

/ Moment Axis of Ring

~ -

/"

+-- hiS

Stiffener Rings on Pressure Vessel Cylinders Figure 4.9

The design compressive strength for a pressure vessel component (other than iron castings) shall:

• Not exceed the design tensile strength.

• Comply with the requirements of Clause 3.7.5 of AS 1210 for shells subject to axial compression.

• Comply with the requirements of Clause 3.9 of AS 1210 for vessels subject to external pressure.

4.4.2 Shells

The allowable external pressure of a cylindrical shell is a function of material, design temperature, mean diameter, corroded thickness, and unstiffened length. See Clause 3.9.3 of AS 1210 for the design procedure. The allowable external pressure of a spherical shell is a function of material, design temperature, mean diameter and corroded thickness. See Clause 3.9.4 of AS 1210 for the design procedure. AS 1210 allows alternative methods given in ANSI/ASME BPV-VIII-1.

4.4.3 Dished Ends

The allowable external pressure of a dished end is a function of material, design temperature, outside radius, head depth, and corroded thickness. Stiffening rings are not used to increase the allowable external pressure of ends. The end thickness is increased as required to achieve the required external pressure. See Clause 3.13 of AS 1210 for design requirements.

41

The minimum calculated thickness after forming for an ellipsoidal end is the greater of:

a) The thickness of an equivalent sphere of outside radius Ro determined in accordance with Clause 3.9 of AS 1210, where:

0.25 h

Factor = --+0.4-0 -0.2

holD Do

b) The thickness, t determined for a dished end under an equivalent internal pressure equal to 1.67 times the external pressure, assuming a joint efficiency of 1") = 1.0.

The minimum calculated thickness after forming for a spherical or torispherical end is the greater of:

a) The thickness of an equivalent sphere having an outside radius Ro equal to the outside crown radius of the end, determined in accordance with Clause 3.9 of AS 1210.

b) The thickness, t determined for a dished end under an equivalent internal pressure equal to 1.67 times the external pressure, assuming a joint efficiency of 1") = 1.0.

4.4.4 Conical Ends and Reducers

The allowable external pressure of a conical section is a function of material, design temperature, mean diameters at the small and large ends, conical section length, angle of slope, and corroded thickness. The allowable external pressure may be increased by the addition of stiffener rings, or by increasing the cone thickness. See Clause 3.11 of AS 1210 for design requirements.

42

Sample Problem 2 - External Pressure Calculation

This Sample Problem demonstrates the external pressure design procedure for one example of a cylindrical pressure vessel shell. Refer to AS 1210 for additional details and procedures to use for spherical shells, dished ends and conical ends and reducers. A tall cylindrical pressure vessel is being supplied. The geometry and design conditions are specified in Figure 4.10. The vendor has proposed that the wall thickness of this vessel be 10 mm, and no stiffener rings have been specified. Is the 10 mm thickness acceptable for external pressure? If it is not acceptable, what minimum thickness is required? Round your answer upward to the nearest millimeter.

45000

1200

DESIGN INFORMATION Design Pressure = Full Vacuum. Design Temperature = 2500 C.

Shell and Head Material is AS 1548-7-460R. Yield Stress = 198 MPa.

Corrosion Allowance = 2 mm.

Cylinder Dimension Shown is Inside Diameter.

2: 1 Ellipsoidal End

Sample Problem 2 Figure 4.10

43

Solution

1. First, calculate the unstiffened design length, L, and the outside diameter, Do, of the cylindrical shell, both in millimetres.

1 L = Tangent Length + 2x - h 3

The tangent length is given as 45 metres.

Since the heads are ellipsoidal, the depth of each head is equal to % the inside diameter of the shell.

1200

h= --= 300mm 4

2

L = 45xl000+ -x300 = 45200mm 3

Calculate outside diameter Do, mm

Do = 1200+2xl0 = 1220mm

Next, determine the mean diameter, Om.

Accounting for the corrosion allowance,

t = 10- 2 = 8mm

Dm = Do -t = 1220-8 = 1212mm

2. Determine the value of circumferential strain, Aa.

Aa is the greater of the values calculated as follows:

(Note, AS 1210 also gives an alternate, more accurate method of determining Aa)

A l.3t1.5 = l.3x81.5 = 0.000019

a= D O.5L 1212o.5x45200

m

Aa = l.1(-t-J2 = l.1(_8_)2 = 0.000048

Dm 1212

:. Aa = 0.000048

3. Determine the values of theoretical pressure required to cause elastic buckling of shell, Pe and theoretical pressure required to cause plastic yielding of shell, Py.

44

2E4 t 2x189000xO.000048x8

P = -_Q = = 0.120MPa

e D 1212

m

Y = 198MPa

2Yt 2x198x8

P = - = = 2.614MPa

y ri; 1212

4. Calculate the value of permissible calculation pressure from the following equations as applicable:

P (2-P / P)

P = y y e where Pe > Py

3

P 0.120

:.P = ___£_ = -- = 0.040MPa

3 3

Since the calculated P < 101 kPa, the proposed 10 mm shell thickness is not sufficient.

4. Now determine how thick the shell must be in order to have P 2 101 kPa. This is a trial-and-error process, by which the thickness is increased until an acceptable value is found. The intent is to use the thinnest shell that will meet the requirement. Without going through all the iterations, we will assume a new shell thickness of 13 mm and thus a corroded thickness of 11 mm.

Do = 1200 + 2x13 = 1226mm

t = 13 - 2 = 11mm

Dm = Do -t = 1226-11 = 121Smm

Aa is the greater of the values calculated as follows:

A 1.3t1.5 = 1.3xll1.5 = 0.000030

a= D O.5L 121So.5x4S200

m

Aa = 1.1(-t-J2 = 1.1(____!_!_)2 = 0.000090

o; 121S

:. Aa = 0.000090

45

2E4 t 2x189000xO.000090xll

P = -_Q = = 0.309MPa

e D 1215

m

Y = 198MPa

2Yt 2x198x11

P = - = = 3.585MPa

y ri; 1215

P 0.309

:.P = ___£_ = -- = 0.103MPa

3 3

Since the calculated P > 101 kPa, the proposed 13 mm shell thickness is sufficient.

4.5 REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS

Calculation of the required wall thickness of a nozzle is one step in the design of openings in pressure vessels. This is done in the same manner as for any other cylindrical shell. There is more to the design of openings than calculating the nozzle thickness, cutting a hole in the vessel, and welding the nozzle in.

AS 1210 uses simplified rules to ensure that the membrane stresses are kept within acceptable limits when an opening is made in a vessel shell or dished end. See Clause 3.18 of AS 1210 for the design requirements of openings and their reinforcements in cylinders, cones, spheres, and flat ends.

When the opening is made, a volume of material is removed from the pressure vessel. This metal is no longer available to absorb the applied loads. Reinforcement is the provision of an extra stress-transmitting area in the wall of a cylinder or shell. Figure 4.11 shows the principles involved. Figure 4.11 (i and ii) shows part of a cylinder's longitudinal section with the major circumferential stress (f = design tensile strength) acting across the critical longitudinal plane. The nominal material thickness is T and a hole of diameter Db is bored to accommodate a branch connection. Dimensions are assumed to be relevant to the fully corroded condition. The stress transmitting area removed is A = Dbt where t is

'calculated' material thickness. Figure 4.11 (iii) shows how compensation is made for the area removed by providing an equal area for alternate force paths in otherwise unused material of the cylinder and branch. Not all the branch wall can be devoted to reinforcement since the internally pressurized branch is a cylinder in its own right, with calculation and nominal thicknesses, tb and T b1, determined in a manner identical to the main shell. Provided that the longitudinal welds in both the shell and branch do not lie in the critical longitudinal plane, from a reinforcement point of view, both t and tb would be calculated using a weld efficiency of 11 = 1 (See Figure 4.12).

46

Critioal • Neoessauynrnate:l1ial lost

Ilongitud~n:81 ·W:hen hole, is bored -

; plane· "'~ _ to bE:l compenSEI'ted

[, - .... ""

I

• Materia.1 necessary to transmit ··eircumfieren'iall stress of m.agnitude f

f) Parent material

II) Hole bored

• Material not otherwise, necessarv v/hieh mllv [be used for compensation

In) C,omp:en.satio:n ad:d:ed

The Principles of Reinforcement Figure 4.11

r -_

Critical longi~udina.1 plane

Longitudinal wel;ds 'Outside, crltlcal longitudinal plane

Critical Longitudinal Plane for an Opening Figure 4.12

47

AS 1210 simplifies the design calculations by viewing the nozzle-to-vessel junction area in cross section (See Figure 4.13). This simplification permits the nozzle reinforcement calculations to be made in terms of metal cross-sectional area rather than metal volume. AS 1210 requires that the metal area that is removed from the opening (See Clause 3.18.7.2) must be replaced by an equivalent metal area in order for the opening to be adequately reinforced. The replacement metal must be located adjacent to the opening within defined geometric limits (See Clause 3.18.10). The replacement metal area may come from three sources:

• Excess metal that is available in the shell or nozzle neck that is not required for pressure or to absorb other loads.

• Reinforcement that is added to the shell or nozzle neck.

• Welds.

AS 1210 specifies requirements for shape of opening (See Clause 3.18.3), size of openings (See Clause 3.18.4) and location of openings (See Clause 3.18.5).

AS 1210 does not limit the size of properly designed openings. The application of the requirements in AS 1210 for the reinforcement of openings in cylindrical, conical and spherical shells is intended to cover the following:

a) For vessels equal to or less than 1500 mm inside diameter, one-half of the vessel diameter but not to exceed 500 mm.

b) For vessels greater than 1500 mm inside diameter, one-third of the vessel diameter but not to exceed 1000 mm.

Refer to Clause 3.18.4.1 of AS 1210 for treatment of larger openings.

For dished ends refer to Clause 3.18.4.2 of AS 1210 for the treatment of openings in the end closure of a cylinder which is larger than one-half of the inside diameter of the shell.

Additional reinforcement must be provided if the vessel shell and nozzle do not have sufficient excess thickness that is not required for pressure or other loads. If a compensating plate is used, its material should have an allowable stress that is at least equal to that of the pressure vessel shell or dished end material to which it is attached. No credit can be taken for the additional strength of any reinforcement that has a higher allowable stress. If reinforcement material with a lower allowable stress is used, the reinforcement area must be increased to compensate for this.

48

I )

I See Clause 3,18,10,3

-- _____!d:!!ll~_ ~'11P~~: -r _l

A1+A2+.A~+A4 ;;.tA

Is] Simple set-through cranen

. ~.

Tr1 T~. • t~ ~~~==~~H-~~~~L-~~~~~==**====~~.

~r

I

SI3~ Clal"ls~ 3'.18.10.3

1

A:1 + A,2+ A3 + Aa 4- As ~ A tbl Sloping reinforced set-through branch

Reinforcement Areas and Limits for Openings (AS 1210 Figure 3.18.10 Excerpt) Figure 4.13

49

The required thickness, t of a seamless shell or end to be replaced by reinforcement is calculated in accordance with AS 1210 for the calculation pressure, except:

a) When the opening and reinforcement is entirely in the spherical portion of a torispherical end, t is the thickness required by Clause 3.7 of AS 1210 for a seamless sphere having a radius equal to the crown radius of the end.

b) When the opening is in a cone, t is the thickness required for a seamless cone at a diameter 0 measured where the nozzle pierces the inside wall of the cone.

c) When the opening and reinforcement are in an ellipsoidal end and are located entirely within a circle the centre of which coincides with the centre of the end and the diameter of which is equal to 80% of the shell diameter, t is the thickness required for a seamless sphere of radius

KiD, where K1 is a factor depending on the ratio of !l_ (See Table

2h

3.18.7.2 of AS 121 0) and 0 is the inside diameter of the end.

See Clause 3.18.9 of AS 1210 for the reinforcement required for openings in flat ends.

AS 1210 specifies circumstances under which no nozzle reinforcement evaluations are needed (Unreinforced openings - See Clause 3.18.6). It also provides rules to evaluate the reinforcement of openings that are located near each other (See Clause 3.1 8.12).

Sample Problem 3 illustrates the procedure used to evaluate nozzle reinforcement.

4.6 CONNECTIONS AND BRANCHES

Requirements for pipes, branches and fittings connected to vessel shells and ends are given in Clause 3.19 of AS 1210. Welded connections which comply with:

• Figure 3.19.3 (welded set-on type branch connections, set-in type

branch connections and branch connections with compensating rings)

• Figure 3.19.4 (screwed and socket welded connections)

• Figure 3.19.6 (studded connections), and

• Figure 3.19.9 (forged branch connections)

meet the requirements for strength of attachment and do not require further checking unless the requirement is shown in the relevant figure.

The diameter of the hole cut through a shell or end for an inserted pad or branch is limited to the diameter of the pad or branch plus 6 millimetres. The pad or branch is centrally located in the opening before welding.

50

Reinforcement plates and rings which may have chambers sealed by welding must have at least one tell-tale hole per chamber in accordance with Clause 3.19.3.4 of AS 1210.

The design basis and thickness of branches are to be in accordance with Clause 3.19.10ofAS 1210.

4.7 INSPECTION OPENINGS

The requirements for inspection openings in vessels are given in Clause 3.20 of AS 1210.

Sample Problem 3 - Reinforcement of Openings

You are reviewing the nozzle design details that are proposed by a vendor for a new pressure vessel and have selected a 200 NB nozzle into the shell for detailed evaluation. The vendor has not provided any reinforcement for this nozzle, and he has not provided any calculations to verify that use of the nozzle without reinforcement is acceptable.

Determine if this nozzle requires additional reinforcement. If it does, assume that a 12 mm thick compensating plate of AS 1548-7-460R material is used. What must the minimum plate diameter be? Neglect any contribution of weld areas in these calculations since they are insignificant. The information that is needed to perform your evaluation is in Figure 4.14.

esign empera ur
Shell Material is A
Nozzle Material is
Seamless.
Corrosion Allowan
Vessel is to AS 121
Nozzle does not pa
Weld Seam.
....
..II1II ...
I 'I11III ,.. I
\ DESIGN INFORMATION Design Pressure = 2 MPag.

D· T t e = 1000C.

S l548-7-460R. ASTM A53 Gr. B,

ce=3 mm. o Class l.

ss through Vessel

200 NB Nozzle 219.1 mm O.D. x 12.7 mm Wall

16 mm Thick Shell - 1200 mm I.D.

Sample Problem 3 Figure 4.14

51

Solution

Calculate the required reinforcement area, A

Where:

d

t

F

=

Finished diameter of circular opening, or finished dimension (chord length at mid surface of thickness excluding excess thickness available for reinforcement) of non-radial opening in the plane under consideration, in mm.

Minimum required thickness of the shell using appropriate AS 1210 formula and a weld joint efficiency of 1.0, in mm.

1 for all cases except that for integrally reinforced nozzles that are inserted into a shell or cone at an angle to the vessel longitudinal axis, Figure 3.18.7 of AS 1210 may be used.

Nominal thickness of branch wall, less corrosion allowance, in mm. design strength of set through branch divided by design strength of shell or end (but no more than 1.0).

1 for a set on branch.

=

=

=

=

=

Calculate the diameter, d.

d = Diameter of Opening - 2 (Wall Thickness ) + 2( Corrosion Allowance)

d = 219.1- 2x12.7 + 2x3 = 199.7 rnrn

Calculate the required thickness of the shell, t (See Table 4.2).

=

1.0 when the opening is in the parent plate away from the welds, or when the opening passes through a circumferential joint in the shell (excluding end to shell joints).

AS 1210 joint efficiency when any part of the opening passes through any other welded joint.

=

Pi) 2x1204

t = = = 10.56mm

2f7J - P 2x1l5xl- 2

Assume a value of 1.0 for F.

Calculate nominal thickness of branch, less corrosion allowance.

Tbl = 12.7 - 3 = 9.7rnrn

52

Calculate ratio fr1.

For vessel, f = 115 MPa (Table 3.3.1 (A) of AS 1210). For branch, f = 103 MPa (Table 3.3.1 (A) of AS 1210).

103

f,.1 = - = 0.9 lIS

Calculate the required reinforcement area, A

A = 197.7xlO.S6xl + 2x9.7xlO.S6xl(1- 0.9) = 2130mm2

Calculate the available reinforcement area in the vessel shell, A1, as the larger of:

Where:

=

Nominal thickness of the vessel wall, less corrosion allowance, in mm.

~ = (lx13.0 -lxlO.S6)99.7 - 2x9.7(lx13.0 -lxlO.S6Xl- 0.9) = 482mm2

~ = 2(lx13.0 -lxlO.S6X13.0 + 9.7)- 2x9.7(lx13.0 -lxlO.S6Xl- 0.9) = 106mm2

:. ~ = 482mm2, available reinforcement in shell

Calculate the reinforcement area that is available in the nozzle wall, A2, as the smaller of:

Except that this limit may be exceeded, provided that it is not in excess of:

53

Where:

=

Calculated thickness of a seamless branch wall required for pressure load plus external loads, if any (exclusive of added allowances), in mm.

Nominal thickness or height of reinforcing element, less corrosion allowance, in mm.

o ifthere is no reinforcing pad.

design strength of branch wall extended beyond the shell thickness divided by design strength of shell or end (but no more than 1.0)

Tr1

=

=

=

Calculate ratio fr2.

103

t.. = - = 0.9 lIS

Calculate the required thickness of the nozzle, tb (See Table 4.2).

Pd 2x199.7

tb = = = 2.0mm

2f7] - P 2xl03xl- 2

Calculate the available reinforcement in the nozzle neck, A2, as the smaller of:

~ = (9.7 - 2.0 )Sx13.0xO.9 = 336mm2

~ = (9.7 - 2.0 XSx9.7 + 2xO )0.9 = 4S1mm2

Except that this limit may be exceeded, provided that it is not in excess of:

~ = (9.7-2.0)t.6(1O.S6x9.7)Yz +2xOp.9 = 488mm2

:. ~ = 488mm2 ,available reinforcement in nozzle

Determine the total available reinforcement area, AT, and compare it to the required area.

Since AT < A the nozzle is not adequately reinforced, and a compensating plate is required.

Determine the required compensating plate area, A5, and compensating plate diameter, o,

Since the required reinforcement area is 2130 mm2 and the available reinforcement area is 970 rnrrr', we need to calculate the required area for the compensating plate.

As = A- AT

As =(2130-970)= 1160mm2, required area in compensating plate.

54

Now, calculate Dp.

Trl = 12mm (compensating plate thickness) As = [D, - (d + 2 Tbl)] Trl

1160 = [D, - (199.7 + 2x9.7)] 12 96.67=[Dp -219.1]

:. Dp = 315.8mm

Therefore, the minimum required compensating plate diameter is 315.8 mm.

Confirm that this diameter does not extend beyond the outer limit of the permitted reinforcement zone in the shell, 2d.

2d = 2 x 199.7=399.4mm

Therefore, Dp = 315.8 mm is acceptable.

4.8 FLANGE RATING

ASME 816.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, provides steel flange dimensional details for standard pipe sizes through NPS 24". ASME 816.5 flanges are acceptable for most pressure vessel nozzles and for shell flanges when the vessel diameter corresponds to a standard pipe size. Specification of an ASME 816.5 flange involves selection of the correct material and flange "Class". The paragraphs that follow discuss the flange specification process in general terms.

Flange material specifications are listed in Table 1 A in ASME 816.5. The material specifications are grouped within specific Material Group Numbers. For example, if the pressure vessel is fabricated from carbon steel, ASTM A 105 is an appropriate flange material specification in most applications. ASTM A 105 material is in Material Group No. 1.1. Refer to ASME 816.5 for additional acceptable material specifications and corresponding Material Group Numbers.

Table 2 of ASME 816.5 is used to select the appropriate flange Class for the specified design conditions and Material Group Number. ASME 816.5 has seven Classes: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500, and 2,500. Each Class specifies the design pressure and temperature combinations that are acceptable for a flange that has that designation. As the number of the Class increases, the strength of the flange increases for a given Material Group.

Specification of the size, material, and Class completes most of the selection requirements for flanges. Flange type and gasket material must also be specified. Discussion of these factors is beyond the scope of these Notes.

55

Sample Problem 4 - Determine Required Flange Rating

For the pressure vessel described below, use the following procedure to determine the required flange rating (or Class) in accordance with ASME 816.5.

Pressure Vessel Material Specifications:

Shell and Heads: AS 1548-5-490R Flanges: ASTM A 105

Design Temperature: 370°C (700°F) Design Pressure: 1.9 MPag (275 psig)

Solution

1. Identify the material specification of the flange.

SA-105

2. Go to Table 1A of ASME 816.5 and determine the Material Group No. for the selected material specification.

Group 1.1

3. Go to Table 2 of ASME 816.5 with the design temperature and Material Group No. determined in Step 2.

• The intersection of design temperature with Material Group No. is the maximum allowable design pressure for the flange Class.

• Table 2 of ASME 816.5 contains design information for all seven possible flange Classes (i.e., 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500,2500).

• Select the lowest Class whose maximum allowable design pressure is equal to or greater than the required design pressure.

At 700°F, for Group 1.1 flange material, the Lowest Class that will accommodate a design pressure of 275 psig is Class 300. At 700°F a Class 300 flange of Material Group 1.1 can have a design pressure up to 535 psig (3.7 MPag).

4.9 FLANGE DESIGN

For some pressure vessel applications, it is advantageous to have one or more flanged joints in the vessel shell to facilitate entry, removal, and/or replacement of internal components. In most applications such as these, the shell diameter is of a size that standard-sized flanges designed in accordance with either AS 2129, AS/NZS 4331.1, ASME 816.5, ASME 816.47 or 8S3293 may be used (See Table 4.3). Mechanical design calculations for these standard flanges are not necessary. AS 1210 states that flanges and bolting complying with AS 2129 used at maximum conditions permitted by that standard may result in high stresses and risk of leaking, particularly under hydrostatic test. These flanges should not be used with lethal contents where risk of leaking cannot be tolerated. Also, AS 2129 states that flange Tables A, D and E may not be suitable for use with hard gaskets, such as spiral wound gaskets, or ring-type gaskets, as the flange may deform permanently before satisfactory seating loads are achieved.

56

Standard Title
AS 2129 Flanges for pipes, valves and fittings
AS/NZS 4331 Metallic flanges - Part 1 : Steel flanges
BS 3293 Specification for carbon steel pipe flanges (over 24 inches
nominal size) for the petroleum industry
ANSI/ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME/ANSI B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60 Flange Standards Table 4.3

Flanges must be custom-designed in situations where standard-sized flanges are not appropriate. All custom-designed flanges must meet the requirements of Clause 3.21 of AS 1210. The design procedure is a complicated trial and error method for designing a flange system consisting of bolting, gasket and flanges and is best done using a computer program. The following paragraphs briefly describe:

• The main steps in the AS 1210 flange design procedure.

• The parameters that affect flange design and in-service performance.

AS 1210 draws attention to potential problems with large diameter flanges, which may rotate more than small diameter flanges when designed to AS 1210 rules. Such flanges can leak, particularly those sealed with non self-energizing gaskets under cyclic loading.

Various types of flange attachments are shown in Figure 3.21.3 of AS 1210. Flanges are to be attached to the vessel or branch in accordance with the dimensions given. Limits of use of welded flange connections are also given. Refer to Clause 3.21.3 of AS 1210 for details.

Narrow-face flanges with ring-type gaskets are designed either as loose-type flanges, integral-type flanges, or optional-type flanges. Loose-type means no attachment to the pipe, or if attached, then no ability to transfer load through the attachment. Integral-type means that the ring, hub, and pipe are one continuous component. Optional-type flanges are those which by choice can be designed as integral or loose-type.

AS 1210 also contains methods for designing flanges with full-face gaskets (Clause 3.21.11) and reverse flanges (Clause 3.21.12). Limits for the use of flanges with full-face gaskets are given in AS 1210 Clause 3.21.2(b). Flat face flanges with metal-to-metal contact outside the bolt circle can be designed in accordance with Appendix Y of ANSI/ASME BPV VIII-1 or other approved methods.

57

4.9.1 AS 1210 Flange Design Procedure

The AS 1210 flange design procedure consists of determining the:

• Bolting requirements.

• Flange design loads and moments.

• Stresses in the flange ring and hub.

The first step is to select the flange and bolt material and determine the allowable stresses at both ambient and design temperatures. Then estimate the dimensions including thickness, and select the flange facing and gasket details. All calculations are made with dimensions in the corroded condition i.e. by allowing for loss of metal equal to the corrosion allowance.

Determine an equivalent pressure if external loads exist by converting the external loads to an equivalent pressure (See Section 4.9.4 for a suitable method).

The next step is to determine the required number and size of bolts. Bolting requirements are determined by calculating the loads on the bolts for two separate cases:

• Normal operation

• Initial flange bolt-up

The bolt load during normal operation, Wm1, is based on the design conditions. The bolt load during initial flange bolt-up, Wm2, is based on the load (or stress) necessary to seat the gasket and form a tight seal at atmospheric temperature conditions without the presence of internal pressure.

The bolt area that is required for each of these loads is then calculated by dividing each bolt load by the bolt allowable stress at design temperature and room temperature, respectively. Either the operating case or the gasket seating case may result in the minimum required bolt area, Am; therefore, both cases must be checked. Since bolts come in standard sizes, and there are limitations on the spacing between bolts, the actual bolt area, Ab, is usually greater than the required bolt area.

58

The next step is to determine the design loads and moments on the flange. These loads include the:

• Design bolt load on the flange (W).

The excess bolting area may result in overstressing of the flange in the bolting-up operation. To provide a margin of safety against such overstressing, AS 1210 specifies that the design load, W, for the bolting-up condition be based on the average of the minimum and the actual bolting areas (a compromise between economy and safety), or:

Where:

=

Design strength for bolt at atmospheric temperature.

For the operating condition:

W=W

ml

• Hydrostatic pressure loads that act on the flange (Ho and HT)'

• Gasket sealing force (HG).

These loads do not all act at the same location on the flange, therefore, effective moment arms (ho, hT, and hG) are calculated based on the locations of the bolts and gasket, and on the flange geometry (See Figure 4.15). The appropriate loads are then multiplied by the effective moment arms to determine flange design moments for the operating and gasket seating cases.

A

Gasket

Flange Loads and Moment Arms Figure 4.15

The stresses in the flange ring and hub are then calculated using stress factors specified in AS 1210 (based on flange geometry), the applied moments, and the flange geometry. The stresses are calculated for both the operating case and gasket seating cases and are then compared to the appropriate AS 1210 allowable stresses.

59

All flange stresses will be lower than the appropriate allowable stresses if the flange is designed properly. It may be necessary to increase the flange thickness, change the hub dimensions, or make other changes to the flange design parameters to keep flange stresses within their allowable limits. The computer programs used for flange design use iterative calculation procedures to optimize flange design. In this sense, the goal of optimization is to design a "least weight" (i.e., lowest cost) flange that will satisfy the design requirements.

4.9.2 Parameters That Affect Flange Design and In-Service Performance

The following parameters affect flange design and in-service performance:

• AS 1210 m and y parameters.

• Specified gasket widths.

• Flange facing and nubbin width, w.

• Bolt size, number, and spacing.

The gasket factor, m, determines the amount of force required to keep the gasketed joint tight. The minimum design seating stress, y, determines how much gasket stress is required to initially seat or deform the gasket. Both parameters are used in the flange design calculations.

AS 1210 specifies m and y based on gasket type in Table 3.21.6.4(A) (Excerpted in Figure 4.16). Values for m and y specified by gasket manufacturers are given in Appendix B. Higher values of m and y typically indicate that a gasket is harder to seal or seat. While this is a consideration in gasket selection, gasket type and material are usually selected based on historical service experience and the corrosion resistance of the gasket material in the process environment. Gasket materials should be used within the service conditions recommended by the gasket manufacturer.

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60

Flanges sometimes have leakage problems during operation. When this occurs, there is often the tendency to change the gasket to a different type that has provided leak-free performance in other applications. This problem-solving method should always be approached with caution because the flanges were designed for a specific gasket type with its associated m and y values. Therefore, the existing bolting may either impose too high a load on the gasket (and possibly crush it) or the new gasket may require a higher load to seat it (which might not be possible with the existing bolting).

In addition to actual gasket widths N, two other gasket widths are referred to in AS 1210: the basic seating width, bo, and the effective seating width, b. The effective seating width is a function of the basic seating width, and the basic seating width is a function of the actual width and the type of flange face. See Table 3.21.6.4(8) in AS 1210 (Excerpted in Figure 4.17). In general, wider gaskets provide better sealing, but a wider gasket also requires a larger bolt load (i.e., more bolt area) to seat and seal the gasket. The required flange thickness increases as the bolting area increases.

61

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AS 1210 Gasket Widths

(AS 1210 Figure 3.21.6.4(8) Excerpt) Figure 4.17

62

The effective seating width, b, is also a function of the flange facing type and the nubbin width, w, for flat metal gaskets. Table 3.21.6.4(A) in AS 1210 (Excerpted in Figure 4.18) indicates which facing sketch is applicable for a given gasket type and material.

The values of m, band y given in AS 1210 have proven satisfactory in actual service. The values are suggested only and are not mandatory.

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AS 1210 Gasket Materials and Facings (AS 1210 Figure 3.21.6.4(A) Excerpt) Figure 4.18

The equations for determining b are based on w, N, and the type of flange facing. Note that b is used in the Code equations to determine the bolt load required for sealing the gasket during operation, Wm1, and the bolt load required for seating the gasket initially, Wm2. Once a gasket type, material, width, and facing are selected, the required bolting area can be determined.

• The bolt size, number, and spacing that are used to clamp the flanges together are interrelated parameters that affect their overall design.

• The number of bolts multiplied by the bolt root area of a single bolt must be greater than the minimum required bolt area, Am.

• The bolts must be far enough away from the shell or hub of the flange, and be far enough apart circumferentially, so that there is adequate clearance to permit access for a wrench (See Section 4.9.3).

• There must be adequate distance to other flange or vessel surfaces to ensure adequate clearance for standard wrenches.

63

It may appear that maintaining these minimum bolt dimensions can be easily achieved if a few large bolts are used. However, the bolts should also be spaced as close together as practical for several reasons.

• Having fewer bolts increases the bolt load moment arms. Larger moment arms increase the bending moments for which the flange must be designed and thus increases the required flange thickness.

• AS 1210 requires that the flange design moment is increased if the bolts are widely spaced. This results in a thicker flange. Refer to Clause 3.21.4.1 of AS 1210 (or Section 4.9.3).

• Excessive bolt spacing could make the flange more prone to leakage. The portions of the gasket located between the bolts might not be compressed sufficiently to maintain a tight seal.

4.9.3 Optimum Selection of Bolts and Flange Dimensions

There are a number of possible combinations for the number and size of bolts to provide the required bolting area. The minimum bolt spacing based on wrench clearances limits the number of bolts that can be placed in a given bolt circle. The maximum bolt spacing is limited by the permissible deflection that would exist between flanges. If the deflection is excessive, the gasket joint will leak. AS 1210 recommends the bolt spacing on unproven flange designs be not greater than:

6t

Pb max = 2Db + ---

m + 0.5 for narrow face flanges, or

6t ( E )7;;

Pbmax = 2Db + for flanges with full face gaskets.

m + 0.5 200000

If bolt spacing, Pb exceeds 2Db + 6t the total flange moments are to be

m+o.5

increased by a factor equal to:

[Pb /(2Db + 6t )]0.5

m+o.5

Where:

Db =
E =
m =
Pb =
t = Bolt outside diameter, in mm.

Modulus of Elasticity of flange material at operating temperature, in MPa.

Gasket factor (See Table 3.21.6(A) of AS 1210) Centre-line to centre-line bolt spacing, in mm. Flange thickness, in mm.

Before the bolting calculations can be completed, the inside diameter of the vessel, or nozzle, B and the hub thickness, g1, must be known.

64

The wrench clearances limit the minimum bolt distance from the hub. In general it is desirable to use a minimum-diameter bolt circle and an even number of bolts, preferably a multiple of four. The minimum diameter of a bolt circle may be determined by setting up a table in which the number of bolts required, the root area, the preferred bolt spacing, Bs, and the radial spacing, R are tabulated as functions of bolt size (See Tables 4.4A and 4.4B for Bs and R). The minimum boltcircle diameter will be the greater of:

c = B + 2(gl + R) to satisfy the radial clearances, or

c = nBs to satisfy bolt spacing requirements. 7r

Where:

n

=

Number of bolts.

The optimum design is usually obtained when these two controlling diameters are approximately equal.

Refer to Figure 4.19 for the flange parameters.

Bolt Bolt Bolt Spacing, Bs Minimum Edge
Diameter Root Minimum Preferred Radial Distance
Db Area Distance E
Ac R
(mm) (mm2 (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
10 52.3 25 75 18 14
12 76.2 30 75 20 15
16 144 38 75 26 20
20 225 46 75 32 24
24 324 55 75 38 28
27 427 82 42 30
30 519 90 46 34
33 647 98 50 36
36 759 105 54 40
39 913 112 58 42
42 1045 120 62 45
45 1224 128 66 48
48 1377 135 70 52
52 1652 145 75 55
56 1905 155 80 60
60 2227 165 85 64
64 2574 175 90 68 Metric Bolt Data Table 4.4A

65

Bolt Bolt Bolt Spacing, a, Minimum Edge
Diameter Root Minimum Preferred Radial Distance
Db Area Distance E
Ac R
(inch) (mm2) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
3/a 45.1 25 75 18 14
'h 81.3 32 75 22 16
:>/a 130 38 75 24 20
3/4 195 45 75 30 22
'/a 270 54 75 32 24
1 355 58 75 35 28
1'/a 470 64 75 38 30
1'/4 599 72 75 45 32
13/a 745 78 48 35
1'/2 906 84 52 38
1:>/a 1084 90 54 42
13/4 1277 96 58 45
1 't« 1486 102 62 48
2 1711 108 64 52
2'/4 2208 120 70 58
2'/2 2769 135 78 62 Note: Bolts up to 1" have a U NC thread profile. Bolts above 1" have an 8UN thread profile.

Imperial Bolt Data Table 4.4B

t

H

E

R

c

B

Flange Parameters Figure 4.19

66

4.9.4. Analysis of Flange Joints under External Loads

AS 1210 requires that appropriate allowances be made for external loads on flanges. The conservative equivalent pressure method is the most common method of accounting for these external loads. The equivalent pressure for an applied radial force, FA and bending moment, M, is given by:

Where:

G

=

Diameter at location of gasket force, in mm.

The equivalent pressure is then added to the design pressure and the flange is designed in accordance with Clause 3.21 of AS 1210.

4.10 FLANGE INSTALLATION BOLT LOAD, TORQUE AND PROCEDURE

4.10.1 Background

The intended purpose of AS 1210 is to provide guidelines for designing flanges so that they do not fail. Gasket factors given in AS 1210 aren't intended to calculate the gasket stresses required for a leak-free seal or to define the assembly limits on gasket stresses; they are intended to give an idea of how much stress the flange joint is going to have to withstand for a given gasket material. Gasket factors in AS 1210 do not consider criteria such as temperature, creep, sealability, etc., that are critical to performance. This is also true for maximum allowable bolt stresses. AS 1210 specifies maximum allowable bolt stresses when designing the flange; they are not intended to limit the assembly stress in the bolts. These allowable stresses are intended to force flange designers to over design the joint, to use more and/or larger bolts and design thicker flanges. In short, then, AS 1210 is intended to be a designer's document, not an assembler's document.

67

4.10.2 Bolting Guidelines

To achieve a trouble free joint one of the most important aspects to consider is the bolts or stud bolts. Reliability depends on achieving and maintaining an acceptable level of tension in each bolt.

The method employed to tighten the bolts is very important and can result in significant variations from those anticipated. As a guide Table 4.5 shows the variation of bolt tension with the tightening method.

Method Used Tools Required Variation of
Tension From
Mean Value
Wrench (No Torque Control) Spanner or Wrench ±50%
Wrench (With Torque Control) Calibrated Torque Wrench ±30%
Hydraulic Tensioner Multiple Stud Tensioners ±10% to ±30%
Direct Strain Measurement Rotabolt pre-set Studs ±5% Variation of Bolt Tension Table 4.5

If the initial bolt stress is too low the total amount of strain (stretch in the bolt) is low and under these circumstances any subsequent reduction in thickness of the gasket due to creep will quickly result in loss of bolt strain and subsequent leakage.

The probable bolt stress developed when flanges are tightened with ordinary wrenching methods is often expressed as:

Where:

=

Bolt stress achieved on assembly Bolt diameter in mm

=

For smaller bolts this results in excessive stress unless care is exercised. For larger bolts, however, it is often impossible to develop the required stress by hand.

68

4.10.3 Calculation of Installation Bolt Load and Torque

In general, flange connections consist of mating flanges, gaskets and bolts (See Figure 4.20). Failure to consider each of these when doing up a flange may result in premature failure, environmental emissions and even worst, a serious incident.

Shell

Flange Connection Figure 4.20

Maximum installation bolt loads should be calculated taking into account the following:

• The strength of the flange. The flange stresses based on AS 1210 Section 3.21 methods should be limited to:

Where:

G'max =
Re =
U = Flange stress, in MPa.

Specified minimum yield strength of the flange material at room temperature, in MPa.

Uncertainty factor for the method of bolting (1.25 for a calibrated torque wrench).

• The gasket manufacturer's minimum and maximum recommended compression of the gasket.

• The strength of the bolt. The recommended bolt pre-load is generally calculated assuming 50-60 % of the proof load of the bolt (based on the bolt root area).

69

Bolt torques can be calculated using the following simplified relationship between torque and the bolt pre-load.

Where:

T =
K =
P =
Db = Torque per bolt, in N.m.

Torque coefficient or nut factor (See Table 4.6) Bolt pre-load, in kN

Nominal diameter of bolt, in mm

Bolt Condition Torque Bolt Condition Torque
Coeff. Coeff.
K K
No lubricant - clean mild steel 0.25 Bowman anti-seize 0.12
As received - mild/alloy steel 0.20 Copper based anti-seize 0.14
Machine oil 0.20 Never-seize (paste) 0.17
MoS2 based grease 0.14 Solid PTFE film 0.12
Molykote 0.18 Hot dipped galvanized 0.25
Grease 0.15 Cadmium plated 0.16
As received - Stainless steel 0.30 Zinc plate 0.20 Torque Coefficients Table 4.6

70

4.10.4 Flange Bolting Procedure

1. Check bolts nuts and washers for proper size, length, conformance with material specifications, cleanliness and absence of burrs. Renew all damaged bolts.

2. Thoroughly clean the flange faces and check the seating surfaces for imperfections. Ensure the surface finish and maximum deviation from flatness complies with the requirements specified by the gasket manufacturer and the flanges are parallel.

3. Thoroughly lubricate all bolts and nut bearing faces. Install a new gasket ensuring it is correctly located. Install all bolts with a minimum of one thread past the nuts. Run up all nuts finger tight only; then snug-tight evenly.

4. Number the flange bolt holes sequentially around the flange using an appropriate sequence as shown below for 4, 8 and 16 bolt flanges. Where the existence of obstructions is likely to interfere with the use of the bolting equipment, start the sequence at a position which maximises the number of bolts tightened before an obstruction is encountered.

5. Ensure the torque wrench is accurately calibrated prior to use. Tighten the bolts using three passes (30%, 60% and 100% of the final torque). Tighten the bolts in numerical order to achieve the desired "criss-cross" pattern. After the first pass, check that the flange is bearing evenly on the gasket. Check the final torque in a clockwise sequence around the flange until no further rotation of the nut is observed.

Note: There should be a minimum of two threads above the nut after torquing.

71

4.11 FLANGE BOLTS, NUTS AND GASKETS

4.11.1 Bolt and Nut Materials

The type of bolting to be used for joining flanges is dependant on the temperature and conditions of service. Carbon steel and alloy steel bolts and nuts can be selected from the following material groups.

a) Stud Bolt and Nut Material 1

• Imperial diameter, metric length stud bolts to ASTM A 193 Grade B16

• Imperial nuts to ASTM A 194 Grade 4

• UNC thread profile for stud bolt diameters s 1"

• SU N thread profile for stud bolt diameters> 1"

• Hardened washer under each nut for stud bolt diameters> 1"

b) Stud Bolt and Nut Material 2

• Imperial diameter, metric length stud bolts to ASTM A 193 Grade B7

• Imperial nuts to ASTM A 194 Grade 2H

• UNC thread profile for stud bolt diameters s 1"

• SU N thread profile for stud bolt diameters> 1"

• Hardened washer under each nut for stud bolt diameters> 1"

c) Stud Bolt and Nut Material 3

• Metric bolts to AS 1110.1 Property Class S.S

• Metric nuts to AS 1112.1 Property Class S

• Hardened washer under the nut for bolt diameters> M24

d) Stud Bolt and Nut Material 4

• Metric bolts to AS 1111.1 Property Class 4.6

• Metric nuts to AS 1112.3 Property Class 5

• Hardened washer under the nut for bolt diameters> M24

72

4.11.2 Bolt Lengths

Bolt lengths can be calculated as follows.

a) Metric Bolts

Minimum bolt length, LCB = 2(C + t) + w + d + np + G + h + I Specified bolt length, LSB = LCB rounded up to the nearest 5 mm

where,

C = Minimum flange thickness

t = Plus tolerance for flange thickness

For, C :<60 mm: t = 3 mm C ;:::60 mm: t = 5 mm

w = Washer thickness (1 off when required) d = Nut thickness

G = Gasket thickness p = Thread pitch

n = minimum number of threads past nut (use 2)

h = Allowance for height of point of bolt (use 1.5 x thread pitch) I = Negative tolerance on bolt length, L

For, L:::; 150 mm: I = 2 mm

150 mm < L:::; 240 mm: I = 5 mm 240 mm < L:::; 400 mm: 1=6 mm L > 400 mm: I = 7 mm

73

b) Unified Stud Bolts

Minimum stud bolt length,

LeSB = 2(C + t + w + d + np) + G + I

Specified stud bolt length,

LSSB = l.csa rounded up to the nearest 5 mm

where,

C = Minimum flange thickness

t = Plus tolerance for flange thickness

Generally for, C :<60 mm: t = 3 mm C ;:::60 m m: t = 5 m m

For ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges,

Flange size ;:;450 NB: t = 3 mm Flange size ;:::500 NB: t = 5 mm

w = Washer thickness (2 off when required)

d = Heavy series nut thickness (approximately equal to nominal stud

bolt diameter)

G = Gasket thickness

p = Thread pitch (equal to 25.4 I tpi)

n = Minimum number of threads past nut (use 2) I = Negative tolerance on stud bolt length, L

L :::; 150 mm: I = 2 mm

150 mm < L:::; 300 mm: I = 5 mm L > 300 mm: I = 6 mm

74

4.11.3 Gaskets

Gaskets should be suitable for the operating conditions and fluid of the pressure vessel. They should be made of a material that is not injuriously affected by the fluid, temperature or environmental conditions to which they will be subjected to in service and throughout their complete life cycle including repairs and maintenance activities.

For ASME B16.5, ASME B16.47, BS 3293 and AS 2129 table flanges the inside diameter of ring-type sheet gaskets is equal to the outside diameter of the pipe or branch.

The outside diameter of the ring-type gaskets are as follows:

• ASME/ANSI B16.5, ASME/ANSI B16.47 and BS 3293 flanges - bolt circle diameter minus one bolt diameter

• AS 2129 table flanges -

bolt circle diameter minus one bolt hole diameter

For gaskets cut from sheets, the thinnest material which the flange arrangement will allow shall be used, but should be thick enough to compensate for unevenness of the flange surfaces, their parallelism, surface finish and rigidity, etc.

75

Sample Problem 5- Flange Calculations

This Sample Problem demonstrates the flange and flat cover design procedure and installation bolt preload and torque calculation procedure. The geometry and design data for the design of a loose-type narrow-face flange with ring-type gasket is given in Figure 4.21. A suitable flat cover is to be designed and installation bolt preload and torque are to be determined.

8

1100ID

1

Cover

Flange

Gasket

2

Pipe

DESIGN INFORMATION Design pressure = 0.8 MPag.

Design temperature = 100° C.

Flange and cover material is AS 1548-7-460N. Corrosion allowance = 2 mm.

The cover is seamless.

Bolts are metric AS 1110.1 Property Class 8.8. Use gasket factors m = 3.0 and y = 35 MPa. Method of bolting is by torque wrench.

The bolts are to be lubricated with machine oil.

Sample Problem 5 Figure 4.21

76

A. Design the flange.

Solution

1. Determine design tensile strengths.

Sf = 115 MPa at design temperature (AS 1210 Table 3.3.1 (A))

Sf = 115 MPa at atmospheric temperature (AS 1210 Table 3.3.1 (A))

Sa = 160 MPa (AS 1210 Table 3.21.5) s, = 160 MPa (AS 1210 Table 3.21.5)

Where:

=

Design strength for material of flange at design temperature (operating condition) or at atmospheric temperature

(gasket seating), as may apply (given in AS 1210 Table 3.3.1 as f), in MPa.

Design strength for bolt at atmospheric temperature (given in AS 1210 Table 3.21.5 as f), in MPa.

Design strength for bolt at design temperature (given in AS 1210 Table 3.21.5 as f), in MPa.

=

=

2. Estimate bolt circle diameter.

Assume diameter 22 holes for M20 bolts and 10 mm fillet welds.

C = B'+2(gl + R) to satisfy the radial clearances

C = B'+2(gl + R) = 1100+ 2((8 + 10) + 32) = 1200mm

Where:

B' C g1 R

=

Inside diameter of pipe, in mm. Bolt circle diameter, in mm. Thickness of hub at back of flange.

Radial spacing, in mm (From Table 4.4A).

=

=

=

77

3. Determine diameter at location of gasket force (AS 1210 Table 3.21.6.4).

Gasket OD=C-D=1200-22=1178mm

Gasket Contact ID = B = 1100 + 2x8 + 2x2 = 1120mm

bo = N = (1178-1120)/2 = 14.5mm (Facing sketch 1 (a) in Figure 4.17)

2 2

b = 2.52~ = 2.52~14.5 = 9.6mm, when bo > 6mm (See Figure 4.17)

G = Gasket OD - 2b = 1178- 2x9.6 = 1158.8mm (See Figure 4.17)

Where:
B =
D =
b =
bo =
g1 =
N =
G = Inside diameter of flange, in mm. Diameter of bolt hole, in mm.

Effective gasket or joint-contact-surface seating width, in mm. Basic gasket seating width, in mm.

Thickness of hub at back of flange.

Width used to determine the basic gasket seating width, bo, in mm. Diameter at location of gasket force, in mm.

4. Determine bolt-forces.

a) Operating condition

Wm1 =H+Hp

Hp = 2bnGmP

m =3

H = 0.785G2P = 0.785xI158.82 xO.8 = 843289N

H p = 2bnGmP = 2x9.6x71X1158.8x3xO.8 = 167753N

Wm1 = H +Hp = 843289+167753 = 1011042N

78

b) Gasket seating

y = 35MPa

Wm2 = 7rbGy = nx:9.6xI158.8x35 = 1223200N

Where:

H = Total hydrostatic end-force, in N.
Hp = Total joint-contact-surface compression force, in N.
m = Gasket factor.
P = Calculation pressure, in MPa.
Wm1 = Minimum required bolt-force for operating conditions, in N.
Wm2 = Minimum required bolt-force for gasket seating, in N.
y = Gasket or joint-contact-surface seating stress, in MPa. 5. Determine required bolt areas.

a) Operating condition

4, = Wm1 = 1011042 = 6319mm2

1 Sb 160

b) Gasket seating

4, = Wm2 = 1223200 = 7645mm2

2 Sa 160

:. A = 7645mm2

m

Where:

Am1 = Am2 =

Minimum required bolt area for operating conditions, in rnrrr'. Minimum required bolt area for gasket seating, in mm".

6. Determine optimum bolt size.

The bolt and flange requirements are tabulated as follows.

Bolt Bolt Minimum Actual Minimum Minimum Minimum Bolt Circle
Diameter Root Number Number Radial Bolt nBs B+2(gl +R)
Db Area of Bolts of Bolts Distance Spacing -
7r
Ac Am n R Bs
(mm) (rnrrr') - (mm) (mm)
Ac (mm) (mm)
12 76.2 100.3 104 20 75 2483 1176
16 144 53.1 56 26 75 1337 1188
20 225 34.0 36 32 75 859 1200
24 324 23.6 24 38 75 573 1212
27 427 17.9 20 42 82 522 1220 79

From the above table the minimum bolt circle is 1200 mm and this corresponds to the use of M20 bolts. This is the optimum solution. If the initial assumption was not the optimum solution then the above procedure would need to be repeated for the optimum solution.

:.c = 1200mm

7. Determine the flange outside diameter.

Minimum edge distance, E is 24 mm (From Table 4.4A).

:. A = C + 2E = 1200 + 2x24 = 1248mm

8. Determine the flange design bolt forces.

a) Operating condition

W = Wm1 = 1011042N

b) Gasket seating

W = (Am +Ab)Sa = (7645+8100)160 = 1259600N

2 2

Where:

Ab =
Ac =
Am =
n =
W = Actual total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread, in rnrrr'. Cross-sectional area of bolt at root of thread, in rnrn".

Total required cross-sectional area of bolts, in rnrrr'.

Number of bolts.

Flange design bolt-force, for the operating conditions, or gasket seating, as may apply, in N.

80

9. Determine flange moments.

H D = 0.785B2p = 0.785x11202 xO.8 = 787763N

H G = W - H = 1011042- 843289 = 167753N

H T = H - H D = 843289-787763 = 55526N

h = C -B = 1200-1120 = 40.0mm

D 2 2

h = C-G = 1200-1158.8 -----= 20.6mm G 2

2

h __ hD + hG __ 40.0 + 20.6 ----=30.3mm

T 2 2

a) Operating condition

M D = H DhD = 787763x40.0 = 31510520Nmm

M G = H GhG = 167753x20.6 = 3455712Nmm

M T = H ThT = 55526x30.3 = 1682438Nmm

M; = M D + M G + M T = 31510520+ 3455712+ 1682438 = 36648670Nmm

b) Gasket seating

Mo = 1iVhG = 1259600x20.6 = 25947760Nmm

Where:

Ho = Hydrostatic end-force on area inside of flange, in N.
HG = Gasket-force, in N.
HT = Difference between total hydrostatic end-force and the hydrostatic
end-force on area inside of flange, in N.
ho = Radial distance from the bolt circle to the circle on which Ho acts,
in mm.
hG = Radial distance from the gasket force reaction to the bolt circle,
in mm.
hT = Radial distance from the bolt circle to the circle on which HT acts,
in mm.
Mo = Component of moment due to Ho, in Nmm.
MG = Component of moment due to HG, in Nmm.
Mo = Total moment acting on the flange for the operating conditions,
or gasket seating, as may apply, in Nmm.
MT = Component of moment due to HT, in Nmm. 81

10. Determine flange stresses.

A 1248

K = -= --= 1.114 B 1120

y = _1_(0.66845+5.71690K21~g10KJ

K -1 K -1

= 1 (0.66845 + 5.71690 (1.114)210glO(1.114)J

1.114-1 (1.114)2-1

= 17.93

Assume flange thickness, t = 72mm

a) Operating condition

Longitudinal hub stress,

SH = OMPa

Radial flange stress,

SR = OMPa

Tangential flange stress,

S = YM 0 = 17.93x36648670 = 113.2MPa

T t2 B 722 x1120

Combined stresses,

_S~H _+_S~R = _0 _+_O = OMPa

2 2

S +S 0+113.2

H T = = 56.6MPa

2 2

82

b) Gasket seating

Longitudinal hub stress,

SH = OMPa

Radial flange stress,

SR = OMPa

Tangential flange stress,

S = YM 0 = 17.93x25947760 = 80.IMPa

T t2 B 722 x1120

Combined stresses,

_S~H _+_S~R = _O _+_O = OMPa

2 2

S +S 0+80.1

H T = = 40.0MPa

2 2

11. Determine flange design strengths.

a) Operating condition

SH :::; 1.5Sf = 1.5x115 = 172.5MPa :. OK SR:::; Sf = 115MPa :.OK

ST :::; Sf = 115MPa :. OK

S +S

H R:::;Sf=115MPa:.OK

2

S +S

H T:::; Sf = 115MPa :. OK

2

b) Gasket seating

SH :::; 1.5Sf = 1.5x115 = 172.5MPa :. OK SR:::; Sf = 115MPa :.OK

ST :::; Sf = 115MPa :. OK

S +S

H R:::;Sf=115MPa:.OK

2

S +S

H T:::; Sf = 115MPa :. OK

2

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12. Determine required thickness.

Where:

A =
c =
K =
SH =
SR =
ST =
t =
Y = t, = t + c = 72 + 2

t, = 74mm required including corrosion allowance

Outside diameter of flange, in mm. Corrosion allowance, in mm.

Ratio of outside diameter of flange to inside diameter of flange. Longitudinal stress in the hub, in MPa.

Radial stress in the flange, in MPa.

Tangential stress in the flange, in MPa.

Flange thickness, in mm.

Factor involving K.

13. Check maximum bolt spacing.

Where:

6t 6x72

Pbmax = 2Db + = 2x20 + = 163.4mm

m +0.5 3+0.5

sC m1200

P, - - = l04.7mm

bactual - ------;; - 36

=

Centre-line to centre-line bolt spacing, in mm. Bolt outside diameter, in mm.

=

Therefore the total flange moments do not have to be increased in accordance with Clause 3.21.4.1 of AS 1210.

84

B. Determine the installation bolt preload and torque.

Solution

Flange yield stress at atmospheric temperature:

Syf = 262MPa

Bolt proof stress at atmospheric temperature:

Syb = 600MPa

Preferred bolt pre-load (60% of proof load):

Ppref = 0.6AcSyb = 0.6x225x600 = 81000N

Uncertainty factor:

U = 1.25 for a calibrated torque wrench

Torque co-efficient:

K = 0.2 for machine oil.

Preferred bolt torque:

Tpref = KPprefDb = 0.2x81000x20 = 324000Nmm

Total preferred bolt load:

Wpref = nPpref = 36x81000 = 2916000N

Flange moment:

Mpref = Wprefho = 2916000x20.6 = 60057569Nmm

Flange stress:

S __ YM pref __ 17.93x60057569

------ = 185.5MPa

Tpref t2B 722x1120

Maximum flange stress:

S 262

STmax = ___!l_ = - = 209.6MPa

U 1.25

:. STpref < STmax and the full preferred bolt pre-load can be applied.

85

Specified bolt pre-load:

Pspec = 8l. OkN

Specified bolt torque:

Tspec = 324Nm

Gasket seating Pressure:

P = n~pec = 36x81x103 = 27.9MPa

G A 104681

G

Where:

AG = Gross area of gasket, in rnrrr'.
10 = Inside diameter of gasket, in mm.
n = Number of bolts.
00 = Outside diameter of gasket, in mm.
PG = Gasket seating pressure, in MPa. The gasket seating pressure is checked against the gasket manufacturer's minimum and maximum recommended gasket seating pressures.

86

C. Design the flat cover.

Solution

1. Plate data.

Where:

f

2. Bolt data.

Where:

3. Flange data.

Where:

A =
C =
Bo =
n = f = 115 MPa at design temperature (AS 1210 Table 3.3.1 (A))

f = 115 MPa at atmospheric temperature (AS 1210 Table 3.3.1 (A))

17 = l.0 (seamless)

=

Design tensile strength for material of flat cover at design temperature (operating condition) or at atmospheric temperature (gasket seating), as may apply, in MPa.

Efficiency of the welded joint

=

Sa = 160 MPa (AS 1210 Table 3.21.5) s, = 160 MPa (AS 1210 Table 3.21.5)

Db = 20mm Ac = 225mm2

=

Cross-sectional area of bolt at root of thread, in mm".

Design strength for bolt at atmospheric temperature (given in AS 1210 Table 3.21.5 as f), in MPa.

Design strength for bolt at design temperature (given in AS 1210 Table 3.21.5 as f), in MPa.

=

=

A = 1248mm C = 1200mm ED = 22mm n = 36

Outside diameter of flange, in mm. Bolt circle diameter, in mm. Diameter of bolt hole, in mm. Number of bolts.

87

4. Gasket data:

Gasket OD = 1178mm Gasket ID = 1120mm thickness = 3mm

m =3

y = 35MPa

Where:

m y

=

Gasket factor.

Gasket or joint-contact-surface seating stress, in MPa.

=

5. Determine diameter at location of gasket force (AS 1210 Table 3.21.6.4).

bo = N = (1178-1120)/2 = 14.5mm (Facing sketch 1 (a) in Figure 4.17)

2 2

b = 2.52~ = 2.52~14.5 = 9.6mm, when bo > 6mm (See Figure 4.17)

G = Gasket OD - 2b = 1178- 2x9.6 = 1158.8mm (See Figure 4.17)

Where:

b bo N G

=

Effective gasket or joint-contact-surface seating width, in mm. Basic gasket seating width, in mm.

Width used to determine the basic gasket seating width, bo, in mm Diameter at location of gasket force, in mm.

=

=

=

6. Determine bolt-forces.

a) Operating condition

Wm1 =H+Hp

H = 0.785G2P = 0.785x1158.82 xO.8 = 843289N

H p = 2bnGmP = 2x9.6X.11X1158.8x3xO.8 = 167753N

Wm1 = H +Hp = 843289+167753 = 1011042N

88

b) Gasket seating

Where:

H =
Hp =
P =
Wm1 =
Wm2 = Wm2 = 7rbGy = nx:9.6xI158.8x35 = 1223200N

Total hydrostatic end-force, in N.

Total joint-contact-surface compression force, in N. Calculation pressure, in MPa.

Minimum required bolt-force for operating conditions, in N. Minimum required bolt-force for gasket seating, in N.

7. Determine required bolt areas.

a) Operating condition

~ = Wm1 = 1011042 = 6319mm2

1 s, 160

b) Gasket seating

Where:

Am1 =
Am2 =
Am = ~ = Wm2 = 1223200 = 7645mm2

2 Sa 160

:. A = 7645mm2

m

Minimum required bolt area for operating conditions, in mm". Minimum required bolt area for gasket seating, in mm".

Total required cross-sectional area of bolts, in rnrrr'.

8. Determine the flange design bolt forces.

a) Operating condition

W = Wm1 = 1011042N

b) Gasket seating

Where:

W = (Am +Ab)Sa = (7645+8100)160 = 1259600N

2 2

=

Actual total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread, in rnrrr'. Flange design bolt-force, for the operating conditions, or gasket seating, as may apply, in N.

=

89

9. Determine flat cover thickness.

h = C - G = 1200-1158.8 = 20.6mm

G 2 2

K = 3.3 (AS 1210 Figure 3.15.1 (k), (I))

For circular bolted ends, covers and blind flanges with edge moments:

t = D(_!_ + 1. 78rn:G JO.5 , where t is the greater thickness calculated for both

Kf1J f7]D

operating and gasket seating conditions.

D = G = 1158.8mm

a) Operating condition:

End plate thickness:

( JO.5 ( JO.5

P 1. 78WhG 0.8 1.78xl0ll042x20.6

t = D -+ = 1158.8 + = 55.8mm

Kf1J f7]D3 3.3x115xl 115xlx(1158.8)3

Net end plate thickness under groove:

_ (1.78WhG JO.5 _ (1.78XI0II042X20.6Jo.5 _

t - D 3 -1158.8 3 -16.7mm

f7]D 115xlx(1158.8)

b) Gasket seating:

End plate thickness:

_ (1.78WhGJO.5 _ (1.78XI259600X20.6JO.5 _

t-D 3 -1158.8 3 -18.6mm

f7]D 115xlx(1158.8)

Net end plate thickness under groove:

_ (1.78WhG JO.5 _ (1.78XI0II042X20.6JO.5 _

t-D 3 -1158.8 3 -18.6mm

jD 115x(1158.8)

90

c) Required thickness

End plate thickness:

t = 55.Smm

tr = t+c = 55.S+2

t, = 57.Smm required including corrosion allowance

Net end plate thickness under groove:

Where:

D

f

K

P =
t =
W =
11 = t = IS.6mm

t, = t + c = IS. 6 + 2

t, = 20.6mm required including corrosion allowance

=

Diameter, measured as indicated in Figure 3.15.1 of AS 1210, in mm. G

Design tensile strength for material of flat cover at design temperature (operating condition) or at atmospheric temperature (gasket seating), as may apply, in MPa.

Gasket moment arm taken from the design of the flange to which the plate is attached (See Clause 3.21.6 of AS 1210) or if the flange is not designed, equal to the radial distance from the centerline of the bolts to the line of the gasket reaction, as shown in Figure 3.15.1 (k) and (I) of AS 1210, in mm.

A factor depending upon the method of attachment of end,

shell dimensions and other items listed in Clause 3.15.2 of AS 1210. (See Figure 3.15.1 of AS 1210)

Calculation pressure, in MPag.

Minimum calculated wall thickness of flat end or cover (exclusive of added allowances), in mm.

Total bolt force, given for circular ends in Clause 3.21 .6.4.4 of AS 1210, in N.

Lowest efficiency of any longitudinal welded joint in an end or cover.

=

=

=

=

91

5. OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

5.1 VESSEL SUPPORT

The type of support that is used for a pressure vessel depends primarily on the vessel's size and orientation.

Shown in Figure 2.1, a saddle support spreads the weight load of a horizontal pressure vessel over a large area of the shell. This prevents excessive local stress in the shell at the support points. The size and design details used for the saddle depend on the diameter and thickness of the pressure vessel and the imposed load.

A horizontal pressure vessel (length L, diameter D mm) is commonly mounted on two saddle supports - more would result in static indeterminacy and difficulty in predicting the load distribution in the event of foundation settlement. Each support should extend at least 1200 around and approximately ~(30D) along the vessel [BS 5500] in order to transmit the reaction gradually into the shell wall. One support is attached to the vessel to prevent axial movement; the other is not attached but merely supports the vessel's weight, thus permitting free longitudinal expansion of the vessel when thermal strains occur.

The safety of any pressure vessel must be verified under all possible circumstances - not just in normal duty but also during manufacture, erection, test, aberrant service and so on. Under hydrostatic test for example, a pressure vessel is subjected to a superposition of loads - internal pressure plus bending due to the distributed weight of shell and water charge. A simply supported beam model of the vessel indicates that the supports are optimally located at 0.207L from the ends, corresponding to bending moment magnitudes of 0.0214wL 2 at both the centre and at the supports - but the model neglects possible distortion which may occur when concentrated loads are applied to the relatively thin shell of a pressure vessel. To lessen this possibility, supports should be situated within D/4 of the ends to take advantage of the stiffening afforded by the ends, although this location will lead to bending stresses larger than those arising from the optimum location.

As shown in Figure 2.2, small vertical pressure vessels are typically supported on legs that are welded to the lower portion of the shell. Support legs are also typically used for spherical pressurized storage vessels (See Figure 2.4). The support legs for small vertical pressure vessels and spherical pressurized storage vessels may be made from structural steel columns or pipe sections, whichever provides a more efficient design. Cross bracing between the legs (See Figure 2.4) is typically used to help absorb wind or earthquake loads.

Brackets may also be used to support vertical pressure vessels. As shown in Figure 2.5, the brackets are typically bolted to horizontal structural members. It is common for a reinforcement pad to be first welded to the vessel shell, and then the brackets welded to it.

92

A support skirt (See Figure 2.3) is a cylindrical shell section that is welded either to the lower portion of the vessel shell or to the bottom head. Support skirts are commonly used for tall pressure vessels.

For requirements for vessel supports refer to Clause 3.24 of AS 1210. The attachment of supports is to be in accordance with Clause 3.25 of AS 1210.

5.2 COMBINED LOADING

The bending and axial stresses induced by loadings given in Clause 3.2.3 of AS 1210 have to be investigated in combination to establish the governing stresses. AS 1210 equations adopt the basis that the stress equivalent to the membrane stress shall nowhere exceed the design strength.

It is assumed that wind and earthquake loads do not occur simultaneously, thus pressure vessels should be designed for either wind or earthquake load whichever is greater.

The stresses are generally calculated at the following critical locations for a vertical pressure vessel in accordance with Clause 3.7.5 of AS 1210:

• At the bottom of the vessel

• At the joint of a skirt to the dished end

• At the bottom dished end to shell joint

• At changes of diameter or shell thickness of the vessel

The stresses are calculated for the worst case conditions during:

• Erection or dismantling

• Testing

• Operation

Calculations for vertical vessels under combined loading are not necessary for many vessels and are only required for tall vessels where additional stresses due to combined loading become significant. The calculated thickness is to be no less than that required by Clause 3.7.3 of AS 1210 for a cylindrical shell subject to internal pressure.

The stresses for horizontal pressure vessels subjected to combined loadings are determined in a similar manner as for vertical cylindrical vessels. See Clause 3.7.6 of AS 1210.

For the requirements of vessels subjected to external pressure and combined loadings see Clause 3.9.5 of AS 1210.

93

5.3 LOCAL LOADS

It is common for external loads to be applied to nozzles or brackets that are attached to pressure vessel shells or dished ends. External loads cause local stresses that are in addition to those caused by pressure, weight, and wind loads. External loads may be caused by the following:

• Piping system weight, wind, and thermal expansion loads that are applied at vessel nozzles.

• Loads from platforms, internal or external piping, internal components, or equipment items supported from a vessel shell by lugs or clips attached to the shell.

• Loads at vessel supports, such as columns, saddles or brackets.

The total stress in the vessel shell, including that caused by locally applied loads, must be kept to within allowable limits. AS 1210 does not contain detailed procedures for evaluating these local loads. International codes (e.g., BS 5500) and AS 1210 Supplement 1 are commonly used to evaluate local loads.

For local stresses at supports of horizontal cylindrical vessels refer to Clause 3.24.4 of AS 1210.

5.4 VESSEL INTERNALS

5.4.1 Types of Internals

There are many different types of vessel internals used to perform various process functions.

AS 1210 design requirements only apply to the external, pressure-containing "envelope" of the vessel (i.e., shell, dished ends, nozzles, etc.) and not to items contained inside it. The only exceptions to this are:

• Loads that are applied from the internals to pressure-containing parts must be considered in the vessel design.

• All welding to pressure-containing parts must meet AS 1210 requirements.

The end-user, vessel vendor, internals supplier, prime contractor, and/or a combination of these entities must develop the detailed design requirements for all vessel internals.

94