TOTAL AIKIDO

TO A

AL

T·heMaster Course

G6zo Shioda with Yasuhisa Sbioda

Translated by David Rubens

KODANSHA INTERNATIONAL Tokyo. New York. London

CONTENTS

TRANSfATOR'S INTRODUcnON PROLOGUE

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

SRelION 1

THE PRINCIPLES OF AIKIDO

TIm POWER 0. TIm CENTER LINE IDCUSED POWER

BREAm POWER.

KI

IRIMJ (ENTERING) KAI1'EN (TURNING)

EXTENDIN(} YOUR PARTNBR'S HODY TIMING

USING YOUR PARTNER'S ENERGY CONTROUlNG URE'S KNEE ATEMI (STRIKING)

JCInTAITA (ONE AGAINST MANY) TRAINING SYSTEM.

EXPLANATION OF SPECIAL IERMINOWGY

TAl SABAKI NO KIHON (THE BASICS OF BODY MOVEMENT)

KAMAE (BASIC STANCE)

HlRIKr NO YOSEl. ICIll (ELBOW POWER [) HIRlKI NO yosa N1 (ELBOW POWER IT) TAl NO HENKO Ion

(BODY CHANGE MOVEMENT I) TAl NO BENKO m

(BODY CHANGE MOvm.mNT II) SHtlMArsu DOSA ICHI (AFfE1HLASS EXERCISE 1)

SHOMATSU roSA N1 (AFfER-CI.ASS EXERCISE m

10 11 12

lOHONOOSA

(BASIC MOVEMENTS: :IMPORTANT POINTS)

SHlKKO-HO (KNEE-WALKING).

UKEMI (FALLING)

SHOMEN-UCHI (fRONf &'TRDm) SHOMEN~Ucm NO UREMIA

(BLOCKING TH.E FRONT STRIKE)

SHOMEN-UCIll NOUCHlYOKE

(ENTERING INSIDE TRE FRONT STRIKE)

YOKOMEN-Ucm

(SIDE STRIKE TO THE HFAD)

YOKOMEN-Ucm NO OOKAlA (BLOCKING THE SIDE STRIKE TO THE HEAD)

YOKOMEN-UCHI NO UCHIYOKE (fNTERING INSID.E THE SIDE STRIKE TO TfIE HEID)

SHOMEN-TSUKI (FRONT PUNCH) MAKING A FlOWING BLOCK TO SHOMEN-TS Kl

UNBAlANCING YOUR PARTNER FROM KATATE-MOClD (ONE-HANDED GRASP) (WHEN YOU ARE BEING PUllED 1)

(WHE PULLED 2)

UNBALANClNG YOUR PARTNER FROM KATATE-MOCffi (ONE-I:lANDED GRASP) (WfmN YOU ARE BEING PUSHED 1)

(WHEN YOU ARE BEING PUSHED 2) UNBAlANCING YOOR PARTNER FROM

KATA-MOCHl (SHOUIDERGRASP)

PREPARATION MOVEMENTS FOR ATIACKS FROM BEHIND

UNBAlANCING YOUR PARTNER FROM USHIRO RYOIE-MOOJ1 (lWO-HAND GRASP FROM BEHIND WHEN YO ARE BlllNG PlJIlJID)

(WHEN PUSHED)

UNBALANCING YOUR PARTNER FROM USmRO Ryo.KATA-MOCfU (BOl'H-snOIJIDER GRASf FROM BffiUND)

UNBAlANCING YOUR PARTNER FROM USHIRO RYOIDJI.MOCHJ (BOrn-ELBOW GRASP

FROM BEHIND)

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28

29 30 32 34

36

38

40

42

44 46 48 50

51

52

53

54

55 56

57

58 60

61 62

63

64

65 66

67

68

SECTION 3

KIlION WAZA (BASIC TECHNIQUES) 69

WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM BASIC

TECHNIQUE TRAINlNG? 70

FOUR. DIRECTION THROW 71

ONE·HAND GRASP;

FOUR-DIRECTION THROW I n

ONE·HAND GRASP;

FOUR.-DIRECTION THROW II 74

SIDE STRIKE TO TIlE HEAD;

FOUR·DIRECTION THROW I 76

ONE SITTING, ONE STANDlNG;

NO·HAND GRASP; FOUR-DIRECITONTHROW 78

FRONT STRIKE;

FOUR-DIRECI10N THROW EXTHNSION 80

~CONTROL ~

FRONT STRIKE; FIRST OONTROL, I 84

FRONT STRI.KE~ FIRST CONTROL II 86

KNEElING TECHNIQUE: ONE·HAND GRASP;

FIRST CONTROL I 88

SHOULDER GRASP; FIRST CONTROL II 90

'lWO-HAND GRASP FROM BEfllND;

FIRST CONTROL I 92

WRIST AND COlLAR GRASP FROM BEH1ND;

FIRST CONTROL II 94

SECOND 'CONTROL 96

ONE-HAND GRASP;. SECOND CONTROL I 98

ONE-HAND GRASP; SECOND CONTROL II 100

SHOULDER GRASP; SECOND CONTROL II 102

FRONT STRIKE; SECOND CONTROL II 104

ELBOW HOLD; SECOND CONTROL I 105

CROSS-ElAND GRASP;

SECOND-CONfROL ARM·LOCK THROW 106

EmmDCONtROL 1M

SIDE SfRIKE TO THE .HFAD;

THIRD CONTROL I .~ 10

SIDE S'l'RIKE TO TlmHEAnj

THIRD CONTROL II H2

KNEELING TECHNIQUE: ONE-HAND GRASP;

TIllRD CONTROL I 115

80TIl-SHOUlDER GRASP FROM BEH1ND;

THIRD CONTROL I 116

BOTH-ELBOW GRASP FROM BEHIND;

noRD CONTROL II 117

F01J1l11l 'CJONTROL 118

FRONT STRIKE;. FOURTH CONTROL II 120

KNEELING TEOINIQUE:

TWOcHAND GRASP; FOURTII CONTROL I m22

FOURTH CONTROL LOCK FROM ABOVE 123

.FRONT ENTERING TIlROW 124

FRONT STRIKE; FRONT ENl'ElUNG THROW I 125

FRONT STRIJffi; FRONT ENTERING THROW II 126

FRONT PUNCH; FRONT ENTERING THROW 128

STRIKE TO THE SIDE OF THE HEAD;

FRONT ENTERING THROW 130

TWO-HAND GRASP FROM BEHIND;

FRONT ENTERING nmow 132

TWO-HAND GRASP;

FRONTENTIlRlNG THROW I 134

SIDE ENTERING THROW 13S

ONE-HAND GRASP; SIDE FNl'ERING THROW I .136 SHOULDER GRASP; SIDE ENTERING THROW II 138 BOTH-ELBOW GRASP FROM BEHIND;

SIDE EN'fERING THROW I 14{)

BOTH-SHOULDER GRASP PROM B.EHIND;

SIDE ENTERING THROW II 14W

FRONT STRIKE; SIDE ENTERING THROW 142

REl'URN-11IE- WRIST THROW 144

FRONT PUNCH-

RETURN THE WRTh'T THROW II 146

KNEELING tECHNIQUE: TWO-HAND GRASP;

RETURN-TIlE-WRIST THROW I 148

TWO-HAND GRASP FROM BBHIND; RETURN-THE-WRIST THROW

. (PRACI1CAL APPUCATION 1) 150

TWO-FWID GRASP FROM BEHIND;

REllJRN- THE-WRIST THROW

(PRACRCAL APPUCATION 2) 152

"HITTING-ElBOW" BREAm 'DIROW t 54

ONE-HAND GRASP;

mnING-ELBOW BREATH nmow I 1 S6

FRONT PUNCH;

IITIT1NG·ELBQW BREATH THROW II 158

SIDE STRIKE TO THE HEAD;

HITI'ING-ELBOW BREATH THROW 160

TWO-HAND GRASP FROM BEHIND;

mITING-EL80W BREAm. ntROW 162

HEAVEN AND, EAR1lI nmow 164

TWO-HAND GRASP; I:IEAVEN

ANn EARTH THROW I 165

ELBOW LOCK 166

CHFST GRASP; ELBOW WCK II 167

BREATIIlNG ME11I.OD I 168

BRFATHING METHOD II 170

BREATIflNG METHon m 171

BREATHlNG MElMOn IV 172

BRBA.TIllNG .METHOD V 173

nONTSfRIKIl; B.REAm'11lROW 1 174

FRONT STRIKE; BREATH THROW' 2 175

SIDE STRIKE TO THE HEAD;

BREATH THROW 176

FRONT PUNCH; BREAm THROW 177

ONE·HAND GRASP; BRFATHTHROW 178

TWO-HAND GRASp; BREATH mROW 180

SHOUWER GRASP;

WIllil'T-WCKBREATHTHROW 1&2

TWO-HAND GRASP FROM BEfDM);

CROSS THROW J 83

ONE·HAND GRASP;. CIRCULAR THROW 184

FRONT .PUNCH; THROW FROM BElllND 186

SECTION 4

GOSHINWAZA

(SELF·DEFENSE TECHNIQUES) 187

ONE-HAM) GRASP1'1IDM BF.IDND wrm NF.(l{l()CK;

THIIID CONfROt ARIWST TECHNIQUE: 188

TAKING AWAY TIlE KNIFIl: mONT IHRUSf;

mJOW LOCKISIDE mrERING THROW 190

FRONT PUNCH; NECUOCX.l92

SHOULDER GRASPWlTH FRONT PUNCHBREATH THROW •

TAKlNG AWAY THE KNIFE: FRONT S'l'RIHE' ~CONTROL •

TAKING AWAY THE KNIFE: FRONT THRUST;' FOUR-DIRECTION THROW

TAKING AWAY urn .KNlFE:FRONT THRUST; ARM,;LOCK THROW

TAKlNG AWAY THE SWORD: FRONT Sl'R.llillj IDTI'JNG-ELBOW BREATH THROW

TANING AWAY THE SWORD:

FRONT &lRlKE; HlP TlfROW

193

195

196

197

198

SECTlON 5

OGI (HIDDEN TECHNlQUFS) HFADMASTER. GOZO SEnODA'S DEMON~'TRAnON

YOSHINKAN D6JO nsnsos

1:99

ZOO 206

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION

July 17th 1'994,. the day that Yoshinkan founder G,l'ZO Shloda Senscl diectwas the end.of an era. As well as bciQg Ii n!cogruzoo master, GOlla Sbiodawas also one of the last living links belWeen the presem generation. ofalkidoka and the prewar aikijutsu training of Morihei. Ueshiba sensei. It is no exaggeration to state that itt watching Shioda Sensei en the mats, we wereabJeto have a gIlmpse back into history to a time wilen aIkido was still bavi:n,g to prove itself as a6ghllng art, Ilot yet ItavilJg. gained the 1'eCognJli~n and respect that. seems so natuEiI. to us today ... Yoshfillmn aikido is perhaps Wlique iutOat it cant trare .its lineage di.n~ctly hack to' that prewar period of th.e]lgoku Di!iiJ (Hell Dojo), and at. the same time be recognized as an aikido style.l'n its own right

Those of IlS who were pl'ivilegoolo bave been taught by Sbiolia Senseiwill'eacb have our own memories ofhlm, but the common. thread among all of tbosememories; [believe, is the sheer pOWf:1i' and energy that he bad" and his never-ending ~nthusiasm for aikido and for life in general

Ibis book gIves the most complete overview of Yosllinkan techniques ever published in English., The secret of training is simple-more training! But in order to really feel the energy of these techni.ques,.it is not enough that the movemeIlI8 are simply copied! and repeated .. OVer and above that~ what made shioda SeDsei's aikido, so' spooat was the Joy and energy he br:Ollgbt onto the mats-thespedal "X-factor" that cannot :be shOWl] in. a book l.ikethis ..

It·wss Sbioda Sensei's great wlsb In his last years that Yoshinkan ID.kidowould develop and grow to be taught throughout the world. I would like to thank the Yoshinkan Bombu 06jo for giving me the opportunity to translate this book,. and hopethat it will help spread. the wo.rds and :techniques of Gozo Sbioda Senscl to' all who bavethe heans and minds to heat:!heir message.

D.R.

10

PROLOGUE

My father, GowShioda, spent rough!y eigbt years (~anning 1932 to 1941) as a direct student of MorJhei Ueshi.ba, the founder of aikido. As a young man he was initiated .into the secrets 01 "aikido of everyday Me." At the first postwar Japanese Martial Arts ExpOsition, sponsored by the ilie Extension Society in 1954, he took the prize for "Outstanding Demonstration" and, . encouraged. by the support of people from the financial and political world who wanted to see this outstanding aikido spread to a larger audience, founded the Yoshinkan Dojo.

\'oshillkan, originally named by my grandfather for his d6jo, is also. the name thai: my ~er gave to. his style of martial arts, and means "to' oultivate mind and spirit" This name reflects his deslre that through alkido,and the mental and spiritual. traming that goes With. it, people will be better able to piay a useful role in society ..

Yosbinkan Aikido. has become well·known throughou.t. the world, and people .of many nationalities are training. Every year, the Tokyo Metropolitan Police sends len of Its members (eacb one at least third dan in kendo or judo) to spend one year as "special students" in the Yoshinkan Headquarters Dojo in Tokyo. Training in Yos.hinkan aikidO' gives officers the chance to develop and extend their personal and professional skills, and enables them to become aikido instrncto(S in the Women's Police Schoolin Tokyo.

Having mastered !he essence of aikido from Oeshiba, my fulher, Gozo Shioda,. demonstrated his .aikidO' in front of the Crown Prince ofJapan, SeruUor Robert Kennedy, and Princess Alexandra among others, and was higbJy'praised by them and by many others who vislled his Dojo.

My father died In. 1994, but it is for the purpose ofspreading his legacy-these wondrous. techniques and sp.irit-within Japan and throughout the world that this book is being published .. 1f through it even one of its readers will gain a greater understanding .of aikido, 1 will be happy.

Yasuhisa Shloda AUgust 1995

Y.\SURfS! ,SHlODA 1lIorp. 15 NovemlJel.', 1'952~ YasuJIisa Shloda staned practicing aikido at ihe age of thirteen, training every day. He graduated in 1976 from !he Economics Department of <:buo' University in Tokyo .. As a member of the Yosh.i:nkan Aikido Dojo he continued to undergo aikido trWning with his father, and spread aikido by teacrung it ln universities, and to police departments, and various organizations. From 1984 be spent three years in England, and h~ped establish the basis for the spread of aikido overseas, After returning to Japan be concentrated on teaching young people, especially nursery school children, originating a unique instruction method that. encouraged them to develop their characterihrough thepracuce of aikido. He also teaches at the eommunltrcenters, After Gozo Shloda's death in 1994, In order to spread his father's legltcy throughout the world, he has been: teaching aikido ~d has also become an author.

11

How to use this book

In training, Basic Movements and Basic 'Fechniques should be pracnced alii both Ilbe left and the right side, but for thepnrpcse of this book, techniques have beer! explained and illustrated from one side only.

The person who initiates the attack.is called "uke," the person who performs the technique is called "sh'te." In aikido techniques sh'te does not work alone--Ihe next move 10 each technique is dependent on the situation that uke is in. For that reason theee are sections ill t.he text called "lIke's Position;' which ~plainlhe effect of each of sh'te's movements on uke. These have been added as gtlides to be used in training.

Movements ·that frequently reoccur in the Basic Techni.ques (moving forward, grabbing- the wrist, preparatory movements for techniques from the rear, etc.) are explaiaed fully in Section 2. In your basic technique training, please continue to refer to this section.

Alrhough in the text the techniques are broken down into separate movements, it is Important to remembertha! actualtly these flow into one continuous tedmique.

For expJanation of special terms, please refer to page 28.

In aikido, the use of physiCal strength (power) has to be very delicate. For that reason, we have deliberately avoided words that might suggest brute force. Please be aware of nuances, (Example: "grasp" as epposedtorgrab," or "strike" as opposed. to "hit," "punch," etc.)

TechnIques are divided into I (icW) and n (nO. In I techniques, both sides are in the same karnae (right or left) and the now of energy will be toward

uke. In II techniques, partners are in opposite kamae (one in right and one in left), and the now of energy will be toward sh'te (though there are exceptions 10 this role) . . sually I is the representative technique, and n Is the reverse (turning) technique -, There are also a number of techntques that do not have a I or II classification ..

12

Section 1

,

'THEPRINCI,PLES OF AIKIO:O

,

I

I

As you get older, your muscles weaken; Anti ]o.u can no w.nger lift antlpull.

In .lhll end thm:e's a limit to physical s.trength) flO matter ho.w yml build it up.

That'swby Ueshioa Sensei sflYs .that Unlimited strength comesfrom hreathpower:. in e.ffov,t" it is hased on naturm principres.

If lbe otherperson comes powerfully against )lOUt And you resjJondby simply taking his jXJWer into yourselt There is no need for anJriffon.

- GOZD Shioda Sayings (II), -

CHU,SHIN-RYOKU

THE POWER OFTHE CENTER LINE

Keeping your center line straight

One of the basics of aikIdo is Ihe pnaclple of mainttining a straight center line in the body, For most people,even if they try to stand straight, theirtellter llne is not really straight Even when we do stand. straight and focus on keeping our eemer line fixed, we lose it agaln as soon as we move. If this h~ppens, then the purpose of aikido, the devclopment ofbr,eath power, becomes impossible.

If we are able to maintain a strong center line whatever direction we move in, we have focused power. By fO.rging this focused power. we are also promoting strong posture, concentration, and breath power.

In order to develop focused power the :first and essenlia:l training is kamae. Once you have attained a stable center In your kamae, you will be able to maintain it in your techniques.

14

Even whenu ke resists so that the teehnlque :ls no longer effective, by locking your hips and maintaining a straight center llne, your power will come through.

When you have a powerfully focused center line, even. if you stand. on one leg you will stlU be able to maintain a centered body.

S.HUCHU-RYOKU FOCUSED POWER

The power that is developed by unifying the whole body

When we use physical strength, we nonnally assume weare dependent 011 thepowe:r of oar muscles. In aikido, however,. the power of lihe hips, iegs, knees, abdoffieJ!t, and 50 forth, are Joined together and are then focused Into one poin~ wl1ether it is the ann or the shoulder or the elbow, and ill that way the power we develop is greater than the power of the muscles alone. 1'hls power is called shiichuryQku, or (ocuseC!ipo'¥er.

One example of sl'uichii-t)'oku .. liven using just the Index linger, by conceotrallDg your energy you can. produce II large am.ounl of power.

If the body as a whole moves in an unfocused. W'4Y,. tbJs sort of power amnol be developed. By using 5hiichu .. ryoku, all of the power that is brought together from tbe wbole body can. be sent out through one po1n.t. If one part is too quick, 01' is late, it will.Dot work If 1he whole body is integratedas it moves, Us power will be the power· of the focused center Ilne coneentrated into lone point. To put it another way, shiichii-l}'Oku is chiishin-.ryoku atits extreme.

In order to develop sbiichii-ryoku, it is important not 10 depend on the strength of the upper body. If you do use that strength, the flow of energy will be stopped and you. will not !>eable to Ir.UlsmJt sbiicllii-ryoku. lheteIore, in developing concentrated power, it is important to ensure that your body is in a relaxed mode.

In aikido techniques, it is entirely through this concentrated power that ihe ~power of !he techniques ili developed. The purpose of tE:aining in basic 100000ques Is Ito estabUsh in ,the body the ability to produce shiicbii-ryo'ku.

The "trick" to concentrated power is In the big toe.

When we fix the big toe to the :O.oor, power comes .inlo the .h.ips. To!har power yOD canlhen add the aceeleranon of th.c "spring" ~dion of the· knee .. If these movements lUI;! all done toge!her,a verypowerlul force is developed. Because of lIDs, developwg the big toes through, for example, kneeling techniques are very important

15

KOKYO-RYOKU BREATH POWER

I :1, ,

II,! '

• ' I

I

--

Bringing togetber s'ensitivity, breathing. and rhythm into a focusedpowe,r

Breath power is what is developed at the point where our own focused power comes Into contact with the other person. Here, the matter of spirit and rhythm (timing) are of basic lmportance.

The matter of Ihe spirit Js how to become "empty."

You should lose the feeling of "I will try to do this .. .I will try to do that ... " and instead simply be in a, serene state ol mind. You will then be able 10 read the otherpersoll's movement and understmd the now of energy. You will then naturally feel where your OMlline of attack will be.

In this way you can utilize different tempos and rhythms, not mOving at one speed, but rather choosing the onelhat Is most. appJicable to the situation between yourself and uke. Rhythm is a result of your own, breatbing. By breathing oUt when you should breathe out, and breath-

16

ing in when you should, breathe ln, ,rhythm is created.

When feeling (sensitivity), breathJng, and rhythm are brought together and become one, kokyii-ryoku, or breath power, is born. You and Ihe other person become as one: where you lead you will be able to make uke follow.

It is not necessary to do any spedal tramlng in order to get bceath power, because breath power is something that comes out of your own .feelings. If you continue to train conscientiously in the basics, you will. eventually realize, "'1'hls,is breath power." Once you have lYad that experience, by continuing your training you will increase its occurrence, until eventually U will become constant Once diat has happened, you will experience what Morihei Ue$llOa called "becoming one with the universe."

KI

"Ki" is tbe mastery of balance

:Inaikldo we often use the word "ki," or enerS¥.; but this word. covers a variety ef meanings, "Ki" as it is manifested in thepertonnance oftechntquss is what we have when the . components of correct Jlostu_re, center line, bl'eatbihg, the explosive power effocused energy, timing, etc" come together so tb¢ we r~ach the highest state of perfect balance, It might Pcs.;tid. that "ki" is "Ihe .rn<lStery of balance,"

The meaning ·of tIki"~ in the phrase "harmoruze yoU'rki," refers 10 sensitiVity-to. your partner, and covers all oftheelements that come out of your partner's stale of being, so that power, speed, I:i:mlng,. and rhytlunare ;W part of the meaning of .ki in this instance.

As YOll continue'Your training, you will become more sensitiVe to .howyour opponentis go.i:ilg to attack: you,whidl direction he is goilig to move in, and where he will foeus his power. It :is possible to S!ly tUat ~1U~abi.lity to "see/reel energy" is one :of ~e major purposes of ~g.

DelVing deeper we see that "ki" is hoth the matter of the lllli~erse, and wnatcontrois it. To harmonize With the 1lIiiverse means to bein balance. "MId," l.e., "harmOllittng of enetgy/'· means to lose your swn ego; it is ilielechniquEl of suihln:.itting to the natural flow pf the u!livefse. By doing !that you caneIJortlessly real.lze your own nat:urailself depending on the snnatiolllhat is in front of you, and it is by developing tltis harmony that we find the realization of allIido.

1.7

IRIMI ENTERING

A body :m:ovem1ent that aU:ows you to move in to the side at uke's body

In irimi, or entenng, instead of clashing with uke's

power str.ught.ou, you move off that line and move in to the ide of his body to the "safe angie." By using irimi, you can move your body to a safe position and at the same utilize your partner's power ill order to apply a technique.

In irimi it Is Important thal you take a half tep forward yourself as your opponent.is coming in to attack. Never wait for the attack to c~me. Because you yourself are moving forward, uke's power is also increased, and by opening up your body at that pointthe success of the entering movement Is brought about. In addition, make sure that, although you are moving straight forward, you are actually moving to the outside of the other pet on's attack.

As you move forward come to the outside of the other person's punch, and strike up through the jaw in jrimi·tsuki.

KAllEN TURNING

Env,elop uke's m.ovement in your own circular movement

In aikido there are not really lUly straight movements; the basis is circular movements, which allow us to redtrect the other person's power without clashing with ft. Also, haVing the ability to make circular movements is mote Ilkelyto lead to success in getting our own body in dose to uke so that we can quickly apply the technique .. By enveJoping our opponent's movements witbin our own circular movements weare able to completely take away his power.

Within the Citcular movements, there are situations in which we are intheeenter and uke IS turned around us, and snuanons in which uke is ilt the center, and we n;lQve round the line that is the ,e:ir,cumft:rence of uke'S circle. This circular movement is not always a s'jmpleflat drcle; there are times w~en it is a spiral, or when it looks as though. it's going around the surface of a ball. whichever one It might be,a circular movcmelll is enethat enables us to redirect the direction of pev,rer witholJ.t Interrupting the now of energy.

In order to peliol'm:thekaiten movement, it is important for your own center or balance to be fi.nn1y fixed. If your ewncenter of balance l.s wobbly, you will not be able to make a stable turn. Ma.iJitaining this strong center of bal.ance is also one of the pnocipJes thaI allows you to smoothly trJrlsfer your weight from one foot to the other. .

B~_ng entered, you can then add the effect of the turn. 10 bring ukesuffldently off"balance, and so can then apply shomen ltiml-nsge,

19

EXTENDINGYiOUR PA.RTNER'S· BODY

In. avoidfng the punch, if' you completcly1extend like's body, even a Ught touch to his elbow wtlI bave a powerful effect.

ltv causing uke to ov,ereJdend his energr. ·YOUI make him powerless

If yo.1] can suffidenlly blend with nke's energy so that you can "lead" him, at the moment dial he becomes overextended and powerless you apply the technique. This is one .of !he basic principles of alkldo.

For esample, if you were' to stumble and lose your balance, you might soon :regafJl your feel:, but if yOUI were to completely trip, thena1l you could do would be to full ove!'. Extending uke"s body means that you are able to lead uke's bodyuJl1!il he Is no. longer able to maintain

20

control over his own balance. By ,extending the body and theil ~i>plylng an effecl1ve technique, it IS possible 10 cause a potentially highly damaging full.

In order to achieve that without interrupling uke's eneFgy, you need. to lead him so that his energy is al.ways extended beyond his body. Just Uke pulling on the hand of someone who has already started to fall ov:er, it is importam, once you have taken uke's :Ilal:mce away., not to gi.ve him a chance to regain his feet.

TIMING

Grasp the moment to take over uke's power

. The ideal of aikido Is to pse a. small amount of power {or a large effect. Animp'ortant part of achieving this is your timing at the moment that you make contact with uke, However many moves and techniques you remember, if your timing is not correct the. technique will be "dead." On the other hand, if you can skillfully blend your liming with uke's attack, even if you do not perform any particular technique, you will still be able to inflict severe damage.

Whether it is blending \Vith your partner when he COII)e5 10 grab you or strike you or,altematively, striking him, whatever you do,timiIlg is what gives it life. If your timing is late, you wiU be crowded out by uke; .if you are too eatly, nke will see your movemeut and ch~gehis attack You should ,apply your 'technique exactly at the moment that he cemmits himself to theattaek-this is proper timing.

UtUizin,g that split second is what is called "harmon1zi.J!Ig." It would be COlI'fCt to say that in aikido all techniques begin from this Idea. of 'harmonizing' ..

When uke comes to push at Y9ur sheulders.er the exact moment !hat his elbows are ~iended you use your shoulders 10 push back. As thougl:\ he has been !brost With a st;df, all ofms attaoking power is .tevenied.

21

USING YOUR PARTNER'S ENERGY

Catch: the' limi'ngl of'the oncoming energy

By using uke's onceming en.ergyas he comes to grab your hand, you are able to create a situati.on in which he will become completely powerless. For example, if as uke comes to grab yout hand and push itt you blend with rhat eoergy and pull your own wrist toward yourself, you will be able to unbalance uke before he is able to withdraw hi·s hand. Altematlvcly, If he pulls YOUt if you blend with that and move at the same.time, you can utilize his pulling energy.

1ft the above example, Ifyourtlming is late you will lose to uke's energy, and if yon are too early nke will release his hand. At the very moment that the power of the grabbing hand is applied. that is when you must use uke's energy. It is no good if you simply pull your hand in. If you are propedy focused, you will be able to create a real connection with uke's energy.

If you can control Ihis Iimlng well, atlhe moment that he is unbailanced nke wiU unconsciously grab the hand more strongly in order to support h .. ts body,and. at. that moment will not be able to release his grip. Once his grip is strong, you can lead his energy and so come into a technique. Which technique yOll use depends on the position of the bold. Even if the energy (grip) is fixed, by offering an opening you can blend wilh. uke's power, and you will be able to make use of ins energy, as In a pull or push, in the same W'JJf.

By using uke's oncoming energy as he comes to grab your band, you can break uke's balance.

22

CONT!ROILLING 'UKE':S KNEE

Wben u.ke grabs our d\igl,. by, re~Ul'ect1ng Ills power wong his weak line, we tall un'balan.ce hlm byway of his knees ..

. Apply your energy against the weak po,inl.

In, aikido, we have many techlliques tn which we leek uke's wrist. However, simply locking oot the wrist is not enougtt we must also applylhe technique to uka's lower bOOy, so thai. uke's knee is knocked away. TUlls we are able 'to, see .fuat. tnel.echnique has had .a real effect. "FOor examplej ill nibjo, if we just lock the wrtstand uke has suffident strength, the techniquewill not beeffectlve. U; however, we send our elleJ;SY lhroughlh.e wrist in order (0 destabilize Ihelmel!, even If lL!{e: resists we will be able (0 unbilanceltlm, It is perhaps possible to say that an aikido, teChnique is where we are able 10 unbalance lhe otherpe.rson even without huJ1in,g him.

fu: most cases, ",ben we try to apply a technique, we concentrate only on lite place where we think. the cennol will have its effect ariel ,olien we try itoapp,lyour ski!Jlglh a,galnsl. the !IJIJJtewhere uke's power (0 resist.is sU'llogest, so that there is a clash of power. But bowever stmng uke is, there is always one line thai. is weak. By:redjccOCtlng the power mlo- that line and thus tuming all ofuke's 'power back on ltimself, he wtU not be able lo, keep bis feet (stay on. balance) .

In order to find that Une, we must work to' improve our QVel:'4U sensltivily to, for IOOlmple, hoW uke fooks, his: posture, balaace, and so forth. In order to adlievethat, Jt is necessary to experfen.c~ mauy di.ffe.rlIDt sorts of power OR our OWl] body.

23

ATEMI STRIKING

111.e moment of conta.ct becomes the stri.ke

The founder, Ueshiba Sensei, said, '10. a real battle, atemi is seventy percent, technique is thirty percent." The training thai we do Ln the dojo is designed to teach us various sorts of techniques, the correct way to move our body, effective ways of using our power, and. how to create a relatlonship with the other person.

In 11 real battle, we must use the power tilat we have developed.in our bodies inlhe (fojl) and use UexpJoslvely man illslaJl~ we must doodethe outoome of the fight at that moment In that situation atemi becomes very important

In aikido, we don't 'Use any special strength to apply atemi. Just like in all the other techniques, we can generate power through the use of focused energy. For exampie, in Ihe case of shomen-tsukt, if you can use the front knee to effectively transfer all of the power of the forward movement o[ your body, aU of the body's en.ergy will be lransferred mto youtl'lst. Basically, this is the same as the principle of hirlki DO yosel (elbow power movement) (seepageS 32-35)1.

til areml, liming Is of course very important. When. uke comes toward. you, if you can time iI so that you make your strike at the moment that he is off .. balance, even without using strength you will be able to hit with great power.

24

In the case of someone coming to attack you from the rear, if you have an understanding of distan.ce and liming, you can use your back 10 strike them. This Is a variation of ateml

Strtkes as they are used in aikido are not limited to just hitting with the fist or tegatana (side of the hand). If you make contact with uke with focused power, thaI Is atemi, so it is possible to use your shoulder, your back, or any part of your body to make !he atemi.

ICHITAITA

ONE AGAINST MANY

Hold an opponent to catch an opponent

One of Ihe distinctive features of' aikido is that it is not jllst used in one-on-one situalio.ns but can also be used when facmg many opponents. If you arc facing multiple attackers it is of course important to maintain your own strong posture, but it is also important to be able to perceive the situation of your opponents.

Each oppomllll who is facing you is also 000- ,cC1tlraliog en thepersen oppOSite him, so his attention Is divided. That weakn:ess Js where you attack. If you move forward and offer yourself for attack, your opponents will be affected by that and will simultaneously come forward to auack as well. but a tiny lime~l~ will appear between each of those attacks. If you jump forward at whoever Is faslest, and turn. your body correctly, that 6rst person will bump into the person oPpoliite hlm, and they will.become CO/1- fused. BasicaJly,that Is the principle of "hol.d an opponenl to catch an opponent." In this way you can create confusion even if there lU'C a group' of people facing you.

In the above scene, as you change direction without stopping your movement, youI' circular body movements will: have a great effect Because of the necessity to react quickly atemi 'can be used in Il,llIJIY ways as you make your attack.

By moving forward youESeIf, all of your opponents will also come toward you. At that pOinl, by luming your body you arc able to confuse them.

25

T,RAINI'NG SY·STE.M

Traiining, begins with basics, B.n.d. it returns to bas'i,cs Kihan Dosal Basic Movements

We'lraJn in kiholl dosa. III orifer to learnfhe basic Dildy movements oj aikido.. There are six basic movements, eaehene of wlUch eaa be performed alo.llcor with apart" nero They are: hlrikl: no yosei ich1 (elbow power I), hirtki. no yose! ni ~elbow power ll),1aI no Ihenko feb!. (body ch~ge movement f), tal no .beMa, ill (body change movement U), shiimatsn dosa icbl (aftel-c1ass~ereise I), sbiimatsu dosa.ni (aftef"C!3Ssexcrdse Il). BeginheJlS, who usually perform the movements without a partner, leam.llrnn:igh them. how to fOCllS !he power developed by their whore body, how to do entertng and lurning mevemenlS,and how to malnttln a stable posture. Higher grades, who perform the movements with. a partner, taking OIl bo!h the role of sh'te and of uke, develop So sense of connecting wilh thepaltner's energy. Tiley also learn how to use the partner's weak. line in order to unbalance him, how to develop breath power,and so COM.

These movements canbepraoticed emply-handed or withaswonL

KiflDn Wazl .BasicT,echniq,ues

In Basic TechnIques we allow like 10 make various attacks (re., uslng his power ill different ways), and. then use our techni.que in order to complete the .interaction,

• Snwari. Walla (kneeling teclm!ques)-I.eclwiques performed wheIli both. people are facing ·eam other iOi a kneeltng posItion. Tllfcc life as .many kneeUng techniques as i!here are standing teclmiques.

'.IIanini-handacjhi waza (one kneeling, one standlng !eclmiques).......,rechnIques ,penormed. when sh'te Is ill a kneelingposltion,. and. uke makes his attack from a standLllgposltlon.

• T3Chi waza (standiog tecbniques)-:techniques performed when bothpi1.tUlers are standing,

• Usftito waza. ("ush!I'O'" means "bebind, rear")techniques In whlch t.ikea1ltacks from the rear.

Suwan waza and hanmf-hantbcIU wazaare' lefl. over from !h.e palace techniques of the olden times [when the !Ilobilitywould 'spend much of their lime: indoors ill a

knee.IJngposilionj, and should be done usIng shlkko (lmee-wa1klng). These lechhlqocs.conlribule greatly to the strength and flexJibilily of the anldes and. hillS. They are also very important fol' getting the body used to the idea of moving from the hips, Once you are abJelo perform suwarl waza, tachi waza will hecome simple,

Poirdsto remember when performing basic techniques

The movements of the basic lechniqnesIWe designed specifically to show ns how, by using rational methods of guiding 'ene.rgy, we caa Ilnd a technique tIW will unbalance our partner .. Therefore each movemenl mUSt be perfermed oorrectly, and you should make sucetbat you do nor "make if up" byyoursell':

To· avoid oonfusiolli wbenperforming basic techniques, when you are uke you, should not use your power to try to overcome sine. Harrnonlze your breathing with that ·of shte, and allow the tecllnlque to be performed c.orrectiy. In this WolY, you too will come to understand the correct way of Qsing your power wheDi perfonning ,weleclmique.

A - Td T, - .. hniqcue .. ·s· pple ec

These are techniques dial b_ave developed out. of the basic tecluUques. While in basic tedm:iques we separate each movement and do it individually, in applied techniques we

train by pedonnmg the technl(fue in one flowing movemen!. We are also able to practice IjJplied. teclml.ques with weapons such as the bokken (sword) or tanro (knife).

Free-stylle Techniques

TIlls is training in which the attack your partner Is going to make is predectded, for example, shOmen-tmhi (front slIfke) or kalate-mocro (orre·'luUlded. grasp). Your partner fW1itinUes to altlck YOll in that way while you have the keedom each nme '10 choose which technique to apply. ¥ou can use the body movem~nts and tbe redirection of power tballour body has learned lhmugh tr3.tmng in the basic techniques while making the remtstlcallycon:tinuens uJovements ofthevadollsfree-style techniques. You can. $0 npand your training byhavmg y{)urpartner use two or three diffurentattacks.

Free-style techniques ;against multiple atto.ckers

This is where you perform "free-style techn:!quesapt tWQ.,lhree, er.more opponents. It is lmportant to move wilhlbe whole of your lJody, and to move in such a 'way thai: you alwllYS :rnaintaiD a stable poS.l1Ire. ¥O"ll caaaiso introduce different' atlacksby having one opponent attack empW~handed, One attack With a sword, and one wilh, a 1mi£e.

Other training

The highest and most difficult level of training is to unbalance someone who has Ioeked out thetr strength spocll!i.rilly In order to stop you from unbalancing them, In the foshinkan, Soke (Headmaster) G01;o Smoda shows how it is done by demonstrating on his senter slUctents.

27

EXIPLANATION OF SPECIAl, TERMINOl,OGY

Circular

This reon is used,forexample, in ".Raise the l~tana (cutting edge oflhe hand) in a circular movement," or "Move your feg forward ina cirtuht movement." 11 means that your movement should describe 3D arc, not astralgbtllne.

Tammover

for example, "Turn the clbowover," "Tum theshoulder over." It means mat. you sheuldtam tbat part over so !hat it is facing in the opposite direction. Actually, when we say ''Tum uke's elbow'and. shoulder ,over to the front," what we mean Is "Turn. uke's arm so that Ilie elbow and. shoulder are facing foliWilCd, and ukels unbalanced in that dIrection."

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lockout

For example, "Lock out Ithe wrisl," "The ,elbow Is locked out "rn this sense, "to lock om" means "to. apply pressure into the joint." Th.e meaning, for example, of "Lock outlhe elbow" is "Apply pressure through the wrist up Into the elbow .. "Tbe PUQJose of this control is to prevent the partiClllar joint rrom being able to move.

To fix

"FIX your power," "The energy Is HXed." Lead uke's power so that it reaches its full.enent of movement, Ill. which stage uke .10se8 his ability to pull back or with· draw. lily bing the energy. uke is not able 10 tet go of the hand he has grasped.

D.penup

This nsuaD.y means either to the right or to the left. I~Open up your fronl foot to the [eft," means that you move the fOOl. to the JefI.and also tum your body to facelhat way. "Open up your body to the rear" means that you make a turning movement ito the rear with your back foot and also" changedte direction that. your body is facing.

Sectio:n 2

TAl SABAKI N"O IKIHION

THE BA,SII,CS OF BOIDY IMDYEM_E,NT

I~~-~~~~~~~~~~~~--~

I' I

II

The hasics are only aguiding principle.

Your strongest pos.ture i! the one thlltfilsyo.ur constItution.

That ctmnot be taught to y'Ou, You have ./olfind.f.t for ymtrselJ

It is not a question of wirkn'lng your slance o.r narrowing it, If tbe truth IJelold

Bu~ people will do what is tjomJortableforthem/

So if you a:JkJw them to, .they IlJili just make it uPlor themselves.

That is why~ you must .aJwtljls r,etum to the basies, This is what is important;

- GOIO Shioda Say.ings nl) --

KAMAE

BASIC STANCE

The basi.c posture tha.t win allow you to develo'p breath po,wer

Originally, there was no position in aikido that might have been called a "basic stance." The founder, .Morihei Uesbiba Sensei, whiJe saying that the basic stance was "to open your feet to the six directions [north, south, east, west, up, down] ," also wrote, "The complete kamae is what arises from where the gods lead you, depending on lime, situal.ion, the lie of Ihe land, the spirit oI the momentkamae is what is in your heart" [from 8ud6] , so that the explanatlon for the real battle Is to adapt to the circumstances that you arc in.

In the Yoshinkan, in order to learn the stance that is necessary to develop breath power, we introduce kamae as the most basic part of our training.

Through training in kamae, we learn to 0 maintain a straight balance, 8 keep our hands, feet, and hips on the center line ofthe body, e maintain correct posture without having to make an effort, and 0 extend our spirit forward.For beginners, Ihe stance may feel very unnaJural; we train so that eventually the body will come natur.illy into this position. If you can naturally assume kamae, your body will have started to gain the ability to develop breath power.

When your right hand and leg are forward, you are in right-handed kamae (migi hanmi kamae), and in the opposite position you are in left-handed kamae.

Feet The distance between your [eel should be one-anda-half times the length of your awn foot. Both. feel should be standing on the same line, with the toes pointed outward, so thaI if the heel of the front foot and the toes of the back fool came together they would make a right angle. By turning the toes of the front foot outward (and having Ihe balance over the front loot), you are able to make a turning movement more easily. Make sore that neither heel floats up, and press the big toe of each foot firmly into the mat. This is also good training for the big toes, which are so important in maintaining balance.

Knees Lightly bend the front knee, and keep the hack knee completely extended so that the back foot snaps Into the extended position. Your balance should be sixty percent over the front foot and fonypercenl over the back foot, You should not be supported by the front knee, but rather the body should extend straight up from the back

30

foot. The front knee should be loose enough that it. can move freely.

Hips Your hips should be stable and facing forward, exactly along the front line of the body. Be careful, as it is easy to open up slightly with the hlp on the back leg ide.

Upper Body Extend yOUli' neck and spine. By extendi~g right through from your back foot to YOUf neek you can. ensure that your whole body will be leaning forward ill one line. Relax your shoulders) and make sure that you don't open up your armpits. Keeping the neck straight is one of the charaerensncs of aikido.

Hands I.Arms Open. tip Ilte lin8ers of the hands. Bolh tbel!]):per and the rower ftmdl should be held along Il'le center 1ln.0. Tbe upp.er IHInd should bem. Unewith. lihe ehes, and tile lower h.and shtluldbe one fist.'s .length away Irom.tbe abdomen. Hol(looth.elbows so that they are not overextended. Tbe fingecs jjf both hands should be point~ Ing al the base of youI.' partner's 'titri1at. Beginn.ers laud to need strengih. in order to keep the ftngersopen, but keep practicing nnm it becomes natural

Spirit Your spIrit should be sent strongly il,Jnvard, but you should also have a "s1.i1l mind" so that you can react apptoprialely however your opponent ~t attack you, It Is. also .lmportant that you don't focus only OD the person slanding inIron~oJyou, but mall'uain all,orOllmd awareness.

IFacing your' partner in kamael

When facing a partner, ma-ai (the co.rreot basic dislance) Is one 110, cr about ~.8, mdters. Mthouah thls ma-fli might. seem hlrge for an emply,.handed. stYle,. it bas a purpose: by leading enr opponent into th1s space we 'tan maintain the Initiative.

When fadng an opponent, our eye-Uue islmporbmt (I.e., the way we observeQut opponent). By focusing on the other person's eyes but maintaining awareness of the whole of his body, we caD, read his ·body's movements. A:s we lmprove thr.ough training, ~by seelIlglhe Changes .in. his eyes, we will be able to read his oext mGvement and also his state ·of.rnind.

Ai~hanmi :kamae I mutual kamae

Pa:rtnersare fuctngeach olher .in. the same kamae. If both sh'te and uke ate in right-handed kamaa they lite in. mlgi aI.-bamml kamaa (mutual righI-han did kamae), and if both.3.rt in l.eIM!landed kamae thCYaJie m hidari ai~hamni kmrule ,(muwalleft-handed km:nae).

Gvaku.~:hanmi: karnae I Opposi.tekamae Partners are facing each other In oppositie kamae .. When shtels in right-banded kamae and ukeis in left-handed kamae they are in mlgig:nlku-hanmi kamae (rigEII.handed o~pposlte kamae), and when sh'w is in left.-handcd ~kamae and uke is infight-banded kruru:te ,they are in hidari gyaku~ha.nmi mae o.efl.-banded opposite kamae).

31

HIRIKI NO YOSEIICHI ELBO:W POWER I

Rai~se the hands as you ,are moving forward

Hiri:ki is an old japanese expression meaning 'elbow power.' and in aikido terms: it has come to mean "breaih power as expressed through the elbows." This elbow power movement is Ihe basic form lhal we use to teach the body to develop breath power. In the (I) movement, as we move forward and backward, we 'also learn the movement ofraisiJIg and culting down wilhlhe hands. 'Ehe explanation that follows refers to the movem,enl as it is done Wilh a partner.

<D Uke approaches f~om the firool dlagenal and grasps your lower arm in both of his hands, 8x1:ng it so that It Is unable to move. H you. are in a migi·hanmi kamae, uke grasps 6rml.y with his right band, and the left hand come; fr1>ID underneath to as.~ in the gripping.

CD--® As though extending forward with the hips, slide forward with the front fool.' At rile same ume, with a reel· ing as lIlough extending forward wirll rile elbows, raise both bands up In II. circufar movement along the body's ccoler line'.

Uke's Position

M sh'te raJsec;his bands,your elbows are raised up.

® Bring your balance Ionvard strongly over the front knee, and pull your back leg up in its extendcdpositloo, so thar you will be In a leanin&,forward position. Once you have r-Aised both hands.the thumb of the upper hand should be in front of the head, and rile thumb of the lower hand sllould be pointing :lI!he nose.

®-® Move backward by s'Udtng the ba k fool to !he rear, and cut down ",jill both bands .in a circular movement. Pull back the front foot so that you return to your original kamae posiuon. Make sure that your balance doesn't fall back in this position. Repeal the movement-

32

IMPORTANT POINTS

• Make sure that you don'l Opf!D up with yOUJ: hlps as you come forward.

• Don't leave your bad!: foot behIDd you. If your blps are lnLly facWg forward, by pus.h1ngforwaftl With )IOUr lftoot '!mee JUu will llaturaUy be able topuUl your bad!; leg up. • .Make sure. that you don't haveyout balance over yOUl' bWll foot .as; you move'(orward w!tll YOllr .fron~. foot. aiJ.dl also be careful that you dou't do the opposite and lean forward s.o muw sO that )'oul.'11I:ps beginfo"fJoa.~·"

• Don't tift up the 11,eel. ,of the ba.ckfoot.

• Doili't payaltention. to the fitct that YOm' ann Is beillig

Your hands, feet and hips,move lin 'one Hne

This is how Ille mesement looks wilen you are dQing il alene, as seen momille .Iiront You.r bands, feet, and, Jirlps all move keeping t'O the center line of the iOOdy,and the

held,. l.'e., you should do tbefeehnlque cued)' as if ),1)11 were doing it by yourself.

• Don'llose tIl.e diBlance between }oor elbows ,and your lKld)'~

.' Ooo',t open ),Olllr ,eUI'OWS, to the side. and don't .mlse yo Ill' shoulders ..

• :D.onlt move in sud!.a way that the differen~ parIS of the body move separately. The whole ,of the body should lIi.ove lit. ,time with your breadling •.

.body keeps facing straight tQ dle.·{ront, In this manaer 'Ille power EFom the whole of lite body beeomes facusoo, and tim power ,can Iben be transferred through. ;lhc bands.

The ba'iance! is, Iblrought forward Iby lheforward moveR ment 0,1 the' hips

.G)...OO TlUs movement Involves mQre than just the feel moving forward. As the hips move fOrlll'ard, the balance Isalso bl'll11ibt folW'.uU .At the same time, Ibe ba.IlK foot Is planted .into the mat as though dtrusting .back ,vith a j:o (wooden stall). Io ()Icier 10 do this, the blu;k fool~as to be absolulely

extended, so thaI the back knee .isoompietety .locked aut and! the back of the foot is fixed 1£1 LIle .mat,-.-tlIis ls the basis of the movement

@) Once the balance issufficJently over tIre fronl fOOl, push the fr.ant knee fOtw'al'd. Even when the mdvetnlm! of the front foal has stepped, the hJps should continue to move forward, so that lD.c balance is also being pushed forward. In order 10 acl1leve this, it is fmporomt ·tfuu. the front mee moves forward In a full movement By pushing the front knee forwam in !his way,lhe back foof\W1 natnrally bepW1ed up.

33

.HIRIKI N,O YOSEI .NI ELBOW POWER II

.A.s you transfer yourwe'ight, raise the hands

This is the movement that you applywben the hand that is down by the side of your body Is grasped; to raise the hands, you use the power that is generated by b'ansferring your welght and changing the dlrection of your body. In aikido we don't just use the power of tbe arms, but rather we use the power generated by transli rrlng the weight In executing the tedt_nfque.. Beginners easUy lose balance as they are makil1g tI:tis transferrillg movement Hid.k! no yosel o:i .islherefote ,designed to teach us bow to transfer tbeweight while maitUaining It stable posture and without losing balance. II. is also very etreclive at lncreaslng the BexibiHty and strength of the feet and hips. The explanation that follQWS refers to the movement as it i done with a partner.

34

G)...(!) From the same poSition as in (1), when the hand has been gripped, turn around, keep,ing the balance over the toes of bolh !eet, so that the body IUmS 180 degrees and is facing the opposite way in hidadharunL N; you do so drop the right hand, slill in kamae posilion, so that it is b~ down by the side of your body, Don'! use your slrenglb to do this, and don't allow your hand to be 100 far forward or back ® Advance forward with the left. foot in. the ssne way as In (I),. and oorne to a leaning.forward position .. Keep both hands in the sameposilion. Don't pun the right hand In Iom:rd you. The movement as done up to thi' point Isille preplU'3lory movement

<D-(!) As you transfer your weight from your left foot to your right fool, keeping your eight over the toes of both feet, tum and face the olher way. Together with the movement 01

the upper body, bring yom tight. band up Iiro.llll Its :POSi!iQll by Ihe .sIde OfYOUf body in aciroUlar m(lvemen~ keep.mg it in line willI your oenter of balanrall, SII that·it is rarsecilo head hei~1. Raise y.our left hand as weU, making sUl'eihat it; stays direeay 1n fron:lof your body, and bl'fog. I.t to Dose h~t. Once you. have 6nished ihe Itu:rn:ing movement you should

have ntised Ute bands In Ithe same position as In. h:I:riki no yOseiidii

@..(ID As you return and. bmlsfer YOUJ'welglJl fromrig!I1 foot to .left foot, cut down with both baitdsalong 'di.e same-path and .reIUDI. to Iheprepantlo!,¥ position. Return and repeat 'the movements,

IMPORTANT:POWI'S

• Don't pcufonn tile llIovement Ut such a WIly tbatyour 1center' oC balance stays between the frol1t and bael feet and you merely tum'your body around.

• Inllle middle POS.itiOll of the movement" llUlke sure tbat your welgllt stays over your toes.

,.00 lI.ot waituniilyoo hav- finished tbe tIlmin'-moe· :Qlen1. to iWsethe hands. ~e sure that 'you .raJse tbem

as you are m4ing 'iii tumiitg mlivement, laking lcare Ibat YOllreibowsdOnotget stllck.too elase In wyoot body. • Make slU"Cthalybu.r blpsdon't ge'tleft behind and dlat your body doesn't OOD!t to a twJsted positioo ...

• Willhoul dta:oglng t:b . cbelgllt of your hips or knees, by tr:uISferrlog your 'balance In a, borizolltal :movcmcot yOUi am .. keep' your weight ovcrthe same line.

Contro,1 the who'l!e ibody as Dine u:nit

• Withllutch~ginglbe height of yom: hips Of your knees, and Ibymoving ina homzontailll1lliD:gmovemenl, you will be able m lmI$fer your weigbt from one foot to the other wItiIe mOving your ,center alollglhe same Une.You should. nol move away from this line-l:o the left: ot I!n the l'ight-with either the upper or the lower body.

• The tum of the hips, knees, andankles, together willi the raising of the bandsl should all takep'Jace inane move-ment in time with your.bJ'eathing. TWs means tlmt all pans of the movements should bGtb stalt Md nn~ish together.

(The diagram below showslhe movement orlbe whole body as seen from above).

b'~ e b

-~.-.~.-@ .. ".' ~'--O_ --~~---<J----~@~-

<z:»:» --___..r ~

&.-left knee b--Iefthcel ,a'-rlght knee Ib' -right boo:t I:e-ohlps

rlglilhand

35

TAl NO HENKO ICHI

BODY CHANGE MOVEMENT I

36

IMPOKl'ANTPOINI'S

• The leg ,and bips move together as 'they make anuS" movement It is inoonu:t to do tbi movement with the foot alone.

• Both bands are kept in front of the body. As the hips change direction, the hands follow in a drcular movemwt The bands DlOYe as though the backs of them were foUowing the surfa.ce of a, ball.

• The wbolebody moves smoodtl.y without a, feeling of jerking at any stage.

• Having turned your wrist into the palm of ukc's hand, change the dlrectioD of the movement without losing that power.

The hips move in a V shape,. the basis of Ubody entry'· I( ir'i:mi,).

Tlns.1s the method of traini_ngthe body movement \(inen being pulled .. Ia.ane smooth movement the blps move Cor,vard Lna V'ha,pe, changing the line of power and .musing

ulre to becomepoweI1Iess. By controlling your mm hands, feet,3l1d hips along one ~:ne. yon ean come to a stable p'osture. TfUs movement of the .feel: and !rips Is :the basis of the.body elllenng moVetnenJ (idmi) and .isaIso directly connecled to kaJll.te·mochl solillniem irtml-Dage (oneband grasp; siQi: entering throw) •

The "same movemellt,. shown [romdl:lIerenl.angles, Is introduced. :boih. for solo practice and .for pra.ctice with 1I. panncr. <D from.r:nigi ai-hanml .krurule. uke grasps your I.eft: band Mill his Fi_gllt. hand, andpuUsln a s!ra:igbt lifle.

00 mending With the pulllug power,. your left foot .(r.L'lSe5in front of your dght foot (n a circular movement, and the palms of your left and right hands .moee-aoh other as they go fOJ:WlUd.

® Sliding the tefl (001 (onmd ill a dreular movement, cllange !he direction of your hips to :the lei The palms of both your hands are fadng up, with ihe Icrt hand at heaC! height and the .right~band atehe.<a height

. ®-® KeepJngthe tipper body in :(hatpoliilioD, bring YOllf left. foot forwnrdin a bl:rge movwnen~ keeling the balance forward. When working with 3 partner. your left band enters inl.otbe Jeft of uke's neck with. a drclllar movement. four right hlmClcoml,'$ palm u:P' wong !he side ,of uke's body, YoUl left iool moves forwlll'd betweeouke's fet!t.

®-Q) When coming back 011 the I'etl;lrn movement,. slide back your left fool in a big movemenl, and at !the cod slide yoor nglrl foot in sn that you retumto .the oliginal posllion. Repeat the above rnovemenls.

37

TAl NO HENKO NI

BODY CHANGE MOVEMENT II

R.edirectthe energy by making a 95-degree turning movement

This is the method 01 redirectIng powcrwhen being pushed. 1b1 movement enables us to make a. turning movement "teokan" while maintaining a. stable posnire,

(I Ihat by keeping the balance over the same foot and making a uiming movement to the rear, we can unbalance the other person. Many unbalancing techniques develop from tal. no henko ni.

<D From bidari gyaku.hanmi kamae, uke grasps your left hand and pushes in a .straigbt line.

cv-® Blending with the pushing power,keep tne balance over your left fool and! make a 95-degreeruro. 10 the rear wI.!h your right fOOL At the same time bring your left band around in a scooping movement so thai it comes to chest height. with. the pafJIl if'4clng upward, The aghl haad is nirned in the same way as the left hand, and is brought up to hip height.

38

U.ke'sPosition

l'j,voting around the point where you had, grdSped, your elbow Is bem inward, and your power is redlrected forward Ln a clrcular movement

®-{[) RctumaJong the same path so that you come back to your original position. Repeat. the movemcDl

IMPORTANT POINl'S

• Keep yOfJt enecgy (lowing forward as you make the ium, and drop YOUt weight straight do",n ever the frOllt foot. '. In. order Dot 1.0 bring yOW' balance oockward, make sure that you rutowU.b .... e feeUng of turning forward.

• Wben YO'LI make the turn" .make snrethatyou keep yoW' hands, :hips, and feet en thesame line., and dOIl'tall.ow the di.lferellt parts of ~'our body to get opt of a1i.grun 'lit. • W.hen you turn lihe hands, keep them on the nile that extends forward, from the hips. Doo't do tile ffi.ovemcnt j~t by puUiog In wIth the hands.

Keep,your' wri:stfixe,d to the palm of u'ke:s hand

Whe.n.we say '''fLun your hand araund in a scooping movemenl;" we mean that yOIJ should tum lfteWIiSt over in SUch III way that LIke's lour fi.qger:s, starti'ilgwith the little linger; are caught tip in the torn. By doing the movement in this way yeU! can Irulke III real eonneenon with like's power. Because uke 113spushoo in a. slr.ught line andean Ill) lolijler release him· self from Ule poIlU where he gripped, his elbow is bent. inwm'l.

COMMON MISl'AKES

• .rOil (oscyoUll' eenfeJ;' of !~~~ and your weigbt falls bacliwan:ll.

.,youpuU your b91I1J to tbe side ;and Uler,efo;re lose: yOW' own OOl1'«tpootnre.

39'

SHUMATSU DOSA ICHI AFTE.R-CLASS EXERCISE I,

40

This is a combination movement designed to teach us to harmonize our energy with our partner.

This technique is called "aftet-e1as5 ex:eucise" because at the end af training we do It to stretch !he body out Originally, its purposew:as to tl:acfi us to move from one position to another while maintaining a stable posture. By doing it in one COIllinuOUS movement with a partner, it also teaches lIS to be se~ilive to the other person's energy,

ShiimalSU dosa ichi is directly connected to I)'i5le-mochi sbiho.nage (I). (Two-hand gnlSp; fout dlreclion 1hi'Ow 1).

CD From Uligi ai-hanml kamae, like grasps you.r wrists and pulls ..

. ~ '\jou .move forww-d and m,tlle ,right :from' !herront foOI,:mdchlll1ging the di:rectionof the pulling pewer, bring both hands up so that they areePendc4 io front. of the chest. Hold the hands iii a cjrcular shape as though thepalms were holding the sl'tr:face of a ball, and mike sure Ibat you don't open up your elbows to Ibe side.

ID-® MOVing parallel to the line you were odginally facing, make a large step forward with the left foot, and as you bring your weig!1t over th_llffoot, bring your hands up in a dn:ular mOvell1ent wthe tom of your head

®-Q) Kceplng your weigbt oveI the toes of both feel, trallsfer ~OUF weigl1t from YOllr'left foot to your right Joot in the same way asfn hidld no yose! ni, and as you 'tum your body: slide the left leg forward. Both of your hands stay in the same position as in tbe previuus movement, and the arms extend straight up into the air,

Uke's Position

Ifeepin,g your left hand holdingsh'te's right band, allow your body to turn and slide up in time with the movement of sh'te's back, and hold on to Sh'te's right hand with heth of your hands in a position behind }lour head. ®-® As you move forward in a big step with your right foot, keep your hands in !he cxwnded posil;ionand cut down with ihemto shoulderbeight, and ibrin~ your balance strongly Oyer thefront foot,

Uke's Position

In time wIth sh'te's forward movement, move 10 the side, keeping your grip on his right hand, and allow your body to be bent back,

@ As you brlog up the back foot, return to migi-hanmi kamae, If you are wot!<:iog with a partner, take correct distan.ce (rna-at) and face each other.

IMPORTANTPOOOS

.In 00, the dlstaiUie between tile feetafte.r fOU have made the tum Is the same as in kamae .

• As .you are making moves ®-® • make sure that you are n.ot puUed off~line because uke is holding you. U~e, as well, should .make sure that he does Dot pun sb'te towaro him.

41

This exercise is to teacit us to make continuous move" ments without interrupting the flow of energy, 0 that when somebody grabs both hands and pushes, we are able to make a tumtng movement 10 the rear, thereby changing the dlrection of !he power and unbalancing the other person.

<D From bidarigyaku-hanmI kamae,uk grasp both your wrists, and pushes I.n a slrafght line.

(J)..@Keepi.llg !he balance over Ib.e Lefl. foot, make a.180- de,gree iturning movemcntlO the rear. slide your rigM hand up Oil the JnsIde of like's lell ~t and misell'te hand in a dn:u1ar mowmentlo head height BrIng til ·lcfl: haad around to c11est height ina palm-up position, Ill. the same way asin tal. no henk.6 oi (Body-Chan,ge M.ovement Il). Bring your body to a Low posture, and extend the back leg strongly.

SHU'MATSU DOSA NI AFTER-CLASS EXERCISE II

'R'aise the ban.dl as you make a turni.ng movement to the rear,

42

Uke's Position

The elbow pi' the right arm should be bent inward, the elbow of the [eft arm sheuld be led around and UfI, and you sbould be brought off-balance with a feeltagas tbough you were rn.o~g around the outsIde of sh'te's turn.

ID--® Keep.Logyou.r babin.reover the toesof bothree~ transfe.f yOllt weigbt from your left. fool to your ri~ht fool and Clbao~e !he dLret:tion you are {actQg,. andbting your left foot fol;lVaCi:I so 'fua~ you :u;e in kamile pesiuon .. Raise both han~ .sfraigllt above ilie bead, withmrJ losing the 'I!Jde!15iorr of the elbows. TheblUlds are·beld shoulder-widtb apart.

® Slide forward in a Ia~ge step With 'the right [egand bang your balance strongly over tl:te frool, .foot, corning ·toa, low

stance. tIthe same lime cut down with both hands '10 shoulder:b.dgbl

CD Bring the back foot .forward and come tot)1igi-llllnrni kamae, If XOU J)"eli€JnU the movement with. a partner,. take C01l'eet distance (rna-a!') and face each. other.

lMPORTANTPOINTS

• When yoo .. ~t;~gdi:e tDrJling moveme.n~make sure that you do not pnil yourbllAds: into youtself. Apply '(ilccon.ti:olar()on4 tb,c circumfereuce of th.e fR.ntlng movement O[YODf hips,.

• Once' you :ba.ve finished the tumlng movement" both JJ'!Jldsshould be centere.datong your front line. Don'£ allow t1Iem to. come off-line to the left 01' right

43

-

KliHON DIIOiSA.

BAS:I'C MOVE,MENTS: IMPORTA,NT POINTS

When }Iou are lrninlng In the basic movements, there: are oeewn points !hat are vital for you to observe .. As well as being appUcable to actual technlques, it is also important to observe these points in all of the movements.

Open the f.ingers .strongly

By operung the fulgers, it is easy to extend power forward. It m:l:ght appear lhal:by making 3. strong 5st and trying to control the arm in that way we would be very cpowel'ful, but actually.in this positioIllile power oflhearm is :8.owIng in tow.n:d·:lls. If we extend our arm and altow uke to try to bend 11, it is thet1eforequile simple for htmto do thaI (picture Q)). If,. however,. we S1f(I[lgly opea Ihe fin-

g~rs,our power isbelng transferred fomard, and it is much harder (or uke 10 bend olU arm than. when. we held our handin a fist (picture CD. SO If llke grabs your wrist, open up your fingers to make .It difficult :for him lograo you strongly, and. '10 make it easier for you tolakeadvan-

S:ringing !updle back leg

When you are makin.g a movement to go f.orward, if you eame foa position where your balance continues to extend forward, you will be able to develop strong power. In omer to, achieyethi.s, oaee the legtbat has advanced forward is fixed to the mat,conUnue to direct ihe energy of'ilte knee f.orward. If you leave th.e buck leg where it is and the fonvard power is.5topped, you will not he able to extend: power. It is also impol'tl!lt, in order to keep a. stable posture, to maintain the correct distance between your feet. Therefore, wIt.eol moving forward in a movement, as you .extend forward With. yuurl'ronl. knee make sure !hat you slide your back leg up.

~t.ls :$0 Important when you are moving Convard ihatthe back foot is allilched str.ongly to the mat, so make sure thai !he back bee is strongly extended and th:al. the surface oftha fool is aat against the mat-do notal.1ow your

of the above are done together you will be able to create a single flow .of power- d "h~ ·11-·· kuC will 1.- d ·l-

._ .. _ _Il. -. ,an" ue u 1)'.0 IA:" eve

oped.

In ®, as the halJlllee comes over thefrolll foettbe &00.1 knee pushes [orwani,and the back Coot slides up. Iuhiriki no yoset n1, where we ttan:;fer the weiglttfri.lffi one foot to !he ,ow.er, or tal 110 henkO ni, where we make a tenkan (turning movement), if all the paris of ·the body

Your whole body moves as ,one unit

Wb£ll you are moving. if one part ofyou.f body is too !fast or too slow, youwiU nol have one line oE power and thus will not be able to developshiichiH:yoku. Therefore It Is important to movefn such a. waythalallihe parts oly.our body m.ove togeth.er,as in Ihirild no yosei. leW (:figure A). a) Raising both hands, b) pushing forward with. the hlps, c) moving forward aillie knee, d) moVing fOlW"ard wilh !he front foot, e) pushing back.fromlhe baC:k.foot~jJaII.

44

tage of Ih.e contact of his gdp. When you mike 2. strike, epenthe fingers 1.0 generate a tot or power.

In order to develop this a_bility, you have tepay attention to opening your fingers strongly when you are tralning. In the beginning, most people use too much strength when

they try to open the fingers, Dut as you continue in your ,traInIng) you will find that you. are able to hold the ,fir(gers open naturally. When you open the fingers,. you must make sure that your spirit is also being sent strongly forward.

heel to "float." In this way you will be able to move forw-dfd withoul .I"',using and.lowerlng your balance .

. []lo~e together,. tI1e hips and the hands are aI:ways racing dired1y along the body's front line. If the body becomes lWisted !he whole of the bodY's liming will be lost

e

45

SHIKKO-H'O _K,NEE WALKIN!G

We useknee walking wtlen, dolng a technIque f:rom a kneel1i1gpositiOOJ so that. we can move smoothly without losing onr balance .. Make sure that your hips: don't GOIl.t op; also make sure tbatyoll don't do the ·opposite and lease your hlps bebind by uSlng jusl your :feet to .move\vlth.

(f) Come 10, sclm (kneellrJg position) and stand tip on YOllrtoes •. ®-.@ KeepIng your balance over the rigl:ltknee, move Cocrward with the left knee as though pushing forward with the hips .. AS you do this pull your right. heel (olW,ard,. so that the heeLs ofbotb reet do Dot !lrecome .separated ..

®----Q) Once the b<ilimce js over !he Ie_it knoo .move .fonwrdi with lheright knee and bring the left heel next to therighl heel. Make sure that your weight doesn't fuJ:1 to the rear, and that your balance moves forwardi with the &ont knee, By r,epeafulg these movemeu!S you will move forward!.

IMPORTANT POIN'l'S,

• Make sure that you", .hips don't "float" and that your balance doesn .. go up Wldi doWiD as you :m.Ol'C.

• ~eep YOlll'oodf slr.tJgbt abol'etbe bl'ps, !andi dOll'. move fruml side ro side.

• Make sure thmtfie fr-onc knee-the knee that 18 .8,IOViQg forwan),-------({oes not come inside so dIat it cresses the center line of the body ..

• When youbal'c finished eaehpart 01 the movement, yolI1' body wiD be in a"'ha1f~Iln"posltio".but make sure that the mam lm,eis stnigbt forwnn'l.

• In. ot!det' to move backward, puU tbeheds backward in. a dn:ulat mOl'emertt..

'CJOMMON .M1STAKES

leaving }'Ouj. baek. he.elbehlIld •. ,ortilming your hips forward. or to the rear a:re·oom.moQ. mistakes .. Make sure that both of yo or beefs stay undemc-aOI your hips.

46,

Turning movement:

When yOIl want, to rmike a turning movement from 3: koeeUngpositi0n, bring your balance over one of your knee5l1:I1d turn your body around . .Both. heels come

around as though :chasinglhe :movemenl of .thel1lps, Make SUIfr that as' you turn you don't, "f[o!U up" with the hIp.s and therefore bre:lkyour pnstnre.

47

UKEMI FALLIN'G

48

To prevent injury when thr!own

The throwing technlques of aikido include slmple throws as well as techniques where a twJst is added. The art. of falling not ,only enables you to escape injury, ItalIoWs you to move quIckly 10 the next attack Whichever fall yQU do, in ordes Dol to hit your head, you:reyes must. 'be looking al

the knot in your belt the whole time. The following falls are rcp.resenJative butfn reali.W, depending 00 the situation, you 1!dapt to the dnJ1lJllSIiIItCCS In order to protecl, your body. 8y taking these falli inlrainlng, you will be developing slrength and llexibiUty in your whole body .

• This is the basic method of rolling forward.

(j) Have the same side hand and foot. forward,. and turn the hand so thattegatana is facing forward.

®--® l:um your bead to the side, and fUake the fall so that. the whole Jin~om. the band through to the out· side of the arm----comes Into contactwiih. the mat, aU travelling aleng' lfI.e same line.

@-® 'fhe other handlies n@t 10 your bJp In preparation, and as the spine comes into contact with the mal, slap the mat with that hand. Don't turn your body to the side; the body moves along the same line right to the end. @ Using your left foot as a fulcrum, use the momentum of the I1011 to stand up .

• ¥ou caa be dtrown from di_fferent anjles, and this fall is 'QSCful fo.l' ()Wl.y of those throws, IUs spedally useful. if you are dn'oWlI fast, or iflhefhtow Ita.'i:had lIitWistadded.

Q)....@ Move straight forward with the front foot and b~yourhead in to 'your center. 'I'he ollier handisheld ready 10 sla,p the mal.

@Milke a bigh jump forward. and turn your body over as you are in the air.

<D-® Slap the mat. with your hand so Lhal all of YOu{ ann up 10 the shoulder hits the mat Allow your body to make a circular roll along the mat, and pull your left. foot right up into your hips, Make sure ·that your body d'oeSn't become unbelsnced and end up in iii diagonaJ lime. ®Wifu you; left foot 3., a, fulcrum, uselbe momentum of' the roll to stand up .

• This is the fall that YOll woUld use if you were thrown backward and to the side, for example for sh6meu irimi"nageand similar I.eCbniques.

CD If you are thrown backward and lo·the right, pull your righlleg back in that direction.

ffi:.4) Drop your hips down so !hat they are dose 'to YOIl{ right foot, keep your left foot mended, and IUrn your body around 10 the light Your right hand is MId mdylo slap ihe mat.

®, /Is your rJght hand sLaps the mat, bring both feet around so that your body f; lying slCalghl.

®-® As you come around (0 the right, your body is facing the c mer way from !he directioo.in which you started.

49

SHOMEN-UCHI FRONT STRIKE

Transfer the pewer of your hips into your hand

In the same way that you would make a front strike with a sword, use your tegatana to make a strike to your opponent's head. By movlog forward, the power developed by extending your balance forward can be transferred into your hand.

CD-® Wben you come toa distance where your lingers would be meeting your partner's flnget'S if be extended his ann, Faise your hand straight up above the center Ilne of your body .. Don't liftup your shoulders or open your armpl1s.

®-® Pushing straight forward with your hips, strike with tegatana to your partner's face. Bring your balance strongly

[,over your front foot. Push forward with your front knee to transfer the power of the hips into the hand. In one breath, bring your balance forward and strike.

® This is sMmen-uchi as seen from the front. It Is made with the hands, feet, and hips in one straight line.

IMPORtANT POINTS

• By spreading your .finger,s coueerly you w.iUextend. your power forward

• Don't raise your shoulders. aDd don't use only the power of your arm to make the strike .

• 8y bringing your back foot up at the moment of the strike you ensure that your posture remains stable.

COMMON MISTAKE

If you open your armpits, you will be unbalanced to the front. Because lUis will present you from pushillg your halanoe co.rrectly forward, you will~ot be able to transfer any power Into your hand.

-

SHOMEN-UCHI NO UKEKATA

BLOCKING THE FRONT STRIKE

At the moment that ,you make the block, turn your hand Qv,er

This is the method of protroting yourself against s'hiimenuchi. It is not just a matter of stopping the strike: by turn" ing your hand over at the moment that you make contact you will break uke's power and also bring your own body into a strong posture.

<D-<V From hidari gyaktf"bmtnj, uke takes One step forward With the froilt foot and attacks With shomen-uebL You harmon~.ewirh uke's SIrlke, raiSing your hands,

® ~,rhoughpusmng forward with the lower palioi' the rlgfit tegatana, blnekuke's strike. By uSing ilie hips and keeping, the balance forward through the front knee" and extending strongly thrO'IIgh the back leg, you will come to an immovable posture. Don't do this just with the ann, but have the feeling that YOll are performing the block with the hips. 10 addilion, don't walt to block, bot use your timing to ~10fk at the moment before the power entersuke's band. Your left hand grips uke's elbow Hgblly from the outside .

• Jn aikido we block with the ulna, the forearm: bone that is on the outsidaoffhe wrist.

How to blend with the wrists

CD--® Do. not merely hit each other in a stralghtllne, but at the moment that you make contact with your partner turn

your hand over as in @,;so that you have the feeling of pushingfotward with your Wrist and elbow. By doing litis you can neutralize the power of the strike without losing the now of power. Open your fingers I>'tti>ng!y. (Sh'tc'lj band is on the .right).

COMMON MISTAKES

• If you block willi your band in a sideways position, you will not be able to Slop ukers power,

• If you don't bring yPur balance strongly forward, your posture Will be weak and you will be pushed back by uke's power .

51

SHOMEN-UCHI NO UCHIYO:KE ENTERING IN,SI,DETHE FRONT STRIKE (FRONT STR,IKE INSIDE-BLOCK)

52

Maintain the point of contact and lead your partner

As opposed to !he block-where you stop uke's power, this is the method where you take away the power of uke's strike and redirect !he flow of energy.

<D--CV From mig!. al-hanml mae, blend with uke's sMOlen·neW and move to the Inside with the' right foot~ @-.(D While uke's hand is still a.I a higb.posiUon,bIend wilh your :ri.ght lJi.and. (l,e., brIng y,pur hands intol;on(a(lt with eaeh other).

@-Q) Keep your weight over your right fOOL and make a 180-degree tum to the rear, and without losIng contactwilh uke's hand 'turn your hand over so !hal1the thumb is poi.oting downward. With a circular movement make a :flowing block along your own front line. You should bavelhe feeling of usIng your own band 10 lead the power of uke'shand,

IMPORTANT .POINTS

• U' ),011 ()uUtbe band dimltly in toward yourSelf, the flow of energy wUl be hiten;upred and you wlU n.ot be ab.le to lead uke around. You should lead bimaround lin iii spiral movement along the exteo:sioo oJ the Iblt of lII.e o.riginal. strike ..

• .AU of this sbouldbe done as one movement wjtJlout stopping the flow of energy.

• While you are making the tum, make sure (bat yonr balance does not faU backw-dtd.

VO,KOMEN-UCHI

SIDE STRIKE TO T.HE ,HEAD

Cl) By turning your hips cut down along the dia,gonal

Strtkewifh. the hand. by cutqng down in a. diagonalliae, aImin,g al the area from the temple to !he neck:

(j)-.Q) ln rnlgl-hanmt kamae, mise you e right bandslTaight Itbove you In the same way as in sMmen.-uchl.

®-ill As you move forwar,d £rom the front foot, keep your elbow pointing forward and strike down in a di.agonalline

• Make UN 'ihatyou don't open your elbow to the side as you raise your band, and also dtat you don't. swing your IlJIIId around Jna horizontal line lIS you make the cut

• The hi . bouJd not be facing traight to the front.

with the right tegatana, Don't merely lift your ann up to the Side, but change the direction of the hips in order to change !he direction of the cut. In the same way as in homen-ucbi, brfng your balance slrongly forward over your £rollt knee to tran·srer power [nlO your hand .. Open yourfinge-:s ~lrongly in erder to develop as much power as possible.

Where the stLike shollld be made •

53

YO'KOMEN-,UCHINO UKEKATA BLOCKlN,G THE SI,D'E STRI'KETO 'T:HE' HEAD

with your partner, tum your hand over to.ihe outside in the sante way as in Shamen.llchi. Use yourtim.ing 10 apply the 'bleck.at the verY moment before uke's strike

54

C'Dntrollhestrikelhe~ moment before it becDm~espowedul

.This is ,the method lIf' protecting yourself agmt yokomen,-uGb1Rath.erthan jilst Sto'ppiilB me strike, this is a. me.luld of contt0lll:1lg 111m at: lhe moment hefore 1$. sttikebecomes I!owedbL

Cf5...:CDPtom htdlm gy,llku-hanlJli kama!:l, hat'lIl,onizing With llkc asb.el'llises ills .itands:,_ raIse poili your hands slraighttup"

@..:@, HlltmoiliZitig witfi'tlke's Sti'ike, move forwa1\d along thediagonai nne wjtbfhe left (001, and ,cut down wIth yQur haUds. u~(ng the FroIl,~ part offhe left arm to make the block. Attb.c rnomentfhlu yon mal\e contact

becomes. powerful At the same time the tight hand Il1llkeS a6sl~ and gives atemi to Uke's filtlc.

IMPORTAN(' POINToS

.'When yOd mOve out to'l'he side, make sure that you don't move an. a ~~t line, and keep four own front fine faciln,g.uk.e. WIth your face IDoldfig straigbt at him •.

• Don't .make the :bluek. just with your hands-use tout whol'e body, and .lIhlke sur,eiliatbybrlngmg. you~ bmllJICe slrllngly forward througb the front 'knee YI!U maintain 3 stoo"g posture.

COMMO~ MISTAKES

• Don't.oped up your armpits, and don't strike wi:tb: th.e ,hl!.nd by pushllIg; from: .tbe inside todlcoutside l1o.e, otherwiSe you wm beO¥e~ome by. uke's powu~ • Don!t let your body fll£~outwri ~

YOKOMEN-UCHI NO UCHIYOKE

ENTERING INSIDE THE SIDE STRIKE TO THE HEAD (SIDE STRIKE TO THE HEAD; INSIDE BLOCK)

Cut down with fbe hand in a spi!raJI'mo,vement

In the same way as shiimen-uchi no uchlyoke,lhis method takes away uke's power «ndredirec1S the Dow ofencrgy.

CD-<i) From migi ai-hanml kamae, h:mnonize with uke's strike: as you raise your right hand step forward and 10 the lnslde with. the right foot.

@-.® Keep your balance over your right foot and make a tumingmovem.entlo the' rear. As you cut down willt your left hand ll,lIlkea tlowJ:ng, block,re-directing uke's strike along a. spfralllne. l'he· flow of powe{ from uke's yokomen-ucln is malnlained. wi!hJn thi's mmrog movement At the same time, make a:.fist witl:i the other hand and deliver an atemi to uke's face.

Q) This is !he mom· 01 that you make con lad with your panner, lIS seen from !he opposite side.

IMPORTANTPOlNTS

• Don't. just pu h down .0 uke' JIand from above. lower YOllfstanlle aj. the same time as for, make the tum, an.d Ihe power developtld by lowering yOW' p0sture willautomad.cally be ~ln1D'YOur hand.

• .Don't fr)I to push uke'shand around, but after' your ~:tnds Jlave m,ad~ conllWt !l'ust Ihe circular movement ofyourotm bod to lead itarouod.

• Make sure that your balance dOesn't faI) back as you IDake the tum. Keep your waght over one point tight till1he end.

55

SHOMEN- TSUKI .FRO,NT PUNCH

Push the' knee forward and extend the powe.r into the fist

56

The effectiveness of shomea-tsuld is developed by pushing the balance forward and transfel'rlng that energy into the fist EVen if you were to punch in the correct manner but the .front foot that had stepped forward was too stiff, the flow of energy would stop there. If the hips continue to travel forward even after the front foot is planted on lite greund, as the hips push the balance forward, so your powerls also pushed forward, By combining that movemet'll, with the punch, allof the power will be transferred into the fist In erderte achieve !his, the knee must continue to push forward even after you have finished making the Slep. However, merely straining with the knee will not make the technique work. Training in the hlriki no rose! (BUrow Power) basic movements will enable you to develop Ilie necessary flexibWty in the knees.

We will here give ihe explanation oJ a shomen-lSuld in which the same-side hand and foot are both moving for-· ward, but when the hand and the opposite fool are rOtward ("gyaku tb1iId"), the pdnciplesare the ssme,

<D--<D From migi ai-h:mm:i kamae, pull the right foot back and pull the right .fist in to !he side of the body. Drop your weight siraigbt down over the left foot.

(j)...(j) As though you are pushing forward from the hips, move forward. in a big step with the right. foot, and punch in to yoW' partner's solar plexus. The movement of the lower hailf of the body should be abead o.f the movement of the upper part of the body.

® Even after the right foot has been planted inlo the mat, contlnUe to push forward Wi.th theknee and the hips., and bdng your weight strongly over the .front fool. This action should be coordinated with the punch to form one movem nt. The fist should be closed Ughtly at fir.;t, becoming tight at the moment of impact The hack foot should slide up naturally with the forward movement of the body,and the back leg should be strongly extended In order to give the body a stable posture.

IMPOIO'ANT POINTS

• The Idps must be held. so d1m'diey are facing srmight fOF~ want.

• Keep the fist 10 the center )lue of the body as you pUDch. Your hands, .feet, and hips should all be on the same line, which will give you a stable posture .

• Don't te.nsetbe upper body (e.pally the shou1ders), and don't use only the power of tile amJS to make the pund1.

If you were to punch to. kyiisho., a pressure point, using the single point of the second knuckle of either your first or middle finger would be effective,

MAKING A FLOWING BLOCK TO SHOMEN-TSUKI

Move your own center line H.way , from the line 01 the punch

Wheo you are making a. flowing block toa ptlllClJ, iF you. try to escape with your bodyypu wiU not be able to eoter In. Avoid ihepunch by bringing your own body dose to, your partner, not to "escape," but to go !he Ieastpossible distance in moving your own center line away from the Une of the punch.

Duts~idell'owing bl;ock

<D Come 10 hldarlgyalru-hanmlkamae. Uke pulls back the right foot one step and comes to the prepar.:ltory punching posltIon.

<D-4) Harmoni7.lng with your partner's punch, maintain the reeling of moving Iorward as yon keep your balance over your frontfoot and make a IIImmg movement. Bring the left leglltana onto uke's forearm, and make a flowing block.

~ Because it ls Ihe movement of your body that brings your

own ceater line away from !he i,j;ne of Ill· smke, there ls 00 aeed to make a big cp to tIl.e·· de {a "eScape" from the pundt.

Uke's Position

To cause sh'te 10 come (0twa1'd, make a punch to the front. At the moment that you put power into your .fiS! to deliver the slrike, your target disappears; the power of your punch continues 10 extend forward, and because the direction of !be force is redirected, you are unbalanced In a big movement 10 your front.

IMPORTANT POIN"(S

• Although. it appears illat you aee moving straIght for~ ward, 'by chartging.the dlreetion of youI:' flips, you are able to, cause uke [0 m15s his, farget. EveDt afieryoul have avoided the punch, do not change your balance, which Is over your front foot.

• Make SIUIe that because ,of fOur desire to escape from the pun£b you do not distance yoorbody from your partaet'sbody.

Do .not push uke's arm .away with rOlll' tegatana, but nther make light oonta.ctt and, by cha:Oging the direction of your owu body redirect the lin.e of energy.

Inside flowing block

CD COfD.e 10 mig[ a1-hanmJ. kamae, UkepuUs. back one step with !he rlgnt foot and, comes 10 lheprep:l'I1'aloty punch1ngpositioR.

®-G) Keeping the balance over the righl foot, make a big rumtng mevement 10 the rear withlh left foOl and open up your body; bring

the right tegat:ana to uke's forearm

.and redlreet the power.

5.1

UNBALANCING YOUR PARTNER FROM KATATEMOCHI (ONE-HAND GRASP) (WHEN YOU ARE BEING PULLED 1)

Control the little-finger side of ' the hand and tuml th.e elbow over'

This is the method of unbalancing your opponent when he has gr-Jbbed you in a posilion where his power Is focused in his thumb. Because the power is centered In the thumb, the little-6nger side of his hand will naturally be weaker, and it will be easy to open up his clliow to the side, so that is the direction we will go, in order to ceneeland unbalance him. Here we show you how to continue into kokyii. nage (breath throw) after you have made the unbalancing movement

<D From mlgi al-hanmi kamae; uke grdSpsyour left wrist with his right hand, and pulls in a straIght line.

CD-®BJend wiU] 'thepl1l.l.ing power, and keeping the balance over the right fool, make a.lurnlng movement to, the side with the left foo~ c~ging the cUrectJon of the: body .. At tile same time, tum 'the liandthat Is being held so that .it is in a palmdown posinon, and bring it around In a. circular movement along the left.side diagooal Une. There should be the feeling of bringing uke's palm ar-ound togeilier with your wrisL

Uke's Position

As your pulling power is redirected in a circular .Uncaround to the right, your elbow is pushed backward, and you are unbalaoceOl along the rearright,side dlagonal llne.

®-<D As yon move tOI'WlUd witl) your righl. foot along the front dght~side diagonal line, IYrlng your hill. band around in a circular movement as though turning Ihe elbow around from the outside, and raise your hand to he-ad height. This movement Is not done in a:.stralgh1 ~ your body to the left.

Raise your hand in such a way that the tegatana comes around the outside of uke's wrist

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Uke's Position

Because shte raises hiS hand, YOUl' elbow is also raised up, your shoulder is turned over, and YOII are unbalanced t.o your left. @-@ As you meve forward in a big step will:! the Ief! foot and bring your body into a. deep posture, cut down with your hand in such a Wd.Y that your eIlrow slays allile front, and YOIl turn uke's shoulder over and. throw him.

IMPOKfANT POINTS

.1bisteclmique should be performed. with 0.0 break in the flow ofcrtergy.

• At the time that you change the direetion of power, maintain your own stable posture and do not become unba]_anced.

Raise the hand through oorrect use olthe e.lbow

. If you use just your wrist to try to mise uke's hand, you will find it difficult. Relax your wrist in theposllion that uke is holding it in, and raise your hand by keeping the wrist in your center and raising your elbow. M, you raise your hand, your fingers will be pointing toward your head.

In a real application, if you use atemi at. the same ti.ine as you unbalance uke, it becomes easy to move into the next stage of the technique, In addition, ln applying atemi we causeuke to block, and thus prevent him from using that hand to hit us.

59

(WHEN YOU ARE BEING PULLED 2)

Cut your partner's elbow in to the inside'

This is the method of unbalancing yourpartner when he become weak. His energy is such that it is easy to turn Ills has grabbed you and focused his power in to ihe Iittfe-fin- elbow In to the insIde, so thai: is the direction ill which. we ger side of his hand, which has made his thumb stde apply the lock, and thus we unbalance him.

----------------., QD From migial-hanml kamae, uke grasps your left wrist with his right hand, and pulls in a straight tine.

CD-<D Blending wltbthe pulllngpower, bring your .right foot up 10 uke's right fOOl so that they meet in a T.shape, and change the direction of your hips. Bring your balance strongly over (he right fool and come into a low posture. At the same lime .• , 'Ium your left hand 'So Ithat it is palm up and puSh it OU.! at chest .height

Uke's Position

As the llna of power is changed so that your band comes Into a palm-up posilion, your elbow is cut in 10 the inside (toward the hips) and you are unbalanc.ed.

to resist that pull, change the direction of your hlps so that they are morlng along line b. At the same timc,extend your arm out. along line c, tuming the hand palm up. The Iine of power has now been cbanged to tine d.aod like's elbow has been brought in to the .insid'e line. Make sure that you ch.ange the direction of the line of power by changing the direction of the hips, not mere1y by rai~ing If uke lries 10 pull you In a straight line, then hi power is your hands to the side. Your hand has to stay in the center moving along line a. As you move Iorward without trying line of your body.

60

UNB,ALANCI1NG YOUR PARTNER FROM KATATE.MOCHI (ONE-HAND GRASP) (WHEN YOU ARE BEING PUSHE01)1

Kee~pi.ng: the! center over uke's front foot, tumfhe power in a c;ircu:lar movement

This is a method of 'onbalaodng your partner wheEl he has gtaspoo your hand~ focusing his power in msl:liumb. When y.ou arellllIlil_d, }lOU lise Dire'S fElW]Y to unb~ce him, but when you axe pushed, you :redirect the fl0wof enet;gy.l'he CQP~11S ap,pliediw a~edirectlon oithe weak point,. the UtlIe finger.

(j) IIt.om hidari gyaku.hWlml kamae, uke grasps your leil w,ml with his right hand, fOCBSing his power into his thumb, and pushes in i straight Ull~.

®-® Blending willi tliepusllingpower, move to the left. side wilh (he left foot, and at the Same tlmeextend the left band forward in a ctreular Iildvement along the left fmm diagona1llne, tumiog'tllehand so:tlult thepalrp is facedown. Do t1:tis,movement in such a W<lJf tbat the palm of uke's.band does not g~l. sepatated. from your own w.rist

Uke's Position

K.eep' yom focus on your front fo!)!, where }VII al'r~y had yOUI:" weight. As your pushing power is b.r{)ugh~ around in a circle to your righi, your body lsenended and unbalanced ®-® E.eeping yOUt weight over yOUI' front fool, as you make a large tui1Iing movement With youtLig!Jt foot to the rear, bring YOllr left hand up.in acwcular movement to head he:igh~rn):nIDg over Uke's elbow and shoulder,

(WHEN. YOU ABE BEING PUSHED 2)

CD Using the turning movement of tal. no henkti ni, redIreel ulre's pushing power,

<D-® Having turned the palm of your hand up In a. SIlooplng movement during (1), now tum the hand so that the palIn is face down,. and release your hand between uke's thumb and first finger. At the same time bring your right legatm1 from underneath uke's hand,

<D At the moment that you release your band from uke's grasp, use the back of you~ right hand to redirect the energy, This control or technique should be done as one continuous m.ovemem as you are making the tum.

62

Moving the hand in order to release the gra.sp

This Is a method of redirecting the energy when uke has grabbed your hand and Is pushing, focusing his power into the little-finger side of his hand. Here we will show you how to release your hand fromlhe grasp by using tai no henko ill. You. would make the same movement with the bandit you were being pulled

UNBALANCINIG YOUR PARTNER FROM KATAMOCHI (SHOULDER GRASP)

From kata-mocht, as frOID ka'tate-mothi, the direction in which you unbalance uke depends OR which method he

From a position where the back of like's grasping hand faces up

CD From migi ai-hanm! kamae, uke turns his right hand so that the back of the hand is fa,cjog upward, and holds the front ohheshoulder of your dogi (!IS though holding a piece of paper) , and p~. In this position, the power is fOllused in his thumb aodfirst finger, 50 the: control Is dired}edlo the UtIle finger.

®-Q) Blending wllhthe pulling power, move forward and to the left in a cireular movement with the left foot, and at the same lime extend forward in a 'circular movement with your left hand atong the front left-side diagonal line, turning the hand over so that it is palm down. As YOIl apply this control, the left Shoulder moves so-as to fix itself to uke's fist, Make sure that your own front line is alWays facing toward uke.

From a position where the pal'm of uke's hand is turned inward

CD Ftom.migi: al-hanml kamae, uke turns the palm of his hand to the inside, grabs the front of the shoulder of your dog!. by foldlnghlsflugers in starting from the little anger, and puUs. uke's power is focused into the little finger in this posItion, so the control will be applied agalnstlhe thumb. Rest !he inside of ~l1r fo.reann ag;Unst the outside of uke's clbow.

USe5 to hold you. Here we will show YOli how to bring yom partner "up,"from a. positiofiwhere be is pulJ.iqg. you.

Uke's Position As yoUI' pulting power Is redirected, your elbowls pushed blibind you soihat you are unbalanced, and at, the same time the movemeilt of sh'te's shoulder Iecks lip your wrist.

(if) Using.yourdght hand to fix ukc's.fist to your shoulder.as you move forward and 10 the right raise your left hand up so that you slide uke's elbow into the air. As you apply Ibis control together with the movement of the shoulder, ihe little-finger side of uke's hand ihat is holding you will be turned over, andhis elbow will.rise 4t the air,

®-@ As you tum the toes of your right toot 10 !he outsIde, move forward so that your foot meets uke'sfrllfJt foot in. a Tshape, and as you move your hips to the right, extend your hands forward and turn them palm up. As you apply Ibis control move your left shoulder so that the ditcctloo of uke's hand is changed and hrs elbow tsturned mward, Your left hand moves in order to hold the pOSition in place. Make sure that you do not use Just your ann to give a push.

63

USHIRO WAZA HOJO DOSA

PREP'ARATION MOVEMENTS FOR ATIACKS FR.OM· BEHIND

We use the some preparatory movements for all suacks ft-om behind. In this example, we show nshiro ryote·mocru (i;wo-Uand 6~p from Behind) ..

G)..4) From rnigi: aFhanml kamae, ukea~cks with shomennem, Sh'te lums his Jigbt hand up and blocks, at the sometime bringing his left hand back to the side of his body, ready for the next strike.

® With the left l1sl, sh'te gives a punch into uke's solar plems (&1omadl).

®--<!l As uke moves forward, he uses his band 10 cUI sb'te's ann dewn and runs around behind shte's back

® From his position behind sh'te's back, [Ike grasps both. wrists .. (Shoulder, elbow, or collar grasp ts done in the same WAY).

64

All ofthe above mcsements are part of the basic ledl.Oique, In advanced techniques, we can U5e the action of uke running behind us as part of the technique

UNBALANCING YOUR PARTNER FROMUSHIRO

-

RYOTE-MOCH'I (TWO-HAND GRASP FROM BEHIND)

(WHEN YOU ARE BEING PULLED)

Q) lIke .grasps both .of toUr wrists from behind, and pulls in a Straight llne, Your hands remain sJightly in front of die side of your hips as dIey are held. If you allow your hands to get behind !his line, you will lose to uke's power.

<D Blending with Ibe pulling power. hring YOlir left foot to the left side in a circular movement, and change the direction of your hips. At the same ti[{le drop your weight down, and d,rap down with your Wrists, so that like's bands bave only a light grip on your wruts. @-®Raise both hands up inlFronl of you in an egg-

shaved movement, causinguke to "Iloal:' Don't oven your anns up too far to the side or try to tum your wrists over too quickly.

Uke's ,Position

Once you have been brought to the position where you cannot put any power inlo your hands, as sh'te raises his arms gradually come back to the pOSition where you are holding his wrists ill ttie palms of your hands, so tlIat at the cod of Ihe movemeot, al. Ihe point where sh'Ie has r.iiSed his hand.~;you canagainillold unstrnngly.

Dnce you hase completely 'floated' uke, you can then change position and apply the throw. Cut down tn a circul'ar movement with both hands so that your Itmmbs are pointing downward.

65

UNBALAN'C,liN:G YOUR PARTNER FR'O;M U,SHIRO RYOT:E-,MIO,CHI (TWO~HANID GRASP FROM BEHIND) '(WHEN YOU AIRE BEING PUSHED)

66

<D Uke attacks from llIe.tear, graspIng bothw:l!f.~ts and pl1Siv lng. Keep both efYOUI \umds.sUgiltlyJri fi'ontoftl'ie hips. @-@Bleoding wIth the pushingpOW!!I,as you move f(lr~ w:red with. the .right foo~ anow l!h.e hips '[0 sink down and dr:o~ both wrists, down. Make sure that you don't just pull forwa:rd,oIlyGlir own, so dW you become separaled from 'Uke ..

Uke"s PasilioD

As yOUl" pushing power is Ween forward., you come Ilia posi .• HOJl--in the same way as in pull:iJ:lg-wbere YOll canllot put anypowerinlo your hands.

®--® Startiog With the fingers, rnlsC bulb: .hands In the air in front oiyout body In an. egg·shaped. movement" solb:at uke's elbows ru;e ".floating .. "

UiNjiALANCING YO,U'R PARTNER ,FRO!M USH'IRO RYOKATA-MOCHI (BOTH-SHOULDER GRASP FROM BEHIND) (WHEN YOU ARE BEING PULLED)

CD Uke comes from behind and grasps your shoulders In a finger grip, and. pulls.

®-<D Blcnd,iog with !he palling energy and keeping the balance over the right foot. pull your left foot back and to the leftin a. cIrcular movement and change tbe direction of your body .. At fhe same time, tu millg your hands over so that.lhe palms face outward, turn yout: eJbows over in a small move-

(When you are being pushed]

(j) Uke comes from behind and grasps yOUl shoulders in a Boger-grlp, and pushes.

<D-«> Blending with tlIepuShing power, as you move forward with the .right foot. tum both clbows forward In the same way as wben you were pulled, don't aIlo them to get behind you, but keep ·00Ih. elbows by ihe .side of your body andthel1. tum 'them.Vour bands should move from a palm-in

mem, By combining this control with !be movement of the shoulder you can ehange the .line of power ofukc'spuU, and come 10 a posItlon.wbere Uke Is "riding" on top of your shouldets.

Uke's Position

Because of the movemenl of sh'te's shoulders, your hands are turned to the inside, and so !he pulling power that was going upwmJ.hasUQW been. rediret:ted oowmwm

position 10 apalm-out posUlon. :By use of this contro; your sbou:tde:rs become: .rum:owcr as you move forward,. and lJke's elbows are raised up.

Uke's IPosition

As your pushing power is taken forward, you are unbalanced m the front and your eiboWll are raised up, SO that the line of lhe original pushing power is changed from upward to downward!.

67

UN,BALANCING YOUR PARTNER FROM USH'IRO' RY:(lHil,JII-MOCIHI (BOTH-ELBOW GRASP FHOM BEHIND)

(When YDU ;ns, being pulled)'

ill ;Uke attacks from behind, gr.iSpi.ng ~ollr elb.Qws In a 6ngergdp', and pulls.

ffi-@ Blending witb d:repuUillg (lower, tum your bands &o:m ft, palm-in p05111.oo. 10 a palm-out pasillon'. At !he same Iiml!'lllm yOur body sUgbdy to the right, and pull the fronJ foot in. BEing yaL!l' e1bowslnta slroQg contad with uke's pa1lll5, and move your energyrlgbl ,lbr'O'llgh.to uke's elbows.

Uke"s Position

As sb'teturns his elbl'lws over in a elrcnlar movement, your puUingpowe:r isredirocted and sh.'te's power comes in!!) your elbows: yourclbows are mised: Up', you are extended onlo YOUl toes and beeome unbalanced.

(When you ,ar,e be!i~ng pushed!)

(!) lIke uttacks Irombehin(l,gwsping your elbows in a 1Ingel'grip, and pushes,

®-(!) Blcod.ingwith ihe pus.lllog power, move forward wittl the right foot and, IlImyou:r ,elbows OVer to the front. Your elbows sh"uld be .slightly fnrlher infron! ohou (11m in !he puJli.o,g positIon.

68

Uke's Position

As sh'te rums his elbows over YOUl' pushlngpowcrc is taken fOlVl:urd; your hJtlJds are pointing inwlLI'd, YOlJrelbows are broughl up, and as you "flmu;" you are unbalanced.

Section 3

,KIHON WAZA I BASIC TECHNIQUES

Everyone;

YOu may think "How should this technique be done, " "How should that techn.Ujue be done, }} But tlJe th.ing to remember is, although there are many techniques,

You must grasp the principles that underlie them.

It comes down to shiftingyour balance quickly, Movingyour hands, feet, and hips as one.

The basis of it is shihO-nage.

As Ueshiba Senset said, "fo throw to tbe four directions, this is the essence o/aikido.

Therefore, shih6-nage on its own, ifperjormed correctly~. ,'s sufficient."

This is what he' taught.

- Gozo Shioda Sayings UII)-

WHAT 10:0 WE LEA,R.N FROM BAS.I:C TECHN'I,QU!E T,RAINIING?

Basicleclmiques teach us !l'l' redirect uke's attacking p<)wer, to unbalance like by malntaining:fhe low of energy without Iaterruption, and tl:t~ build in us the ability to perform tne more ad~<U1ced. tecluliques.

(j).....Q) As you make a blending block with like's, shl'i.mell!Suki, tum your bodf and then move forward. In thls w.ay, you can .Ie-ad thepowel' of uke'spunch and unbalance him forward,

@Befor,e uke can regain his balance, keep your weigbt over your front Joot and make a tum to, the rear, at the same lime turning uke's band over tn ,thek:otegaeshi, posl.tl:on. Uke will agamlbe brougl:tt(orw:mdby the movemenl.

@--(!) As you make another tum in !he same direction, cui down wilhthe right wrist aad makelihe throw.

As yon. will understand by looking at the above teciUJlqoe, once you .have unbalanced your partner,. yon can lead him around without allOwing him. to regaID, h1s 'b.ahmce,and ih.en you can apply the technique, That is why we do

70

l?or example, let us have 2. look. at sMm.ell-tsuki kotegaesbil1i (fron~ punch; return.·lhe-wrist throw ll).

repeated training of these body movements, until they are fixed deep in the body, in order that we can thenperfo.n:n the basic techniques.

Howev,er:, if you Just mo..notollously repeat the movements, so that actua1ly youare making up yo.urow.n body movements, there is no. meaning 'lome training .in basic techniques, We must Ibe eveF-.fatthful to. the basic movements, lrainingwith the objoctive of understanding .bow to lead the energy in the coro!:CI directfon and how to develop Co.ned power in om ewn bo.dies,

SHIIHO-NA'GE FOUR-DIR,ECTIO,N TiHROW

'Conta,ining the ba,sicsof all of the throwingtechll'iques

In 5hi:h.(j-.oage, by making it circular movetn.etit with YOUI own body, yeu fold YOIll' partner's arm over his shoulder and" as though cutting downward With II sword" tlLrow hIm 10 the rear.

.De,l)(mdlllg on like's attack and the way you use your ibody,you canlhrow u.ke to any of the fourr (6r eIght) direcliollS, which is how dUs t~futjquegot Us name.

fu: order to be able to throw uke to allY 0f tbe four direclions" blend with hiscuergyand without stopping that extensioililead him to the direction in whlcbyou ,intend to

throw him, coming ,16 the polfit at: whIch IUs body is both extended and cut dowa. Because tllls body movemellt contains all of the basic principles, laf ,aikido; shiho-~ge ean be seen. as expressing Ithe [ioot of all oflhe aikido throwing rechniques"and as sudl is given ,em.eme tmpOIi~ ranee inlraining.

Since the atl;icker's elbow and, shoUlder are locked out as he is tbIOW1), ShihO-ililge is veryelIe~tiye as II setf~defense technique.

Use :mainslmulti -1-, aua- .- -k· " ,

~' .. _ _ pe __ c ers

Because with this tochluque you ean throw in any directiOD, it is particulady efi'eotlve against. multiple attackers. FOI; :exam~le, if you were to !brow the flrstattacker In the direction of the second attacker who was comm.g toward yon, yOll could ase DJm. as a. sereen to block that mtat:k

71'

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KATATE-,MOCHI S:HIHO-NAGE, ICHI

O'NE:·'IHANID G:RASP; FOUR, .. DIRECTIIO'N THRO,W I M'ETHOD' OF GRAS;PING T'HE WRIST

By locld'ng' out his wriSt and ,elbow., you cause uke~s body 10 "float"

(!).....® 'rom migiai,·hanmi kamse, ukegrabs your left wrist and pulls In a straight Ii:ne. You strike wilt.. a right-handed baci<"flsI atemi to uke's face,

®-® Harmonizlllg with the pulling power,advance your

right foot aiong the forward diagonal, extend left hand ill :I, cl.ocular movement wlth.the palm down dil'ectI,y ill front of your body, and with your right,band hold u!re's !right wrist. ®-<D As your left fool tOffies forward in allig movemen~ both hands cut up' in a. circular movement to forehead height, and the from knee IsfocllSed strongly fommd.,

72

Uks's :POSmDn

BecauseaEthe colltroibCing ,exerted by sb'ff'S left hand, by lbe cOlllplelioOi of the first .movement (®,)IOur .right lKdst is bent baCK so t:bat Iheelbow· is ,extended (straiiblell00), and your body is "lloaUnll~"

At the completlon .of the second movement 00, because of sb'Ie'S up\VaRI, cutting action, your eIhow is bentimvarid an(l

yt)lItbody is e:dillldedfolilY3l:d.

@-®l Chrulge diJeclionand shift thebalanee of me body In dJe same 'way as in shii:Illll1EU dfisa.Cut dOwn with hom Ilami5 10 chest Jew!; clIltIng. like's hand down. over his slrolllder blade. As you change db:~ctitlIl! pun the back (left) fuat fo,.watt!. Hold. uke's wristffiom the inside,. and straightell youI.' own. wrist so fum the nISt fillger is pointed fotWru\d. Wi1hdut Josiuglbe ext.enSi.on of the elbow, be sllghlly relaxed. as you mllinliunyour hold. Keep your left bandln.lhe[owerposiUoo,

Uke's Position

Because your body SllK1sfrom. an extended pOsition, it is nOI. possible to stand up as your ann. is bent back, and YOllhave 10 take a step 'brulkwanl!i to maintain. balance.

@-@ As· you· mo\\e (Qrwilld from !be front foot, drop your body down and thf\l\V uke to the rear. Drop forward with }:Our wcbole body, keepillg YOU1 ann fixed In ilS ppsIttonratberthan pulling 1n with yourarm-ilO unbalance like. As uke fulls, brilJ,g your dglu hand down besfde,you.r rlgbl. ankle. @Bring yourweigllt Slrongly over your right foot and lIS you locku:tre's wrist down, raise yOIlf left hand. and: strike fo .hls &cewith·~

.rMPO.RTAN1' POINTS

.'lio lead! uke to the poiot at which ,.llU can. fold his arm o}'U1Uld back. YOO must fOilus 011 his shoulds "hn JOo move his arm.

'.' After you have changed dhectI.OD and sblfted. your hal.ance {V, if the rumd ,that is Il:uttinJ down (the one hold.

log uke'swrist) Is bi.g11cl' tIlanchest h,dght 'you wilino' take Qke far enough. back tD break Ids :balance.

'. Hold both ltamls oor.mally in ~lhe front of the bod,. .1belast strlkewltIJ~tega.lIUla should !be made with we somesplriUs a. :samlJrai on the battleJitld JinisltiQgoft" hiS enemy •. Ukeuseshls lefthaml to proled: Idle face.

73

Changing the Direction of Power

The hand that is pulled cuts through uke's, hara (center)

Pull your Uulefin'ger into uke's wrist, and have yout dJumb lyiIIg agai O5t his pulse.

(Changing the Direction of Power)

'I'he hand lhal.is pulledCUIS through uke's ham (center),

ill In katate·mocW sbiho-nage, tum uke's wrist with the first movement, As you move forward with your whole oody, the back of your left. band makesfi.nll oonta,ctwith uke's palm. so that there is no gap between thclwo hands.

Method of gr,asping the wrist

Bring your right hand up so that It crosses orer your left band, and grasp ulre's wrist

In turning uke's arm over, you must have the feeling of cutting down with a sword,. as you change stance and s~ yourbalanoe.

(j) Once you have raised your bands, make sure tbat uke's body is extended.

(!) It is important that, as you change direction, both 01 your hands are held lllitUrally .in front of your head. This will

74

® HJU1l1onlzing wilh the pu.lllng power, move [ollie front right·side diagonal and tum the left mist. over so .it is palm down; at the same time the tegaIana makes an arc, in order to apply the control. The feeling is 01 tegatana cutting hortzonlallythroug,b ake's hara, if it 15 done oorrecdy,. uke's hand will be bent back, and it will be as though be is being carried along 00 your hand.

® As you illj)vefoJ:Watd in tml> position,uke's elbow is extended !I1Id his sh~ulder is pusbedQP, so th~ he "floals."

COMMON M1STAID:I

Don't come to a position where you are underneath uke's hand. Both wen you raise uke's hand and w.ben you cut down, have Ole ledlng of mlsiog and cutting down with dJesword.

ensure' I)lat when ukes arm Is bent, hts elbow As folded IOW-Md, and. he is not able 10 regain balance. With. the movemen! of jour left. hand you can change the direction of ukj!'s arm.

®-® Cut down by extending your arm in front of you. Don't cur down only on uke's elboW; by focusing on his shoulder as you move behind him, you takel'ils arm and the whole of his body with you.

,-

KATATE-MOCHI SHIHO-NAGE NI,

ONE-HAND GRASP; FOU,R-DIRECION THROW II

Change the line of the pushing power, and bring the elbow inward

Q) From Wdatl gyaku-hanmi kamae, uke ~, your [eft .hand and pushes, You sm.ke to uke's face with a. righl,lwtded back.fu;t ateml,

® .... (j) Pivoting on tb.e left foo~ make alSO-degree tum to the rear. At the same lime, blending with uke's pushing power, bring your left hand up In a circular moeemem to bead height, and with your rigbt hand grasp uke's wrist in the same way as in katate-mochi shiM-nage ichL

@-® As you shift your balance and change the direction of ·your body, pull your back «eft) leg further forward bend uke's ann over his shoulder blade. The right hand is at chest height CD--® As the dght leg goes forward, drop the whole body rur-WlI and throw uke to the rear, The left tegatana then cuts down to uke'sfute

IMPORTANT ,POoo

.At dIe same time as you are makJng die turning movement and raising your hands, his elbow is ~.nt in.ward. and his whole body becomes enen_ded.

75

YOK:OMiE,N-,U!CHI SHIHO-,NAG,E ICHI

SIDE 'STR,IKE TO THE HEAD;' FOU'R-DI'RECTION TH'ROWI'

'Control uke's palm and raise! your hands.

ClP@".Hrom migi lIHanmi kamae like r:aisesJus hllf:lds ready to ~ and}pu miseyourown handS-atthC-lWIl!! time. @-®'Pi.voting on. !hairool (rJghl) foot, m}1.ke II!al:gC 11lryI' ing movement. to the rear, Enler:ln5ide uke'syokomen'lJchi, and .lilm~k smoothl~. The .left band blocks !l11d eats down to Giles! :height, the right hand gives' a back-ftS.t lItemi to ,the fuce. ®-@ A$, the fronl (tightl foot opens up a.long. the .rigl1t~ handed front diagopm, slide Y.OUI fell hind down upJil it rearlhelithe bone just abtlV€ uM's !hUlDb .. Y;ouf right band. holds onto the baek of ul{(~'s dg!lt hand from over the zop, With: thctlmmb lYIng ovaqJke'swriSl ~.though taking his pUlo;e. @ As, Ihe left foot moves ina big Sl~p farwa:rd. sligllilyonihw l~-hangftont diagonal, in. 3; circular movement brfog die

hand !!lat you are holding' up to .head he"ig)1t

@-@. As YO!! sIliftba:lan\;c M(l chauge thedWeclionof your li0dy" with amovemeot.~ thO:ugh cuUingdownwitha, sword,cu.t oown With like's ann so tIlaUI cbIDe; tJvi:lr his shol.ilder blade. ®-@.M you step fOrWJrd withyaur right foot, drop your hodY'dow[rand throwuke talbe rear.

@ f:lnis\lthe~hniq1;le by~g down witbihe I~'teg:wma

IMPORTANT POINTS

• In' ®"tiring YOut jIands. up so dmt uke's paII,n is &cillg 'to~-you.1IY doinglbisyou em.'tJrC tl!a:t die clbow''IVillbe Ihclllg inw.un,: and you \liW be ~(eto,~.e ~·'his balance. • The :Qlovemems in pictures·@...® should. make a. y:Shape when pl'Q'psing forward ;and to the sille..

• ,When ~nga turning .. movemelIf, makuure,tbatY!)Ul" bal:anc(~r, golm;kwiirds. :Similarly, when. moVing to the "side, ma1ie 5IlfIC that your 'Ir.iliui.ce. is, fimdy .QI1er 'we :fronti90t

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'Chao!gingfr'om high tiD I'ow, ICut down the ann

TIliS techillque does not h_ave 1" IT ·dassffitation

<D Ybu are in seiza:.. Uke approaches from the mOllt,wasps 0011:1 oJYllIrrwrists, and altern pis to pull tJ]emup.

®-@ Blendl'fig wi1hlhe :puJl1ng energy. biing die left knee tip. advanciDg oIl.e-!h.lt:d ·of!he length belwoon: u1re's Cee!,.-and pulllthe righl. knee forwru:c1. At the same lime make a henwntaJ cutWJ.g mOli'emenl'l\lith the left rnma,. as in katate-moclti slliho-nage idtl. Wi!hlhe right hand gmsplike's right wrM ®--® Conlinlle 10. move forward wHo !he I.efi foot (advmICc log fu.e same dlsIance as tnthe .first movemenl) and stand up, bringing fbe back fool in so that the feet areinkamae. Keel>-

iog the hands ill the same poslliOfi, raise: 'lhemlo 'head. helight. ®-{j) P!votIDg 01\ the. left fool, slide the light :IDol b:ehind you, changing directlon: at the same time drop your body lower and emt u.ke'sarm. over his shoulder blade.

@..4g1. Movi.ng forrwardWitb the eight leg, drop your 'oocty and throw like to the teal.

®--@, Keeping your balance strongly over dll! right foot, cORlinue 10' cut down OIl like's arm. Wi1ih tbe [efit tegalllruL, sll:ilre down to !Ike's face.

IMPORTANI' POINT

• To art down uke's ann, use lbepoer 1hat:1lO1:Ire5 when you. cbop frwntheSIandJng; position to the final kneeiing: position ..

79

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SH'OMEN-UCHI SHIHO-N,AGE KUZUSHI, FRONT STRIKE; FOUR-DIRECTION THROW EXTENSION (PRACTICAL APPLICATION)

I~

1

80

Change direction without chang-

ing your balance -

CD-<V As uke attacks with shOmen-uchi. raise your band high so !hal your and uke's tegatana meet.

@--@ Keeplng the balance over the right Ioot as you make a bIg tuming movement to !he rear, come to the illside' of uke's strike and make' a, smooth block

®-W The right foot opens up onto the ,righf·side di~omd, and die left foot steps In. Bring the left hand to the bone just above uke's thumb, and grasp uke's wrist with your right hand. AI the same lime, as you raise both bands, p.ivoton the right foot and change the direction of your body. (Do not allow the welght to traosfer to the Left foot as you pivot)

@-®lAs yournake a bIg step forward with the right root. cut down 10 the front wiih your right hand. and Ihrow uke.

IMPORTANT .POM

• ® ~ yOllr body opens up to the side, move forwlWl so d1atybUt hands (hoicll"g; ukc'SWrist) make a b~g; lift: m fro.nt ofyourlwa. You wUI thus beah(e to leaduke'li PQW(!1' In a spiral, and you will be.able to use Ute spfmlllng movemen.t 10 mise your hands.

81

IKKAJO

FIIRST CONTROL

B'ring uka 1'0 a prune position by turning ovelF his, 'elbow

lkkaj6 ls a technique in which by turning over youl" pact,' net's elbow you are able to bring him to II prone position. Th1s ikkajo movement Is the basic method ofturnfng the elbow over as used in other techniques from nikajo onward,

Taking uke fI),lhe ground. and applying pressure by pushing, down nobis elblJw Is caned the ikkato pm.

Beginners find It difficult to'apply pressure directly .downward :from II seiza position, but ii, is only througb techniques such as t:b:is that the trucpower of aikidQ, t.e., using !lIe f~power ofthemwle body, can be learned. Just. as il: .mlght, De said that btld{) in its highest form can be found in the basics, so it could be said that ikkaj6 is the most basle of teehnlquesand also the most difficult

H we tum uke's 'cl1low over andthrew bim instead of take Ing him to the ground, the IOClurlque becomes ikkajo..nage.

TH!E IMECHAN:ICS OF THEIKKAJO PIN

O'pen ,out ukersarm tOi alleast 90' degrees

Having brought uke to the prone position, open out b1s arm BOlhat .it Isat te"dSt 90 deg,:ees to the spine, ThaI mes it difficrut fOr rum to put power into his arm, and his resistance is decreased. Of course, his elbow must l:Ie completely turned over.

'D'ro'ppiingthe weiig'ht' olf the whole body" makefha pin

(Preparatol1' Position) Once you have brought

oke 10 the prone posItIon, bdng your knees down. so thai: ODe knee Is on lheinside oIthe hand toot is grippIng uke'swrist; anclonekmee is.lnside his amtJlit. & on your toes. Using this control,. stretch tme'S arm completely.

(PilUdo,g Tethniqu.e) Bring the paWl ofyour h31ld over the top 'of uke's elbow, as though enveloping it up .. Straighten your back,. breathe out deeply, and with a. fecliAg of pushing yOUl' lower stomach into :tbe mat, drop the whole of your body down,. allowing the weight to come into uke's elbow. Allow the weight, to come directly into his rum, but also allow the power lonow right through Ito hts fingerliips. Don't bend your elbow or drop your head ..

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,Strlliningl withl your upper body will cause your bipsto "float"

[I Is easy to bend your back aad use you.rshouldelS In an attempt to push. all of your weight mlO your partnerse1bow.if you do not understand the feellog ·of "applying the lock by using your hips." The ellort, by straining wit11 your upper body, will cause your hips to float and for you to lean over. The result is ,power not being trans[ervea into your panner ... In this eenneoHon, yOll should Dot .apply your power toone point in the elbow; t"'dther, control your energy so that(ltpeo:etJ;\lle5into the elbow.

COMMON .MISI'AKE

,SIHOM,EN-UC,HIIKKAJ'Q OiSAE ICHI FRIONT STRIIIK'E; FIIRST COINTR!Ot ,I

Change the direction 01 the, energy and turn the shoulder over

- - - - - -- - - - - - - - -- - -- - - -

(1).-.Q) From mlgi. al-Ilanmli kamae,yoll (sh'te) attackWiith shiimen·uchi., Tbepurpose ofthls strike :!sEO cause uke 10 block. M ukeblocks, gr.L'il WJder his eIbowwilll ~left band. ®-® As YOUF right foot goes forward on the .frontrigbthand diagonal, use your right tegatrul_a; 10 cut down in a eircu1ru movement. Ihe' Jeft hand assists irIlhls movement as it turns uke's elbow over. WIth your balance centered strongly over yOUJ front(righl) foot, you wilt control uke's elhew ana shoulder .. As you cui down w,ilhthe right band, grasp uke's wrist. (Do not gl'"dli]) thewri.st>m the beginning of the mOveol€l1t.)

Uke,'s Position

As the power In your blocking arm is redirected, theelhow and shoulder Me turned over In a big movement M the same lime,your body is turned around.

(f)-Q)YoUJ' left fOOl advances along the franl.left-side dlagomil, and you unbalance like to. 'the left, as though pushing his

84

arm through the s!lOuJder. In dlis position your body should be in at low postuN.

®-® Asyorutight foollldV'dllces, move the [eft knee into uke's armpit, and bring uke to II cOlI!Plelely proIle position. @ .Lower yourl'lght knee, and pin ihe ellxrw.

COMMON MISfAKE

If you try simply to twist uke's ann, lLjs, sho.ulder wiHbe una£rc:ctedand you wUl not be able to turn bis body around. The basil: principle of dds tellhoiq:uels to project tile technique into the shouldc'r and: llol1lirOl uke at the moment be strikes.

How to change tile direction 'of the power

At the moment. the arms come together,. !be pov.t:r of both. sides is ooming straight on and therefore they daSh. If you tnm. your tegaJana to lheoUlSide and. at the same lime ehangefhe direction ,of your body and .move fOl'W'Md, the puwer which is coming from uke will be taken over bytms circular movement and will be rediredfd lUke's eIbQw. will aIsobe~over.

Sh're

85

SHOMEN-UCHIIKKAJO OSAE NI FRONT STRIKE; FIRST CONTROL II

Leading the other person around ina spiral

Q)...Q) Come 1.0 bidari. gyaku-hanml kamae, When uke strikes with shOmen-uchi, block with your right tegata.ml and with your left hand grasp, his elbow,

®-® As you tum uke's hand smoothly bl,the right and tum his elbow over, pIvot on the toes of the I ftfoot and make a ISO·degree lum to the rear_ As you are making the turn, lower your po'ture, and make sure that uke'selbow is in

86

front of you, so that the distance between you doesn't change, Without having the feeling of polling, you should be using both arms on the same line as me bips are Illrning, the upper and ihe lower body moving as one, 'lour body should nol come 1.0 a twisted posltlonl, Once you have moved uke far enough around, gtru.1l' his wrist

@-4) When you have made tbe~8()"degree' tam, transfer your weight from the left foot to the right foot in the Same way as in hiriki no yosei ui. Drop the body and pull the left foot into uke's annpit. ThIs changing of balance causes uke's

i

I

Redirecting the flow of the attacking energy

<D When you recelvetheErool strike,lhe power Is still coming: st~ghl at you.

mAs YOll change the direction of your body and tum your right tegataruL ovet:, ·you redkec! like's power In the .right @ As you come around in the cin:ul.ar mevement, uke's elbow will tum over.

body to accelerate and together with the turning movement rolls him over. Both your hands should be using equal strength, wlthoul any feeling of pusrung like's elbow or pulling In on b1s wrist As you complete the tum bring your left knee to the mat the teps £rom <D 10 @ all happen In one movernenl., and lead uke aroWld In II s:piro!.

Uk:e'sPositio'n

The power lrom slloolen-uchl ~ directed around to the left, you.r elbow and shoulder arc turned over, and you are pulled around In the cirt:uIar movement.

® Lower ~'Our right knee and pin uke's elbow.

87

(D...@ Come !ogelhe.r an4 kneel.m seiza. Vke holds your left wrist with his right hand and pulls In a slrllig!1t .Une. Blending wilhthe pulling energy, move across to the left and, keepiJlg tiIle lr!tt hand In a palm-down position, extend it outfolhe fronllcft-slde dhigonal, ,changing the dU'eclion of thepull.ing power and unbalancing uke .. At·the same lime, make a back.handed atemi. to .Iiis .race with your right hand

® Using shild<o (lmeewalktng), m.ave sightly 10twatd. along tIre right-slde front dlagonru. Mainlain!ng !Ike's .noId, bring your left hand. up ina ctrcuw movement I.n front of your face. With your right band:, hold onto the back of uke's right hand, fixing it to your left hand.

@-® As YOll take II, big step with yOUI" right kneealcng the [YiOnt light-side diagonal using shikkO, cut your ,left teglltana

88

down in a circular movement as though pushing ukes elbow in mont of)'Ou, causing uke to be unbalanced

® As you take another small sfep Jo.rwardwith yonI' right knee,1'ree your left hand by pushing the ,left wriSI foF\Yt1ld, releasing it from uke's hand. It iis pas')i1JIe 10 out uke's hrutd too far forward, so to "reveal dlls keep a good grip with your dghlhand.

(!)....@ As YOIIT left band slides down to like's elbow, jn,the same way.as in the stal'1.di_l\gledmjque move furw.:lliidwi.th.tI1e !.eft knee and !then the right knee in the direction ofl[lk(!'s left armpIt, brlngtng uke !o a. completcly prone posItlon. the reft knee is ill uke's annpit, and. I[]].eright knee is tathe inside of your own right band which is holding uke's wrist. Keeping his'Wrisl fixed, pin the elbow.

Sh'te~s legalana attacks tile point at which ub~s thumbJs ,attached to his hand

tile teglitanalUms inside the hand iliat iii holding ii, 3J1d attacks thapomt at which the thumb' is ·3u:ach.ed 1.0 the hand.

IklkajlQ l'OC,k ID,n the wr:ist

Apply the lock as ,tllOugh bringing togelber the index. fingers of both hands in a. triangUlar pOsition. W.hell you brIng like to the mal, make; $Ure that his wtJ~t is turnoo strongly to the fJ;onl

89

,KATA-M,OCHIIK,KAJO OSAE,N,I SH;OULDER, GR:ASP; FIIIRST' CONTROL U

By clntrol!I'ing the :shou'lder" turn the elbow Dve,r

fiNed 10 your shoulder.) At the SlIlI1e lime, make II back" handed atemi to 'IllS face with yoU! right hand.

<!>-® Bring your right hand over uke's right hand andlix it to YOUT showder. ,Pivoting 011 the [eft foot, make a 45-degree rum to the ii1'!31' and slide yout' reft ann upraising uke's elbow [[II' the aIr. AI 'tile same titnc 'use the movement afyou! lett shoulder to tum uke's hand over. Do not use your left hand to pll5hlihe elbow up. The left shoulder, whicb controls the wrist and turns it 'OVeI, causes the elbow 10 "floal,"

CD-® From b1dari gyaku.hanmikalllae, uke grasps your ,left shoulder and pushes, M. yoo move away 10 the left sIde, bling your left hand round In II circle to the fronl-Ieft side dlagonal, keeping the hand, palm. down, redirecting the line of power and unbalanCing uke, {Dke's knucldes should nOw be

90

91:

<D--011h llfeel!ng as thou h you are pushing !he elbow forward io front of you, pivot on your lell foot and make a 1.80-degreeturn, and 'tI!ten shifl your balance, ",tUng down willi the left legatan.;JI In a spirallUovemeol, briDging uketo 31. prone po ftlon. Agal:tI it ls !he movement of your left shoulder that turnsoser uke's grolSpinghand, tog ther with the cutling down ol )'Our hand, Don'tll5e the strength OfYOUfamlS to try to merely push uke's hand away;

@ Release uke's hand from your shoulder, drop your right knee, fix uke'. hand, and pinlhe elbow.

FiXing uke's hand to your shoulder

T.he purpose of fixing uke's nand to your shoulder is so that the sboulder/hand.can acl as a fulcrum in tu.miag the elbow over. lhis fulcrum should DOl cha!1ge until the end! of the movement. From this position, by corroct usage of YOurOWll shoulder, you can tum oke' hand over while keeplng your ihumb underneath, causing his elbow to "float" (Pictures@--®).

USHIRO RYOTE-M'OCHIIKKAJO OSAE ICHI

Turn uke's ,elbow over by eentroliling his upper and lower body

(j)....Q) The entry .intolhis position is explained in 'Preparation MovemenL~'. Change the direction of the power pulling on both wrists from behind. Raise boih hands in a circular movement as though in the shape .of an egg, causing Ilke's elbows to rise up.

CD-® Keep ihe left foot still, and pull the right foot back in a 180·degree turn, bringing the body to a low posture and dr.opping the hands, with the thumbs pohueddownward, 10 ill front .of the chest The feeling is .of dropping thewhole weight of the body directly over the left foot. If in th1s position the weight of your body goes backward, pulling uke into you, you will not be able to unbalance him in a forward direction. Also make sure that you make a bJg turn so that you are not standing on a parallel line with uke.

92

Uke's Position

From the raised position of CD, your power goes from 111gb to low. As your wrist is being dropped to the front right-side diagonal, you make a big movement forward and your left shoulder Js turned over.

CD Keeping the hips at the same height, bring the right foot up behind the left foot and grasp uke's left elbow from below with your right band. Maintain your left hand In its position so that it does not move-this will keep uke in an off-balance position.

CV4ID As the left foot takes a big step forward, make a. scoopIhg motion wllh your left hand so' that you end up holding uke's wnst, and at the. same time cut down with your righl. hand.

@-@ As the right foot and then the left foot move forward through the direction otuke's armpit, bring uke to a prone position, fix the wrist to the ground, and pin the elbow.

TWOI-HAND GRASP FROM BEHIND; FIRST CONTROL I

U'SIH:,IRO KATA11E-ERI-:MOC:H:1 U(KAJO OSAE NI

As you turn, pull ukel,orward ,and ar'Dund

(j)..@ Uke grabs your left. wrist amllhe back of your collar fIIom behind, and pushes.Blend.lng with thai POWeJi' as you come forwarcd, move away along; the line of the push, and raise both. bands in the air 10 !he shape of an egg.

®-® Pivoting on: the right foot, tum the ~elt foot 180 degrees around so !hat you 3.lIe standing 45 degrees 10 the right in. front of uke. 'Fum your left handaround inside uke's gripping hand. so !hat yourtegat:ana Is facing fo.1'w.l..I1d. MMe sure that the balance is overlhe right fOOL .As you change directJ.on, give a strike with the right fist to uke's armpjL Thc purpose of 'Illis sl!like is to make uke release his rightlwtcl from.llIeg,dp it bas behind your !lollar.

94

Uk.s's Pos'ition

As a re.sull of sb'te's tIIm,YOUF .right hand, which is gripping his ,collar from behind, will be stretched out, lIII.d: your left ,elbowWiU be turned over; Your body should be twisted. around forward and to the right.

®-® With your rlgbt hand hold onto uke's elbow, and 'exlend yOIIT left tegatana around to, 'the I.m P.ivoling on the right fool, make a lS0~i:WOO tum and thells!iJlft the balance (as in hlr.i.kI no yt}sei mi), bring uke to II prone positi.o!ll, an~ pin theellJow.

WRIST AND ,COLLAR GRASP FR.OM BEHIND; FIRST CONTROL II

" ill

,_

N~IKAJO

SECO,ND CONTRO,l

Turn thle, wrist av'er and drop uke's body 1o the ground

Nikajo is Ute itechnique wbereby we tum uke'spalm in the direction ofilie outside of hts elbow" thea cut down so that we destroy hlspesmre, It .is not a matter of' merely twisting uke's wrist, you 'have to apply the technique so !hat .Ills whole body sinks down. To aehle ... e this, make both his Mig joint and his, ,elbow joint into a V·shapeand

maintain, that position as YOll eut down. Th1swill ensure Ilbat uke's power Is locked in his wrist, elbow, ami shoulder, and as a. result his bodywill drop down. Do not waste' your :l.JOwer by merely. tuming uke's wrist around; it is .important '10 understanlt Ut.e eorreet ang!eand line in order to unbalance we.

Uke's ~atana should be vedjcB,1

If the positiQll. of ulre's hand Is not comet before you cut. down, oikaj:6 will not be effective. As .in thepictufe, your right palm is, attached firmly t.o, the back ,of uke's band, and, your little finger is locked over his wrist Jour left hand ls grlppmg the Wfist, Ughdy. Malre sure that lIke's legalana is slaliding'l"erticaUy, in ironlof YOW' own cenler l:ine, as If' uke's hand was a sword tIlat you were htilding. Your tegatana should be turned toward uke's center llne, II If III this lime you relax your bold on uke's hand, you will not. be able to bcmd his wrist whenlhe lime comes toeUI. down.

96

Gripping method

NikaJij pw (lock)

Cut down straight, without twistilDg

Putting the lock on While holding with buth irdllti15

<D AlIYOD turn over uke's wrist and flx it in position, you must be in a. position along Eke'sflont diagonal Une. If you stand'directly in front, you will not be able to bend the elbow sufficiently as you turn it over.

ill As you move forward from the fronlleg, cut the wrist down as though cutting through Uke's cenier line. As you do lb1s make sure that you don't cbange the distance between the hand that yon arc holding and your own body. Keeping the upper body fiXed. In the sameposmre, move forward byf~cuSing on p1!lshingwilh your I1:IP8;.

Bring the palm of u~e's hand face up, and lock his sh·uulde,r

The method of 10cldnJjlhe arm once you have brought uke to a prone position. is c~mmon to all nik:qo osae techniques.

Q) Having .6xed the wrist In second control posi.Hon, brmg uke to a prone positiOl1 ..

® F.ix: uke's elbow with YOUI left hand. As you bring your right foolllfOUOd to u~e's foo~ aad your leJt :foot ood.er your

Also, make sure !hat you don't twJst the wrist, otherwise the direction of the power will be wrong, and you will not be able to lise Ihepower tbat you, develop iby moving forwaJ'ld. Once- you. have broughtlhe wrist. into Ihe seeond control posiiion, mainlain that shape right Ilntil the end ® Using the energy that you devcl.opas you move forward. maintain the relationship as uke's body begins to sink down. Keep on Ihe center line as YOll cut the wrist down to below your chest height, and have the feeling of moving along the line of uke's unbalance" You should have tile feeling of culling Oke's little finger down toward his no e.

COMMON M1SfA:KES

• Pulling ule's w.dsttowani.·yollor,. alternatively,

• Pushing u~'sband'ilway from,yoUi.

hips so that you are looking acress uke's houlders, without changing the position of uke's shoulder, bring his arm around in the direction of his bead,.and bring the back of his hsnd to the inside of your I.eft elbow.

@ With. the inside of your left elbow grip uke's wrist with a scooping motion, and hold Oil 10 !he wnt of your dOg!.

<D Bring up yourrigllt hand and fIx.it lust belowuke's·elbow. @Cut your hl.ps down toward uke's head, and rock his shoulder.

KATATIE,-:MO,CHI; NJKAJO OSA,EIC,HI OINE'-HAND' Gi'RAS,P; SIE:CO'N!iD ICON,TROL I

TumJng die elbow over

ill 'Came to dIe pos.ition where YOII have locked 1Ik."e'S wl'ist In nikajo .. As you move fomard, from bere it is important not to, grasp his, elbow,

®-@ As you move forward along the lrontli_ght-side diago·

nal and cut uke's, wrist fonvud _,his elbow and sheulder willium over . .Makcsure that you do not twist his wrist around to the right roar lef! hand slides nalural1y down to the elhow and keeps the elbow and sboulderln position.,

98

Take the 'cor.rect position by moving to, the! side

<D From migi al-brurmI kama!!, uke .gtaSpS, your left hand with his rigbt band, andpuIls.

@BlendfugWiIli the ipower (lfthe ~till, plwtonthe rigbt foot, and bring ~ur left fool aRJLLnd ,in a cln:uIar movemerlllo du: sltle, Your left hand comes around, and forw.D'Clin a dreular movemettt,. wlih the palm face down :and, Iield at hip .height. ly ohanging the dlreclionru !l.le pulling power you will unbalanoe uke. A:! the same fim.e.givea back-fist ateml witb lberight.hamt

(i)....@ As you move Sli_gbUy tolhe' right wilhthe .front foot, scoop 1I,P 'DIre'S wrist between Ithe tliumb and for1a6ngtil' ,of your ldi hand, and m 111 c1reular movemeoiiraiSe your :h,mdS mffilDI of your !'ace. Hold uke's ligbt hand !10: .nikajo, poSition., You should :be standing 'O!L lIke'~ kiJlll rigbteside diagonal,

with lIke's center Il:ne dlrecay III froDI ofJOu.

@.-@ As your fronl fOOl moves forward, and you ,eut down uke's wriSt. tlJWdi'-d. bis ileIllet, apply nikajii.

iII As you lake (U)e mQre big ~tepwith the fr'ont foot :dong your fri:lnt lrigll.t-side diagol1al, apply Rlll5Wre forward: with the right band and mrnuke's elbow overc, Tne left hand slides down to the elbow :35 you move forward, holdIng on In. the same way·1lS: inikkajCS.

'@.-@ In !h.e same lIilUUIeIi as .in :!kkajo, bring Ithe Wi foot .andmca Ih,erigbt foot foFW:l:ftl, in a hig step Ihtougll the ,dlrecrion of uke'sa:nJJp:i~ and bring your left I(llee to !he mat. bringing ule to a. complelllly prone posItion. @Tu.ming'arollOd, uke's shoulder blade, ch.:mge bands and! apply lIte' lock to. the ~hoolde,.

KATATIE.-'MO'CHI NIIKAJO O:8AE NI ONE-HIANOI GRASP; SE'C'ON.DCON.T'ROL II

Turni:ng the wr:ist. o,ver in. front 'ofvou, I:eadl uker in a circ,le

from h1dari. gyaiID-banmi kamae, uke grasps your right band and pmlles. Btead with. the pushmg power and move to me left from the .([001 fool. bringing the left handarouod in 3. drcle,. so dwyou move! away ficom.the Iineaf the power.and unbid· ante uke, At the same time giVe a ngllt-handed back-fist a1fmi to !he face.

@ Pivoting on the front foot, make II 45-degree lum to the re-JI,and bring uke's wrist up ina scooping circular move· ment between yourlhuf.l!lb and! fore6nger. 110rd uke's band in nikajoposition lnl'roDiof your face. ¥ml sbouJ:d be standIng cmuke's fronl.rigllt-side diag:onal, with uke's eenter Ilue directJ.y in fmnt of you.

@) 1\5 your front fool· 1ll0VIlS forward and you cui dOM1l ulre's

wrist towardws center,appl.y nibjo.

@..® As the right hand continues tocnt forward.. and at !he same tl.meas uke's ·elbow and sb.ouldcrarerumcd orcr, pivot on. the Jeft foot and make a. 1804cgree tum tathe rear. Withoul pulling uke's hand to the dghr,. IUnl Ius elbow and shoulder OV~J: so that his body "floalS," and lead him around in the. 'Iltlming movement Make sure '!hat 'uke's elbow al.wa)'li' remains directly in bonl of you. Tneleft hand slides dOWllIID the elbow as you are mikfngthc uim

@-®WIthoD.t inlerruplingthemomentum of the ruming movemen4 ~J.Ii.'ifer your weight from your left foot to your right. foot in the same way as in hi riki no yosei nJ, and lower your hips. With the spiral shape of I11c Inming movements, bring uke around and to a prone posltion..

@-@. Tum. around Uke's should.er blade, ch:mge Imth bands, and fL'< the shoulder, and. apply the lock

101

-

KATA-MOCHI NIKAJO OSAE NI.

SHOULDER GRASP; SECOND, CONTROL n

102

Applyth'e I,oc!k by pushing; out

tbe should:er -

@....® From biilan gya1ru~han.aJi :kamne, uke grips the shouJ· der of yOllr dogi, keeping the oax:k of the hand uppermost, and pushes, Blend1rlg wit!]. the pushlngenergy, move sideways 10 !he left from. !he .front fool. cllQJilglJilgthc line of the power, and '!lrin& uke olf-balarull!. At lhe same tlme" make a l1Ig!ach1mdettlllBnlI wflh. thebackoFlbe fisc: III u!re's fare.

rID JJ.ring your light IlJrutdaver the bac:k ofuke'slefi. hand and grasp il, &dog the hand. to your shoulder.

® Pivo!1ng, on thc left fool, make a 45-degreeLum to the rear aadusethe Inside oIyour Ml hand 10 slide luke's elbow up, Wo Ille aI.f. Tog~lher with, this movement, use your shlmldeno bring uke's band into tIlenilmj:ti positiQIl,. Yoll should

be stilluliilg en uk.e's lliont right-side diagonal, with like's ceater nne diteoUy in fronl of you.

®-® }\5 you go forward wlth,llie [eft fool:, s1id.e ll'i,e left baad doW[! to uke's wrist, and. pu.sb, out yow: should. r in order 10, 'bring on the nikajo lock. Do not use your handS 10 drop ullce's hand down, but use your sholJ:t~ right until the end in order to make full use of me feclmiw!re. Mue sure that like'S thumb Is ft",ed .firmly w you.r slJ:oulder.':I'be lock: shouJ\i:be app~ Jn the dlrootlDn of ulm's center' line.

®-@ Keeping uke's wrist hed, to the shoulder loUtc same position, .start: the turning movement. As uke's elbow and shoulder are runted. over, 5lide your left .hand. down and boldi b:t.selbow. As you are making 'the !.11m, ulre's band wlIl.natu· raIijr come away tromyou:r Shoulder.

® Fix !he shou1dcr and apply;the lock.

103

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