Key to Junior English

for
Tibetan Students

]R-$?=$?=-.3:.3:-:VA
:VA%-.LA
.LA/-;A;A$-==-:)
:)$-0:A
0:A-wJ-3A3A$
&

English-Tibetan Dictionary

2R.-.LA
.LA/-5B5B$-36S
36S.,

Contents

.!<.!<-($
Preface }R/-:PRR<6>
Contributors =?-8$?-3A-$,<7>
Names of People3A-$:A-3A%-,<8>
Names of Places ?-(:A-3A%-,<9>
Tibetan Translation of Grammar Terms 2h-3R.-<A$-0:A-,-~.->/-.<,<10>
Students’ Book 1A.J2-.%-0:A-!R.-(,<11>
Unit 1 Hello! What’s your name? #J-5/-.%-0R,6-;J,HJ.-GA-3A%-=-&A-9J<,<12>
Unit 2 Nice to meet you! #J-5/-$*A?-0,

HR.-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,<14>

Unit 3 Can you spell it? #J-5/-$?3-0,HJ.-GA?-.J-5K$-2h<-LJ.-,2-23,<16>
Unit 4 Numbers in English #J-5/-28A-2,.LA/-;A$-$A-P%?-!<18>
Unit 5What’s this in English? #J-5/-s-2,:.A-=-.LA/-;A$-$A?-&A-9J<,<22>
Unit 6 How old is he?

#J-5/-S$-0,#R-<%-=R-.-<J.,<25>

Unit 7 Is this your pencil-box? #J-5/-2./-0,:.A-HR.-GA-/$-|3-AJ-<J.,<28>
Unit 8 Mainly revision

#J-5/2o.-0,$4S-$/.-=-2*<-.R%-,<32>

Unit 9 The new students #J-5/-.$-2,aR2-3-$?<-2,<34>
Unit 10 Where is it?#J-5/-2&-2,.J-$%-.-;R.,<37>
Unit 11 Come and meet the family! #J-5/-2&-$&A$-0,HA3-3A-5S-.%-3)=-2<-:R%-2,<39>
Unit 12 What can you see? #J-5/-2&-$*A?-2,HJ.-GA?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,<42>
Unit 13 What colour is it? #J-5/-2&-$?3-0,.J:A-#-.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,<44>
Unit 14 That’s mine

#J-5/-2&-28A-2,.J-%:A-<J.,<46>

Unit 15 What’s the time? #J-5/-2&R-s,.?-5S.-.-<J.,<48>
Unit 16 Mainly revision #J-5/-2&-S$-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<49>

▪2▪

Students’ Book 1B.J2-.%-0R:C-(.-(,<51>
Unit 17 Could you help me, please? #J-5/-2./-0,HJ.-GA?-%-=-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,<52>
Unit 18 Look after your things! #J-5/-2&R-2o.-0,<%-$A-.%R?-0R-=-2.$-$*J<-LR?,<54>
Unit 19 Food and drink #J-5/-2&-.$-2,29:-2+%-,<56>
Unit 20 Playing games #J-5/-*A->-0,lJ.-3R-lJ.-0,<58>
Unit 21 What are you doing? #J-4/-*J<-$*A?-0,HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-LJ.-GA/-;R.,<60>
Unit 22 Let’s go to school today! #J-5/-*J<-$?3-0,.J-<A%-aR2-9<-:PR<62>
Unit 23 Where are you from? #J-5/-*J<-28A-0,HR.-$%-$A-;A/,<64>
Unit 24 What do you like? #J-5/-*J<-s-0,HR.-&A-8A$-=-.$:-2-;A/,<66>
Unit 25 People and work #J-5/-*J<-S$3A-.%-L-2,<68>
Unit 26 What time do you get up? #J-5/-*J<-2./-0,HR.-<%-(-5S.-.-;A-!J%-3=-=?-=%?-0-;A/,<70>
Unit 27 Shopping

#J-5/-*J<-2o.-0,5S%-o$-0,<72>

Students’ Book 2A.J2-$*A?-0:A-!R.-(,<74>
Unit 1 Welcome back! #J-5/-.%-0R, KA<-=-=R$-0<-.$:-2?-8,<75>
Unit 2 How you get to school #J-5/-$*A?-0,HR.-<%-aR2-9<-)A-v<-;R%-2-;A/,<78>
Unit 3 Mid-Autumn Day #J-5/-$?3-0, 2o.-0:A-2&R-s,<80>
Unit 4 We’re going to work on a farm #J-5/-28A-2,%-5S-8A%-G<-=?-!-LJ.-.-:PR-o-;A/,<82>
Unit 5 Working hard on the farm #J-5/-s-2,8A%-G<-=?-!-@<-,$-$A?-=?-0,<83>
Unit 6 Shall we go to the park? #J-5/-S$-0,%-5S-,A-\A%-.-:PR-o-;A/-/3,<85>
Unit 7 Mainly revision #J-5/-2./-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<87>
Unit 8 Where do you sit? #J-5/-2o.-0,HR.-$%-.-2#.-;R.,<89>
Unit 9Find the right place #J-5/-.$-2, #R.-$/?-%R-3-24=-2,<91>
Unit 10 Home and Work #J-5/-2&-2, HA3-.%-L-2,<93>
Unit 11 Keep healthy

#J-5/-2&-$&A$-0,=?-1%-2.J-,%-=-o/-:HR%?-LJ.-0,<95>

Unit 12 Which is your favourite? #J-5/-2&-$*A?-0, HR.-<%-(J?-.$:-2-/A-&A-;A/,<96>
Unit 13 Where were you born? #J-5/-2&-$?3-0,HR.-$%-/?-*J?-0-;A/,<97>
Unit 14Mainly revision#J-5/-2&-28A-2,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<99>
▪3▪ 

Students’ Book 2B.J2-$*A?-0:A-(.-(,<100>
Unit 15 Thanks for the message #J-5/-.%-0R,

#-=/-LA/-0<-2!:-SA/-(J,<101>

Unit 16 The seasons of the year #J-5/-2&-S$

=R-<J:A-.?-5B$?,<103>

Unit 17 What’s the weather like today? #J-5/-2&-2./-0, .J-<A%-$A-$/3-$>A?-)A-:S-<J.,<105>
Unit 18Come to the party! #J-5/-2&R-2o.-0, .$%-5S$?-=-1J2?-<R$?,<107>
Unit 19 A weather report #J-5/-2&-.$-0,$/3-$>A?-}R/-2h,<110>
Unit 20 What do English people eat? #J-5/-*A->-0,.LA/-)A-2?-&A-8A$-29:-2-<J.,<113>
Unit 21 Mainly revision #J-5/-*J<-$&A$-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<115>
Unit 22 What a good, kind girl #J-5/-*J<-$*A?-0,&A-:S:A-2-3R-L3?-=-29%-2-8A$<117>
Unit 23 You mustn’t play on the road#J-5/-*J<-$?3-0,HR.-<%-=3-/%-.-lJ.-3A-<%-,<119>
Unit 24 What do you have to do? #J-5/-*J<-28A-0,HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-LJ.-.$R?,<121>
Unit 25 The visit to Monkey Island #J-5/-*J<-s,3J:-\A%-U/-=-2v-{R<-.-KA/-0,<123>
Unit 26 A good doctor #J-5/-*J<-S$(/-0-29%-0R-8A$<125>
Unit 27 Ling Feng’s diary #J-5/-*J<-2.-0,=J/-nA/-IA- *A/-,R,<127>
Unit 28 Mainly revision #J-5/-*J<-2o.,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<129>
Students’ Book 3.J2-$?3-0,<131>
Unit 1 Teacher’s Day #J-5/-.%-0R,.$J-c/-IA-.?-(J/,<132>
Unit 2 The sports meeting #J-5/-$*A?-0,=?-l=-:P/-5S$?,<136>
Unit 3 A good teacher #J-5/-$?3-0,.$J-c/-29%-0R-8A$,<139>
Unit 4 What were they doing? #J-5/-28A-2,#R-5S?-&A-LJ.-28A/-;R.,<142>
Unit 5 The accident #J-5/-s-2,($-|R-8A$<144>
Unit 6 In the library #J-5/-S$-0,.0J-36S.-#%-$A-/%-.,<146>
Unit 7 Mainly revision #J-5/-2./-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<148>
Unit 8 On the farm #J-5/-2o.-0,8A%-G:A-/%-.,<149>
Unit 9 A visit to a factory #J-5/-.$-2,29R-9-8A$-$A-/%-=-v-{R<-.-?R%-2,<151>

▪4▪

Unit 10 Mr. Green’s problem #J-5/-2&-2,{-82?-$-<J/-=$?-GA-$/.-.R/,<153>
Unit 11 A great inventor

#J-5/-2&-$&A$$?<-$+R.-0-P$?-(J/-8A$<155>

Unit 12 Have a good time, Jim #J-5/-2&-$*A?-0,)J3,HR.-<%-lJ.-:)R<-*A.-0R<-<R=-2<-(R/,<157>
Unit 13 Happy New Year #J-5/-2&-$?3-0,=R-$?<-29%-,<159>
Unit 14 Mainly revision #J-5/-2&-28A-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<162>
Unit 15 At home with the twins #J-5/-2&R-s-2,35K-3-.%-3*3-.-HA3-.-;R.-0,<163>
Unit 16 What’s it made of? #J-5/-2&-S$-0,.J-&A-8A$-$A?-29R?,<166>
Unit 17 What was it used for? #J-5/-2&-2./-0,.J-&A-8A$-=-2!R=-2-<J.,<169>
Unit 18 Planting trees #J-5/-2&R-2o.-0,#R%-2R-:6$?-0,<171>
Unit 19 Mainly revision #J-5/-2&-.$-2,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<174>
Unit 20 The world’s population #J-5/-*A->-2,:63-\A%-$A-3A-P%?,<176>
Unit 21 Shopping #J-5/-*J<-$&A$-0,5S%-o$-0<-:PR-2,<179>
Unit 22 At the doctor’s #J-5/-*J<-$*A?-0,(/-0:A-$3-.,<181>
Unit 23 The football match

#J-5/-*J<-$?3-0,b%-lJ.-%R-=R:A-:P/-2#<,<184>

Unit 24 Mainly revision #J-5/-*J<-28A-2,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,<186>
English-Tibetan DictionaryNq…P-TÈN-5B$-36S.,<189>

▪5▪

Preface

}R/-:PR
:PR

T

his book is an aid to Tibetan students who are learning English using the Junior English for
China textbooks. It was prepared by seven students and a teacher in the English Training
Program in the Nationalities Department of Qinghai Normal University.
The book is divided into sections that correspond to the current Junior English for China textbooks.
Each unit in Junior English for China is given here with subsections on useful expressions, grammar,
and text explanation.

:.A- /A-N%- $R:C- .3:- :VA%- .LA/- ;A$- aR2- .J2- aR2- 28A/- 0:A- 2R.- <A$?- aR2- 3- 5S<- 1=- 2:A- <R$?- *R<- <%- 28A/- w/- 0:A- .0J- .J2- &A$- ;A/,
.0J-.J2-:.A-35S-}R/-3A-<A$?-aR2-9-(J/-3R:C-3A-<A$?-#J-#$-$A-.LA/-;A$-:6B/-9:A-aR2-3-2./-.%-.$J-c/-8A$--$A?-+<-1A$-L?-0-;A/,
.J2-:.A-3A$-}:A-N%-$R:A-.3:-:VA%-.LA/-;A$-aR2-.J2-.%-2!/-/?-#$-:$<-2$R?-;R.-=-#J-5/-<J-<J-;%-o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<-.%-2h-3R..!:-$/.,aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=-2&?-.R/-(%-:$<-2$R?-;R.,

▪6▪

Contributors

=?=?-8$?$?-3A3A-$,
Editors .LA
.LA/-2R2R.-,A:A-lRlR3-1A$-0,
0,

5K-.2%-hR-eJ,
‘Gyur med rgya mtsho :I<-3J.-o-35S,
Blo brtan ]R-2g/,
‘Bum phrug :23-U$
Dbang phyug rgyal .2%-K$-o=,
‘Brug mo skyid :V$-3R-*A.,
Rig grol <A$-PR=,
Tshe dbang rdo rje

▪7▪

Names of People
3A-$:A-<?-3A3A%-,
AnnA/-/A,

Gunchu.!R/-3(R$

Oncu:R-35S,

Caihua5K-.0:,

Han Meimei@/-3:J-3:J,

Peet1J-OA,

Cairang5K-<A%-, 

Hangdi

.2%-:.?,
Hangmu .2%-3R,
Huamo .0:-3R,
Mr Hu{-82?-@:, 
Huadan.0=-w/,
HuiFang KJ-n%-,
Jantso o-35S,
Jim)J3,
Kanzhu3#:-:PR,
Kate#J-,,
Lakers Team=J-#A< -<-#$
Lhabenz-:23,
Lhamoz-3R,
Lhomotso z-3R-35S,  
Lily=J-=J,
Lin Tao =A/-,R:R,
Ling Feng =J/-nA/,
Lodan]R-w/,
Losang ]R-29%-,
Lucy=R-?J,  
Meduk3J-+R$
Nima *A-3,
Norbu/R<-2,
Nyingkar~A%-.!<,
Nymka /3-3#:,

Pencu1/-5R$?, 

Cizhon5K-1R/,
Cumu35S-3R,
Mr Danba{-82?-2!/-0,
Dandeng-3PA/,
Danzen2!/-:6B/,  
Dawa^-2,   
Debi 2..-SJ,
Dodben!R2?-w/,
Doma1R=-3,
Dondrup.R/-:P2,
DorjihR-eJ,
DorrihR-<J.,
Drongker1R/-.!<,
Drukar1R=-.!<,
Duden !R2?-w/,
DuluhR-=R, 

Dunba!R/-0,
Gangcu$%?-35S,
Ganzi .!<-36K?,
Gensang!/-29%-,
Gesar$J-?<,
Mr Green{-82?-$-<J/,
Mrs. Greent3-3R-$-<J/,

▪8▪

Pete1J-,,  

Polly1R.-=J, 
Qiechung(R?-1R/,
Qiezhe(R?-*A.,
Rabji<2-o?,
Renchin<A/-(J/,
Sally ?-=J?,
Sambhota,R/-3A,
Sonym 2?R.-/3?,
Tarlu,<-=R,
Tom OR3,
Wang 7%-,
Wei Hua 7J-.0:, 
Yangjian.L%?-&/,
Yangzom .L%?-:6S3,
Yondan;R/-+/,
Yongtso$;%-35S,
Yu Yang 2R-;%-,
Zhacai 2N-5K,
Miss Zhao Y?-3R-NR:R,
Zhaxi2N->A?,   
Zhaxi Cairang2N->A?-5K-<A%-, 

Names of Places

?-(:A-3A%-,
AmdoA-3.R,

Mahdo Countyk-!R.-mR%-, 

AmericaA-3J-<A-#,

MalhoPrefecturek-zR-#=,

AustraliaAR-?A-O-<J-=A-;,

Malho Normal Schoolk-zR-3A-<A$?-.$J-,R/-aR2-9 

Ayers Rock A.-;J<-?:A-V$
Beijing0J-&A/,
Britain .LA/-)A, 
Burma:2<-3-o=-#2,
Canada#-/-+,
Central Asia;-\A%-.2?-#=,
Chamdo(2-3.R, 
Chengdu OA/-+, 
Cuzhou 5S-S$
DujiaVillage.R-o-#J-2,
England.LA/-)A,  
GangchaCountyb%-5, 
Hong Kong 8%-!%-,
Hor @R<,
Huangzhong4S%-#,
Indiao-$<,

Maqin Mountaink-(J/-$%?-<A,
Moscow 3:R-?A-#R, 

Nationalities Press3A-<A$?-.0J-0/-#%-,
Nepal2=-;=,  
People’s Park3A-.3%?-,A-\A%-,
Qinghai35S-}R/,
Qinghai Hotel35S-}R/-3PR/-#%-,
Qinghai Lake35S-}R/-0R,
Qinghai Nationalities Institute35S-}R/-3A-<A$?-aR2-9(J/-3R,
Rebgong <J2-$R%-, 
Shanghai Z%-@J,
Sichuan?A-OR/,   
Tibet 2R.-uR%?,  
USAA-3J-<A-#,
Xi’an8A-A/,
Xiaqong MonasteryL-(%-.$R/-0,
Xunhua8R/-K,  
Yak Hotel$;$-3PR/-#%-,
Yellow Riverk-(,
Ziling 9A-=A%-,

Jiantsa Nationalities Middle School$&/-5-3A-<A$?-

aR2-:VA%-,
Kumbum Monastery{-:23-L3?-0-\A%-,
Lhabrang ]-V%-,
Lhasa Cityz-?-PR%-HJ<, 

▪9▪

Tibetan Translation of Grammar Terms
2h-3R.-<A$-0:A-,-~.->/-.<,
Active voice and passive voice <%-.2%-&/-.%-$8/-

Possessive pronouns2.$-.R/-IA-5B$
Possessives2.$-.R/-IA-52-5B$

.2%-&/,
Adjective(R?-2eR.-GA-5B$

Present.-v-2,

Answer formSA?-=/-IA-i3-0,

Present continuous tenseLJ.-28A/-.-v-2,

Articles.3A$?-?-:6B/-0:A-;A-$J

Present indefinite tense,A<-2+%-.-v-2,

Comparison of adverbs2$/-5B$-$A-$>A2-2#<,

Present perfect tense L?-9A/-.-v-2,

Countable nouns2P%-;R.-3A%-5B$

Present simple ,A<-2+%-.-v-2,

Full forms3-5%-i3-0, 

Pronoun52-5B$

Future3-:R%?-2,    

Question formSA-2:A-i3-0,

Future in the future :.?-0:A-.?-3-:R%?-0,

Question formSA-2:A-i3-0,

Future simple 3-:R%?-0,

Short forms2#?-0:A-i3-0,

Imperatives{=-5B$

Singular formsn%-5B$-$A-i3-0,

Infinitive verbs $9$?-:I<-L-5B$

Statement form$?=-2>.-GA-i3-0,

Nominative and possessive casesLJ.-0-0R-!R/-0:A-i3-

Subject$4S-5A$

.LJ-.%-2.$-.R/-IA-:VJ=-1,
Noun3A%-5B$

The present indefinite tense%J?-3J.-.-v-2,
Time Expression.?-!R/-5=,

ObjectL-2:A-;=-IA-5A$
Past:.?-0,  

Past continuous LJ.-28A/-:.?-0,
Past perfect tense L?-9A/-:.?-0,
Past simple ,A<-2+%-:.?-0,
Plural forms3%-5B$-$A-i3-0,

▪10▪ 

Students’ Book 1A
.J2-.%.%-0R0R:C-!R.-(,
(,

▪11▪

Unit 1 Hello! What’s your name?
#J-5/5/-.%.%-0R0R,6 
6-;J;J,H 
HJ.-GAGA-3A3A%-==-&A&A-9J9J<,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 Good morning, Teacher. Good morning, students. .$J-c/-=$?,}-SR-29%-,aR2-PR$?-5S,}-SR-29%-,
2 What’s your name? My name is... HJ.-GA-3A%-=-&A-9J<,%-;A-3A%-=…9J<,
3 How are you? Fine, thank you. And you? I’m fine, too. HR.-2.J-3R-;A/-/3,;A/,2!:-SA/-(J,:R-/-HR.,%-;%-2.J3R-;A/,
4 Where are you from? I’m from Lhabrang. HR.-$%-$A-;A/,%-]-V%-$A-;A/,;%-/-(HJ.-GA-1-;=-$%-;A/,%:A-1-;=-]V%-;A/,)
5 When did you come? I came yesterday afternoon. HR.-/3-;R%-2-;A/,%-#-?%-KA-SR-;R%-2-;A/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What is your name? My name is... HJ.-GA-3A%-=-&A-9J<,%:A-3A%-=-…9J<,
1a What is his name? His name is... #R:A-3A%-=-&A-9J<,#R:C-3A%-=-...9J<,
1b What is her name? Her name is… #R-3R:C-3A%-=-&A-9J<,#R-3R:C-3A%-=-…9J<,
1c What is my name? Your name is… %:A-3A%-=-&A-9J<,HJ.-GA-3A%-=-…9J<,
1d What is your father’s name? My father’s name is... / His name is...HR.-GA-A-1:A-3A%-=-&A-9J<,%:A-A-1:A-

3A%-=-...9J<, / #R:C-3A%-=-...9J<,
1e What’s your brother’s name? My brother’s name is ... HR.-GA-1-2R:C-3A%-=-&A-9J<,%:A-1-2R:C-3A%-=-…9J<, 

2 Nice to meet you! = How nice to meet (see) you.

HR.-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-, = HR.-.%-:U.-0?-&A-:S:A-3R-2-=,

3 Nice to meet you too! (:.A-/A-1-<R=-2?-HR.-= “Nice to meet you!”8J?-SA?-0:A-=/-=“%-;%-HR.-.%-:U.-0<-.$:-0R-

L%”8J?-0:A-.R/-/R,)
3a A: Nice to meet you! HR.-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,
B: Nice to meet you too! %-;%-HR.-.%-:U.-0<-.$:-0R-L%-,
4 This is Weihua. He is Weihua.

:.A-7J-.0:-<J.,#R-7J-.0:-<J.,

aR2-PR$?-5S,}-SR-29%-,
B: Good morning, Teacher! .$J-c/,}-SR-29%-,
A: Sit down, please. 3<-24S$-0<-8,

5 A: Good morning, Class!

▪12▪

6 Doma: How are you, Zhaxi?2N->A?-HR.-2.J-3R-;A/-/3,

%-2.J-3R-;A/,:R-/-HR.,
%-;%-2.J-3R-;A/,

Zhaxi: I’m fine. And you?
Doma: I’m fine, too.

▪13▪

Unit 2 Nice to meet you!
#J-5/-$*A?-0, HR.-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Nice to meet you! HR.-.%-3)=-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,HR.-.%-%R-:U.-0-%R-3-29%-,
2 I’m a herdsman. %-:VR$-0-8A$-;A/,
3 Are you a farmer? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not. HR.-8A%-2-8A$-;A/-/3,;A/,%-;A/, / 3A/,%-3A/,
4 What is your nationality? My nationality is Tibetan. / I’m Tibetan. HR.-3A-<A$?-&A-8A$-;A/,%-2R.-<A$?-;A/,
5 Are you Tibetan? Yes, I’m Tibetan. HR.-2R.-<A$?-;A/-/3,;A/,%-2R.-<A$?-;A/,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

L-5B$“Be”=-“is”“am” “are”2&?-i3-0-$?3-;R.-.J-.R/-=“<J.”.3“;A/”.%-35%?,:R/-G%-3A-$:A-H.-0<-IA-.2%-$A?2!R=-5=-3A-:S-2-$>3-v<,
1 Is3A-$-$?3-0:A-(he, she, it){2?-?“is”2!R=-.$R?,

#R-aR2-3-8A$-AJ-<J.,<J.,#R-<J.,#R-aR2-3-8A$-<J.,
1b Is she Tibetan? No, she is American.3R-2R.-3A-<J.-.3,3-<J.,3R-A-<A-2-<J.,
1c Is it a sheep? Yes, it is. / Yes, it’s a sheep. .J-=$-<J.-.3,<J.,.J-<J.,.J-=$-<J.,
1d Is your name…? Yes, my name is... (My name ;%“it”;A-#R%?-?-$+R$?-0?“is”2!R=-.$R?)HR.-GA-3A%-=…AJ-9J<,9J<,%:A-3A%-=-…9J<,
1a Is he a student? Yes, he is. / Yes, he’s a student.

2 Am 3A-$-.%-0R“I”;A-{2?-?-“am”2!R=-.$R?,
2a Am I beautiful? Yes, you’re beautiful. / No, you are ugly. %-36K?-?3,36K?,HR.-<%-36K?-0R-:.$ / 3A/,

HR.-<%-24S$-0R-:.$
2b Am I right? Yes, you are right. / No, you are wrong.

%-:PA$-:.$-$3,:PA$-:.$HR.-<%-:PA$-:.$ / HR.-

<%-:($-:.$
2c Am I Kate? No, you are Pete. %-#J-,-<J.-.3,3-<J.,HR.-1J-,-<J.,
2d Am I a good student? Yes, you are. %-/A-aR2-3-29%-0R-8A$-<J.-.3,<J.,HR.-<J.,
3 Are3A-$-$*A?-0-“you”;A-{2?-?““are”2!R=-.$R?,
3a Are you Losang? Yes, I am. / No, I’m Dawa. HR.-]R-29%-AJ-;A/,;A/,%-;A/, / 3A/,%-^-2-;A/,
3b Are you a teacher? No, I’m a student. HR.-<%-.$J-c/-;A/-/3,3A/,%-aR2-3-;A/,
3c Are you OK? Yes, I’m OK. HR.-=-*R/-3J.-.3,3J.,*R/-3J.,

▪14▪

Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Nice to meet you!HR.-.%-3)=-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,HR.-.%-%R-:U. -0-@-&%-29%-,

HR.-.%-%R-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,(:.A-,A<-2+%-$A?-.%-,R$-%R-:U.-0-.%-1/-5/-;%-2*<-V=-=-*J-2:A{2?-?-2!R=-2-;A/,} “Glad to meet you!”.%“Pleased to meet you!”$*A?-G%-.J-.%-35%?-2-;A/,
1b Kanzhu: Hello! What is your name? 6-;J,HJ.-GA-3A%-=-&A-9J<,
Cizhon: My name is Cizhon. And what’s your name? %:A-3A%-=-5K-1R/-9J<,HJ.-GA-3A%-=-&A-9J<,
Kanzhu: My name is Kanzhu. Nice to meet you,Cizhon. %:A-3A%-=-3#:-:PR-9J<,HR.-.%-%R-:U.-0-29%-,
Cizhon: Nice meeting you, Kanzhu. %-HR.-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,
1a Nice meeting you!

2 Can you say the English letters?

HJ.-GA?-.LA/-;A$-$A-$?=-LJ.-;A-$J-.$-[R$-,2-23,

2a Can you… HJ.-GA?… ,2-23,
2b Can you speak English? Yes, I can speak a little bit of English.

HR.-GA?-.LA/-{.-2>.->J?-?3,>J?,%?-

.LA/-{.-&%-43-2>.->J?,
HR.-GA?-.LA/-;A$-$A-aR2-5/-:.A-[R$-,2-23,,2,%?-[R$-,2,
No, they are English letters. :.A-.$-2R.-;A$-$A-$?=-LJ.-;A-$J-<J.-.3,3-<J.,.J-

2c Can you read this English text? Yes, I can.
2d Are these Tibetan letters?

.$-.LA/-;A$-$A-$?=-LJ.-<J.,
3 Don’t forget “O” and “R.” || “O”.%“R”$*A?-2eJ.-.-3-:)$
3a Don’t forget.

3-2eJ.,2eJ.-.-3-:)$
<%-$A-1-{.-3-2eJ.,
<%-*A.-aR2-3-;A/-0-3-2eJ.,

3b Don’t forget your mother language.
3c Don’t forget you’re a student.

4 Turn to page two. >R$-%R?-$*A?-0<-mR$?->A$
4a Turn to… 1:#R<,2mR$?,

%:A-KR$?-?-:#R<-+J-{.-3,R/-0R?->R.,
>R$-%R?-?R-$?3-0<-mR$?->A$

4b Please turn to me and speak loudly.
4c Please turn to page thirty-tree.

▪15▪

Unit 3 Can you spell it?
#J-5/-$?3-0,HJ.-GA?-.J-5K$-2h<-LJ.-,2-23,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Good afternoon! KA-SR-29%-,
2 Sorry. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,.$R%?-.$-8-<R$?,
3 Oh, good! :R,29%-$A
4 How do you do! HR.-2.J-3R,
5 Can you spell it, please? HJ.-GA?-.J-5K$-2h<-LJ.-,2-23,Yes, S-U-N sun. ,2, S-U-N sun.
6 What is this in English? :.A<-.LA/-;A$-$A?-&A-9J<-<3, It is a ... .J<…9J<,
7 B-double O-K. || B-O $*A?-K
8 Goodbye! 2.J-3R-LR?,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

KA-SR-29%-,
1a Good morning! }-SR-29%-,
1b Good evening! .$R%-SR-29%-,
1c Good night! 35/-3R-2.J-2<-(R/,
2 Sorry. = I’m sorry. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,= .$R%?-.$-8-<R$?,
3 It doesn’t matter. .J<-*R/-3A-:.$ *R/-3A-:.$
4 A: Are you Dorji? HR.-hR-eJ-AJ-;A/,
B: No, I’m not. 3A/,%-3A/,
A: Sorry. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,
B: It doesn’t matter. .J<-*R/-3A-:.$
A: What is your name? HJ.-GA-3A%-=-&A-9J<,
B: My name is Dulu. And what’s your name? %:A-3A%-=-hR-=R-9J<,HJ.-GA-3A%-=-&A-9J<,
A: My name is Cizhon. Nice to meet you, Dulu. %:A-3A%-=-5K-1R/-9J<,HR.-.%-:U.-0-%R-3-29%-,hR-=R,
B: Nice to meet you too, Cizhon. %-;%-HR.-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,5K-1R/,
5 Excuse me! Are you Mr. Green?A-<R$?, HR.-{-82?-$-<J/-;A/-/3,
5a Excuse me!29R.-0-|R3-<R$?, .$R%?-:$=-3J.-0<-8-<R$?, ,$?-o=-3-28J%?,($8/-;%-:R-2o=-L-<R$?-8J?-1-<R=-28A$-=-2<-(.-2+%-/?-L-2-8A$-:SA-2:A-.?-;%-5B$-:.A-2!R=-2-;A/-+J,.J-;A?-1-<R=-2-.J:A-2?3-]R-L-2-(J-$J-3R-8A$-$A-!J%-/?-5<2!$?-eJ?-<%-$A-.R/-.$-\J%-2-;A/-0?-@-&%-2lA-2!<-(J-2-;%-35S/-/R,)
5b Excuse me, where is my pen? :R-2o=-L-<R$?,%:A-t$?-/$-$%-.-;R.,

1 Good afternoon!

▪16▪

5c Excuse me, I must go now.

:R-2o=-L-<R$?,.-%-%J?-0<-.-:PR-.$R?, 

6 How do you do!HR.-2.J-3R,(“How do you do!” 8J?-2:A-=/-/A-“How do you do!”;A/-/R,)

6a Doma: Dulu, this is my friend, Zhaxi. Zhaxi, this is my younger brother, Dulu. hR-=R,:.A-%:A-aR2-

PR$?-2N->A?-;A/,2N->A?,:.A-%:A-/-2R-hR-=R-;A/,
Dulu: How do you do, Zhaxi? HR.-2.J-3R,2N->A?,
Zhaxi: How do you do, Dulu? HR.-2.J-3R,hR-=R, 

HJ.-GA?-.J-(3A%-5B$).R<-[R$-LJ.-,2-23,
7a Can you spell “sheep”? HJ.-GA?-“sheep”.R<-[R$-LJ.-,2-23,

7 Can you spell it, please? 

8 in + language
8a What do you call this + in + language?
8b How do you say this + in + language?
8c A: What’s this in English? :.A<-.LA/-;A$-$A?-&A-9J<,
B: It’s a desk.

.J<“desk”9J<,

A: What do you call this in English?HJ.-GA?-:.A<-.LA/-;A$-)A-v<-:2R.,
B: I call it “desk” in English.

%?-.J<-.LA/-;A$-$A?-.J<“desk”8J?-:2R.,

9 B-double O-K. || B-O$*A?-K
9a S-H-double-E-P. || S-H-E$*A?-P
9b F-double-O-T. || F-O$*A?-T.

▪17▪

Unit 4 Numbers in English
#J-5/-28A-2,.LA/-;A$-$A-P%?-!
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Are you in row 3? HR.-P=-><-$?3-0-AJ-;A/, Yes, I am. / No, I’m not in row 3. ;A/, %-;A/, 3A/,%-P=-><-$?30-3A/,
2 Which grade are you in? HR.-=R-<A3-.-2-;A/, I’m in grade 4. %-=R-<A3-28A-2-;A/,
3 What class are you in? HR.-:6B/-9-.-2-;A/-/3, I’m in class 3. %-:6B/-9-$?3-0-;A/,
4 How old are you? I’m eleven. HR.-=R-.-;A/,%-=R-2&-$&A$-;A/,
5 Are you ten? HR.-=R-2&-,3-0-;A/-/3,
6 What’s one and two? $&A$-,R$-+-$*A?-2$/-/-$-5S.-<J., One and two is three. $&A$-,R$-+-$*A?-2$/-/-$?3-<J.,
7 Are you studying mathematics? No, I’m not studying mathematics. I’m studying English. HR.-GA?-lA?<A$-aR2-28A/-;R.-.3,3J.,%?-lA?-<A$-aR2-28A/-3J.,%?-.LA/-;A$-aR2-28A/-;R.,
8 Where are you studying? I’m studying at Qinghai Nationalities University. HR.-GA?-$%-/-aR2-.R%-LJ.-28A/;R.,%?-35S-}R/-3A-<A$?-aR2-9-(J/-3R:C-/%-/-aR2-.R%-LJ.-28A/-;R.,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 NumberP%?-!
1a Row 3, number 2. P=-><-$?3-0:A-A%-g$?-$*A?-0,
1b Bus No. (= number) 10. ,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-2&-0,
1c Room 101|R-g$?-A%-2o-.%-$&A$
1d Lesson 8 aR2-5/-2o.-0,

>R$-%R?-2o-.%-?3-&-?R-.$-2,
1f Student book 1aR2-3:A-.0J-.J2-.%-0R,
1g Workbook 2.%-$8B:A-.J2-$*A?-0,
1h Unit 4 #J-5/-28B-2,
1i Number 2 Middle School. aR2-:VA%-$*A?-0,
1e Page 139

2 A: Hello! B, how are you this morning?A-<R$?B,.J-<A%-}-SR-{-#3?-2.J:3,
B: I’m fine. How about you?%-2.J-3R-;A/,HR.-2.J-3R-;A/-/3,
A: Couldn’t be better. Why are you up so early this morning?%-:.A-=?-2.J-3A-YA.,.-/%?-HR.-:.A-:S:A-}-2-&A-

;A/,

▪18▪

B: Because my family found an apartment at our school. So it became more convenient for me to go
to class so I won’t be late any more. %J.-5%-$A?-aR2-9-/%-/?-#%-2-8A$-24=-9A/-0?-.J-%-=-35S/-/-aR2-OA.-=-:PR-

o<-@-&%-!2?-2.J-2?-.-/?-29%-%-eJ?-?-=?-3A-.$R?,
A: That’s good. Excuse me, may I have your family’s apartment number? .J-29%-$AA-<R$?,HJ.-5%-$A-

#%-2:A-A%-g$?-%-=-2>.-(R$-$3,
B: Sure. My family’s apartment number is 302. =R?-(R$%:A-5%-$A-#%-2:A-A%-g$?-302;A/,
A: I’m sorry. Which building and which floor? .$R%?-0-3-5S3,#%-2lJ$?-$%-.%-2lJ$?-<A3-.-2-;A/-/3,
B: Fourth building, second floor. #%-2lJ$?-28A-2:A-*A?-,R$-;A/,
A: Thank you very much. 2!:-SA/-(J,
B: You’re welcome. 2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?,

HR.-=R-.-;A/, %-=R-2&-,3-0-;A/,
A: How old is he? #R-=R-.-<J.,
B: He is nine. #R-=R-.$-<J.,
A: How old is she? #R-3R-=R-.-<J.,
B: She is ten years old. #R-3R-=R-2&-,3-0-<J.,
A: How old am I? %-=R-.-<J.,
B: I don’t know. %?-3A->J?,
A: Can you guess? HJ.-GA?-5S.-.0$-LJ.-,2-23,
B: I think you are eleven years old. %?-2v?-/-HR.-=R-2&-$&A$-<J.,
A: No, I’m older than that. Would you like to try again? 3A/,%-.J-=?-(J-2-:.$HJ.-GA?-;%-2*<-5S.-.0$-&A$LJ.-:.R.-.3,
B: Yes, I’d like to try again. Are you thirteen years old? :.R.,%?-.-<%-5S.-.0$-8A$-LJ.-/-:.R.,HR.-=R-2&$?3-;A/-/3,
A: Yes, you’re right. I’m thirteen years old. ;A/,HR.-<%-:PA$-:.$%-=R-2&-$?3-;A/,

3 How old are you? I’m ten.

4 Polly, what’s one and two? = How much is one and two? = How much is one plus (+) one?1R.-=J,

$&A$-,R$-+-$*A?-2$/-/-.-<J.,
4a One and two is three. $&A$-$A-,R$-=-$*A?-2$/-/-$?3-<J.,
4b What’s five and four?What is five plus four? Nine. (Five and four is nine). s-;A-,R$-=-28A-2$/-/-.-

<J.,.$-<J.,(s-;A-,R$-=-28A-2$/-/-.$-<J.)

▪19▪

4c What is eight minus two? 2o.-=?-$*A?-:UA-/-.-<J.,Eight minus two is / equals six. 2o.-=?-$*A?-:UA-

/-S$-<J. / S$-.%-35%?,
4d What is three times five? $?3-=-s-;A?-2+<-/-.-<J., Three times five is fifteen. $?3-=-s-;A?-2+<-/-

2&R-s-<J.,
4e What is nine divided by three?

.$-=-$?3-IA?-2$R?-/-.-,R2, Nine divided by three is three. .$-$?3-

IA?-2$R?-/-$?3-,R2,
5 Ah, it’s a secret! :R,.J-$?%-2-8A$-<J.,
6 What class are you in?HR.-:6B/-9-.-2-;A/,I’m in class 1. %-:6B/-9-.%-0R-;A/,
6a What grade are you in?HR.-=R-<A3-.-2-;A/, I’m in grade 3. %-=R-<A3-.%-0R-;A/,
6b What row are you in? HR.-P=-><-.-2-;A/, I’m in row 5. %-P=-><-s-2-;A/,
6c Zhaxi: Hello! Dorji, how are you?6-;J-hR-eJ,HR.-2.J-3R-;A/-/3,
Dorji: I’m fine, and you?%-2.J-3R-;A/,HR.-2.J-3R-;A/-/3,
Zhaxi: I’m fine too. Excuse me, does your family have any livestock (yaks, sheep, horses,
donkeys, goats, and mules)?%-;%-2.J-3R-;A/,A-<R$?,HJ.-5%-=-|R-K$?-;R.-.3, (/R<-$/$=$g,2R%-

2,<-3,SJ=,)
Dorji: Yes, my family does. ;R.,%J.-5%-=-|R-K$?-;R.,
Zhaxi: How many yaks does your family have? HJ.-5%-=-/R<-$/$-$-5S.-;R.,
Dorji: My family has forty-two yaks. %J.-5%-=-/R<-$/$-28A-2&-8J-$*A?-;R.,
Zhaxi: How many sheep does your family have? HJ.-5%-=-=$-$-5S.-;R.,
Dorji: My family has two hundred and sixty-five sheep. %J.-5%-=-=$-*A?-2o-.%-S$-&-<J-s-;R.,
Zhaxi: Thank you for telling me about your family’s livestock numbers. HJ.-5%-$A-|R-K$?-GA-#-P%?-%-

=-2>.-0<-2!:-SA/-(J,
Dorji: You’re welcome. 2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?,
7 Dorji has two older brothers and his father would like to divide his sheep and yaks among his three
sons. hR-eJ-=-1-2R-$*A?-;R.-0-.%-,#R:C-A-1?-#R:C-/R<-=$-5%-3-2-$?3-0R<-2$R?-/-:.R.,
7a How many sheep will Dorji have?
7b What is one hundred sixty five divided by three?
7c How many yaks will Dorji have?
7d What is forty two divided by three?

▪20▪

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

L-5A$“be”;A-2!R=-5=,
The verb BE L-5B
5B$ “be”

Be

Question:SA-2,

Answer: SA?-=/,

(Be + Pronoun +
Noun) || (be +52-5B$+

( Pronoun + Be + Noun) ||
(52-5B$+be+3A%-5B$)

3A%-5B$)

Am

Full forms(-5%-i3-0,

Full forms(-5%-i3-0,

Short forms 2#?-0:A-i3-0,

Am I tall? 

Yes, you are.

Yes, you’re tall. 

%-$9$?-<A%-%3,

<A%-,HJ.-$9$?-<A%-0R-:.$

Am I fat?

*Yes, you are.

Yes, you’re fat.

%-5S/-0R-<J.-.3,
Am I fast?
%-3IR$?-0R-<J.-.3,

<J.,HR.-5S/-0R-<J., 

<J.,HR.-5S/-0R-<J.,

Are you a teacher?

No, you are not.

3-<J.,HR.-

3IR$?-0R-3-<J.,
No, I am not.

3A/,%-.$J-c/-3A/,
Are you in Row 3? Yes, I am. <J.,%-P=-><HR.-<%-P=-><-$?3-0-AJ$?3-0-;A/,
Are ;A/,
Are you 41? HR.-<%-=R- No, I am not. I am 14.
3A/,%-=R-8J-$&A$-3A/,%-=R-2&8J-$&A$-;A/-/3,
28A-;A/,
* :.A-:S:A-{2?-?-%J?-0<-.“Yes, you are.”.%-;%-/“Yes, you’re
you’re.”8J?-5B$-$A-3,:-3“are”;A-{2?-?-.J-<%-2#?-:VA-L?-/-3A-:PA$-$R
HR.-<%-.$J-c/-;A/-/3,

▪21▪

<A%-,HJ.-$9$?-<A%-0R-:.$

No, you’re not fast.

3-<J.,HR.-3IR$?-0R-3-<J.,
No, I’m not a teacher.

3A/,%-.$J-c/-3A/,
Yes, I’m in Row 3.

;A/,%-

P=-><-$?3-0-;A/,
No, I’m not. I’m 14. 3A/,

%-=R-8J-$&A$-3A/,%-=R-2&-28A-;A/,
a student.”8J?-:VA-.$R?,

$=-+J,

“Yes,

Unit 5What’s this in English?
#J-5/-s-2,:.A-=-.LA/-;A$-$A?-&A-9J<,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 What’s this (in English)? :.A<-.LA/-;A$-$A?-&A-9J<, It’s a clock / pencil-box / cup. .J<“clock”9J<,/ “pencilbox”9J<, /“cup”9J<,
2 Is this a pen? :.A-t$?-/$-<J.-.3, Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. <J.,.J-<J., / 3-<J.,.J-3-<J.,
3 It’s a banana / an apple / an egg / an orange. .J-/A-?A=-+R$-%%-=$-&A$-<J. / !->-8A$-<J. / |R-%-8A$-<J. / 5-=-3-8A$<J.,
4 What’s that?.J-&A-8A$-<J.,
5 Is that a bike / a car / a bus?$/-t$?-g- / _%?-:#R<- / ,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-8A$-<J.-.3,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
“This”.% “that”/A“:.A”.%“.J”;A-.R/-.%-(-:S-2-;A/,.J-;%-.?-5S.-.3-2<-,$-&%-*J-2:A-3A:3-.%R?-0R-8A$-!R/-0<-“this”

2!R=-2-.%-,.J-=?-wR$-!J-2>.-0-0R-.%-,$-<A%-0:A-.%R?-0R-$&A$-!R/-0<“that”2!R=-2-;A/,
Using this, that and it: :.A
:.A,$/ 
$/,
$/,.J.J-2&?2&?-GAGA-2!R
2!R=-5=,
Question form SA-2:A-i3-0,
Answer form SA?-=/-IA-i3-0,
What is this?
It is an icon. [icon = {-:S,]
What’s
this?
This :.A,
It’s an icon.
Is this a Tibetan robe?
Who is this?
Is this your older sister?

That $/,

Yes, it is.
This is my brother.
No, this is my mother.
That is our Tibetan teacher.
No, it’s not a sheep. It’s a goat.
It’s a wild yak.

Who is that?
Is that a sheep?
What’s that?

Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1A What’s this in English?:.A-=-.LA/-;A$-$A?-F… -\‰_,
This... :.A..., 

:.A-/A-b2-!J$?->A$-<J.,
1b This is a pencil. :.A-/A-8-/$-<J.,
1c This is a bowl. :.A-/A-.!<-;R=-<J.,
1B What’s this in English? :.A-=-.LA/-;A$-$A?-F… -\‰_, (:SA-5B$-:.A<-=/-$>3-$?=-v<-2+2-G%-(R$-$R)
1d It’s a clock. .J<“clock”9J<,
1e It’s a dog / horse. .J-/A-HA / g-8A$-<J.,(It’s = it is.)
1f What’s this?:.A-&A-8A$-<J., It’s a map. .J-/A-?-O-8A$-<J.,
1a This is a chair.

▪22▪

2 And what’s this? :R-/-:.A-&A-8A$-<J.,
2a And... {2?-:.A<“.%.%-”$A-:)$-5=-.%-:S,
2b This is a pen. And this is a pencil.

:.A-/A-t$?-/$-&A$-.%-,:.A-/A-8-/$-&A$-<J.,

2c This is a book. And this is a notebook.

:.A-.0J-(-8A$-.%-,:.A-/A-:VA-.J2-&A$-<J.,

3 A: Is this a pen?:.A-/A-t$?-/$-<J.-.3,
B: Yes, it is. <J.,.J-<J.,
A: Is that a desk?.J-1R$-4K-<J.-.3,
B: Yes, it is a desk. <J.,.J-1R$-4K-<J.,
4 What’s that in English?.J<-.LA/-;A$-$A?-&A-9J<,
4a ... that... .J-...<J.,
4b Is that a goat? No, it isn’t. It is a sheep. .J-<-3-8A$-<J.-.3,3-<J.,.J-=$-&A$-<J.,
4c This is my book. That is your book. :.A-/A-%:A-.0J-(-;A/,.J-/A-HJ.-GA-.0J-(-<J.,
5 Look! That’s a car. vR?-.%-,$/-/A-_%?-:#R<-8A$-<J., Yes, it is a Japanese car. <J.-;,.J-/A-:)<-0/-IA-_%?-:#R<-

8A$-<J.,
5a Look! That’s a horse. vR?-.%-,$/-/A-g-8A$-<J.,
5b Look! That’s my family tent. vR?-.%-,$/-/A-%J.-5%-$A-4-$<-<J.,
6 Is that an English car?$/-.LA/-)A:A-_%?-:#R<-8A$-AJ-<J.,
6a Is that your village? $/-HR.-5S:C-#J-2-<J.-.3,
6b Is that your horse? $/-HJ.-GA-g-<J.-.3,

▪23▪

Grammar 2h2h-3R.-.!:.!:-$/.,
$/.,
English…adjective (R?-2eR.-GA-5B$
1 Is that a black car? Yes, it is. $/-_%?-:#R<-/$-0R-8A$-<J.-.3,<J.-;,$/-_%?-:#R<-/$-0R-8A$-<J.,
1a Is that a red hat? No, it isn’t. It’s a white hat. $/-E-3R-.3<-0R-8A$-<J.-.3,3-<J.,.J-3-<J.,.J-/A-E-3R-.!<-0R-

8A$-<J.,
1b Is that a dog? No, it isn’t. It is a wolf. $/-HA-8A$-<J.-.3,3-<J.,$/-HA-8A$-3-<J.,$/-,%-!A-8A$-<J.,
2 English, Chinese, Japanese, American, Tibetan :.A-.$-/A-3A%-5B$-+-2!R=-(R$-=-(R?-2eR.-GA-5B$-+:%-2!R=-(R$.0J<-/,
2a He is English. #R-/A-.LA/-)A-2-8A$-<J.,
2b He is an Englishman. #R-/A-.LA/-)A:A-*J?-0-8A$-<J.,
2c She is Japanese. 3R-/A-:)<-0/-2-<J.,
2d She is a Japanese girl. 3R-/A-:)<-0/-IA-2-3R-8A$-<J.,

▪24▪

Unit 6 How old is he?
#J-5/-S$-0,#R-<%-=R-.-<J.,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Who is this / that? This / That is... :.A-/ $/-?-<J.,:.A-/ $/-/A-... ,
1a Who’s that in picture 1?:S-0<-.%-0R:C-!J%-$A-$/-?-<J.,
1b Who is my friend?Is your friend a boy or a girl? %:A-PR$?-0R-?-<J.,

HJ.-GA-PR$?-0R-8A-=A-8A$-;A/-/3-8A-3R-8A$-

;A/,
2 How old is he / she? He / She is... #R- / #R-3R-=R-.-<J.,#R- / #R-3R-... ,
2a I think he’s very old. %?-2v?-/-#R-@-&%-2PJ?-0R-:.$
3 What’s his / her / its name? #R:A-/ #R-3R:C-/ .J:A-3A%-=-&A-9J<,
3a This is a bird. Its name is... :.A-L-8A$-<J.,.J:A-3A%-=-... 9J<,
Its... “.J:A-

/ .J-;AA”8J?-0:A-.R/-;A/-=-.J-$%-9$-1.-0:A-.%R?-0R-5%-3:A-:VJ=-1-!R/-LJ.-GA-5B$-;A/,

/ It’s... “.J-/A-/.J-...<J.”8J?-0:A-.R/-;A/-/R,
3b Its tail is long. .J:A-d-3-<A%-0R-:.$
3c It’s mine. .J-%:A-<JJ.,
It is

4 Is she / he at school?I don’t know. #R-3R-/ #R-aR2-9-/-;R.-.3,%?-3A->J?,
4a Is everyone here today? .J-<A%-5%-3-:.A-/-;R.-.3,
4b Is your brother at home? No, he left for Xining yesterday morning. HJ.-GA-1-2R-HA3-.-;R.-.3,3J.,#R-#-

?%-8R$?-0<-9A-=A%-.-2.-,=,
<J.,.J-:PA$-:.$-8J?-2:A-.R/-;A/-;%-,{2?-<J<“<J.,.J-<J.”8J?-{2?-2!/-.R<-.$R?-2:%-;R.-.R,No,
that’s wrong. <J.,.J-/R<-:.$-8J?-2:A-.R/-;A/-;%-,{2?-<J<-$R%-28A/“3-<J.,.J-3-<J.”8J?-{2?-22-.%-2!/-/?-2!R=.$R?-2-.0J<-/-$>3-v<,
5a Today is Monday, right? .J-<A%-$9:-^-2-<J.-.3,Yes, that’s right!<J.,.J-<J.,
5b Tomorrow is her birthday, right??%-*A/-#R-3R:C-*J?-{<-<J.-.3,No, that’s wrong.3-<J.,?%-*A/-3-<J.,

5 Yes, that’s right! 

▪25▪

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Using he, she, and it. ||“He.%-she, it”?R$?$?-GAGA-2!R
$?
2!R=-!%?,
%?,
1a How old is he / she / it? He / She / It is 13. #R- / #R-3R-/ .J-=R-.-<J.,“it”;A?-3A-=?-$8/-0:A-.%R?-0R<-!R/,
1b It’s very fat / tall / big. (The yak is very fat. The tree is very tall. The house is very big.) .J-@-&%-5S/-

0R-<J.,/ <A%-$A/ (J-$A($;$-.J-@-&%-5S/-0R-<J.,#R%-2R-.J-@-&%-<A%-$A#%-2-.J-@-&%-(J-$A)
1c Is he / she / at home? Yes, he / she is at home. #R-/ #R-3R-/ HA3-/-;R.-.3,;R.-$A#R-/ #R-3R-HA3-/-;R.,
1d Is he / she a student? No, he / she is a teacher. #R-/ #R-3R-aR2-3-8A$-AJ-<J.,3-<J.,#R-/ #R-3R-.$J-c/-8A$-<J.,
1e Is it an eagle? Yes, it is. No, it is a vulture..J-\$-<J.-.3,<J.,.J-\$-<J.,3-<J.,.J-L-cR.-<J.,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Who is this? Who are you? :.A-?-<J.,HR.-?-;A/,
1a Who is that? Who is he / she?

$/-?-<J.,#R / #R-3R-?-<J.,

1b A: Who are you? HR.-?-;A/,
B: I am Rabji. I am a student. %-<2-o?-;A/,%-aR2-3-8A$-;A/,
1c A: Who is he?#R-?-<J.,
B: He is my younger brother. His name is Dorji and he is a student, too. #R-%:A-%/-(%-;A/,#R:C-3A%-=-hR-

eJ-9J<-=-#R-;%-aR2-3-8A$-;A/,
1d Who is your best friend? HJ.-GA-PR$?-0R-(J?-29%-2R-?-;A/,
1e Who is your English teacher? HJ.-GA-.LA/-;A$-$A-.$J-c/-?-;A/,
2 I don’t know. %?-3A->J?,

HR.-GA?-=/-.J-AJ->J?,
Yes, I do. / No, I don’t know. >J?,%?->J?,/ 3A->J?,%?-3A->J?,
2b Do you understand? HR.-GA?-@-$R:3,
Yes, I understand. / No, I don’t understand. $R%?-@-$R-?R%-, / 3A-$R,%?-@-3A-$R,
2a Do you know the answer?

3 I think she’s twenty. %?-2v?-/-#R-3R-=R-*A->-<J.,
3a I think ... %?-2v?-/-... ,
3b I think he is in the classroom. %?-2v?-/-#R-<%-aR2-#%-.-:.$
4 In picture... :S-0<-!J%-$A-... ,
4a Who are they in picture 2?:S-0<-$*A?-2:A-!J%-$A-$/-5S-?-<J.,
4b Who’s that in picture 1?:S-0<-.%-0R:C-!J%-$A-$/-?-<J.,
▪26▪

5 In... /%-/- / .-... ,
5a Is everyone here today? .J-<A%-5%-3-:.A-/-;R.-.3,

;R.,5%-3-:.A-/-;R.,
5b Is Bill in, Sam? || Sam, “Bill”/%-/-;R.-.3,
5c Is your father in? No, he is out. HJ.-GA-A-1-/%-/-;R.-.3,3J.,#R-|R<-2.-,=,
Yes, everyone is here.

6 At school... aR2-9-/-... ,
6a Is she at school today?Yes, she is. .J-<A%-#R-3R-aR2-9-/-;R.-.3, ;R.-$A#R-3R-;R.-$A
6b Is your brother at home? Yes, he is at home.

HJ.-GA-1-2R-HA3-/-;R.-.3,;R.,#R-HA3-/-;R.,

7 Is your friend a boy or a girl? HJ.-GA-PR$?-0R-8A-=A-;A/-/3-8A-3R-;A/,
7a Is that your household’s cow or my household’s cow? That is my family’s cow.$/-HJ.-5%-$A-2-3R-<J.-

.3-%J.-5%-$A-2-3R-<J.,$/-%J.-5%-$A-2-3R-<J., 

▪27▪

Unit 7 Is this your pencil-box?
#J-5/-2./-0,:.A-HR.-GA-/$-|3-AJ-<J.,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Is this your / my / his / her pencil-box?Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. :.A-HR.-GA-/ %:A-/ #R:A-/ #R-3R:A-/$-|3-AJ-<J.,

<J.,.J-<J., / 3-<J.,.J-3-<J.,
2 Here you are. HR.-=-!J<,
3 Where’s my cup? %:A-)-1R<-$%-/-;R.,
4 What are these / those? They’re boats / yaks. :.A-.$-

/ .J-.$-&A-8B$-<J.,.J-.$-P-(%- /

$;$-<J.,
5 Are these / those / they English books?Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. :.A-.$- / .J-.$- / .J-5S-.LA/-;A$-$A-

.0J-.J2-AJ-<J., <J.,.J-5S-<J., / 3-<J.,.J-5S-3-<J.,
6 They’re their books. .J-5S-#R-5S:C-.0J-.J2-<J.,
7 That’s all right. .J-@-&%-2.J/-0<-:.$
8 Numbers: one, two, three, four, five... A%-!A: $&A$$*A?,$?3,28A,s-?R$?,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Using “my, your, his, her and its.” “My.%your, his, her, its”2&?-GA-2!R=-5=,
1a Is this your scarf? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. :.A-HJ.-GA-3$R-.NA?-;A/-/3,;A/,.J-;A/, / 3A/,.J-3A/,
1b Is this his scarf? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. :.A-#R:A-3$R-.NA?-<J.-.3,<J.,.J-<J.,

/ 3-<J.,.J-

3-<J.,
/ 3-<J.,.J-3-<J.,
It’s my Tibetan robe. :.A-?:A-2R.-H-;A/, .J-%:A-2R.-H-;A/,

1c Is this her scarf? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. :.A-#R-3R:A-3$R-.NA?-<J.-.3,<J.,.J-<J.,
1d Whose Tibetan robe is this?

2 Number and plural forms of nounsA%-P%?-.%-3A%-5B$-$A-3%-2:A-i3-0,
2a There is a student in the classroom. aR2-#%-/%-.-aR2-3-8A$-;R.,
There are thirty students in the classroom. aR2-#%-/%-.-aR2-3-?3-&-;R.,
There is only one apple on the tree. #R%-3$R-/-!->-$&A$-+$-+$-;R.,
There are ten apples on the tree. #R%-3$R-/-!->-2&-,3-0-;R.,
2b One apple!->-$&A$
Two apples!->-$*A?,
One hundred 2o-,3-0,

▪28▪

3 Using “these, those,” and “they.” || “These”.% “those, they”2&?-GA-2!R=-5=,
“These”2!R=-/?-2>.-0-0R-<%-.%-,$-*J-2:A-.%R?-2R-:$:-!R/-0-;A/,
“Those”2!R=-/?-2>.-0-0R-.%-,$-<A%-2:A-$/?-GA-.%R?-2R-:$:-!R/-0-;A/,
“They”#R-5S,/.J-5S,
Question form
These :.A-5S,
Those $/-5S,

SA-2:A-i3-0,

Answer form

What are these?
Are these pears?
Are those mules?
What are those?

SA?-=/-IA-i3-0,

They are icons.
No, they are apples.
Yes, they are.
They are Tibetan tents

This:.A,these:.A-5S,
That$/, those$/-5S,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Here you are! :.A-8J?-!J<-0:A-.R/-;A/,
2 A: May I borrow your eraser? %-=-HJ.-GA-2?2-:IA$-$;<-/-AJ-(R$
B: Of course, here it is. =R?-(R$:.A,
2a A: Excuse me! Is this your book? .$R%?-0-3-:5S3,:.A-HJ.-GA-.0J-(-AJ-<J.,
B: Yes, it is. <J.,.J-<J.,
A: Here you are. HR.-=-!J<,
B: Thank you. 2!:-SA/-(J,
A: You’re welcome.

2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?,

3 Answers for “Thank you.” ||“Thank you”=-=/-:.J2?-5=,
5a That’s all right. .-29%-,=,.J-;$-0R-:.$
5b That’s OK. .J-(R$-$A
5c Not at all. 2!:-SA/-&%-43-;%-8-3A-.$R?,
5d You’re welcome. 2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?,
5e It’s my pleasure. %-.J<-.$:-2-;A/,
4 Where is my cup?%:A-)-1R<-$%-/-;R.,
4a A: Where is my hat? Is that my hat?%:A-E-3R-$%-.-;R.,.J-%:C-E-3R-AJ-<J.,
B: No, I think it’s his hat. 3-<J.,%?-2v?-/-.J-#R:C-E-3R-<J.,
A: Dorji, is this your hat?hR-eJ,:.A-HJ.-GA-E-3R-AJ-;A/,
▪29▪

C: Oh, yes, it is. :R,<J.,.J-%:A-E-3R-<J.,
A: Here you are. HR.-=-!J<,
C: Thank you. 2!:-SA/-(J,
A: You’re welcome. 2!:-SA/-8-3AA-.$R?,
5 What are these? :.A-.$-&A-8A$-<J.,
5a What are these? These are goats. They are bananas. They are mules. They are cows. :.A-.$-&A-8A$-

<J.,:.A-.$-<-3-<J.,.J-.$-?A=-+R$-%%-=$-<J.,.J-.$-SJ=-<J.,.J-.$-2-3R-<J.,
6 A: It’s very good! .J-@-&%-29%-$A
B: Thank you. 2!:-SA/-(J,
6a A: Excuse me! Is this your Tibetan robe?A-<R$?,:.A-HJ.-GA-2R.-H-;A/-/3,
B: Yes, it is. ;A/,.J-%:A-2R.-H-;A/, 

.J-@-&%-;$-0R-:.$
B: Thank you. 2!:-SA/-(J,
A: It’s very nice! 

:.A-.$-.LA/-;A$-$A-.0J-(-AJ-<J.,
B: Yes, they are. <J.,.J-5S-.LA/-;A$-$A-.0J-(-<J.,
7a A: Are they your parents in this picture? :S-0<-:.A:A-!J%-$A-$/-5S-HJ.-GA-1-3-;A/-/3,
B: Yes, they are. ;A/,#R-5S-%:A-1-3-$*A?-;A/,
A: Are they farmers?#R-5S-8A%-2-<J.-.3,
B: No, they are herdsmen. 3A/,#R-5S-:VR$-0-<J.,
7b A: Excuse me!A-<R$?,
B: Yes?:R,&A-8A$-<J.,
A: Is this your jacket?:.A-HJ.-GA-!R.-H-AJ-<J.,
B: Yes, it is. <J.,.J-<J.,
A: Here you are. HR.-=-!J<,
B: Thanks. 2!:-SA/-(J,
A: That’s OK. .J<-*R/-3A-:.$

7 A: Are these English books?

▪30▪

8 Look at the picture and listen to the tape. :S-0<-:.A-=-2v-<R$?,1-,$-:.A-=-$?/-<R$?,
Look

at... || ... =-2v-<R$?,/vR?-.%-,Listen to... || ... =-$?/-<R$?,

8a Please, look at page 32. >R$-%R?-32=-vR?-.%-,
8b Look at the cute boy. LA?-0-~A%-eJ-2R-:.A-=-vR?-.%-,

.$J-c/-IA-#-=J/-<R$?,
_%-:UA/-=J-5/-=-$?/-<R$?,

8c Listen to your teacher, please!
8d Listen to the radio, please!

SA-2-:.A:A-SA?-=/-,R2?,
9a What number is Jim’s bus?)J3-IA-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-IA-A%-g$?-.-<J.,
Jim’s bus number is 12. / It’s 12. )J3-IA-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-IA-A%-g$?-12<J. / .J-12<J.,

9 Answer this question:

2?-0”
10 “Ask” and “Answer”“SASA-2”.%“=/=/-:.J.J2?2?
11a May I ask you a question, please? %?-HR.-=-SA-2-8A$-SA?-/-(R$-$3,

%?-HJ.-GA-3A%->J?-/-(R$-$3,
11c Can you answer my question, please? HJ.-GA?-%:A-SA-2<-=/-:.J2?-,2-23,
11b May I know your name, please?

▪31▪

Unit 8 Mainly revision
#J-5/2o.-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 In pairs, ask and answer. 1/-5/-2<-SA-2-:.R/-0-.%-=/-:.J2?-0,
2 Next number. P%?-!-eJ?-3,
3 Say the numbers: 3... 18. 3/?182<-IA-P%?-!-.$->R.,
4 What would you like to drink? I would like to drink a cup of milk tea.

HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-

:,%-/-:.R.,%?-:R-)-.!<-;R=-$%-:,%-/-:.R.,
4a Would you like to watch a movie? Yes, I would.

HJ.-GA?-\R$-2f/-8A$-=-2v-:.R.-.3,

:.R.,%?-\R$-2f/-8A$-=-2v?-/-:.R.,
5 How is the weather today? It’s sunny / cloudy / windy.

.J-<A%-$/3-^-&A-:S-<J.,$/3-,%-:.$3A/-3%-0R-:.$

_%-$;$-28A/-:.$
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 In pairs, ask and answer. 1/-5/-2<-SA-2-:.R/-0-.%-=/-:.J2?-0,
1a In pairs, read and write. 1/-5/-2<-:.R/-0-.%-:VA-2,
2 “Too” and “either” ||“Too”.%“either” “too”LJ.-0-!R/-0:A-2i/-5B$“either”.$$-1-!R/-0:A-2i/-5B$
2a I’m a student. He is a student, too. %-aR2-3-8A$-;A/-=-#R-;%-aR2-3-8A$-<J.,
2b You don’t know the answer. I don’t know, either. HJ.-GA?-.J:A-=/-3A->J?-=-%?-G%-.J:A-=/-3A->J?,
3 Play the game “Next Number!”“A%-!A-eJ?-3”8J?-0:A-lJ.-3R-:.A-lJ.-<R$?,
3a Play basketball. r%-=A-lJ.-2,
3b Play football. b%-lJ.-%R-=R-lJ.-2,
4 Count like this: one, two, three, four... :.A-v<-2lA-<R$?, $&A$... $*A?... -$?3... 28A...
... like this :.A-v<... ,
4a Please, write it like this. :.A-v<-:VA-<R$?,
4b Read it like this, please. :.A-v<-:.R/-<R$?,
5 Listen to the tape and answer these questions in your workbook. 1-,$-=-*/-/?-.%-$8A:A-:SA-5B$-.$-=-=/-

,R2?,
▪32▪

5a Please, listen to me and write down my questions in your notebook. %?-2>.-0<-*/-eJ?-:SA-5B$-5%-3-

HR.-GA-:VA-.J2-!J%-:VA-<R$?,
6 Can I see your license, please? %?-HJ.-GA-2.J/-.0%-;A-$J<-2v?-/-(R$-$3,
6a Can I see your pictures?%?-HJ.-GA-:S-0<-=-2v?-/-(R$-$3,
6b Can you jump out the window? 

HR.-S-3-:.A:A-KA-=-wA%-,2-23,

7 What grade is he in?#R-=R-<A3-.-2-<J., 

HR.-:6B/-9-$%-$A-;A/,
7b What row is he in? HR.-P=-><-$%-$A-;A/,
7c What team is he on? #R-<-#$-$%-$A-;A/,
7d He is on the Lakers team. #R-=J-#A<-<-#$-$A-;A/,
7a What class are you in?

8 It is the No. 14 Middle School. .J-aR2-:VA%-A%-2&-28A-2-<J.,
8a It’s the No. 2 bus. .J-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-A%-$*A?-0-<J.,
9 At school I have a friend. aR2-9-<-%-=-PR$?-0R-8A$-;R.,
9a At home I have a cat. HA3-.-%-=-LA-=-8A$-;R.,
9b At school I have many books. aR2-9-<-%-=-.0J-(-3%-0R-;R.,

▪33▪

Unit 9 The new students
#J-5/-.$-2,aR2-3-$?<-2,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Are we all here?%-5S-5%-3-:.A-/-;R.-.3,

#R-5S-:.A-/-3J.,
3 Put our coats here. %-5S:C-!R.-H-:.A<-8R$
4 Who is on duty today? .J-<A%-$A-=?-<J?-0-?-<J.,
5 Look after them. #R-5S<-2.$-*R%-LR?,
6 This way please! :.A:A-KR$?-?,:PR-<R$?,
7 Nice to meet you! HR.-.%-3)=-2?-.$:-0R-L%-,
2 They aren’t here.

Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Who’s on duty today?.J-<A%-$A-=?-<J?-0-?-<J.,
on duty... =?-<J?-0,
1a Zhaxi is on duty today. .J-<A%-$A-=?-<J?-0-2N->A?-<J.,
1b They are on duty today. #R-5S-.J-<A%-$A-=?-<J?-0-<J.,
1c We are all on duty today. %-5S-5%-3-.J-<A%-$A-=?-<J?-0-;A/,
2 Are we all here? = Is everyone here today?%-5S-5%-3-:.A-/-;R.-.3, = .J-<A%-5%-3-:.A-/-;R.-.3,
2a Are they all students?#R-5S-5%-3-aR2-3-AJ-<J.,
2b Are they all Tibetan monks? Yes, they are. / No, some of them are American monks.

GA-9-2-AJ-<J.,<J.,#R-5S-<J.,/ 3-<J.,#R-5S:A-=-=-A-<A:A-9-2-<J.,
3 Who isn’t at school today?.J-<A%-?-aR2-9<-;R%-3J.-.3,
3a Who isn’t here today?
4 Where are they?

.J-<A%-:.A<-?-;R%-3J.-.3,

#R-5S-$%-/-;R.,
%?-3A->J?,#R-5S-:.A-/-3A-:.$
%?-2v?-/-#R-5S-HA3-/-;R.->R?-(J,

4a I don’t know. They aren’t here.
4b I think they are at home.

5 Where is he / she? #R / #R-3R-$%-.-;R.,
5a I think he is in the classroom.

%?-2v?-/-#R-aR2-#%-/%-.-;R.-0-<J.,
▪34▪

#R-5S-5%-3-2R.-

5b I think she is American.

%?-2v?-/-#R-3R-A-<A-2-<J.,

6 Today we have two new students.

.J-<A%-%-5S<-aR2-3-$?<-2-$*A?-;R.,

6a We have... %-5S<-...;R.,
6b New student.

aR2-3-$?<-2,
6c I have two pencils. %-=-8-/$-$*A?-;R.,
6d Today I have a new hat. .J-<A%-%-=-E-3R-$?<-2-8A$-;R.,
#R-5R:A-3A%-=-=R-?J-.%-=J-=J-9J<,
7a Their hats are new. #R-5S:C-E-3R-$?<-2-<J.,
7b Three and eight are their numbers. #R-5S:C-A%-P%?-/A-$?3-.%-2o.-<J.,

7 Their names are Lucy and Lily.

8 We’re twins!%J.-$*A?-35K-3-;A/,
9 OK. Please sit down over there.

(R$-$A$/-/?-28$?-<R$?,

Over there... 1-$A-/,
9a He is over there.

#R-1-$A-/-:.$

9b Can you see the cow over there?HJ.-GA?-1-$A:A-2-3R-.J-3,R%-%3,
10 Sorry! You look the same!.$R%?-0-3-5R3,HJ.-$*A?-!-2v?-/-<A$-:S-<J.,
Look the same... 2v?-/-:S-2,

HJ.-GA-t$?-/$-.%-#R:A-t$?-/$-$*A?-2v?-/-:S-0R-:.$
1-$A:A-2-3R-5S-2v?-/-<A$-:S-<J.,

10c Your pen and his pen look the same.
10d The girls over there look the same.

11 Han Meimei, please look after the twins today.

@/-3:J-3:J,HJ.-GA?-.J-<A%-35K-3-:.A-$*A?-=-2.$-*R%-LJ.-<R$?,

Look after... 2.$-*R%,v-*R%-,

LA?-0-:.A<-2.$-*R%-LJ.-<R$?,
%:A-_%?-:#R<-=-v-*R%-LJ.-<R$?,

11a Please look after the baby.
11b Please look after my car.
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

1 Plural forms of the verb “BE.”L-5B$“BE”;A-3%-5B$-$A-i3-0,
1a Are you / they in class 3? Yes, we / they are.

HJ.-5S-:6B/-9-$?3-0-;A/-/3, / #R-5S-:6B/-9-$?3-0-<J.-.3,;A/,

%-5S-;A/, / <J.,#R-5S-<J.,
▪35▪

1b Are you / they twins? Yes, we / they are.

HJ.-5S-35K-3-;A/-/3,/ #R-5S-35K-3-<J.-.3,;A/,%-5S-35K-3-;A/,/ #R-5S-

35K-3-<J.,
1c What grade are you / they in? We/ They / are in grade one. HJ.-5S-=R-<A3-.-2-;A/,/ #R-5S-=R-<A3-.-2-<J.,%-5S-

=R-<A3-.%-0R-;A/,/ #R-5S-=R-<A3-.%- 0R-<J.,
1d Are you American? No, I’m French.

HR.-A-<A-2-;A/-/3,3A/,%-n-</-?A:A-3A-;A/,

2 PossessivePronouns

2.$-.R/-IA-52-5B$
Singular formsn%n%-5B5B$-$A$A-i3i3-0,
0,

Plural forms 3%3%-5B5B$-$A$A-

i3i3-0,
0,
%-2N->A?-;A/,
My name is Zhaxi. %:A-3A%-=-2N->A?- 9J<,
I am Zhaxi.

We have horses.

%-5S<-g-;R.,

Nominative and possessive
cases LJ.-00-0R0R-!R/-0:A-i3i3-.LJ
.LJ-

.%.%-2.$2.$-.R.R/-IAIA-:VJVJ=-1, 

I --- my%---%:A,

Our horses are white.

%-5S:C-g-i3?-.!<-0R-;A/,
You have hats.  You---yourHR.---HR.-GA,
You are Zhaxi. HR.-2N->A?-<J.,
HR.-=-E-;R., 

Your name is Zhaxi. HR.-GA-3A%-=-2N- >A?-9J<,
Your hats are red. 
HR.-GA-E-i3?-.3<-0R-<J.,
She has cats. She---her#R-3R---#R-3R:C,
She is Doma. #R-3R-1R=-3-<J.,
3R<-LA-=-;R.,
Her name is Doma. #R-3R:A-3A%-=-1R=-3-9J<,
Her cats are brown. 
3R:A-LA-=-i3?-($-0R-<J.,
He has cats.
He is Zhaxi. #R-2N->A?-<J.,
He---his#R---#R-2R:C,
#R<-LA-=-;R.,
His name is Zhaxi. #R:C-3A%-=-2N->A?-9J<,
His cats are white
#R:C-LA-=-i3?-.!<-0R-<J.,
It has toys.
It is Polly. .J-1R.-=J-<J.,
it---its .J---.J:C,
.J<-lJ.-(?-;R.,
Its name is Polly. .JJ:A-3A%-=-1R.-=J-9J<,
We---our%-5S---%-5S:C,
Its toys are red.
.J:A-lJ.-(?-i3?-.3<-0R-<J., They---their#R-5S---#R-5S:C,

▪36▪

Unit 10 Where is it?
#J-5/-2&-2,.J-$%-.-;R.,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Who’s that? $/-?-<J.,
2 Is it…or... ?.J-…<J.-.3-…<J.,
3 Who are they? #R-5S-?-<J.,
4 Look at the picture.

:S-0<-:.A<-vR?-.%-,
.J-<A%-$A-=?-<J?-0-?-<J.,#R-5S-.J-<A%-$A-=?-<J?-0-<J.,
HJ.-GA?…3,R%-,2-23,3,R%-,2,%?-3,R%-,2, / 3A-,2,%?-3,R%-3A-

5 Who are on duty today? They are on duty today.
6 Can you see…? Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.

,2,
7 Where are Lucy’s pencils?=R-?J-;A-8-/$-i3?-$%-.-;R.,
8 It looks like a cat. .J<-2v?-5S.-GA?-LA-=-8A$-.%-:S,
9 Put them over there, please.

.J-5S-1-$A<-:)R$-<R$?,

10 Where is his family tent? His family tent is at the foot of Maqin Mountain.

#R-5%-$A-4-$<-$%-.-;R., #R-5%-

$A-4-$<-k-(J/-$%?-:.2?-/-;R.,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Using “the.” || “The”;A-2!R=-5=,
1) 5%-3<-$?=-(-;R.-0-.%-:)A$-gJ/-!J%-$&A$-=?-$*A?-3J.-0:A-L-.%R?-.%-3*3-.-2!R=-2-.0J<-/, 

1a Singular noun: the sun, the moonn%-5B$*A-3-.%-^-2-?R$?,
2)}R/-.-\J%-9A/-0:A-L-.%R?-{R<-8A$-$3-3A-{R<-8A$-%R?-:6B/-0:A-5B$-=-2!R=-2-.0J<-/,
2a I have a cat. The cat likes meat. %-=-LA-=-8A$-;R.,LA-=-.J->-=-.$:,
2b I can see a football? Where is the football? %?-b%-lJ.-%R-=R-8A$-3,R%-,2,b%-lJ.-%R-=R-.J-$%-.-;R.,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Who’s that?$/-?-<J.,
1a Who is that man? That is my older brother. *J?-0-$/-?-<J.,$/-%:A-1-2R-<J.,
1b Who is the girl in the hat?E-3R-IR/-0:A-2-3R-.J-?-<J.,
1c The boy in the yellow jacket is tall. !R.-H-?J<-2R-IR/-0:A-2-(%-.J-$9$?-<A%-0R-:.$
2Are the twins in different classes?35K-3-.J-$*A?-:6B/-9-3A-$&A$-0-<J.-.3,
2a Are you guys in different classes?HR.-5SS-:6B/-9-$&A$-$A-3A/-/3,
No, we are in the same class. 3A/,%-5S-:6B/-9-$&A$-$A-;A/,
▪37▪

3This is a picture of my classroom. :.A-/A-%:A-aR2-#%-$A-:S-0<-8A$-;A/,
3a What is this?:.A-&A-8A$-<J.,
This is a picture of my village. :.A-/A-%:A-1-;=-IA-:S-0<-8A$-;A/,
4 Look at the picture. :S-0<-:.A<-vR?-.%-,
4a Look at the yak over there. 1-$A:A-$;$-.J<-vR?-.%-,
4b Please look at page 109. >R$-%R?109=-vR?-.%-, 

5 Can you see the door? Can you see a door?HR.-GA?-|R-.J-3,R%-,2-23,HR.-GA?-|R-8A$-3,R%-,2-23,
5a A: Can you see the eraser?HR.-GA?-2?2-:IA$-.J-3,R%-,2-23,
B: Yes, I can. ,2,%?-3,R%-,2,
A: Where is it?.J-$%-.-;R.,
B: It’s on the teacher’s desk. .J-.$J-c/-IA-&R$-4K:A-!J%-.-;R.,
6 It looks like a cat!.J<-2v?-5S.-GA?-LA-=-8A$-.%-:S,
6a Your older brother looks like you. HJ.-GA-1-2R-2v?-5S.-GA?-HR.-=-@-&%-<A$
6b This hat looks like my hat. E-3R-:.A-2v?-5R.-GA?-%:A-E-3R-=-@-&%-<A$
7 Where is your home? HJ.-GA-1-;=-$%-/-;R.,
My home is in Hor Village, Cuzhou Township, Jiantsa County, Malho Prefecture, Qinghai Province.

%:A-1-;=-/A-35S-}R/-8A%-(J/-k-zR-#=-$&/-5-mR%-5S-S$-8% -@R<-#J-2-;A/,

▪38▪

Unit 11 Come and meet the family!
#J-5/-2&-$&A$-0,HA3-3A-5S-.%-3)=-2<-:R%-2,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Come and meet my family. %J.-5%-$A-HA3-3A-5S-.%-3)=-2<->R$
2 What’s the name of her cat?#R-3R:C-LA-=:A-3A%-=-&A-9J<,
3 Who’re they? They’re my grandparents. #R-5S-?-;A/,#R-5S-%:A-kR-3R-.%-%R-2R-;A/,
4 Go and see. 2v-2<-:PR
5 Nice to meet / see you. HJ.-.%-:U.-0-@-&%-29%-,
6 Please come in. /%-.-1J2?-<R$?,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Possessives 2.$-.R/-IA-52-5B$
1) “Zhaxi’s”8J?-0:A“s”&J?-0:A-1-.<-/-.J-.%-:VJ=-2:A-(R?-!R/-LJ.-GA-:VJ=-1-;A/-+J,.0J<-/

1a Who is that (man)? He is Zhaxi’s father. (*J?-2-)$/-?-<J.,#R-2N->A?-GA-A-1-<J.,
1b Is this your pen? No, it’s Cairang’s pen. :.A-HJ.-GA-t$?-/$-AJ-<J.,3-<J.,.J-5K-<A%-$A-<J.,
1c Is that Doma’s cat? No, it’s Drukar’s cat. .J-1R=-3:A-LA-=-AJ-<J.,3-<J.,.J-1R=-.!<-IA-LA-=-<J.,

.J-;%-#-P%?-$*A?-?3-$*A?-;/-!R/-0:A-3A%-5B$-$A-3,:-<“-s”;R.-/,2#?-g$?(apostrophe’)#R-/-.<2?-(R$-!J,
1d My sisters’ children.%:A-A-&J-.%-YA%-3R-5S:C-U-$-v-2:R,
2 Imperatives{=-5B$
2a Go and see!2v-2<-:PR
2b May I come in? Come in, please. / Please come in. %-/%-.-;R%-/-(R$-$3,/%-.-1J2?-<R$?,
2c Come and meet the family. HA3-3A-5S-.%-3)=-2<->R$
2d Please, be careful. ?J3?-(%-LR?,
2e Sit down, please. 28$?-$./-:)$?,
2f Be quiet, please. #-<R$-$J<-:.$-0<-8,
2g Let me try. %?-5S.-v-8A$-LJ.-.%-,
2h Let’s go together. %-5S-3*3-.-:PR,

▪39▪

Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Come and meet my family. %:A-HA3-3A-5S<-3)=-2<->R$
1a Come here and have a seat. :.A<-1J2?-/?-28$?-.%-,
2 What’s that?.J-&A-8A$-<J., It’s a picture of my family. .J-/A-%:A-HA3-5%-$A-:S-0<-8A$-<J.,
3 Oh, can I see it?AR,%?-&A$-2v?-/-(R$-$3,
3a May I have a look?%?-&A$-2v?-/-(R$-$3,
4 Nice to meet you!HJ.-.%-3)=-2->A/-+-=J$?,
4a Nice to see you!HJ.-.%-3)=-2->A/-+-=J$?,
4b Glad to see you. HJ.-.%-3)=-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,
5 Please come in. /%-.-1J2?-<R$?,
5a May I come in?%-<%-/%-.-;R%-/-(R$-$3, Come in, please. /%-.-1J2?-<R$?,
6 Sit down and have a cup of tea with me. 3<-4S$-/?-%-.%-3*3-.-)-.!<-;R=-$%-:,%-<R$?,
6a Sit down and have a conversation with me. 3<-4S$-/?-%-.%-#-2h-LR?,
6b Come here and have an apple. :.A<-;R%-/?-!->-8A$-9-<R$?,
Conversation #-2h,
2h,
Dorji: Hello!6-;J,
Doma: Hello! Who’s that?7-;J,HR.-?-;A/,
Dorji: I’m one of Zhaxi’s classmates and my name is Dorji. Are you Zhaxi’s mother?%-/A-2N->A?-GA-aR2-

PR$?->A$-;A/,3A%-=-hR-eJ-9J<,HR.-2N->A?-GA-A-3-;A/-/3,
Doma: No, I’m Zhaxi’s older sister.3A/,%-2N->A?-GA-A-&J-;A/,
Dorji: Oh, sorry. May I speak to Zhaxi, please?:R,,$?-o=-3-28J%?,%?-2N->A?-=-#-2h-LJ.-(R$-$3,
Doma: Sure. He’s riding a bicycle in the yard. I’ll call him.=R?-(R$#R-2R?-z?-G-/-t$?-g-2{R<-28A/-:.$%?#R-<%-:2R.,
Zhaxi: Hi, Dorji. I’m sorry. My father bought me a new bicycle and I was riding it in my house yard.
How is everything going with you?7-;J,hR-eJ,.$R%?-0-3-5S3,%:A-A-1?-2.$-=-t$?-g-$?<-2-8A$-*R?-

;R.-0?-%?-z?-G-/-.J-2{R<-28A/-;R.,.-v-HR.-GA-L-2-3,:-.$-)A-:S-<J.,

▪40▪

Dorji: Not bad, but my parents have gone to my uncle’s home and won’t come back tonight. I feel a
little alone. Will you be free this evening?3A-29%-o-3J.-G%-%:A-1-3-$*A?-%R-2R-5%-=-2.-?R%-2?-.$R%-3R-KA<-

;R%-o-3-<J.,%-&%-?/-0R-:.$.R-.$R%-HJ.-=-#R3-0-;R.-.3,
Zhaxi: I’m free except for having a little homework to do.=?-L-43-:VA-.$R?-0-3-$+R$?-%-=-#R3-0-;R.,
Dorji: Then how about you bringing your homework to my home and we will do it.HJ.-GA?-=?-L-%J.-5%-

=-:HJ<-;R%-!J-%-5S?-3*3-.-VA?-/-&A-:S-<J.,
Zhaxi: When will I come?%-<%-/3-;R%-.$R?,
Dorji: It’s up to you..J-HR.-<%-$A?-vR?,
Zhaxi: What about seven-thirty?(-5S.-2./-.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-&A-:S-<J.,
Dorji: OK. See you soon! Bye!(R$-$A3A-:I%?-2<-,$2.J-3R-LR?,
Zhaxi: See you soon! Bye!3A-:I%?-2<-,$2.J-3R-LR?,

▪41▪

Unit 12 What can you see?
#J-5/-2&-$*A?-2,HJ.-GA?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 What can you see in the picture?:S-0<-:.A:A-!J%-/?-HJ.-GA?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,
2 I can’t find…%?…fJ.-.!:,
3 It’s your turn now. .-/A-HR.-GA-<J?-=-22?-:.$
Grammar2h-3R..!:-$/.,
1 Using “the” and “a”. ||“The”.%“a”;A-2!R=-5=, 

&A$8A$>A$The… L-.%R?-$%-8A$-%R?-:6B/-0:A-5B$-$A-}R/-.-.R<-.$R?,
1a I have a storybook. %-=-$+3-o.-GA-.0J-(-8A$-;R.,
I have the storybook. %-=-$+3-o.-GA-.0J-(-.J-;R.,
1b A: I can see a pen / a book / a watch / an eraser. %?-t$?-/$-&A$- / .0J-(-8A$- / (-5S.-(J/-0R-8A$- / 2?2-:IA$&A$-3,R%-,2,
B: Where is the pen / the book / the watch / the eraser?t$?-/$- / .0J-(- / (-5R.-(J/-0R-/ 2?2-:IA$-.J-$%.-;R.-.3,
A: It’s on the teacher’s desk .J-.$J-c/-IA-3./-&R$-!J%-.-;R.,
1c some pictures / the pictures:S-0<-:$:, / :S-0<-.J-.$
1d A: I can see some birds. %?-L-:$:-3,R%-,2,
B: Where are the birds? L-.J-.$-$%-.-;R.,
A: They are in the tree. .J-.$-#R%-3$R-/-;R.,
A…

Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What can you see in the picture? :S-0<-:.A:A-!J%-HJ.-GA?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,
1a A: What can you see in the tent?4-$<-.J:A-/%-.-HJ.-GA?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,

%?-:<-(-8A$-3,R%-,2,
A: Where is the slingshot?:<-(-.J-$%-.-;R.,
B: It’s on the bed. .J-3=-OA:A-!J%-.-:.$
B: I can see a slingshot.

%?-3J-+R$-:$:-3,R%-,2,
…on the tree#R%-2R-=?-L%-2:A-:V?-2-!->-.%-=R-3-v-2-#R%-3$R-/-;R.-0-!R/-0:A-{2?-?-2!R=,...in the tree#R-%-2R-=?-L%-

2 I can see some flowers.

2-3A/-0:A-.%R?-2R-.0J<-/,>R$-2-.%-L-?R$?-#R%-3$R<-;R.-0-!R/-0:A-{2?-?-2!R=-2->$?-(J:R,
▪42▪

2a A: What can you see in the garden? 3J-+R$-w3-G-:.A:A-/%-HJ.-GA?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,

%?-#R%-2R-:$:-3,R%-,2,
A: What can you see on the trees?HJ.-GA?-#R%-3$R-/?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,
B: I can see some red apples. %?-!->-.3<-0R-:$:-3,R%-,2,
2b What can you see in the tree?HR.-GA?-#R%-:$R-/?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2,
I can see some birds in the tree. %?-L-:$:-#R%-:$R-/-;R.-0-3,R%-,2,
B: I can see some trees.

3 I can’t find the broom. Can you see it? %?-K$?-3-.J-3A-fJ.-$AHJ.-GA?-.J-3,R%-,2-23,
3a A: Excuse me, Lodan. I can’t find the mop. Can you see it?A-<R$?-]R-w/,%?-<?-K$?-.J-3A-fJ.,HJ.-GA?-

.J-3,R%-,2-23,
B: I’m sorry, I can’t. Is it behind the door? .$R%?-0-3-5S3,%?-.J-3A-fJ.-$A.J-|R-:P3-.-;R.-.3,
A: No, it isn’t. 3J.-$A.J-|R-:P3-/-3J.-$A
B: Er, is it under the bed?.J-3=-OA:A-:R$-+-;R.-.3,

;R.-$AHJ.-GA?-2>.-0-2.J/-0-<J.,2!:-SA/-(J,
B: You’re welcome. 2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?,
3b A: I can’t find my notebook. %?-<%-$A-:VA-.J2-3A-fJ.-$A
B: I can see it. Look!It’s over there, on the teacher’s desk. %?-.J-<A$-,2,vR?-.%-,.J-$/-/,.$J-c/-IA3./-&R$-!J%-/-;R.-$A
A: Thank you. Oh! That’s not my notebook. It’s Drukar’s. 2!:-SA/-(J,:R-.J-%:A-:VA-.J2-3-<J.,.J-1R=-.!<IA-<J.,
A: Yes, you’re right. Thank you.

AR-.J-%:A-t$?-/$-3-<J.,.J-=J-=J:A-<J.,
4a Oh! That’s not your fault. It’s mine. .J-HR.-=2-0-3A/,%-=2-0-;A/,

4 Oh! That’s not my pen. It’s Lily’s.

5 It’s your turn now.

.-HJ.-GA-<J?-=-22?-:.$

5a Now it’s your turn to tell us a story.

.-/A-HR.-<%-$/:-$+3-2>.-0:A-<J?-=-22?-:.$

▪43▪

Unit 13 What colour is it?
#J-5/-2&-$?3-0,.J:A-#-.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 What colour is it?It’s red / black / white / blue / green / yellow / brown / orange. .J:A-#-3.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,
.J-.3<-0R-/ /$-0R-/ .!<-0R-/ }R/-0R-/ u%-#- / ?J<-0R-/ #3-/$-/ .3<-?J<-<J.,
2 Which man? The one in / on the…3A-$%-,…./%-$A-/.J:A-!J%-/-;R.-0-$/,
3 What is in my hand? %:A-=$-0:A-/%-/-&A-8A$-;R.,
4 What colour are they?.J-5S:C-#-3.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,
5 Can’t you see?HJ.-GA?-3,R%-3A-,2-23,
6 What colour is the sky? The sky is blue. /3-3#:A-#-3.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,/3-3#:-}R/-0R-<J.,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Using “what is” and “who is.” ||“What is…”.%“who is”$*A?-GA-2!R=-!%?,
1 “What is”2!R=-/?-3A-8A$-$AA-=?-!-?R$?-:SA-2-!J“…&A-8A
8A$-<J<J.-/;A/”8J?-0:A-.R/-;A/-=,.0J<-/,

1a What colour is it? It’s green. .J:A-#-.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,.J-u%-#-<J.,
1b What colour is Cairang’s Tibetan robe? It’s blue and yellow. 5K-<A%-$A-2R.-H:A-3.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,.J-}R/-0R-.%-

?J<-0R-<J.,
1c What colour are these / those? They are black. :.A-5S:C-/ .J-5S:C-#-.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,.J-5S-/$-0R-<J.,
2 “Who is…”2!R=-/?-3A-?-8A$-;A/-0-:SA-2-;A/-+J,.0J<-/,

2a Who is the boy? Which boy? The one wearing a red hat. Oh, he is Zhaxi. 8A-=-.J-?-<J.,8A-=-$%-,E-3R-

.3<-0R-IR/-;R.-0-.J,:R,#R-/A-2N->A?-<J.,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What colour is it?

.J:A-#-3.R$-&A-8A$-<J.,

1a A: Hi! What colour is your family’s tent?

6-;J,HJ.-5%-$A-4-$<-IA-#-3.R$-&A-;A/,

B: It’s black..J-/$-0R-;A/,
1b A: Do you know what colour my family’s tent is? HR.-GA?-%J.-5%-$A-4-$<-IA-#-3.R$-&A-;A/-0-AJ->J?,
B: No, I don’t know. Is it black and white?3A->J?,%?-3A->J?,.J-.!<-0R-.%-/$-0R-;A/-/3,
A: Yes, you are right. Good guess.;A/,HJ.-GA?-5S.-.0$-L?-0-:PA$-:.$ 

2 What day is today?.J-<A%-<J?-$9:-.-2-<J.,
Today is Monday / Tuesday / Thursday....J-<A%-/A-$9:-^-2- / 3A$-.3<- / 1<-2-...<J.,
▪44▪

3 Excuse me, Jim. Who’s that man?A-<R$?-)J3,*J?-0-$/-?-<J.,
3a A: Excuse me, Cairang who’s that boy?A-<R$?-5K-<A%-,2-(%-$/-?-<J.,
B: Which boy? 2-(%-$%-,
A: The one on the black bike. t$?-g-/$-0R:C-!J%-$A-$/,
B: Oh, that’s Dorji. :R,$/-hR-eJ-<J.,
4 Can’t you see? They’re boxes!HR.-GA?-3,R%-3A-,2-23,.J-.$-|3-(%-<J.,
4a A: What are these? :.A-.$-&AA-<J.,
B: Can’t you see? They’re boxes!HJ.-GA?-3A-3,R%-%3,.J-.$-|3-(%-<J.,
A: Yes, but what are in the boxes?<J.-;,:R/-G%-|3-.J-.$-$A-/%-/-&A-8A$-;R.,
B: Oh, shirts. :R,5B-=J/-:$:-;R.,
A: What colour are they? .J-.$-$AA-#-3.R$-&A-;A/,
B: They’re white. .!<-0R,

▪45▪

Unit 14 That’s mine
#J-5/-2&-28A-2,.J-%:A-<J.,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Whose is this / that…? :.A-/ .J-?:A-<J.,

4 I think it’s his / hers. %?-2v?-/-.J-#R:C- / #R-3R:C-<J.,

2 Is it yours? No, it’s not mine. :.A-HJ.-GA-AJ-<J.,

5 Put it on. .J-o2-+-IR/-<R$?,.J-o2-+-#R/-.%-,
6 Whose…are these?…:.A-.$-?:A-<J.,

3-<J.,.J-%:A-3-<J.,
3 Let me see, please. %?-&A$-2v,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Whose shirt is this? 5B-=J/-:.A-?:A-<J.,
1aWhose trousers are these? b%-$3-:.A-?:A-<J.,
They’re the twins’..J-.$-35K-3-.J-$*A?-GA-<J.,

2 You must look after your clothes. HJ.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-<%-$A-$R/-0<-2.$-$&J?-LJ.-.$R?,
Look after…2.$-*R%-%3-2.$-$&J?,
2a You must look after the baby. HJ.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-LA?-0-:.A<-2.$-*R%-LJ.-.$R?,
2b You should look after that book.HR.-GA?-.0J-(-.J<-2.$-$&J?-L?-/-:PA$,
3 They are on Mrs. Green’s clothesline. .J-.$-t3-3R-$-<J/-IA-H-,$-!J%-.-:.$
3a There are many clothes on the students’ clothesline. aR2-3:C-H-,$-!J%-.-H-2-3%-0R-;R.,
4 Is this yours, Lily? || =J-=J,:.A-HR.-GA--AJ-<J.,
4a A: Is this yours, Zhaxi?2N->A?,:.A-HR.-GA-AJ-<J.,
B: No, it’s not mine. It’s hers. 3-<J.,.J-%:A-3-<J.,.J-#R-3R:C-<J.,
5 Let me see, please. No, it’s not mine. I think it’s his. %?-&A$-2v,3-<J.,.J-%:A-3-<J.,%?-2v?-/-.J-#R:A-<J.,
5a Teacher: Whose coat is this? Is this yours, Duden?:.A-?:A-!R.-H-<J.,!R2?-w/,:.A-HJ.-GA-AJ-<J.,
Duden: Let me see, please. No, it’s not mine. I think it’s his. %?-&A$-2v,:R-.J-%:A-3-<J.,%?-2v?-/-.J-#R:A-

<J.,
Teacher: Whose? Hangdi’s??:A,.2%-:.?-GA,
Duden: Yes. <J.-;,
Teacher: Hi, Hangdi. Come here. Is this yours?7-;J,.2%-:.?,:.A<->R$-.%-,:.A-HJ.-GA-AJ-<J.,
Hangdi: Yes, it’s mine. :R-<J.,.J-%:A-<J.,
Teacher: Here you are. Put it on, please. You must look after your clothes. :.A,o2-+-IR/-<R$?,HJ.-

GA?-%J?-0<-+-<%-$A-H-2<-2.$-$&J?-LJ.-.$R?,
Hangdi: Yes, thank you, Teacher. =$?-?R,.$J-c/-=$?,2!:-SA/-(J,
▪46▪

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

A

1 “Whose” /“who”.%-:VJ=-2:A-(R?-!R/-0-;A/-+J“?:A”8J?-0:A-.R/-;A/-=-2!R=-5=-/A-$>3-v<,

:.A-?:A-E-<J.,.J-#R:C-E-<J., / .J-#R:A-<J.,
1b Whose pen is this? It’s my pen. / It’s mine. :.A-?:A-t$?-/$-<J.,.J-%:A-t$?-/$-<J., / .J-%:A-<J.,
1a Whose hat is this? It’s his hat / It’s his.

2 Possessive Pronouns2.$-.R/-IA-52-5B$
My

They are my Tibetan robes.

Mine

They are mine.

%:A,

.J-.$-%:A-2R.-H-;A/,

%:A,

.J-.$-%:A-;A/,

Your

They are your Tibetan robes.

Yours

They are yours.

.J-.$-HR.-GA-2R.-H-<J.,

HR.-GA,

.J-.$-HR.-GA-<J.,

They are his Tibetan robes.

His

They are his.

.J-.$-#R:C-2R.-H-<J.,

#R:C,

.J-.$-#R:C-<J.,

They are her Tibetan robes.

Hers

They are hers.

.J-.$-3R:C-2R.-H-<J.,

3R:C,

.J-.$-#R-3R:C-<J.,

They are our Tibetan robes.

Ours

They are ours.

.J-.$-%-5S:C-2R.-H-;A/,

%-5S:C,

.J-.$-%-5S:C-;A/,

They are your Tibetan robes.

Yours

They are yours.

.J-.$-HR.-5S:C-2R.-H-<J.,

HR.-5S:C,

.J-.$-HR.-5S:C-<J.,

They are their Tibetan robes.

Theirs

They are theirs.

.J-.$-#R-5S:C-2R.-H-<J.,

#R-5S:C,

.J-.$-#R-5S:C-<J.,

HR.-GA,
His

#R:C-,
Her

3R:C,
Our

%-5S:C,
Your

HR.-5S,
Their

#R-5S:C,

▪47▪

Unit 15 What’s the time?
#J-5/-2&R-s,.?-5S.-.-<J.,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 That’s nice. .J-@-&%-;$-0R-:.$
2 Give it to Mr Hu. .J-{-82?-@:-=-!J<-<R$?,
3 What’s the time? It’s seven-thirty. .?-5S.-.-<J.,.?-5S.-2./-.%-{<-3-?3-&-<J.,
4 I don’t have a watch. %-=-(-5S.-3J.,
5 I must go. %-%J?-0<-.-:PR-.$R?,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What’s the time? / What time is it?.?-5S.-.-<J.,
It’s nine-thirty. It’s about nine-thirty. It’s nine o’clock. It’s half past nine. It’s five to seven. .?-5S.-

.$-.%-{<-?3-&-<J.,1=-(J<-.?-5S.-.$-.%-{<-3-?3-&-<J.,.?-5S.-.$-<J.,.?-5S.-.$-.%-KJ.-!-<J.,.?-5S.-2./-=-{<-3s-(.,
2 Give it to Mr Hu. .J-{-82?-@:-=-!J<-<R$?,
2a Please give your grandfather the pipe. HJ.-GA-%R-2R<-G-4K-:.A-!J<-<R$?,
2b Please give the pipe to your grandfather. G-4K-:.A-HJ.-GA-%R-2R-=-!J<-<R$?,
3 I don’t have a watch. %-=-(-5S.-3J.,
3a A: Excuse me, what time is it, please?

A-<R$?-.?-5S.-.-<J.,

B: Sorry, I don’t have a watch. I think it’s about six o’clock. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,%-=-(-5S.-3J.,%?-2v?-/-

1=-(J<-.?-5S.-S$-;A/-o-<J.,
C: Let me see. No, it’s six-eighteen.%?-&A$-2v,:R,3-<J.,.?-5S.-S$-.%-{<-3-2&R-2o.-<J.,
A: Oh, I must go home. :R,%-%J?-0<-+-HA3-=-:PR-.$R?,
4 Put your shoes on. Take your shoes off. HR.-GA?-<%-$A-z3-IR/-<R$?,HR.-GA?-<%-$A-z3-1.-<R$?,
4a Put on your shoes. Take off your shoes. HR.-GA?-<%-$A-z3-IR/-<R$?,HR.-GA?-<%-$A-z3-1.-<R$?,
4b Put your coat on. Take your coat off. HR.-GA?-<%-$A-!R.-H-IR/-<R$?,HR.-GA?-<%-$A-!R.-H-1.-<R$?,

▪48▪

Unit 16 Mainly revision
#J-5/-2&-S$-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 They look young. #R-5S<-2v?-5S.-GA?-=R-/-$8R/,
2 See you soon! M<-.-3)=-:R%-,
3 What is the date today? Today is April first, 2006. .J-<A%-5K?-2-.-<J.,.J-<A%-/A-,A-=R-*A?-!R%-S$-=R:C-^-28A-2:A-5J?$&A$-<J.,
4 When is your birthday? My birthday is July second. HJ.-GA-*J?-{<-/3-;A/,%:A-*J?-{<-/A-^-2./-0:A-5K?-$*A?;A/,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Her skirt is on her bed. 3R:A-(.-$;R$?-3R:C-*=-OA:A-!J%-.-;R.,
…on the bed….J-/A-$%-9$-$-$J-3R-8A$-*=-OA:A-!J%-.-%=-$?R-2-?R$?-GA-(J.-.-:UJ.-.-*=-;R.-0-=?-!J%-*=-$R?-?R$?-GA?-

$;R$?-3J.-0:A-{2?-?-2!R=-2-;A/,…in bed….J-/A-$%-9$-$-$J-3R-8A$-$A?-!J%-.-*=-$R?-IA?-$;R$?->A%-:UJ.-.-*=-;R.-0<-$R
1a He is on the bed. #R-*=-OA:A-!J%-.-:.$
1b He is in the bed. #R-*=-:.$
2 Yes, it’s an old photo of my family. <J.-;,.J-/A-%:A-HA3-5%-$A-:S-0<-fA%-2-8A$-<J.,
2a A: What’s this? Is this a picture of Xiaqong Monastery? :.A-&A-8A$-<J.,:.AA-L-H%-.$R/-0:A-:S-0<-8A$-AJ-<J.,
B: Yes, it is. <J.,.J-<J.,
A: What’s that?$/-&A-8A$-<J.,
B: Oh, it’s an old picture of this monastery a long time ago. Are they the same or different?:R,.J-

/A-.$R/-0-:.A:A-=R-3%-}R/-IA-:S-0<-fA%-2-8A$-<J.,.J-5S-$&A$-:S-<J.-.3-3-<J.,
A: They’re quite different. Look, in the old picture the buildings are very nice and vivid. But there
are no nice buildings in the new picture, right? .J-5S-$+/-/?-3A-:S,vR?-.%-,:S-0<-fA%-2-.J:A-!J%-$A-#%-2-

36K?-=-$?R/-*3?-w/-3R.,:R/-G%-:S-0<-$?<-2-.J:A-!J%-.-#%-2-;$-0R-$&A$-G%-3A-:.$.J-:S-8A$-AJ-<J.,
B: Yes, it’s true. <J.-;,.J-2.J/-0-<J.,
3 Solve this puzzle. .!:-$/.-$?J=-2NR=,
…solve… ,$-$&R.-0,
3a Solve this problem. $/.-.R/-:.A-,$-$A?-$&R.-0,

▪49▪

4 They look young!

#R-5S<-2v?-5S.-GA?-=R-/-$8R/,

…look…2v?-/,
4a You look hungry. HR.-=-2v?-5S.-GA?-vR$?-:.$
4b He looks drunk. #R<-2v?-5S.-GA?-29A-:.$
4c You look fine. HR.-=-2v?-5S.-GA?-@-&%-2.J-3R-<J.,
5 When is Tibetan New Year? Tibetan New Year is February first. 2R.-GA-=R-$?<-/3-<J.,2R.-GA-=R-$?<-/A-^-

$*A?-0:A-5K?-$&A$-*A/-<J.,

▪50▪

Students’ Book 1B
.J2-.%-0R:A-(.-(,   

▪51▪

Unit 17 Could you help me, please?
#J-5/$?-LJLJ.-,2-23,
5/-2.
2./-0,
0,H
,HJ.-GAGA?-%-%-=-<R<R$?$?
23,
Dialogue#-2h,
Lhomotso: Good morning, Losang.

]R-29%-,8R$?-0-29%-,

Losang: Good morning, Lhomotso.

z-3R-35S,8R$?-0-29%-,

Lhomotso: I have to herd the yaks on the mountain, but there are so many. Could you help me, please?

%?-<A-3$R-/?-/R<-:.A-.$-:5S-.$R?-3R.,:R/-G%-/R<-@-&%-3%-,HJ.-GA?-%-=-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,
Losang: Certainly, I’d like to.
Lhomotso: Thanks, Losang.

=R?-,2,%?-HJ.-=-<R$?-LJ.-:.R.,

]R-29%-,2!:-SA/-(J,

Losang: You’re welcome. I’m happy to go with you. Let’s be off. 2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?,%-HR.-.%-3*3-.-:PR-2<-

.$:-2-*J?,:-$*A?-:PR
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Could you help me, please?

HJ.-GA?-%-=-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,

1a Could you help me roast this sack of barley, please? HJ.-GA?-%-=-/?-+J-3R-$%-0R-:.A-2}R-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,
1b Could you help me fetch some firewood?HJ.-GA?-%-=-:2.->A%-:,-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,
1c Could you help me give this letter to her? HJ.-GA?-%-=-;A-$J-:.A-#R-3R<-!J<-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,
2 Certainly.=R?-,2,
2a Certainly, I’d like to. =R?-,2,%-.J-=-.$:-2-;A/,
2b Certainly, let me help you. =R?-,2,%?-HJ.-=-<R$?-LJ.,
2c Certainly, it would be my pleasure. =R?-,2,.J-/A-%:A-.$:-$%-;A/,
3 You’re welcome. [You’re / You are] 2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?-=$?,*R/-3J.,

▪52▪

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Adjectives(R?-2eR.-GA-5B$

(R?-2eR.-GA-5B$-/A-3A-.%-L-.%R?-$%-8A$-$A-H.-(R?-2eR.-0:A-5B$-;A/-+J,<A%-2-.%-,,%-2,^3-0-.%-36K?-0-?R$?-?R,.0J<-/,
1a Dondrup’s home is far. .R/-:P2-GA-;=-/A-,$-<A%-0R-:.$
1b Cumu’s home is near. 35S-3R:C-;=-/A-,$-*J-0R-:.$
1c He is happy. #R-.$:-:.$
1d She is sad. #R-3R-*R-:.$
1e Two people are few. 3A-$*A?-/A-*%-0R-<J.,
1f Twenty people are many. 3A-*A->-/A-3%-0R-<J.,
1g A horse is a big animal. g-/A-YR$-($?-(J/-0R-8A$-<J.,
1h An ant is a small animal. PR$-3-/A-YR$-($?-(%-(%-8A$-<J.,
1i This sack is full. +J-3R-:.A-2!%-:.$
1j That sack is empty. +J-3R-$/-!R%-2-<J.,
1k The full sack is heavy. 2!%-;R.-0:A-+J-3R-.J-uA.-3R-<J.,
1l The empty sack is light. +J-3R-!R%-2-.J-;%-3R-<J.,

▪53▪

Unit 18 Look after your things!
#J-5/-2&R-2o.-0,<%-$A-.%R?-0R-=-2.$-$*J<-LR?,
Dialogue#-2h,

hR-eJ,HJ.-GA?-%-=-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,
=R?-,2,&A-8A$-L%-?R%-,

Doma: Could you help me, Dorji?
Dorji: Certainly. What’s wrong?

Doma: I missed three goats down in the gully. It’s getting dark now. I’m afraid to go there alone.

(.-GA-=%-2-$/-/?-<-3-$?3-2R<-?R%-,.-?-<2-=-*J-2?-%-$&A$-0-.J<-:PR-o<-0$-$A
Dorji: Don’t worry. I can help you. Let’s go together. ?J3?-#<-3-LJ.,%?-HR.-=-<R$?-LJ.-(R$
%J.-&$-3*3-.-:PR,
Doma: Thank you very much. 2!:-SA/->A/-+-(J,
Dorji: Nevermind. Let’s be off now..J-v<-3-2>.-=$?,.-:-$*A?-:PR
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What’s wrong?&A-8A$-L%-?R%-,
1a What’s wrong with the horse? g-:.A-=-&A-8A$-L%-?R%-,
1b What’s wrong with your lover?HJ.-GA-.$:-<R$?-=-&A-8A$-L%-?R%-,
1c What’s wrong with her / him / you / them / it?3R<-/#R<-/HR.-=-/#R-5S<-/.J<-&A-8A$-L%-?R%-,
2 I am afraid (be afraid of...) %-0$-$A(...=-0$-0)
2a I am afraid of ghosts. %-:SJ-=-0$-$A
2b I am afraid of snakes. %-4=-=-0$-$A
2c I am afraid to go to such a dangerous place. %-.J-:S:A-*J/-#-(J-?:A-?-(-8A$-=-:PR-o<-0$
3 Don’t worry. ?J3?-#<-3-LJ.,
3a Don’t worry about that. .J:A-KR$?-=-?J3?-#<-3-LJ.,
3b Don’t worry about me. %:A-KR$?-=-?J3?-#<-3-LJ.,
3c Don’t worry about this matter. .R/-:.A:A-KR$?-=-?J3?-#<-3-LJ.,

▪54▪

%?-

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Subject$4S
$4S-5B5B$

ObjectL-2:A
2:A-;=-IA-5B5B$

I, you, they, we, she, he, it

me, you, them, us, her, him, it

I’m a student.%-/A-aR2-3-8A$-;A/,

Please help me.%-=-<R$?-LR?-.%-,

You’re American.HR.-/A-A-<A-2-8A$-<J.,

Can I help you? %?-HR.-=-<R$?-LJ.-.$R?-?3,

They’re poor.#R-5S-/A-.2=-2R-<J.,

Let’s help them.

We’re farmers.

%-5S-/A-8A%-2-;A/,

:-5S?-#R-5S<-<R$?-LJ.,

Can you help us?HR.-5S?-%J.-&$-=-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,

She’s Tibetan.3R-/A-2R.-<J.,

I want to talk to her.%?-3R<-#-2h-LJ.-:.R.,

He’s English. #R-/A-.LA/-)A-2-<J.,

Please believe him. #R-=-;A.-(J?-LR?-.%-,

It’s a cat. .J-/A-LA-=-8A$-<J.,

Can you catch it? HR.-GA?-.J-:6B/-,2-23,

▪55▪

Unit 19 Food and drink
#J-5/-2&-.$-2,29:-2+%-,
Dialogue#-2h,
Yongtso: Hello, Renchin! How are you today?
Renchin: Fine, thanks. And you?

6-;J,<A/-(J/,.J-<A%-HR.-&A-:S-<J.,

29%-$A,2!:-SA/-(J,HR.-29%-%3,

Yongtso: I’m fine too. Would you like something to drink? What about a cup of milk tea? %-;%-29%-,

HR.-GA-2+%-2-8A$-:,%-:.R.-.3,:R-)-1R<-2-$%-:,%-/-&A-:S-<J.,
Renchin: OK. What about you, Yongtso?

(R$-$A$;%-35S,HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-:,%-/-:.R.,

Yongtso: I’d like a cup of cold water. What about something to eat?%?-(-:H$?-1R<-2-$%-:,%-/-:.R.,9-3-

:S-9R?-/-&A-:S-<J.,
Renchin: Some tsamba, please. l3-0-:HJ<->R$-=$?,
Yongtso: Here it is, help yourself. :.A,HR.-<%-$A?-9R,
Renchin: Thanks. 2!:-SA/-(J,
Yongtso: Nevermind. .J-v<-2>.-3A-.$R?,

aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Would you like...? HR.-...=-.$:-:3,
1a Would you like some tea? HR.-GA?-)-:,%-:.R.-.3,No, thanks. 3A-:,%-,2!:-SA/-(J,
1b Would you like mutton or pork? HR.-GA?-=$->-9-:.R.-.3-1$->-9-:.R.,
Either will be fine, madam.t3-3R-=$?,$%-;A/-G%-(R$
Text Explanation

2 What would you like? HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-:,%-:.R.,
I’d like a bowl of yoghurt, please. %?-8R-.!<-;R=-$%-:,%-:.R.,
2a What would you like to eat, mutton or beef? HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-9-:.R.,{3->:3-=$->,

%?-=$->-9R?-/-:.R.-=$?,
What about some fruit?>A%-+R$-:S-9R?-/-&A-:S-<J.,
OK, I’d like some apples. (R$-$AA%?-!->-:$:-9-:.R.,
I’d like some mutton, please.

▪56▪

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Articles:“a,” “an,” “the.”
.3A$?-?-:6B/-0:A-;A-$J“a”.%“an,the”2&?-/A-3A%-5B$-$A-}R/-.-2!R=-=,3A%-5B$-/A-?-(:3,3A,.%R?-0R-$%-<%-8A$-$A-3A%-=-

9J<-8A%-,:.A-.$-$A-2!R=-!%?-/A-$>3-IA-<J:-3A$-=?-$?=,
“a”/A-3A%-5B$-$A-,R$-3-$?=-LJ.-;A-$J-;A/-0:A-}R/-.-2!R=-.$R?,.0J<-

/,a banana, a yak, a piece of bread, a box of matches
“an”/A-3A%-5B$-$%-8A$-$A-}R/-3-.L%?-;A$-!J-“a’’.%“e” “i” “u”
“o”2&?-;A/-0:A-}R/-.-2!R=-.$R?,An apple, an ice-cream,
an old man, an ugly face, and an eraser.3A%-5B$-=?-5B$-

3$R“u”&/-=-1-/ju:/=J/-.?,}R/-.-“a’’2!R=,A university, a
usual day.5B$-3$R“h’’;A/-0:A-3A%-5B$-#->?-=?-“h’’1-3A-=J/0:A-{2?-?-%-5S?-3A%-5B$-.J-.$-$A-}R/-=“an”2!R=-.$R?,an hour,

1. She is a beautiful girl.
2. He is a handsome boy.
3. A monkey ate a banana.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

An old man eats an ice-cream.
I have an eraser.
She has got an ugly face.
It’s an apple.
He works at a university.
It’s a usual job.
The meeting lasts an hour.
Kevin is an honourable teacher.
He is an honest man.

an honest man, and an honour
“the”/A-.R/-.$-$3-L-.%R?-$%-<%-8A$-.3A$?-?-:6B/-0:A-{2?-?-

.J:A-}R/-.-2!R=-2-8A$-;A/,
a banana
a piece of bread
an orange

a book
a box of matches
an apple

There is a tree. Under the tree there is an
old man smoking a pipe.

a yak
a beautiful girl
an old man

2 some:$:-8A$-&J?-0:A-.R/-;A/-+J-3A%-5B$-$A-}R/-.-.<-/,
some cakes
some bread

some eggs
some rice

some tsamba
some meat

3 How many horses can you see? HR.-GA?-g-$-5S.-3,R%-,2,

%?-g-$?3-3,R%-,2,
3b I can see some.       %?-g-:$:-3,R%-,2,
3c I can’t see any.       %?-g-$&A$-G%-3,R%-3A-,2,
3a I can see three.

▪57▪

Unit 20 Playing games
#J-5/-*A->-0,lJ.-:)R<-<R=-2,
Dialogue#-2h,
Huamo: Hello, Zhaxi, how are you doing?6-;J,2N->A?,HR.-2.J-=$?,
Zhaxi: I’m OK, how about you? %-2.J-0R-:.$HR.-29%-%3,
Huamo: Not bad. What’s that in your hand? 3A-29%-o-3J.,HJ.-GA-=$-$A-.J-&A-;A/,
Zhaxi: This is a kite. Can you fly a kite?:.A-/A->R$-L-8A$-;A/,HR.-GA?->R$-L-$+R%->J?-?3,
Huamo: Let me try. Like this?%?-5S.-2v-&A$-LJ.,:.A-v<-<J.-.3,
Zhaxi: No, don’t fly it like that. Fly it like this.

.J-v<-3-$+R%-,:.A-v<-,R%?,

Huamo: OK, thanks. :R,<J.,2!:-SA/-(J,
Zhaxi: Look! Huamo. There are many people over there. .0:-3R,vR?-.%-,$/-/-3A-3%-0R-:.$
Huamo: Oh, are there any children? :R,$/-/-LA?-0-;R.-.3,
Zhaxi: Yes, there are. There are some children playing games. Shall we go and join them?

;R.,$/-/-LA?-0-:$:-lJ.-:)R<-<R=-28A/-$.:,:-$*A?-!-?R%-/?-#R-5S:A-P?-?-8$?-/-&A-:S-<J.,
Huamo: Great, let’s go. %R-3-29%-$A:-$*A?-!-:PR-;,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 How are you? I am OK / not bad. HR.-2.J:3,%-29%-0R-:.$/3A-29%-o-3J.,
1a How is Lhomotso? She’s great/fine. z-3R-5S-)A-:S-<J.,3R-@-&%-29%-0R-:.$
2 Can you do…? HR.-GA?-...LJ.-,2-23,
2a Can you ride a horse?HR.-g<-8R/-,2-23,
Yes, I can. ,2,%-g<-8R/-,2,
3 Don’t do it like that.

.J-v<-3-LJ.-=$?,
{.-(-.J-v<-3-2>.,.=-3R<->R.-.%-,
.J-v<-3-9,:.A-v<-9R-=$?,

3a Don’t speak like that, please speak slowly.
3b Don’t eat like that, please eat like this.

4 How many children are there? $/-/-LA?-0-.-;R.,
There are no children / none. .J-/-LA?-0-3J.,

/ $&A$-G%-3J.,

There is only one child. .J-/-LA?-0-$&A$-;R.,
4a How many yaks does your family have? HR.-5%-=-/R<-.-;R.,
Our family has thirty yaks. %J.-5%-=-/R<-?3-&-;R.,
▪58▪

$/-/-LA?-0-

4b Are there any wolves in this place??-:.A-/-,%-!A-;R.-.3,
Yes, there are some. ;R.,:$:-<J-;R.,

2R.-2o.-/%-2!/-IA-P2-3,:-.-;R.,
There are mainly four sects.P2-3,:-$4S-2R-28A-;R.,

4c How many Tibetan Buddhist sects are there?

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
“There + be”/A-;=-$-$J-3R-8A$-/-3A:3,L-.%R?-$%-<%-8A$-;R.-0-!R/,

I%-%R?-/-2R.-uR%?-GA-?-O-8A$-;R.,
b. There are three keys in her pocket. 3R:C-#$-3:A-/%-wJ-3A$-$?3-;R.,
c. There is nothing in the box. |3-(%-:.A:A-/%-.-&A-;%-3A-:.$
a. There is a map of Tibet on the wall.

n%-5B$

3%-5B$

one/a yak
one/a pen
one/a rabbit
one/a house
baby
city

two yaks
some pens
three rabbits
four houses
babies
cities

boy
key

boys
keys

wife
thief

wives
thieves

dish
match
class
box
tomato
potato
zoo
radio

dishes
matches
classes
boxes
tomatoes
potatoes
zoos
radios

,A<-2+%-$A-3A%-5B$-$A-3)$-=-“-s”.R<-.$R?,
3A%-5B$-$A-3)$-/AA$?=-LJ.-;A-$J“+-y”v<-P2-;R.-/-.J:A-3%-5B$-i3-0/A“-y” .J“-i”2+<-eJ?,“-es”.R<-.$R?,
3A%-5B$-$A-3)$-/A-.L%?-;A$“+-y”v<-P2-;R.-/-.J:A-3%-5B$-$A-i3-0/A-,.-!<“-s”.R<-.$R?,
3A%-5A$-$A-3)$-/A“-fe”:3-;%-/“-f”;A/-.?-.J:A-3%-5B$-i3-0-/A“-f”
.J“-v”=-2+<-eJ?“-es”.R<-.$R?,
3A%-5A$-$A-3)$-/A“-sh -ch -ss -x”2&?-GA-P2-;R.-/,.J-.$-$A-3%5B$-i3-0-/A-,.-!<“-es”.R<-.$R?-+J,1-=J/-!%?-/A-/iz/v<-;A/,
3A%-5B$-$A-5B$-3)$-/A-$?=-LJ.-;A-$J“+-o”;A/-.?,.J:A-3%-5B$-i3-0/A-3)$-+“-es”.R<-.$R?-=,5B$-3)$-/A-.L%?-;A$-;A/-.?-%-5S?-,.!<“-s”.R<-.$R?,

▪59▪

Unit 21 What are you doing?
#J-5/-*J<-$*A?-0,HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-LJ.-GA/-;R.,
Dialogue#-2h,
Sonym: Hello, Uncle Dunba, where are you going?6-;J,A-#-!R/-0,HJ.-$%-=-:PR-28A/-;R.,
Uncle Dunba: I’m going to watch sheep on the mountain. How about you? %-<A-:$R<-=$-:5S-2<-:PR-28A/-;R.,

:R-/-HR.-$%-=-:PR-2-;A/,
Sonym: I’m going to visit Drongker. Is she at home? %-1R/-.!<-=-353?-:SA-LJ.-.-:PR-2-;A/,3R-;=-/-;R.-.3,
Uncle Dunba: Yes, she is at home. ;R.-$A3R-;=-/-;R.-$A
Sonym: What is she doing at home?3R?-;=-/-&A-8A$-LJ.-GA/-;R.,
Uncle Dunba: Well, her grandmother is telling her the story of Gesar. :R,3R:A-kR-3R?-#R-

3R<-$J-?<-1%-2>.-GA/-:.$
Sonym: Oh, I’d like to hear that. It’s getting late, I must hurry. See you. :R,%?-.J<-*/-

:.R.,.-:$R<-,=,%-M<-.-:PReJ?-/?-3)=,
Uncle Dunba: See you later. eJ?-/?-,$
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Where are you going? HR.-$%-=-:PR-28A/-;R.,
I’m going home. %-;=-=-:PR-28A/-;R.,

z-3R-$%-=-:PR-2-<J.,
She is going to the hospital.3R-(/-#%-.-:PR-28A/-;R.-0-<J.,
1b Where are the monks going? 9-2-5S-$%-=-:PR-28A/- ;R.,
They are going to the temple.#R-5S-z-#%-/%-.-:PR-28A/-;R.,
1a Where is Lhamo going?

2 What are they doing?#R-5S?-&A-8A$-LJ.-28A/-;R.,
They are going to school. #R-5S-aR2-9<-:PR-28A/-;R.,

]R-29%-$A?-<R=-.L%?-=-*/-28A/-:.$
2b Huadan is playing with a girl. .0=-w/-LA-3R-8A$-.%-3*3-.-lJ.-28A/-:.$
2c Cumu is drawing some pictures. 35S-3R?-<A-3R-:$:-:VA-28A/-$.:,
2a Losang is listening to some music.

3 Are they at home? #R-5S-;=-/-;R.-.3,
3aYangjian is at home. .L%?-&/-;=-/-;R.,
3b Yondan is not at home. ;R/-+/-;=-/-3J.,
3c Danzen is in the mountains. 2!/-:6B/-<A-3$R-/-;R.,
3d Lhomotso is in her bed, listening to the radio.

z-3R-35S?-3=-OA:A-/%-1-#.-:#R<-=R<-*/-28A/-:.$

▪60▪

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
“Present Continuous Tense” LJ.-28A/-.-v-2-/A“am/is/are+verb+ing”;A-i3-0?-P2-0-8A$-!J,:.A-/A-L-2-$%-8A$-

$A-o/-3-(.-0<-LJ.-28A/-0:A-|%-%3-.?-;/-%J?-&/-8A$-$A-/%-.-L-2-LJ.-28A/-0:3-L%-2-2eR.-0:A-i3-0-8A$-=-9J<-8A%-2!R=-5=-/A$>3-IA-<J:-3A$-=?-$?=,
Present Continuous Tense (statement form). LJ.-28A/-.-v-2:A-i3-0,($?=-2>.-GA-i3-0)
I

am

dancing.

She /He

is

singing.

Duden

is

studying.

Present Continuous Tense (question form).LJ.-28A/-.-v-2:A-i3-0,(SA-2:A-i3-0)
Are

you / we

smoking?

Is

he / she

talking?

Is

Duden

coming?

Is

it

moving?

▪61▪

Unit 22 Let’s go to school today!
#J-5/-*J<-$?3-0,.J-<A%-aR2-9<-:PR
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
The days of the week. $9:-2./-0R,
Monday $9:-^-2,    Tuesday $9:-3A$-.3<, Wednesday $9:-z$-0,
Thursday$9:-1<-2,
Friday  $9:-0-?%?,  Saturday  $9:-%J/-0,
Sunday

$9:-*A-3,

1aA: What day is (it) tomorrow??%-*A/-$9:-&A-<J.,
B: It’s Tuesday. ?%-*A/-$9:-3A$-.3<-<J.,
1b Cumu: Hi, Danzen! What day is it today?7J,2!/-:6B/,.J-<A%-$9:-&A-<J.,
Danzen: Today is Sunday. .J-<A%-$9:-*A-3-<J.,
Cumu: Oh, let’s go to the park. :R,%J.-&$-,A-\A%-.-:PR,
Danzen: OK, let’s go. 29%-$A%J.-&$-:PR
1c Dorji: Hey, Dawa! Do you have an eraser?7J,^-2,HR.-=-2?2-:IA$-&A$-AJ-;R.,
Dawa: Yes, I do. But it’s not good. ;R.,%-=-;R.,:R/-G%-.J-%?-29%-3A/,
Dorji: That’s OK. Can I borrow it? .J<-*R/-3J.,%-=-$;<-(R$-$3,
Dawa: Certainly! But give it back soon. =R?-(R$:R/-G%-KA<-M<-2<-3R.-&A$
Dorji: OK! Thanks very much. 2!:-SA/->A/-.-(J,
Dawa: Nevermind. :6K3-3A-.$R?,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What day is it today / tomorrow? .J-<A%- / ?%-*A/-$9:-.-<J.,
It’s Wednesday. $9:-z$-0-<J.,
It’s Thursday. $9:-1<-2-<J., 

1a What are you going to do on Friday?$9:-0-?%?-$A-*A/-HR.-GA?-&A-L-lA?-;R.,
I am going to have a date with my girlfriend on Friday afternoon.%?-%:A-.$:-<R$?-=-$9:-0-?%?-GA-KA-

SR<-.?->A$-2+2-;R.,
1b What is he going to do on Sunday?$9:-*A-3:A-*A/-#R?-&A-8A$-L-o-<J.,
He is going to visit his dear teacher on Sunday.#R-<%-#R:C-2lJ-2:A-.$J-c/-=-:53?-:SA-LJ.-.-:PR-o-<J.,

▪62▪

2 Can I borrow your…. ? %?-HR.-GA-...$;<-(R$-$3,
2a Can I borrow your ruler / pencil / eraser?%?-HJ.-GA-OJ-4K-/

8-/$- / 2?2-:IA$-$;<-(R$-

$3,
Certainly / Sure / Of course. =R?-(R$

%?-#R-3R:C-=$-/?-|R<-3R-:$:-$;<-(R$-$3
No, you can’t. She doesn’t have any money. 3A-(R$HR.-GA?-.J-v<-LJ.-3A-(R$3R<-|R<-3R-$&A$-G%-3J.,

2b Can I borrow some money from her?

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Possessive Pronouns

2h-3R.-=?-2.$-1:A-52-5B$

1 3A%-5B$-$A-}R/-.-2.$-1:A-52-5A$-.R<-5=,
My
Your
His
Our
Her
Their

This is my book.
Is this your hat?
These are his shoes.
Is this our classroom?
Are these her pencil boxes?
Are those their cars?

23A%-5B$-$A-eJ?-?:3-3A%-5B$-3J.-0:A-{2?-?-2!R=-5=,
Mine
His
Ours

you
we
I
Do they
the students

This is mine.
These are his.
It’s ours.

Yours
Hers
Theirs

Is this yours?
Are these hers?
These are theirs.

Yes,

you / we / I / they / the
students do.

No,

you / we / I / they don’t.

have some money?

she
have any English books?

Yes,

she / he / Cairang does.

No,

she / he / Cairang
doesn’t.

Does
he
Cairang

▪63▪

Unit 23 Where are you from?
#J-5/-*J<-28A-0,HR.-$%-$A-;A/,
Dialogue#-2h,
Lodan: Excuse me! Where are you from?.$R%?-0-3-5S3,HJ.-$%-$A-;A/,
Kevin: I’m from America, how about you? Are you from Xunhua?%-A-3J-<A-#-/?-;A/,:R-/-HR.-$%-$A-;A/,HR.-

8R/-K-/?-AJ-;A/,
Lodan: No, I’m not from Xunhua. I’m from Jiantsa. 3A/,%-8R/-K-/?-3A/,%-$&/-5:A-;A/,
Kevin: Are you a student? HR.-<%-aR2-3-8A$-AJ-;A/,
Lodan: Yes, I am a student in Malho Normal School. ;A/,%-k-zR-3A-<A$?-.$J-,R/-aR2-9:A-aR2-3-8A$-;A/,
Kevin: Oh, how is your written Tibetan?:R,HR.-GA-2R.-;A$-$A-(-5.-&A-:S-;A/,
Lodan: Just so-so. Do you speak Tibetan?29%-o-3J.,HJ.-GA?-2R.-{.-2>.-AJ->J?,
Kevin: Only a little. &%-43-2>.->J?,
Lodan: Do you like Tibetan places?HR.-<%-2R.-;=-=-.$:-:3,
Kevin: Of course. Very much. They are great! =R?-.$:,.J-.$-.%R?-$/?-36K?-0R-:.$
Lodan: What do you like about Tibetan places? HJ.-<%-2R.-;=-IA-&A-8A$-=-.$:-0R-:.$
Kevin: I like the scenery, the people, customs, and so on. %-<%-2R.-GA-;=-uR%?-.%-3A,;=-YR=-$R3?-$>A?-?R$?-=-

.$:-0R-:.$
Lodan: OK! Thank you for talking to me. I’ll visit you someday. See you later! 29%-$AHJ.-GA?-%-=-#-2h-

L?-0<-2!:-SA/-(J-8,*A/-8A$-%-HJ.-=-v-2<-;R%-,eJ?-?-3)=,
Kevin: See you soon! 3A-:I%?-2<-3)=,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

HJ.-GA-1-;=-$%-;A/,HR.-$%-$A-;A/-/3,
%:A-1-;=-.!<-36K?-;A/,%-.!<-36K?-/?-;A/,

1 Where are you from? / Where do you come from?
I’m from Ganzi. / I come from Ganzi.

2 Are you a farmer? No, I’m not. I’m a teacher. / I am a graduate student.

HR.-?R-/3-0-8A$-;A/-/3,3A/,%-

.$J-c/-8A$-;A/,/ %-8A2-:)$-aR2-3-8A$-;A/,
3 Do you speak English? Yes, I do. /No, I don’t.HJ.-GA?-.LA/-{.-2>.->J?-?3,>J?,%?->J?,/3A->J?,%?-3A->J?,
3a Does he speak Tibetan? #R?-2R.-{.-2>.->J?-?3,
No, he doesn’t. He only speaks English.3A->J?,#R?-2>.-3A->J?,#R?-.LA/-{.-$&A$-0R-=?-2>.-3A->J?,

▪64▪

4 What do you like about the book? HJ.-<%-.0J-(-:.A:A-&A-8A$-=-.$:-0R-:.$
I like the sentences and the pictures. 

%-<%-5B$-P2-:.A-.$-.%-<A-3R-:.A-.$-=-.$:,

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
The present Indefinite Tense %J?-3J.-.-v-2,
“Where”.%“When” “what”2&?- “Be, do”.%-3*3-.-:SA-5B$-$A-i3-0?-2!R=-5=,

SA-2:A-5B$+ be + $4S-5B$
a)
b)
c)
d)

Where is Kumbum Monastery?
Where are the students?
When is your birthday?
What is her name?
SA-2:A-5B$+ do + $4S-5B$ +=?-5B$-$4S-2R,
e)
f)
g)
h)

Where do you live?
When does Danba study?
What do donkeys eat?
What time does the bus leave?

SA?-=/-i3-0,
Kumbum is in Huangzhong.
The students are in the classroom.
My birthday is on July 3rd.
Her name is Sally.

SA?-=/-i3-0,
I live in Ziling.
He studies in the mornings.
Donkeys eat leaves.
The bus leaves at twelve o’clock.

▪65▪

Unit 24 What do you like?
#J-5/-*J<-s-0,HR.-&A-8A$-=-.$:-2-;A/,
Dialogue#-2h,
Nyingkar: What do you like (eating), Pencu?1/-5S$?,HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-(9-):.R.,
Pencu: I like beef the most (a lot). I don’t like fish and I like fruits a little.

%-<%-((J?).$:-2- /A-{3->-;A/-=,

?A=-+R$-=-&%-.$:-8A%-*->-=-3A-.$:,
Nyingkar: What about your mother? Does she like fish?

HR.-GA-A-3-&A-:S-<J.,3R-<%-*->-=-.$::3,

Pencu: No, she doesn’t. She doesn’t like fish at all. She likes candy and fruits a lot and she likes
potatoes too. What about you? 3R-<%-*->-=-$+/-/?-3A-.$:,3R-<%-!-<-.%-?A=-+R$-=-@-&%-.$:-=-8R$-#R$-=-;%-

.$:,:R-/-HJ.-<%-,
Nyingkar: I like butter, milk tea, and yoghurt. Also, I like smoking tobacco. It’s a simple pleasure for
me. %-3<-.%-:R-),8R-=-.$:-2<-3-9.,.-2-:,J/-0<-;%-.$:,%-=-35S/-/-.J-/A-2.J-*A.-&A$-<J.,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What do you like (eating)? HR.-&A-8A$-(9-2<).$:,
I like (eating) mutton. I like tsamba.

%-=$->- / l3-0-(9-2<-).$:,

HR.-&A-8A$-LJ.-o<-.$:,
I like riding horses / yaks. %-g-.%-$;$-=-8R/-o<-.$:,
I like doing my homework. %-<%-$A-=?-L-:VA-2<-.$:,

2 What do you like (doing)?

I like being with my lover in the garden.

%-%:A-.$:-<R$?-.%-3*3-.-3J-+R$-G-2:A-/%-.-:.$-o<-.$:,

3 Does Uncle Dunba like making jokes? A-#-!R/-0-!-<J-lJ.-o<-AJ-.$:,
Yes, he does. He likes making jokes. .$:-2-<J.,#R-!-<J-lJ.-o<-.$:,
No, he doesn’t like to. He doesn’t like making jokes.
He likes gambling.

#R-<%->R-o$-0<-.$:,

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
“Do”.%“does”$*A
$*A?-GAGA-2!R=-5=,

,A<-2+%-$A-i3-0“do / does+$4S
$4S-5B5B$+=?=?-5B5B$”
Do you speak English?
Yes, we/I do.
No, we/I don’t.

▪66▪

3A-.$:,#R-!-<J-lJ.-o<-3A-.$:,

you
we
I
they
students

Do

have some money?

Yes,

you
we
I
students
they

do/don’t.

Does she / he / Lhomotso speak English?
No, she / he / Lhomotso doesn’t speak English.
Yes, she / he / Lhomotso speaks English.
she
Does

he

Yes,

she / he / Cairang does.

No,

she / he / Cairang doesn’t.

have any English books?

Cairang
Do you like cooking? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

Do you like

herding yaks?
reading newspapers?
singing love songs?
riding horses?

Yes, I do.
No, I don’t.

▪67▪

Unit 25 People and work
#J-5/-*J<-S$3A-.%-L-2,
Dialogue#-2h,
Gunchu: Good afternoon! Mr Peet, where are you from? KA-SR-29%-,{-82?-1J-OA,HR.-$%-$A-;A/,

%-A-3J-<A-#:A-;A/,
Gunchu: What do you do?HR.-GA-L-2-&A-8A$-;A/,
Mr Peet: I am an English teacher. %-.LA/-;A$-$A-.$J-c/-8A$-;A/,
Mr Peet: I’m from America.

HR.-GA?-$%-.-L-2-12-/aR2-OA.-LJ.-GA/-;R.,
Mr Peet: I work / teach in Jiantsa Nationalities Middle School. %?-$&/-5-3A-<A$?-aR2-:VA%-/-aR2-OA.-LJ.-/L-212-28A/-;R.,
Gunchu: Do you speak Tibetan? HR.-GA?-2R.-{.-2>.-AJ->J?,
Mr Peet: A little. I go to Tibetan classes every day. &%-43->J?,%-*A/-o/-2R.-;A$-$A-aR2-OA.-=-?R%-2-;A/,
Gunchu: Great! Do you like working in Jiantsa? @-&%-29%-$AHR.-<%-$&/-5-/?-L-2-212-0<-.$:-:3,
Gunchu: Where do you work / teach?

Mr Peet: Yes, I do. The weather is so fine in Jiantsa and the people here are so friendly. .$:-$A%-.$:-$A

$&/-5:A-$/3-$>A?-.J-:S:A-29%-8A%-3A-.3%?-;%-@-&%-:PA$-3,/-<J.,
Gunchu: Do you have any children?HR.-=-LA?-0-AJ-;R.,
Mr Peet: Yes, I do. I have two, a son and a daughter. :R,;R.,%-=-LA?-0-$*A?-;R.,2-$&A$-.%-2-3R-$&A$-;R.,
Gunchu: Are they with you here?#R-5S-HR.-.%-3*3-.-:.A<-;R.-.3,
Mr Peet: Yes, they are. ;R.,%J.-5S-3*3-.-2#.-;R.,
Gunchu: What do they do?#R-5S?-&A-LJ.-GA/-;R.,
Mr Peet: They are students in the Second Primary School. #R-5S-aR2-(%-$*A?-0:A-aR2-3-;A/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What do you do?

HR.-GA-L-2-&A-;A/,

I’m a teacher / farmer / worker. %-.$J-c/-/8A%-0-/=?-29R-0-8A$-;A/,
1a What does he do?#R:A-L-2-&A-<J.,
He’s a solider / driver / student. #R-/A-.3$-3A-/ #-=R-0- / aR2-3-8A$-<J.,
2 Where do you work?HJ.-GA?-L-2-$%-/-12-28A/-;R.,
I work in a factory / school. %?-29R-9-/ aR2-9-8A$-$A-/%-L-2-12-GA/-;R.,
2a Where does your father work?HR.-GA-A-1?-L-2-$%-.-12-GA/-;R.,
He works in a farm / in a shop. #R?-8A%-G- / 5S%-#%-8A$-/-L-2-12-GA/-;R.,

▪68▪

3 Good morning!8R$?-0-29%-,
3a Good afternoon!KA-SR-29%-,
3b Good evening!35/-2.J-2<-(R/,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

,A<-2+%-.-v-2-.%-LJ.-28A/-.-v-2-$*A?-GA-$>A2-2#<,,A<-2+%-.-v-2?-$R3?-$>A?-<%-28A/-&/-.%-.?-o/-/3-*A/-<J-.%-35/<J<-L%-2:A-L-2:3-.R/-$&A$-2eR.-0-;A/-+J,
1a Do you go to school everyday?
Yes, I go to school everyday.
No, I don’t go to school everyday.
1b Does the teacher come to class everyday?
Yes, he comes to class everyday.
No, he doesn’t come to class everyday.

LJ.-28A/-.-v-2?-.-v:A-$/?-{2?-:.A<-L-2-8A$-o/-3-(.-0<-L%-3?-?-!R/-0-;A/-0-.0J<-/,
1c Are you watching TV right now?
Yes, I am watching TV right now.
No, I am not watching TV right now.
1d Is your mother cooking right now?
Yes, she is cooking right now.
No, she is not cooking right now.

▪69▪

Unit 26 What time do you get up?
#J-5/-*J<-2./-0,HR.-<%-(-5S.-.-;A-!J%-3=-=?-=%?-0-;A/,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 What time is it?(-5S.-.-<J.,
1a It’s nine-thirty / It’s half past nine. .$-.%-KJ.-!-<J.,
1b It’s nine o’clock. (-5S.-.$-<J.,
1c It’s quarter past nine. (-5S.-.$-.%-{<-3-2&R-s-<J.,
1d It’s five to nine. (-5S.-2o.-.%-{<-3-%-s-<J.,
2 A: What time do you go to bed?HR.-(-5S.-.:A-!J%-$*A.-0-;A/,
B: I go to bed at ten. %-(-5S.-2&:A-!J%-$*A.-0-;A/,
3 A: What time do you get up? HR.-(-5S.-.:A-!J%-3=-=?-=%?-0-;A/,
B: I get up at six-thirty. %-<%-(-5S.-S$-.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-3=-=?-=%?-0-;A/,
4 A: What time do you have breakfast?HR.-GA?-(-5S.-.:A-!J%-/%?-)-:,%-0-;A/,
B: I have breakfast at seven-thirty. %?-(-5S.-2./-.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-/%?-)-:,%-0-;A/,
5 A: What time do you go to school?HR.-<%-(-5S.-.-;A-!J%-aR2-9<-:PR-2-;A/,
B: I go to school at eight o’clock. (-5S.-2o.-GA-!J%-%-<%-aR2-9<-:PR-2-;A/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 It’s time to...||....?-<J.,...</-:.$
1a A: What time is it? (-5S.-.-<J.,
B: It’s two o’clock. (-5S.-$*A?-<J.,
A: Oh, it’s time to go to class. :R,aR2-OA.-=-:PR-</-?R%-,
B: OK, let’s go. 29%-$A%J.-5S-:PR
2 What time (when) do you...? HR.-<%-/3-8A$-= -...,
2a I visit my grandmother on weekends. %-<%-$9:-3)$-+-kR-3R-=$?-=-353?-:SA-LJ.-.-?R%-2-;A/,
2b I have breakfast at seven-thirty in the morning. %?-8R$?-0:A-(-5S.-2./-.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-/%?-)-:,%-2-;A/,

%?-.$R%-3R<-.$R%-9?-9-2-;A/,
2d I study Tibetan during summer vacations. %?-.L<-$/%-$A-{2?-?-2R.-;A$-aR2-0-;A/,
2c I have supper in the evening.

▪70▪

3 I often do... but sometimes I .... %?-o/-.-...:R/-G%-{2?-<J<-...,
3a I often read books, but sometimes I listen to music. %?-o/-.-.0J-(<-2v?-0-;A/,:R/-G%-{2?-<J<-<R=-3R<-

*/-0-;A/,
3b I often ride horses, but sometimes I ride male yaks. %-<%-o/-.-g-=-8R/-0-;A/,:R/-G%-{2?-:$<-$;$-=-8R/-

0-;A/,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Time Expression .?-!R/-5=,
Past:.?:.?-0,
0,

Present.-vv-2,
2,

Future3-:R
%?-2,
:R%?%?
2,

Yesterday #-?%-,

Today .J-<A%-,

Tomorrow ?%-*A/,

Last week / month / year
$9:-/^-/=R-}R/-3,

This week / month / year 
$9:-:.A-=-/^-:.A-=-/.-=RR

Next week / month / year 
$9:-/^-/=R-eJ?-3,

Last Monday

This Monday 

Next Monday

$9:-^-2-}R/-3,
Five minutes ago

{<-3-s:A-}R/-.,
After five minutes{<-3-s:A-eJ?-?,

,J%?-:.A:A-$9:-^-2,
Now.-v, 

Once upon a time}R/-.?-8A$-=,  
In ancient time(s) $/:-2R:C-.?-?,  

$9:-^-2-eJ?-3,
In five minutes

{<-3-s:A-/%-.,

Long ago $/:-}-3R-8A$-=,
A long time ago .?-;/-<A%-2R:C-}R/-8A$-=,
Many years ago=R-3%-2R:C-}-<R=-.,

▪71▪

Unit 27 Shopping
#J-5/-*J<-2o.-0,5S%-o$-0,
Dialogue#-2h,
1 Yangjian: What does Gensang do?!/-29%-$A-L-2-&A-<J.,
Caihua: He’s a teacher. #R-/A-.$J-c/-8A$-<J.,
Yangjian: Is he teaching now? #RR?-.-v-aR2-OA.-LJ.-28A/-:.$-$3,
Caihua: No, he isn’t. He is shopping . 3J.-$A#R?-aR2-OA.-LJ.-GA/-3J.,#R?-5S%-o$-$A/-:.$
Yangjian: Oh, I want to buy a nice gift for my mother’s birthday. :R,%?-A-3:A-*J?-

{<-=-=J$?-*J?-29%-2R-8A$-*R-:.R.,
2 Tarlu: Good morning! Can I help you, Uncle Nymka?}-SR-2.J-=$?,%?-HR.-=-<R$?-LJ.-,2-23,A-#-/3-

3#:,
Uncle Nymka: Yes, please. I want some meat. :R-;,%-=->-&%-43-3#R-=$?,
Tarlu: OK, how much do you want?HJ.-=->-&A-43-.$R?,
Uncle Nymka: One and a half kilos, please. ,A-o-$%-.%-KJ.-!-.$R?,
Tarlu: Here you are. HR.-=-!J<,

|R<-.-;A/,
Tarlu: Fifteen rmb, please. |R<-2&R-s-<J.-=$?,
Uncle Nymka: Thank you. 2!:-SA/-(J,
Uncle Nymka: How much is it?

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What do you want to buy?HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-*R-:.R.-.3,
I want to buy some clothes. %?-IR/-(?-:$:-*R-:.R.,
I want to buy a pack of cigarettes. %?-.-2-2$-(-$&A$-*R?-/-:.R.,
2 A: How much is this shirt? 5B-=J/-:.A<-|R<-.-<J.-=$?,
B: Twenty yuan, please. |R<-*A->-<J.,
A: Oh, it’s too expensive. :R,.J-$R%-.!:-S$?-?R%-,
B: No, it’s not expensive. It’s cheap. 3A/,.J:A-<A/-$R%-.!:-3R-3-<J.,.J:A-<A/-$R%-a-3R-<J.,
3 A: How much meat do you want? HR.-=->-&A-43-3#R-:3,
B: (I want) One kilo, please. (%-=)>-,A-o-$%-,

▪72▪

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Countable nouns 2P%-;R.-3A%-5B$
Countable nouns 2P%-;R.-3A%-5B$-$A-n%-5B$-i3-0-/A“a/one + 3A%-5B
5B$”.%-,3%-5B$-i3-0-/A“3A%-5B5B$+-s”v<-;A/,
1a How many apples / pens / books do you want?
I want ten apples / pens / books, please!
I want some apples / pens / books, please. 
1b How many books do you want?
I want a / one book / two books / some books / a lot of books / a few books / many
books .
2 Uncountable nouns 2P%-3J.-3A%-5A$-=-n%-5B$-.%-3%-5B$-$A-.LJ-2-2$<-.-3J.-0? +-s.%+-es$*A?-.R<-3A-<%-,
2a How much bread / meat / butter do you want?
I want a piece of bread / meat / butter.
2b How much money do you want?
I want some / a lot of / much / a little money
3

o/-.-3,R%-2:A-2P%-3J.-3A%-5B$-:$:-!J,
advice
money
bread
rice

furniture
mail
cheese
salt

help
music
coffee
soup

homework
peace
food
sugar

information
traffic
fruit
tea

jewellery
weather
milk
water

luck
work
pepper

3a I want some bread / meat / butter, please. %-=-2$-=J2- / >- / 3<-.$R?,
3b How much bread / meat / butter do you want?HR.-=-2$-=J2- / >- / 3<-&A-43-.$R?,

▪73▪

Students’ Book 2A
.J2-$*A
$*A?-0:A
0:A-!R.-(,
(,

▪74▪

Unit 1 Welcome back!
#J-5/-.%-0R, KA<-=-=R$-0<-.$:-2?-8,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Good morning, Sir.

{-82?-=$?,}-SR-29%-,

2 Welcome back to school!
3 May I come in, please?
4 It doesn’t matter.

aR2-9<-KA<-=R$-0<-.$:-2?-8,

%-/%-.-;R%-(R$-$3,

.J<-*R/-3A-:.$

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 ,A<-2+%-.“so”/A-3A%-5B$-.%-3*3-.-.R<-2:A-{2?-GA-.R<-5B$-&A$-;A/-=,/%-.R/-IA-,.-/?-o-35/-.J:A-.2%

$A?-?3-;%-/-$/?-5=-.J:A-nJ/-IA?-v-2<-:)$ .0J<-/,
1a This is our first lesson, so I don’t know your names.

:.A-/A-%-5S:C-aR2-,/-.%-0R-;A/-0?-%?-HJ.-&$-$A-3A%-3A->J?,

1b He isn’t hungry, so he doesn’t want anything to eat.

#R-<%-vR$?-3J.-0?-9?-&A-;%-9-3-

:.R.-0-<J.,
1c He isn’t a Tibetan, so he doesn’t know one word of Tibetan.

#R-2R.-<A$?-3A/-0?-2R.-{.-5B$-$&A$-G%-3A-

>J?,
1dYou are a student, so you have to finish your homework.

HR.-aR2-3-8A$-;A/-0?-%J?-0<-.-<%-*A.-GA-=?-L-

VA?-5<-.$R?,
%-5S?-=R-<A3-.%-0R:A-{2?-?-.%?-9A/-0-v<“so”/A-{2?-<J<“:.A.A-v<”<3“.J-v<”v-2<-:)$ .0J<-/,
1e Is he from Lhasa?
I don’t think so. 

#R-<%-z-?-/?-;R%-2-;A/-/3, 

%?-.J-v<-3A-:.R.,
HJ.-GA?-2.$-=-9-#%-8A$-$%-.-;R.-0-2>.-/-AJ-(R$
,$?-o=-3-28J%?,%?-2v?-/-:.A<-3J.-~3,

1f Can you tell me where I can find a restaurant?
Sorry, I don’t think so.

▪75▪

2 Please study these uncountable words below. $>3-IA-2P%-3J.-,-~.-.$-.R%?,

HJ.-&$-$A-3A%->R$-zJ-:.A:A-!J%-.-;R.,
2b I would like to drink a cup of tea. %?-)-1R<-$%-:,%-/-:.R.,
2c Could you pour me a glass of tea? HR.-GA?-%-=-(->J=-1R<-$%-w$-AJ-,2,
2d I bought a pair of shoes in the supermarket. %?-<%-3R?-5S%-G-/?-z3-(-$&A$-*R?,
2e He broke two bottles of beer. #R?-7-(%->J=-.3-$*A?-2&$
2f May I have a bowl of rice? %?-:V?-.!<-;R=-$%-9R?-/-(R$-$3,
2g May I borrow your basketball, please? HR.-GA-b%-lJ.-%R-=R-%-=-$;<-/-(R$-$3, (SA-2-:.A:A-=/-.-$;<-(R$-&J?-0=-Yes, you may. / Sure. / OK. / Please take it. / Certainly. / Of course. 2&?-=?-$%-<%-2+2-/-(R$-0-.%-3A(R$-0:3-$;<-3A-(R$-&J?-0:A-=/-.-No, you can’t. Sorry, I’m afraid I can’t lend it to you. &J?-:.J2?-.$R?,)
2a I have your names on this piece of paper.

3 I’m sorry I’m late.

.$R%?-0-3-5S3,%-eJ?-?-=?-?R%-,

It doesn’t matter this time, but come to school earlier next time.

.-,J%?-*R/-3A-:.$:R/-G%-,J%?-eJ?-3-/?-

aR2-9<-}-3R<->R$
“sorry”/A-.$R%?-.$-8?-0-=-:)$ .0J<-/,
3a Sorry, I didn’t finish my homework.
4

.$R%?-0-3-5S3,%?-=?-L-12-3-5<,

(R?-2eR.-GA-5B$-.%-2$/-5B$-2!R=-/?-.%R?-0R-$*A?-GA-H.-0<-1/-5/-2#<-(R$
A long ruler OJ-4K-<A%-0R-8A$      A short ruler OJ-4K-,%-%-8A$
A tall boy *J?-0-$9$?-<A%-8A$
A short boy *J?-0-$9$?-,%-8A$
A big piece of paper >R$-zJ2-(J/-0R-8A$ A small piece of paper >R$-zJ2-(%-(%-8A$
.0J<-2eR.,
4a This ruler is longer than that one. OJ-4K-:.A-.J-=?-<A%-,
4b You are taller than him. HR.-#R-=?-<A%-,
4c This piece of paper is bigger than that one. >R$-zJ2-:.A-.J-=?-(J,
4d Tibetan education is more available than before. 2R.-GA-aR2-$?R-/A-}R/-=?-,R.-o-)J-(J<-I<-:.$
4e Going by air is more expensive than going by bus. $/3-P<-#R.-0-/A-_%?-:#R<-#R.-0-=?-<A/-$R%-@-&%-.!:,

5 Making comparisons in sentences without using “than.” H.-2#<-IA-5B$-=‘‘than’’3-.<-2<-2eR.-0,

HR.-GA?-;<-3-;<-eJ?-3J-+R$-w3-G-)J-=J$?-?-?R%-:.$
5b You are much more beautiful since we last met. HR.-<%-,J%?-}R/-3<-%-5S<-3)=-.?-=?-@-&%-36K?,
5a The garden looks better after you weeded it.

▪76▪

6 The present continuous tense LJ.-28A/-.-v-2, 

LJ.-28A/-.-v-2:A-P2-5=,“is (am, are) + verb + ing”
.LA/-;A$-$A-.-v-2-=-LJ.-28A/-.-v-2-.%-,A<-2+%-.-v-2-$*A?-?-KJ?-;R.,LJ.-28A/-.-v-2-/A-212-L-.J-{2?-,R$-.J<-12-28A/-0-!J,
.0J<-/,
6a Lhamo is flying a kite. z-3R?->R$-L-8A$-$+R%-28A/-:.$
6b He is having a bath. #R?-=?-1%-:O-28A/-:.$
6c The population of the world is rising very fast. :63-\A%-$A-3A-P%?-3IR$?-0R<-:1J=-28A/-:.$
6d You are going to the teacher’s office, aren’t you? HR.-<%-.$J-c/-IA-$8%-=?-#%-.-:PR-28A/-0-3A/-/3,
$+/-/-:#J#J=-5B5B$
I am reading. %?-.0J-(-[R$-28A/-;R.,
You arereading. HR.-GA?-.0J-(-[R$-$A/-:.$
#R:3-3R?-.0J-(-[R$-$A/-:.$

.$$.$$-5B5B$
I am not reading. %?-.0J-(-[R$-$A/-3J.,
You aren’t reading. HR.-GA?-.0J-(-[R$-$A/-:.$
He / She is not reading. 
#R?-?3-3R?-.0J-(-[R$-$A/-3A-:.$

We / You / They are reading.
%-5S? / HR.-5S? / #R-5S?-.0J-(-[R$-$A/-:.$

We / You / They are not reading
%-5S? / HR.-5S? / #R-5S?-.0J-(-[R$-$A/-3A-:.$

He / She is reading.

▪77▪

Unit 2 How you get to school
#J-5/-$*A?-0,HR.-<%-aR2-9<-)A-v<-;R%-2-;A/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 A: What can you see in the picture? HR.-GA?-<A-3R:C-!J%-/?-&A-8A$-3,R%-,2-23,
B: I can see a sun and a moon. %?-*A-^-$*A?-3,R%-,2,
SA-2-:.A:A-.$$-=/-.“I can’t”8J?-:.J2?-.$R?, “Can’t”;A-i3-0-$8/-8A$-/A“couldnot”;A/-=-:.A?“can’t”;A-:.?0:A-<%-28A/-.%-8J-?:A-5B$-35S/-0-;A/, “Could you”.%“would you”$*A?-/%-.R/-IA-(-/?-1=-(J<-:S-35%?-;A/, 
“Could you”/A-HJ.-GA?-.R/-.J-12-AJ-,2-8J?-0-v-2-.%-, “would you”/A-HJ.-GA?-.R/-.J-12-o-AJ-;A/-8J?-0-v<-;A/,.0J</,
a Could you cook supper for me? HR.-GA-%-=-.$R%-9?-$;R-.R<-LJ.-,2-23,
Yes, I can. I can cook supper for you. LJ.-,2,%?-HR.-=-.$R%-9?-$;R-.R<-LJ.-,2,
No, I can’t. I can’t cook super for you.LJ.-3A-,2,%?-HJ.-=-.$R%-9?-$;R-.R<-LJ.-3A-,2,
b A: How many ships can you see?
B: I can see two ships. 

HR.-GA?-P-$9A%?-$-5S.-3,R%-,2-23,

%?-P-$9A%?-$*A?-3,R%-,2,

2 A: How many students are in your class? 

HR.-5S:C-:6B/-9<-aR2-3-$-5S.-;R.-.3,

B: There are thirty students in my class. %-5S:A-:6B/-9<-aR2-3-?3-&-;R., 

2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

Grammar

The Present Indefinite Tense,A<-2+%-.-v-2,

,A<-2+%-.-v-2?-/3-o/-IA-L-2:3-$R3?-$>A?-<%-28A/-.$-35R/-0-;A/-=,.J-o/-0<“often,usually, sometimes.”?R$?5.-!R/-0:A-2$/-5B$-.%-4$?-/?-.R<-.$R?-0-;A/,.0J<-/,
1 a) How do you usually go to school? HR.-<%-.?-o/-.-aR2-9<-)A-v<-:PR-2-;A/,
b) I usually walk to school, but I sometimes go by bus. %-<%-.?-o/-.-b%-,%-=-aR2-9<-:PR-28A/-;R.,:R/-G%{2?-<J<-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-=-2#.-.J-?R%-2-;A/,
1a How does she come to school?#R-3R-aR2-9<-)A-v<-;R%-2-<J.,
She usually comes to school by bike. 

#R-3R-.?-o/-.-t$?-g<-8R/-+J-aR2-9<-;R%-2-<J.,

▪78▪

2 Practice answering these questions. SA?-=/-:.J2?-YR=-.R%?,
2a Do you often eat with chopsticks? 

HR.-GA?-.?-o/-.-,<-3?-9?-9-2-;A/-/3,

;A/,%?-o/-.-,<-3?-9-2-;A/,
No, I don’t often eat with chopsticks. 3J.,%?-o/-.-,<-3-,R.-GA/-3J.,
2b What does she often use to eat? #R-3R?-/3-o/-.-&A-8A$-,.-/?-9?-9-28A/-;R.,
She often uses a spoon, fork, and knife to eat. 3R?-/3-o/-.-#J3-2-.%-#-.V$PA-(%-2&?-2!R=-/?-9?-9-2;A/,
2c When does he usually get up? #R-<%-o/-.-(-5S.-.-;A-!J%-3=-=?-=%?-28A/-;R.,
He usually gets up at six clock. #R-<%-o/-0<-(-5S.-S$-$A-!J%-.-3=-=?-=%?-2-<J.,
Yes, I often eat with chopsticks.

▪79▪

Unit 3 Mid-Autumn Day
#J-5/5/-$?
$?3-0,
0, 2o.2o.-0:A-2&R
2&R-s,
s,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
A: Would you like to taste a mooncake? HR.-GA?-^-:#<-IA-VR-2-M%-:.R.-.3,
B: Yes, please give me a big one.
A: Is this one big enough? 

:.R.,%-=-(J->R?->A$-!J<-<R$?,

(J-(%-:.A:A-(R$-$3,

B: No, sorry. It’s too big, please give me one that is smaller than this. 

3A/,,$?-o=-3-28J%?,.J-(J-S$?-?R%-,

%-=-.J-=?-&%-9.-(%-2-8A$-!J<-<R$?,
A: OK, is this right?

=$?-?R,:.A-:PA$-$3,

B: Yes, thank you very much.
A: No problem.

:PA$-:.$2!:-SA/->A/-+-(J, 

*R/-3A-:.$

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Comparison of adjectives (R?-2eR.-5A$-$A-$>A2-2#<,

(R?-2eR.-5A$-=-2#<-2:A-<A3-0-.%-(J?-3,R-2:A-<A3-0-$*A?-;R.-=-$>A2-2#<-<A3-0-=?-L-.%R?->A$-&A$->R?-=?-5.-3,R-2:A-<A3-0:A$/?-?-;R.-0-!R/-0-.%-,(J?-3,R-2:A-<A3-0?-$8/-!/-=?-5.-3,R-2<-!R/-0-;A/, .0J<-/,

l-2:A-<A<A3-0,
0,

2#<-2:A-<A<A3-0,
0,

(J?-3,R
3,R-2:A-<A<A3-0,
0,

small
nice
big
heavy
careful

smaller
nicer
bigger
heavier
more careful

smallest
nicest
biggest
heaviest
most careful

,A<-2+%-$A-;A$-:VA-3%-0R:A-,-~.-GA}R/-=“more”.%“most”.</?-<A3-0-.$<-2,

some apples

more apples

the most apples

%J?-3J.-GA-,-~.,

dangerous
many, much
good
bad

more dangerous
more
better
worse

the most dangerous
most
best
worst

er / est
er / est
er / est
y-ier / iest

▪80▪

2 2#<-2:A-<A3-0:A-,-~.-.J-o/-0<-4J=-5B$“than”.%-3*3-.-2!R=-/“...=?=?-.%.%-2#
2#<-/”8J?-0:A-.R/-!R/-0-;A/,

{2?-.J:A-:5S-2-/A-.-v-=?-.!:-#$-(J-2-8A$-<J.,
2b She is older than me. 3R-<%-%-=?-=R-/-3,R,
2c The temperature is becoming higher and higher. SR.-5.-/A-)J-3,R-/?-)J-3,R<-:PR-28A/-:.$
2d Zhaxi is taller than Yondan. 2N->A?-/A-;R/-+/-=?-$9$?-<A%-,
2e There are more kinds of mooncakes here as compared to other shops. ^-:#<-5S%-#%-$8/-.$-.%-2#</-:.A<-$-3%-0R-:.$
2f Going by train is faster than by bus. 3J-:#R<-=-2#.-/-_%?-:#R<-=?-3IR$?,
2a Life was harder than it is today.

3 (J?-3,R:C-<A3-0:A-,-~.-2!R=-;R.-{2?-o/-0<-2#<-;=-IA-H2-#R%?->A$-!R/-0-;A/,

3R-/A-%-5S:C-P?-/?-=R-/-(J?-3,R-2-;A/,
3b In our room he gets up (the) earliest. %-5S:C-#%-0:A-/%-/?-#R-<%-3=-=?-=%?-0-(J?-},
3c The tallest student in our class is Zhaxi. aR2-3-2N->A?-/A-%-5R:C-:6B/-9:A-/%-$A-$9$?-(J?-<A%-0R-<J.,
3a She is the oldest among us.

▪81▪

Unit 4 We’re going to work on a farm
#J-5/-28A-2,%-5S-8A%-G<-=?-!-LJ.-.-:PR-o-;A/,
Dialogue#-2h,

$9:-:#R<-eJ?-3<-HJ.-GA?-&A-8A$-212-lA?-;R.,
B: Nothing much, why? $=-(J/-&A-;%-3J.,&A-8A$-<J.,
A: We’re going to work on a farm. Don’t you know? %-5S-8A%-G-8A$-=-=?-!-LJ.-.-:PR-lA?-;R.-0-HR.-GA?-3A->J??3,
B: Good idea! It’s much better than having class? ,2?-29%-0R-8A$-<J.,aR2-OA.-LJ.-0-=?-.J-z$-0<-.-29%-,
A: Sure, don’t be late. Oh! And put on your old clothes. #R-,$-;A/,eJ?-?-=?-3A-(R$:R,.-.%-HR.-GA-$R/-0-fA%Z=-.$-IR/-<R$?,
B: OK. Listen, that’s the bell. It’s time for class. *R/-.%-,.J-/A-&R%-2h-<J.,aR2-OA.-GA-.?-</:.$

1 A: What are you going to do next week?

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 “Be going to”;A-2!R=-5=,

L-5B$“be going to” /A-3-:R%?-2:A-.?->A$-$A-/%-.-L-2-$%-8A$-212-lA?-;R.-0-!R/-LJ.-GA-5B$-;A/,:.A:A-OR.-GA-L-5B$“Be”=“is, am, are”2&?-:.,$/?-=$?-2eR.-0:A-{2?-?-$%-9$-!R/-LJ.-GA-52-5B$-$A-eJ?-?-.R<-.$R?-0-.%-,SA-2-:.R/-0:A-{2?-?$%-9$-!R/-LJ.-GA-52-5B$-$A-}R/-.-.R<-.$R?,.0J<-/,
1a Where are they going to meet? #R-5S-?-$%-/?-,$-lA?-;R.,
1b When is she going to visit that monastery? #R-3R-.?-/3-8A$-=-.$R/-0-.J<-v-{R<-.-1J2?-lA?-;R.,
She is going to visit that monastery on Sunday. #R-3R-$9:-*A-3:A-*A/-.$R/-0-.J<-v-{R<-.-:PR-lA?-;R.,
1c What are you going to be in the future? 3-:R%?-0<-HR.-<%-&A-8A$-L-lA?-;R.,
I am going to be a scientist. %-<%-5/-<A$-0-8A$-L-lA?-;R.,

▪82▪

Unit 5 Working hard on the farm
#J-5/-s-2,8A%-G<-=?-!-@<-,$-$A?-=?-0,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 Dodben has some tomatoes. !R2?-w/-=-8A-@R%-ZA-:$:-;R.,
Zhaxi has more tomatoes than Lodan. 2N->A?-=-]R-w/-=?-8A-@R%-ZA-3%-0R-;R.,
Yondan has the most of all. (J?-3%-0R-;R.-0-/A-;R/-+/-;A/,
g-}R/-3-.J?-.%R?-0R-&%-43-:#<-:.$
The second one is carrying fewer than the first. g-$*A?-0-.J?-g-}R/-3-=?-*%-43-:#<-:.$
The third one is carrying the fewest of all. g-$?3-0-.J?-.%R?-0R-(J?-*%-%-:#<-:.$

2 The first horse is carrying a few things.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

2#<-2:A-<A3-0,2#<-2:A-<A3-0-/A-3A-.%-L-.%R?-$%-<%-8A$-$A-H.-(R?-2eR.-0:A-(R?-2eR.-GA-5B$-.$-,R$-3:C-<A3-0-.%-,$>A2-2#<<A3-0,(J?-3,R:C-<A3-0-2&?-i3-0-$?3-.-.LJ-;R.-0-8A$-!J,:VA-!%?-/A-$>3-.-.0J-S%?-0-=?->J?-0<-IA?,
1,-~.-,%-2:A-<A$?-=“-er”.%“-est”.R<-.$R?,
,R$-3:A-<A3-0, $>A2-2#<-IA-<A3-0, (J?-3,R:C-<A3-0,
small smaller
smallest
young younger youngest
2 3,:-3:A-;A$-:V“-e”;A/-0:A-,-~.-GA-3,<-,.-!<“-er”.%-;%-/“-est”.R<-.$R?,
large
late
3

larger
later

largest
latest

$=-+J-3,:-3:A-;A$-:V-$*A?-0R-.J“.L%?.L%?-+$?=$?=-LJLJ.-”v<-;A/-/-3,:-3:C-$?=-LJ.-;A-$J-.J-*A?-:VA-L?-eJ?-$R%-$A-.R<-!%?-.%-:S2-;A/,
thin
big

thinner
bigger

thinnest
biggest

43,:-3:A-;A$-:V-$*A?-0R“$?=$?=-LJLJ.-;A;A-$J$J+y”v<-;A/-/,“-y”.J“-i”<-2&R?-/?-3)$-+“-er”.%“-est”.R<-.$R?,
busy
dirty

busier
dirtier

busiest
dirtiest

5 ,A<-2+%-$A-,-~.-<A%->R?-&/-IA-}R/-.“-more”.%“-most”.<-/?-<A3-0-.$-!R/-0-;A/,
successful
pleasant

more successful
more pleasant

most successful
most pleasant

▪83▪

6

,-~.-<J-:$:-8A$-$A-2#<-2:A-<A3-0-.%-(J?-3,R:C-<A3-0-/A“er”.%“est”.<-/?-P2-3A-,2-0<-3A%-$8A-.%-2&?-i3-0-$8/-8A$-+:I<-:PR-2?,.J:A-<A$?-=-i3-0-%J?-3J.-GA-2#<-2-9J<,
good
bad
many (much)
little

better
worse
more
less

best
worst
most
least

Lesson 19 Working on a farm
It’s a fine day today, and everyone is busy. They are working hard on the farm. The children are
picking apples. Look! There’s Meimei! She’s very strong. She’s lifting that ladder. Now she’s holding
it for Jim. Jim is climbing up the ladder. He’s picking the apples on that tree. He’s putting them in a
basket. Some of the apples are hard to reach. They are too high. Be careful, Jim! It’s dangerous. Oh,
good! He’s coming down the ladder, now.
“You don’t have any apples, Jim,” says Li Lei. “I have more than you.”
“Do I have fewer apples than you? Let me see!” says Jim.
Jim looks at Li Lei’s apples. “Oh!” he says. “Yes, you have more than me. But mine are better than
yours. Look! Yours are green, and quite small. Mine are red, and they’re much bigger!”
Translation of Lesson 19

8A%-G<-=?-!-12-0,
.J-<A%-$A-$/3-$>A?-/A-@-&%-29%-8A%-,3A-5%-3?-VJ=-:52-%%-8A%-?-<-@<-,$-$A?-%=-lR=-LJ.-28A/-:.$-=,LA?-0-5S?-!->-:,R$-$A/:.$
@/-3J-3J-=-vR?-.%-,3R-/A-!R2?-.%-w/-0-8A$-;A/-+J-3R?-{?-;<-:.J$?-28A/-:.$.-{2?-3R?-)J3-IA-{?-*R<-28A/-;R.-0-.%-,)J3{?-:$R<-:6K$?-GA/-#R%-2R-.J:A-!J%-/?-!->-:,R$-28A/-;R.,#R?-2+R$?-0:A-!->-aJ-2R-8A$-$A-/%-.-2#-28A/-:.$!->-:$:-<J-2+R$-o@-&%-.!:,.J-.$-3,R-S$?-?R%-2?-?J3?-(%-LR?,)J3,.J<-*J/-#-(J,AR,29%-$A.-v-#R-<%-{?-=?-3<-:22-28A/-:.$
=J-=J-;A?-)J3-=-2>.-o<,“)J3,HR.-=-!->-3%-2R-3A-:.$%-=-HR.-=?-3%-2R-;R.,”9J<,
)J3-IA?“2.$-$A?-2v-<R$?,%-=-HR.-=?-*%-%-43-=?-3J.-.3,”9J<-28A/-#R?-=J-=J-;A-!->-=-2v?,“AR,<J.-;,HR.-=-%-=?-3%2R-:.$;A/-/:%-%:A-!->-.J-.$-HR.-GA-.J-.$-=?-29%-,vR?-.%-,HR.-GA-.J-.$-3.R$-u%-#-.%-@-&%-(%-%-<J.,%:A-:.A-.$-3.R$-.3<=-HR.-GA-!->-=?-w2-:I<-IA?-(J/-0R-:.$”9J<,

▪84▪

Unit 6 Shall we go to the park?
#J-5/-S$-0,%-5S-,A-\A%-.-:PR-o-;A/-/3,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 A: Would you like to come to supper?HJ.-<%-.$R%-9?-9-2<-;R%-:.R.-.3,
B: Oh! Thank you, I would love to. But I must ask my parents first. What time shall I come?AR,,$?-

eJ-(J,%-<%-;R%-:.R.-;R.,:R/-G%-,R$-3<-%?-1-3-$*A?-=-:SA-.$R?,(-5S.-.-;A-!J%-.-;R%-/-:PA$-$3,
A: We have our evening meal at about a quarter past six. Why don’t you come a little earlier? 

%-5S?-

.$R%-9?-.?-5S.-S$-.%-{<-3-2&R-s:A-!J%-29:-o-;A/-0?-HR.-<%-&%-}-3R<-1J2?-/-3A-=J$?-?3,
B: OK. Sure, see you. <J.-=$?,#R-,$-;A/,a<-3)=,
A: Bye!2.J-3R, 

2R.-;=-IA-(J?-(J-2:A-L-<A$?-$%-8A$-;A/,
B: The biggest bird in Tibetan areas is the eagle. 2R.-;=-IA-(J?-(J-2:A-L-<A$?-/A-L-\$-;A/,

2 A: Which is the biggest bird in Tibetan areas?

2a A: Which animal does our life depend on at our home?

<%-<J:A-1-;=-.-:-&$-:5S-gJ/-LJ.-

?:A-K$?-9R$-$%-;A/,
B: The yak is the animal that our lives depend on.
2b A: Which animal do you like best?
B: I likesheep best. 

/R<-/A-%-5S:C-:5S-gJ/-LJ.-?:A-K$?-9R$-;A/, 

HR.-<%-(J?-.$:-2:A-YR$-($?-$%-8A$-;A/, 

%-<%-(J?-.$:-2-/A-=$-;A/,

LA-=-)A-:S-8A$-.%-:S,
B: A cat looks like a small leopard. LA-=<-2v?-5S.-GA?-$9$-(%-(%-8A$-.%-:S,

2c A: What does a cat look like?

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 would you like-“would”/A-=?-5B$-.-v-2:A-3A%-n%-8A$-$A-$R%-.-.<-/,2lA-2!<-;R.-0:A-|R-/?-$8/-IA-2?3-:(<-2#-=J/-

LJ.-0-!R/,“would you like”8J?-0:A-/%-.R/-/A“HJHJ.-GAGA?-...LJLJ.-:.R
:.R.-.3.3-”&J?-0:A-.R/-;A/, “What about”:.A-;A?“&A-LJLJ.o-;A;A/,&
,&A-:S:S-<J<J.”?R$?-GA-.R/-!R/,.0J<-/,I am going. What about you? %-:PR-o-;A/,HR.-GA?-&A-LJ.-o-;A/,
1a Shall we_____? %-5S-...LJ.-o-/,
Shall we go at ten? %-5S-(-5S.-2&:A-!J%-:PR-o-;A/-/3,
1b Why not_____? &A:A-KA<-...3A-LJ.,
Why not go at ten? (-5S.-2&:A-!J%-.-?R%-/-3A-=J$?-?3,

▪85▪

2 “Let’s”8J?-0“Let us”;A-2#?-5B$-;A/-=-.R/-/A“%-5S
5S?-LL-22-$%$%-8A8A$-21
212-0<0<-L:R
L:R”8J?-0:A-.R/-/R,
2a Let’s go at ten! .?-5S.-2&:A-,R$-+-:PR-2<-L,
3 “What about” “L-2$?-)A)A-v2-?R?R$?$?
v-2-<J<J.”&J?-0:A-.R/,
3a What about seven?
4 Would you like....

.?-5S.-2./-&A-:S-<J.,

HJ.-...:.R.R.-.3,
.3,

4a Would you like to go at ten?HR.-<%-.?-5S.-2&:A-,R$-:PR-:.R.-.3,

▪86▪

Unit 7 Mainly revision
#J-5/-2./-0,2*<-.R%-$/.-2#?,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,

(-5S.-.-<J.,
B: It is a quarter past ten. .?-5S.-2&-.%-{<-2&R-s-<J.,
1a A: What time are we leaving tomorrow? ?%-*A/-%-5S-/3-5S.-:PR-lA?-;R.,
B: Tomorrow we are leaving at twenty minutes past five. ?%-*A/-.?-5S.-s-.%-{<-3-*A->:A-,R$-%-5S-:PR-o;A/,

1 A: What time is it? 

HR.-GA?-.?-/3-8A$-=-aR2-OA.-GA-:$R-2l3-o-;A/,
B: I am going to start class this afternoon at three-thirty..J-<A%-KA-SR:A-(-5S.-$*A?-.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-%?-aR2-OA.-

1b A: When areyou going to start class?

GA-:$RR-2l3-lA?-;R.,
1c A: Could you please tell me what time the bank is open? 

HR?-GA?-%-=-.%=-#%-$A-|R-(-5S.-.:A-!J%-.-KJ?-0-

2>.-,2-23,
B: Certainly, the bank is open at two-thirty.

=R?-,2,.%=-#%-$A-|R-.?-5S.-$*A?-.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-KJ?-0-<J.,

2 A: Shall we play tennis tomorrow at two pm? ?%-*A/-KA-SR:A-(-5S.-$*A?-GA-!J%-%-5S?-S-1.-%R-=R-lJ.-o-;A/-/3,

(-5S.-28A:A-!J%-)A-:S-<J.,
A: OK, what time shall we meet? (R$-$A%-5S-(-5S.-.:A-!J%-,$-o,
B: How about three-thirty? .?-5S.-$?3-.%-KJ.-!-)A-:S-<J.,
A: That’s great, but where shall we meet?.J-@-&%-29%-,:R-/-%-5S-?-$%-/?-,$-o,
B: Why don’t we meet behind the China Post building? %-5S-N%-$R:C-4$-#%-$A-o2-/?-,$-/-3A-=J$?-?3,
B: What about four o’ clock?

3 How to make suggestions PR?-$8A-)A-v<-:.R/-5=,

.R$?-9R/-LR?,HA-3R-.J?-HJ.-=-?R-:.J2?-lA?-;R.,
3b Look out! They are pouring water from their window. 3*3-8R$-.%-,#R-5S?-|J:-#%-=?-(-:2R-28A/-:.$
3c Don’t jump into that river, it’s too dangerous. $4%-0R:C-/%-.-3-3(R%-,.J-@-&%-*J/-#-(J,
3d Be careful! That ladder is broken. ?J3?-(%-LR?,{?-.J-($-:.$

3a Be careful! That dog is trying to bite you.

▪87▪

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

.?-5S.-$?=-2>.-LJ.-,2?-=?-4J=-5B$“-past”.%“-to”$*A?-GA-2!R=-!%?,
.LA/-;A$-$A-/%“{<{<-3+past+.?-5S5S.”&J?-0-.?-5S.-$-$J-3R-8A$-$A-!J%-{<-3-.-2c=-;R.-0-!R/-=,;A.-:}R$-LJ.-.$R?-?-/A-.?-5S.$-$J-3R-8A$-$A-!J%-{<-3-?3-&-1<-2c=-2-;A/-/“past”2!R=-2-;A/,“{<{<-3+to+.?-5S5S.”&J?-0?-.?-5S.-&A$-=-{<-3-?3-&-=?*%-2?-3-,R/-0-!R/-+J,.0J<-2eR.-v<,
a quarter past six .?-5S.-S$-.%-2&R-s,
half past ten .?-5S.-2&-.%-KJ.-!
twenty minutes past nine
.?-5S.-.$-.%-{<-3-*A->0
a quarter to three .?-5S.-$?3-=-{<-3-2&R-s-(.,
five minutes to five .?-5S.-s-=-{<-3-s-(.,

▪88▪

Unit 8 Where do you sit?
#J-5/-2o.-0,HR.-$%-.-2#.-;R.,
1 Where do your teacher usually stand in the classroom? HR.-GA-.$J-c/-.?-o/-.-aR2-#%-$A-$/?-$%-.-=%?-GA/:.$
2 Where do you sit in the classroom?

HR.-aR2-#%-$A-$/?-$%-.-2#.-;R.,

3 What things are in the front of your classroom?
4 What is on the left hand of your side?

HR.-GA-aR2-#%-$A-3./-.-.%R?-0R-&A-8A$-:.$

HR.-GA-=$-0:A-$;R/-KR$?-?-&A-8A$-;R.,

5 Where are the windows in your classroom?

HR.-5S:C-aR2-#%-$A-|J:-#%-i3?-$/?-$%-.-;R.,

Lesson 31 Who has the eraser?
Children often love to play this game. They play it like this: six students stand in a row in front of the
class. They put their hands behind their backs, so you can’t see their hands. The teacher gives one of
them an eraser. The eraser goes from one student to another first one way, then another. They must
keep their hands behind their backs. The other students in the class keep their eyes closed. They
mustn’t look.
Then the teacher says: “Stop and put your hands in front of you now.”
The six students put their hands in front of them. Now the other students open their eyes, and guess
who has the eraser. They ask questions like “Li Lei, is it in your right hand?”
They can have only five guesses.
Translation of Lesson 31

2?2-:IA$-?-=-;R.,
LA?-0-.$-/3-o/-.-lJ.-3R-:.A-lJ.-o<-.$:,#R-5S?-lJ.-3R-.J-:.A-v<-lJ.-2-;A/-+J,aR2-3-S$-aR2-#%-$A-3./-.-=%?-2-.%-=$-0-#R5S:C-o2-+-28$-0-<J.,.J:A-nJ/-IA?-HR.-GA?-#R-5R:A-=$-0-3,R%-3A-,2,.$J-c/-IA?-.J-.$-=?-$&A$-=-2?2-:IA$-&A$-!J<-2-;A/,#R-5S?%J?-0<-.-<%-<%-$A-=$-0-o2-+-:)R$-.$R?-0-.%-,2?2-:IA$-.J-aR2-3-5S?-$&A$-$A?-$&A$-=-!J<-2-.%-.J-v<-<A3-0-.%-0R-5<-2-/,
;%-2*<-<A3-0-$8/-8A$-/?-3$R-2l3-0-;A/,#R-5S?-%J?-0<-.-<%-<%-$A-=$-0-o2-+-:)R$-.$R?-0-.%-,aR2-#%-.-:.$-0:A-aR2-3$8/-.$-$A?-3A$-243?-.$R?,#R-5S?-$+/-/?-2v-3A-<%-,
.J-/?-.$J-c/-IA?“.-v-353?-28$-/?-<%-$A-=$-0-3./-=-8R$”&J?-2>.,
aR2-3-S$-0R?-<%-$A-%<-#-3-:LJ.-0<-=$-0-.$-3./-=-28$-0-.%-aR2-3-$8/-.$-$A?-3A$-KJ?-+J-??-2?2:IA$-29%-;R.-0-5S.-.0$-LR?,#R-5S?-SA-2-2+R/-0-:.A-v<“=J-=J,2?2-:IA$-.J-HJ.-GA-=$-0-$;?-=$-+-:.$-$3,”
#R-5S?-5S.-.0$-s-=?-L?-3A-(R$

▪89▪

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1?-$/?$?-35S
$/?-.%.%-##-KRKR$?$?
35S/-0:A-5B5B$-U.U.-GAGA-.0J
.0J-$8A
$8A,
in

/%-.,

There is a glove in my desk.

%:A-3./-&R$-/%-.-=$->2?->A$-;R.,

on

!J%-.,
:R$-+,
HA3-/%-,!J%+,
,$-*J-?<,
/%-.,
KA-<,
o2-+,

The snow flower is on the mountain

<A-!J%-.-#-2:A-:.2-3-;R.,
%-5S-/3-3#:A-:R$-+-;R.,
3R-HA3-/-;R.,%-.?-5S.-S$-$A-!J%-:PR-o;A/,
%:A-HA3-IA-*J-?<-35S-8A$-;R.,
%-<%-<%-3R?-5S%-G<-?R%-,
%-5S-aR2-9:A-|R-(J/-IA-KA-/?-,$
aR2-#%-/A-.0J-36S.-#%-$A-o2-+-;R.,

under
at

near
inside
outside
behind

We are under the sky.
She’s at home. I will leave at six
o’clock.
Near my home there is a lake.
I went inside a supermarket.
We meet outside of the school gate.
The classroom is behind the library

2?-$/?-.%-#-KR$?-35S/-0:A-5B$-U.-.%-.J:A-.0J,
in font of

3./-.,

The bus stop is in front of the toilet.

on the left

$;R/-.,
.GA=-.,

The bookshop is left of the garden.

lJ-3R<,
o2-+,

Tibet is on the top of the world.

$;?-?,

People’s Park is on the right of the
fruit shop.

in the middle
of
on the top of
at the back of

on the right
of

Ziling is in the middle of China.

The factory is at the back of the
airport.

▪90▪

_%?-:#R<-:22-5B$?-/A-,R.-#%-$A-3./.-;R.,
.0J-5S%-#%-/A-w3-G:A-$;R/-.-:.$
9A-=A%-/A-N%-$R:C-?-.GA=-.-:.$
2R.-uR%?-/A-:63-\A%-$A-;%-lJ<-:.$
29R-9-/A-$/3-P-:22-,%-$A-v$-o2-+;R.,
3A-.3%?-,A-\A%-/A-?A=-+R$-5S%-#%-$A$;?-?-:.$

Unit 9Find the right place
#J-5/-.$-2, #R.-$/?-%R-3-24=-2,
Dialogue#-2h, 

.$R%?-0-3-5S3,:.AA-.%-,$-*J-?<-4$-#%-8A$- ;R.-.3,
B: Yes, there is. Walk along this road, and take the fourth turn on the left. ;R.-=$?,:.A<-;R.,=3-:.A-

1 A: Excuse me, is there a post office near here?

.J.-.J-3<-?R%-/?-$;R/-KR$?-GA-.GR$?-28A-2-.J.-/?-?R%-,
A: Thank you very much. 2!:-SA/->A/-+-(J,
B: Not at all. / You’re welcome. *R/-3A-:.$ / 2!:-SA/-8-3A-.$R?,
.$R%?-0-3-5S3,:.A-.%-,$-*J-?<-,A-2.J-?-5B$?-8A$-:.$-$3,
B: No, there isn’t. The nearest is about 4 kilometres away. So you’d better catch a bus. 3A-:.$:.A<-3A:.$(J?-,$-*J-2-.J-,A-=J-28A-;?-3?-?-$/?,.J:A-KA<-<2-;A/-/-HR.-<%-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-=-2#.-/-29%-,
A: Which number do I need, please? %-<%-A%-g$?-$%-8A$-=-:.$-.$R?-?3,
B: I think you need number two. The bus stop is along that road, on the right. %?2?3-/-HR.-=-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-A%-P%?-$*A?-0-3#R,,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-5B$?-3=-.J-=3-:.A:A-$;?-KR$?-?-;R.,

2 A: Excuse me, is there a police station near here?

3 A: Excuse me, is there a toilet near here?

.$R%?-0-3-5S3,:.A-.%-,$-*J-?<-$4%-,R.-#%-8A$-

:.$-$3,i
B: I’m sorry I don’t know. You’d better ask that policeman over there.

,$?-o=-3-28J%?,%?-3A->J?,HR.-

GA?-1-$A:A-,A-2.J-3A-$-.J<-SA?-/-29%-,
A: Thank you all the same. 2!:-SA/-(J,(:.A:A-.R/-%R-3-/A-HR.-GA?-3->J?-G%-%?-HR.-=-2!:-SA/-8-%J?-8J?-0:A-.R/,)
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Expressing needs.$R
.$R?-3#R
3#R-!R/-0,
0,
1a He needs some help.#R-=-<R$?-<3-LJ.-.$R?-0-:.$
1b You need Bus Number 47. HR.-<%-_%?-:#R<-A%-P%?-8J-2./-0<-:.$-.$R?,
1c What is the number of the bus I need?%-<%-_%?-:#R<-A%-P%?-.-2<-:.$-.$R?,

2 Asking for directions #-KR$?-:SA-2,
2a Is there a station near here?:.A:A-*J-?<-:22-5$?-8A$-;R.-.3,
2b Where’s the nearest hospital, please? (J?-*J-?:A-(/-#%-$%-/-;R.-0->J?-?3,
▪91▪

3 Giving directions#-KR$?-!R/-0,
3a Go along this road.=3-:.A-2o.-/?-?R%-.%-,
3b Take the first right turn.$;?-KR$?-GA-.GR$-.%-2R-2o.-/?-?R%-.%-,

.J-/A-KA-/-/:P3-.-/3./-.-;R.,
3d It’s about a hundred meters on the left. .J-/A-$;R/-KR$?-/?-kA?-2o-43-IA-?<-;R.,
3e It’s about six kilometres away. .J-/A-@-=3-,A-=J-S$-$A-1-<R=-/-;R.,
3c It’s outside / next to / in front of...

4 Practice how to make sentences with these phrases. $>3-IA-5B$-,%-:.A-.$-2!R=-/?-5B$-P2-29R-5=-.R%?,
look for :5S=-2:3-24=-2,She’s looking for a job. 3R?-L-2-8A$-:5S=-28A/-;R.,
look at 2v-2,Meduk looks at her reading book. 3J-+R$-$A?-3R:C-[R$-.J2-=-2v?-:.$
look after$*R<-*R%-LJ.-0, Children have to look after their parents when they are aged. 2-U$-.$-$A?-<%-$A-

1-3-=R-c?-.?-$*R<-*R%-LJ.-.$R?,
look out ofKA-<-2v-2,In the morning, I often look out of the window to see the sun. }-3R<-%?-/3-o/-.-S3:A-KA-<-2v?-/?-*A-3<-2v-2-;A/,
look like 2v?-5S.-GA?-:S-2, His nose looks like a bird flying. #R:C-$<-2v?-5S.-GA?-L-8A$-:1<-2-.%-:S,
look the same 2v?-5S.-GA?-:S-2,They look the same. #R%-$*A?-2v?-5S.-GA?-:S,
look worried 2v?-5S.-GA?-?J3?-O=-(J-2, She looks very worried about her study. 3R<-2v?-5S.-GA?-3R:A-aR2-.R%=-?J3?-O=-LJ.-28A/-:.$
look over g$-.J.-LJ.-0, The teacher looked over the students’ homework. .$J-c/-IA?-aR2-3:C-=?-L<-g$.J.-L?,

▪92▪

Unit 10 Home and Work
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-2,
2, HA3-.%.%-LL-2,
2,
Lesson 39 John’s Day
John is Canadian. He lives in a tall building in the city of Toronto. There are eighteen floors in the
building, and he lives on the fifteenth floor. He uses a lift to go up and down.
John works very hard. He goes to work early. Every day he leaves his home and walks to the lift. He
gets into the lift. It takes him down to the first floor.
He gets out of the lift. Then he walks to a bus stop. The bus stop is in front of a station. It is about
two hundred metres from his home.
Usually, he catches the number 11 bus to work, but sometimes he goes by train. John works in a
factory about ten kilometres from his home. His work starts at half past eight, and finishes at a quarter
to five. He gets back home at a quarter past five. He gets into the lift, and goes up to the twelfth floor.
Then he gets out of the lift and climbs up to the fifteenth floor on foot.
Every day he does the same thing. Why doesn’t he use the lift for the last three floors?
Translation of Lesson 39

)R%-$A$A-*A*A/-$&A
$&A$
)R%-/A/A-#-/-/-+:A
$?-<A<A3-0+:A-3A3A-;A;A/,#
,#R-PRPR%-HJHJ<-,R-<A<A/-,R,R:-;A;A-,R,R$-#%#%-3,R
3,R/-0R0R-8A8A$-+-2#
2#.-;R;R.,,
,,R$-#%#%-.J.J<-,R,R$-2lJ
2lJ$?$?
0-2&R
2&R-2o.2o.-;R;R.-==-#R#R-<%<%2lJ
$?-<A<A3-2&R
2lJ$?$?
2&R-ss-<-28
28$?$?-;R;R.,#
,#R-<%<%-\R$-{?{?-==-2#
2#.-.J.J-;<;<-3<3<-==-:PR
:PR-22-<J<J.,
,
)R%-$A$A?-LL-2<2<-@<-,$,$-LJLJ.-&A&A%-}}-3R3R-/?/?-LL-2<2<-8$?,
$?,o
,o/-0<0<-#R#R-<%<%-HAHA3-.%-V=
V=-/?/?-\R$-{?{?-;R;R.-?<?<-b%b%-,%,%-==-:PR
:PR-2-.%.%-.J.J-/?/?-#R#R-\R${?{?-==-:.
:.$-&A&A%-,\
,\R$-{?{?-.J.J?-#R#R-<$<$-2lJ
2lJ$?$?-<A<A3-.%.%-0R0R-<-2*
2*J=,
$?
#R-\R$-{?$?-?-:PR
$?->A>A$-$A$A-3.
{?-=?=?-KAKA<-2.-.J.J-,A-,R.-_%?_%?-:#R
:#R<-??-5B5B$?$?
:PR-22-.%.%-,_%?
,_%?_%?-:#R
:#R<-#R.-??-.J.J-??-5B5B$?$?
3./-.-;R;R.-=,
=,.
,.J-/A/A-#R#R:C-HAHA3-.%.%2<2<-,$,$-kAkA?-*A*A?-2o2o-;?;?-3?3?-?-:.
:.$
#R-o/-.-,A-,R.-_%?_%?-:#R
:#R<-A%A%-2&
2&-$&A
$&A$-0<0<-2#
2#.-/?/?-=?=?-!<!<-8$?,
$?,:
,:R/-G%G%-{2?{2?-:$<:$<-3J3J-:#R
:#R<-==-#R.-00-<J<J.,)
,)R%-$A$A?-#R#R:C-HAHA3-.%.%-,A=J-2&
2&-4343-;R;R.-0:A
0:A-29R
29R-9-8A8A$-+-LL-22-12-28A
28A/-;R;R.-=,
=,#
,#R?-(-5S5S.-2o.2o.-.%.%-KJKJ.-!:A
!:A-!J%-=?=?-:$R
:$R-lRlR3->A>A%-(-5S5S.-28A
28A-.%.%-{<{<-33-8J8J-s:A
s:A-!J%-==353?$?-<A<A3-2&-$*A
353?-:)R
:)R$(-5S.-ss-.%.%-KJKJ.-!:A
!:A-!J%-#R#R-<%<%-KAKA<-;=-==-,R,R/-00-<J<J.,#
,#R-\R$-{?{?-==-2#
2#.-/?/?-2lJ
2lJ$?$?
$*A?-0<0<-;<;<-:PR
:PR-22-.%
.%-,.
,.J-/?/?KA<-2.-.J.J-2lJ
$?-<A<A3-2&R
2lJ$?$?
2&R-ss-2<2<-b%b%-,%,%-==-:$R
:$R-00-<J<J.,
#R?-*A*A/-o/-.-:.A
$?-<A<A3-$?
:.A-v<v<-LJLJ.-00-<J<J.,z$
,z$z$-3:A
3:A-2lJ
2lJ$?$?
$?3-0R0R-.J.J<-#R#R-<%<%-\R$-{?{?-==-3A3A-:.
:.$-00-&A&A-;A;A/-/3,
/3,

▪93▪

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

L-5B$“Do”;A-2!R=-5=,
1 $%-9$-.%-0R-.%-$*A?-0-!J-HR.-.%-%-8J?-0<“Do”.%-$%-9$-$?3-0-!J-#R:3-#R-3R,.J-2&?-=“Does”.R<-.$R?-0-;A/, .0J</, “Does”.%“Do”/A-L-5B$-1=-2-<:%-2!R=-(R$-=,o/-0<-:SA-5B$-$A-i3-0-.%-.J:A-SA?-=/-IA-i3-0:A-/%-.-2!R=,
1a Does she like her work?
Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
1b Do you live in Ziling?
Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

.$$-5B$-$A-i3-0?-;%-2!R=-(R$-!J,
1c I don’t like living on the 12th floor.
1d He doesn’t use a computer.
2 What does she / he do?SA-2-:.A-=-.R/-IA-:PJ=-5=-$*A?-;R.-.J,
2a HR.-GA-L-2-&A-8A$-;A/,
2b #R-3R?-/#R-2R?-&A-8A$-=?-0-<J.,

:.A:A-=/-.-He / She is a worker. (#R / 3R-/A-=?-!-0-8A$-<J.,).%-;%-/-He studies Tibetan.(#R?-2R.-;A$-.R%-28A/:.$)&J?-=/-:.J2?-.$R?,
2c What do you / I do? HR.-GA- / %:A-L-2-&A-8A$-<J.-.3,;%-/-HR? / %?-&A-8A$-=?-0-;A/,
:SA-5B$-:.A:A-=/-.-}-3-*A.-=-I am / You are a teacher. (%-/A- / HR.-/A-.$J-c/-8A$-<J.,)8J?-=/-:.J2?-.$R?-0-.%-eJ?-3=,I write. (%?-;A-$J-:VA-2-<J.,)You play. (HR.-lJ.-2-<J.,)v<-VA?-/-:PA$

▪94▪

Unit 11 Keep healthy 
#J-5/%?-LJLJ.-0,
5/-2&
2&-$&A
$&A$-0,
0,=
,=?-1%-2.J
2.J-,%,%-==-o/-:HRHR%?%?
0,
Dialogue#-2h,

aR2-PR$?-5S,}-SR-2.J-3R,
Students: Good morning, Teacher. }-SR-29%-,.$J-c/,
Teacher: What day is it today? .J-<A%-$9:-.-2-<J.,
Students: Today is Monday, November the twelfth. .J-<A%-/A-,A-^-2&-$&A$-0:A-5K?-2&-$*A?-;A/-=-$9:^-2-<J.,
Teacher: Who is away today? .J-<A%-?-8A$-;R%-3J.-.3,
Students: Lodan is away today. .J-<A%-!R2?-w/-;R%-3A-:.$
Teacher: What’s wrong with him? #R-=-&A-L%-?R%-,
Students: He is a little ill today. .J-<A%-#R-&%-/-:.$
Teacher: Could you give him a message? HR.-GA?-#R-=-{.-&AA$-2>.-,2-23,
Students: Yes, sure. =R?-,2,
Teacher: I hope he will be better soon. #R-<%-&%-3A-:$R<-2<-)J-29%-.-:PR-2<-(R/,

Teacher: Good morning, students.

Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
The Past Indefinite Tense,A<-2+%-$A-:.?-0,

,A<-2+%-:.?-0?-:.?-0:A-.?-?-L%-2:A-L-2-.%-i3-0-8A$-!R/-0-;A/,L-5B$-“Be’’;A-:.?-0:A-i3-0-/A,
“am/is-was are-were”2&?-;A/, 
Statement forms

Question forms

8A2-2eR
2eR.-GA-i3i3-0,
0,

SA-2:A
2:A-i3i3-0,
0,

I was (not) at school last Friday.

Was I at school last Friday.

You were (not) late yesterday.

Were you late yesterday?

She / He was early this morning.

Was she / he early this morning?

It was red.
We / you / they were away last October.

Was it red?
Were we / you / they away last October?

▪95▪

Unit 12 Which is your favourite?
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-$*A
$*A?-0,
0, HR.-<%<%-(J(J?-.$:-22-/A/A-$%$%-;A;A/,
Dialogue#-2h,
1 A: Which is your favourite month?
B: I think May is the best month. 

HR.-<%-(J?-.$:-2-/A-^-.-2-;A/, 

%?-2v?-/-^-s-2-(J?-29%-2R-<J.-~3,

2 A: How many minutes are there in an hour?
B: There are sixty minutes in an hour.
3 A: What day was yesterday? 

.?-5S.-$&A$-=-{<-3-.-;R., 

.?-5R.-$&A$-=-{<-3-S$-&-;R., 

#-?%-$9:-.-2-<J.,

B: It was Wednesday, October 13th (thirteenth), 2000 (two thousand). #-?%-/A-*A?-!R%-=R:C-^-2&-2:A-5K?-2&-

$?3-<J.-=-$9:-z$-0-<J.,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
The Past Indefinite ,A<-2+%-$A-:.?-0,

L-5B$-“have”.%“has”;A-:.?-0:A-i3-0-/A“had”;A/,
Statement forms 8A2-2eR.-GA-i3-0,
I / you / she / he / we / they

had a good time on Sunday.
Question forms SA-2:A-i3-0,

Did

I / you / she / we / they

have eggs for breakfast?

Answer forms SA?-=/-IA-i3-0,
Yes,
No,

I / you / she / we / they
I / you / she / we / they  

▪96▪

had eggs for breakfast.
had eggs for breakfast.

Unit 13 Where were you born?
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-$?
$?3-0,
0,H
,HR.-$%$%-/?/?-*J?-00-;A;A/,
Dialogue#-2h,
Dongrub: Hello, Meduk! May I ask you some questions?
Meduk: Certainly!

7-;J,3J-+R$,%?-HJ.-=-SA-2-:$:-SA?-/-(R$-$3,

=R?-(R$

HR.-/3-8A$-=-*J?-0-;A/,
Meduk: I was born on February 16,1986. %-(A$-!R%-.$-2o-I-S$-=R:C-^-$*A?-0:A-5K?-2&-S$-*A/-*J?-0-;A/,
Dongrub: Where were you born? HR.-GA-*J?-;=-$%-/?-;A/,
Meduk: I was born in Tibet--in a small town near Lhasa. %-<%-2R.-uR%?-z-?-.%-,$-*J-?:A-PR%2h=-(%-(%-8A$-/?-*J?,
Dongrub: How long did you live there? HR.-<%-.J-<-.?-;/-$-43-8A$-=-2#.-0-;A/,
Meduk: We lived there for about five years. %-5S-.J-/?-1=-(J<-=R-s-=-2#.,
Dongrub: Only five years? +$-+$-=R-s-;A/-/3,
Meduk: Yes. Then my family moved to Amdo. ;A/,.J-/?-%J.-5%-A-3.R<-$/?-%<-2-;A/,
Dongrub: Why did you move there?.J-<-$/?-%R<-.R/-&A-;A/,
Meduk: Because my father found work in Ziling. %:A-A-1?-9A-=A%-/?-L-2-fJ.-L%-0:A-nJ/-IA?-;A/,
Dongrub: Are you enjoying living there?HR.-<%-.J-$<-#R.-o<-3R-2-;R.-.3,
Meduk: Yes, we are. Very much. <J.,%-5S-.J-<-:.$-o<-@-&%-3R,
Dongrub: When were you born?

Lesson 51 Wei Hua’s busy day
Wei Hua had a busy day yesterday. She got up before 7 o’clock in the morning, and quickly washed
her hands and face. She got to school early. She had a little rest after lunch, but she worked hard in
class all day. She played basketball after school, and then walked home.
Wei Hua’s pen was broken, so she needed a new one. On her way home she bought a new pen at a
shop. When she reached home, she had a short rest and a glass of water. After that she helped her
parents. She quickly cooked the supper, and cleaned the house.
She watched TV for half an hour after supper. Then she started her homework. She finished it at half
past nine. She went to bed before a quarter to ten.
I asked Wei Hua this question: “Do you enjoy work?”
“Yes, I do,” she answered. “I like to keep busy!”

▪97▪

Translation of Lesson 51

2J-.0:A-VJ=-:52-GA-*A/-3R,
2J-.0:-=-35S/-/-#-?%-/A-VJ=-2-(J-2:A-*A/-3R-8A$-<J.,#R-3R-8R$?-0:A-(-5S.-2./-IA-!J%-3=-=?-=%?->A%-3IR$?-0R<#-=$-2N?-0-.%-,}-3R-/?-aR2-9<-,R/,3R?-$%-9?-GA-eJ?-?-%=-&%-43-$?R?-3R.-aR2-#%-.-*A/-o/-@<-,$-$A?-aR2.R%-LJ.,3R?-aR2-9-PR=-eJ?-S-:1J/-%R-=R-lJ.-&A%-.J-/?-KA<-;=-.-=R$
2J-.0:A-t$?-/$-($-?R%-2?-3R-=-$?<-2-8A$-3#R-:.$3R-<%-;=-.-=R$-0:A-=3-#<-3R?-5S%-#%-8A$-=?-t$?-/$$?<-2-8A$-*R?,3R-HA3-=-:LR<-.?-3R?-(->J=-1R<-$%-:,%-/?-%=-$?R?->A%-,.J-eJ?-3R?-<%-$A-1-3-$*A?-=-<R$?-<3L?-+J-3IR$?-0R<-.$R%-9?-2{R=-8A%-#%-2<-$.-2.<-L?,
.$R%-9?-GA-eJ?-?,3R?-(-5S.-$&A$-.%-KJ.-!:A-<A%-=-2f/-:UA/-=-2v?-eJ?-=?-L-:VA-:$R-2l3?-0-.%-,(-5S.-.$.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-VA?-5<-=-(-5S.-2&-.%-{<-2&R-s:A-!J%-*=-2<-KA/,
%?-2J-.0:-=“HR.-<%-$A-L-2<-.$:-:3,”8J?-SA?,
3R?“.$:-0R-:.$%-<%-VJ=-:52-GA?-2&A%?-0<-.$:,”8J?-=/-2+2?,

▪98▪

Unit 14Mainly revision
#J-5/-2&-28A-2,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,
Dialogue#-2h,
A: I want to buy some mutton. How much does it cost, please? %?- =$- >- o- 3- : $: - *R- : .R.,.J<- <A/- $R%- $- 5S.- <J.,
B: Eight yuan for a kilo. ,A-o-$&A$-=-|R<-2o.-<J.,
A: That’s too much / too expensive / dear. / That’s quite cheap / inexpensive. Give me a kilo of mutton
please. .J-.%R?-$/?-.!:-S$?-?R%-,/ <A/-$R%-.!:-S$?-?R%-, / .!:-?R%-,/.J-@-&%-a-3R-<J.,/ <A/-$R%-.!:-3R-3-<J.,%-=- 

=$->-,A-o-$&A$-24S%-<R$?,
OppositeswR$-^,
2a A: What is the opposite of “close?” “close”;A-wR$-^-&A-<J., 

B: The opposite of “close” is “open.” “close”;A-wR$-^-/A“open”<J., 

2b A: What is the opposite of “interesting?” “interesting”;A-wR$-^-&A-8A$-<J.,
B: The opposite of “interesting” is “uninteresting.”“interesting”;A-wR$-^-/A“uninteresting”<J.,
A short conversation in the bus. _%?-:#R<-.-,R.-0:A-#-2h-,%-,%-8A$
Conductor: Tickets, please. May I see your ticket please, madam?

%-?J-!R/-<R$?,t3-3R-=$?,%?-HJ.-GA-%-?J-

=-2v-(R$-$3,
Lady: Certainly. Here it is. =R?-(R$:.A-<J.,
Conductor: Thank you, madam. Now, may I see yours, sir?2!:-SA/-(J,t3-3R,.-v-%?-HR.-GA-%-?J<-2v-(R$-

$3,]R-3,/-=$?,
Man: I’m sorry, I can’t find it. I thought it was in my coat. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,%?-.J-3A-fJ.,%?-.J-%:A-!R.-H:A-/%-.-

;R.-0<-~3,
Conductor: Did you buy one, sir?]R-3,/,HR.-GA?-$&A$-AJ-*R?,
Man: Oh, yes, I bought one, but I can’t find it now. :R,=R?-*R%?-$&A$-*R?-0-;A/,:R/-G%-fJ.-o-3A-:.$
Conductor: I hope you can find it. I’m coming back in a minute. HR.-GA?-.J-fJ.-,2-0<-(R/,{<-3-:$:A-eJ?-?-%-

<%-KA<-;R%-,

▪99▪

Students’ Book 2B
.J2-$*A?-0:A-(.-(,

▪100▪

Unit 15 Thanks for the message
#J-5/-.%-0R, #-=/-LA/-0<-2!:-SA/-(J,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 He is out at the moment. #R-<%-{2?-:.A<-|R-<-2.-?R%-,
2 Please ring him. #R-=-#-0<-$+R%-<R$?,
3 Can I take a message? %?-{.-&A$-]%?-/-(R$-$3,
4 See you tomorrow. ?%-*A/-3)=,
5 I don’t think so. %?-.J-v<-3A-:.R.,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

2N->A?,HJ.-GA?-#-0<-.J-=-=/-:.J2?-,2-23,
1a Could I have a cup of butter tea, Mum? A-3-=$?,%?-.N$-)-.!<-;R=-$%-:,%-/-(R$-$3,
1b Could you give me that Tibetan-English dictionary, please? HJ.-GA?-%-=-2R.-.LA/-5B$-36S.-$/-LA/-/-(R$$3,

1 Zhaxi, could you answer the telephone, please?

.J-%?-212-o-;A/,(%?-#-0<-=-=/-:.J2?-o-;A/,)
‘‘It” here means “the telephone.” ||:.A<-“It”/A-#-0<-=-$R-2-;A/,

2 I’ll get it. (I will answer the telephone.)

#R-<%-\R$-2f/-#%-.-;R.,
3a He is at school / work / home. #R-<%-aR2-9-<-/=?-!-<-/;=-/-/;R.,

3 He is at the cinema.

4 Can I take a message?

%?-{.-&A$-]%?-/-(R$-$3,

4a Cairang asked me to take a message for you.

5K-<A%-$A?-%-<%-2o.-.J-HR.-=-{.-&A$-28$,

0/-N%-$A?-HR.-GA?-,%-=-$.-2.<-LR?-9J<,
5a The teacher asked Dorji not to talk in class. .$J-c/-IA?-hR-eJ<-aR2-OA.-{2?-?-{.-(-3-2>.-&J?-<J-2-2+R/,

5 The monitor asked you to sweep the floor.

6 A: Thank you for inviting me to your birthday party.
B: It’s a pleasure.

HJ.-GA-*J?-{<-.-%-<%-2R?-0<-2!:-SA/-(J,

.J-/A-.$:-$%-8A$-<J.,

6a A. Thank you for answering my question.
B: It’s a pleasure.

2.$-$A-SA-2<-=/-2+2-0<-2!:-SA/-(J,

.J-/A-.$:-$%-8A$-<J.,

▪101▪

7 A: Do you remember we went to work on a farm last summer?

HR.-GA?-/-/A%-.L<-#<-%-5S-8A%-G-8A$-+-=?-!-

LJ.-.-?R%-2-S/-/3,
Yes, I do. <J.-;,%?-S/-$A
#R%-3$R-/-!->-3%-0R-;R.,
8a There is a sparrow in the tree. #R%-$?J%-/-#$-g-8A$-:.$,
8b There is a nice Tibetan knife in the box. |3-/%-.-2R.-PA-%?-.$-&A$-;R.,

8 There were many apples on the trees.

#R-5S-#R%-3$R<-:6K$-0<-{?-.$R?-L%-,
9a They needed to visit Tibetan areas with Tibetans. #R-5S-2R.-#3?-?-2*R.-0<-2R.-3A-.%:PR$-.$R?-L%-,
9b They needed to kill the wolf with a gun. #R-5S?-,%-!A-.J-3J-3.?-$?R.-.$R?-L%-,

9 They needed to climb up the trees with ladders.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
“There be (was were)”/A-:.?-9A/-0:A-.?-GA-/%-.%R?-0R-$-$J-3R-8A$-?-(J-$J-3R-8A$-/-;R.-0:3-$/?-0-!R/-0-;A/-+J,
“was”.%“were”$*A?-/A“is”.%“are”$*A?-GA-:.?-0:A-i3-0-;A/,.0J<-2eR.,

#-?%-5S$?-:.-8A$-:5S$?,
1b There was a Tibetan horse-race last summer. /-/A%-.L<-#<-2R.-GA-g-o$?-8A$-;R.,
1a There was a meeting yesterday.

1c There were many customers at the Tibetan restaurant yesterday.

#-?%-2R.-GA-9-#%-.J-<-{-3PR/-3%-0R-:.$
1d There were many nice flowers on the Gangcha grasslands last summer. /-/A%-.L<-#<-b%-5:C-C-,%-.36K?-0:A-3J-+R$-3%-0R-;R.,

▪102▪

Unit 16 The seasons of the year
#J-5/$?,
5/-2&
2&-S$ =R-<J<J:A-.?-5B5B$?,
$?
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 It’s very cold today, isn’t it? .J-<A%-/3-^-@-&%-:H$?-0-3-<J.-.3,
1a You are from Tibet, aren’t you? HR.-<%-2R.-uR%?-/?-;R%-2-3-;A/-/3,
2 It’s very nice, isn’t it? .J-@-&%-;$-0R-:.$-0-3-;A/-/3,
2a Zhaxi is an English teacher, isn’t he? 2N->A?-/A-.LA/-;A$-$A-.$J-c/-8A$-3-<J.-.3,
2b Huadan is a herdsman, isn’t he? .0=-w/-/A-:VR$-0-8A$-3-<J.-.3,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

*J?-.%R?-;R.-5.-.JA.-.?-?-*J?-:$R-2l3?,
1a Are the flowers beautiful in winter? .$/-.?-?-3J-+R$-.J-.$-36K?-?3,
1b Are horses strong and fat in autumn in Qinghai? 35S-}R/-.-!R/-.?-?-g-,3?-&.->->J.-o?-0-AJ-<J.,

1 Everything begins to grow in spring.

.$/-.?-/A-1=-(J<-^-2&-$&A$-0-/?-^-.%-0R:A-2<-<J.,
2a I read Tibetan from seven to eight every morning. /3-o/-8R$?-0:A-.?-5S.-2./-/?-2o.-2<-.-%?-2R.-;A$[R$-0-;A/,
2b It’s far from Beijing to Tibet. 0J-&A/-/?-2R.-uR%?-2<-.-,$-<A%-0R-:.$

2 Winter is from about November to January.

HR.-GA?-&A:A-KA<-<%-$A-2=-$R?-.J-3A-1.-.3,
3a Why don’t you herd livestock in the mountains? HR.-GA?-&A:A-KA<-<A-3$R-/?-9R$-3A-:5S-2-;A/,
3b Why don’t you want to go to Lhasa with Cairang? HR.-<%-&A:A-KA<-5K-<A%-.%-3*3-.-z-?<-:PR-3A-:.R.-0-;A/,

3 Why don’t you take off your sweater?

=R-<J:A-{2?-:.A<-.J-/A-AR-?A-O-<J?-=A?-;-.%-H.-0<-(J/-0R-;R.,
4a City life is very different from countryside life. PR%-HJ<-IA-:5S-2-/A-8A%-PR%-$A-:5S-2-.%-H.-0<-(J/-0R-;R.,
4b This horse is different from that one. g-:.A-$/-.%-3A-35%?,

4 It’s very different from Australia at this time of year.

3J-+R$-$A?-#R-3R:C-PR$?-3R<-3A%?-2:A-:UA/-;A$-:.A-=-vR?,
5a I want to travel from Qinghai to other Tibetan places. %-<%-35S-}R/-/?-2R.-GA-?-#=-$8/-.$-=-$/?-2{R<-.-:
PR-:.R.,
5b This river flows from India to Nepal. (-2R-:.A-/A-o-$<-/?-2=-;=-=-28<-2-<J.,

5 Look at this letter from Meduk to her friend.

HR.-GA?-;A-$J-2{<-2<-2!:-SA/-(J,
6a Thank you for coming to see me. 2.$-=-v-<-;R%-2<-2!:-SA/-(J,
6b Thank you for your help. HJ.-GA?-<R$?-<3-L?-0<-2!:-SA/-(J,

6 Thank you for your letter.

▪103▪

.JA.-.?-?-/3-^-)J-SR-.%-*A/-3R-)J-<A%-.-:PR-2-<J.,
=R-<J-<J<-#R-2R->-o$?-0R<-:I<-2-.%-#R-3R->-<A.-0R<-:I<-28A/-

7 The weather gets warmer and the days get longer in spring.
7a He gets fatter and she gets thinner every year.

;R.,
7b The population of Sichuan gets larger and the farmland gets smaller.

?A-OR/-.-3A-P%?-)J-3%-.-:PR-2-.%-?-

8A%-)J-(%-.-:PR-28A/-;R.,
.L<-#-/A-.JA.-!:A-eJ?-?-5$?-0-<J.,
8a Autumn comes after summer. !R/-/A-.L<-#:A-eJ?-?-5$?-0-<J.,

8 Summer comes after spring.

%-<%-o/-.-(-n=-2<-/.<->.-.-/*-:6B/-.-:PR-2-;A/,
9a I often go home in the evening. %-<%-o/-.-.$R%-.?-?-;=-=-=R$-0-;A/,
9b She often goes to a temple to worship. #R-3R-o/-0<-z-#%-.-3)=-2<-:PR-2-<J.,

9 I often go swimming / skating / fishing.

=R-$&A$-$A-/%-(J?-:H$?-0:A-.?-5$?-/A-.$/-.?-;A/,
10a Qinghai Lake is the biggest lake in Central Asia. 35S-}R/-0R-/A-;-\A%-.2?-#=-.-(J?-(J-2:A-35S-<J.,
10b Musk is the most expensive product in Mahdo County. \-lA-/A-k-!R.-mR%-/?-,R/-m?-@-&%-l-(J/-8A$-<J.,

10 The coldest season of the year is winter.

11 Which season do you like best--spring, summer, autumn, orwinter?

.JA.-!.L<-#,!R/-!;%-/-.$/-#-

2&?-=?-HR.-<%-(J?-.$:-2:A-.?-5$?-/A-$%-;A/,
%?-A-3-/A-2.$-$A-HA3-.-3=-=?-=%?-0-(J?-}-2-;A/,
%-<%-2R.-GA-\-$8?-=-(J?-.$:,

11a My mother gets up earliest in my family.
11b I like Tibetan songs best.

%-<%-.JA.-!-=?-.L<-.?-=-.$:,
12a I prefer autumn to winter. %-<%-.$/-#-=?-!R/-!<-.$:,
12b She likes Cairang better than Zhaxi. #R-3R-2N->A?-=?-5K-<A%-=-.$:,

12 I like summer better than spring.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

HR.-<%-#R-3R<-2v-<-;R%-2-3-;A/-/3,
1b She prefers English to Tibetan, doesn’t she? #R-3R-2R.-;A$-=?-.LA/-;A$-=-.$:-2-;A/-0-3-<J.-.3,
1c Your father goes to herd livestock very early, doesn’t he? HR.-GA-A-1-}-3R-/?-9R$-:5S-<-:PR-2-3-<J.-.3,
1d The grassland is very beautiful in the morning, isn’t it? 8R$?-.?-GA-C-,%-/A-@-&%-36K?-#$-w/-0-3-<J.-.3,
1e You’re not a Tibetan student, are you? HR.-/A-2R.-<A$?-aR2-3-8A$-3-<J.,HR.-AJ-<J.,
1a You are coming to see her, aren’t you?

▪104▪

Unit 17 What’s the weather like today?
#J-5/-2&-2./-0, .J-<A%-$A-$/3-$>A?-)A-:S-<J.,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 What is the weather like today? .J-<A%-$A-$/3-$>A?-)A-:S-<J.,
It’s going to be / get warmer. $/3-$>A?-)J-SR<-:PR-o-<J.,
It’s sunny / cloudy / rainy / windy / snowy. *A-3-SR-2/3A/-3%-0/(<-:22-0/_%-$;$?-0/#-2-:22-0,
2 What’s the date today? .J-<A%-5K?-.-<J.,
3 What a cold day! )A-:S:A-:H$?-0:A-*A/-3R-8A$
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

_%-S$-0R:A-%%-$;$-28A/-:.$
1a The sun is shining brightly. *A-3-@-&%-SR,
1b It’s raining heavily. (<-2-S$-0R-:22-28A/-:.$
1c He’s suffering terribly. #R?-%R-3?-#$-MR%-28A/-:.$

1 The wind is blowing strongly.

&%-3-:$R<-2<-/3-^-)J-SR<-:PR-o-<J.,
2a You will find Dondrup a good student later on. &%-3-:$R<-2<-HR.-GA?-.R/-:P2-aR2-3-29%-2R-8A$-;A/-0-gR$?,2,
2b The yaks are not fat, but they will be fatter later on. $;$-.J-5S<->->J.-3J.,;A/-;%-&%-3A-:$R<-2<->->J.-o?%J?,

2 It’s going to be warmer later on.

3 The best time to come to China is in spring or autumn.

N%-$R<-;R%-2:A-(J?-29%-2:A-.?-5$?-/A-.JA.-!:3-!R/-!-

<J.,
3a The most interesting way to go to Lhasa is walking on foot.

b%-,%-.-z-?<-2PR.-0-/A-(J?-3R-$%-w/-0:A-:PR-

,2?->A$-<J.,
3bThe best student in my class is Huadan.

.0=-w/-/A-%-5S-:6B/-9:A-(J?-29%-2R:A-aR2-3-;A/,

4 I don’t like winter because there is too much snow and ice.

%-<%-.$/-#<-3A-.$:-!J,o-35/-/A-#-2-.%-:H$?-

.<-3%-0?-?R,
4a I like spring best because there’re many beautiful flowers.

%-<%-(J?-.$:-2-/A-.JA.-!-;A/,o-35/-/A-36K?-

#$-w/-0:A-3J-+R$-3%-0R:C-KA<,
#R-<%-3=-=?-=%?-:KA-2?-eJ?-?-=?,
4c I love summer because I like swimming. %-.L<-.?-=-.$:,o-35/-/A-%-(-=-n=-2<-.$:-2?-?R,
4b He’s late because he got up late.

▪105▪

HR.-GA?-$R/-0-SR/-0R-3%-0R-IR/-.$R?,
5a You don’t need to come if you feel sick. HR.-=-/-5-L%-;R.-/-3-;R%-/:%-(R$
5b You don’t need to herd livestock if it snows. #-2-22?-/-HR.-GA?-K$?-:5S-3A-.$R?,

5 You need to wear lots of warm clothes.

6 The seasons of the year in Britain and the USA are nearly the same.

.LA/-)A-.%-A-<A:A-o=-#2-$*A?-GA-=R-<J:A-

.?-5$?-1=-(J<-$&A$-35%?-<J.,
6a The landscapes in Tibet and Qinghai are nearly the same.

2R.-uR%?-.%-35S-}R/-IA-;=-uR%?-1=-(J<-$&A$-

35%?-<J.,
6b His answer and mine are the same.

#R:A-SA?-=/-%:A-.J-.%-$&A$-35%?-<J.,

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Nouns

3A%-5B5B$

Adjectives (R?-2eR
2eR.-GAGA-5B5B$

sun *A-3,

sunny *A-3-SR-2:A,

wind _%-,

windy_%-$;$?-0:A,

cloud3A/,

cloudy3A/-:,A2?-0:A,

snow #-2,

snowy#-2:A-$;R$?-0:A,

health$9$?-$8A-2.J-0R,

healthy2.J-,%-.-$/?-0:A,

anger#R%-OR-=%?-0,

angry#R%-OR-=%?-0:A,

hope<J-2,

hopeful<J-2?-#J%?-0,

beauty36K?-#$

beautiful36K?-0:A,

Adjectives(R?-2eR
2eR.-GAGA-5B5B$

Adverbs 2$/-5B
5B$

quick 3IR$?-0R,

quicklyM<-3R:C-%%-,

heavytA-3R,

heavilytA-3R:C-%%-,

bright$?=-2,

brightly$?=-2R:C-%%-,

careful?J3?-(%-,

carefully?J3?-(%-|R?,

happy .$:-2,

happily.$:-3R:A-%%-,

usualo/-.,

usually.?-o/-.,

strong Y-2,

stronglyY-3OJ$?-|R?,

▪106▪

Unit 18Come to the party!
#J-5/-2&R-2o.-0, .$%-5S$?-=-1J2?-<R$?,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Thank you very much for asking me to the party. HJ.-GA?-%-<%-.$R%-5S$?-?-$./-:SJ/-8?-0<-2!:-SA/->A/-+-(J,
2 Happy birthday! *J?-{<-=-gJ/-:VJ=-8,
3 Here is your present. :.A-/A-HJ.-GA-=J$?-*J?-;A/,
4 I’m sure he would love to come. %?-#R-<%-;R%-:.R.-0-#$-,J$-LJ.-,2,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

%-.$R%-5S$?->A$-=-:PR-o,
2 I’m going to have breakfast / lunch / supper. %?-/%?-)-/SR?-)-/.$R%-)-:,%-o,
3 I’m going to water my horse. %?-g-=-(-w.-o,
4 A: Would you like to come? HR.-<%-;R%-:.R.-.3,
B: Sure. I would love to come. =R?-:.R.,%-;R%-:.R.,
4a A: Would you like more tsamba. HR.-GA?-l3-0-3%-43-9-:.R.-.3,
B: No, thanks. I’m full. 3A/,2!:-SA/-(J,%-:P%?-:.$
5 I’m sorry I’m late. %-eJ?-?-=?-?R%-0?-,$?-o=-3-28J%?,
5a I’m sorry to hear that your mother was ill. HR.-GA-A-3<-/-2-,R?-0?-%:A-?J3?-0-*R,
5b I’m sorry you can’t go there with Tibetan students. ,$?-o=-3-28J%?,HR.-?-.J<-2R.-<A$?-aR2-3-.%-3*3-.:PR-3A-(R$
6 Everything was ready. 5%-3-P-1A$-L?-9A/,
6a Zhaxi, is dinner ready? I’m hungry. 2N->A?,.$R%-)-P-1A$-L?-;R.-.3,%:A-1R-2-vR$?-$A
6b Is your family ready for the New Year? HJ.-5%-$A?-=R-$?<-=-P-1A$-L?-;R.-.3,
7 All the food was on the table. 9-3-;R.-5.-&R$-4K-!J%-.-;R.,
7a All the female yaks are in the shed. :VA-5%-3-/R<-G:A-/%-.-;R.,
7b All the apples are in the fridge. !->-5%-3-:H$-|3-/%-.-;R.,
8 Oncu felt very happy. :R-35S<-@-&%-.$:-$%-*J?,
8a The grassland is very big. C-,%->A/-.-(J,
8b Zhaxi looks like his father. 2N->A?-#R-2R:C-A-1-.%-<A$-:S-<J.,
9 Cairang ran to the door and found Dorji outside. 5K-<A%-|R-KR$?-?-o$?-+J-hR-eJ-|R-/-;R.-0->J?,
9a Look! Some boys are playing football outside. vR?-.%-,2-(%-:$?-KA-<R=-.-b%-lJ.-%R-=R-lJ.-28A/-;R.,
9b Let’s meet outside the school. %-5S-aR2-9:A-KA-<R=-.-,$
1 I’m going to have a party.

▪107▪

%?-HR.-GA-:S-0<-=-vR?-/-AJ-(R$
8a You can come later than you did yesterday. HR.-#-?%-=?-.=-3R-L?-+J-;R%-(R$
8b You can’t herd sheep in the early morning, you can herd them later. :.A-:S:A-}-3R-8A$-/?-HJ.-GA?-=$-:
5S-3A-*/,&%-43-:$R<-eJ?-:5S?-/-(R$
11 There is no time. .?-5S.-3J.,
11a I have no money with me today. .J-<A%-%:A-=$-+-|R<-3R-3J.,
11b I have no time to go there with you. %-HJ.-.%-3*3-.-?-.J<-:PR-2:A-.?-5S.-3J.,
12 She wears a beautiful flower in her hair. #R-3R?-0-/%-.-36K?-0:A-3J-+R$-8A$-$?J2-;R.,
12a Meduk wears a warm Tibetan robe. 3J-+R$-$A?-2R.-H-SR/-0R-8A$-IR/-;R.,
13 May I have some dry yak meat? %?-/R<->-{3-0R-:$:-29:-(R$-$3,
13a May I come? %-;R%-/-(R$-$3,
13b May I take this book to my home? %?-.0J-(-:.A-;=-=-:HJ<-(R$-$3,
13c May I have another bowl of yoghurt, please? %?-.-<%-8R-.!<-;R=-$%-:,%-/-(R$-$3,
10 Can I have a look at your picture?

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Using “would like.” || “Would like”;A-2!R=-!%?,
1 ,R$-3<-$>3-IA-.0J<-2eR.-$*A?-=-vR?-.%-,
1a I am thirsty. I would like a bottle of water.
1b I am thirsty. I want a bottle of water.
“Would like”8J?-0:A-/%-.R/-/A“want”.%-1=-(J<-35%?-0-3-9.-2lA-2!<-IA-2eR.-YR=-8A$-;A/,:.A-=-H.-(R?-:$:-;R.-0-

$>3-v<,
1c .J-3A-$-$?3-0-.%-3*3-.-.R<-{2?-eJ?-?“-s”.R<-3A-.$R?,
1d He would like some tea.
1e She would like some tea.
“Would like”/A-#-{.-/%-.-o/-w/-IA-2#?-/?-2!R=-(R$-0-;A/,
1f I’d / she’d / he’d / they’d / we’d like a glass of tea.
“Would like”:.A-o?-2>.-GA-i3-0:A-{2?-?-LJ.-0-0R:A-eJ?-?-.R<-.$R?-+J-5B$-$A-P2-!%?-/A-“LJ.-0-0R-+would like+L-

2:A
2:A-;=”v<-;A/,
1g I would like some tea.
1h He would like some tea.
1i You would like some tea.

:SA-5B$-$A-{2?-?“Would”LJ.-0-0R:A-}/-.-:)R$-.$R?,
1j Would you like some milk tea?
1k Would he like some milk tea?
1l Would she like some milk tea?
▪108▪

SA?-=/-IA-{2?“I would”8J?-=/-2+2-(R$
1m I would you like some milk tea.
1n You would like some milk tea.
1o He would like some milk tea.
2 “Would like”2!R=-/?-3-:R%?-2:A-.?-$%-<%-8A$-$A-/%-.- L-2-$%-8A$-212-:.R.-0-!R/-(R$-0-;A/-+J-.J:A-,A<-2+%-$A-5B$-$A-P2-

!%?-/A“LJ.-00-0R0R+would like+to+L-5B5B$-$A$A-ll-2:A
2:A-i3i3-0”;A/,
2a Would you like to go to Lhasa? HR.-z-?-<-:PR-:.R.-.3,
2b I would love to go. %-<%-:PR-:.R.,
2c A: Would you like to come to my birthday party? HR.-<%-2.$-$A-*J?-{<-IA-.$R%-5S$?-?-1J2?-:.R.-.3,
B: Sure. I would love to come. =R?-;R.,%-<%-;R%-:.R.,
2d A: Would you like to come to have dinner with me?HR.-<%-%-.%-3*3-.-.$R%-9?-29:-2<-;R%-:.R.-.3,
B: Sorry. I’m afraid I wouldn’t. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,%?-2v?-/-%-<%-;R%-,2-o-3-<J.,

▪109▪

Unit 19 A weather report
#J-5/-2&-.$-0,$/3-$>A?-}R/-2h,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 It will get better soon. &%-3A-:$R<-2<-)J-29%-.-:PR-%J?,
2 Will it last long?

.J-.?-5S.-<A%-0R-8A$-:$R<-.$R?-?3,

3 Don’t say that before you look at the picture.
4 Nice to see you.

:S-0<-.J<-3-vR?-}R/-.J-v<-3-2>.,

HR.-.%-:U.-0?->A/-+-3R,

5 I know why you came.
6 What bad weather!

%?-HR.-&A:A-KA<-;R%-2->J?,

)A-:S:A-$/3-$>A?-%/-0-8A$

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 The radio says the sun will come out later.
1a The moon has come out.

1-#.-:#R<-=R<-$8A$?-/-&%-3A-:$R<-2<-*A-3-><-o-<J.,

^-2-><-L%-,

1b I don’t think the marmot will come out of its hole today because there is a big dog sniffing
outside the hole. HA-(J/-0R-8A$-$A?-#%-2:A-KA-/-$R3-28A/-:.$-0?-%?-:KA-2-.J-.J-<A%-KA<-3A-;R%-~3,
2 The radio says the clouds will lift quite quickly.

1-#.-:#R<-=R:A-/%-2>.-0-v<-/-&%-3A-:$R<-2<-$/3-%R-?%?-2<-:

I<-o-<J.-9J<,
c/-0R-.J?-&%-3A-:$R<-2<-$/3-$>A?-)J-29%-.-:PR-o-<J.-9J<,
2b The radio says it’s going to be windy tomorrow. 1-#.-:#R<-=R?-2>.-0-v<-/-?%-*A/-_%-$;$-o-<J.-9J<,
2a The old man says the weather will be nice soon.

%-5S:A-2f/-:UA/-$9:-:#R<-}R/-3<-($-?R%-,
3a I don’t know the time, because my watch is broken. %:A-(-5S.-:#R<-=R<-($-*R/-L%-;R.-2?-.?-5S.-.-;A/-0-3A>J?,
3b He didn’t do morning exercise because his leg is broken. #R:C-b%-2-2&$-;R.-0?-#R-8R$?-l=-3-lJ.,

3 Our TV set was broken last week.

.J<-b%-,%-.-?R%-/-{<-3-2&-3-$+R$?-3A-.$R?,
4a It’s easier to say than to do. 12-0-=?-2>.-0-a,
4b It’s important to learn English well. .LA/-;A$-=J$?-0<-.R%-o-$=-(J,

4 It’ll take only ten minutes to walk there.

▪110▪

HR.-&A:A-KA<-;R%-2-%?->J?,
5a I didn’t know you were here. %?-HR.-:.A-/-;R.-0-3->J?,
5b I don’t know why Zhaxi dislikes watching TV. %?-2N->A?-&A:A-KA<-2f/-:UA/-=-2v-o<-3A-.$:-2-3A->J?,

5 I know why you came.

HR?-<%-$A-2f/-:UA/-KA<-=J/-:.R.-0-3-;A/-/3,
6a Your parents go to herd livestock early every morning, don’t they? HR.-GA-1-3-$*A?-*A/-o/-/%?-}-3R<K$?-9R$-:5S-<-:PR-2-3-;A/-/3,
6b You don’t know what this word means, do you? HR.-GA?-3A%-5B$-:.A:A-.R/-&A-;A/-0-3A->J?,HR.-GA?->J?-?3,

6 You want to get your TV set back, don’t you?

;=-=-3-=R$-}R/-.-%?-=?-L-212?-9A/,
7a You must wash your hands before you eat. HR.-GA?-9-3-3-9R?-}R/-.-%J?-0<-.-=$-0-2N-.$R?,
7b I got up yesterday before the sun rose. #-?%-%-*A-3-3-><-$R%-.-3=-=?-=%?-0-;A/,

7 I finished my homework before I went home.

8 Let’s go for a walk.

%-5S-3R-:(3-8A$-=-:PR,
%-.?-o/-.$R%-)-:,%-eJ?-KA-<R=-.-3R-:(3-=-:PR-2-;A/,
%-5S-;=-=-:PR%-5S-3A-.3%?-,A-\A%-.-:PR

8a I usually go out for a walk after supper.
8b Let’s go home. Let’s go to the park.

%-5S?-aR2-9:A-|R-(J/-KA-<R=-/?-HR.-=-|$
9a Please go first, I have to wait for Cairang. HR.-}R/-=-?R%-,%?-5K-<A%-=-|$-.$R?,

9 We’ll wait for you outside the school gate.

9b Meduk, your friend is waiting for you outside.

3J-+R$HJ.-GA-PR$?-0R?-KA-<R=-.-HR.-=-|$-:.$

$/%?-*A/-/A-$9:-*A-3-;A/,
10a It was Teachers’ Day yesterday. #-?%-/A-.$J-c/-IA-.?-(J/-<J.,
10b It’ll be rainy tomorrow. ?%-*A/-(<-2-:22-o-<J.,

10 The day after tomorrow will be Sunday.

$9:-:#R<-eJ?-3<-.LA/-;A$-$A-o$?-8A$-=J/-o-<J.,
11a There will be snow tonight in Qinghai. 35S-}R/-=-.R-.$R%-#-2-:22-o-<J.,
11b There will be a meeting this afternoon. KA-SR-:5S$?-:.-8A$-;R.-%J?,

11 There will be an English test next week.

▪111▪

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Using “Will” || “Will”;A-2!R=-!%?,

.J-;%“Will”2!R=-/?-3-:R%?-2:A-.?-$%-<%-8A$-$A-/%-.R/-.$-$-$J-3R-8A$-:L%-2<-:I<-2-.%-212-o-;A/-0-!R/-0-8A$-;A/,
1“Will”;A-eJ?-?-L-5B$-$A-l-2:A-i3-0-.R<-.$R?,
1a They will go to Lhasa next year. $9:-:#R<-eJ?-3<-#R-5S-z-?<-:PR-o-<J.,
1b He will have a party tonight. .R-.$R%-#R<-.$R%-:5S$?-8A$-;R.-0-<J.,
2“Will”;A-eJ?-?“+to eat”v-2-!J-i3-0-%J?-3J.-GA-L-5B$-.R<-3A-<%-,
2a She will come back three weeks later. (:PA$) $9:-:#R<-$?3-IA-eJ?-?-#R-3R-KA<-;R%-o-<J.,
2b I will to go to school tomorrow. (/R<)
3“Will”/A-52-5B$-.%-3*3-.-.<-5K-2#?-:VA-L?-(R$-!J,
I’ll, she’ll, he’ll, they’ll, we’ll, you’ll.
5“Will”;A-.$$-1:A-i3-0-/A“will not=won’t";A/,
5a They will hold a sports meeting the day after tomorrow.
5b We won’t leave before nine.

%-5S-.?-5S.-.$:A-}R/-.-#-3A-:V=,

▪112▪

$/%?-*A/-#R-5S?-=?-l=-5S$?-:.-8A$-2#-o-<J.,

Unit 20 What do English people eat?
#J-5/-*A->-0,.LA/-)A-2?-&A-8A$-29:-2-<J.,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 I have no idea. %-=-,2?-2!R.-3J.,%?-3A->J?,
2 It’s my favourite. .J-/A-%:A-.$:-KR$?-;A/,
3 Could you pass me the salt, please? HJ.-GA?-D-.J-%-=-!J<-,2-23,
4 In England, people eat fish and chips. .LA/-)A-<-3A-5%-3?-*->-.%-2$-=J2-9-2-;A/,
5 In Tibetan places, people eat tsamba and meat. 2R.-;=-.-3A-5%-3?-l3-0-.%->-9-2-;A/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

5K-<A%-.R-.$R%-;R%-o-<J.,
1a Look! The bus is coming. vR?-.%-,_%?-:#R<-,R/-,=,
1b I’m going to Lhasa on Monday. %-<%-$9:-^-2:A-*A/-z-?<-:PR-o-;A/,

1 Cairang’s coming tonight.

.J-<A%-KA-SR-HJ.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-%-=-9?-$;R-<R$?-LJ.-.$R?,
2a Can you help me move the heavy box? HJ.-GA?-%-=-<R$?-L?-+J-|3-(%-uA.-3R-:.A-|=-,2-23,
2b Zhaxi often helps his parents do the housework. 2N->A?-GA?-/3-o/-1-3<-<R$?-L?-+J-HA3-=?-=?-0-<J.,

2 You must help me do the cooking this afternoon.

.J-/A-%:A-.$:-KR$?-;A/,
3a Tsamba is my favourite food. %-<%-(J?-.$:-2:A-9-3-/A-l3-0-;A/,
3b Dorri is my favourite Tibetan singer. hR-<J.-/A-%-<%-(J?-.$:-2:A-2R.-<A$?-\-2-;A/,

3 It’s my favourite.

%-5S?-#R-3R<-9?-<A$?-3A-$&A$-0-8A$-9-<-:)$
4a I have a few words to say on this question. :SA-$8A-:.A<-%-=-2>.-o-5B$-:$:-;R.,
4b Stop talking, I have something important to tell you. #-<R$?-#R.-.%-,%-HJ.-=-.R/-.$-$=-(J/-8A$-2>.-o;R.,

4 Let’s give her something different to eat.

5 A: Would you like a cup of tea?
B: Yes, please.

HR.-GA?-)-.!<-;R=-$%-:,%-/-:.R.-.3,

:.R.-$A

HR.-GA?-:R-3->J=-1R<-$%-:,%-/-:.R.-.3,
B: No, I’d like some water. 3A/,%?-(-:,%-/-:.R.-$A
5b A: Would you like something to drink? HR.-GA?-:,%-o-:S-:.R.-.3, 
B: No, thanks. 3A/,2!:-SA/-(J,
5a A: Would you like a glass of milk?

▪113▪

.J-.J-=?-8A3-3%<-w/-0-#R-,$-;A/,
6a He must be right. #R-:PA$-0-#R-,$-;A/,
6b I must go to the train station. %-%J?-0<-.-3J-:#R<-?-5$?-=-:PR-.$R?,

6 It must be more delicious!

HR.-GA?-1-3-$*A?-=-#-2h-L?-eJ?-%-=-#-0<-8A$-$+R%-<R$?,
7a Please write a letter to me after you arrive in America. HR.-<%-A-3J-<-#<-,R/-eJ?-2.$-=-;A-$J-8A$-2{<-<R$?,
7b He asked me to bring some butter when I come to school. #R?-%-<%-aR2-9<-;R%-.?-3<-8A$-:HJ<->R$-9J<,

7 Please give me a ring after you talk to your parents.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 Which is the most delicious, beef, mutton, or tsamba?

1$->,=$->-.%-l3-0-=?-(J?-8A3-0-$%-<J.,

LA-=-=?-!$-*J/-#-(J,
3 Which is more popular, horse-racing or yak-racing? g-o$?-.%-$;$-o$?-=?-.<-H2-(J-2-$%-<J.,
4 Zhaxi is taller than Cairang. 2N->A?-/A-5K-<A%-=?-$9$?-<A%-,
5 You have much more ability in written Tibetan than I do. 2R.-;A$-VA?-/-HR.-%-=?-29%-,
2 A tiger is more dangerous than a cat.

▪114▪

Unit 21 Mainly revision
#J-5/-*J<-$&A$-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

%?-HR.-=-&A-8A$-212-.$R?,
2 I need to do some shopping. %-5S%-o$-0<-:PR-.$R?,
3 The children played happily in the park. ,A-\A%-.-LA?-0-i3?-.$:-3R:A-%%-lJ.-3R-lJ.,
3a I made some dumplings last night. 3.%-.$R%-%?-(-24S?-5S.-3-:$:-=?,
4 Do it carefully, don’t be nervous! 8A2-5$?-GA?-12?-.%-:52-(-3-=%?,
1 What can I do for you?

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

#R-3R?-.$R%-5S$?-=-P-1A$-LJ.-/-:.R.,
1a Doma’s mother is getting ready for the temple meeting. 1R=-3:A-3-=R?-.$R/-0:A-(R?-5S$?-=-P-1A$-LJ.-28A/;R.,
1b The herdsmen are getting ready for the New Year. :VR$-0-i3?-GA?-=R-$?<-=-P-1A$-LJ.-28A/-;R.,

1 She wanted to get ready for the party.

3A-5%-3-L->-=-.$:-2-3-<J.,
2a Not every student can answer the question. aR2-3-;R.-5.-GA?-SA-2-:.A:A-SA?-=/-:.J2?-,2-0-3-<J.,
2b Not everyone envies her. 5%-3?-#R-3R<-U$-.R$-LJ.-0-3-<J.,

2 Not everyone likes chicken.

3 We’ll need one more.

%-5S<-.-<%-$&A$-.$R?,

3a What delicious candy! I want one more piece.

)A-:S:A-!-<-3%<-3R-8A$%-=-.-<%-$&A$-.$R?,

4 The students are cleaning the classroom. Some are sweeping the floor. The others are cleaning the
windows and doors. aR2-PR$?-i3?-GA?-aR2-#%-=-$4%-4-LJ.-28A/-;R.,=-=?-,%-=-$.-2.<-LJ.-28A/-;R.,$8/-i3?-

GA?-|R-.%-S-3-:KA.-28A/-;R.,
4a Here are three pencils. One is red, another is blue, the third is yellow.

:.A-/-8-/$-$?3-;R.,$&A$-/A-

.3<-0R-;A/,$&A$-/A-}R/-0R-.%-$8/-8A$-/A-?J<-0R-;A/,
4b My family has a large number of livestock that includes yaks, sheep, and horses.

$?3-:.?-0:A-|R-9R$-3%-0R-;R.,

▪115▪

%J.-5%-=-g-/R<-=$-

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

)A-:S:A-w3-G-36K?-0R-8A$
2 How delicious the food is! )A-:S:A-9-3-8A3-0R-8A$
3 How well you sing! HR.-GA-{.-)A-:S:A-;$-0-=,
4 What a funny man he is! #R-/A-)A-:S:A-3A-3R-2-w/-0-8A$-<J.,
5 What an interesting film it is! )A-:S:A-\R$-2f/-;$-0R-8A$
6 What beautiful girls they are! 2-3R-.J-5S-)A-:S:A-36K?-0-=,
1 How beautiful the garden is!

▪116▪

Unit 22 What a good, kind girl
#J-5/-*J<-$*A?-0,&A-:S:A-2-3R-L3?-=-29%-2-8A$
Useful Expressions o/-,R.-5B$-.R<,
1 Which is the way to the bus-station, please? _%?-:#R<-?-5$?-=-:PR-2:A-=3-$%-<J.,
2 What’s the matter? .R/-&A-8A$-<J.,
3 Go down this street. Y%-=3-:.A-=?-3<-=-?R%-,
4 How can I get to the Yak Hotel? %-<%-$;$-3PR/-#%-.-)A-v<-:PR-.$R?,
5 What a kind girl! &A-:S:A-2-3R-L3?-?J3?-&/-8A$
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Excuse me, where is the Qinghai Hotel, please?

.$R%?-0-5S3-=$?,35S-}R/-3PR/-#%-$%-.-;R.-.3,

HJ.-GA-;=-$%-/-;R.,
1b How do you get home? HR.-;=-=-)A-v<-:PR-2-;A/,
1c Where do your parents live? HJ.-GA-1-3-$*A?-!-$%-.-2#.-;R.-.3,
1a Where is your home?

HJ.-<%-=3-:.A:A-$J-3R<-,$-<$-2<-.-?R%-,
2a They reached Lhasa two weeks ago. #R-5S-$9:-:#R<-$*A?-GA-}R/-.-z-?<-:LR<,
2b You must wait until I come back. %-KA<-,R/-<$-2<-.-HR.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-|$-.$R?,
2c A: When will you get to Qinghai Lake? /3-8A$-=-HR.-<%-35S-}R/-0R<-:LR<-%J?,
B: I’ll get there tomorrow. ?%-*A/-%-<%-.J<-,R/-%J?,

2 Go down this way until you reach the end.

3 The address was on a piece of paper, but I can’t find it now. ?-3A%-.J->R$-zJ2-&A$-$A-!J%-.-;R.,:R/-G%-.-v-%?-

.J-3A-fJ.,
2N->A?-GA?-z-3R:C-.?-5S.-fJ.-0?-#R-3R?-#R-=-2!:-SA/-8?,
3b I looked for my watch everywhere, but I couldn’t find it. %?-<%-$A-.?-5S.-.J-$%-;A/-?<-24=-3R.,:R/-G%3-fJ.,

3a Zhaxi found Lhamo’s watch, so she thanked him.

L-2-.J-:P2-0<-HJ.-=-.?-5S.-KJ.-!-.$R?,
4a. How long does it take you to go to school? HR.-aR2-9<-:PR-2<-.?-5S.-.-.$R?,
4b It takes me twenty minutes. {<-3-*A->-.$R?,

4 It’ll take you half an hour.

▪117▪

.J-HR.-GA-#$-3-/%-3:A-/%-.-;R.-YA.,
5a Let’s ask that old man. He may know. %-5S?-c/-0R-$/-=-:SA-.%-,#R?-1=-(J<->J?-YA.,
5b He goes to work on foot. So do I. #R-b%-,%-$A?-L-2<-:PR-2-;A/,%-;%-$&A$-0-;A/,

5 It may be in your inside pocket.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Using “may.” || “may”;A-2!R=-5=,
1“LJ.-00-0R0R+may+L-5B5B$” ;A/-0:A-{2?-?-L-2-$%-8A$-3-:R%?-0<-:L%-YA.-0-!R/-0-!J,
1a I may go herding tomorrow? ?%-*A/-%-<%-K$?-:5S-2<-:PR-YA.,

:.A:A-.$$-1:A-i3-0-/A“LJ.-00-0R0R+may+not+L-5B5B$”;A/,
2b I may not go herding tomorrow.
2“May’’;A-2!R=-5=-$8/-8A$-/A-2lA-2!<-IA?-|R-/?-L-2-$%-8A$-212-(R$-3A/-:SA-2-$>3-v<,
2a May I come in? %-<%-/%-.-;R%-/-(R$-$3,
2b May I borrow your pen?%?-HR.-GA-t$?-/$-$;<-/-(R$-$3,
2c May I have a look at the picture?%?-:S-0<-.J<-2v?-/-(R$-$3,
3“May”.%“will”/3-;A/-;%-3*3-.-2!R=-3A-(R$

▪118▪

Unit 23 You mustn’t play on the road
#J-5/-*J<-$?3-0,HR.-<%-=3-/%-.-lJ.-3A-<%-,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

O$-2>J<-3-L?-$R%-HR.-GA?-#-9?-&A-;%-9-3A-<%-,
2 If you don’t go soon, you’ll be late. HR.-M<-2<-3-?R%-/-eJ?-?-=?-%J?,
3 You must wait for your turn. HR?-%J?-0<-.-<%-$A-<J?-,R/-<$-2<-.-|$-.$R?,
4 If you aren’t careful, a car may hit you. $=-+J-HR.-GA?-?J3?-(%-3-L?-/-_%?-:#R<-8A$-$A?-o$-%J?,
1 You mustn’t eat anything before the blood test.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

HR.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-?J3?-(%-LJ.-.$R?,
1a Must I finish my homework before supper? %?-%J?-0<-.-.$R%-):A-}R/-=-=?-L-5<-.$R?-?3,
1b Must Zhaxi clean the classroom before class? 2N->A?-GA?-%J?-0<-.-aR2-OA.-GA-}R/-=-aR2-#%-.-$4%-.$-LJ..$R?-?3,

1 You must be careful.

HR.-GA?-aR2-.R%-=-:2.-0-L?-/-o$?-:UR.-%J?,
2a If you get up late, you will be late for school. HR.-<%-=%?-:KA-/-aR2-OA.-GA-eJ?-?-=?-%J?,
2b If you do that again, you will be sorry. HR.-GA?-.-.%-.J-v<-212-5K,HR.-<%-:IR.-%J?,

2 If you study hard, you may pass the exam.

.J<-?R%-/-*J/-#-@-&%-(J,
3a I’m too busy to write to you often. %-<%-@-&%-VJ=-2-(J-2?,.?-o/-HR.-=-;A-$J-2{<-3A-,2,
3b It’s too hard to move this big box. |3-(J/-0R-.J-1<-2$<-o-/A-@-&%-#$-0R-<J.,

3 It’s too dangerous to go there.

P=-3$R-/-;R.-0-/A-c/-0R-=R-=R/-8A$-;A/,
4a She is short, so she is standing at the head of the queue. #R-3R:C-$9$?-,%-2?-P=-3$R<-=%?-:.$
4b My home is near Lhasa City. %:A-1-;=-z-?-PR%-HJ<-.%-,$-*J,

4 At the head of the queue was an old man.

3A-5%-3?-2.-3J.-.J:A-*R/-=-OJ=-.$R.-L?,
5a Don’t laugh at others when they are in trouble. 3A-$8/-.!:-#$-=-,$-;R.-.?-OJ=-.$R.-3-LJ.,
5b He was laughed at by his friends. #R:C-PR$?-0R-5S?-#R-=-OJ=-.$R.-L?,

5 Everyone laughed at the woman’s mistake.

(/-0<-3-2!J/-0:A-}R/-.-HR.-GA?-&A-;%-9-3A-<%-,
6a He didn’t go to bed until 9 o’clock. .?-5S.-.$-=- ,R/-<$-2<-.-#R-<%-3-*=,
6b I won’t understand it until you explain it to me. HR?-:PJ=-2>.-3-L?-2<-.-%?-.J:A-.R/-3A-gR$?,

6 You mustn’t eat anything until you see a doctor.

▪119▪

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Using “must.”|| “must”;A-2!R=-!%?,
“must”=-l-2:A-2!R=-!%?-i3-0-$*A?-;R.-.J-.%-2R-/A,
13A-$-$-$J-3R-8A$-$A-$>A?-!-.%-$/?-22?-?R$?-.J-:S-2-8A$-;A/-YA.-~3-0:A-5S.-.0$-LJ.-0-.0J<-/,
1a Ann plays basketball every day. She must like playing basketball. A/-/A-;A?-*A/-o/-.-r%-=A-lJ.-0?-3R-<%-

r%-=A-lJ.-o<-.$:-2-#R-,$-<J.,
2;A/-$&A$-3A/-$*A?-!J-%J?-0<-.-212-.$R?-0:A-L-2-!R/-0-.0J<-/,
2a You must buy a ticket. HR.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-%-?J-8A$-*R-.$R?,
2b You must go now. HR.-<%-%J?-0<-.-.-v-:PR-.$R?,
2c If you are ill, you must go to see the doctor. $=-+J-HR.-=-/-5-L%-5K-%J?-0<-.-(/-0<-!R/-.$R?,

▪120▪

Unit 24 What do you have to do?
#J-5/-*J<-28A-0,HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-LJ.-.$R?,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

%?-%J?-0<-.-LA?-0-:.A-=-2v-*R%-LJ.-.$R?,
2 She will come if she can. $=-+J-#R-3R-;R%-,2-/-3R-;R%-%J?,
3 Keep everything clean and tidy. ;R.-5.-$4%-.$-LJ.-.$R?,
4 I often feel tired. %-/3-o/-.-,%-(.-0-<J.,
5 If you do that, you’ll soon feel much healthier. $=-+J-HJ.-GA?-.J-v<-L?-5K,&%-3A-:$R<-2<-HR.-2.J-,%-.-:I<-%J?,
1 I have to look after the baby.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

%?-%J?-0<-.-<%-$A-#%-0<-$4%-4-LJ.-.$R?,
1a We have to get up early tomorrow. ?%-*A/-%-5S-%J?-0<-.-}-3R<-=%?-.$R?,
1b I have to do my homework at this moment. {2?-:.A<-%?-%J?-0<-.-=?-L-:VA-.$R?,
1c My mother is ill so I have to look after her at home. %:A-A-3-/-:.$-0?-%-<%-%J?-0<-.-HA3-/?-2#.-.J-#R-3R<2.$-*R%-LJ.-.$R?,

1 I have to tidy my room.

/3-o/-%?-HA3-=?-12-.?-%-<%-,%-(.-0-<J.,
2a Every time I catch a cold, I have headaches. .?-o/-%-=-(3-0-1R$-.?-%:A-3$R-/-2-<J.,
2b Every time I go to the temple, I smell burning incense. /3-o/-%-<%-.$R/-0<-:PR-.?,%?-2.$-%R?-1R/-0:ASA-3-5S<-,2,

2 Every time I do housework, I feel tired.

3 If I work in the garden, I have to sit down and rest everyfive minutes.

$=-+J-%?-w3-G:A-/%-%=-lR=-L?-5K-

{<-3-s-<J:A-/%-%J?-0<-.-3<-4S$-!J-%=-<J-$?R-.$R?,
,A-=J-$*A?-<J:A-353?-/-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-:22-5$?-<J-;R.,
3b Uncle Dorji goes to the temple every day. A-#-hR-eJ-*A/-o/-.$R/-0<-:PR
3a There is a bus stop every two kilometres.

4 What do you mean?

HR.-GA-/%-.R/-&A-8A$-;A/,

4a I mean you eat too much food, and you don’t exercise enough.

%?- 2>.- o<- HJ.- GA?- 9- 3- 3%- 0R- 9- 2- =?- =?-

1%-.R%-2h<-;$-0R-3A-LJ.,
4b I mean I can’t come here so early.

%?-2>.-o<-%-.J-:S:A-}-3R<-:.A<-;R%-3A-,2,

▪121▪

5 I will go instead of you.

%-HR.-GA-52-+-:PR
,A-\A%-=-:PR-2:A-52-+-%-5S-.$R/-0<-:PR-o-;A/,
2N->A?-GA?-35S-3R<-8-/$-&A$-$A-52-+-t$?-/$-&A$-LA/,

5a We’ll go to the temple instead of going to the park.
5b Zhaxi gave Cumu a pen instead of a pencil.
Grammar 2h-3R..!:-$/.,
Using “have to.” || “Have to”;A-2!R=-!%?,

‘‘Have to”;A-/%-.R/-/A-l-2:A-(-/?“must”.%-35%?-+J-nJ/-$8/-=-.3A$?-+J-L-2-(J-$J-3R-8A$-212-.$R?-L%-2-;A/-0-!R/-0,
“have to”;A-:.?-0:A-i3-0-/A“had to”;A/,
1 It’s too late, I have to go home. @-&%-:KA-2?-%-%J?-0<-.-;=-=-:PR-.$R?,
2 He has to work for fourteen hours a day. #R?-*A/-$&A$-=-.?-5S.-2&-28A:A-<A%-L-2-212-.$R?,
3 I lived very far from the school so I had to get up early.%-aR2-9-.%-@-&%-,$-<A%-?<-2#.-;R.-0?-%J?-0<-.-}-3R-

/?-=%?-.$R?,
4 You have to come here on time. HR.-<%-%J?-0<-.-.?-5S.-v<-$/?-:.A<-;R%-.$R?,

▪122▪

Unit 25 The visit to Monkey Island
#J-5/-*J<-s,3J:-\A%-U/-=-2v-{R<-.-KA/-0,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

HR.-GA?-&A-;%-3A-$R:3,
2 Don’t be afraid. 0$-3A-.$R?,
3 It’s time for our lunch. SR?-)-:,%-2:A-.?-5S.-=-,R/-:.$
4 Close the door. Keep the room warm. |R-.J-oR2-.%-,#%-0-SR/-0R-IA?,
5 Take it away! .J-1<-HJ<,
1 Can’t you hear anything?

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

A-#-.0=-w/-IA?-%-5S?-#R:C-g-$;<-(R$-9J<,
1a I’m going to borrow some English books from the library. %?-.0J-36S.-#%-/?-.LA/-;A$-$A-.0J-(-:$:-$;<o,
1b Don’t lend the bike to others. t$?-g-.J-$8/-=-3-$;R<,

1 Uncle Huadan said we could borrow his horse.

3R-$?J%-$+R%-2<-%?-29:-2+%-HJ<-;R%-o-;A/-/3,
2a Shall we go to your home? %-5S-HR.-GA-HA3-=-:PR-o-;A/-/3,
2b Shall we go to play football? %-5S-?R%-/?-b%-lJ.-%R-=R-lJ.-o-;A/-/3,
2c That’s a good idea. Let’s go. .J-/A-,2?-;$-0R-8A$-<J.,%-5S-:PR,

2 Shall I bring food for a picnic?

}R/-(.-%-5S-.J-=-$+/-/?-?R%-3-MR%-,
3a A: Have you ever been to Tibet? HR.-2R.-uR%?-?-?R%-MR%-%3,
B: Yes, I have. ?R%-MR%-,%-<%-?R%-MR%-,
A: Where is Dorri? hR-<J.-$%-/-;R.,
B: He has gone to Kumbum Monastery. #R-<%-{-:23-L3?-0-\A%-=-2.-?R%-,

3 We have never been there before.

HR.-GA?-&A-;%-3A-$R:3,
4a A: Do you have something to eat? HR.-=-9-o-;R.-.3,
B: Yes, but only a little bread. ;R.,:R/-G%-2$-=J2-&%-43-3-$+R$?-3J.,
A: Is there anybody in the dormitory room? *=-#%-.-3A-;R.-.3,
B: No, there is nobody in the dormitory room. 3J.,*=-#%-.-3A-$&A$-G%-3J.,
A: Are there any Tibetans at the cinema? \R$-2f/-#%-.-2R.-3A-;R.-.3,
B: Yes, there are some. ;R.,:$:-;R.,

4 Can’t you hear anything?

▪123▪

#R-3R-P:A-KR$?-=-o$?-:$R-2l3?,
5a They began to have class. #R-5S?-aR2-OA.-GA-:$R-2l3?,
5b Don’t forget to bring your Tibetan notebook. HR.-GA-2R.-;A$-$A-:VA-.J2-:HJ<-;R%-o-3-2eJ.,

5 She started to run to the boat.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,

.LA/-;A$-=J$?-0R-.R%-o-$=-(J,
2 They want to go out for a walk. #R-5S-KA-<R=-.-3R-:(3-LJ.-.-:PR-:.R.-0-<J.,
3 They went out to see what’s happening. #R-5S-KA-<R=-.-&A-8A$-L%-2<-2v-<-?R%-,
4 Did you see her dance at the party? HR.-GA?-#R-3R?-3R-5S$?-!J%-.-VR-:O2-0-3,R%-MR%-%3,

1 It’s important to learn English well.

▪124▪

Unit 26 A good doctor
#J-5/-*J<-S$(/-0-29%-0R-8A$
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

#R-3R?-L-2-;R.-5.-<%-*A.-GA?-12-,2,
2 He fell off the horse and he hurt himself. #R-g-,R$-/?-z%-+J-<%-*A.-=-k?-1R$
3 She taught herself Tibetan. #R-3R?-<%-=-2R.-;A$-OA.,
4 He is very rich, so he can buy himself lots of good things. #R-:LR<-K$-w/-0?-<%-*A.-=-.%R?-0R-%?-=J$?-3%-0R*R-,2,
5 He has much money. #R-=-|R<-3R-3%-0R-;R.,
1 She can do it all by herself.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

#R-3R-=R-28A-;A/-.?-?-(<-n=-,2-23,
1a I could ride a horse when I was eight years old. %-<%-=R-2o.-;A/-.?-?-g<-8R/-,2,
1b I couldn’t speak English one year ago, but now I can speak a little. =R-$&A$-$A-}R/-.-%?-.LA/-{.-2>.-3A>J?,:R/-G%-.-{2?-%?-&%-43-2>.->J?,

1 Could she swim when she was four years old?

#R-3R<-k?-*R/-L%-3J.-0<-(R/,
2a My left leg hurt this morning. .J-<A%-8R$?-0<-%:A-b%-0-$;R/-0<-k?-*R/-L%-,
2b He jumped down from the roof and hurt his arm. #R-#%-,R$-/?-3<-wA%-2?-=$-0<-k?-*R/-L%-,

2 I hope she didn’t hurt herself.

%-<%-*A.-$&A$-0<-.J-:S:A-3R-2-8A$-:R%-3A-,2,
3a A: I’m going to a birthday party tomorrow. ?%-*A/-%-<%-*J?-{<-IA-!R/-3R-8A$-=-:PR-o,
B: Oh, good! Enjoy yourself. :R,29%-$A<%-*A.-*A.-0R-LR?,
3b I’m going to Tibet next week. $9:-:#R<-eJ?-3<-%-<%-2R.-uR%?-=-:PR-o,
3c It’s good news. Enjoy yourself. :R,29%-$A*A.-0R-<R=-.%-,

3 I don’t enjoy myself very much.

#R:C-1-3-$*A?-!?-*R/-&A-8A$-L%-;R.-0-3->J?,
4a I want to know whose book it is. %?-:.A-?:A-.0J-(-;A/-0->J?-:.R.,
4b Do you know how they go to Burma? HR.-GA?-#R-5S-)A-v<-:2<-3-o=-#2-.-?R%-2->J?-?3,

4 His parents didn’t know what was wrong.

#R-3R?-2>.-/-?%-*A/-*A-3-SR.-o-<J.-9J<,
5a Huadan heard that there was a good doctor in a town not far away. .0=-w/-IA?-,R?-0-v<-/-:.A-.%-,$3A-<A%-0:A-PR%-h=-8A$-/-(/-0-29%-0R-8A$-;R.-9J<,

5 She said it was going to be sunny tomorrow.

6 Don’t worry. I’ll be OK.

?J3?-#<-3-LJ.,%-=-*R/-3A-:.$
▪125▪

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
“Can”/A-/?-0:3-YA.-&J?-0:A-.R/-=-:)$-!J,:.A:A-,A<-2+%-$A-i3-0-/A“LJ.-00-0R0R-+can+L-5B5B$-$A-ll-2:A
2:A-i3i3-0”v<-;A/-=-.J:A-eJ?-

?-i3-0-%J?-3J.-GA-L-5B$-2!R=-3A-(R$-=-L-5B$-$A-l-2:A-i3-0:A-eJ?-?-;%-2!R=-3A-(R$,.J:A-.$$-5A$-$A-i3-0-/A“can + not =
cannot = can’t”;A/,
“Could”/A“can”;A-:.?-0:A-i3-0-;A/-=-.R/- $8/-.$-=:%-:)$-3R.-:.A<-8A2-+-3?-0<-3A-L:R,
1 They can speak Tibetan very well. #R-5S?-2R.-{.-=J$?-0R-8A$-2>.-,2,
2 I can ride horses, but Cairang can’t. %-g<-8R/-,2,:R/-G%-5K-<A%-8R/-3A-,2,
3 You can go now. HR.-.-v-?R%-/-(R$
4 Could you please close the door? HR.-GA?-|R-.J-o$-,2-23,
5 I can go to Gangcha County by myself. %-$&A$-0-b%-5-mR%-,R$-+-:PR-,2,
6 You can get there by bus. HR.-,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-=-2#.-.J-.J<-?R%-(R$

▪126▪

Unit 27 Ling Feng’s diary
#J-5/-*J<-2.-0,=J/-nA/-IA-*A/-,R,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 I can hear her singing in the room. %?-#R-3R?-#%-2:A-/%-.-\-.L%?-=J/-28A/-0-,R?-,2,
2 Let’s go home. %-5S-;=-=-:PR,
3 It stopped raining. (<-:22-353?-28$-:.$
4 The teacher asked us to stop talking. .$J-c/-IA?-%-5S-=-#-2h-3-LJ.-&J?-$?%?,
5 I told him the whole story. %?-#R-=-$+3-o.-ZA=-2R-2>.,
6 I nearly forgot! %?-&%-43-3A/-/-2eJ.-9A/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

2N->A?-GA?-)A-v<-LA?-0-.J:A-%-353?-28$-0-<J.,
1a I saw him playing on the playground. %?-#R-l=-.R%-G-2-/-lJ.-28A/-0-3,R%-,
1b My classmates all went to People’s Park. %:A-aR2-PR$?-5%-3-3A-.3%?-,A-\A%-.-2.-?R%-,

1 How did Zhaxi make the baby stop crying?

2 At first she was asleep.

.%-,R$-#R-3R-$*A.-:.$

2a At first we did not know each other, but now we’re good friends.

.%-,R$-%-5S?-1/-5/-%R-3A->J?-3R.-:R/-G%-

.-v-%-5S-PR$?-0R-29%-2R-;A/,
2b At first I didn’t know how to ride a horse, but now I do it very well.

.%-,R$-%?-g-=-)A-v<-8R/-.$R?-0-3A-

>J?-3R.-:R/-G%-.-v-%-<%-.J-=-@-&%-3#?,
.?-5S.-KJ.-!:A-eJ?-?-#R-3R-$*A.-=?-?.,
3a Please wake me up at six thirty tomorrow morning. ?%-*A/-}-3R-.?-5S.-S$-.%-KJ.-!:A-!J%-%-$*A.-=?-aR%<R$?,
3b Wake up! It’s time to go. ;<-=R%?-.%-,.-:PR-</-:.$

3 Half an hour later she woke up.

#R-3R?-%-=-2v?-/?-%-{.-)J-(J-/?-)J-(J<-?R%-,
4a I looked at the blackboard, but I couldn’t see anything. %?-|R-?3-!J%-=-2v?-G%-&A-;%-3,R%-3A-,2,
4b A: What are you looking for? HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-24=-28A/-;R.,
B: I’m looking for my watch, but I can’t find it. %?-2.$-$A-(-5S.-:#R<-=R-24=-28A/-;R.,:R/-G%-%?-.J-3A- fJ.,

4 She looked at me and cried harder and harder.

5 She stopped crying and listened to the music. #R-3R?-%-353?-28$-!J-<R=-.L%?-=-*/,

HR.-GA?-.0J-(-.J-2[$?-5<-?R%-%3,
5b They are listening to the teacher’s lecture / talk. #R-5S?-.$J-c/-IA-$?%-=-*/-28A/-;R.,
5a Did you finish reading the book?

▪127▪

.?-5S.-{<-3-:$:A-eJ?-?-#R-3R-;%-2*<-%-:$R-2l3?,
6a When I go to Nepal for a holiday, will you please take care of my house? %-$/%-2:A-{2?-2=-;=-=?R%-eJ?,HR.-GA?-2.$-$A-#%-0<-2.$-*R%-LJ.-.3,
6b She borrowed a few books from the library. #R-3R?-.0J-36S.-#%-/?-.0J-(-:$:-$;<,

6 After a few minutes she started to cry again.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Compound Sentences:SJ?-.R<-5B$

HR.-<%-.$J-c/-8A$-;A/-=-%-;%-.$J-c/-8A$-;A/,
2 He worked very hard, but he did not pass the exam. #R?-:2.-0-L?-G%-o$?-3-:UR.,
3 I went to see our teacher, but he wasn’t at home. %-%-5S:A-.$J-c/-=-2v-<-?R%-;%-#R-<%-HA3-.-3A-:.$
4 I don’t want to be late, so I get up very early every day. %-<%-eJ?-?-=?-3A-:.R.-0?-*A/-o/-}-3R-/?-=%?-0-;A/,
1 You are a teacher and I am a teacher, too.

▪128▪

Unit 28 Mainly revision
#J-5/-*J<-2o.,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

(-/%-.-vR?,
2 Look at my eyes. 2.$-$A-3A$-9%-=-vR?,
3 She lost her pen at home. #R-3R?-<%-$A-t$?-/$-HA3-/?-2R<,
4 Do you need any help? HR.-=-<R$?-<3-LJ.-.$R?-?3,
5 I can’t leave before nine. .?-5S.-.$:A-}R/-.-%-:PR-3A-*/,
6 Don’t be late for work. L-2:A-eJ?-?-3-=?,
1 Look into the river.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

3)$-3,<-HR.-<%-&A:A-KA<-2$.-0-;A/,
1a He won the game in the end. 3)$-3,<-#R-<%-lJ.-3R-.J-=?-o=-?R%-,
1b He tried several times and at last he succeeded. #R?-,J%?-:$:-=-5S.-v-L?-0?-3,:-3)$-#R-<%-o=-?R%-,

1 Why did you laugh in the end?

2 Every day he made one of the smaller animals bring him something to eat.

/3-o/-#R?-YR$-($?-(%-2-8A$-

=-#R-<%-=-9-3-*J=-.-&A$
aR2-3-.J-.$-=?-$&A$-/A-3J-+R$-<J.,
2b Canada is one of the biggest countries in the world. #-/-+-/A-:63-\A%-!J%-(J?-(J-2:A-o=-#2-&A$-;A/,
2a One of the students is Meduk.

%?-#R-=-#-2h-L-o,
3a Please speak loudly! {.-3,R/-0R?->R.-<R$?,

3 I’ll speak to him.

3b A: How can you guess I’m from Chamdo?
B: The way you speak.

HR.-GA?-%-<%-(2-3.R-/?-;R%-2-)A-v<->J?-2-;A/,

HR.-GA-2>.-5=-=?,

4 I never lie./I never tell lies.

%?-$+/-/?-m/-3A-2>.,

5 With these words the tiger jumped into the river. {.-(-:.A-.$-.%-3*3-.-!$-.J-(:A-/%-.-3(R%?,
5a We can walk with our legs and feet.
5b Zhaxi went shopping with Cairang.

%-5S-<%-$A-b%-0<-2!J/-/?-:PR-,2,
2N->A?-5K-<A%-.%-3*3-.-*R-5S%-LJ.-0<-2.-?R%-,

▪129▪

6 I’d like to have a talk with you.

%?-HR.-.%-3*3-.-#-2h-8A$-LJ.-:.R.,

6a The teacher came into the classroom with some books in his hand.

.$J-c/-IA-=$-+-.0J-(-:$:-29%-!J-aR2-

#%-.-:6=-;R%-,
6b With your help, I can finish the work in time.

HJ.-GA-<R$?-<3-=?-2.$-$A-L-2-.?-v<-:P2-,2,

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Past Simple.,A<-2+%-:.?-0,

,A<-2+%-:.?-0-/A-:.?-0:A-.?-%J?-&/-8A$-$A-/%-.-L-2-(J-$J-3R-8A$-L%-2-!R/-0-;A/-=-:.?-0:A-.?-!R/-LJ.-GA-5B$-=-o/-.-$>3-IA:.A-.$-2!R=-2-;A/-+J,
yesterday
last year
one day ago

last week
one hour ago
last night...

one minute ago
last month
one week ago...v-2:R,

:.A:A-,A<-2+%-$A-i3-0-/A,“LJ.-00-0R0R+:.?:.?-0:A
0:A-LL-5A5A$+L-2:A
2:A-;=”;A/,
1 Cairang gave me a new pen for my birthday. 5K-<A%-$A?-2.$-$A-*J?-{<-=-t$?-/$?-&A$-LA/,
2 My friend bought me a beautiful present. %:A-PR$?-0R?-%-=-=J$?-*J?-;$-0R-8A$-*R?,
3 We often heard her sing in the room. %-5S?-o/-.-#R-3R?-#%-0:A-/%-.-\-.L%?-=J/-28A/-0-,R?,
4 We must keep the classroom clean and tidy. %-5S?-%J?-0<-.-aR2-#%-$4%-3-.%-P=-.$-LJ.-.$R?,
5 We usually call him Cairang Dorji. .?-o/-%-5S?-#R-=-5K-<A%-hR-eJ-8J?-:2R.,
L-5B$-$A-:.?-5B$-i3?-:.A<-;%-2*<-3A-2>.-0?-.J2-:.A:A-3)$-?-$?=-2R<-$9A$?-0<-3HJ/,

▪130▪

Students’ Book 3
.J2-$?
$?3-0,
0,

▪131▪

Unit 1 Teacher’s Day
#J-5/-.%-0R,.$J-c/-IA-.?-(J/,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

.$J-c/-IA-.?-(J/-=-gJ/-:VJ=-8,
2 Best wishes to you. HR.-=-2.J-=J$?-8,
3 Glad to see you again. HJ.-=-a<-;%-3)=-2?-3R-2-*J?,
4 Of course. =R?-(R$=R?-;A/,
5 Zhacai is short for Zhaxi Cairang. 2N-5K-/A-2N->A?-5K-<A%-$A-2#?-3A%-<J.,
1 Happy Teachers’ Day!

Grammar2h-3R.,’
1 Present Simple. ,A<-2+%-.-v-2,

,A<-2+%-.-v-2?-o/-w/-IA-:5S-2:A-$R3-$>A?-.%-L-:$=,L-.%R?-GA-$/?-=$?-.%-,.?-o/-/3-*A/-35/<J<-.%-,$9:-<J<-L%-2:A-L-2-2eR.-0-;A/,
1a What do you do? HR.-GA-L-2-&A-8A$-;A/,
1b What does the dog do? HA-:.A?-&A-LJ.-0-<J.,
1c I usually eat tsamba. %?-o/-.-l3-0-9-2-;A/,
1d Where does she work?#R-3R?-$%-.-=?-!-LJ.-0-<J.,
2 Present Continuous. LJ.-28A/-.-v-2,

LJ.-28A/-.-v-2?-L-2-$%-8A$-2>.-0-0R?-{.-(-2>.-{2?-?-L%-28A/-0:3-.-v-2:A-.?-%J?-&/-8A$-=-o/-2YA%?-/?-L%-2:A-L-28A$-2eR.-0-;A/,
2a A: What are you doing? HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-LJ.-28A/-;R.,
B: I’m studying some new words. %?-,-~.-$?<-2-:$:-.R%-28A/-;R.,
2b We are learning English. %-5S?-.LA/-;A$-.R%-28A/-;R.,
2c Lhamo is milking the yak. z-3R?-:VA-3R-28R-28A/-;R.,
3 Future Simple. ,A<-2+%-3-:R%?-2,

L-2-$%-8A$-3-:R%?-0<-:L%-2<-:I<-2-!R/-0-!J,.J-o/-+“will”.%“be going to” “shall”2&?-GA?-!R/-0-;A/,
3a We are going to go to school. %-5S-aR2-9<-:PR-lA?-;R.,
3b He will come later. #R-eJ?-/?-;R%-o-<J.,
3c Will you ring him up this evening? HR.-GA?-.R-.$R%-#R-=-#-0<-$+R%-o-;A/-/3,
3d They will not come to your home tomorrow. ?%-*A/-#R-5S-HJ.-5%-=-;R%-o-3-<J.,
3e I shall milk the yak. %?-:VA-.J-28R-o,
3f We shall visit the museum. %-5S-:PJ3-!R/-#%-.J-=-2v-{R<-<-:PR-o,
▪132▪

,A<-2+%-$A-:.?-2,
,A<-2+%-:.?-2-/A-:.?-2:A-.?-%J?-&/-8A$-+-L%-9A/-0:A-L-2-!R/-0-;A/,
4a I went to Qinghai Lake last week. $9:-:#R<-}R/-3<-%-<%-35S-}R/-0R<-?R%-2-;A/,
4b Where did you go last Sunday? }R/-3:A-$9:-*A-3:A-*A/-HR.-$%-.-KA/-/3,
4c We had lunch at one o’clock.%-5S?-.?-5S.-$&A$-$A-!J%-SR?-)-:,%-2-;A/,
4d I finished my homework at nine thirty last night.%?-3.%-.$R%-.?-5S.-.$-.%-?3-&:A-!J%-=?-L-VA?-5<,

4 Past Simple.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Glad to see you. HR.-.%-3)=-2?-.$:-0R-L%-,
1a A: This is Dorji . :.A-hR-eJ-<J.,
B: How do you do? Glad to see you! 

HR.-2.J-3R,HR.-.%-3)=-2?-.$:-0R-L%-,

Dorji: Glad to see you, too. %-;%-HR.-.%-3)=-2?-.$:-0R-L%-,
1b T: Class, I am your new teacher. Pleased to meet you. aR2-PR$?-i3-0,%-/A-HJ.-&$-$A-.$J-c/-$?<-2-;A/,

HJ.-&$-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,
S: Pleased to meet you, too. %-5S-;%-HJ.-.%-3)=-0?-.$:-0R-L%-,
2 Did you have a good summer holiday?HJ.-=-.L<-$/%-*A.-0R-8A$-L%-?R%-%3,
2a Danden will go back to Lhasa this summer holiday. ,J%?-:.A:A-.L<-$/%-=-g-3PA/-KA<-z-?<-:PR-o-<J.,
3 How’s Kate? #J-,-)A-:S-<J.,
3a I’m going to watch the game this afternoon, how about you? 

.J-<A%-KA-SR-%-<%-lJ.-3R-.J<-2v-<-:PR-o-;A/,

HR.-:PR-o-;A/-/3,
#R-$*A?-!-2.J-3R-<J.,
4a Both brothers are clever. %/-.J-$*A?-!-]R-<A$-2N-0R-:.$
4b She can both sing and dance. 3R?-\-.L%?-=J/-0-.%-VR-:O2-0-$*A?-!-/?,
4c They’re both herdsmen. #R-$*A?-!-:VR$-0-<J.,

4 They are both fine.

5 Everyone is going into the classroom. We’d better go, too. 5%-3-aR2-#%-.-:PR-28A/-:.$%J.-&$-;%-?R%-/-29%-,
5a It’s too late, we’d better go home now. @-&%-:KA-:.$-0?-.-%J.-&$-;=-=-?R%-/-29%-,
5b It’s too dark, you’d better not read. ($-/$-0?-HR.-GA?-.0J-(<-3-2v?-/-29%-,
6 Not one is away. 3-;R%-2-$&A$-G%-3J.,
6a Everyone is here. 5%-3-:.A-/-;R.,

▪133▪

7 Here are some beautiful flowers for you, with our best wishes. :.A-/-%-5S:C-(J?-29%-0R:C-(R/-:./-.%-2&?-HJ.-

=-36K?-0:A-3J-+R$-:$:-;R.,
8 What beautiful flowers!)A-:S:A-3J-+R$-;$-0R-:$:,

)AA-:S:A-,2?-2!R.-29%-2R-8A$
8b How beautiful the grassland is!)A-:S:A-36K?-#$-w/-0:A-C-,%-8A$-<J.-A%-,
8a What a good idea!

9 The students speak English when they have English lessons..LA/-;A$-$A-aR2-,/-/%-.-aR2-3-i3?-GA?-.LA/-{.-

2>.-0-<J.,
9a We have a Tibetan lesson today. .J-<A%-%-5S<-2R.-;A$-$A-aR2-,/-8A$-;R.,
10Tomorrow I want you to give us a talk, Jim. )J3,?%-*A/-HR.-GA?-%-5S<-$?%-2>.-&A$-$/R%?-<R$?,
10a Tomorrow Mr Danba will give a talk in the meeting room. {-82?-2!/-0?-?%-*A/-5S$?-:.-#%-/?-

$?%-2>.-&A$-$/%-o-<J.,
11 There is nothing difficult about it. .J<-.!:-=?-&A-;%-3A-:.$
11a A: Why don’t you ride your horse? HR.-&A:A-KA<-HR.-GA-g-=-3A-8R/-0-;A/,
B: There is something wrong with it.

.J-=-*R/-8A$-:.$

12 What subject should I talk about?%?-&A-8A$-$A-{R<-2>.-.$R?,
12a You should help her with the housework. HR.-GA?-3R<-HA3-=?-=?-<R$?-LJ.-.$R?,
12b The students are talking about the film. aR2-3-i3?-GA?-\R$-2f/-.J:A-{R<-\J%-28A/-:.$
13Maybe I could talk about English names.

%?-.LA/-)A:A-3A%-$A-{R<-\J%-(R$
13a A: I don’t know how to read this word. %?-3A%-5B$-:.A-)A-v<-[R$-.$R?-0-3A->J?,
B: You could go and ask the teacher. HR.-?R%-/?-.$J-c/-=$?-=-SA?-(R$
13b Maybe I could talk about Tibetan food. %?-2R.-GA-9-3:A-{R<-\J%-(R$

14 …do please…=?-<R$?-8,
14a Do tell me. %-=->R.-<R$?,
14b Do study hard. aR2-.R%-=-:2.-0-LR?,

▪134▪

15family name. <?,
15a English name .LA/-;A$-$A-3A%-,
15b full name 3A%-ZA=-2R,
15c James (first / given name,R$-3:A-3A%-,)
15d Allen (middle / given name.GA=-3A%-,)
15e Green (family name/ last name / surname<?-3A%-,3,:-3A:A-3A%-,)
16What subject did Jim choose? )J3-IA?-2a2-L-$%-2.3?-;R.,
16a Lhomotso is choosing books in the library. z-35S?-.0J-36S.-#%-.-.0J-(-:.3-28A/-;R.,
17 The people in the rooms below are very noisy. :R$-$A-#%-2:A-/%-.-;R.-0:A-3A-:.A-.$-=-&-&R-3%-,
18 A: What do you call this? HR.-5S?-:.A-=-&A-9J<, 

B: We call it “book.”%-5S?-.J<“book”9J<,
18a He often makes telephone calls to me. #R?-o/-+-%-=-#-0<-$+R%-,
19I’m going to give her a book. Maybe I will give her some flowers. %?-3R-=-.0J-(-:$:-!J<-lA?-;R.,1=-

(J<-3J-+R$-:$:-!J<-G%-YA.,

▪135▪

Unit 2 The sports meeting
#J-5/-$*A?-0,=?-l=-:P/-5S$?,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 Come on! <J3?-.%-,
2 Well done! 212?-0-29%-,
3 Congratulations!
4 Bad luck.

gJ/-:VJ=-8,

=?-%/,

5 Hold a meeting. 5S$?-:.-8A$-:5S$?-0,
6 Right now..-?R-3<,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Comparison of adverbs 2h-3R.-=?-2$/-5B$-$A-$>A2-2#<,

L-.%R?-$*A?-2#<-.?-1-$.%?-,%-2:A-5B$-=“-er”.R<-2-.%-,.J:A-eJ?-?-.-.%“than”;%-.R<,L-.%R?-$*A?-=?-3%-2-8A$2#<-.?-1-$.%?-,%-2:A-3A%-5B$-=“-est”.R<-2-.%-,.J:A-}R/-=“the”.R<,
1 -er, -est.
tall
taller   tallest
hard
harder
hardest
1a He runs faster than you. #R-2-HR.-=?-M<-2<-o$,
1b It’s much colder today than yesterday. .J-<A%-/A-#-?%-=?-z$-0<-:H$?,
1c This book is much more interesting than that one. .0J-(-:.A-/A-.0J-(-.J-=?-z$-0<-.R/-~A%-w/,
1d It rains more often in Shanghai than in Beijing. 0J-&A/-=?-Z%-@J-=-.?-o/-(<-:22-0-<J.,
2

3A%-5B$-$A-3)$-3,:A-;A-$J-e;A/-/-,.-!<“-r”.%“-st”.R<,late
later
latest
nice
nicer
nicest
2a He is the best student in our class. #R-/A-%-5S:A-:6A/-9:A-aR2-3-(J?-29%-2R-;A/,

3 “Big”.%“hot”?R$?-GA-eJ?-?“-er”.%“-est”.R<,
big
hot

bigger
hotter

biggest
hottest

▪136▪

4

3)$-3,:A-;A-$J-.L%?-;A$“-y”;A/-.?“-y”.J“-I”<-2+<-eJ?“+er”.%“+est”.R<-.$R?,“consonants(.L%?.L%?-;A;A$) +
y” “i + er, est.”
early
earlier 
busy
busier

5

earliest
busiest

1-$.%?-<A%-2:A-;A-$J:A-}R/-=“more”.%“most”.R<,
quickly
beautiful
good / well
many / much
far

more quickly
more beautiful
better
more
farther / further

most quickly
most beautiful
best
most
farthest / furthest

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1Last week No. 14 Middle School held a sports meeting on the playground.

$9:-:#R<-}R/-3<-aR2-:VA%-2&-

28A?-=?-l=-G-2-/?-=?-l=-:P/-5S$?->A$-2#?,
1a He’s holding a book in his hand. #R?-=$-+-.0J-(-8A$-29%-;R.,
1b Cairang runs fastest of all. 5K-<A%-o$-/-(J?-3IR$?-0R-;A/,
1c Last week the Tibetan middle school held a sports meeting.

$9:-:#R<-}R/-3<-2R.-;A$-aR2-:VA%-$A?-=?-

l=-:P/-5S$?->A$-2#?,
2 The building near our school is the tallest in our city. aR2-9:A-*J-:P3-IA-,R$-#%-.J-/A-%-5S:C-PR%-HJ<-IA-(J?-3,R-2:A-

,R$-#%-;A/,
2a The boy is climbing the tallest tree. 2-(%-.J-(J?-3,R-2:A-#R%-2R-.J-=-:6K$-28A/-:.$
3Huifang jumped quite far, but Ann jumped further.

KJ-n%-3(R%?-2-.%R?-/?-<A%-;%-A/-/A-3(R%?-2-.J-=?-G%-<A%-,
3a Dorji jumped quite far, but Norbu jumped farther than him. hR-eJ-3(R%?-2-.%R?-$/?-<A%-;%-/R<-2-3(R%?-2#R-=?-G%-<A%-,

4 Bad / Good luck. =?-%/, / =?-29%-,
4a A: Did you go to the park last Sunday?}R/-3:A-$9:-*A-3<-HR.-\A%-$<-?R%-%3,
B: No, I was ill and had to stay at home. 3-?R%-,%-=-/-5-L%-2?-HA3-.-#R.-.$R?-L%-,

=?-%/,
4b A: Did you win? HR.-5S?-o=-#-]%?-?R%-%3,
B: Yes, we are the first. o=-#-]%?-?R%-,%-5S-A%-.%-0R-<J.,
A: Good luck. =?-&/-0R,
A: Bad luck.

▪137▪

5 All the runners got ready to run. o$?-3#/-5%-3?-o$?-P2?-L?-:.$
write--writer :VA-:VA-3#/,  

drive--driver #-=R-LJ.-0-#-=R-2,

work--worker=?-!-=?-!-0,

win--winner o=-2-o=-3#/,

clean--cleaner $4%-4-LJ.-0-$4%-4-LJ.-3#/,

dance--dancerVR-:O2-VR-3#/,

read--reader [R$-0-[R$-3#/,

teach--teacher OA.-0-OA.-3#/, 

play--player :O2-0-:O2-3#/,      
speak--speaker2>.-0-2>.-3#/,

sing--singer $8?-$+R%--$8?-0, 

6 Everyone began to shout very loudly. 5%-3?-{.-$?J%-3,R/-0R?-:-&R-o$-:$R-2l3?,
6a Don’t forget to close the door when you leave the room. HR.-KA<-:PR-.?-|R-$+/-o-3-2eJ.,
6b It started to rain that night. 35/-3R<-.J<-(<-:22-:$R-2l3?,
6c My brother wants to learn English.

%:A-/-2R?-.LA/-;A$-aR2-:.R.,

7…but not fast enough. ...:R/-G%-.J-:S-3IR$?-0R-3J.,
7a Lhaben is strong enough to catch that wild yak. z-:23-=-:VR%-cR.-.J-:6A/-0:A-!R2?-w/-/R,
7b I don’t have enough time to finish the work. %-=-=?-!-.J-5<-2<-L-2:A-.?-5S.-3A-:.$
8 Well done, everyone!5%-3?-2IA?-0-@-&%-29%-,
8a Congratulations, Lhaben! z-:23,gJ/-:VJ=-8,
9 Yu Yang and Jim were neck and neck.

2R-;%-.%-)J3-$*A?-3*3-$>A2-GA?-o$-28A/-;R.,

10 Lucy didn’t do very well. She did rather badly. =R-?J?-2IA?-0-.J-:S-3A-29%-+J,#R-3R?-2IA?-0-@-&%-,2?-h$?-

<J.,
10a Danba rides very well. 2!/-0-8R/-0<-@-&%-3#?,
10b Qiechung’s mother was badly ill. (R?-1R/-IA-A-3<-/.-uA.-3R-8A$-:1R$?-:.$
10c The train moves rather slowly. 3J-:#R<-:.A-*R.-0-@-&%-.=,
11 It was difficult to see. .J-8A2-.-3,R%-.!:,
11a It is easy to say, but it is difficult to do. .J-2>.-/-a-;%-212-o<-.!:,
11b It is important to think clearly before speaking. 3-2>.-0:A-}R/-.-;%-.$-0<-2?3-]R-$+R%-o-/A-$=-(J/-8A$-

<J.,

▪138▪

Unit 3 A good teacher
#J-5/-$?3-0,.$J-c/-29%-0R-8A$,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 It’s quite a nice horse! .J-/A-%R-3:A-g-29%-2R-8A$-<J.,
2 I’m sorry to trouble you.

%?-HR.-=-:R-2o=-$+.-0?-.$R%?-0-3-5S3,

3 hands up =$-0-;<-HR$?,
4 agree with PR?-:(3-L%-2,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Comparison of the adjectives(R?-2eR.-5B$-$A-$>A2-2#<,

(R?-2eR.-5B$-$A-$>A2-2#<-2:A-<A3-0-.%-2$/-5B$-$A-2#<-2:A-<A3-0-$*A?-$&A$-:S-;A/,
big
strong
dangerous
important

bigger
stronger 
more dangerous 
more important

(the) biggest
(the) strongest
(the) most dangerous
(the) most important

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Do you like learning a foreign language?HR.-=-KA-;A$-&A$-.%-:.R.-;R.-.3,
1a The children like swimming in summer. .L<-.?-?-LA?-0-5S-(<-n=-o<-.$:,
1b Gangcu liked to drink milk this morning. $%?-35S?-.-/%?-:R-3-:,%-2<-:.R.,
2 In English “qu” makes a /kw/ sound. .LA/-;A$-$A-/%-/?“qu”=-/kw/8J?-[R$-0-;A/,
2a The fridge makes a strange sound. :H$-|3-.J?-1-;-35/-8A$-1R$
3 It’s another way of saying “fast.” .J-/A“fast”;A-2eR.-5=-$8/-0-8A$-<J.,
3a Another way of saying “bicycle” is “bike.” “Bicycle”;A-2>.-5=-$8/-0-8A$-/A“bike”;A/,
4 Will you please say it again more slowly?HR.-GA?-.J-;%-2*<-.=-3R:A-%%-2>.-o-AJ-;A/,
5 Hands up, please! =$-0-;<-HR$?,
6 What do you mean by...? ...8J?-0:A-/%-.R/-&A-8A$-;A/-/3,
7 I see. Thanks. %?-@-$R-,=,2!:-SA/-(J,

▪139▪

8 Miss Zhao is one of the most popular teachers in the school. Y?-3R-NR:R-/A-aR2-9:A-/%-(J?-29%-2:A-.$J-c/-IA-

P?->A$-<J.,
8a This is one of the most important books about science. :.A-/A-5/-<A$-{R<-IA-(J?-$=-:$%?-(J-2:A-.0J-(:A-P?-

>A$-<J.,
8b The Yangtze River is one of the longest rivers in the world. :VA-(-/A-:63-\A%-,R$-(J?-<A%-2:A-(-2R:A-P?->A$-

<J.,
9Yesterday morning she came into class as usual. #-?%-}-3R<-#R-3R-.?-o/-.%-:S-2<-aR2-OA.-=-;R%-,
9a Today the classroom is as clean as usual. .J-<A%-aR2-#%-/3-o/-.%-:S-2<-@-&%-$4%-3-<J.,
10 There was a big smile on her face. 3R:A-$.R%-/-:63-3.%?-$?<-2-8A$-o?-:.$
10a Doma smiled after she knew she was the first. 1R=-3?-3R-<%-A%-.%-0R-;A/-0->J?-eJ?-$.R%-=-:63-8A$-o?,
11 I’m afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor.

%?-3A-<J-:$?-0%-$&=-$.-2.<-LJ.-o-2eJ.-?R%-~3,

12 There was no excuse. .J-=-#-$;R<-?-3J.,
12a If you don’t finish your homework, you can’t find any excuse.

$=-+J-HR.-GA?-HR.-<%-$A-=?-L-VA?-3-5<-/-

&A-=-;%-#-$;<-3A-(R$
.J-<A%-=A/-,R:R-3-$+R$?-5%-3-aR2-9-<-:.$
z-3R-3-$+R$?-%-5S-5%-3?-=$->-9-2-;A/,

13 Everyone is at school today except Lin Tao.
13a We all eat mutton except Lhamo.

14 Luckily the weather last week was not as wet as it is today.!2?-=J$?-0-8A$-=-$9:-}R/-3<-.J-<A%-.%-:S-2<-

28:-5/-3A-(J,
15 It’s time for us to start the lesson now.

%-5S?-aR2-OA.-GA-3$R-2l3?-</-:.$

16 I think foreign languages are more interesting than science.

0-8A$-<J.-~3, 

17 I really can’t agree with you.

%-<%-%R-3-HR.-GA-v-2<-3A-:,.,

▪140▪

%?-KA-;A$-/A-<%-L%-5/-<A$-=?-z$-0<-3R-$%-w/-

18 I prefer science. ()A-v<-2#<-;%-)%-<%-<%-L%-5/-<A$-=-.$:-2R-;R.,
18a A: Which do you prefer, apples or pears? !->-.%->A%-+R$-=A-$*A?-=?-$%-8A$-=-HR.-<%-z$-0<-.$:-2R-;R.,
B: I prefer apples to pears. %-<%->A%-+R$-=A-=?-!->-=-z$-0<-.$:-2R-;R.,
19 I think Chinese is less difficult than English.

%?-2v?-/-o-;A$-/A-.LA/-;A$-=?-&%-a,

20 I would like to drop maths. I find it very difficult.

%?-lA?-<A$-.R%-353?-:)R$-:.R.,%?-.J-/A-=?-@-&%-.!:-3R-

8A$-;A/-0->J?,
20a I would like to stop herding. I find it very difficult. %?-K$?-9R$-:5S-353?-:)R$-:.R.-.J-%?-.J-/A-=?-@-&%-

.!:-3R-8A$-;A/-0->J?,

▪141▪

Unit 4 What were they doing?
#J-5/-28A-2,#R-5S?-&A-LJ.-28A/-;R.,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 I’m sorry to trouble you. HJ.-=-.N$-nJ/-29R?-0<-.$R%?-0-3-5S3,
2 It’s quite a nice… .J-/A-@-&%-36K?-0:A-...<J.,
3 Be angry with.#R%-OR-=%?-2,
4 Get back. KA<-:LR<-2,
5 Fall asleep.$*A.-#$-0,
6 Help… with. ...KR$?-/?-<R$?-L?-0,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Past Continuous LJ.-28A/-:.?-0,
1 I / He / She was studying. %?- / #R?- / 3R?- / aR2-.R%-LJ.-28A/-:.$(:.?-.?)
2 We / You / They were studying. %-5S? / HR.-5S? / #R-5S?-aR2-.R%-LJ.-28A/-:.$(:.?-.?)
2a A: What were you doing this time yesterday? #-?%-$A-.?-:.A<-HR.-GA?-&A-8A$-LJ.-28A/-;R.,
B: I was milking the goats. %?-<-3-28R-28A/-;R.,
2b Cairang was doing homework when his mother came home. 5K-<A%-$A-A-3-;=-.-=R$-.?-#R?-=?-L-:VA-

28A/-:.$
2c The students were playing football at four o’clock yesterday afternoon. #-?%-KA-SR:A-.?-5S.-28A:A-!J%-.-

aR2-3-i3?-GA?-b%-lJ.-%R-=R-lJ.-28A/-;R.,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1I am trying to draw a horse. %?-g-8A$-:VA-lA?-;R.,
1a I’m trying to milk the goat. %?-<-3-8A$-28R-lA?-;R.,
2 It’s quite a nice horse! / What a nice horse it is!)A-:S:A-g-;$-0-8A$.J-/A-g-;$-0R-8A$-<J.,
3 Don’t play with fire. It’s very dangerous. 3J-lJ.-3-LJ.-&A$.J-/A-@-&%-*J/-#-(J,
4 What was Lily drawing when the teacher came in? .$J-c/-/%-=-;R%-.?-=J-=J?-&A-8A$-:VA-28A/-;R.,
5 He lived in a tall building in the city of Moscow. #R-PR%-HJ<-3:R-?A-#R:A-#%-2lJ$?-3,R/-0R-8A$-$A-/%-/?-2#.,
6 Every night the man upstairs came home late. .$R%-o/-.-#%-!J%-$A-*J?-0-.J-HA3-.-=R$-0-@-&%-:KA,
▪142▪

7 He always took off his shoes and threw them on the floor. #R?-.?-o/-.-#R:C-z3-1.-/?-0%-$&=-!J%-$;$?,
7a It’s warm in the room, you’d better take off your coat. #%-2:A-/%-SR-2?-HR.-GA?-!R.-H-1.-/-=J$?,
7b The plane will take off at ten in the morning. $/3-P-.J-}-3R:C-.?-5S.-2&:A-!J%-:1<-o-<J.,
8 He found it very difficult to get to sleep. #R<-35S/-/-$*A.-#$-o-.J-@-&%-.!:-3R-8A$-<J.,
8a They got to the park at nine yesterday morning. #-?%-}-3R:A-.?-5S.-.$:A-!J%-#R-5S-\A%-!-.J<-:LR<,
9 The noise wakes me up!1-.J?-%-<%-$*A.-=?-2a%?,
9a Don’t make a lot of noise. 1-.J-:S-3%-0R-3-1R$?->A$
10 Would you please not do this?HR.-GA?-:.A-v<-3-2IA?-/-(R$-$3,
10a I am sorry. I won’t do it again. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,eJ?-?R<-%?-:.A-v<-3A-2IA-=$?,
11 He had his supper, listened to the radio, read a newspaper and then went to bed. #R?-.$R%-9?-9R?-0-.%-

1-#.-:#R<-=R<-*/-0,5$?-0<-=-2v?-eJ?-*=-IA/-;R.,
11a I am looking at the blackboard, but I can’t see anything. %?-|R-?3-!J%-=-2v-28A/-;R.-3R.-G%-&A-;%-3,R%-

3-L%-,
11b In class, the students must listen to the teacher carefully. aR2-OA.-GA-{2?-?-aR2-3-i3?-GA?-%J?-0<-.-.$J-

c/-IA-$?%-=-//-+/-IA?-*/-.$R?,
11c Last night Dorji went to bed at nine, but he went to sleep at ten. 3.%-.$R%-hR-eJ-.?-5S.-.$:A-!J%-*=-=-

.?-5S.-2&:A-!J%-$*A.-0-<J.,

▪143▪

Unit 5 The accident
#J-5/-s-2,($-|R-8A$
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,

<2-;A/-/-HR.-GA?-{.-(-3-2>.,
2 Go as quickly as you can. HR.-<%-$%-M<-&A-,2-GA?-?R%-,
3 Don’t crowd round him. #R:A-3,:-<-:.?-=R%-3-LJ.,
4 It’s nice of you. HR.-<%-%R-3-29%-,
5 Hurry up. <J3?,
1 You’d better not talk.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Were you washing clothes last night? 3.%-.$R%-HR.-GA?-H-2-2N-28A/-;R.-.3,
1a Was Mom making a dress last night? 3.%-.$R%-A-3?-H-2-8A$-29R-28A/-;R.-.3,
2 Get up and dress quickly. ;<-=R%?-/?-H-2-IR/-<R$?,
2a He put on his coat and went out. #R?-!R.-H-IR/-+J-|R<-2.-,=,
3 Today he wears a blue coat. .J-<A%-#R?-!R.-H-}R/-0R-8A$-IR/-;R.,
3a Who’s the man in the brown jacket?!R.-H-o-($-8A$-$R/-;R.-0:A-*J?-0-.J-?-<J.,
4 You look tired today. HR.-.J-<A%-,%-(.-;R.-0-:S,

#R-*A.-0R-8A$-;R%-$A-3J.-0-:S,
4b Can you tell me why? HR.-GA?-%-=-.J-&A:A-KA<-;A/-0-2>.-,2-23,
4c Mr. Zhaxi looks very young. {-82?-2N->A?-{-/-@-&%-$8R/-0-:S,
4a He doesn’t look happy.

5 I had a little accident last Sunday. }R/-3:A-$9:-*A-3<-%-=-($-|R-(%-(%-8A$-L%-,
5a There have been many traffic accidents this year. =R-:.A<-:P3-:P=-IA-($-|R-3%-0R-L%-9A/,
6 What happened? &A-8A$-L%-?R%-,
7 The children were leaving school on Tuesday when they saw a truck. $9:-3A$-.3<-*A/-LA?-0-5S-aR2-9<-#-:

V=-{2?-#R-5S?-_%?-:#R<-(J/-3R-8A$-3,R%-,
8 It’s nothing, don’t worry. You’ll be OK. *R/-&A-;%-3A-:.$

▪144▪

?J3?-#<-LJ.-3A-.$R?,HR.-<%-)J-.$<-:PR-o-<J.,

9 I’m watching him draw the picture. %?-#R?-<A-3R-.J-:VA-2<-2v-28A/-;R.,

Y?-3R-NR?-$%-3IR$?-GA?-(/-|3-HJ<-;R%-,
10a As quickly as she could, Doma got a cup of butter tea. 1R=-3?-$%-3IR$?-GA?-.N$?-)-.!<-;R=-$%-HJ<;R%-,

10 As quickly as she could, Miss Zhao got a medicine box.

11 With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Zhao hurried off to look after the man.

Y?-3R-NR?-(/-|3-

HJ<-;R%-/?-M<-.-3A-.J-=-2.$-*R%-LJ.-0<-?R%-,
11a With the butter tea in her hand, Doma hurried off to look after the old man. 1R=-3?-.N$?-)-.!<-

;R=-$%-2R-.J-HJ<-/?-M<-.-c.-0R-.J-=-2.$-*R%-LJ.-0<-?R%-,
11b That young man went out with no hat on. $8R/-/-.J?-E-$R/-3J.-0<-|R:A-KA<-?R%-,
11c Don’t hurry, we’re not late. VJ=-3A-.$R?,%-5S-.-<%-eJ?-?-=?-3A-:.$
11d Hurry home before it gets dark. ?-3-<2-0:A-}R/-.-M<-2<-;=-.-?R%-,
12 It’s really nice of you. / It’s very kind of you. HR.-<%-%R-3-29%-0R-:.$
13 While they were sweeping the floor, the bell rang. #R-5S?-0%-$&=-=-$.-2.<-LJ.-0:A-.?-?-&R%-2h-P$?,
13a The students were reading when the teacher came in. .$J-c/-/%-.-;R%-.?-aR2-3-5S?-.0J-(-[R$-28A/-;R.,

▪145▪

Unit 6 In the library
#J-5/-S$-0,.0J-36S.-#%-$A-/%-.,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 I have got a book. %-=-.0J-(-8A$-;R.,
2 I’m so glad. %-/A-)A-:S:A-3R-2-=,
3 What a pity. )A-:S:A-~A%-eJ-2,

.0J-[R$-#%-,
5 on time .?-,R$ -+,

4 reading room

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Present Prefect L?-9A/-.-v-2,

L?-9A/-.-v-2?-L-2-$%-8A$-:.?-0:A-.?-%J?-3J.-8A$-/?-3$R-2l3?-+J-{.-(-2eR.-3-,$-0:A-$/?-{2?-.J<-;R%?-?-3}$-mR$?-0$?=-2>.-LJ.-0-;A/,.J:A-5B$-$A-P2-!%?-/A“LJ.-00-0R0R+Have / Has + :.?.?-0:A-3A3A%-n%n%-“v<-;A/,
1a I have seen the film. %?-\R$-2f/-.J<-2v?-MR%-,
1b The teacher has gone to the office. .$J-c/-.J-$8%-=?-#%-.-2.-?R%-,
1c I haven’t seen her these days. *A/-:.A-.$-=-%?-#R-3R-3-3,R%-,
1d Have you returned the book today?.J-<A%-HR.-GA?-.0J-(-.J-KA<-AJ-3.,
1e I have never seen him before. %?-}R/-(.-#R-<%-<A$-3-MR%-,
1f We have lived in Lhasa since 1975. 1975=R-/?-29%-!J-%-5S-z-?-/?-2#.,
1g He came here two hours ago. #R-(-5S.-$*A?-GA-}R/-=-:.A<-,R/,
1h He has been here for two hours. #R-:.A<-,R/-/?-(-5S.-$*A?-:$R<-9A/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 I’ve lost my science book. Have you seen it anywhere? %:A-<%-L%-5/-<A$-$A-.0J-(-2R<-9A/-0?,HR.-GA?-.J-3,R%-

%3,
2 Have you found your ruler yet? HR.-GA?-<%-$A-OJ-4K-fJ.-.3,
3 In the library she has got books on many different subjects. .0J-36S.-#%-/-#R-3R<-2a2-L-<A$?-3%-0R:A-.0J-(-

;R.,
4 She works very hard and is very helpful. #R-3R?-L-2-12-/-2lR/-:P?-(J-=-:V?-2-w/,
5 She likes the children to read books in the reading room. #R-3R-LA?-0-5S<-.0J-[R$-#%-.-.0J-(-[R$-+-:)$-o<-3R,
6 But she is very strict. :R/-G%-#R-3R-@-&%-//-3R-<J.,
7 Our teacher is strict in her work. %-5S:C-.$J-c/-IA?-L-2-12-/-@-&%-//-+/-;A/,
▪146▪

8 You must always return your library book on time. HR.-5S?-%J?-0<-.-.?-v<-.0J-36S.-#%-$A-.0J-(-KA<-3R.-.$R?,
9 He asks very politely. #R?-@-&%-$?-0:A-%%-SA-2-:SA, 

10 Tom is a polite boy. OR3-/A-$?-w/-&/-IA-2-(%-8A$-<J.,
11 It’s polite to say “Thank you” when someone helps you. 3A-8A$-$A?-HR.-=-<R$?-<3-L?-5K-“2!:-SASA/-(J-“9J<-2<-

$?-=$?-w/,
12 They’re on that shelf over there. .J-5S-.0J-1R3-$/-$A-!J%-/-;R.,
shelf--shelves .0J-1R3-8A$ .0J-1R3-:$:, child--children LA?-0-8A$LA?-0-:$:,
leaf--leaves =R-3-8A$=R-3-:$:, 

man--men *J?-0-8A$*J?-0-:$:,  
foot--feet b%-2-8A$b%-2-:$:,   
knife--knivesPA-(%-8A$PA-(%-:$:, 
wife--wives ,%-!A-8A$,%-!A-:$:,    

woman--women 2.-3J.-&A$2.-3J.-:$:,
sheep--sheep =$-&A$=$-:$:,
tooth--teeth ?R-8A$?R-:$:, 

half--halves KJ.-!-8A$KJ.-!-:$:, 

fish--fish *-8A$*-:$:,

13 I borrowed a book from the library two weeks ago. $9:-:#R<-$*A?-GA-}R/-.,%?-.0J-36S.-#%-/?-.0J-(-8A$-

$;<,
14 I’ve looked for it everywhere. %?-.J-$%-;A/-?<-24=-MR%-,
15 What a pity! &A-:S:A-;A.-1%?-0-=,
16 What a pity! He couldn’t go with us. &A-:S:A-;A.-1%?-0-=,#R-%-5S-.%-3*3-.-:PR-3-,2,
17 I’m afraid that if you’ve lost it, you must pay for it. $=-+J-HR.-GA?-.J-2R<-?R%-/,%J?-0<-.-*A/-52-3R.-.$R?,
18 It’s the library’s. Please be more careful from now on. .J-.0J-36S.-#%-$A-;A/-0?,.-/?-29%-?J3?-(%-LR?,
19 You must study hard from now on. .-/?-29%-HR.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-aR2-=-:2.-.$R?,
20 Have you ever travelled on a train? HR.-<%-3J-:#R<-=-2#.-.J-2v-2{R<-<-?R%-MR%-%3,

▪147▪

Unit 7 Mainly revision
#J-5/-2./-0,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

HR.-5S:A-:6B/-9:A-/%-.-o$?-(J-2:A-2a2-L-$%-;A/,
1a Who is the youngest person in your class?HR.-5S:A-:6B/-9:A-/%-.-=R-/-(J?-(%-2:A-3A-?-;A/,
1b Who is the best guitar player at the moment?.-{2?-0A-7%-h%-/-(J?-29%-2-?-<J.,

1 What is the most popular subject in your class?

2 Miss Forgetful. 2eJ.-3#/,
2a I always forget dates. %?-o/-.-5K?-P%?-2eJ.-:PR,
2b He has forgotten all his French. #R?-n-</-?:A-{.-(-,3?-&.-2eJ.-?R%-,
2c Old people are sometimes forgetful. 3A-c/-0-5S?-{2?-<J<-;A.-:)R$-3A-LJ.,
3 Here is a shopping list so you won’t forget anything. :.A<-*R-:5S%-<J:-3A$-&A$-;R.-0?-HR.-GA?-2eJ.-3A-:PR,
4 Have you finished already? HJ.-GA?-}-3R-/?-:P2-?R%-%3,
4a When she reached home, her mother asked, “Have you got everything?”3R-<%-;=-=-,R/-3-,$3R:C-A-

3?-:SA-o<-“HR.-=-5%-3-;R.-.3,”
5 That wasn’t very clever!.J-.J-:S:A-P%-2R-8A$-3-<J.,
5a Uncle Lhaben arrived in Lhasa yesterday morning. A-#-z-:23-#-?%-}-SR-z-?<-,R/,
5b The students got to school at eight o’clock. aR2-3-i3?-(-5S.-2o.-GA-!J%-aR2-9<-,R/,
6 She was taking the things out of the basket when she dropped a bag of candy. 3R?-aJ-2R-/%-$A-.%R?-0R-i3?-

KA<-=J/-.?-!-<-#$-3-$%-,%-=-z%-,
6a We were having supper when the phone rang. #-0<-P$?-.?-%-5S?-.$R%-9?-9-28A/-3(A?,
7 He was good at swimming when he was a child. #R-<%-LA?-0-;A/-.?-(<-n=-o<-3#?,
8 They both started to pick the apples again. #R-$*A?-GA?-;%-2*<-!->-2+R$-:$R-2l3?,

▪148▪

Unit 8 On the farm
#J-5/5/-2o.2o.-0,
0,8
,8A%-G:A-/%-.,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 With pleasure. .$:-3R-.%-2&?,
4 As soon as... L?-3-,$...,
2 No hurry.VJ=-2-*J?-3A-.$R?,
5 hear of $R-,R?,
Grammar 2h2h-3R.-.!:.!:-$/.,
$/.,
Present Perfect with “already, just, yet, ever, never.” 
L?-9A/-.-v-2-“already, just, yet, ever, never”?R$?-.%-3*3-.-.R<-5=,

.-v-HJ.-GA?-L-2-212?-5<-?R%-%3,
Yes, I have. I’ve just finished it./ I’ve already finished it. ;A/-;,%?-212?-5<,%?-:.A:A-}R/-+$-+$-=-.J212?-5<-2-;A/,/ %?-.J-212?-9A/,
No, I haven’t finished it yet. 3A/,%?-.-.%-.J-12-3-5<,

1 Have you finished your work yet?

2 Have you ever been to a chicken farm? HR.-<%-L-$?R-G-2<-?R%-MR%-%3,
No, I’ve never been to a chicken farm. 3A/,%-<%-L-$?R-G-2<-$+/-/?-?R%-3-MR%-,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 There are several kinds of animals on the farm. 8A%-G-:.A:A-/%-.-YR$-($?-<A$?-:$:-;R.,

HR.-/2-<A:A-8A%-G<-?R%-AJ-MR%-,
2a Have you ever been to Qinghai Lake?HR.-35S-}R/-0R<-?R%-AJ-MR%-,

2 Have you ever been to West Hill Farm?

3 I’ll return it as soon as I can. %?-HR.-=-.J-M<-.-KA<-3R.-%J?-;A/,
4 He told me about this as soon he saw me. #R?-%-3,R%-3-,$-:.A:A-{R<-2>.,
5 Thank you very much for lending it to me. HR.-GA?-%-=-.J-$;<-2<-2!:-SA/->A/-+-(J,
6 Could I borrow a pen, please? %?-=-t$?-/$-&A$-$;<-/-(R$-$3,
6a A: May I borrow your bike?%?-HR.-GA-t$?-g-$;<-/-AJ-(R$
B: Sorry. I lent it to Hangmu yesterday. ,$?-2o=-3-28J%?,%?-.J-#-?%-.2%-3R-=-$;<-9A/,
6b A: Could you lend me your pen? HR.-GA?-%-=-HR.-GA-t$?-/$-$;<-/-AJ-(R$
B: Certainly. Here you are. =R?-(R$:.A-/-;R.,

▪149▪

7 It’s just had a baby. .J?-.-?R-3<-U-$-8A$-24?-L%-,

8 I’ve never heard of that before. %?-}R/-(.-.J-:S-8A$-$+/-/?-$R-3-MR%-,

9 I’ve just heard about his illness. %?-:.A:A-}R/-+$-+$-=-#R:C-/-5:A-$/?-5=-$R-2-;A/,

10 Is there anyone at home? HA3-/-3A-;R.-.3,

11 I hope everything goes well. %:A-<J-2-;A/-/-;R.-5.-2.J-=J$?-?-:P2-0<-(R/,

12 What can I do for you? %?-HR.-=-&A-8A$-212-,2,

13 It’s dead. .J-2J3-0R-<J.,

14 The hunter fired and the tiger fell dead. dR/-0?-3J-3.:-2o2-0-/-!$-.J-=R$-/?->A,

15 The old man died two years ago. c/-0R-.J-=R-$*A?-GA-}R/-=-:.?-?R%-,

16 Have you forgotten already? HR.-GA?-}-3R-/?-2eJ.-?R%-2-;A/-/3,

17 Lily has just finished her homework. =J-=J-;A?-3R:C- HA3-.R%-=?-L-VA?-5<-3-,$-<J.,

18 What do you get from yaks? /R<-$/$-$A?-HR.-5S<-&A-8A$-20/-,2,

19 Have you ever milked a yak?HR.-GA?-:VA-8A$-28R?-MR%-%3,

20 Have you got a moment? HR.-=-#R3-0-&%-43-8A$-AJ-;R.,

▪150▪

Unit 9 A visit to a factory
#J-5/5/-.$
.$--2,
2,29
,29R
29R-9-8A8A$-$A$A-/%/%-==-vv-{R{R<-.-?R?R%-2,
2,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Don’t rush. @R=-o$-3-LJ.,
2 Take a look. vR?-.%-,
3 All one’s life. 3A-5K-ZA=-0R,
Grammar 2h2h-3R.-.!:.!:-$/.,
$/.,
Present Perfect with “for, since.” L?-9A/-.-v-2“for, since”$*A?-.%-3*3-.-.R<-5=,
1 I’ve known Mr. Norbu for three years. %?-{-82?-/R<-2-%R->J?-/?-=R-$?3-:$R<-?R%-,
2 I’ve lived here since 1998. %-<%-$&A$-.$-$R-2o.-/?-29%-!J-:.A-/?-2#.-0-;A/,
Present Perfect compared with Past Simple. L?-9A/-.-v-2-.%-,A<-2+%-:.?-0-$*A?-2#<-2,
3 He has gone to America. #R-A-3J-<-#<-2.-?R%-,(#R-KA<-;R%-3J.-0-2!/-;R.,)
4 He went to America last month. #R-^-}R/-3<-A-3J-<-#<-2.-?R%-,(#R-KA<-;R%-;R.-3J.-.-.%-,$-$A?-3A-(R.-0,)
5 They saw the film last night. 3.%-.$R%-#R-5S?-\R$-2f/-.J<-2v?,
6 He has lost his book. #R?-<%-$A-.0J-(-2R<-?R%-,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 How long have you beenat school?

HR.-<%-aR2-9-/?-.?-;/-&A-43-8A$-=-2#.-.3,
1a A: How long have you been like this? HR.-<%-:.A-v<-.?-;/-$-5S.-:$R<-2-;A/,
B: Ever since last night. #-?%-.$R%-3R-/?-29%-,

2 The factory has been there for several years. 29R-9-.J-.J<-($?-/?-=R-:$:-:$R<-?R%-,
3 Tomorrow it’s our turn to clean the school. ?%-*A/,%-5S:A-aR2-9:A-#R<-;$-=-$4%-4-LJ.-<J?-;A/,
4 They arrived early on a Tuesday morning. #R-5S-$9:-3A$-.3<-*A/-8A$-$A-8R$?-0-}-3R-8A$-=-,R/,
4a On a cold winter night… .$/-.?-GA-P%-2:A-35/-3R-8A$-=,
5 The students walked through the gates with Uncle Wang. aR2-3-i3?-A-#-7%-.%-3*3-.-o-|R-/?-?R%-,
5a The thief came in through the window. b/-3-.J-|J:-#%-=?-/%-=-;R%-,
5b The Yellow River runs through Jiantsa. k-(-$&/-5-2o.-/?-28<,

▪151▪

6 There is a bridge across the river. (-(J/-.J:A-!J%-.-93-0-8A$-;R.,
7 Please come up these steps with me and be careful. %-.%-3*3-.-,J3-{?-:.A-.$-%R?-/?->R$?J3?-(%-LR?,
8 We don’t want any of you to get lost. %-5S?-HR.-5S-=?-$&A$-G%-2R<-3A-:.R.,

29R-2-5%-3?-H-2-3,$-0R-.%-3A$->J=-$R/-;R.,
9a Tibetan girls like wearing red flowers in their hair. 2R.-GA-2-3R-5S?-3J-+R$-.3<-0R-0-=R:A-/%-.-:.R$-o<-.$:,

9 The workers all wear thick clothes and glasses.

10 The glasses keep their eyes safe. 3A$->J=-IA?-#R-5S:A-3A$-=-Y%-*R2-LJ.,
10a Please keep the door open, for it is very hot in the room. #%-0:A-/%-@-&%-SR-nJ/-|R-KJ?-/?-8R$

%:A-#%-2-;R.-?<-t$?-g-2{R<-/?-?R%-/-{<-3-*A->-43-.$R?,
11a It is about half an hour’s walk (from here) to the factory. :.A-/?-29R-9<-?R%-/-1=-(J<-(-5S.-KJ.-!-.$R?,
11b My home is about three hours by bus from here. :.A-/?-%:A-1-;=-=-_%?-:#R<-2#.-.J-?R%-/-(-5S.-$?3.$R?,

11 My house is about twenty minutes by bike.

12 I’ve lived there all my life. %-<%-5K-$%-0R<-:.A-/?-2#.-0-;A/,
12a He has taught in this school all his life. #R?-5K-$%-0R<-aR2-9-:.A:A-/%-.-aR2-OA.-L?, 

▪152▪

Unit 10 Mr. Green’s problem
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-2,
2,{
,{-82?82?-$-<J<J/-=$?=$?-GAGA-$/.$/.-.R.R/,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Hold on for a moment, please. &%-43-|$-<R$?,(#-0<-$+R%-.?-:.A-v<-2eR.,)
2 I’m afraid he isn’t here right now. #R-.-v-:.A-/-3A-:.$
3 I’m sure he won’t mind. #R?-$%-.R$?-3A-LJ.-0-%?-#$-,J$-LJ.-,2,
4 He may fail… #R?-o$?-:UR.-3A-YA.,
5 Leave a message. {.-:)R$-0,
6 in trouble $/.-.R/-;R.-0,
7 do one’s best /?-0-$%-;R.-GA?,
8 learn by oneself <%-.R%-,
9 go back KA<-=R$-0,
10 be able to ,2,/?,
11 do well in L-2-$%-8A$-29%-2R<-12-0,
Grammar 2h2h-3R.-.!:.!:-$/.,
$/.,
Object Clause
1 She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk. #R-3R?-#R:A-&R$-4K-!J%-.-;A-$J-8A$-:)R$-9J<,
2 We know (that) Danba will work hard. %-5S?-2!/-0?-L-2<-@<-2lR/-LJ.-0->J?,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Could I speak to the headmaster, please? %?-aR2-$4S-=-{.-(-8A$-2>.-/-AJ-(R$-=$?,
2 He wants to talk to your uncle. #R?-HR.-GA-A-#-=-#-2h-8A$-LJ.-/-:.R.,
2a Hold on a moment, please. &%-43-|$-<R$?,
2b Hold on a moment, I’ll come soon. &%-43-|$-<R$?,%-M<-.-KA<-;R%-,
3 That’s very kind of you. HR.-/A-L3?-?J3?-&/-8A$-<J.,
3a It’s very kind of you to come and see me. 2.$-=-2v-<-;R%-0?,HR.-/A-%R-3-3A-L3?-?J3?-&/-8A$-<J.,
3b Thanks very much. It’s very kind of you. 2!:-SA/->A/-+-(J,HR.-/A-%R-3-3A-L3?-?J3?-&/-8A$-<J.,
4 I would like to see him as soon as possible. %?-#R-<%-M<-2-M<-.-<A$-/-:.R.,
4a Would you come and get it as quickly as possible? HR.-;R%-/?-.J-M<-2-M<-.-]%?-:.R.-.3,
4b Tell them the news as early as possible. #R-5S<-$%-M<-&A-,2-GA?-$?<-:I<-.J-2>.-<R$?,
4c Please give me a call as soon as you’re back. HR.-KA<-,R/-eJ?,M<-.-%-=-#-0<-8A$-$+R%-<R$?,

▪153▪

5 Sorry, I’m free every day except today. .$R%?-0-3-5S3,.J-<A%-3-$+R$?-%-=-*A/-o/-.-#R3-0-;R.,
5a The children go to school every day except Saturday and Sunday. LA?-0-i3?-$9:-%J/-0-.% -$9:-*A-3-3-

$+R$?-*A/-o/-.-aR2-9<-:PR-.$R?,
6 The boy can speak some everyday English. 2-(%-:.A?-o/-2!R=-.LA/-{.-:$:-2>.->J?,
6a Are you able to come tomorrow? HR.-?%-*A/-;R%-,2-23,
6b I was able to catch what he said. #R?-&A-8A$-2>.-0-%?-gR$?-,2-?R%-,
7 Between eight and nine. (-5S.-2o.-/?-.$:A-2<,
7a What’s the difference between them? #R-5S:A-3A-:S-?-$%-<J.,
8 He says that he won’t be free until tomorrow. #R?-#R-?%-*A/-2<-.-3A-#R3-9J<,
8a They say (that) they’ve studied at this school for two years. #R-5S?-2>.-0-v<-/-#R-5S?-aR2-9-:.A-/?-=R-

$*A?-=-aR2-.R%-L?-9A/-9J<,
9 I’m afraid that Jim will miss a lot of lessons. %?-)J3-1=-(J<-aR2-,/-3%-0R-=-:($-o-<J.-~3,
9a You don’t know how I miss you. HR.-GA?-%?-HR.-<%-)A-:S-8A$-S/-28A/-;R.-0-3A->J?,
9b I’m sorry I missed you at the station. %?-HR.-<%-?-5$?-/?-3-fJ.-0?-,$?-2o=-3-28J%?,
9c He never missed a day’s work. #R-*A/-$&A$-$A-=?-!-=:%-$+/-/?-(.-3-MR%-,
10 He may even fail his Chinese exam. #R?-o-;A$-$A-o$?-G%-3A-:UR.-0-YA.,
10a They failed to reach there on time. #R-5S-.J-<-.?-5S.-v<-,R/-3-,2,
10b He failed to keep his word. #R-<%-5B$-,R$-/?-3-2#.,
10c It’s true that he may fall behind the other students. #R-<%-aR2-3-i3?-GA-eJ?-?-=?-:PR-YA.-0-.R/-.%R?-;A/,
11 It’s true that we’ll go and work on a farm. %-5S-8A%-G-8A$-$A-/%-=-?R%-!J-=?-!-=?-o-/A-.R/-.%R?-;A/,
11a I’m sure that he won’t mind. #R-2R?-.J-?J3?-=-3A-:6B/-0-%?-#$-,J$-LJ.-,2,
12 Of course, we can learn by ourselves. =R?-(R$%-5S?-<%-%R?-/?-2a2-(R$
13 They went swimming every day during the summer holidays. .L<-$/%-$A-{2?-?,#R-5S-*A/-o/-.-(<-2n=-

2<-?R%-,

▪154▪

Unit 11 A great inventor
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-$&A
$&A$$?<$?<-$+R.-00-P$?P$?-(J(J/-8A8A$
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 It’s a bad line. [It’s a bad telephone line connection.] #-0<-$+R%-3A-,2-0:3-#-0<-$+R%-{2?-{.-3A-$?=-2,
2 send away KA<-:PR-<-2&$-0,
3 try out 5S.-v,
4 send for3A-3%$-!J-:2R.-0,
5 turn down\R$-|R-)J-(%-.-$+R%-2,
Grammar 2h2h-3R.-.!:.!:-$/.,
$/.,
Infinitive verbs. $9$?-:I<-L-5B$
1 The doctor wanted to operate. (/-0?-$>$?-2&R?-LJ.-:.R.-;R.,
1a She wanted to borrow my radio. #R-3R?-%:A-1-#.-:#R<-=R-$;<-/-:.R.,
1b They wanted to get home before it got dark. #R-5S-?-3-<2-0:A-}R/-.-;=-=-,R/-/-:.R.,
1c My father wants me to be a doctor. %:A-A-1?-%-(/-0-8A$-LJ.-/-:.R.,
2 Tell her to turn it down. #R-3R<-\R$-|R-)J-(%-.-,R%?->J?-&J?->R.-.%-,
2a Ask him to come quickly. #R-=-M<-.->R$-&J?->R.-.%-,
2b She asked me to help her with the housework. #R-3R?-%-=-3R<-HA3-=?-=?-<R$?-LR?-9J<,
3 When did you begin to study French?HR.-GA?-.?-/3-8A$-/?-29%-!J-n-</-?A:A-{.-.%?-2-;A/,
4 I see him pass here every day. %?-#R-<%-*A/-o/-.-:.A-2o.-/?-:PR-2-3,R%-,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What do you call them in English? HR.-GA?-.J-.$-=-.LA/-{.-GA-&A-9J<,
1a Can you call all the students’ names?HR.-GA?-aR2-3-5%-3:A-3A%-:2R.-,2-23,
2 Some of these inventions have changed the world more than others. $?<-$+R.-L?-0:A-.%R?-0R-:.A-.$-$A?-

.%R?-0R-$8/-=?-:63-\A%-=-2+<-2!R.-(J/-0R-29R?-;R.,
3 Which of these do you think is the most useful invention? HR.-GA?-$?<-$+R.-L?-0:A-.%R?-0R-:.A-.$-=?-.$R?-

3#R-(J?-w/-0-$%-8A$-<J.-~3,
3a Which of these would you most like to own? :.A-.$-=?-$%-8A$-HR.-GA?-(J?-2.$-:6B/-LJ.-:.R.-.3,
3b Lhamo’s uncle owns this land. He’s a good farmer. z-3R:A-A-#?-?-:.A-2.$-:6B/-L?-;R.,#R-/A-8A%-0-29%-2R-

8A$-<J.,

▪155▪

4 The boy had so many strange questions. 2-(%-.J-=-SA-2-;-35/-&/-3%-0R-;R.,
5 The teacher could not answer all of them. .$J-c/-IA?-.J-.$-5%-3<-=/-:.J2?-3-,2,
5a I don’t know all of them. %?-.J-.$-5%-3-3A->J?,
5a I know none of them. %?-.J-.$-=?->J?-2-$&A$-G%-3J.,
6 Not everyone can work out the problem. ??-G%-$/.-.R/-:.A-?J=-3A-,2,
7 She found that he was a very good pupil. #R-3R?-#R-<%-aR2-3-29%-0R-8A$-;A/-0->J?,
7a We’ve had five lessons. I find them easy. %-5S<-aR2-,/-s-;R.-0-.%-,%-=-35S/-/-.J-.$-a-3R-<J.,
7b I think it easy to do it by myself. %?-2v?-/,.J-%-<%-$A?-%R?-/?-12-/-a-~3,
7c I feel it hard to finish the work in two days. *A/-$*A?-GA-<A%-,L-2-.J-12-5<-.$R?-/-%-=-#$-0R-29R-o-<J.-:.R.,
8 You’ll have to build it yourself. .J-HR.-<%-*A.-GA?-29R-0/-LJ.-.$R?,
8a We must study hard for our country’s development. %-5S?-3J?-o=-:1J=-o?-GA-(J.-.-%J?-0<-.-aR2-.R%-=-:2.-

2lR/-LJ.-.$R?,
9 With the money he bought things for his lab. #R?-|R<-.J-.$-$A?-<%-$A-5S.-v-#%-=-3#R-2:A-.%R?-0R-*R?,
9a She sent for a doctor. #R-3R?-(/-0-8A$-2R?,
10 I can’t see clearly enough. %?-.J-:S-$?=-2R-8A$-3,R%-3A-,2,
10a I have enough time to read the book. %-=-.0J-(-:.A-[R$-0:A-.?-5S.-:.%-%J?->A$-;R.,
10b He operated on her at once, and Zhaxi’s mother was saved. #R?-2N->A?-GA-A-3<-M<-.-$>$?-2&R?-L?-

0?-#R-3R-2*2?,
11 Come to my home tomorrow if possible. $=-+J-;R%-,2-/-?%-*A/-%:A-HA3-.->R$
11a A: When will you use my bike?HR.-GA?-.?-/3-8A$-=-%:A-t$?-g-2!R=-o,
B: Now if possible. $=-+J-(R$-/-.-v-M<-.,
12 She said (that) hers has broken. #R-3R?-2>.-o<,3R:A-(1-#.-:#R<-=R).J-($-?R%-9J<,
12a Her radio has stopped working. #R-3R:C-1-#.-:#R<-=R?-1-#.-353?-28$-?R%-,
13 I went into the workshop and saw them breaking down the machine. %-<%-:#R<-#%-8A$-$A-/%-.-?R%-/?-#R-

5S?-:U=-:#R<-.J-$+R<-28A/-0-3,R%-,
▪156▪

Unit 12 Have a good time, Jim
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-$*A
$*A?-0,
0,)
,)J3,H
,HR.-<%<%-lJlJ.-:)R)R-==-*A.-0R0R-<R<R=-2<2<-(R/,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 Have you changed your mind? HR.-GA?-<%-$A-2v-2-2+<-;R.-.3,
2 I don’t mind. %?-.J-=-.R-$%-3A-LJ.,
3 Could you do something for me, please? HJ.-GA?-%-=-L-2-8A$-212-,2-23,
4 write down9A/-,R-<-2!R.-.%-,
5 make sure ;A/-0-,$-$&R.-0,
6 by air $/3-P<-2#.-.J,
7 come round .?-2+2?-3J.-0:A-\R-2<-2:A-:53?-:SA,
8 in a minute &%-3-:$R<-2<,M<-.,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Object Clause (what, when, where, who, how).
1 Do you know what time the ship leaves?HR.-GA?-P-.J-(-5S.-.:A-!J%-.-2*R.-0->J?-?3,
1a We don’t know when we arrive. %-5S?-%-5S-/3-,R/-:.$-3A->J?,
1b Tell me what time you get up every day. HR.-<%-*A/-o/-.-.?-/3-8A$-=-3=-=?-=%?-0-%-=->R.,
1c I know who he wants to see. %?-#R-?-8A$-=-,$-:.R.-0->J?,
1d Please ask him when he arrived here yesterday. HR.-GA?-#R-#-?%-.?-/3-8A$-=-:.A<-,R/-0-:SA-<R$?,
1e Go and see who she is taking care of. ?R%-/?-3R?-?-=-2.$-*R%-LJ.-28A/-;R.-0-vR?,
2 Can you tell me where he lives?HJ.-GA?-%-=-#R-<%-$%-.-2#.-;R.-0-2>.-/-(R$-$3,
2a Could you tell me where the nearest post office is?HJ.-GA?-%-=-:.A-.%-,$-(J?-*J-?:A-4$-#%-.J-$%-/-;R.-0-

2>.-/-AJ-(R$
2b Can you tell me who we have to see?HJ.-GA?-2.$-=-%-5S-3A-?-8A$-=-%J?-0<-.-,$-.$R?-0-2>.-/-AJ-(R$
2c Could you tell me how we get to the place?HJ.-GA?-2.$-=-%-5S-?-.J<-&A-v<-:PR-.$R?-0-2>.-/-AJ-(R$
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 A: Could you do something for me, please?HR.-GA?-%:A-(J.-.-L-2-8A$-212-/-AJ-(R$
B: What would you like me to do? HR.-GA?-%-=-&A-8A$-212-+-:)$-:.R.,
A: I’d like you to put the meat in the dish. HR.-GA?->-.J-#J<-3-.J:A-/%-.-8R$
1a Could you help me with English? HR.-GA?-%-=-.LA/-;A$-$A-!J%-/?-<R$?-<3-8A$-LJ.-,2-23,

▪157▪

2 Could you look after her while we’re away?%-5S-KA-=-?R%-eJ?,HJ.-GA?-3R-=-2.$-*R%-LJ.-,2-23,
2a Dorji’s family has been away for two weeks. hR-eJ-5%-$A-29:-3A-$%-0R-KA<-?R%-/?-$9:-

:#R<-$*A?-:$R<-?R%-,
3 With pleasure!.$:-3R-.%-2&?,
3a A: Are you sure you don’t mind?HR.-GA?-.R-$%-3A-LJ.-#R-,$-;A/-/3,
B: Glad to help!<R$?-<3-LJ.-0<-.$:-2R-:.$
4 I’ll take good care of her. %?-3R<-2.$-*R%-29%-0R-LJ.-o-;A/,
4a We must take care of everything in school. %-5S?-%J?-0<-.-aR2-9:A-/%-$A-.%R?-0R-5%-3<-$&J?-3?-LJ.-.$R?,
5 Make sure the sheep has clean water every day. =$-=-(-$4%-3-*A/-o/-.-:,%-o-;R.-0-#$-,J$-LR?,
6 Please speak to her in English as much as possible every day. #R-3R<-*A/-<J-28A/-$%-,2-|R?-.LA/-{.-2>.-

<R$?,
7 He’ll be here in a minute. #R-<%-&%-3A-:$R<-2<-:.A<-,R/-%J?,
7a Don’t leave your seat. The film will begin in no time. HR.-5S:C-:.$-!J$?-.%-#-3-V=,\R$-2f/-M<-.-:$R-

lR3-o-<J.,
8 They are waiting, aren’t they? #R-5S?-|$-/?-2#.-;R.-0-3-;AA/-/3,
8a You like fish, don’t you? HR.-<%-*-><-.$:-2-3A/-/3,
8b You don’t like fish, do you?HR.-*-><-3A-.$:-2-3A/-/3,
8c You haven’t changed your mind, have you? HR.-GA?-<%-$A-2?3-]R-2&R?-2+<-L?-3J.-0-;A/-/3,
9 Do you know what time their plane leaves Beijing?HR.-GA?-#R-5R:C-$/3-P-.J-.?-/3-8A$-=-0J-&A/-.%-#-V=-o-;A/-

0->J?-?3,
9a Could you tell me which gate we have to go to? HJ.-GA?-2.$-=-%-5S-|R-$%-=?-:PR-.$R?-2-2>.-/-(R$-$3,
9b Could you tell me what work we have to do? HJ.-GA?-2.$-=-%-5S?-L-2-&A-8A$-12-.$R?-0-2>.-/-(R$-$3, 

▪158▪

Unit 13 Happy New Year
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-$?
$?3-0,
0,=
,=R-$?<$?<-29%29%-,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 No news is good news. $/?-5=-$?<-2-3J.-/-/A-$+3-29%-<J.,
2 How time flies!.?-5S.-/A-)A-:S:A-3IR$?-0-=,
3 sitting room%=-$?R-#%-, 28$?-#%-,
4 hear from;A-$J-:LR<-2-:3-$/?-5=-$R-2,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:--$/.,
Infinitive verbs. $9$?-:I<-L-5B$
1 They climbed up the hill to see the whole city clearly.

#R-5S-<A-|%-=-:$R?-+J-PR%-HJ<-IA-HR/-;R%?-=-$?=-2R-8A$-

2v?,
1a Who will come to visit our school. ?-8A$-%-5S:C-aR2-9<-:53?-:SA-<-;R%-o-<J.,
1b To catch the early bus, he got up at five o’clock. _%?-:#R<-}R/-3:A-eJ?-(R.-KA<,#R-(-5S.-s:A-!J%-3=-=?-=%?-

2-;A/,
2 “Have been to” and “have been in” can be used with “once,’’ “twice,” “never,” “ever,” “several
times,” and “many times” to express time. || “Have been to” .%“have been in”$*A?-“once,’’
“twice,” “never,” “ever,” “several times,” “many times”?R$?-.%-3*3-.-.<-5K-.?-5S.-!R/-0-;A/,
2a A: Have you ever been to Xi’an? HR.-<%-8A-A/-=-?R%-AJ-MR%-,
B: I have been there twice.

%-.J<-,J%?-$*A?-=-?R%-MR%-,

“Have been in”
2b He has been in Beijing. #R-0J-&A/-.-?R%-MR%-,
2c His brother has been in the army since he finished middle school. #R:C-1-2R-aR2-:VA%-=?-3,<-KA/-0-/?-

29%-.3$-$A-/%-/-;R.,
2d He has been in Sichuan for two years. #R-?A-OR/-/?-=R-$*A?-=-2#.,
3 Object Clause.
3a He said (that) it was very cold in Yushu. #R?-2>.-/-;=->=-IA-/3-^-@-&%-:H$?-9J<,
3b She said that there were hundreds of people at the horse race. #R-3R?-2>.-/-g-o$?-:P/-5S$?-!J%-.-3A-

P%?-2o-U$-:$:-:.$-9J<,

▪159▪

4 Comparison of “have been to” and “have gone to.” || “Have been to.%-have gone to”$*A?-2#<-2,
4a She’s gone to Rebgong. (She hasn’t returned yet.) #R-<J2-$R%-=-2.-?R%-,(#R-.-.%-KA<-,R/-3J.,)
4b She’s been to Rebgong. (She went there once.)#R-<J2-$R%-=-?R%-MR%-,(#R-<J2-$R%-=-,J%?-$&A$-?R%-MR%-,)
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 He’s gone to England with his family. #R-<%-$A-HA3-3A-.%-:PR$?-/?-.LA/-)A<-2.-?R%-,
1a They’ve gone to the Great Wall. Have you ever been there?#R-5S-t$?-<A-<A%-2R<-2.-?R%-,HR.-.J<-?R%-MR%-

%3,
1b Have you received a letter from Dawa yet? HJ.-=-^-2:A-:UA/-;A$-&A$-AJ-:LR<,
2 How time flies. .?-5S.-/A-)A-:S:A-3IR$?-0-=,
2a How happy you look! HR.-=-)A-:S:A-3R-2-w/,
2b How fast a spaceship flies! :)A$-gJ/-:1<-P:A-:1<-5.-)A-:S:A-M<-2-=,
2c What a beautiful flower it is!)A-:S:A-3J-+R$-;$-0R-8A$-<J.-A%-,
3 Please give them all my best wishes. %?-#R-5S-=-(R/-:./-8-28A/-;R.-0->R.-.%-,
3a Best wishes to you! HR.-=-(J?-29%-2:A-(R/-:./-8,
4 Is she very unhappy without me? %-3J.-/-#R-3R-@-&%-3A-.$:-2-;A/-/3,
4a I can’t finish the work without your help. HJ.-GA?-<R$?-3-L?-/-%?-L-2-.J-:P2-3A-,2,
5 Don’t forget to give her some food and change her water, will you?3R<-9-3-!J<-o-.%-(-2eJ?-o-3-2eJ.,HJ.-

GA?-.J-v<-12-23,
5a Remember to tell him about this. #R-=-:.A:A-{R<-2>.-o-3-2eJ.,
5b You won’t forget to post the letter, will you?HJ.-GA?-:UA/-;A$-:.A-2{<-o-2eJ.-3A-YA.-0-AJ-2.J/,
6 He will work on a new book during his holiday. $/%-2:A-{2?-?-#R?-.0J-(-$?<-2-8A$-:VA-:$R-2l3-o-<J.,
6a I believe that they will work hard on herding. #R-5S?-@<-,$-$A?-K$?-:5S-2<-%-=-;A.-(J?-;R.,
6b I will have to choose presents for all the family soon, but I haven’t chosen any yet. %?-M<-.-HA3-3A-

;R%?-=-=$-*J?-<J-2.3-o-;A/,:R/-G%-%?-.-.%-$&A$-G%-:.J3?-3J.,
7 Mum slept almost the whole way. A-3-1=-(J<-=3-,$-ZA=-2R<-$*A.-0-<J.,
7a It is almost as tall as the room. .J-/A-1=-(J<-#%-0:A-3,R-5.-.%-3*3,
7b The good news made almost everyone feel pleasant. :UA/-29%-:.A?-1=-(J<-3A-5%-3<-3R-2-*J?-?-2&$
▪160▪

8 We’ve seen several members of the family since we arrived. %-5S-,R/-0-/?-29%-,HA3-5%-:.A:A-HA3-3A-:$:-

3,R%-,
8a You’ll have to finish the exercises before class is over. aR2-OA.-3-PR=-2:A-}R/-=-HR.-GA?-.%?-$8A-.J-.$-:VA-

5<-.$R?,
9 It is now standing in the corner of our sitting room. .-v-.J-%-5S:C-:P=-#%-$A-P-9<-8A$-/-;R.,
9a The shop is just at the corner of the street. 5S%-#%-.J-Y%-=3-IA-P-9<-8A$-/-;R.,
10 He said that he was working hard on his Chinese. #R?-2>.-o<,#R?-o-;A$-=-:2.-2lR/-LJ.-28A/-;R.-9J<,
10a A: What did Nima say in his letter?*A-3?-;A-$J-/%-.-&A-8A$-2>.-:.$
B: He said that he was going to return in two weeks. #R?-2>.-o<,#R-$9:-:#R<-$*A?-GA-/%-.-KA<-,R/-,2-

9J<,
10b He said that he hadn’t bought any yet. #R?-2>.-o<,#R?-.-.%-&A-;%-3-*R?-9J<,

▪161▪

Unit 14 Mainly revision
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-28A
28A-0,
0,$4
,$4S
$4S-$/.$/.-2*
2*<-.R%-,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 kind-hearted?J3?-29%-2:A,
3 look-up8A2-2>J<, 5B$-36S.-[R$-0,
2 dress-upH-2-IR/-0,o/-3?-0,
4 on top of---.J:A-!J%-/,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

%:A-+$-0R-.%-+$-3R-$*A?-/A-@-&%-L3?-?J3?-w/,
1a You are sad-hearted. Why? HR.-<%-?J3?-#$-$A?-#J%?-;R.-0:A-o-35/-&A-;A/,

1 My grandparents are very kind-hearted.

2 The plane landed safely. $/3-P-.J-2.J-:)$?-%%-,%-=-22?,
2a The bird landed on top of the house. L-.J-#%-0:A-[.-=-22?,
2b He fills each of the bowls with beef.

#R?-.!<-;R=-<J-<J:A-/%-.-{3->?-2!%-2<-L?,

3 When they were young, Mr. Green sometimes dressed up in a red coat.

#R-5S-=R-/-(%-%:A-.?-?,{-82?-$-<J/-

IA?-{2?-=-=<-H-2-.3<-0R-8A$-IR/,
3a All the girls dressed up for the party. .$R%-5S$?-.J-=-8$?-(J.-2.-3J.-i3?-GA?-|$-(?-3?,
3b When we were young, we dressed up in new robes during Tibetan New Year. %-5S-=R-/-(%-%:A-.?-?,

$/3-=R-$?<-5K?-GA-*A/-3R<-2R.-H-$?<-2-IR/-0-;A/,
4 Now look up the words in a dictionary. .-v-5B$-36S.-=?-,-~.-:.A-.$-:5S=-.$R?,
5 They met at the school gate and said hello to each other. #R-5S-aR2-9:A-o-|R-/?-,$-!J-1/-5/-=-:53?-:SA-L?,
5a The children told each other to try not to sleep on Losar Eve. =R-$?<-IA-{2?-?,LA?-0-i3?-GA-8$-$%-

0R<-3-$*A.-8J?-1/-5/-=-2>.,
HR.-<%-!R/-0-;A->:A-:O%?-{<-IA-.$:-!R/-=-<R=-2<-/3-;%-c?-3A-YA.,
6a You are too young to understand such things. HR.-<%-=R-/-@-&%-$8R/-S$?-0?-.R/-:.A:A-<A$?-gR$?-.!:,
6b He couldn’t wait to tell them the good news. #R?-#R-5S<-$+3-29%-.J-2>.-o<-|$-3A-,2,

6 You’re never too old to enjoy Christmas.

%-5S?-1/-5/-=-<R$?-<3-LR?-/-&A-:S-<J.,
7a It’s from England, isn’t it?.J-/A-.LA/-)A-/?-;R%-2-3-<J.-.3,
7b You are new, aren’t you? HR.-/A-aR2-3-$?<-2-8A$-3A/-/3,
7c Uncle Jantso will be free next week, won’t he? $9:-:#R<-eJ?-3<,A-#-o-35S-=-#R3-0-;R.-0-3-;A/-/3,
7d The children can’t ride horses, can they?LA?-0-5S-g<-8R/-3A-,2-0-3-;A/-/3,

7 Let’s help each other, shall we? 

▪162▪

Unit 15 At home with the twins
#J-5/5/-2&R
2&R-s-2,35
,35K
35K-3-.%.%-3*33*3-.-HA3-.-;R.-0,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 What can I do for you? %?-HJ.-=-&A-8A$-212-,2,
2 I would like to make friends with her. %?-#R-3R-.%-PR$?-21A$-/-:.R.,
3 I won’t make a mistake if you teach me well. $=-+J-HR.-GA?-%-=-aR2-!R/-=J$?-0<-$/%-/-%?-/R<-:O=-3A-29R,
4 I can’t decide which one to buy. %?-$%-8A$-*R-.$R?-0-,$-$A?-3A-(R.,
5 Would you like to try it on before you buy it?HR.-GA?-3-*R?-0:A-}R/-.-IR/-+J-5S.-2v-&A$-L-:.R.-.3,
6 Those trousers are not large enough for him. b%-$3-.J-#R-=-</-0-3A/,
7 That new leather coat is not cheap. !R-2:A-!R.-H-.J:A-<A/-$R%-a-3R-3-<J.,
8 Please take your time! HR.-<%-.=-3R<-LR?-(R$
9 I get on well with all my classmates. %-.%-aR2-PR$?-5R:C-2<-IA-:VJ=-2-29%-,
10 I’ll visit you right away. %-HR.-=-:U=-.-3)=-2<-:R%-,
11 No hurry! VJ=-:52-3-*J?,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

%-5S<-)-&%-3%-2R-.$R?-?3,
Mother: Yes. I think we do. <J.-;,%?-2?3-/-%-5S<-.$R?-o-<J.,
1a A: Do you need one more cup of milk tea?HR.-=-.-.%-:R-)-.!<-;R=-$%-.$R?-?3,
B: Yes. I think I do. Ask Cairang to get some more. <J.-;,%?-2v?-/-.$R?,5K-<A%-=-2>.-.J-:HJ<-;R%-$A-8R$
1b A: Would you like some cheese? HR.-=-(<-2-.$R?-?3,
B: Yes. I would like some, please. .$R?-=$?,%-=-&%-43-.$R?-=$?,

1 Father: Do we need some more tea?

A-3,=J-=J?-.J-12-3A-,2-23,.-/A-#R:C-<J?-<J.,
Mother: So it is! Lily did you hear what I said? AR-.J-<J.,HR.-GA?-%?-&A-2>.-0-AJ-$R-,=,=J-=J,
2a Lhamo: Can’t Cairang herd the livestock alone? It’s his turn. 5K-<A%-$&A$-0?-K$?-:5S-3A-,2-23,.J-#R:C<J?-<J.,
Dad: So it is! Cairang, did you hear what I said? AR-.J-<J.,5K-<A%-,HR.-GA?-%?-&A-8A$-2>.-0-AJ-$R-,=,
2b Lhamo: Didn’t you hear me, Zhaxi? It’s your turn to fetch the water!2N->A?,HR.-GA?-%?-2>.-0-3-$R:
3,.-/A-HR.-<%-(-=J/-<J?-<J.,
Zhaxi: So it is. I’ll do it at once. :R-.J-<J.,%?-.J-M<-.-212-o-;A/,

2 Lucy: Mom, can’t Lily do it? It’s her turn!

▪163▪ 

#R?-#R-5S<-)-&%-3%-2R-.$R?-3A/-SA?,
3a The headmaster asked whether the new students came from Lhasa. aR2-$4S?-aR2-3-$?<-2-5S-z-?-/?-;R%3A/-SA?,
3b Uncle Danba asked whether they liked his new robe. A-#-2!/-0?-#R-5S-#R:C-2R.-H-$?<-2<-.$:-3A/-SA?,
3c People often ask whether I like being a twin. 3A-i3?-GA?-o/-.-%-<%-35K-3-8A$-;A/-0<-.$:-3A/-SA?,

3 He asked whether they needed some more tea.

%-5S:C-:VJ=-2-.?-o/-.-@-&%-29%-,
4a It is very important to get on well with each other. 1/-5/-2<-:PA$-3,/-;R%-o-/A-@-&%-$=-(J/-0R-;R.,
4b How are you getting on with your English study?HR.-GA-.LA/-;A$-$A-aR2-.R%-$-:S-<J.,

4 Usually we get on very well with each other.

:R/-G%-3A-i3?-GA?-.-.%-%J.-$*A?-1/-5/-/R<-:PR
5a I am very sorry that I mistook your meaning. %?-HJ.-GA-.R/-$R-=R$-+-?R%-2<-.$R%?-.$-8,
5b You must tell him that he has made a great mistake. HR.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-#R-=-#R?-/R<-:O=-(J/-0R-8A$-29R?-?R%8J?-9J<-.$R?,

5 But people still mistake us for each other.

%J.-$*A?-1/-5/-2<-{2?-:$<-H.-0<-;R.-/-3A-(R$-$3,
6a These two sheep look the same, but they are different from each other in many ways. =$-:.A-$*A?2v?-/-:S-3R.-:R/-G%-:.A-$*A?-2<-3A-:S-?-3%-0R-;R.,
6b Do you know the new singer? His way of singing is different from Debi’s. HR.-GA?-\-2-$?<-2-.J-AJ>J?,#R?-\-=J/-!%?-2..-SJ-.%-3A-:S,

6 Can’t we be different from each other sometimes?

7 Sometimes, my grandma decides to buy a big birthday present for both of us. {2?-:$<,%:A-kR-2R?-%J.-

$*A?-=-*J?-{<-IA-=J$?-*J?-(J/-0R-8A$-*R-o:A-,$-2&.,
7a Lhamo decided to travel to Lhasa with her father during this summer holiday.

z-3R?-,J%?-:.A:A-.L<-

$/%-{2?-?-3R:C-A-1-.%-:PR$?-/?-z-?<-:PR-o:A-,$-2&.,
7b Both brothers decided to put up a tent in the mountains.

%/-$*A?-0R?-<A-/?-4-12-o:A-,$-2&.,

%-5S?-??-}R/-=-#-KJ?-.$R?-0-,$-$A?-$&R.-3A-,2,
8a Please tell me who should ferment the yoghurt. HR.-GA?-??-8R-2~=-.$R?-0-%-=->R.,
8b She decided that she should drive the sheep home earlier than usual. 3R?-=$-/3-o/-=?-}-3R<-HA3-=-.J.;R%-o:A-,$-2&.,

8 We can’t decide who should open it first.

▪164▪

%?-5R%-2.$-=-H-2-.J-IR/-/?-5S.-2v-L?-(R$-3A/-SA-/-&A-:S-<J.,
9a You should try on the boots before you decide to buy them. HR.-GA?-*R-lA?-3-L?-$R%-:)<-g-IR/-/?-5S.-2vLJ.-.$R?,
9b May I try on that red hat before I decide if I want to buy it? E-3R-.3<-0R-.J-*R-3A/-,$-3-2&.-$R%-%?-IR/-/?5S.-2v-L-(R$-$3,

9 Shall I ask the shopkeeper if I can try it on?

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
The Object Clause (4)
1 How to use whether and if. || Whether.%if$*A?-GA-2!R=-!%?,
“Whether.%-if”$*A?-/A-;A/-3A/-.%-;R.-3J.-?R$?-GA-.R/-.%-1=-(J<-35%?,.0J<-/,
1a She asked if / whether I wanted more mutton. #R-3R?-%-=-=$->-.$R?-3A/-SA?,
1b She asks if / whether I have a new Tibetan robe. #R-3R?-%-=-2R.-H-$?<-2-8A$-;R.-3J.-SA?,
1c The village leaders discussed if / whether we should fight for the grassland. #J-.0R/-5S?-%-5S?-C-?-lR.-

.$R?-3A/-PR?-2##<-L?,
1d The lama isn’t sure whether / if there will be a religious gathering. :5S$?-;R.-3J.-]-3-5%-=-$?=-(-3J.,
2 How to use too and either. || Too.%either$*A?-GA-2!R=-!%?,
Either&J?-0:A-3A%-:.A-=-3-3,:-;%-.R/-IA-i3?-P%?-$?3-;R.-.J,

.%-2R-/A-.%R?-2R-$*A?-GA-/%-$A-$%-<%-8A$-&J?-0:A-.R/-;A/-+J-.0J<-/,
2a Here are two horses, you can choose either (one or the other).HR.-GA?-g-:.A-$*A?-=?-$%-<%-8A$-$.3-(R$
2b Either of you can come to my house.HR.-$*A?-GA-?-;A/-<%-%:A-HA3-=-;R%-(R$

$*A?-0-/A-$*A?-0R-8J?-0:A-.R/-=-:)$-!J-.0J<-/,
2c Trees are budding on either side of the street. =3-:P3-GA-#R%-2R-:2?-28A/-:.$
2d His hands rested on either side of her shoulders. #R:A-=$-0-3R:C-U$-3$R-$*A?-=-28$-/?-%=-$?R?,

$?3-0-/A-#.-0:A-5B$-;A/-+J-G%-;%-:%-$?3-.%-.R/-:S-2-;A/,.0J<-/,
2e Cairang hasn’t finished his homework. Doma hasn’t, either.

5K-<A%-$A?-=?-L-VA?-3-5<-=-1R=-3?-G%-VA?-

5<-3J.,
2f Nima didn’t agree to fetch water. Yangzom didn’t agree, either.

*A-3-(-=J/-.-:PR-o<-3-:,.-=-.L%?-:

6S3?-G%-:,.-0-3-L%-,
“Too”;%-G%-:%-;%-$?3-IA-.R/-.%-1=-(J<-:S-!J-.0J<-2eR.-$>3-$?=-v<,
2g Uncle Danba has bought a red horse. Uncle Danzen has bought one, too.

A-#-2!/-0?-g-n%-.3<-8A$-

*R?-9A/-=-A-#-2!/-:6B/-IA?-G%-$&A$-*R?,
2h Doma likes butter tea. Cairang likes it, too.

1R=-3-.N$-)<-.$:-=-5K-<A%-;%-.J-=-.$:,
▪165▪

Unit 16 What’s it made of?
#J-5/-2&-S$-0,.J-&A-8A$-$A?-29R?,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 My sword is made of metal and it was made in Nepal. %:A-<=-PA-/A-t$?-GA?-P2-0-;A/-=-.J-/A-2=-2R-/?-2h%?-2<J.,
2 A corral is used for keeping the animals. K$?-G-/A-K$?-:$R$-LJ.-.-29R?-0-;A/,
3 English is used by many people in the world as their mother tongue. :63-\A%-!J%-3A-3%-2R-8A$-$A?-.LA/-;A$-/A#R-5S:C-3-{.-.%-:S-2<-,R.-28A/-;R.,
4 Tibetan art is popular around the world. 2R.-GA-+-l=-/A-:63-\A%-,R$-.<-H2-(J,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

.J-/A-o-&A-8A$-$A?-P2-0-<J.,
1a What are the prayer beads made of? UJ%-2-/A-o-&A-=?-29R?-0-<J.,
1b Prayer beads are usually made of sandalwood. UJ%-2-/A-o/-w/-IA?->A%-4/-./-IA?-29R?-0-<J.,

1 What’s it made of?

2 Find the names of the five countries where English is spoken as the first language. .LA/-;A$-3-{.-28A/-.-

,R.-0:A-o=-#2-s:A-3A%-:5S=,
2a The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is well known as the roof of the world. 35S-2R.-3,R-|%-/A-

:63-\A%-$A-;%-lJ-8J?-~/-0-(J,
2b The yak is known as the boat of the Plateau. $;$-/A-3,R-|%-$A-P-$9A%?-+-:.R.,
3 Which language is spoken by the largest number of people in the world?:63-\A%-!J%-3A-:2R<-3%->R?-GA?-

,R.-28A/-0:A-{.-<A$?-/A-$%-;A/-/3,
3a What kind of religious entertainment is performed in your village during the New-Year?=R-$?<-

{2?-?-HR.-5S:C-#J-2:A-/%-(R?-=$?-GA-LJ.-|R-$-:S-8A$-%J=-28A/-;R.,
3b What Tibetan dialects are spoken in Tibetan areas? 2R.-#=-/-;=-{.-&A-8A$-:(.-GA/-;R.,
4 English is the first language in none of these countries.

o=-#2-:.A-.$-=?-$&A$-$A?-G%-.LA/-;A$-1-{.-.-,R.-

GA/-3J.,
4a Seafood and chicken are popular in none of the villages of my home county.

35S-9?-.%-L->-/A-%:A-1-

;=-IA-#J-2-$&A$-=:%-.<-3A-(J,
4b Skyscrapers are present in none of the grassland areas I’ve visited. %-?R%-MR%-0:A-:VR$-#=-$&A$-=:%-#%-

2lJ$?-3,R/-0R-3J.,
▪166▪

5 It’s one of the world’s most important languages, because it is so widely used. (.LA/-;A$).J-/A-:63-\A%-!J%-

(J?-$=-(J-2:A-{.-<A$?->A$-;A/-0-/A-.J:A-,R.-o-(J-2:A-KA<-<R,
5a Tsamba is one of the Tibetan people’s popular foods, because it is so nutritious and convenient. 

l3-0-/A-2R.-3A-=-.<-H2-(J-2:A-9?-<A$?->A$-<J.,o-35/-/A-.J-@-&%-:5S-2&.-29%-=-!2?-2.J-2:A-KA<-<R,
5b Lhabrang is one of the famous monasteries in Amdo, because of its long history. ]-V%-/A-A-3.R:C-3A%-

P$?-(J-2:A-.$R/-0-8A$-;A/-0-/A-.J<-=R-o?-<A%-3R-;R.-0:A-KA<,
6 English is spoken as the first language by most people in the USA... A-<A:A-3A-3%-2R-8A$-$A?-.LA/-;A$-1-{.-

28A/-.-,R.-GA/-;R.,
6a Mani is recited as a mantra essence by most Tibetan people in China. N%-$R-<-2R.-3A-3%->R?-GA?-3-EA-.J-

$9%?-}$?-GA-~A%-2R-v<-.-:.R/-28A/-;R.,
6b My engagement was decided by my father just before he died. %:A-$*J/-g$?-/A-%:A-A-1-3-:.?-2:A-}R/-.-

#R?-,$-$A?-2&.-0-;A/,
7 Most business letters around the world are written in English. :63-\A%-!J%-$A-5S%-=?-GA-;A$-<A$?-3%->R?-/A-

.LA/-;A$-$A?-VA?-;R.,
7a Most Tibetan authors’ works are related to Buddhism. 2R.-GA-lR3-0-0R-3%->R?-GA-2l3?-(R?-/A-/%-2!/-.%-:

VJ=-2-;R.,
8 If you learn even a little English, you’ll find it useful after you leave school. $=-+J-HR.-GA?-.LA/-;A$-&%-

43-8A$-.%?-/:%-,HR.-<%-aR2-3,<-KA/-eJ?-HR.-GA?-.J-<%-=-1/-,R$?-;R.-0->J?-,2,
8a If you speak even a little Tibetan, you’ll find it easy when you travel in Tibetan places. $=-+J-HR.-

GA?-2R.-{.-&%-43-8A$-2>.->J?-5K-HR.-<%-2R.-;=-.-2v-{R<-=-:PR-.?-!2?-2.J-3R-8A$-;A/-0->J?-,2,
8b If you had even a little money, you’d find it easy to persuade her. $=-+J-HR.-=-|R<-3R-*%-%-43-8A$-;R.-5K-

HR.-GA?-#R-3R-:$$?-a-2->J?-,2,

▪167▪

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
The Passive Voice and the Active Voice. $8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-.%-<%-.2%-&/-IA-5B$

<%-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-.%-$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5A$-$*A?-GA-/%-.R/-:S-35%?-;A/-<%-<%-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-$A-LJ.-0-0R-$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-$A
“-by”;A-;=-5B$-;A/,.J-/-$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5A$-$A-i3-0-/A“be + :.?.?-0:A-3A3A%-n%n%-”;A/-=“be”/A“am, is, are, was, were,
has been, have been, will be”?R$?-GA-52-;A/-0-.%-,L-LJ.-,-..-0:A-=?-5B$-n%-2-#R-/-$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-$A-/%-.-2!R=(R$-0-=?-L-LJ.-,-3A-..-0:A-=?-5B$-$+/-/?-2!R=-3A-(R$:.A<-2>.-0:A-L-LJ.-,-..-0:A-=?-5B$-/A-=?-5B$-$A-eJ?-?-;=-5B$-2!R=-3A(R$-0:A-=?-5B$-i3?-=-9J<-<R,$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-=-i3-0-28A-43-;R.-0-.J-.$-<J-<J-/A,,A<-2+%-.-v-2,,A<-2+%-:.?-0,3-:R%?0,L?-9A/-.-v-2-2&?-28A:R,.J-.$-<J-<J<-.0J<-2!R.-/-$>3-v<,
1 Past Simple.

,A<-2+%-:.?-0,

1a The government repaired the old bridge last year.YA.-$8%-$A?-93-fA%-.J-/-/A%-8A$-$?R-L?,
1b The old bridge was repaired by the government last year.

93-fA%-.J-YA.-$8%-$A?-/-/A%-8A$-$?R-L?,

2 Simple Future. 3-:R%?-0,
2aMany pine trees will be planted around the monastery by the end of next year.

$?R3-#R%-3%-2R-8A$-?%-

=R:A-=R-3)$-2<-.-.$R/-0:A-3,:-{R<-.-:6$?-o-<J.,
3 Present simple.

,A<-2+%-.-v-2,

=2-4K:A-$/?-;=-/A-]-3?-:.J3?-0-<J.,
3b Mountain god altar sites are chosen by whom? =2-4K:A-$/?-;=-??-:.J3?-0-<J.,

3a Mountain god altar sites are chosen by lamas.

4 Present Perfect tense. L?-9A/-.-v-2,
4a I have made many sacrificial fires. 2.$-$A?-2?%-3%-2R-1.-MR%-,
4b Many sacrificial fires have been made by me. 2.$-$A?-2?%-3%-2R-8A$-1.-MR%-,

.J-/-%-5S?-i3-0-&A-v-2-8A$-$A-:R$-+-$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-$A-i3-0-:.A-2!R=-.$R?-8J?-/,,A<-2+%-.-L-2-LJ.-3#/-0-!J-LJ.-0-0R-.J$4S-2R-3A/-0:3->J?-3A-.$R?-0:A-{2?-?-:3,;%-/-L-2-.J-$?=-2R<-!R/-.$R?-0:A-{2?-?-2!R=-.$R?-0-;A/,:R-/-%-5S?-$8/-.2%-&/IA-5B$-=-;A/-$&A$-3A/-$*A?-=“-by”2!R=-.$R?-2-;A/-/3-8J-/,.J-/A-3-;A/-+J,,A<-2+%-.-$8/-5B$-=“-by”3J.-3R.-:R/-G%-{2?.J:A-LJ.-0-0R->J?-.$R?-/-.-$9R.-%-5S?-2!R=-.$R?-2-;A/,

▪168▪

Unit 17 What was it used for?
#J-5/5/-2&
2&-2.
2./-0,
0,.
,.J-&A-8A$-==-2!R
2!R=-22-<J<J.,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 Can you tell me the way to the Nationalities Press? HR.-GA?-%-=-3A-<A$?-.0J-0/-#%-=-:PR-?:A-=3-2>.-(R$-$3,
2 You can’t miss it. HR.-/R<-3A-YA.,
/ $;?-KR$?-?-:#R<,
4 Have you seen those military weapons on show in the museum? HR.-GA?-:PJ3?-!R/-#%-/-2N3-;R.-0:A-.3$3:A-35S/-(-.J-.$-3,R%-L%-%3,
5 PULL / PUSH :,J/ / $+R.,
6 BUSINESS HOURS 5S%-$*J<-.?-5S.,
7 ENTRANCE :6=-|R
8 EXIT,R/-|R
9 NO PHOTOS0<-]%?-3A-(R$
10 NO SMOKING .-2-:,J/-3A-(R$
3 Please turn left / right at the (third) crossing. HR.-28A-3.R-($?3-0)/?-$;R/-

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 What was it used for? .J-&A-8A$-=-2!R=-2-<J.,
1a What is a wooden bucket used for?>A%-9R:-/A-&A-LJ.-0<-3#R,

.J-/A-:VA-3R:A-:R-3-28R-2<-3#R,
2 Can you tell me the way to the museum, please? HR.-GA?-%-=-:PJ3?-!R/-#%-=-:PR-?:A-=3-2>.-/-AJ-(R$-$3,
2a Can you tell me the way to Kumbum Monastery, please?HR.-GA?-%-=-{-:23-=-:PR-?:A-=3-2>.-/-AJ-(R$$3,
1b It is used for milking female yaks.

2b Go along Number One Road until you reach the big intersection, cross the intersection, turn left,
and then you will find a bus station where you can find many buses to Kumbum. You can’t miss
it!=3-(J/-.%-2R-2o.-.J-?R%-/-28A-3.R-(J/-0R<-,$-

0-.%-.J-:UJ.-GA?-2&.-.J-$;R/-.-:#R<-/-HR.-GA?-{-:23-=-:PR-2:A-_%?-:#R<-3%-0R-8A$-fJ.-,2-0?-HR.-<%-/R<-3A-YA.,
3 It says here, on the card, that it was used in plays. >R$-L%-:.A:A-!J%-/-:.A-/A-^R?-$<-GA-/%-.-2!R=-2-;A/-8J?-VA?:.$
3a It says here, in the book, that the Potala Palace was established during King Songzangambo’s
reign. .0J-(-:.A:A-/%-.-1R-V%-0R-+-=-/A-o=-2R-YR%-24/-IA-.2%-+<-{2?-?-28J%?-0-;A/-8J?-VA?-:.$
3b The tour guide explained to us that Shakyamuni’s life was depicted on the monastery walls.

0-.J?-!R/-0:A-:O%?-<2?-.$R/-0:A-t$?-<A:A-!J%-2!R.-;R.-8J?-%-5S<-$?=-2>.-L?,

▪169▪

$J->/-

4 These days we use a thermos.

*A/-:.A-.$-=-%-5S?-5-.J3-2!R=-2-;A/,

4a These days we use vehicles instead of yaks in many Amdo areas.

.J%-?%-A-3.R:C-?-(-3%->R?-?-$/$-K$?-

GA-52-.-:U=-:#R<-2!R=-GA/-;R.,
4b In the old days we used to use prayer flags as victory flags, but now we use them in religious
activities.}R/-(.-%-5S?-.<-tR$?-.J-o=-#:A-35S/-g$?-8A$-$A-5=-.-2!R=-3R.,:R/-G%-.-v-(R?-=$?-GA-(R-$-8A$-+-2lA-

28A/-;R.,
5 Some of the things were hundreds of years old. .%R?-0R-=-=-8A$-=R-%R-2o-U$-.-3-:$R<-;R.,

:VR$-3R-3%-(J->R?-=R-2&-2./-!J%-$*J/-1A$-LJ.,
5b Some of the Tibetan teachers are specialized in the Gesar epic. 2R.-<A$?-.$J-c/-:$?-$J-?<-~/-lR3-=-(J..-8A2-:)$-LJ.-28A/-3(A?,
6 The group of girls moved on and had a good time together in the park. 2-3R:A-{R<-#$-.J-3*3-.-w3-<-=-?R%/?-.?-29%-0R<-<R=,
6a The flock of wild geese flew down to the lake and rested for the night. <A-*J?-%%-2-H-$&A$-(.-GA-35S-#<:1<-+J-35/-3R<-%=-$?R?,
5a Most of the nomad girls are married at the age of seventeen.

6b The herd of wild yaks left their winter pasture in the mountains and moved down to the valley.

:VR%-H-.J-<A-:$R:C-.$/-?-.%-#-V=-/?-(.-GA-=%-2<-;R%-,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
The Passive Voice- (2)$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$

,A<-2+%-:.?-0,
$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-=?-,A<-2+%-:.?-0:A-i3-0-.J?-:.?-9A/-0:A-.?-{2?-%J?-&/-8A$-$A-/%-.-.R/-.$-$%-8A$-212?-0-!R/-0;A/,.J:A-i3-0-/A-“be (:.?.?-0) + :.?.?-0:A-3A3A%-n%”;A/,
1 Statement $?=-2>.-GA-i3-0,
1a Tibetan writing was invented by Sambhota in the seventh century. 2R.-;A$-/A-.?-<2?-2./-0:A-/%-,R/-3A?$?<-29R-L?-0-<J.,
1b Tibetan was spoken in my hometown when I was a child. %-<%-LA?-0-;A/-.?-%:A-1-;=
-/-2R.-{.-2>.-GA/-;R.,
2 Questions :SA-5B$-$A-i3-0,
2a What was invented by Sambhota? ,R/-3A?-&A-8A$-$?<-2+R.-L?-0-;A/-/3,
2b What language was spoken in your hometown when you were a little child? HR.-<%-LA?-0-;A/-.?-HR.-

GA-1-;=-/-{.-<A$?-&A-8A$-:(.-GA/-;R.-.3,
▪170▪

Unit 18 Planting trees
#J-5/5/-2&R
2&R-2o.2o.-0,
0,#
,#R%-2R-:6$?$?-0,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 This tea’s salt content is just right. 

)-:.A:A-/%-$A-D:A-5.-+$-+$-</-0R-:.$

aR2-.R%-=-)A-v<-:2.-/-HR.-<%-.J-v<-)J-29%-.-:I<-:PR,
3 He can more or less communicate in English. #R?-.LA/-;A$-$A-=3-/?-1=-(J<-$R-2h-3R.-,2,
4 Lhasa is far away from my village. z-?-/A-%:A-;=-#J-.%-#-,$-@-&%-<A%-,
5 Some old people in our village say we must stop the animals from coming to the crop fields. %-5S:A-#J2:A-c/-0-<J-:$?-%-5S?-%J?-0<-.-K$?-9R$-8A%-/%-.-;R%-2<-2!$-:$R$-LJ.-.$R?-9J<,
2 The more you study, the better you will become.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Come to school in your old clothes tomorrow.

?%-*A/-HR.-GA-$R/-0-fA%-2-.$-IR/-/?-aR2-9<->R$

1a Some muscular young Tibetan men came to dance gracefully in their unique robes.

=?-!R2?-o?-2:A-

2R.-<A$?-1R-$8R/-:$?-:P/-^-V=-2:A-H-2-IR/-8A%-2eA.-*3?-w/-0:A-%%-82?-VR-:O2-0<-;R%-,
1b Come to the meeting tomorrow in your best robe. ?%-*A/-HR.-GA-H-2-(J?-29%-2R-.J-IR/-/?-5S$?-:.<->R$
2 The ground must be just right, neither too wet nor too dry. ?-$8A-.J-:S:A-3A-_R/-8A%-3A-{3-0<-5.-.%-</-0-8A$;A/-.$R?,
2a The boots must be just right, neither too large nor too small. :)<-g-.J-%J?-0<-.-5.-.%-</-0-8A$-.$R?-+J-(J3A-*/=-(%-;%-3A-*/,
2b Neither of us speaks Tibetan. %J.-$*A?-GA?-2R.-{.-3A-:(.,
3 Pound a long stick into the earth next to the hole. Make sure that it is straight. .L$-0-<A%-2R-8A$-#%-2:A:P3-IA-?-/%-.-2h2-/?-.J-S%-3R-;A/-3A/-=-2v-.$R?,
3a Pound a nail into the wall next to the doorframe. Make sure that it is strong enough to hang the
picture from. :6K<-3-8A$-|R-:P3-=-2h2-/?,.J-=-:S-0<-2!=-5K-Y-3R-;A/-3A/-=-$?=-2R<-2v-.$R?,
3b Push this cart to the field near the road. Make sure that the cart is full of manure.

>A%-g-.J-=3-#:A-8A%-

/%-=-:.J.-.$R?,.J-=.-GA?-2!%-;R.-3J.-=-$?=-2R<-vR?,
4 Put the tree in the hole so that it is straight. #R%-2R-#%-2:A-/%-.-28$-/-.-$9R.-S%-3R-;A/,
4a Put more clothes on so that you will not feel cold. IR/-0-3%-0R-$R/-/-.-$9R.-HR.-=-(3-/.-3A-1R$
4b Fence the grassland so that the animals won’t starve in the winter. C-?<-<-2{R<-5K-.$/-#<-K$?-9R$-3$$A?-3A-:(A,
5 A lot of good land has gone with them, leaving only sand. $>A/-?-3%-2R-.J-5S-.%-4$?-/?-9.-?R%-0?->=-.-=?0-/A-LJ-3-#R-/-<J.,
▪171▪

5a Many young men leave our village every spring, leaving only the women and girls.

.JA.-!<-1R-$8R/-

3%-0R-#J-2-.%-#-V=-/?-2.-:PR-2?->=-.-=?-0-/A-2.-3J.-5S-.%-$8R/-/-3-.$-<J.,
5b All the old people left the party, leaving only the young people to sing love songs.

c/-0-i3?-!R/-

5S$?-/?-2.-?R%-0?->=-.-;R.-0:A-/-$8R/-5S<-=-$8?-=J/-+-2&$
6 Today, too many trees are still being cut down in the USA. 

A-3J-<A-!-<-.-v-.-.%-#R%-2R-3%-0R-$&R.-28A/-;R.,

6a Nowadays, Tibetan studies is being taught all over the world.

3A$-}<-2R.-GA-<A$-$/?-/A-:63-\A%-?-KR$?-

!/-.-%J=-28A/-;R.,
6b Today, many children are still being kept by their parents from attending schools.

LA?-0-3%-0R-8A$-.J%-

?%-.-.%-aR2-9<-:PR-2<-1-3?-2!$-:$R$-,J2?-GA/-;R.,
7 They must be built all over the world. (#R%-2R).J-5S-%J?-2<-.-:63-\A%-?-HR/-!/-+-:6$?-.$R?,
7a Our temple should be finished by the end of this year. %-5R:C-z-#%-.-=R:C-=R-3)$-2<-.-=J$?-:P2-L%-%J?,
7b Pine trees must be planted along the bank of this river. (-2R:A-:P3-o.-.-%J?-2<-.-$?R3-#R%-:6$?-.$R?,
8 But we’re growing a lot more now, thanks to the Green Wall. :R/-G%-%-5S?-.-v-3%-2R:6$?-28A/-;R.-0?,}R-u%-/$?-=-,$?-eJ-(J-8,
8a Animal husbandry in my hometown has been very successful, thanks to animal scientists. %-5S:C-1;=-GA-K$?-=?-=-P2-:V?-(J/-0R-,R2-0?-K$?-=?-(J.-3#?-=-2!:-SA/-(J-8?-2-;A/,
8b My brother won the prize in the horse racing, thanks to our steed. %:A-1-2R-=-g-o$?-:P/-2#<-=?-o=-#,R2-0?-%-5S:C-g-3(R$-/A-2!:-SA/-(J:R,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1. The Passive Voice. $8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-=?-;A.-:I<-!R/-0:A-L-5B$-.%-.<-2,

;A.-:I<-!R/0:A-L-5B$-!Jwill, would, can, could, shall, should, ought to, must, have to, may, might2&?;A/-=,.J-/A-.LA/-;A$-$A-L-5B$-$8/-.$-.%-$+/-/?-3A-:S-2-!J,.%-2R,;A.-:I<-L-5B$-$%-9$-$?3-0-.%-3*3-.-.R<-;%-eJ?-?“s”.R<-3A-.$R?,.0J<-/,
1a He can speak Chinese. #R?-o-{.-:(.-,2,
1b She should be here by nine.#R-3R-.?-5S.-.$:A-,R$-:.A<-,R/-.$R?,
$*A?-0,“not” 2!R=-/?-*3?-:I<-!R/-0:A-L-5B$-.J-,A<-2+%-.-v-2-.%-,A<-2+%-:.?-0-<:%-.$$-5B$-+-2+<-(R$-0-!J-.0J<-/,
1c He shouldn’t be late. #R-<%-:KA-3A-*/,
1d They might not come to the party. #R-5S-.$R%-5S$?-!J%-3A-1J2?-/-,%-,
$?3-0,*3?-:I<-!R/-0:A-L-5B$-3%-2R-:.?-0:3-3-:R%?-2<-2!R=-3A-(R$-0-!J,.0J<-/,
1e He will can go with us. /R<-2,
1f She must would study very hard. /R<-2,
▪172▪

:.A<-%-5S?-$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-.%-.R<-o-;A/-=-.J:A-.R<-!%?-/A-$>3-$?=-v<,
1g Many trees should be planted. #R%-2R-3%-2R-8A$-%J?-2<-.-:6$?-.$R?,
1h The ritual may be completed tomorrow. (R?-=$?-GA-(R-$-.J-?%-*A/-;R%?-?-3)$-mR$?-%J?,
1i The old bridge must be repaired by Tibetan New Year. 93-fA%-.J-%J?-2<-.-2R.-GA-=R-$?<-2<-.-*3?-$?R-LJ..$R?,
2. Measurement 3)=-LJ.-5.-$8A,
2a My swimming pool is only two meters deep. %:A-(-n=-mA%-2-.J:A-$+A%-5.-=-kA.-$*A?-;R.,
2b This history book is just five centimetres thick. =R-o?-.0J-.J2-:.A:A-3,$-5.-=-=A?-kA.-s+$-+$-;R.,
2c Our village’s threshing ground is about two kilometres wide. %-5S:A-#J-2:A-$;=-#:A-8J%-=-,A-=J-$*A?-43-;R.,
2d My grandpa is seventy-nine years old. %:A-A-MJ?-/A-=R-2./-&-.R/-.$-;A/,
2e That stupa is sixty meters tall. 3(R.-gJ/-.J:A-3,R-5.-=-kA.-S$-&-;R.,
2f The surrounding wall of this temple is three meters high. z-#%-:.A:A-t$?-<A:A-3,R-5.-=-kA.-$?3-;R.,

▪173▪

Unit 19 Mainly revision
#J-5/-2&-.$-2,$4S-$/.-2*<-.R%-,
Useful Expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<, 

1 How long does it take to go to Lhasa by train / bus / horse / airplane /foot?z-?<-3J-

:#R<-=-2#.-.J-\,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-2#.-.J-\g-=-28R/-/?-\$/3-P<-2#.-.J-\b%-,%-=-\?R%-/-.?-5S.-$-5S.-.$R?,
2 How far away is Kumbum from Ziling? 9A-=A%-/?-{-:23-2<-=-&A-43-;R.,
3 Don’t drink all the time. .?-o/-.-(%-3-:,%-,
4 Many eagles began hovering in space after the wolf killed the sheep. ,%-!A?-=$-2?.-eJ?-L-cR.-3%-0R-3#:/?-wA%-{R<-o$-:$R-2l3?,
5 So far as I know no Tibetans can speak Russian. %?->J?-0-v<-/-A-<-?:A-{.-5->J?-0:A-2R.-3A-$&A$-G%-3A-:.$
6 There is something wrong with the milking machine, it doesn’t work any more. :R-.N$?-:U=-(?-3A-:#R<2?,.J-=-*R/-8A$-L%-:.$
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 Many of the stars can’t be seen because they are too far away. {<-3-3%-2R-8A$-3,R%-3A-,2-0:A-o-35/-/A-.J-.$-

/A-@-&%-o%-,$-<A%-2?-?R,
1a Many Tibetan ancient books can’t be read because they are too incomprehensible.

2R.-GA-$/:-.0J-3%-

2R-8A$-@-&%-$R-.!:,o-35/-/A-.J-i3?-GA-.R/-@-&%-92-0:A-KA<-<R,
1b Some of the mountains can’t be climbed because they are too high to climb. <A-2R-=-=-8A$-@-&%-3,R-

S$?-0?-:6K$-.!:,
2 So far no man has travelled further than the moon. .-2<-.-3A-$&A$-G%-^-2:A-1-<R=-.-:P=-28.-L?-MR%-3J.,
2a So far Tibetan students didn’t take any interest in computers. .-2<-.-2R.-GA-aR2-3-5S-lA?-:#R<-=-3R-2-*J?-

MR%-3J.,
2a So far no human beings have ever visited Mars.

.-2<-.-3A:A-<A$?-GA?-{<-3-3A$-.3<-=-:P=-*R.-L?-MR%-3J.,

3 Man-made satellites have been sent up into space by several countries. o=-#2-:$?-3A?-29R?-Y%-{<-3#:-

.LA%?-?-2+%-;R.,
3a Lots of wind-horses have been thrown up into the air during the ritual.

(R?-=$?-(R-$:A-{2?-?-_%-g-3%-

2R-8A$-3#:-.LA%?-?-%<,
3b Many schools in Tibetan areas have been repaired. 2R.-#=-IA-aR2-9-3%-2R-8A$-2*<-$?R-L?,

▪174▪

4 Older people must be spoken to politely. 3A-c/-0<-%J?-0<-.-2lA-2!<-;R.-0:A-|R-/?-2>.-.$R?,
4a Beginning language learners must be talked to slowly and clearly. {.-<A$?-,R$-3<-aR2-3#/-5R<-%J?-0<-

.-.$-&A%-.=-2:A-|R-/?-2>.-.$R?,
4b Tibetan people’s living standard should be improved by Tibetans. 2R.-3A:A-:5S-2:A-(-5.-%J?-0<-.-2R.-3A-

<%-$A?-3,R<-:.J$?-?-$+R%-.$R?,
5 Which channel is it on? It’s usually found on channel four. .J-1-2f/-2o.-=3-$%-/-$+R%-$A/-:.$.J-o/-w/-.-

1-2f/-2o.-=3-28A-2:A-!J%-/?-fJ.-,2,
5a Which shop sells good wool cloth? The shop on the corner usually does. 5S%-#%-$%-$A?-2=-$R?-29%-2R-

24S%-28A/-;R.-.3,P-9<-IA-5R%-#%-.J?-o/-.-:5S%-GA/-:.$
5b Which household makes the best Tibetan boots? The household near the village entrance usually
makes the best boots. HA3-5%-$%-$A?-2R.-GA-!R-z3-29%-2R-:.J2?-GA/-:.$-$3,#J-2:A-3#<-|R:A-*J-:.2?-?-;R.-0:A-

HA3-5%-.J?-.?-o/-.-!R-z3-29%-2R-:.J2?-GA/-:.$
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
Passive Voice. $8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-=?-,A<-2+%-$A-.-v-2:A-i3-0-/A,

$8/-.2%-&/-IA-5B$-=?-,A<-2+%-$A-.-v-2:A-i3-0-/A- “Subject+Be(present)+past participate”!J“LJ.-00-0R-+BE(;A.-vv-22-)+:.?.?-0:A-3A3A%-n%n%-,”;A/,
1a Most of the subjects are taught in Chinese in manyschools. aR2-9-3%->R?-?-OA.-$8A-3%-(J-2-8A$-o-{.-GA?:OA.-0-<J.,
1b Most of the temple dances are performed by monks. .$R/0:A-:(3-3%->R?-/A-9-2?-:O2-!R/-LJ.,
1c Barley is grown on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. /?-/A-35S-2R.-3,R-|%-/?-*J?,

▪175▪

Unit 20 The world’s population
#J-5/5/-*A->-2,:
,:6363-\A%-$A-3A3A-P%?,
P%?,
Useful expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 It goes on, hour after hour. .?-5S.-/?-.?-5S.-2<-o/-3,.-0,
2 The population grows faster and faster.3A-P%?-:1J=-5.-)J-3IR$?-/?-)J-3IR$?-?-KA/,
3 Standing room only! ?-=$-3,A=-43-8A$
4 At the beginning of this term, I was planning to study very hard, but I couldn’t.

aR2-

{2?-:.A:A-3$R<-%?-aR2-.R%-=-@<-2lR/-LJ.-lA?-;R.-3R.-:R/-G%-%?-LJ.-3-,2,
5 Hundreds of languages are spoken on the earth nowadays. :63-\A%-!J%-.-v-{.-<A$?-2o-U$-z$-:(.-GA/-;R.,
6 Education is very important in less / more developed countries.

aR2-$?R-/A-.<-o?-:PR-2:A- / .<-o?-(J-2:A-o=-

#2-.$-=-@-&%-$=-(J,
7 UN (the United Nations) Headquarters is in New York.

3*3-:VJ=-o=-5S$?-GA-,A-H2-2!R.-

:.R3?-0:-/A-*A$-;R<-/-;R.,
8 What’s the population of Tibet? 2R.-uR%?-GA-3A-P%?-/A-$-5S.-<J.,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 The world’s population. :63-\A%-$A-3A-P%?,
1a What’s the population of Qinghai Province?35S-}R/-8A%-(J/-IA-3A-P%?-$-5S.-<J.-.3,
1b Chengdu has a large population among the Chinese cities.

N%-$R:C-PR%-HJ<-.$-=?-OA/-+-0/-3A-:2R<-3%-0R-

;R.,
2 By what year will the world’s population reach 6billion?/3-8A$-$A-=R-=-:63-\A%-$A-3A-P%?-.%-K<-S$-=-aJ2?-

?3,
2a By what year will you be able to speak English fluently?/3-8A$-$A-=R-=-HR.-GA?-.LA/-{.-,R$?-3J.-.-5-,2-

23,
2b By what year will you be married?/3-8A$-$A-=R-=-HR.-<%-$*J/-1A$-o-;A/-/3,
3 Standing room only.

?-=$-3,A=-43-8A$

3a The temple’s central hall is full of monks, there is no room for villagers.

.$R/-0:A-:.-#%-/%-9-2?-

#J%?-+J-#J-3A-5S<-:.$-?-3A-:.$
3b The big bus was so crowded that there was hardly any standing room for me. ,A-,R.-_%?-:#R<-(J/-0R-

.J:A-/%-:5%-#-2o2-:.$-0?-%-=%?-/?-:.$-?:%-;R.-.!:,
▪176▪

4 So it goes on, hour after hour. .J:A-nJ/-IA?-.J-.?-5S.-/?-.?-5S.-2<-o/-3,.-.$R?-0-L%-,
4a The rite goes on, hour after hour. (R?-5S$?-.J-.?-5S.-:$:-=-o/-2YA%?,
4b The argument between those two families goes on, generation after generation. HA3-5%-:.A-$*A?-2<-

IA-IR.-.R/-3A-<2?-/?-3A-<2?-2<-353?-3-(.,
5 Just think how many more there will be in one year. =R-$&A$-$A-/%-=-(3A-P%?-)$-5S.-:1J=-2<-2?3-]R-8A$-,R%?-

.%-,
5a Would you like to guess how many Tibetans there will be at my Christmas party this year?

HR.-GA?-

.-=R:C-%:A-;J->:A-:O%?-{<-IA-!R/-5S$?-!J%-2R.-3A-$-5S.-.-aJ2?-%J?-0<-5S.-.0$-&A$-L-:.R.-.3,
5b Just think how many more times you could talk to me in a year if you had a telephone.

$=-+J-HR.-=-

#-0<-&A$-;R.-5K-HR.-GA?-=R-$&A$-$A-/%-.-%-=-#-2h-,J%?-&A-43-LJ.-,2-0<:.%->A$-oR2?-.%-,
3A-$8/-0-$&A$-:.$-?:A-2<-!R%-G%-;R.-o-3-<J.,
6a There is not enough space in the shed for the livestock when it rains. (<-:22-0:A-.?-?-/R<-#%-.-K$?9R$-(.-0:A-?-3A-:.$
6b There is enough space in this notebook for you to write the rest down. .%-.J2-:.A:A-!J%-.-HR.-=-z$-3.$-:VA-?:%-;R.,

6 There will not be enough space for anybody else.

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1. The Future in the Past Tense. :.?-0:A-.?-3-:R%?-0,

:.?-.?-3-:R%?-0-/A-:.?-9A/-0:A-.?-$-$J-3R-8A$-$A-/%-.-3-:R%?-0:A-L-2-$%-8A$-:L%-2<-:I<-2:3-:L%-o-;A/-0-!R/-0-8A$-;A/,
,A<-2+%-$A-:.?-0-.%-:S-2<-i3-0-$*A?-GA-|R-/?-35S/-,2-!J,“Would”.%“was goingto”$*A?-?R,
1a I didn’t know if / whether my horse would run away. %?-<%-$AA-g-1R-KR$?-$8/-.-:VR-o-;A/-0->J?-3-L%-,
1b I was not sure whether / if the prayer flag was going to fall down. %?-.<-tR$-?-=-:IJ=-:PR-3A/-,$-$A?3-(R.,
1c Villagers never knew that the horse racing would become the festival’s focus. #J-3A-5%-3?-g-o$?:P/-#<-.J-.?-(J/-:.A:A-$4S-2R<-:I<-:PR-2-$+/-/?-2?3-3-MR%-, 
1d My boyfriend never asked what was going to happen to us after we separated. %:A-.$:-=R?-%-5S-#-V=eJ?-&A-8A$-L%-o-;A/-0-$+/-/?-SA?-3-MR%-,
1e She didn’t tell me where she would go. #R-3R?-3R-$%-.-:PR-o-;A/-0-%-=-3-2>.,
1f He didn’t tell me when he was coming. #R?-#R-/3-8A$-=-;R%-o-;A/-0-%-=-3-2>.,
1g I didn’t know where the tent was. %?-4-$<-.J-$%-.-;R.-0-3->J?,
▪177▪

2 Numbers

P%?-!

100 one hundred

2o,

130 one hundred and thirty

2o-.%-?3-&,

1,000 one thousand!R%-,
1,340 one thousand three hundred and forty!R%-$&A$-?3-2o-28A-2&,
10,000 ten thousand

OA-$&A$

*A?-OA-!R%-3J.-2o-3J.-s-2&-%-$?3,
100,000 one hundred thousand (A$-:23,
120,340 one hundred and twenty thousand three hundred and forty(A$-:23-*A?-OA-!R%-3J.-?3-2o-28A-2&,
1,000,000 one million ?-;-$&A$
100,300,000 one hundred million and three hundred thousand.%-K<-$&A$-.%-?3-:23,
1,000,000,000 onebillion .%-K<-2&,
10,400,006,000 ten billion four hundred million and six thousand.%-K<-2o-.%-28A-.%-!R%-S$
100,000,000,000 one hundred billion .%-K<-!R%-,
20,053 twenty thousand and fifty three

▪178▪

Unit 21 Shopping
#J-5/-*J<-$&A$-0,5S%-o$-0<-:PR-2,
Useful expressionso/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 What can I do for you?%?-HJ.-=-&A-8A$-212-,2-23,
2 Can I help you?%?-HJ.-=-<R$?-<3-LJ.-(R$-$3,
3 How much do they cost? (How much is it?) .J-.$-$A-<A/-$R%-&A-:S-<J.,.J:A-<A/-$R%-&A-:S-<J.,

&%-43-|$-<R$?,
5 My boots are worn out.%:A-:)<-g-fA%-Z=-.-I<-:.$
4 Just a moment, please!

6 That Tibetan scholar is busy collecting some well known authors’ works.

2R.-GA-3#?-0-.J-lR3-0-0R-P$?-&/-

:$:A-K$-lR3-2#-0<-VJ=-8A%-3(A?,
%:A-:V?-GA-!J%-=-!-<-&%-43-8A$-;R.-/-:.R.,i
8 It’s important to think about your future. HR.-<%-$A-3-:R%?-0<-2?3-]R-$+R%-o-/A-$=-(J,
9 He looks at the painting in surprise. -#R?-;-35<-2:A-%%-<A-3R-.J<-2v?-:.$
10 My mule fell over a cliff and died last month. ^-}R/-3<-%:A-SJ=-$;%-=-z%-/?->A-?R%-,
11 That shop is selling out its nice robes quickly. 5S%-#%-.J?-2R.-H-29%-2-i3?-M<-2<-24S%?-28A/-:.$
12 The students in our class are either too big or too small for these shirts. 5B-=J/-:.A-.$-%-5S-:6B/-9:A-/%-$AaR2-3-5S<-(J-S$?-0:3-;%-/-(%-S$?-:.$
13 What size do you want?HR.-=-(J-(%-)A-v-2-8A$-.$R?,
7 I’d like a bit of sugar on my rice.

Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 The shop was quite new, for it had opened only the week before.

5S%-#%-.J-$9:-:#R<-:.A:A-}R/-+$-+$-=-0:A-

nJ/-IA?-@-&%-$?<-2-<J.,
1a His written Tibetan is extremely good, for he has studied Tibetan at Tibet University.#R?-2R.-uR%?-

aR2-9-(J/-3R-/?-aR2-$*J<-L?-nJ/-#R:A-2R.-;A$-$A-lR3-:VA-l=->A/-+-29%-,
1b This sweater is quite good, for it is made from wool. 2=-H-:.A-@-&%-29%-+J,.J-2=-IA?-29R?-0:A-KA<,
2 They were either too big or too small. #R-5S-;%-/-(J?-(J-S$?-0:3-;%-/-(%-S$?-:.$
2a The students in our class are either too big or too small. %-5R-:6B/-9:A-/%-$A-aR2-3-5S-;%-/-(J-S$?-0:3-;%-/(%-S$?-:.$
2b The robes in that shop are either too big or too small; not one is suitable. 1-$A:A-5S%-#%-$/-/%-$A-H-2i3?-(J-S$?-0-3A/-/-(%-S$?-:.$-+J-</-0-$&A$-G%-3J.,

▪179▪

PR$?-0R-$*A?-!-1/-5/-;%-2*<-:U.-0?-.$:-3R-*J?,
3a The yaks are pleased to go to the spring on hot summer days. 5-2-(J-2:A-.L<-#:A-*A/-3R<-/R<-$/$-i3?-(#<-:PR-2<-.$:-3R?-2g?,
3b I was delighted to hear from you. HR.-GA-$+3-,R?-0?-2.$-=-3R-$%-*J?,
4 The suit was so expensive that he couldn’t buy it. $R/-0-(-5%-.J:A-$R%-.!:-S$?-0?-#R?-*R-3-,2,
4a His works were so difficult that almost no one could understand them. #R:C-$?%-lR3-i3?-@-&%-$R-.!:2?-1=-(J<-3A-$&A$-$A?-G%-gR$?-3-L%,
4b The pork was so fat that he couldn’t eat it. 1$->-.J-5R-S$?-0?-#R?-9-3-,2,
5 We were so busy talking that I forgot to pay!%-5S-=2-\J%-=-VJ=-2?-%?-<A/-3R.-o:%-2eJ.-?R%-,
3 The two friends were pleased to see each other again.

5a My girlfriend was so delighted in meeting me that she kissed me several times.

%:A-PR$?-3R-%-.%-:U.-0?-.$:-S$?-+JJ-3R?-%-=-3(-.R<-,J%?-:$<-L?,
5b I am so busy collecting these folktales that I hardly have any time to relax.

%-.3%?-1%-:.A-.$-:5S=-

#.-LJ.-0<-VJ=-2?-zR.-$;J%-LJ.-#R3-43-;%-:R%-.!:,
Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 The Past Perfect Tense L?-9A/-:.?-2,

.J-;A?-:.?-9A/-0:A-.?-5S.-$%-<%-8A$-$A-/%-.-L-2-8A$-L%-2:A-.
?-?-&A$->R?->A$-$8A-/?-L%-9A/-0-!R/-0-;A/,.0J<-/,#-?%-HR.-;R%-.?-%?-$8A-/?-9-3-9R?-5<-?R%-8J?-0-v-2<-35S/-/-L-2-9?9R?-0-.J-:.?-0:A-.?-#-?%-#R-3-;R%-2:A-}R/-.-L?-9A/-0-!R/-0-;A/,:.A-/A-,A<-2+%-$A-%-5S?-L%-9A/-0:A-.R/-.$-$*A?-GA-}-KA-$?=-2<:LJ.-{2?-2!R=-.$R?-=,.J?-.R/-.$-.J-$*A?-=?-$%-8A$-,R$-3<-L%-2-.%-$%-8A$-eJ?-?-L%-2-$?=-2R<-!R/-,2,
.J:A-P2-!%?-/A“Subject+had+past participate”!J“LJLJ.-00-0R0R+had(have;A-:.?.?-00-)+:.?.?-0:A-3A3A%-n%n%-,”
1a I moved to Hong Kong after I had finished middle school.

%-aR2-:VA%-/?-3,<-KA/-eJ?-8%-!%-.-$/?-%<-2-;A/,

1b He remembered that he had chosen a new jacket, but he hadn’t paid for it.

#R?-!R.-H-$?<-2-8A$-2.3?-

;R.-0-.%-.J<-<A/-LA/-3J.-0-;A.-=-><,
%-KA<-;=-=-,R/-.?-3PR/-0R-i3?-}<-/?-?R%-:.$
2 So... . that &J?-0-/A-o-:V?-!R/-0:A-5B$-;A/-+J,o-$%-8A$-=?-3,:-3:A-:V?-2-&A-v-2-8A$-:L%-2<-!R/-0-;A/,
2a It was so cold in the mountains that many yaks were frozen / froze to death. m-3$R-@-&%-:H$?-0?-/R<$/$-3%-0R-:H$?->A-,J2?,
2b The horse was so fast that no one could recognize who the rider was. g-@-&%-3IR$?-0?-3A-$&A$-$A?-G%*-3A-.J-?-;A/-0-%R-3->J?,
2c They scolded her so badly that she nearly cried. #R-5S?-#R-3R<-$>J-$>J-2+%-S$?-0?-#R-3R<-1=-(J<-%-{.->R<,
1c When I returned to my home my guests had already gone.

▪180▪

Unit 22 At the doctor’s
#J-5/-*J<-$*A?-0,(/-0:A-$3-.,
Useful expressionso/-2!R=-5B$-.R<,
1 I don’t feel very well. %:C-=?-1%-2.J-2R-3A-:.$
2 I have got a headache and a cough. %:A-3$R-/-8A%-(3-0-1R$-:.$
3 There’s something wrong with the radio.
4 It’s nothing serious.

1-##.-:#R<-=R-.J<-*R/-L%-:.$ 

.J<-*R/-(J/-0R-&A-;%-3A-:.$

HR.-<%-&%-3A-:$R<-2<-?%?-S$?-?-:PR-%J?,
6 Take this medicine twice a day. (/-:.A-*A/-$&A$-=-,J%?-$*A?-2!J/,
5 You’ll be all right / well soon.

Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,

<2-;A/-/-HR.-<%-?%-*A/-2<-.-*=-.$R?,
1a You’d better drive the animals to the spring in winter. <2-;A/-/-HR.-GA?-.$/-#<-K$?-9R$-(-#<-1.,
1b You’d better shear the sheep twice a year. <2-;A/-/-HR.-GA?-=R-$&A$-=-=$-2=-,J%?-$*A?-=-:VJ$-.$R?,

1 You’d better stay in bed till tomorrow.

#R-3R<-1=-(J<-(3-/.-L%-:.$
2a Perhaps I’ve got a serious fever. %-=-1=-(J<-5-2-(J/-0R-8A$-o$-$A/-:.$
2b Perhaps this machine has got a problem. :U=-(?-:.A-=-1=-(J<-*R/-L%-:.$

2 Perhaps she’s caught a cold.

3 You’d better not go to school.

<2-;A/-/-HR.-aR2-9<-3-:PR

3a You’d better not leave the yaks alone in the mountains in the winter.

<2-;A/-/-.$/-#<-/R<-/$-$&A$-0-<A-

/?-3-2*<,
3b You’d better not miss the rite.

<2-;A/-/-HR.-<%-(R?-5S$?-:.A<-(.-.-3-:)$

4 Have you taken his temperature? HR.-GA?-#R:C-=?-SR.-AJ-:)=,
4a Taking one’s temperature is something that the nurses usually do.

$8/-IA-=?-SR.-:)=-o-/A-/.-$;R$-$A?-

/3-o/-.-=?-.$R?-0:A-L-2-&A$-<J.,
4b I would like to take my temperature when I have a cold.

%-<%-SR?-:H$?-L%-2:A-.?-?-5-P%-:)=-2<-.$:,

#R:A-=?-SR.-=-*R/-&A-;%-3J.-0-:S,
5a He seems to be satisfied with his success in his studies. #R-2R-<%-$A-aR2-.R%-$A-o=-#:A-:V?-2<-;A.-5B3?-:.$0-:S,
5b The old woman in the picture seems to be my grandmother. :S-0<-:.A:A-/%-$A-c/-3R-:.A-%:A-kR-2R-.%-:S-2R:.$

5 His temperature seems to be all right.

▪181▪

6 How long has he been like this?#R-:.A-v<-*A/-&A-43-:$R<-?R%-,
6a He has been in poor health like this for two weeks.

#R:C-=?-1%-:.A-v<-<A.-0R:C-%%-$9:-

:#R<-$*A?-:$R<-?R%-,
6b I have been to America several times.

%-<%-A-<A<-,J%?-:$<-?R%-MR%-,

Grammar 2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1 The Present Perfect Tense. L?-9A/-.-v-2,
The students have finished my
homework. 

L?-9A/-.-v-0?-L-2-$%-8A$-.-v:A-.?-5S.-2<-.-L%-2:3-$/?-0-!R/-0-;A/,

aR2-3-5S?-%:A-=?-L-VA?-5<-?R%-,

She hasn’t eaten lunch.

#R-3R?-$%-9?-3-9R?,
She has been to Tibet several times. 

#R-3R-2R.-uR%?-?-,J%?-:$<-?R%-MR%-,

I have eaten at that restaurant only
one time.

.-v-2-:.?-9A/-0?-}R/-/?-.-2<-.-L-2-8A$-2*<-^R?-L?-0:3-,J%?-:$<-L%-235S/,

%?-9-#%-$/-/?-,J%?-$&A$-=-9?-9R?-MR%-,
I have lived in this city since 1989. 

,A-=R-1989=R-/?-29%-%-<%-PR%-HJ<-:.A-/?:5S-#R.-L?,

.-v-2-:.?-9A/-0:A-{2?-?“for since”$*A?-2!R=-{2?-.J-/A-L-2-.J-:.?-0:A.?-5S.-$-$J-3R-8A$-/?-.-2<-.-o/-2YA%?-;R.-0-!R/,

I have studied music for one year. 

%?-<R=-3R-=R-$&A$-=-.%?-2-;A/,

2 How to usesince and for. “Since”.%“for”-$*A?-GA-2!R=-!%?,“Since”/A-L-2-$%-8A$-:.?-9A/-0:A-LJ-V$-$A-.?-

>A$-/?-(=R-$%-8A$-/?-.%-^-2-$%-8A$*A/-$%-8A$-.%-.?-5S.-$%-8A$-/?-)3$R-2l3?-+J-.-v:A-2<-o/-2YA%?-LJ.-0-35S/-0-;A/,.J.-v-2-LJ.-9A/-0-.%-3*3-.-.R<-2-=?-LJ.-28A/-0:A-.-v-2-.%-,A<-2+%-$A-.-v-2,,A<-2+%-$A-:.?-0-.%-3*3-.-.R<-3A-<%-,.0J<-/$>3-$?=-v<,
2a I have lived in America since 1983. 1983=R-/?-29%-%-A-<A-/?-:5S-#R.-L?-0-;A/,
2b He has learned music since June. #R?-^-S$-0-/?-29%-<R=-3R-.%?,
“For”/A-L-2-$%-8A$-212?-0:A-.?-5S.-GA-<A%-,%-!R/-0-;A/-+J,.J:A-eJ?-?-/3-;A/-<%-({<-3-$*A?-.%-(-5S.-$?3,^-28A,=R$*A?)L-2-$%-8A$-o/-3,.-L?-0:A-.?-5S.-.R<-.$R?-0-;A/,.0J<-2eR.,
2c I have been here for ten minutes. %-:.A<-,R/-/?-{<-2&-:$R<-?R%-,
2d I have lived here for two years. %-:.A-/?-=R-$*A?-GA-<A%-=-2#.,

▪182▪

3 Using the Simple Past versus the Present Perfect. ,A<-2+%-.-v-2-.%-L?-9A/-.-v-2-$*A?-GA-$>A2-2#<,
3a I was in Japan ten years ago / in 1990 / when I was a child.

%-<%-=R-2&:A-;<-}R/ / 1990=R< / %-<%-LA?-0-

;A/-.?-?-:)<-0/-/-;R.,
3b I have been in Japan several times / one time. %-<%-:)<-0/-=-,J%?-:$<-

/ ,J%?-$&A$-=-?R%-MR%-,

,A<-2+%-:.?-0?-}R/-IA-.?-5S.-%J?-&/-8A$-$A-!J%-L%-2:A-L-2-.J-!R/-0-;A/-=,L?-9A/-.-v-2?-}R/-IA-.?-5S.-$%-<%-8A$-$A-/%-L%2:A-L-2-!R/-0-=?-.?-5S.-=-%J?-$+/-3J.,
4 The Infinitive. %J?-3J.-L-5B$-i3-0-%J?-3J.-GA-L-5B$-/A-/3-;%-L-5B$-8A$-$A-l-2:A-i3-0-.J“-to”.%-3*3-.-.<-;R.-0-8A$-=-9J<-

+J,.J:A-i3-0-/A“to + L-5B5B$-$A$A-ll-2:A-i3i3-00-”v<-;A/,.J:A-eJ?-?“-es”.%“ -ed, -ing”?R$?-.R<-3A-<%-,
4a He didn’t know whom to ask / what to do. #R?-?-=-:SA-.$R?-0 / &A-8A$-LJ.-.$R?-0-3->J?,
4b She doesn’t know where to go / how to get to your tent. 3R?-$%-=-:PR-.$R?-0 / HR.-GA-4-$<-;R.-?<-)A-v<;R%-.$R?-0-3->J?,
4c I have something to give you. %-HR.-=-!J<-o-8A$-;R.,
4d A: Do you want anything to drink?HR.-=-:,%-o-:S-AJ-.$R?,
B: Yes, some tea, please!.$R?-=$?,)-*%-%-$/%-2<-8,

▪183▪

Unit 23 The football match
#J-5/5/-*J*J<-$?
$?3-0,
0,b%
,b%b%-lJlJ.-%R-=R=R:A-:P/P/-2#
2#<, 

Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 Did you have a good journey? HR.-=-;=-{R<-*A.-0R-8A$-AJ-L%-,
2 Play as well as you can. HR.-<%-$-43-lJ.-,2-/-.J-43-lJ.,
3 Keep on chanting. 3-3,.-.-$?R=-2-,R2?,
4 I feel afraid of forests and mountains when the nights are dark and stormy. ($-/$-=-_%-:52-(J-2:A-35/3R<-%-/$?-5=-.%-<A-2R<-0$-$%-*J?,
5 Please come to class on time. aR2-OA.-=-.?-v<->R$
6 Who is on the team? <-#$-/%-.-?-;R.,
Text Explanation aR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 It’s a long time since we met last! %-5S-,J%?-}R/-3<-:U.-0-/?-29%-;/-<A%-:$R<,
1a It has been a long time since they built this temple. #R-5S?-z-#%-:.A-28J%?-/?-=R-3%-2R-:.?,
1b A long time has passed since their divorce. #R-5S:A-$*J/-,R</?-;/-<A%-:$R<,

2 You are just in time for the football match. HR.-<%-b%-lJ.-%R-=R-:P/-#<-=-+$-+$-.?-,R$-.-aJ2?,
2a Being on time is something that the students should do. .?-,R$-+-:LR<-o-/A-aR2-3-5R?-12-.$R?-0-8A$-<J.,
2b You are just in time to have some hot mutton! HR.-<%-.?-,R$-+-=$->-SR/-3R-9-2<-,R/,
3 The team has already been chosen. <-#$-.J-}<-/?-2.3?-9A/,
3a Roads have already been made into remote areas. <A-PR%-.-}<-/?-=3-=?-9A/,
3b A Tibetan style house has been built in this city. PR%-HJ<-:.A-/?-2R.-=$?-GA-#%-2-8A$-

:6$?-0/-L?,
4 Either Weihua or Ann may be on the team. 2J?-.0:-:3-;%-/-A/-/A-<-#$-/%-.-;R.,
4a We have to get there either tonight or tomorrow. %-5S-.J<-.R-.$R%-%3-;%-/-?%-*A/-%J?-0<-.-:LR<-.$R?,
4b It’s necessary to study one foreign language or computer science. KA-o=-IA-;A$-<A$?-$&A$-$3-;%-/-

lA?-:#R<-<A$-0-.%-o-/A-.$R?-%J?-<J.,

▪184▪

5 We were playing against No. 64 Middle School. %-5S-aR2-:VA%-A%-S$-&-<J-28A-2-.%-:P/-2#<-LJ.-28A/-;R.,
5a Doing something against your patients’ wishes is not good.

HR.-GA-1-3:A-<J-:.R.-.%-3A-3,/-0:A-L-2-12-0-/A-

29%-0R-3-<J.,
5b The huge waves are beating violently against the shore. (-_2?-(J/-0R?-35R-:P3-=-S$-+-hJ2?-28A/-:.$
6 It was a draw when we played last time. ,J%?-}R/-3<-%-5S-:P/-2#<-LJ.-.?-/A-o=-13-,$-$A?-3-(R.,
6a The two archery teams competed all afternoon but at dusk it was still a draw.

3.:-0-5S?-KA-SR:A-.?-5S.-

ZA=-2R<-:P/-#<-L?-3R.-:R/-G%-?-YR.-GA-.?-?-}<-28A/-o=-13-,$-$A?-3-(R.,
6b They played two games of chess and both were draws. #R-5S-,J%?-$*A?-=-3A$-3%?-lJ.-3R.-$*A?-!-:S-3*3<J.,
7 By the end of the match, they had kicked two goals and we had kicked four. :P/-2#<-IA-3)$-=-aJ2?-

.?-#R-5S?-r%-=A-$*A?-/%-.-:1%?-;R.-=?-%-5S?-28A-:1%?-;R.,
7a By the end of last year, we had selected a new village head. /-/A%-=R-3)$-+-aJ2?-.?-%-5S?-#J-.0R/-$?<-2-

8A$-2.3?-9A/,
7b By the end of this term, we will make good progress in our English study. aR2-{2?-:.A:A-3)$-+-%-5S:C-

.LA/-;A$-$A-aR2-.R%-=-$R%-:1J=-29%-2R-8A$-,R2-%J?,
8 We did as he told us and won the first place in the league. %-5S?-#R?-2>.-0-28A/-2IA?-0?-:P/-5S$?-=?-o=-

#-A%-.%-2R-,R2,
8a We danced as she taught and got a gold medal in the competition.

%-5S?-#R-3R?-OA.-0-28A/-:O2-0?-:P/-

2##<-=?-$?J<-IA-g$?-3-]%?,
8b If you do as old people say, you may succeed. c/-0R:C-#-=-*/-/-HR.-=-o=-#-,R2-%J?,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
The Past Perfect Tense. L?-9A/-0:A-:.?-0,

L?-9A/-:.?-0-$R%-.-2a2?-9A/-0?-:.A<-8A2-+-3?-0<-3A-L-+J,$>3-IA-.0J<-2eR.-.$-=?->J?-0<-L:R,
The foreigner said he had never seen such beautiful scenery. KA-o=-0-.J-;A?-#R?-36K?-#$-w/0:A-;=-uR%?-.J:S-$+/-/?-3,R%-3-MR%-9J<,
By the end of last year, they had sold more than three thousand yaks. /-/A%-=R-3)$-=-#R-5S?-$;$-!R%$?3-z$-24S%?-9A/,

▪185▪

Unit 24 Mainly revision
$4S
$4S-$/.$/.-2*
2*<-.R%-,
Useful Expressions o/-2!R=-5A$-.R<,
1 My hometown is located at the foot of that snowy mountain. %:A-1-;=-/A-1-$A:A-$%?-<A:A-

:.2?-/-($?-;R.,
2 That tall mountain peak is always covered with mist. <A-3,R/-0R:C-lJ-3R-/3-o/-.-($-0?-29%-;R.,
3 I am really interested in learning traditional music. %-<%-YR=-o/-<R=-3R-.%?-0<-@-&%-3R-2-*J?,
4 He enjoys reading novels. #R-1%-$+3-[R$-0<-.$:,
5 Herdsmen spend most of the time on taking care of the livestock. :VR$-0?-.?-5S.-3%->R?-K$?-9R$-:5S-*R%-

LJ.-0<-2!R=-GA/-;R.,
6 It takes a long time to draw a painting well. <A-3R-29%-2R-8A$-:VA-2<-.?-5S.-3%-0R-8A$-.$R?,
7 None of the villagers can speak Chinese. #J-3A-5S:A-/%-$A-$&A$-$A?-G%-o-{.-2>.-3A->J?,
8 There are hardly any Tibetans who can speak three languages. {.-<A$?-$?3-:(.->J?-0:A-2R.-3A-@-&%-*%-,
Text ExplanationaR2-5/-.!:-:PJ=,
1 How often do you write?HR.-GA?-.?-o/-.-;A-$J-:VA:3,
1a How often do you wear your Tibetan robe? HR.-GA?-.?-o/-.-2R.-H-IR/-/3,
1b How often do you go on dates with your girlfriend? HR.-GA?-.?-o/-.-HR.-GA-.$:-3-.%-.?-2+2-0-;A/-/3,
2 Though I like writing to my pen friend, it takes a lot of time. %-<%-%:A-/$-PR$?-=-;A-$J-:VA-o<-.$:-3R.,:R/-

G%-.J<-.?-5S.-3%-0R-8A$-.$R?,
2a Most Tibetans like eating fat meat, though it’s not very healthy. =?-0R-2.J-,%-=-3A-1/-

/:%-2R.-3A-3%->R?->-5S/-0R-9-o<-.$:,
2b Though his horse was the best, he didn’t win the race. #R:A-g-(J?-3(R$-+-I<-2-;A/-/-;%-:P/-2#<-=?-o=-

#-3-,R2,
3 From Sydney we flew over a line of mountains in the southeast. $?J<-w/-$/?-/?-29%-%-5S-><-zR:A-<A-o.-8A$-

$A-1-<R=-=-:1<,
3a After you have passed over a huge line of mountains, you’ll come to a lovely lake.HR.-<%-<A-o.-(J/-

0R-8A$-$A-1-<R=-2c=-eJ?-HR.-;A.-.-:R%-2:A-35J:-8A$-=-:U.-%J?,
3b That big statue is over three hundred years old. :)A3-2f/-(J/-0R-.J-=-=R-?3-2o-z$-$A-=R-o?-w/,
▪186▪

4 But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in the sky. %-5S?-<A-2R-.J-o2-/?-2*<-

eJ?-$/3-/-3A/-0-&%-43-;%-3J.,
4a He could hardly say anything when he heard the bad news. #R?-$+3-%/-.J-$R-eJ?-{.-(-&A-;%-2>.-3-,2,
4b After the snowstorm there were hardly any sheep left behind. $%?-*R/-.J:A-eJ?-.J-$<-=$-$&A$-G%-=?-3-

?R%-,
5 Lower down, at the foot of the Ayers Rock, most of the ground is covered with forest and grass. A.-

;J<-?:A-V$-$A-:.2?-<R=-GA-?-3%->R?-/A-/$?-5=-.%-.%-C?-$;R$?-:.$
5a Lower down, at the foot of the snow mountain, the land is covered with white sheep and black
yaks. $%?-<A:A-:.2?-/A-$;%-.!<-=$-.%-/R<-$/$-$A?-?-$8A-2!%-:.$
5b His hands are covered with blood every time he butchers a sheep.

#R?-=$-2>:-,J%?-<J<-#R:C-=$-9%-O$-

$A?-&$?-:.$
6 I must stop writing now, as I have rather a lot of work to do. 2.$-=-L-2-3%-2R-212-o-;R.-0?-2.$-$A?-%J?-0<-

.-:.A-/?-:VA-353?-:)R$-.$R?,
6a I must go home now, as my mother is waiting for me. %:A-A-3?-%-=-|$-2#.-;R.-0?-%-%J?-0<-.-;=-=-=R$-

.$R?,
6b You must stop talking now, as I’m bored listening to you. HR.-GA?-%J?-0<-.-2>.-353?-:)R$-.$R?-+J-%-<%-

*/-/?-?/-$%-*J?-:.$
7 You can see from my photograph that I have a big smile and long hair. HR.-GA?-%:A-:S-0<-=?-3.%?-IA?-

#J%?-0:A-%:A-:63-.%-0-<A%-2R-.J-3,R%-,2,
7a I can tell from this essay that this author’s writing is rather good. lR3-;A$-:.A-*A.-=?-%?-lR3-0-0R-:.A:A-

lR3-l=-@-&%-29%-8J?-2>.-,2,
7b You can see from this goat’s long horns that it is quite old. HR.-GA?-<-3-:.A:A-G-&R-<A%-2R-=?-<-3-:.A-@-&%-

c?-0->J?-,2,
Grammar2h-3R.-.!:-$/.,
1. Using “though.”|| Though;A-2!R=-!%?,
“Though”8J?-0-/A-3A-3,/-0:A-5B$-o/-G%-:%-;%-$?3-.%-.R/-1=-(J<-:S-!J-$>3-$?=-v<,
1a He failed the exam though he had studied very hard. #R?-aR2-.RR%-=-:2.-0-L?-G%-o$?-3-:UR.,
1b Though my family is neither too rich nor too poor, it is a happy family. %:A-HA3-K$-0R-;%-3A/-=-3J.-0R-

;%-3A/-<%-.J-/A-HA3-5%-*A.-0R-8A$-<%-;A/,
▪187▪

2. Using “either... or...” || Either... or...GA-2!R=-!%?,
Either ….or8J?-0-/A-.J-(R$-=-:.A-;%-(R$-&J?-0:A-.R/-.%-1=-(J<-:S-!J-.J?-.R-3*3-0:A-.%R?-0R-$*A?-=?-$%-<%-8A$-:.J3?-(R$-

0<-35S/-0-;A/-0-$>3-IA-.0J<-2eR.-=?-$?=,
2a You can give either the yellow or the white scarf to the lama. HR.-GA?-]-3-:.A<-#-

2+$?-?J<-0R-:2=-(R$-=-.!<-2R-;%-:2=-(R$
2b You may use either your left hand or your right hand. HR.-GA?-=$-0-$;R/-0-2!R=-(R$-=-$;?-0-;%-2!R=-

(R$
3. Using “neither... nor...” || “Neither... nor...” ;A-2!R=-!%?,
Neither…nor&J?-0-/A-.$$-1-;A/-+J-.R/-/A-.J-3A/-=-:.A-;%-3A/-8J?-0-.%-35%?-0?-.J?-3*3-.-;R.-

0:A-.%R?-0R-$*A?-=?-$%-;%-3A-<%-2-!R/-0-;A/,.0J<-2eR.-/A-$>3-v<,
3a Neither smoking nor drinking is allowed in this school. aR2-9-:.A:A-/%-.-2-:,J/-0:3-(%-:,%-2-$&A$-G%-

LJ.-3A-(R$
3b They have neither warm clothes to put on nor enough food to eat. #R-5S<-H-SR/-3R-IR/-o-3J.-=-9?-:.%-3R-9-

o:%-3J.,

▪188▪

English-Tibetan Dictionary

Nq…P-TÈN-5B$-36S.,
A

a bottle of | NU-T…-CE-, || I want a bottle of beer. E-`-û‡-GE-NU-T…-CE-NCÈc,
a cup of | SÈ_-CE-, || I want a cup of tea. Ec-H-SÈ_-CE-]M—E-P-]NÈN,

a / eI;; @;/ | Z…C F…C a…C || A boy fell down and cried this morning. N-PEc-q…c-R-Z…C-ME-`-]n‰`-Pc-E“c,
a few | ]C], || Only a few students study hard. ÜÈT-U-JfiE-ac-VU-n…c-ÜÈT-`-]TN,
a glass of | a‰`-SÈ_-CE-, || He wants a glass of water. BÈc-G”-a‰`- SÈ_-CE-]M—E-P-]NÈN,
a little | JfiE-E“, || I want a little sugar. E-`-@-_-JfiE-E“-NCÈc,
a lot of | UE-TÈ, || He has a lot of money. BÈ-`-°È_-UÈ-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
a piece of | `‰T-UÈ-Z…C || Please give me a piece of beef. E-`-ˇUc-a-`‰T-UÈ-Z…C-q…P-NE-,
a slice of | `‰T-UÈ-Z…C || He ate a slice of bread with butter. BÈc-U_-NE-T•‰Tc-Pc-CÈ-_‰-`‰T-UÈ-Z…C-\Èc,
able /"eIbl/ | M—T-R, GÈC-R, ]HÈP-ME-úP-R, || 1She was not able to go home. BÈ-UÈ-^“`-`-]uÈ-U-M—T, 2The able man easily
found a good job. ]HÈP-ME-úP-R]Ã-´‰c-R-N‰c-q-T-Z…C-`c-Ü-UÈc-ã‰N,
about /@"baUt/| 1ˇÈ_-Pc, MÈC-Pc, 2VU, d-`U, || 1He knows a lot about history. BÈc-`È-î‡c-l…-ˇÈ_-Pc-UE-TÈ-a‰c, 2I will be
away for about ten days. E-I…P-TF“-VU-`-p…_-U…-^ÈE-,
above /@"bVv/| §‰E-, CI], $R%-/,|| The picture is above your head. ]x-R_-N‰-mÈN-l…-CI]-P-^ÈN,
accept /@k"sept/ | NE-`‰P-q‰N-R, || I accept the invitation to have dinner with them.

Ec-BÈ-WÍ-NE-UIU-Oÿ-\-U-T\]-î‡]Ã-UuÈP-]TÈN-NE-Oÿ-ÉEc,
accident /"&ksId@nt/ | GC-°È, || There was an accident on the road yesterday. B-˛E-î-`U-§‰E-P-GC-°È-Z…C-qŸE-]OÿC
accuse /@"kju:z/ | NUÈN-R-CKÈE-T, || Don’t accuse him of cheating. BÈc-UCÈ-ˇÈ_-TKE-T-`-NUÈN-R-U-CKÈE-,
across /@"krQs/ | Tà`-T, Tî‡N-R, || Be careful when you walk across the road. mÈN-l…c-î-`U-Tà`-Oÿc-c‰Uc-G”E-qÈc,
act /&kt/ | 1õ-≠ÈN-]XÀP-R, 2]tT-WP, || 1She knows how to act like a queen. BÈ-UÈc-î`-UÈ-NE-]x-T]Ã-õ-≠ÈN-]XÀP-a‰c, 2I fell
asleep during the play’s third act. ˛‰N-UÈ]Ã-]tT-WP-Cc“U-R]Ã-ˇTc-c“-E-CI…N-cÈE-,
actor /"&kt@/ | ]tT-§ÈP-R, || The actor had a big part in the play. ÑÈc-C_-n…-PE-Oÿ-]tT-§ÈP-R-N‰-`-¶E-TãP-C`-G‰P-úP,
add /&d/ | ¶ÈP, || Please add these numbers. uEc-@-]N…-NC-¶ÈP,
address /@"dres/ | •ÈN-CPc, µ-TäÈN, || 1Please give me your new address. mÈN-l…-•ÈN-CPc-Cc_-T-E-`->R.-NE-, 2His address
made all the students happy. BÈ]Ã-µ-TäÈN-l…c-ÜÈT-U-^ÈEc-íÈCc-NC]-_“-TF“C
admit /@d"mit/ | Bc-`‰P-q‰N-R, || She had to admit she didn’t know how to cook.
BÈ-UÈc-C^È-ˇÈ`-q‰N-U…-a‰c-R-Bc-U…-`‰P-MTc-U‰N-_‰N,
▪189▪

advise /@d"vaIz/ | TcU-]G_, B-K, || I like to advise students on their careers.

ÜÈT-U-WÍ]Ã-UOÿP-`U-n…- pÈCc-`-E-TcU-]G_-]NÈP-R_-NC],
aeroplane (airplane) /"e@r@pleIn/ | CPU-u⁄, || I like to travel by aeroplane. E-CPU-u⁄-`-T•N-Pc-^“`-ˇÈ_-q‰N-R_-NC],
affect /@"fekt/ | aP-b÷Cc, || The weather had a serious affect on his mood. BÈ]Ã-EE-î‡N-`-CPU-Ca…c-l…-aP-b÷Cc-G‰P-RÈ-M‰Tc,
afraid /@"freId/| ∞C-R, || We are afraid of our teacher. E-WÍ-NC‰-àP-`-∞C
after /"A:ft@/ | ä‰c-Pc, C[÷C-Pc, || After he left I went to sleep. BÈ-cÈE-ä‰c, E-I`-T_-cÈE-,
afternoon /%A:ft@"nu:n/ | p…-xÈ, || We have class in the afternoon p…-xÈ-E-WÍ<-ÜÈT-t…N-^ÈN,
again /@"gen; @"geIn/ | ^E-T´_, || Please say the new words again. M-£N-Cc_-T-NC-^E-T´_-aÈN,
against /@"genst; @"geInst/ | T§‰P-R, B‰P-R, ]C`-T, || The ladder leaned against the wall. ˇc-nE-`-B‰P,
age /eIdZ/ | P-WÍN, àc-R, || 1What is your age? mÈN-l…-P-WÍN-Oÿ-^…P, 2My body began to age quickly after I reached the
age of forty. E-`È-TZ…-TF“-`-T“N-ä‰c-E]Ã-`“c-RÈ-àc-R-UnÈCc,
agency /"eIdZ@nsi/| AÿE-\…, `c-B‘Ec, || Did you buy the ticket at the travel agency? mÈN-l…c-^“`-ˇÈ_-AÿE-\…-Pc-ß -c‰-e‰-IÈc,
aggression /@"greSn/ | TVP-]X“`, || Aggression is a very strong emotion. TVP-]X“`-q‰N-R-P…-TcU-ÆÈ_-xC-RÈ-Z…C-^…P,
ago /@"g@U/ | ¢ÈP, || My birthday was one week ago. E]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-P…-C\]-]BÈ_-CF…C-C…-¢ÈP-^…P,
agree /@"gri:/| ]MN-R, || I agree with my mother that I should finish my education.
E]Ã-e-Uc-E-`-ÜÈT-CcÈ-UM…`-p…P-R-Z…C-MÈT-]Èc-R_-]NÈN-R-`-E-_E-]MN,
agriculture /"&grIkVltS@/ | Z…E-`c, || Agriculture is the main business in the rural areas.
Z…E-`c-P…-uÈE-WÍ]Ã-]Oÿ-]CÈN-CVÍ-TÈ-^…P,
ah /A:/ | ]È, || Ah yes, that is correct. ]È, _‰N, N‰-]u…C-C…,
aid /eId/ | _ÈCc, uÈCc, _ÈCc-q‰N-R, || She came to his aid when he was sick. BÈ-P-T]Ã-ˇTc-c“, BÈ-UÈ-BÈ]Ã-uÈCc-`-qÈP,
aim /eIm/ | NU…Cc-^“`, || It is my aim to become a doctor. ©P-R-Z…C-q‰N-î‡-P…-E]Ã-NU…Cc-^“`-^…P,
air /e@/ | UB]-NT“Cc, || The air is cold. UB]-NT“Cc-]mCc,
airport /"e@pO:t/ | CPU-u⁄-ME-, || The airport is a busy place during the summer.
Nq_-B_, CPU-u⁄-ME-P…-{‰`-]W”T-G‰-T]Ã-c-G-Z…C-^…P,
alive /@"laIv/ | CcÈP, CcÈP-RÈ, || If they are breathing, they are still alive.
C`-K‰-BÈ-WÍc-NT“Cc-]q…P-â’T-q‰N-P, BÈ-WÍ-N-_“E-CcÈP-^ÈN-R-_‰N,
all /O:l/ | 1^ÈEc, 2WE-U, || 1I played basketball all afternoon. p…-xÈ-^ÈEc-c“-Ec-óE-`…-˛‰, 2All of you are Chinese.
mÈN-WÍ-WE-U-s⁄E-CÈ-T-_‰N,
all day /O:l deI/ | I…P-CE-TÈ_, || I studied all day yesterday. B-˛E-I…P-CE-TÈ_-Ec-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-qc,
all night /O:l naIt/ | ZC-CE-TÈ, UWP-CE-TÈ, || I slept all night. E-ZC-CE-TÈ_-CI…N-R-^…P,
all right /O:l raIt/ | GÈC || All right, you can come with us. GÈC-C… mÈN-E-WÍ-NE-UIU-Oÿ-]uÈ-GÈC
all the time /O:l D@ taIm/ | PU-^E-, åC-Lfi, || I try to speak English all the time. Ec-PU-^E-Nq…P-ˇN-TaN-MTc-q‰N,
almost /"O:lm@Ust/ | 1`N, 2S`-G‰_, || 1I almost missed the train. E-U‰-]BÈ_-n…-ä‰c-c“-U…-GÈN-`N-qc, 2Almost all of you can
read and write Tibetan well. S`-G‰_-mÈN-WÍ-WE-Uc-TÈN-^…C-]{…-ÅÈC-T\E-TÈ-q‰N-M—T,
alone /@"l@Un/| CF…C-R“, B‰_-ìE-, || I was alone all of last week. C\]-]BÈ_-¢ÈP-U<-E-CF…C-2#.-0-^…P,
▪190▪

along /@"lQN/ | ]uÈCc-R, UIU-Oÿ, ]N‰N-R, || Please sing along with me. E-NE-]uÈCc-Pc-LJ-NqEc-`ÈEc,
already /O:l"redi/ | \…P-R, || I already finished my homework. Ec-`c-q-{…c-W_-\…P,
also /"O:ls@U/ | lE-, ]E-, ^E-, || She also knew how to speak English. BÈ-UÈc-lE-Nq…P-ˇN-µ-a‰c,
although /O:l"D@U/ | ^…P-P]E-, ]ÈP-lE-, || Although he was short, he was very strong. BÈ-C\“Cc-RÈ-M—E-P]E-`“c-§ÈTc-îc-^ÈN,
always /"O:lweIz/ | PU-^E-, î‡P-R_, || I always like to eat ice cream. E-î‡P-R_-]È-T\Èc-GT-cÈT-\-î‡_-NC],
am /&m/ | ^…P, || I am Tibetan. E-TÈN-R-^…P,
amend /@"mend/ | 1]nÈN-CaCc-q‰N-R, 2T\È-TFÈc-q‰N-R, || 1You must make amends if you want to say you are sorry
for what you did. C`-K‰-mÈN-_E-C…-≠ÈN-R-`-]nÈN-R-´‰c-P, mÈN-l…c-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-]nÈN-CaCc-q‰N-NCÈc, 2He wanted to amend the
contract. BÈc-CP-î-N‰-T\È-TFÈc-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
America | e-U‰-_…-B, || America is a country. e-U‰-_…-B-P…-î`-BT-F…C-^…P,
American /@"merIk@n/ | e-U‰-_…-B-T, || My teacher is an American. E]Ã-NC‰-àP-P…-e-U‰-_…-B-T-Z…C-^…P,
ammunition /%&mju"nISn/ | ]CN-íc, || They lost the war because they ran out of ammunition.

BÈ-WÍ]Ã-]CN-íc-\N-Rc, NUC-]t‹C-`-SU-B-M‰Tc,
among /@"mVN/| PE-Pc, tÈN-Oÿ, || From among all the flowers, the blue ones were the most beautiful.
U‰-KÈC-WE-U]Ã-PE-Pc, U‰-KÈC-¢ÈP-RÈ-N‰-WÍ-P…-G‰c-^C-RÈ-_‰N,
amount /@"maUnt/ | WN, ]TÈ_-uEc, || She told me to buy a large amount of sugar. BÈ-UÈc-E-`-@-_-]TÈ_-G‰P-Z…C-IÈ-î‡-TaN,
ancient /"eInS@nt/ | CP]-_Tc, || Ancient culture is an interesting topic for study.
CP]-_Tc-l…-_…C-CPc-P…-Z…T-]H“C-q-^“`-UW_-TÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
and /@nd; @n; &nd/| NE-, || Bill and Mary are Canadian. R‰]È-NE-U]‰-_Èc-P…-F-P-K]Ã-U…-^…P,
anger /"&Ng@/ | BÈE-tÈ, || Anger can destroy friendships. BÈE-tÈc-UX]-T˛‰-`-CKÈ_-TÖC-CKÈE-~…N,
animal /"&nIml/ | ~ÈC-GCc, || There was a dead animal by the road. `U-]uU-P-~ÈC-GCc-a…-TÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
anniversary /%&nI"v3:s@ri/ | `È-]BÈ_, || They had a party for their tenth wedding anniversary.
BÈ-WÍ-CI‰P-±…C-Pc-`È-]BÈ_-TF“-T-`ÈP-R_, BÈ-WÍc-CcÈ`-§ÈP-TaUc,
announce /@"naUns/ | mT-±ÈC-q‰N-R, || They will announce the results of the test tomorrow.
BÈ-WÍc-cE-I…P-î‡Cc-]{c-mT-T±C-q‰N-î‡-_‰N,
another /@"VD@/ | CZP-Z…C || Please have another piece of bread. CÈ-_‰-`‰T-UÈ-CZP-Z…C-\È,
answer /"A:ns@/ | 1`P, úÈP-WÀC 2`P-]N‰Tc-R, || 1What is the answer to this question? x…-T-]N…]Ã-`P-F…-Z…C-_‰N, 2I can’t
answer that question. Ec-x…-T-N‰-`-`P-]N‰Tc-U…-M—T,
any /"eni/ | F…-^E-, CE-^E-, || I don’t have any money. E-`-°È_-UÈ-CE-^E-U‰N,
anybody /"enibQdi/ c“, || Does anybody want to go to the store with me? c“-E-NE-UIU-Oÿ-WÍE-BE-Oÿ-]uÈ-]NÈN,
anything /"eniTIN/ | F…-Z…C CE-^E-, || Do you want to eat anything more? mÈN-l…c-F…-Z…C-UE-Oÿ-T\]-P-]NÈN,
apologise (apologize) /@"pQl@dZaIz/ | NCÈEc-NC-[÷-T, || She didn’t want to apologise for her mistake.
BÈ-UÈc-PÈ_-]G”C-`-NCÈEc-NC-[÷-U-]NÈN,
appeal /@"pi:l/ | 1BUc-Pc-`‰P-R, 2CLfiC-Ca‰_-q‰N-R, _‰-[÷, || 1Please appeal to your mother for permission to go with
me. mÈN-l…c-e-U]Ã-BUc-Pc-ÉEc-K‰-E-NE-UIU-Oÿ-]uÈ-GÈC-R]ÃCPE-T-`ÈEc, 2My appeal fell on deaf ears.
▪191▪

E]Ã-_‰-[÷-P…-]ÈP-R]Ã-é-`-GÈc-TaN-_‰N,
appear /@"pI@/ | a_-T, UEÈP-R, ]H“_-T, || The sun did not appear from behind the clouds. I…-U-≥…P-SC-Pc-U-]H“_,
apply /@"plaI/ | 2J.-≠ÈN-R, || Please apply what you have learned. mÈN-l…c-F…-TÜTc-R-2J.-≠ÈN-NE-,
appoint /@"pOInt/ | TˇÈ-T, || I will appoint him to be the class monitor. Ec-BÈ-]XÀP-≈]Ã-]CÈ-T-`-TˇÈ-î‡-^…P,
approve /@"pru:v/ | ]MN-R, GÈC-UGP-]CÈN-R, || Who needs to approve this request for paper supplies?
aÈC-T“-T@È`-≠ÈN-`-c“c-GÈC-UGP-]CÈN-NCÈc,
April /"eIpr@l/ | ≠…-Ñ-TZ…-T, || April is in spring. ≠…-Ñ-TZ…-T-P…-No…N-@-^…P,
are /A:/ | 1^…P, 2_‰N, || 1Are you American? mÈN-WÍ-P…-e-U‰-_…-B-T-^…P-PU, 2We are Chinese. E-WÍ-P…-s⁄E-CÈ-T-^…P,
area /"e@ri@/ | ^“`-u⁄, c-G, || The grasslands cover a very large area. »-ME-C…c-^“`-u⁄-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-\…P,
argue /"A:gju:/ | ˛ÈN-R, || Don’t argue with your teacher. mÈN-l…c-_E-C…-NC‰-àP-NE-lR.-0-3-o$
arm /A:m/ | NR“E-T, || Your right arm is stronger than your left arm. mÈN-l…-NR“E-T-C^c-U-P…-NR“E-T-C^ÈP-U-`c-b÷Cc-G‰,
arms /A:mz/ | 1UWÍP-G, 2NR“E-T, || 1They took up arms against the enemy. BÈ-WÍc-UWÍP-G-MÈCc-Pc-Nu-TÈ_-]MT, 2He broke
both his arms when he fell out of the tree. BÈ-•ÈE-TÈ-§‰E-Pc-ü‚E-§‰-NR“E-T-CI…c-@-TFCc,
army /"A:mi/ | NUC-U…, || The army was very tired after fighting the battle. NUC-]t‹C-TîT-ä‰c, NUC-U…-éUc-d-FE-ME-GN,
around /@"raUnd/ | UM]-ˇÈ_-Pc, I‰-]BÈ_-Pc, || Please walk around the playground. ˛`-ÆE-_-T]Ã-UM]-ˇÈ_-Pc-?R%-.%-,
arrest /@"rest/ |1]XÀP-T\“E-q‰N-R, 2]XÀP-T\“E-, || 1He said to the policeman, "Don’t arrest me, I didn’t do anything
wrong." BÈc-I‰P-åÈC-R-`"E-]XÀP-T\“E-U-q‰N, Ec-U…-]u…C-R-CF…C-lE-U-`c"Z‰c-TaN, 2After his arrest he was put in prison.
BÈ-]XÀP-T\“E-qc-ä‰c, BÈ-TVÍP-BE-PE-Oÿ-TF“C
arrive /@"raIv/ | MÈP, ]qÈ_, || What time will your mother arrive at the bus station?
mÈN-GA-A-U-ÖEc-]BÈ_-c-WÀCc-`-PU-WÍN-]qÈ_-o-<J.,
art /A:t/ | ¨„-˛`, || He wanted to study art in school. BÈc-ÜÈT-≈-Pc-¨„-˛`-ÆE-:.R.-0-<J.,
as /@z; &z/ | 1]x, 2ˇTc-c“, || 1He looked as if he was sick. BÈ-Tõc-WÍN-`-P-TZ…P-^ÈN-R-]x, 2He fell as he was walking
down the street. BÈ-~E-`U-N‰N-Pc-]uÈ-ˇTc-ME-`-]n‰`,
ash /&S/ | M`-T, || There is a lot of ash in the stove. ôCc-MT-l…-PE-P-M`-T-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
ask /A:sk/ | x…-T-]S‰P, ]x…-T, || Ask me a question. E-`-x…-T-Z…C-SÈEc,
asleep /@"sli:p/ | CI…N, || I was asleep when she telephoned. BÈ-UÈc-B-R_-îC-Oÿc-E-CI…N-^ÈN,
assist /@"sIst/ | _ÈCc-q‰N-R, || He was asked to assist the teacher in class. BÈ-`-ÜÈT-t…N-l…-§‰E-Pc-NC‰-àP-`-_ÈCc-q‰N-î‡]Ã-_‰-T-TKÈP,
at /@t; &t/ | §‰E-Pc, MÈC-Pc, || I usually eat lunch at 12:30 p.m. Ec-î‡P-R_-p…-xÈ]Ã-Oÿc-WÍN-12NE-ˇ_-U30§‰E-Pc-DÿE-\c-\,
at a bad time | Oÿc-U…-`‰Cc-R]Ã-ˇTc-c“, || I’m sorry, you have come at a bad time. NCÈEc-R-U-WÍU, mÈN-Oÿc-U…-`‰Cc-R-Z…C-`-MÈP,
at a good time | ˇTc-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-`, Oÿc-`‰Cc-RÈ-Z…C-`, || Let’s meet later at a good time for both of us.
C[÷C-Pc-E‰N-CI…c-`-Oÿc-ˇTc-T\E-TÈ-qŸE-Oÿc-UH`,
at first /f3:st/ | MÈC-U_, || At first please speak to me in simple English. MÈC-U_-E-`-Nq…P-ˇN-CÈ-Ü-UÈc-B-Tç-qÈc,
at home /h@Um/ | ^“`-P, m…U-P, || I am at home today. N‰-_…E-E-m…U-P-^ÈN,
at last /lA:st/ | UM]-U_, || At last I was able to speak English well. UM]-U_-Ec-Nq…P-^…C-`‰Cc-RÈ-µ-a‰c-cÈE-,
at night /naIt/ | UWP-UÈ_, || I sleep at night. UWP-UÈ_-E-U`-`c-I`,
▪192▪

at once /wVns/ | ]z`-Oÿ, || Do you want to leave at once? mÈN-rŸ_-Lfi-n‰c-:.R.-.3,
at the beginning /bI"gInIN/ | NE-MÈC || At the beginning, I thought learning English was difficult.

NE-MÈC-Ec-Nq…P-^…C-ÜÈT-R-P…-N@]-UÈ-Z…C-^…P-R_-]NÈN,
at the end of | UH“C-Lfi, UM]-U_, || At the end of class, the students were almost sleeping.
ÜÈT-t…N-l…-UH“C-Lfi, ÜÈT-U-WÍ-S`-G‰_-CI…N-]OÿC
at the moment /"m@Um@nt/ | ˇTc-N‰_, ˇTc-]N…-`, || I don’t want to eat at the moment but I probably will
later. ˇTc-]N…-`-Ec-F…-^E-\-U…-]NÈN, ]ÈP-lE-F“E-]CÈ_-P-Ec-T\]-P-t…Cc-t…Cc-U‰N,
at this time /taIm/ | PU-WÍN-]N…-`, {2?-:.A-=,|| At this time of the month I usually get paid.
Ñ-_‰]Ã-PU-WÍN-]N…-`-E-`-Ç-SÈCc-§‰_,
at times /taImz/ | UWUc-UWUc-c“, || He is very funny at times. UWUc-UWUc-c“-BÈ-UÈ-P…-d-FE-TC-{È-T-Z…C-^…P,
at work /w3:k/ | `c-@-`c-R, || I was at work yesterday. B-˛E-Ec-`c-@-`c,
attack /@"t&k/ | CVÂc, 1àÈ`, 2W”_-àÈ`, || 1Wolves like to attack sheep when they are hungry.
≠E-@…-õÈCc-Oÿc-`“C-`-àÈ`, 2The enemy’s surprise attack was not successful. Nu-TÈc-ñÈC-Lfi-W”_-àÈ`-qc-R-`-î`-B-U-MÈT,
attempt /@"tempt/ | 1ÉÈ-T@ÈN, 2q‰N-˛…c, || 1The assassin’s attempt on the president’s life was thwarted.
V“P-M—P-ñÈC-CcÈN-q‰N-R]Ã-ÉÈ-T@ÈN-SU-I‰c-c“-TKE-, 2She won’t attempt to tell him the whole story.
BÈ-UÈc-NÈP-MUc-FN-BÈ-`-TaN-˛…c-q‰N-U…-~…N,
attend /@"tend/ | [÷Cc, || Will you attend the party tomorrow night? ?%-*A/-NCÈE-UÈ_-mÈN-≥È-WÍCc-`-[÷Cc-î‡-e‰-^…P,
August /"O:g@st/ | Ñ-T-TîN-R, || August is our hottest month. Ñ-T-TîN-R-P…-E-WÍ]Ã-G‰c-xÈ-T]Ã-Ñ-T-^…P,
automobile /"O:t@m@bi:l/ | ÖEc-]BÈ_, || He hopes to purchase an automobile next year.
BÈc-cE-`È_-ÖEc-]BÈ_-Z…C-IÈ-P-]NÈN,
autonomous /O:"tQn@m@s/ | _E-´ÈE-, || Yulshul Autonomous Prefecture is in southern Qinghai Province.
^“`-b÷`-_E-´ÈE-B‘`-P…-UWÍ-¢ÈP-Z…E-G‰P-n…-üÈ-pÈCc-P-^ÈN,
autumn /"O:t@m/ | §ÈP-@ || In autumn tree leaves turn yellow. §ÈP-@_, •ÈE-`È-c‰_-TÈ_-]nŸ_,
awake /@"weIk/ | WÍ_, CI…N-`c-cN-R, || He wasn’t awake when I arrived. E-MÈP-Oÿc, BÈ-CI…N-`c-cN-U‰N,
award /@"wO:d/ | 1NC]-åCc, 2NC]-åCc-CPE-T, || 1She got a special award for being a good student.
BÈ-UÈ-ÜÈT-U-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^…P-Rc-NC]-åCc-mN-R_-T-Z…C-MÈT, 2We will award the best students with cash gifts this afternoon.
N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ-E-WÍc-ÜÈT-U-G‰c-T\E-TÈ-`-°È_-UÈ]Ã-q-NC]-CPE-î‡-^…P,

B
q…c-R, q…c-R-`-T˛…-T, || My baby is two months old. E]Ã-q…c-R-Ñ-T-CI…c-`ÈP-^ÈN, 2I’m now an adult so
don’t baby me. N-õ-E-U…-N_-U-Z…C-Lfi-nŸ_-^ÈN-Rc-E-q…c-R-`-U-T˛…,
back /b&k/ | 1p…_, 2îT, 3îT-pÈCc, || 1At six o’clock, go back home. Oÿc-WÍN-x⁄C-C…-§‰E-, p…_-^“`-`-cÈE-, 2My back is
painful. E]Ã-îT-P-C… 3He kept a lot of empty boxes in the back of his shop. BÈc-_E-C…-WÍE-BE-C…-îT-pÈCc-P-|3-!R%-3%TÈ-I_-^ÈN,
bad /b&d/ | 1EP-R, 2U…-T\E-, || 1He is a bad student. BÈ-P…-ÜÈT-U-EP-R-Z…C-^…P, 2Her English is bad. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-Nq…P-^…C-U…-T\E-,
bag /b&g/ | B‘C-U, || My bag is blue. E]Ã-B‘C-U-¢ÈP-RÈ-^…P,
baby /"beIbi/ |

1

2

1

▪193▪

ball /bO:l/ | óE-`…, || We lost our ball. E-WÍc-%J.-&$-$A-óE-`…-TÈ_,
balloon /b@"lu:n/ | NT“Cc-óE-, || They gave her a balloon as a gift. BÈ-WÍc-BÈ-UÈ-`-NT“Cc-óE-Z…C-`‰Cc-´‰c-c“-q…P,
bank /b&Nk/ | 1NE“`-BE-, 2]uU, || 1We need to go to the bank to get some money.

E-WÍ-NE“`-BE-Oÿ-°È_-UÈ-]C]-`‰P-R_-]uÈ-NCÈc, 2We planted trees along the river bank this morning.
N-PEc-E-WÍc-G”-]uU-Oÿ-•ÈE-TÈ-TV“Cc,
barley /"bA:li/ | Pc, || I like bread made of barley. E-Pc-l…c-`c-R]Ã-CÈ-_‰-`-NC],
base /beIs/ | §‰Cc-T“, êE-CZ…, || The statue rested on a base made of wood. ]TC-ˇ‡-N‰-a…E-C…-§‰Cc-T“-Z…C-C…-§‰E-Oÿ-]n…Ec,
basket /"bA:skIt/ | ܉-TÈ, || Put the grass in the basket. ܉-TÈ-PE-Oÿ-»-íÈEc,
basketball /"bA:skItbO:l/ | x-]S‰P-óE-`…, || That new basketball costs more than I can afford.
x-]S‰P-óE-`…-Cc_-T-N‰]Ã-CÈE-N@]-xCc-Rc-Ec-IÈ-U…-M—T,
bathroom /"bA:Tru:m; -rUm/ | t‹c-BE-, ≠ÈN-BE-, || Where is the bathroom? ≠ÈN-BE-CE-P-^ÈN,
battle /"b&tl/ | NUC-]t‹C || The stronger army usually wins the battle. NUC-NR“E-§ÈTc-G‰P-PU-^E-NUC-]t‹C-`c-î`,
beach /bi:tS/ | UWÍ-]uU, || It’s always nice to spend the day at the beach. UWÍ-]uU-Pc-I…P-CF…C-T•N-P]E-d-FE-´…N,
beat /bi:t/ | 1±-NqEc, 2çflE-, CIÈC || 1That disco music has a strong beat. K…c-c…-BÈ]…-_È`-NqEc-`-±-NqEc-G‰P-RÈ-úP, 2He was
very angry so he beat the horse. BÈ-]WÀC-R-\Èc-Pc-å-`-$&<,
beautiful /"bju:tIfl/ | UXÂc-U, ^C-RÈ, || Those are very beautiful flowers. N‰-NC-P…-U‰-KÈC-d-FE-^C-RÈ-_‰N,
beauty /"bju:ti/ | UXÂc-•‡C || Beauty is a common topic of poets. UXÂc-•‡C-P…-£P-EC-C…-TäÈN-q-mT-G‰-T-Z…C-_‰N,
because /bI"kQz/ | ì‰P-n…c, || I don’t want to go outside because it is raining.
G_-T-]TT-TZ…P-^ÈN-Rc, E-°È]Ã-p…-_È`-`-]uÈ-U…-]NÈN,
become /bI"kVm/ | ]nŸ_, || His shirt will become grey when it becomes old. BÈ]Ã-WÀ-`‰P-ã…E-P-UNÈC-´-TÈ_-]nŸ_-î‡-_‰N,
bed /bed/| U`-t…, || The bed is not new. U`-t…-N‰-Cc_-T-U…P,
bedroom /"bedru:m; -rUm/| U`-BE-, || My bedroom is this room. E]Ã-U`-BE-BE-T-]N…-^…P,
beef /bi:f/| ˇUc-a || They bought a lot of beef at the market. BÈ-WÍc-WÍE-_-Pc-ˇUc-a-UE-TÈ-IÈc,
beer /bI@/| Y“-GE-, || This is a bottle of beer. ]N…-P…-Y“-GE-a‰`-NU-CE-^…P,
before /bI"fO:/| ¢ÈP-GN, 1¢ÈP-`, 2UOÿP-Pc, || 1Where did you study before you came here?
mÈN-]N…-C_-U-^ÈE-T]Ã-¢ÈP-`, mÈN-l…c-CE-Pc-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-qc-R-^…P, 2He asked the young women to come and dance before
him. BÈc-Cc_-UÈ-N‰-`-W”_-]ÈE-Pc-BÈ]Ã-UOÿP-Pc-{È-]GU-î‡]Ã-_‰-T-TKÈP,
beg /beg/| ≥E-, || She needed to beg for money. BÈ-UÈc-°È_-UÈ-≥E-NCÈc-qŸE-,
begin /bI"gIn/| ]CÈ-˛ÈU, || Please begin reading now. N-ÅÈC-]CÈ-˛ÈU-NE-,
behind /bI"haInd/| õC-P, îT, || Who is that behind you? mÈN-l…-îT-pÈCc-/-;R.-0-.J-?-<J.,
believe /bI"li:v/| ^…N-G‰c-R, ÖÈU-R, || I believe that tomorrow it will snow. cE-I…P-BEc-]TT-î‡-^…P-R_-E-^…N-G‰c,
bell /bel/| x…`-T“, C^‰_-x…`, FÈE-, || Our class is over when the bell rings. FÈE-uCc-Oÿc-E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-t…N-W_-T-^…P,
belong /bI"lQN/| CKÈCc, NTE-, || That cow does not belong to that family. T-UÈ-CP-m…U-WE-N‰-`-U…-NTE-,
best /best/ | UGÈC _T, G‰c-T\E-TÈ, || This is the best meat I’ve ever tasted. ]N…-P…-Ec-\Èc-MR%-R]Ã-a-=?-G‰c-T\E-TÈ-^…P,
betray /bI"treI/| îT-]C`-q‰N-R, EÈ-`ÈC-R, || It is not good to betray a friend. uÈCc-RÈ-`-îT-]C`-q‰N-P-U…-T\E-,
▪194▪

better /"bet@/| T\E-, UGÈC `‰Cc, || Her English was better than his. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-Nq…P-^…C-BÈ-`c-T\E-,
between /bI"twi:n/| T_, || I want to sit in between those two girls. E-T“-UÈ-N‰-WÍ]Ã-T_-Pc-]OÿC-P-]NÈN,
bicycle /"baIsIkl/| ôCc-å, || This is my brother’s bicycle. ]N…-P…-E]Ã-߇P-^]Ã-ôCc-å-^…P,
big /bIg/| G‰, G‰P-RÈ, || The big black yak ran across the grassland. C^C-_ÈC-_ÈC-G‰P-RÈ-N‰-»-ME-§‰E-Pc-Tî‡Cc,
bike /baIk/| 1ôCc-å, 2ôCc-å_-ZÈP-R, || 1Is your bike red? mÈN-l…-ôCc-å-NU_-TÈ-e‰-^…P, 2Let’s bike to town and buy some
groceries. ôCc-å_-ZÈP-Pc-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-\c-_…Cc-IÈ-T_-]uÈ,
bill /bIl/ | 1]uÈ-uÈP, 2GN-MÈ-]{…-T, || 1You had better pay your telephone bill.

mÈN-l…c-_T-^…P-P-B-R_-n…-]uÈ-uÈP-§‰_-NCÈc, 2Please bill me for what I owe you and I’ll pay you
tomorrow. Ec-mÈN-`-NÈU-GN-^ÈN-R]Ã-GN-MÈ-Z…C-z…c-NE-Ec-cE-I…P-mÈN-`-NÈU-]H`,
bird /b3:d/| q, ]NT-GCc, || The bird is in the sky. q-N‰-Nq…Ec-P-]S“_,
birthday /"b3:TdeI/ | ´‰c-ˇ_, || We are going to celebrate her birthday tomorrow.
cE-I…P-E-WÍc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-`-NC]-§ÈP-q‰N-˛…c-^ÈN,
bitter /"bIt@/ | 1_È-B, 2•‡C-W-T, || 1That fruit tastes bitter. c…`-KÈC-N‰]Ã-_È-B, 2Being poor, hungry, and homeless is a
bitter experience. NT“`-Z…E-NE-Ts‰c-R, ^“`-U‰N-R-P…-•‡C-W-T]Ã-IUc-rÈE-Z…C-_‰N,
black /bl&k/ | PC-RÈ, _ÈC-_ÈC || That yak is not black. C^C-N‰-_ÈC-_ÈC-U-_‰N,
blackboard /"bl&kbO:d/ | °È-cU, || Write this word on the blackboard. M-£N-]N…-°È-cU-§‰E-`-z…c,
blame /bleIm/ | 1´ÈP-]CP, 2NUÈN-R, || 1When blame was assigned, he was held responsible and
punished. ´ÈP-]CP-`-E‰c-NC-qc-R-P, BÈ-`-]CP-\“C-Pc-GN-R-TFN, 2There was no one to blame for the accident.
GC-°È-N‰]Ã-MÈC-Pc-c“-`]E-NUÈN-U…-_…Cc,
bleed /bli:d/ | tC-T[÷_-T, || If you cut yourself you will bleed. C`-K‰-mÈN-l…c-_E-`-u…-CVCc-qc-P-tC-T[÷_-E‰c,
blind /blaInd/ | 1`ÈE-T, 2U…-a‰c-R, || 1My grandmother is blind. E]Ã-ßÈ-UÈ-P…-`ÈE-T-^…P, 2He was blind to all his wife’s
faults. BÈc-BÈ]Ã-G”E-U]Ã-´ÈP-WE-U-U…-a‰c,
bloat /"bl@Ut/ | ®È, || If you eat too many apples your stomach will become bloated.
C`-K‰-mÈN-l…c-Aÿ-b÷-\Èc-xCc-P-BÈC-R-®È-~…N,
block |/ blQk/ 1nÈ-UÈ, 2]CÈC || 1The cement block fell from the roof and narrowly missed hitting her on the
head. BE-ÅN-l…-nÈ-UÈ-ü‚E-Pc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-UCÈ-`-F“E-VU-n…c-U-SÈC 2Don’t block the entrance to the school. ÜÈT-≈]Ã-`U-B-U-]CÈC
blood /blVd/ | tC || Blood is red. tC-P…-NU_-TÈ-^…P,
blouse /blaUz/ | §ÈN-CÈc, || I don’t have a yellow blouse. E-`-§ÈN-CÈc-c‰_-TÈ-Z…C-U‰N,
blow /bl@U/ | 1C^“C-M‰Ec, 2C^“C || 1With a single blow of his big hammer he killed the
yak. BÈc-MÈ-T-G‰P-RÈ-C^“C-M‰Ec-CF…C-C…c-C^C-TcN, 2The wind blows hard on top of the mountain. _…-UCÈ-P-Ö‡E-xC-Lfi-C^“C
blue /blu:/ | 1¢ÈP-RÈ, 2c‰Uc-U…-xÈ-T, || 1The sky is blue today. N‰-_…E-CPU-¢ÈP-RÈ-_‰N, 2I feel blue when the weather is
cloudy. PU-Ñ-]M…Tc-P-E]Ã-c‰Uc-U…-xÈ,
boat /b@Ut/| u⁄-G”E-, || The boat is on the lake. u⁄-G”E-UWÍ-MÈC-P-^ÈN,
body /"bQdi/ | `“c-RÈ, || His body felt cold in the wind. Ö‡E-PE-Pc-BÈ]Ã-`“c-RÈ-uE-,
bone /b@Un/| _“c-R, || The necklace is made out of yak bone. ˇ‰-îP-N‰-C^C-C…-_“c-R-`c-T\Èc,
▪195▪

book /bUk/ | NR‰-G, || Where is your book? mÈN-l…-NR‰-G-CE-P-^ÈN,
bookseller /"bUksel@/ | NR‰-G-]WÍE-UBP, || Ask the bookseller how much this book costs.

NR‰-G-]WÍE-UBP-N‰-`-NR‰-G-]N…]Ã-_…P-CÈE-x…c-NE-,
bookshop /"bUkSQp/ | NR‰-]WÍE-BE-, || Do you want to buy a book at the bookshop?
NR‰-]WÍE-BE-N‰-`c-mÈN-l…c-NR‰-G-Z…C-IÈ-P-e‰-]NÈN,
border /"bO:d@/ | î`-UWUc, || There are always police at the border. î`-UWUc-P-PU-î‡P-R_-≠…-TN‰-U…-¶-^ÈN,
born /bO:n/ | ´‰c, || The calf was born last night. T‰]“-N‰-UNE-NCÈE-´‰c,
borrow /"bQr@U/ | C^È_,2*A?,|| May I borrow some money from you? Ec-mÈN-l…-`C-Pc-°È_-UÈ-]C]-2*A?-GÈC-CU,
both /b@UT/ | CI…c-@ || We both want to go to the movies. E‰N-CI…c-@-ÇÈC-TãP-`-Tõ-T_-NC],
bottle /"bQtl/ | a‰`-NU, || This bottle is small. a‰`-NU-]N…-G”E-,
bottom /"bQt@m/ | ZTc, || The coin sank to the bottom of the well. ˇ_-U-N‰-NÈE-G”]Ã-ZTc-`-]M…Uc,
box /bQks/ | °U, || The box has some chalk. °U-N‰]Ã-PE-P-c-Ø„C-]C]-^ÈN,
boy /bOI/ | Z…-`…, || The boy is not tall. Z…-`…-N‰-C\“Cc-U…-_…E-,
brain /breIn/ | ÅN-R, || He had a brain disease and died. BÈ-`-ÅN-R]Ã-PN-F…C-qŸE-Pc-WÂ-`c-]Nc,
brave /breIv/ | £…E-§ÈTc-FP, ßÈTc-R-FP, || He is a very brave man. BÈ-U…-£…E-§ÈTc-FP-Z…C-_‰N,
bread /bred/ | CÈ-_‰, || I eat bread for breakfast. Ec-PEc-H-`-CÈ-_‰-\Èc,
break /breIk/ | 1T_-Cc‰E-, 2CFÈC-R, || 1Halfway through class we take a break.
ÜÈT-t…N-l…-T_-`-MÈP-R-P, E-WÍc-T_-Cc‰E-q‰N, 2Don’t break my radio. E]Ã-±-•‡N-]BÈ_-`È-U-CFÈC
breakfast /"brekf@st/ | PEc-H, || I eat breakfast in my classroom. Ec-ÜÈT-BE-PE-Pc-PEc-H-TLfiE-,
breathe /bri:D/ | NT“Cc-â’T, || I could hear the horses breathing heavily. Ec-å-TÈ-N‰c-NT“Cc-]WE-q‰N-TZ…P-R-CÈ-M—T,
bridge /brIdZ/ | \U-R, || Many men worked to build that bridge. ´‰c-R-UE-TÈc-\U-R-N‰-T∞„P-R_-`c-@-`c,
brief /bri:f/ | UNÈ_-T•‡c, || His speech was quite brief. BÈ]Ã-CKU-TaN-P…-d-FE-UNÈ_-T•‡c-_‰N,
bright /braIt/ | Cc`-TÈ, || The light was so bright that I had to shut my eyes. ÇÈC-Cc`-xCc-Pc-Ec-U…C-TV“U-NCÈc-qŸE-,
bring /brIN/ | ]m‰_, || What are you going to bring to the party? mÈN-l…c-≥È-WÍCc-`-F…-Z…C-]m‰_-˛…c-^ÈN,
broadcast /"brO:dkA:st/ | 1îE-T±Cc, 2CKÈE-T, || 1Let’s listen to the radio broadcast tonight.
N‰-NCÈE-E-WÍc-Ö‡E-]z…P-îE-T±Cc-`-IP-R_-q, 2The television will broadcast a soccer game tonight at eight
o’clock. NÈ-NCÈE-Oÿc-WÍN-TîN-l…-§‰E-TãP-]z…P-/%-áE-˛‰N-ßÈ-`È]Ã-]uP-T•‡_-Z…C-CKÈE-î‡-_‰N,
broken /"br@Uk@n/ | GC || The bottle is broken. a‰`-NU-N‰-GC-cÈE-,
broom /bru:m/ | pCc-U, || Our classroom has a broom. E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-BE-PE-P-pCc-U-Z…C-^ÈN,
brother /"brVD@/ | ߇P-^, || He is my brother. BÈ-P…-E]Ã-߇P-^-^…P,
build /bIld/ | T∞„P, `c, || It is not easy to build a house. BE-T-Z…C-`c-î‡-P…-Ü-UÈ-U-_‰N,
building /"bIldIN/ | BE-T˛‰Cc, || I saw a very tall building in town. uÈE-Tç`-Pc-Ec-BE-T˛‰Cc-d-FE-UMÈP-RÈ-Z…C-UMÈE-,
built /bIlt/ | `c, || My father built a nice house for our family. E]Ã-e-Sc-%J.-5%-BE-T-^C-RÈ-Z…C-`c,
bull /bUl/ | ÇE-, || The bull was standing alone in the field. ÇE-N‰-Z…E-PE-P-B‰_-`“c-c“-`Ec,
bullet /"bUlIt/ | UN‰]“, || That gun only has one bullet in it. TÈ]“-N‰]Ã-PE-P-UN‰]“-CF…C-`c-U‰N,
▪196▪

burn /b3:n/ | ]WÀC || The paper quickly began to burn. aÈC-T“-N‰-UnÈCc-UÈ<-]WÀC-]CÈ-T˛Uc,
burst /b3:st/ | ÇÈ-T“_, || The sunlight burst through the clouds after the rainstorm.

G_-ZÈN-l…-ä‰c-Pc-I…-]ÈN-≥…P-Cc‰T-`c-ÇÈ-T“_-]G_,
bury /"beri/ | ®, ]H“C || We had to bury the dog after it died. m…-a…-ä‰c-E-WÍc-c-]ÈC-`-]H“C-NCÈc-qŸE-,
bus /bVs/ | ≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_, || Will you ride the bus to town? mÈN-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-`-T•N-Pc-uÈE-Tç`-`-]uÈ-î‡-^…P-PU,
bus station /bVs"steISn/ | ÖEc-]BÈ_-c-WÀCc, || I will buy my bus ticket at the bus station.
Ec-ÖEc-]BÈ_-c-W…Cc-Pc-ÖEc-]BÈ_-n…-R-c‰-IÈ-î‡-^…P,
business /"bIzn@s/ | WÍE-, || He went to town to do some business. BÈ-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-WÍE-_‰-îC-R_-cÈE,
busy /"bIzi/ | {‰`, ]W”T, || They are very busy working in the field at harvest time.
§ÈP-T•‡]Ã-ˇTc-c“-BÈ-WÍ-Z…E-B-P-`c-`-{‰`,
but /bVt/ | ]ÈP-lE-, || You can come with us but you don’t have to. mÈN-E-WÍ-NE-UIU-Oÿ-]uÈ-GÈC ]ÈP-lE-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-]uÈ-.R/-3J.,
butter /"bVt@/ | U_, || Please put more butter in my tea. E-^…-H-PE-`-U_-UE-Oÿ-SÈEc,
buy /baI/ | IÈ, || I will buy a book. Ec-NR‰-G-Z…C-IÈ-î‡-^…P,
by /baI/ | `ÈCc-`, ]uU-P, || She stands by the door. BÈ-UÈ-°È-]uU-P-`Ec-^ÈN,
by the way /baID@weI/ | ZÈ_-Oÿ-TaN-î‡-`, || By the way, I forgot to tell you about class yesterday.
ZÈ_-Oÿ-TaN-î‡-`-Ec-B-˛E-C…-ÜÈT-t…N-mÈN-`-TaN-î‡-Tä‰N-cÈE-,
bye /baI/ | TN‰-UÈ, || "Bye. See you this afternoon." "TN‰-UÈ, N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ_-M—C"

C
cake /keIk/ | @-_-CÈ-_‰, || I like cake. E-@-_-CÈ-_‰-`-NC],
calf /kA:f/ | T‰]“, || The calf was very hungry. T‰]“-N‰-d-FE-õÈCc,
call /kO:l/ | 1]TÈN, 2B-R_-CKÈE-, || 1Let’s make a call on our teacher this Sunday afternoon.

N-M‰Ec-C…-C\]-I…-U]Ã-p…-xÈ_-E-WÍ-E-WÍ]Ã-NC‰-àP-`-]WUc-]x…-q‰N-R_-]uÈ, 2I will call you on the phone tonight.
N‰-NCÈE-Ec-mÈN-`-B-R_-CKÈE-,
calm /kA:m/ | ü…E-]HCc, || The lake was calm after the storm. Ö‡E-]W”T-:)$?-ä‰c, UWÍ-UÈ-ü…E-]HCc-c“-nŸ_,
camera /"k&m@r@/ | R_-Gc, || I want to take a picture with my new camera. E]Ã-R_-Gc-Cc_-T-T@È`-Pc-R_-`‰P-P-]NÈN,
can /k@n; k&n/ | 1ôCc-s…P, 2M—T, 3GÈC ~…N, || 1I opened the can of beans with my knife. Ec-u…c-~P-U]Ã-ôCc-s…P-n…-B-p‰c, 2I
can speak English. Ec-Nq…P-ˇN-µ-M—T, 3Can you come to my home now? mÈN-N-õ-E]Ã-m…U-`-^ÈE-,2-23,
Canada /k&n@dV/ | B-P-K, || Canada is near America. B-P-K-P…-e-U‰-_…-B-NE-MC-I‰,
cancel /"k&nsl/ | U‰N-R_-CKÈE-T, || They had to cancel class because the teacher was ill.
NC‰-àP-P-^ÈN-Rc, BÈ-WÍc-ÜÈT-t…N-U‰N-R_-CKÈE-NCÈc-qŸE-,
cancer /"k&ns@/ | ∞P-PN, || Cancer is a serious illness. ∞P-PN-P…-PN-CZ…-WTc-G‰P-Z…C-^…P,
cannon /"k&n@n/ | U‰-¨ÈCc, || The cannon was pointed at the enemy. U‰-¨ÈCc-Nu-pÈCc-`-CKN,
car /kA:/ | ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T, || That car cost a lot of money. ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-N‰-`-°È_-UÈ-UE-TÈ-§‰_-NCÈc,
care /ke@/ | 1õ-åÈC 2]WÍ-´ÈE-q‰N-R, || 1I will always be grateful for the care you showed me when I was your
student. E-HR.-GA-ÜÈT-U-^…P-Oÿc-mÈN-l…c-E-`-õ-åÈC-qc-R_-M—Cc-ä‰-G‰, 2We need to care for the sheep. E-WÍc-`“C-]WÍ-´ÈE-q‰N-NCÈc,
▪197▪

careful /"ke@fl/ | c‰Uc-G”E-, || Be careful when you cross the road. C[÷E-`U-Tà`-Oÿc-c‰Uc-G”E-qÈc,
carefully /"ke@f@li/ | c‰Uc-G”E-C…c, || We carefully walked along the narrow path. E-WÈ-c‰Uc-G”E-C…c-`U-N‰-N‰N-Pc-cÈE-,
carrot /"k&r@t/ | `-c‰_, || Carrots grow under the ground. `-c‰_-c-]ÈC-Pc-´‰,
carry /"k&ri/ | ]B‘_, || Can you carry this bag? mÈN-l…c-B‘C-U-]N…-]B‘_-e‰-M“T,
case /keIs/ | 1¶ÈN, 2TcUc-Pc, || 1That is a very big case he is carrying. BÈc-]B‘_-^ÈN-R-N‰-P…-¶ÈN-d-FE-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N, 2I want to
tell you why I didn’t come to your party, in case you didn’t know.

mÈN-l…c-E-mÈN-l…-≥È-WÍCc-`-F…]Ã-p…_-U-^ÈE-T-a‰c-U‰N-TcUc-Pc-Ec-mÈN-`-TaN-]NÈN-R-^…P,
cat /k&t/ | q…-`, || The cat ate some bread. q…-`-N‰c-CÈ-_‰-F“E-VU-\Èc,
catch /k&tS/ | T\“E-, ]XÀP-R, || The boy didn’t catch the ball. Z…-`…-N‰c-óE-`…-U-\…P,
cattle /"k&tl/ | T-ÇE-, || There are many cattle grazing on the grassland. T-ÇE-UE-TÈc-»-ME-P-»-\-TZ…P-^ÈN,
cause /kO:z/ | 1ÜÈE-ì‰P, ´‰`, 2Tˇ‡`, || 1What is the cause of your illness? mÈN-l…-£‚E-CZ…]Ã-ÜÈE-ì‰P-P…-F…-Z…C-^…P, 2I hope I
didn’t cause you any trouble. Ec-mÈN-`-•‡C-CE-^E-Tˇ‡`-U‰N-P-]NÈN,
celebrate /"selIbreIt/ | å‰P-]{‰`-[÷, || Let’s celebrate your birthday. mÈN-l…-´‰c-ˇ_-`-å‰P-]{‰`-[÷,
centre (center) /"sent@/ | õ‰-T, || The store is located in the centre of town. UXÍN-BE-N‰-uÈE-Tç`-n…-õ‰-T-P-^ÈN,
ceremony /"ser@m@ni/ | UXN-°È, || They want to have a big wedding ceremony. BÈ-WÍc-CI‰P-§ÈP-n…-UXN-°È-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-2#P-]NÈN,
certainly /"s3:tnli/ | BÈ-MC || I can certainly speak Tibetan. Ec-TÈN-ˇN-TaN-M—T-R-BÈ-MC-^…P,
chair /tSe@/ | 1eÈE-§‰Cc, 2NT“-UXN-q‰N-R, || 1This chair is broken. eÈE-§‰Cc-]N…-GC-]OÿC 2Who will chair this afternoon’s
meeting. N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ]Ã-WÍCc-]Oÿ-`-c“c-NT“-UXN-q‰N-î‡-_‰N,
chairman /"tSe@m@n/ | CNP-CVÍ, s⁄]“-Z…, || He wants to become chairman of the committee.
BÈ-e—-^ÈP-üP-BE-C…-CNP-CVÍ-TF]-P-]NÈN,
champion /"tS&mpi@n/ | eE-NE-RÈ, || If she works hard she will be a champion basketball player.
C`-K‰-BÈ-UÈc-]TN-Rc-ÆÈE-T-qc-P, BÈ-UÈ-S-:1J/-%R-=R-˛‰N-UBP-eE-NE-RÈ_-]nŸ_-M—T,
chance /tSA:ns/ | 1§Tc, 2CÈ-ˇTc, || 1By chance, I met an old classmate this afternoon when I went to
town. N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ_-§Tc-]u…C-Pc, E-uÈE-`-]uÈ-ˇTc-ÜÈT-uÈCc-ã…E-T-Z…C-`-]zN, 2I’m sorry I didn’t have a chance to call you.
NCÈEc-R-U-WÍU, Ec-mÈN-`-B-R_-CKÈE-T]Ã-CÈ-ˇTc-U-qŸE-,
change /tSeIndZ/ | 1°È_-?A=-U, 2Tä‰-T, || 1Please give me change for this money. °È_-:.A-?A=-3<-2eJ-<R$?, 2Please
wait for me while I change my clothes. E-`-F“E-VU-°‡Cc, Ec-CÈP-R-Tä‰-NCÈc,
charge /tSA:dZ/ 1Ç, 2CÈE-CFÈN-R, || 1What is that hotel’s per night room charge?
UuÈP-BE-N‰]Ã-BE-Ç-ZC-CF…C-`-C-WÍN-_‰N, 2The shopkeeper charges too much for these apples.
WÍE-Tc-Aÿ-b÷-]N…-NC-`-CÈE-CFÈN-G‰-cÈE-,
chase /tSeIs/ | 1ä‰c-]N‰N, 2ä‰c-]N‰N-R, || 1After a long car chase the policemen caught the bank robbers.
I‰P-åÈC-Rc-^“P-_…E-8A$-`-ä‰c-]N‰N-qc-ä‰c-NE“`-BE-HC-áflP-N‰-5S-T\“E-, 2The dog chases the cat. m…c-q…-`-.J.,
cheap /tSi:p/ | CÈE-Ü, || The cake is cheap. @-_-CÈ-_‰-]N…-CÈE-Ü,
cheat /tSi:t/ | UCÈ-ˇÈ_, || Students should not cheat on their tests. ÜÈT-Uc-î‡Cc-≥ÈN-ˇTc-UCÈ-ˇÈ_-q‰N-U…-_…Cc,
▪198▪

check /tSek/ | 1OE“`-≥ÈN-]XÀP-aÈC 2Z…T-Ta‰_-q‰N-R, || 1May I pay for these items with a check?

Ec-NE“`-≥ÈN-]XÀP-aÈC-C…c-NEÈc-RÈ-]N…-NC-IÈc-P-GÈC-CU, 2I will need to check on their progress.
Ec-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-CÈE-]S‰`-`-Z…T-Ta‰_-q‰N-NCÈc,
cheer /tSI@/ | 1≥È-≥È-n…c, b÷Cc-¶ÈP-R, 2E_-ú‡N-R, || 1Don’t be sad. Cheer up! c‰Uc-U-´È-T_-≥È-≥È-n…c, 2The girls cheered on
their friends, encouraging them to finish the race.

T“-UÈ-WÍc-uÈCc-RÈ-éUc-`-E_-ɇN-Pc-î‡Cc-˛`-]uP-T•‡_-UH“C-íÈCc-î‡]Ã-ˇ‡`-U-qc,
chemicals /"kemIkl/ | íc-]nŸ_, || The atmosphere is full of many different chemicals.
Ö‡Ec-BUc-G‰P-UÈ-P…-íc-]nŸ_-U…-CF…C-R-UE-TÈc-B‰Ec-^ÈN,
chicken /"tSIkIn/ | q-a || Chicken is easy to cook. q-a-]WÍN-Ü,
chief /tSi:f/ | 1NRÈP-RÈ, 2CVÍ-TÈ, || 1I’ll need to ask the village chief. Ec-•‰-T]Ã-NRÈP-RÈ-`-]x…-NCÈc, 2The chief reason I don’t
want to go is that I’m tired. E-]uÈ-U…-]NÈN-R]Ã-î‡-UWP-CVÍ-TÈ-P…-E-ME-GN-^ÈN-R-N‰-^…P,
child /tSaIld/ | q…c-R, || The child is learning English. q…c-Rc-Nq…P-^…C-ÆÈE-TZ…P-^ÈN,
children /"tSIldr@n/ | q…c-R-WÍ, || Children are in the room. q…c-R-WÍ-BE-T]Ã-PE-P-^ÈN,
China /"tSaIn@/ | s⁄E-CÈ, || China has many nationalities. s⁄E-CÈ-`-U…-_…Cc-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
Chinese /"tSaIni:z/ | s⁄E-CÈ-T, î-ˇN, || Most people who live in China speak Chinese.
s⁄E-CÈ-P-]WÍ-T]Ã-U…-UE-aÈc-l…c-î-ˇN-µ,
choose /tSu:z/ | TNU, || She will choose a nice dress to wear today. N‰-_…E-BÈ-UÈc-¡-T-^C-RÈ-TNUc-Pc-CÈP-î‡-_‰N,
church /tS3:tS/ | GÈc-BE-, || Some people like to go to church to pray. U…-`-`-GÈc-BE-Oÿ-cÈE-Pc-CcÈ`-]N‰Tc-q‰N-R_-NC],
cinema /"sIn@m@/ | ÇÈC-TãP-BE-, || All my friends want to go to the cinema to see a film.
E]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ-WE-Uc-ÇÈC-TãP-BE-Oÿ-cÈE-Pc-ÇÈC-TãP-`-Tõ-T_-]NÈN,
circle /"s3:kl/ °È_-°È_, 1ˇÈ_, 2ˇÈ_-T-îC-R, || 1All join hands and make a circle around the tree.
WE-Uc-`C-R-¥‰`-Pc-•ÈE-TÈ-`-ˇÈ_-TîT, 2Let’s circle the holy mountain this summer.
N-`È]Ã-Nq_-B_-CPc-UGÈC-_…-TÈ-`-ˇÈ_-T-îC-R_-]uÈ,
citizen /"sItIzn/ | ≠…-NUEc, || He is a helpful man and a good citizen. BÈ-P…-U…-CÈ-GÈN-F…C-NE-≠…-NUEc-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^…P,
city /"sIti/ | uÈE-m‰_, || The city is many miles away from here. ]N…-Pc-uÈE-m‰_-N‰-`-≠…-`‰-]C]-^ÈN,
civilian /s@"vIli@n/ | NUEc-c‰_, || Before he was a soldier, now he is a civilian.
¢ÈP-GN-BÈ-P…-NUC-U…-Z…C-^…P-R-NE-N-õ-BÈ-NUEc-c‰_-Z…C-^…P,
clash /kl&S/ | ]C`-G-^ÈN-R, || From the look on their faces, it seems their ideas clash.
BÈ-WÍ]Ã-EÈ-UNÈC-`-Tõc-P, BÈ-WÍ]Ã-õ-T-`-]C`-G-^ÈN-R-]x,
class /klA:s/ | 1ÜÈT-t…N, 2u`-_…U || 1When do we have our Chinese class? E-WÍ]Ã-î-^…C-C…-ÜÈT-t…N-PU-WÍN-^…P, 2What social
class do you belong to? mÈN-≠…-WÍCc-l…-u`-_…U-CE-`-CKÈCc,
classmate /"klA:smeIt/ | ÜÈT-uÈCc, || She saw her classmate on the way to school.
ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-T]Ã-`U-B_, BÈ-UÈ-ÜÈT-uÈCc-`-M—C
classroom /"klA:sru:m; -rUm/ | ÜÈT-BE-, || Where is our classroom? E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-BE-CE-P-^ÈN,
▪199▪

clean /kli:n/ | 1CVE-U, 2CVE-¥-q‰N-R, || 1The classroom is not clean. ÜÈT-BE-CVE-U-U-_‰N, 2Please clean the classroom.

ÜÈT-BE-`-CVE-¥-qÈc,
cleanest /kli:nIst/ | G‰c-CVE-U, || This is the cleanest school I have ever seen. ]N…-P…-Ec-UMÈE-T]Ã-ÜÈT-≈-G‰c-CVE-U-_‰N,
cleanse /klenz/ | Ts⁄, || It’s a good idea to cleanse a wound with fresh water.

G”-CVE-Uc-ê-B-Ts⁄-T-P…-ÉÈ-T@ÈN-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
clear /klI@/| CVE-U, 1C^]-NC-R, 2CN-TN_-q‰N-R, || 1On a clear day you can see far.
C^]-NC-R]Ã-I…P-UÈ_-mÈN-l…c-îE-_…E-UMÈE-M—T, 2Let’s clear away all the dishes from the table.
VÍC-VÂ]Ã-§‰E-C…-•‰_-U-NC-CN-TN_-q‰N-NE-,
clever /"klev@/ | _…C-R-FP, _…C-R-éÈ, || She was very clever at math. BÈ-UÈ-˛…c-_…C-C…-MÈC-Pc-_…C-R-éÈ,
climb /klaIm/ | 1]CÈ-T, 2]CÈ, || 1The long climb up the steep mountain path exhausted me.
_…-C\_-`-^“P-_…E-]CÈ-T-N‰c-E-ME-GN-Oÿ-TF“C 2The goats like to climb steep cliffs. _-U-C^E-C\_-`-]CÈ-î‡_-NC],
clock /klQk/ | Oÿc-WÍN, || The clock in our classroom is broken. E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-BE-PE-C…-Oÿc-WÍN-GC-^ÈN,
close /kl@Uz/| CKP, îC îÈT, || Close the door. °È-îÈT,
closed /kl@Uzd/| TîT, || I closed the window. Ec-°‰]“-B‘E-TîT,
cloth /klQT/ | _c, || She sewed the dress from a piece of cloth. BÈ-UÈc-_c-OÿU-T“-Z…C-C…c-CÈP-R-T\Èc,
clothes /kl@UDz/| CÈP-R, || Where are your clothes? mÈN-l…-CÈP-R-CE-P-^ÈN,
cloud /klaUd/ | ≥…P, || There is not one cloud in the sky. PU-UB]-P-≥…P-q‰]“-UCÈ-VU-^E-U‰N,
cloudy /"klaUdi/ | ≥…P-]M…Tc, || Before it rains it is usually cloudy. G_-T-U-TTc-CÈE-, PU-UB]-`-î‡P-R_-≥…P-]M…Tc,
coal /k@Ul/| çÈ-cÈ`, || They burn coal to keep the office warm. BÈ-WÍc-çÈ-cÈ`-°ÈE-Pc-C[÷E-±„T-BE-xÈc-c“-TF“C
coast /k@Ust/| 1UWÍ-]uU, 2M—_-Oÿ-]u…`-T, || 1Someday I will go swimming on the coast of France. I…P-Z…C-`-E-n-_P-c‰]AUWÍ-]uU-Oÿ-cÈE-Pc-G—-ì`-q‰N-î‡-^…P, 2When we reach the top of the hill, our driver will turn off the engine and
then we will coast down. E-WÍ-`-B_-MÈP-R-P, E-WÍ]Ã-B-`È-Tc-°‡`-q‰N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_-n…-B-CKP-Pc-E-WÍ-M—_-Oÿ-]u…`-T_-]H“C
coat /k@Ut/| 1§ÈN-¡, 2b÷P, || 1My coat is too small. E]Ã-§ÈN-¡-G”E-xCc-]OÿC 2Let’s put a new coat of paint on the
walls. nE-EÈc-`-˛…-b÷P-Cc_-T-L$?-NE-,
coffee /"kQfi/ | B-nJ, || Coffee without sugar tastes bitter. @-_-U‰N-0:A-B-nJ]A-_È-Tˇ,
cold /k@Uld/| 1uE-UÈ, 2GU-R, || 1I don’t like cold winter weather. E-NDÿP-B]Ã-PU-Ñ-uE-UÈ-`-U…-NC], 2He is taking
medicine for his bad cold. BÈc-BÈ]Ã-GU-R-ö…N-UÈ-`-©P-]M—E-TZ…P-^ÈN,
collect /k@"lekt/ | T•‡, `‰P, || That man has come to collect the taxes. ´‰c-R-N‰-t`-`‰P-R_-MÈP,
colour (color) /"kVl@/ | B-UNÈC || What colour is your coat? mÈN-l…-§ÈN-¡]Ã-B-UNÈC-F…-Z…C-^…P,
come /kVm/ | ^ÈE-, aÈC || Please come here. ]N…-`-aÈC
come in /kVm In/ | PE-`-aÈC PE-`-^ÈE-, || Please come in. PE-`-aÈC
come over /kVm "@Uv@| ^ÈE-, MÈP, || I want my friend to come over to my house tonight.
N‰-NCÈE-Ec-uÈCc-RÈ-WÍ-E‰N-WE-`-^ÈE-P-]NÈN,
comedy /"kQm@di/ | ≥È-T]Ã-ÑÈc-C_, || I like to listen to comedy programmes on the radio.
E-îE-T±Cc-l…-≥È-T]Ã-ÑÈc-C_-`‰-WP-`-IP-R_-NC],
▪200▪

common /"kQm@n/ | î‡P-úP, || Colds are a common illness in the winter. NDÿP-B_-GU-R-P…-î‡P-úP-n…-PN-F…C-^…P,
company /"kVmp@ni/ | AÿE-\…, || Many people work for that electric company.

U…-UE-TÈc-ÇÈC-]NÈP-AÿE-\…-N‰-`-q-T-`c-TZ…P-^ÈN,
compete /k@m"pi:t/ | ]uP, ˛ÈN, || He doesn’t like to compete with his friends. BÈc-_E-C…-uÈCc-RÈ-NE-]uP-U…-]NÈN,
computer /k@m"pju:t@/| ÇÈC-ÅN, || Computers help people do many kinds of work.
ÇÈC-ÅN-l…c-U…-`-q-T-¶-UE-CI‰_-T]Ã-UM—P-ì‰P-Æ_,
concern /k@n"s3:n/ | ]NE-îC c‰Uc-B‘_, || She showed her concern by coming by for a visit. BÈ-UÈ-]WUc-]x…-`-^ÈE-2=?-BÈ-UÈc-c‰Uc-B‘_-qc-R-T§P,
condition /k@n"dISn/ | G-ì‰P, CPc-TT, || That truck is in very bad condition. ]u…U-]u⁄`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-N‰]Ã-CPc-TT-d-FE-•‡C
conductor /k@n"dVkt@/ | WÍE-CI‰_-T, ZTc-[÷-T, || You will need to ask the conductor for a ticket.
mÈN-l…c-ZTc-[÷-T-`c-]XÀP-^…C-F…C-`‰P-NCÈc,
conflict /k@n"flIkt/ | ]C`-ì‰P, || The war was started by a small conflict.
NUC-]t‹C-N‰-P…-]C`-ì‰P-G”E-E“-Z…C-`c-]CÈ-T˛Uc-R-_‰N,
congratulate /k@n"gr&tSuleIt/ | å‰P-]{‰`-[÷-T, || We must congratulate him on his new job.
E-WÍc-BÈ-`-q-T-Cc_-T-MÈT-R_-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-å‰P-]{‰`-[÷-NCÈc,
connect /k@"nekt/ | UM—N-R, || Can you connect these telephone wires to this pole?
mÈÈN-l…c-B-R_-n…-ÇÈC-ˇ‡N-]N…-NC-•ÈE-T“-]N…]Ã-§‰E-UM—N-M—T-TU,
consider /k@n"sId@/ | CZ…Cc-R, || She hopes to be considered for the teaching position.
BÈ-UÈc-ÜÈT-t…N-l…-`c-CPc-N‰-BÈ-UÈ-`-CZ…Cc-R_-_‰,
contain /k@n"teIn/ | ^ÈN, ]Oÿc-R, || This bowl contains fruit. N@_-^È`-]N…]Ã-PE-Oÿ-c…`-KÈC-^ÈN,
continent /"kQntIn@nt/ | Ç…E-G‰P, || One has to travel from one continent to another by boat.
U…-CF…C-u⁄-G”E-`-T•N-Pc-Ç…E-G‰P-CF…C-Pc-CZP-Z…C-`-]u⁄`-T[÷N-q‰N-NCÈc,
continue /k@n"tInju:/ | î‡P-]mÈEc-q‰N-R, U—-UM—N, || She wants to continue studying English. BÈ-UÈc-Nq…P-^…C-$AÜÈT-ÆÈE-î‡P-]mÈEc-q‰N-]NÈN-TFEc,
control /k@n"tr@Ul/ | NTE-¨„_, T@ÈN-]NÈUc, CF“P-R, || The young teacher could not control the students.
NC‰-àP-Cc_-T“-N‰c-ÜÈT-U-éUc-CF“P-U-M—T,
convention /k@n"venSn/ | WÍCc-]Oÿ, || A lot of business people will be at the convention.
WÍE-T-UE-TÈ-WÍCc-]Oÿ]Ã-§‰E-[÷Cc-î‡-_‰N,
cook /kUk/ | \c-C^È-T, qP-UÈ, qP-RÈ, H-U, || 1I like to cook for my friends. E-_E-C…-uÈCc-RÈ-éUc-`-\c-C^È-î‡_-NC], 2My father
is a cook in a restaurant. E]Ã-e-S-P…-\-BE-Z…C-C…-qP-RÈ-^…P,
cool /ku:l/ | ]mCc-R, || 1Summer in Ziling is cool, not hot. \…-`…E-Pc-Nq_-B-2?A=-2-=?-W-TÈ-U…P, 2She can’t eat the
food until it cools off. BÈ-UÈc-\c-U-]mC-T_-Oÿ-\-U…-Q÷c,
copy /"kQpi/ | 1R_, 2W_, || 1The handwritten copy of the manuscript was very old.
U-p…-{…c-U-]N…-P…-d-FE-ã…E-T-_‰N, 2Please copy this document for me. E-`-^…C-G-]N…-NR_-_ÈCc,
▪201▪

correct /k@"rekt/ | 1]u…C-R, NC-TFÈc-q‰N-R, 2[÷-NC-q‰N-R,|| 1Your answer is correct. mÈN-l…-`P-]u…C 2How long will it take

mÈN-l…c-ÜÈT-U]Ã-`c-q-[÷-NC-q‰N-R_-C-WÍN-]CÈ_-î‡-_‰N,
cost /kQst/ | _…P-CÈE-aÈ_-T, || How much do these apples cost? Aÿ-b÷-]N…-NC-`-_…P-CÈE-H…-VU-aÈ_,
cotton /"kQtn/ | ~…E-T`, || Where can we buy some cotton clothes? E-WÍc-~…E-T`-n…-CÈP-R-CE-Pc-IÈ-M—T-,
could /k@d; kUd/ | M—T, || Could you buy something for me? mÈN-l…c-E-`-NEÈc-RÈ-_‰-IÈ-M—T-TU,
count /kaUnt/ | T˛…, || Please count the students in the classroom. ÜÈT-BE-PE-C…-ÜÈT-U-lA?-.%-,
country /"kVntri/ | î`-BT, || China is a very large country. s⁄E-CÈ-P…-î`-BT-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-^…P,
county /"kaUnti/ | íÈE-, || This building belongs to the county administration. MÈC-BE-]N…-íÈE-~…N-C[÷E-`-CKÈCc,
courtyard /"kO:tjA:d/ | üc-_,, || There are many pear trees growing in the courtyard.
üc-_]Ã-PE-Oÿ-`…-•ÈE-UE-TÈ-´‰c-^ÈN,
cover /"kVv@/ | 1B-`‰T, 2]C‰Tc-R, C^ÈC-R, ||1The old well cover needs to be replaced. tÈP-R]Ã-B-`‰T-ã…E-T-N‰-Tä‰-NCÈc, 2Be
sure to cover the top of the water bucket. G”-\ÈU-n…-B-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-NCT-NCÈc,
cow /kaU/ | T-UÈ, || I learned how to milk a cow when I was a child. Ec-q…c-R]Ã-Oÿc-Pc-T-UÈ-H…-õ_-TZÈ-î‡-TÜTc-R-^…P,
crash /kr&S/ | CNÈE-M—C-îC-R, || Ten people died in the train crash. U‰-]BÈ_-CNÈE-M—C-TîT-R-`c-U…-TF“-uÈEc,
creature /"kri:tS@/ | ~ÈC-GCc, ]uÈ-T, || Every living thing is a wonderful creature.
~ÈC-GCc-WE-U-P…-]uÈ-T-mN-UW_-Z…C-_‰N,
credit /"kredIt/ | 1^…N-åÈP-NE“`-T“P, MÈT-ME-, 2^…N-åÈP, || 1I can’t pay now so can you give me some credit?
Ec-N-õ-_…P-≥ÈN-U…-M—T-Rc, mÈN-l…c-E-`-^…N-åÈP-NE“`-T“P-]C]-CPE-GÈC-CU, 2He deserves a lot of credit for the success of that
project. éU-uEc-N‰-`‰Cc-]u⁄T-^ÈE-T_-BÈ-`-^…N-åÈP-G‰P-RÈ-q‰N-GÈC
crime /kraIm/ | PC-I‰c, || That boy got involved in a life of crime. Z…-`…-N‰-`-CZP-~ÈC-TFN-R]Ã-PC-I‰c-M‰Tc,
criminal /"krImInl/ | I‰c-FP, || The criminal went to jail. I‰c-FP-N‰-TVÍP-]H“C-qc,
criticise (criticize) /"krItIsaIz/ | ´ÈP-TäÈN-q‰N-R, || She didn’t like being criticised for the way she did her
work. CZP-n…c-_E-I…N-l…-q-T-±„T-§Ec-`-´ÈP-TäÈN-q‰N-R_-BÈ-UÈ-U-NC],
crop /krQp/ | `È-KÈC || There are many different kinds of crops growing in the field.
Z…E-PE-Oÿ-`È-KÈC-_…Cc-¶-WÍCc-´‰c-^ÈN,
cross /krQs/ | 1î-uU, 2Tî‡N-R, ¶È`-T, || 1The cross is a sacred symbol for Christians.
î-uU-P…-^‰-a‰c-GÈc-`“Cc-R_-UWÍP-P-UWP-U-UGÈC-nŸ_-Z…C-^…P, 2The new road will cross my fields.
C[÷E-`U-Cc_-T-N‰-E]Ã-Z…E-MÈC-Tî‡N-î‡-_‰N,
crowd /kraUd/ | ]Oÿ-]XÀ, 1U…-WÍCc, 2]WE-T, || 1There was a big crowd standing outside the cinema.
ÇÈC-TãP-BE-C…-p…-_È`-Oÿ-U…-WÍCc-]WÍCc-^ÈN, 2If everyone crowds into the bus, we will be
uncomfortable. C`-K‰-U…-WE-U-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-n…-PE-Oÿ-TVEc-P, E-WÍ-TN‰-UÈ-^ÈE-î‡-U-_‰N,
cruel /kru:@l/ | 1˛ŸT-UÈ, 2£…E-ä‰-U‰N-R, || 1He said some very cruel words to his sister when he was angry.
BÈ-BÈE-tÈ-`Ec-Oÿc-BÈ]Ã-~…E-UÈ-`-WÀC-d-FE-˛ŸT-UÈ-TaN, 2I love my father because he was never cruel to me.
E]Ã-e-Sc-E-`-£…E-ä‰-]XÀP-Rc, E-E]Ã-e-S-`-NC],
you to correct your students’ homework?

▪202▪

crush /krVS/ | CF…_-T, || Make sure the potatoes don’t crush the tomatoes in the bag.

B‘C-U]Ã-PE-C…-ZÈC-BÈC-C…c-Z…-d◊E-Ä…-CF…_-Oÿ-U-]H“C
cry /kraI/ | 1E“-T, 2E“-ˇN, || 1Please don’t be sad and cry. ^…N-´È-Pc-U-E“-, 2Her loud cry of fear was heard far away.
BÈ-UÈ]Ã-∞C-NEEc-l…-E“-ˇN-G‰P-RÈ-N‰-îE-_…E-Pc-MÈc,
culture /"kVltS@/ | _…C-CPc, || The way people live is different in every culture.
_…C-CPc-_‰-_‰-`-U…]Ã-]WÍ-T-_È`-§Ec-U…-]x-T-^ÈN,
cup /kVp/ | H-SÈ_, || What colour is this cup? H-SÈ_-]N…]Ã-B-UNÈC-F…-_‰N,
cure /kjU@/ | 1CcÈ-MTc, 2CcÈ-T, || 1The doctors were working hard to find a cure for the disease.
©P-R-éUc-l…c-]TN-R-G‰P-RÈc-PN-]N…-CcÈ-MTc-a…C-]WÍ`-l…P-^ÈN, 2This medicine will cure your disease. ©P-]N…c-mÈN-l…-PN-CcÈ-M—T,
current /"kVr@nt/ | 1NE“`-`È_, 2î‡-T, 3G”-î‡P, || 1That newspaper always reports the current news.
WCc-R_-N‰]Ã-§‰E-NE“`-`È_-MN-l…-Cc_-]nŸ_-î‡P-R_-]CÈN-l…P-^ÈN, 2He got a severe shock from the strong electrical
current. ÇÈC-C…-î‡-T-TVP-RÈ-N‰c-BÈ-dP-KE-E‰_-TKE-, 3The strong ocean current pulled the boat away from the
shore. î-UWÍ]Ã-G”-î‡P-G‰P-RÈc-u⁄-TÈ-EÈCc-`c-x⁄N,
custom /"kVst@m/ | CÈUc-~È`, || Drinking butter tea is a Tibetan custom. Ns⁄C-H-]M—E-î‡-P…-TÈN-U…]Ã-CÈUc-~È`-Z…C-_‰N,
cut /kVt/ | TFN-R, || He cut down the tree with an axe. BÈc-§-_‰-Z…C-C…c-•ÈE-TÈ-N‰-TFN,

D
dad /d&d/ | e-S, || My dad is thirty four. E]Ã-e-S-`È-cÈ-TZ…-^…P,
dam /d&m/ s| 1_Cc, 2_Cc-l…c-G”-T´…`-T, || 1They are building a big dam on the river.

BÈ-WÍc-G”-TÈ-N‰-`-_Cc-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-îC-TZ…P-^ÈN, 2We will dam up the river here in order to make a big lake.
E-WÍc-UWÂ]“-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-T´…`-T_-]N…-Pc-_Cc-îC-î‡-^…P,
damage /"d&mIdZ/ | 1CKÈ_-TÖC 2CKÈ_-TÖC-q‰N-R, || 1How much damage did the drought cause to the crops this
year? N-`È_-MP-Rc-`È-KÈC-`-CKÈ_-TÖC-H…-]x-T9R?-qŸE-, 2The floods will damage the crops. G”-`ÈC-C…c-`È-KÈC-`-CKÈ_-TÖC-q‰N-E‰c,
dance /dA:ns/ | 1ZTc-{È, 2ZTc-{È-]tT-R, || 1Many young people don’t like traditional dances, instead they
prefer modern dances. P-CZÈP-UE-TÈ-~È`-î‡P-n…-ZTc-{È-`-U…-NC]-T_-N‰E-_Tc-l…-ZTc-{È-]GU-R_-NC], 2I learned how to dance
when I was a child. Ec-q…c-R]Ã-Oÿc-Pc-ZTc-{È-]tT-î‡-ÆEc-R-^…P,
danger /"deIndZ@/ | I‰P-B, || It looks like there is danger up ahead on the road. `U-n…-UOÿP-pÈCc-P-I‰P-B-Z…C-^ÈN-R-]x,
dangerous /"deIndZ@r@s/ | I‰P-B-FP, || The mountain path is dangerous. _…-]CÈ]Ã-`U-zP-N‰-I‰P-B-G‰,
dark /dA:k/ | 1U—P-R, 2Z‰-EP, || 1At night it gets so dark outside. UWP-UÈ_-p…-_È`-Oÿ-U—P-R-§flC-RÈ-]M…Tc, 2He gave her a dark
angry look. BÈc-BÈ-UÈ-`-BÈE-tÈ]Ã-éU-]nŸ_-Z‰-EP-Z…C-T§P,
date /deIt/ | I…P, 1WÂc-uEc, 2Oÿc-GN-q‰N-R, 3Oÿc-GN, || 1What is your birth date? mÈN-l…-´‰c-ˇ_-n…-WÂc-uEc-PU-^…P, 2I don’t want
my daughter to date that young man. Ec-E]Ã-T“-UÈc-Cc_-T“-N‰-NE-Oÿc-GN-q‰N-P-U…-]NÈN, 3My son has a date tonight with
his sweetheart. E]Ã-T“-`-N‰-NCÈE-BÈ]Ã-£…E-•‡C-U-NE-M—C-î‡]Ã-Oÿc-GN-F…C-^ÈN,
daughter /"dO:t@/ | T“-UÈ, || My daughter is fourteen. E]Ã-T“-UÈ-`È-TF“-TZ…-^…P,
day /deI/ | I…P, C\], || What day is today? N‰-_…E-C\]-Oÿ-T-_‰N,
day-time /"deItaIm/ | I…P-UÈ, || I go to school in the day-time. E-_E-I…P-UÈ_-ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-C…P-^ÈN,
▪203▪

dead /ded/ | a…-TÈ, || We saw a dead animal on the side of the road.

E-WÍc-`U-]uU-Oÿ-~ÈC-GCc-a…-TÈ-Z…C-UMÈE-,
deaf /def/ | ]ÈP-R, || After his long illness he became deaf. BÈ-_E-^“P-_…E-P-T]Ã-ä‰c-c“-é-T-]ÈP-R_-nŸ_,
deal /di:l/ | 1IÈ-WÍE-, 2IÈ-WÍE-q‰N-R, || 1Buying the land for that price was a good deal.
c-Z…E-N‰-_…P-CÈE-N‰-]xc-IÈ-T-P…-IÈ-WÍE-UPÈC-3È-Z…C-_‰N, 2I only deal in new goods, not in used goods.
Ec-WÍE-íc-Cc_-T-BÈ-P-IÈ-WÍE-q‰N-R-`c-WÍE-íc-ã…E-T-IÈ-WÍE-U…-q‰N,
dear /dI@/ | UX]-T, || My dear wife is a teacher. E]Ã-UX]-T]Ã-G”E-U-P…-NC‰-àP-Z…C-^…P,
debate /dI"beIt/ s| 1˛ÈN-R, 2˛ÈN-R-q‰N-R, || 1The smartest children won the school debate.
ÉÈ-_…C-G‰c-éÈ-T]Ã-q…c-R-éUc-`-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-˛ÈN-R]Ã-tÈN-Pc-î`-B-MÈT, 2I will debate this question with you whenever you like.
x…-T-]N…]Ã-MÈC-Pc-mÈN-l…c-PU-˛ÈN-]NÈN-WÂ-Ec-mÈN-NE-˛ÈN-î‡-^…P,
December /dI"semb@/ | ≠…-Ñ-TF“-CI…c-R, || Christmas is in December. ^‰-b÷]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-P…-≠…-Ñ-TF“-CI…c-R]Ã-PE-^…P,
decide /dI"saId/ | MC-CFÈN-R, || She decided to go to town in the afternoon. BÈ-UÈc-p…-xÈ_-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-]uÈ-î‡-MC-TFN,
declare /dI"kle@/ | mT-T±Cc, || He declared that the school would open next week.
BÈc-C\]-]BÈ_-ä‰c-U]Ã-PE-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-°È-]q‰N-î‡-mT-T±Cc-qc,
deep /di:p/ | CK…E-\T-R, || The river is deep and wide. G”-TÈ-N‰-CK…E-\T-F…E-Z‰E-G‰,
defeat /dI"fi:t/ | 1úÈC-R, 2SU-B-§‰_-T, || 1To not study defeats the purpose of going to school.
ÜÈT-ÆÈE-U…-q‰N-R-P…-ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-T]Ã-NU…Cc-^“`-`c-úÈC 2My father always defeats me when we play card games.
e-S-NE-E‰N-CI…c-l…c-KC-c‰-˛‰c-P-e-Sc-E-`-î‡P-R_-SU-B-§‰_,
defend /dI"fend/ | ~⁄E-T, ]CÈC-R, || He had to defend the sheep from the wolves. BÈc-≠E-@…-T@C-§‰-`“C-~⁄E-NCÈc-qŸE-,
degree /dI"gri:/ | ]XÀP-^…C Lfi]“, || 1I hope to get a degree from college someday.
Ec-PU-Z…C-`-ÜÈT-≈-G‰P-UÈ]Ã-]XÀP-^…C-F…C-`ÈP-M—T-R_-_‰-T-]XÀP, 2My temperature is one degree higher than it was yesterday.
E]Ã-W-uE-B-˛E-`c-Lfi]“-CF…C-C…c-UMÈ,
delay /dI"leI/ | 1Oÿc-]nE-, 2]CÈ_-]nE-q‰N-R, || 1How long will the delay be? Oÿc-]nE-F…-VU-q‰N-î‡-_‰N, 2The snowstorm
delayed the shipment of goods to the town. CEc-´ÈP-N‰c-NEÈc-RÈ-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-T´`-î‡-]CÈ_-]nE-qc,
delicious /dI"lIS@s/ | Z…U-RÈ, || The food is delicious. \c-]N…-Z…U-RÈ-_‰N,
demand /dI"mA:nd/ | NCÈc-UBÈ, _‰-T-]NÈP-R, || 1There is a great demand for meat in the market.
WÍE-_]Ã-PE-Oÿ-a-d-FE-NCÈc-UBÈ-G‰, 2I demand that you stop calling me bad names! mÈN-l…c-E-`-UWE-U…E-C…c-U…-]TÈN-R_-Ec-_‰-T-8,
deny /dI"naI/ | ]CÈC-R, Bc-U…-`‰P-R, || He didn’t want to deny his children an education.
BÈc-_E-C…-T“-`-ÜÈT-CcÈ-]MÈT-î‡-N‰-]CÈC-U…-]NÈN,
depend /dI"pend/ | Tå‰P-R, B-P-^ÈN-R, || The family depends on their cow for milk. OÿN-m…U-]N…]Ã-]È-U-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-T-UÈ-`-Tå‰P,
desert /"dez@t/ | q‰-ME-, || It doesn’t rain much in the desert. q‰-ME-Oÿ-G_-T-G‰P-RÈ-U…-]TT,
desk /desk/ | UOÿP-FÈC || Put the book on the desk. NR‰-G-UOÿP-FÈC-§‰E-Oÿ-ZÈC
destroy /dI"strOI/ | TÖC-R, || By mistake he destroyed some important papers.
BÈ]Ã-PÈ_-]XÍ`-n…c-˛ÈU-^…C-C`-G‰P-]C]-TÖCc,
details /"di:teIls/ | Z…T-UÈ, || Please give details about the accident. GC-°È-N‰]Ã-CPc-W”`-Z…T-UÈ-TäÈN-_ÈCc,
▪204▪

develop /dI"vel@p/ | CÈE-]S‰`, H‰-îc-c“-CKÈE-T, || They need to develop plans to build the school.

BÈ-WÍc-ÜÈT-≈-]X“Cc-î‡]Ã-]G_-CZ…-N‰-H‰-îc-c“-CKÈE-NCÈc,
diagram /"daI@gr&m/ | 1_…-UÈ, 2_‰]“-U…C-`-]CÈN-R, || 1It is helpful to draw a diagram before building a house.
BE-T-Z…C-U-T˛…Cc-R]Ã-¢ÈP-Oÿ-_…-UÈ-Z…C-{…c-P-SP-R-^ÈN, 2I will diagram the data so it is easier to understand.
CÈ-T-`‰P-Ü-UÈ_-CKÈE-G‰N-Ec-NoN-CZ…]Ã-^…C-G-_‰]“-U…C-`-]CÈN-î‡-^…P,
dialogue /"daI@lQg/ | ljE-UÈ`, || The dialogue in the play was interesting. ÑÈc-C_-PE-C…-ljE-UÈ`-N‰_-≥È-IUc-úP,
diary /"daI@ri | I…P-MÈ, || I write in my diary every morning. Ec-I…P-TZ…P-¢-xÈ_-I…P-MÈ-]{…-TZ…P-^ÈN,
did /"di:d/ | `c-WÀC-C…-zN, || When did you graduate? mÈN-_E-PU-UM_-p…P-R-^…P,
die /daI/ | a…-T, || Every year some people die of old age in that village. `È-_‰_-•‰-T-N‰]Ã-PE-U…-]C]-_‰-àc-Pc-a…-2-<J.,
difference /"dIfr@ns/ | mN-R_, || What’s the difference between Tibetan and English?
TÈN-^…C-NE-Nq…P-^…C-T_-n…-mN-R_-F…-^…P,
different /"dIfr@nt/ | U…-]x-T, || Tibetan and English are different languages.
TÈN-^…C-NE-Nq…P-^…C-P…-ˇN-_…Cc-U…-]x-T-CI…c-^…P,
difficult /"dIfIk@lt/ | N@]-T, || Learning a new language is difficult. ˇN-_…Cc-Cc_-T-Z…C-ÆÈE-î‡-P…-N@],
dig /dIg/ | áÈ-T, || They had to dig a ditch for the water. BÈ-WÍc-G”-^…-G‰N-Oÿ-á-Z…C-2áÈ-NCÈc-qŸE-,
dinner /"dIn@/ | \c-M—P, || We eat dinner at six o’clock every night. E-WÍc-I…P-TZ…P-NCÈE-UÈ]Ã-Oÿc-WÍN-x⁄C-R]Ã-§‰E-\c-M—P-\,
dire /"daI@/| B-W-NCÈc-CLfiCc, || There is a dire need for a hospital in that town.
uÈE-Tç`-N‰_-©P-BE-Z…C-NCÈc-R-B-W-NCÈc-CLfiCc-c“-nŸ_-]OÿC
direct /daI"rekt; dI-/| 1MN-@_, 2Tˇ‡_-T, || 1He gave a very direct answer to my question.
BÈc-E]Ã-x…-T_-`P-d-FE-MN-@_-T-Z…C-TKT-qŸE-, 2In the future please direct all your questions to me.
C[÷C-Pc-mÈN-l…-x…-T-WE-U-E-`-ˇ‡_,
direction /daI"rekSn; dI-/| pÈCc, || People come from every direction to the festival.
U…-UE-TÈ-pÈCc-cÈ-cÈ-Pc-Oÿc-§ÈP-`-]ÈEc,
dirty /"d3:ti/| 1TVÍC-R, U…-CVE-T, 2íÈT-R, || 1Her clothes are very dirty. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-CÈP-R-d-FE-TVÍC 2Don’t dirty your hands
cleaning the car. ÖEc-]BÈ_-Ts⁄c-Pc-mÈN-l…-`C-R-íÈT-Oÿ-U-]H“C
disappear /%dIs@"pI@/| ^`-T, U…-¶E-T_-nŸ_-T, || A rainbow disappears after a short time.
^“N-VU-]CÈ_-ä‰c-]H]-WÍP-U…-¶E-T_-nŸ_,
disease /dI"zi:z/| PN, || Many animals died from a disease. ~ÈC-GCc-UE-TÈ-PN-F…C-C…c->A
dismiss /dIs"mIs/| pÈCc-c“-]MÈ_-T, ]uÈ`-T, || The students will be dismissed from class one hour later.
Oÿc-WÍN-CF…C-C…-ä‰c-c“-ÜÈT-U-éUc-ÜÈT-t…N-`c-]uÈ`-î‡-_‰N,
dispute /"dIspju:t; dI"spju:t/| 1˛ÈN-CZ…, 2˛ÈN-R, || 1The dispute was about who owned the horse.
˛ÈN-CZ…-P…-å-N‰-c“-`-NTE-U…P-N‰-_‰N, 2I won’t dispute what you said because I agree with you.
E-mÈN-l…c-TaN-R-`-]MN-Rc-Ec-mÈN-NE-˛ÈN-R-U…-q‰N,
distance /"dIst@ns/| 1T_-MC 2n‰N-R, || 1My village is a long distance from town.
•‰-T-N‰-uÈE-Tç`-NE-T_-MC-_…E-, 2Because I don’t like him I have chosen to distance myself from him.
▪205▪

E-BÈ-`-U…-NC]-Tc-Ec-BÈ-NE-2GJ.-î‡-MC-TFN,
distant /"dIst@nt/| MC-_…E-T, || The town is so distant that we can’t walk to it in one day.
uÈE-Tç`-N‰-P…-MC-_…E-Tc-E-WÍ-áE-ME-`-I…P-CF…C-C…c-U…-MÈP,
dive /daIv/| G”-]X“`-îC-R, || The boy didn’t know how to dive into the river. q…c-R-N‰c-G”-]X“`-îC-U…-a‰c,
divide /dI"vaId/| TCÈ-T, || The dormitory is divided into two sections. I`-BE-BC-CI…c-c“-TCÈc-^ÈN,
do /d@; du:/| q-WÀC-C…-zN, `c, q‰N, || Do you like English? mÈN-_E-Nq…P-^…C-`-NC]-]U,
do my homework | E]Ã-`c-q-]{…, || I do my homework in the evening. Ec-NCÈE-UÈ_-`c-q-]{…,
do not | NCC-WÀC || Do not answer the telephone. B-R_-`-e-`P-U-§‰_,
do sports | ˛`-ÆÈE-q‰N-R, || I’m too busy studying to do sports this year. E-_E-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-`-{‰`-T-G‰-xCc-Pc-˛`-ÆÈE-q‰N-U…-M—T,
do the shopping | IÈ-G-îC-R, || I will do the shopping today. Ec-N‰-_…E-IÈ-G-îC-î‡-^…P,
do the washing | CÈP-R-]t‹-T, || When will you do the washing? mÈN-l…c-CÈP-R-PU-WÍN-]t‹-î‡-^…P,
doctor /"dQkt@/| 1©P-R, 2©P-TFÈc-q‰N-R, || 1I’m sick so I’ll go see the doctor. E-_E-P-Tc-©P-R_-§ÈP-NCÈc, 2I can’t doctor
you because I’m not a physician. E-©P-R-Z…C-U…P-Rc-Ec-mÈN-`-©P-TFÈc-q‰N-U…-M—T,
document /"dQkjum@nt/| ^…C-G, || The document stated that they could open the school next year.
^…C-G]Ã-PE-Oÿ-BÈ-WÍc-`È-ä‰c-U_-ÜÈT-≈-N‰-°È-]q‰N-GÈC-R-T±Cc-]OÿC
dog /dQg/| m…, || The dog was black. m…-N‰-PC-RÈ-_‰N,
dollar /"dQl@/| e-°È_, °È_-UÈ, || The mother gave her son a dollar to spend at the store.
e-Uc-3R]Ã-T“-`-WÍE-BE-PE-T@È`-î‡]Ã-e-°È_-CF…C-q…P,
don’t /d@Unt/ | q-WÀC-C…-NCC-±, || Don’t come home late. ^“`-Oÿ-`ÈC-R-U-]p…,
door /dO:/| °È, || Open the door. °È-p‰c-a…C
doorbell /"dO:bel/ | °È-^…-x…`-G”E-, || Please ring the doorbell. °È-^…-x…`-G”E-NsÈ`-_ÈCc,
down /daUn/ | U_, M—_, || I saw my friend walking down the road. Ec-E]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ-C[÷E-`U-§‰E-U_-]uÈ-T-UMÈE-,
draft /drA:ft/ | 1U-^…C 2_Cc-]{…-q‰N-R, || 1The draft of your book needs a lot of work.
mÈN-l…-NR‰-G]Ã-U-^…C-`-[÷-NC-UE-TÈ-q‰N-NCÈc, 2Can you draft a report of the project? mÈN-l…c-T\È-∞„P-N‰]Ã-£P-[÷-_Cc-]{…-q‰N-M—T-TU,
draw /drO:/ | _…-UÈ-]{…-T, || Did you draw this picture? _…-UÈ-]N…-mÈN-l…c-{…c-cU,
dream /dri:m/ | 1ê…-`U, 2ê…, || 1She told me about the dream she had last night.
BÈ-UÈc-UNE-NCÈE-ê…c-R]Ã-ê…-`U-N‰-E-`-TaN, 2I dream about you all the time. E]Ã-ê…-`U-Oÿ-î‡P-R_-mÈN-ê…,
dress /dres/ | 1CÈP-R, 2CÈP, || 1Her new dress was not expensive. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-CÈP-R-Cc_-T-N‰]Ã-_…P-CÈE-U…-UMÈ, 2I like to dress in
nice clothing before I go to parties. E-≥È-WÍCc-`-U-cÈE-CÈE-CÈP-R-^C-RÈ-CÈP-R_-NC],
drink /drINk/ | 1TLfiE-G”, 2]M—E-T, || 1What is your favorite drink? mÈN-G‰c-NC]-T]Ã-TLfiE-2-P…-F…-Z…C-^…P, 2He doesn’t like to
drink tea. BÈ-H-]M—E-î‡_-U…-NC],
drive /draIv/ | 1ÖEc-]BÈ_-ˇÈ_-T, 2]N‰N-R, || 1I like to go for drives in the countryside. E-uÈE-Cc‰T-Lfi-ÖEc-]BÈ_-ˇÈ_-T_-]uÈ-o<NC], 2The shepherd drives the sheep to the grassland every morning. `“C-í…c-I…P-<J:A-¢-xÈ_-`“C-éUc-»-ME-Oÿ-]N‰N,
driver draIv@/ | B-`È-T, || Tell the bus driver to stop over there. ≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-n…-B-`È-T-`-S-C…-Pc-]OÿC-_ÈCc-Z‰c-aÈN-NE-,
drown /draUn/ | G”_-]M…U-R, || If you don’t know how to swim you can drown. C`-K‰-mÈN-G”-`-ì`-U…-a‰c-P-G”_-]M…U-î‡-_‰N,
▪206▪

drugs /drVgs/ | ©P, || Doctors use drugs to fight infections. ©P-Rc-©P-≠N-N‰-PN-]CÈ-T-¢ÈP-]CÈC-q‰N-,
dry /draI/ | 1ˇU-RÈ, 2ˇU-R, || 1These clothes are not dry, they are wet. CÈP-R-]N…-NC-ˇU-RÈ-U…P, ]N…-NC-ÖÈP-R-^…P, 2Please dry
your hair. mÈN-l…-∞-ˇU-Oÿ-G”Cc,
duck /dVk/ | EE-T, || There were many ducks swimming in the lake. UWÍ-PE-Oÿ-EE-T-UE-TÈ-ì`-l…P-^ÈN,
dumpling /"dVmplIN/ (boiled stuffed dumpling) | UÈC-UÈC || How do you cook dumplings?

mÈN-l…c-UÈC-UÈC-H…-õ_-TVÍ,
during /"djU@rIN/ | ˇTc-c“, || They all work hard during harvest time. §ÈP-•‡N-l…-ˇTc-c“-BÈ-WÍ-WE-Uc-d◊_-T˛ÈP-n…c-`c-@-q‰N,
dust /dVst/ | 1c-çfl`, 2c-çfl`-CN-TN_-q‰N-R, || 1There is so much dust on the road. C[÷E-`U-§‰E-Oÿ-c-çfl`-UE-TÈ-^ÈN, 2I’ll dust
the furniture so you please sweep the floor. Ec-F-`C-§‰E-C…-c-çfl`-CN-TN_-q‰N, mÈN-l…c-ME-pÈCc-.%-,
duty /"dju:ti/ | `c-]CP, || It was her duty to watch the school children.

ÜÈT-≈]Ã-q…c-R-éUc-`-õ-´ÈE-q‰N-î‡-P…-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-`c-]CP-_‰N,

E
each /i:tS/ | _‰-_‰, || Each student had to write a paper. ÜÈT-U-_‰-_‰c-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-˛ÈU-^…C-_‰-]{…-NCÈc,
ear /I@/ | 1é, 2é-a‰c, || 1She cut her ear when she fell down. BÈ-UÈ-ME-Oÿ-]n‰`-ˇTc-é-T-êc, 2He has a very good ear for
music. BÈ-_È`-NqEc-`-é-a‰c-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
early /"3:li/ | ¢-UÈ, || He gets up early everyday. BÈ-I…P-TZ…P-¢-UÈ_-U`-`c-`Ec-,
earn /3:n/ | B‰-MÈT-R, || They earn a lot of money for their work. BÈ-WÍ_-q-T-`c-B‰-UE-TÈ-MÈT,
earth /3:T/ | 1c]Ã-CÈ-`, 2c, || 1The earth is round. c]Ã-CÈ-`-P…-чU-RÈ-^…P, 2He plowed the earth with a wooden plow.

BÈc-a…E-CaÈ`-n…c-c-TÜÈCc,
earthquake /"3:TkweIk/ | c-]Dÿ`, || The earthquake killed many animals and people.

c-]Dÿ`-`c-~ÈC-GCc-NE-U…-UE-TÈ-]Nc,
ease /i:z/ | ]XÂU-¶E-U‰N-R, üÈN-RÈ, || She danced with a special grace and ease.
BÈ-UÈc-°‰C-IUc-úP-Z…E-]XÂU-¶E-U‰N-R]Ã-EE-ZTc-{È-]tT,
easily /"i:z@li/ | `c-Ü-UÈ]Ã-EE-, || He was able to learn English easily. BÈc-`c-Ü-UÈ]Ã-EE-Nq…P-^…C-ÆÈE-M—T-cÈE-,
east /i:st/ | a_-pÈCc, || The school is located east of the village centre. ÜÈT-≈-P…-•‰-T]Ã-Nl…`-n…-a_-pÈCc-c“-CPc-^ÈN,
easy /"i:zi/ | Ü-UÈ, || It is not easy to learn English. Nq…P-^…C-ÆÈE-î‡-P…-`c-Ü-UÈ-Z…C-U…P,
eat /i:t/ | The family likes to eat together. N‰-T-WE-\-U-UIU-Oÿ-\-T_-NC],
economy /I"kQn@mi/ | NR`-]qÈ_, || The economy has a big influence on the life of the people.
NR`-]qÈ_-n…c-U…-UE-C…-]WÍ-T_-b÷Cc-ì‰P-G‰P-RÈ-§‰_,
edge /edZ/ | B, UM], || Don’t walk so close to the edge of the cliff. {C-B-NE-N‰-]x]Ã-I‰-c-`-U-]uÈ,
edible root /"ed@bl ru:t/ | uÈ-U, || Rice, sugar, yak butter, and edible roots cooked together are delicious.
]{c-NE-, @-_, ]{…-U_, uÈ-U-UIU-Oÿ-TVÍc-R-N‰-d-FE-Z…U,
educate /"edZukeIt/ | ÜÈT-CcÈ-CKÈE-T, || Books are helpful when educating students.
NR‰-G-P…-ÜÈT-U-éUc-`-ÜÈT-CcÈ-CKÈE-T_-SP,
▪207▪

effect /I"fekt/ | SP-Q÷c, q‰N-`c, || The increase in rain had a positive effect on crop growth.

G_-G”-H‰-UE-Oÿ-]uÈ-T-N‰-`È-KÈC-`-SP-Q÷c-T\E-TÈ-^ÈN,
effort /"ef@t/ | T˛ÈP-]u⁄c, ]TN-R, || A lot of effort is required in learning a language.
ˇN-_…Cc-a…C-ÆÈE-T_-]TN-T˛ÈP-G‰P-RÈ-q‰N-NCÈc,
egg /eg/ | °È-E-, || The chicken laid only one egg last week. C\]-]BÈ_-¢ÈP-U_-q-UÈc-°È-E-CF…C-`c-U-TKE-,
eight /eIt/ | TîN, || He works eight hours every day. BÈc-I…P-_‰_-Oÿc-WÍN-TîN-`-q-T-T±„T-NCÈc,
eighteen /"haItn/ | TFÈ-TîN, || She graduated from school when she was eighteen years old.
BÈ-UÈ-`È-TFÈ-TîN-§‰E-ÜÈT-≈-Pc-UM_-p…P,
eighth /eItT/ | M‰Ec-TîN-R, eE-TîN-R, || This was the eighth time he tried.
]N…-P…-BÈc-ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-N‰-M‰Ec-TîN-R_-]BÈ_-Oÿ-]H“C-˛…c-qc-R-_‰N,
eighty /"eIti/ | TîN-F“, || My grandmother is eighty years old. E]Ã-ßÈ-UÈ-P…-`È-TîN-F“-^…P,
either /"aID@; "i:D@/ | ^E-P, CE-^E-, ^E-U…P, || He either wants to get a job or go to school.
BÈc-^E-U…P-q-T-Z…C-ã‰N-R]U-^E-U…P-ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-P-]NÈN,
elect /I"lekt/ | TNU-R, ]N‰Uc-R, CNU-R, || When will we elect the class monitor? E-WÍc-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-]CÈ-CVÍ-PU-CNU-î‡-^…P,
electricity /I%lek"trIs@ti/ | ÇÈC || Electricity can help improve living conditions.
ÇÈC-C…c-]WÍ-T]Ã-G-ì‰P-^_-MÈP-^ÈE-T_-NC‰-UWP-T´‰N,
element /"elIm@nt/ | u⁄T-G, || Rain, snow, and wind are all elements of weather.
G_-T-NE-, B-T, Ö‡E-TFc-P…-CPU-Ca…c-l…-u⁄T-G-^…P,
elephant /"elIf@nt/ | ÇE-G‰P, || An elephant is a large animal. ÇE-G‰P-P…-~ÈC-GCc-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-^…P,
eleven /I"levn/ | TF“-CF…C || She begins to prepare lunch at eleven o’clock. BÈ-UÈc-Oÿc-WÍN-TF“-CF…C-§‰E-Pc-DÿE-\c-u-±…C-qc,
embassy /"emb@si/ | C[÷E-WT-BE-, || They went to the embassy to get a visa. BÈ-WÍ-C[÷E-WT-BE-Oÿ-]M—c-UGP-]CÈN-R_-cÈE-,
emotion /I"m@USn/ | WÍ_-T, || Hate, greed, and envy are powerful emotions.
BÈE-tÈ-NE-, TéT-c‰Uc, zC-NÈC-TFc-P…-WÍ_-T-b÷Cc-G‰P-RÈ-^…P,
employ /Im"plOI/ | Ç-T, || The factory employs many people. T\È-≈-N‰c-U…-UE-TÈ-Ç,
empty /"empti/ | §ÈE-T, || The house was empty after they moved away. BÈ-WÍ-CPc-ß_-T]Ã-ä‰c-c“-BE-T-N‰-§ÈE-T_-`“c,
end /end/ | 1UH“C 2UH“C-T•‡-T, || 1Did you read the book all the way to the end?
mÈN-l…c-NR‰-G-N‰-UCÈ-Pc-UH“C-T_-TÅCc-cU, 2He will end the meeting in exactly one hour.
BÈc-Oÿc-WÍN-CF…C-KC-KC-C…-PE-WÍCc-]Oÿ]Ã-UH“C-T•‡-î‡-_‰N,
enemy /"en@mi/ | Nu-TÈ, || The army fought against the enemy. NUC-U…c-Nu-TÈ-NE-]MT-]XÀE-qc,
energy /"en@dZi/ | `“c-§ÈTc, || The boys on the basketball team have a lot of energy.
ßÈ-`È-_“-BC-C…-Z…-`…-éUc-`-`“c-§ÈTc-G‰P-RÈ-úP,
enforce /In"fO:s/ | `C-T§_-q‰N-R, || The police enforce the laws. I‰P-åÈC-Rc-t…Uc-`“Cc-`C-T§_-q‰N,
engine /"endZIn/ | °‡`-q‰N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_, || The truck had a problem with its engine.
]u…U-]u⁄`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-N‰]Ã-°‡`-q‰N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_-`-´ÈP-aÈ_,
engineer /%endZI"nI@/ | T\È-T@ÈN-R, || My father is an engineer. E]Ã-e-S-P…-T\È-T@ÈN-R-Z…C-^…P,
▪208▪

English | Nq…P-^…C || I enjoy learning English. E-_E-Nq…P-^…C-ÆÈE-T_-≥È,
Englishman | Nq…P-H…-T, || An Englishman came to visit our school yesterday.

B-cE-Nq…P-H…-T-Z…C-E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-≈_-õ-ˇÈ_-Oÿ-]ÈEc,
Englishmen | Nq…P-H…-T, || There aren’t any Englishmen in my town. E-WÍ]Ã-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-Nq…P-H…-T-CF…C-lE-U‰N,
enjoy /In"dZOI/ | ≥È-T, NC]-T, || She will enjoy buying a new dress. BÈ-UÈ-CÈP-R-Cc_-T-Z…C-IÈ-T_-≥È-î‡-_‰N,
enjoy yourself | _E-I…N-≥È-≥È-q‰N-R, || I hope you will enjoy yourself at the party.
mÈN-l…c-≥È-WÍCc-]N…]Ã-§‰E-_E-≥È-≥È-q‰N-R_-Ec-_‰-T-]XÀP,
enough /I"nVf/ | ]NE-RÈ, || He didn’t get enough food to eat. BÈ-`-\-U-]NE-RÈ-Z…C-U‰N,
enter /"ent@/ | PE-Oÿ-]X“`-T, || They can enter the building through the front door.
BÈ-WÍ-MÈC-BE-C…-PE-Oÿ-UOÿP-°È-Tî‡N-Pc-]X“`-M—T,
environment /In"vaIr@nm@nt/ | BÈ_-^“C || The people work hard to protect the environment.
U…-NUEc-l…c-]TN-R-G‰P-RÈc-BÈ_-^“C-~⁄E-´ÈT-q‰N,
equal /"i:kw@l/ | ]x-UIU, || The students all shared the cleaning job equally.
ÜÈT-U-éUc-l…c-CVE-¥-q‰N-î‡]Ã-q-T-N‰-]x-UIU-n…c-T±„Tc,
equipment /I"kwIpm@nt/ | ^È-qN, || We need to repair the telephone equipment. E-WÍc-B-R_-^È-qN-N‰-Z…C-CcÈ-q‰N-NCÈc,
escape /I"skeIp/ |1qÈ`-T, ]{È-T, 2M_-T, || 1The wife’s escape from her cruel husband’s control is a familiar
theme in novels. G”E-U-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-mÈ-C-CLfiU-RÈ]Ã-î-`c-qÈ`-T-P…-T˛Uc-±„E-]C]Ã-CF…C-UW”Ec-l…-TäÈN-q-Z…C-_‰N, 2The mouse couldn’t
escape from the hawk’s claws. q…-T-N‰-ÇC-C…-•‰_-UÈ-`c-M_-U-M—T,
especially /I"speS@li/ | üC-Lfi, °Èc-c“, || I especially like the colour blue. E-_E-°Èc-c“-B-NÈC-¢ÈP-RÈ-`-NC],
establish /I"st&blIS/ | ]X“Cc-R, || They want to establish a market on that corner.
BÈ-WÈ-`-´ÈCc-UWUc-N‰_-WÍE-_-Z…C-]X“Cc-]NÈN-^ÈN,
even /"i:vn/ | M-P, || I don’t even know how to drive a car. Ec-M-P-ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-H…-õ_-TˇÈ_-î‡]E-U…-a‰c,
evening /"i:vnIN/ | c-~Èc, NCÈE-UÈ, || She often cooks a meal in the evening. BÈ-UÈc-NCÈE-UÈ_-î‡P-R_-\-U-C^È-ˇÈ`-q‰N,
event /I"vent/ | q-T, NÈP-G‰P, || The Spring Festival (Lunar New Year celebration) is a big event for the
whole village. `È-Cc_-P…-•‰-T-^ÈEc-`-UWÍP-P-NÈP-G‰P-Z…C-_‰N,
ever /"ev@/ | CKP-Pc, PU-^E-, || She doesn’t ever want to leave home. BÈ-UÈ-PU-^E-m…U-NE-]{`-]NÈN-U-qŸE-,
every /"evri/ | _‰-_‰, || Every day something new happens. I…-U-_‰-_‰_-CPc-W”`-Cc_-T-_‰-]qŸE-TZ…P-^ÈN,
everyone /"evriwVn/ | U…-_‰-_‰, U…-MUc-FN, || Everyone in the village celebrates Tibetan New Year.
•‰-T]Ã-U…-MUc-FN-l…c-TÈN-l…-`È-Cc_-`-å‰P-]{‰`-[÷-TZ…P-^ÈN,
everything /"evriTIN/ | NEÈc-RÈ-_‰-_‰, NEÈc-RÈ-MUc-FN, || Everything got wet in the rain. NEÈc-RÈ-MUc-FN-G_-G”c-TÖP,
everywhere /"evriwe@/ | CPc-cÈ-cÈ, pÈCc-cÈ-cÈ, || The sheep were scattered everywhere on the grassland.
`“C-éUc-»-ME-C…-pÈCc-cÈ-cÈ_-mT,
evidence /"evId@ns/ | TN‰P-NRE-, || There was little evidence that he stole the money.
BÈc-°È_-UÈ-Táflc-R_-TN‰P-NRE-F…-^E-U‰N,
evil /"i:vl/ | •…C-R, EP-R, || There is a big difference between good and evil. NC‰-T-NE-•…C-R]Ã-T_-Oÿ-mN-R_-G‰P-RÈ-^ÈN,
▪209▪

exact /Ig"z&kt/ | CN‰E-WÍN-^ÈN-R, E‰c-FP, EÈ-U, || What is your exact age? mÈN-l…-`È-EÈ-U-P…-Oÿ-^…P,
examine /Ig"z&mIn/ | TåC-NoN, || The doctor wants to examine the patient. ©P-Rc-PN-R-N‰_-TåC-NoN-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
example /Ig"zA:mpl/ | NR‰-TäÈN, || Can you give me an example of how to use that word?

mÈN-l…c-E-`-U…E-WÀC-N‰-H…-õ_-T@È`-T]Ã-NR‰-TäÈN-F…C-TZC-P-GÈC-CU,
excellent /"eks@l@nt/ | S“`-Oÿ-qŸE-T, || She got an excellent job at the university.
BÈ-UÈc-ÜÈT-≈-G‰P-UÈ-N‰-Pc-q-T-S“`-Oÿ-qŸE-T-Z…C-ã‰N,
except /Ik"sept/ | U-CKÈCc, || Except for the youngest son, the whole family went to town.
m…U-WE-N‰]Ã-T“-M-G”E-U-CKÈCc-WE-U-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-cÈE-,
exchange /Iks"tSeIndZ/ | 1Tä‰-_‰c, 2Tä‰-T, || 1The exchange of gifts between old friends took only a few
minutes. uÈCc-RÈ-ã…E-T]Ã-T_-Pc-`‰Cc-´‰c-Tä‰-_‰c-q‰N-R-N‰<-ˇ_-U-]C]-`c-U-]CÈ_, 2Can you exchange this pot for a different
one? mÈN-l…c-Ü-E-]N…-CZP-Z…C-`-Tä‰-GÈC-CU,
excite /Ik"saIt/ | ^…N-rÈc-R, || The film was very exciting. ÇÈC-TãP-N‰-^…N-rÈc-R-Z…C-_‰N,
excuse /Ik"skju:s/ | 1BC-]HÈC-c, 2T\ÈN-°ÈU-q‰N-R, || 1She didn’t have any excuse for not doing her homework.
BÈ-UÈc-`c-q-U-{…c-R_-BC-]HÈC-c-F…-^E-U‰N, 2If you are late again the teacher won’t excuse you.
C`-K‰-mÈN-ä‰c-c“-`“c-P, NC‰-àP-n…c-mÈN-`-T\ÈN-°ÈU-q‰N-U…-~…N,
execute /"eksIkju:t/ | `C-T§_, || They now have enough money to execute their plan.
BÈ-WÍ_-N-õ-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-]G_-CZ…-`C-T§_-q‰N-R]Ã-°È_-UÈ-]NE-E‰c-a…C-^ÈN,
exercise /"eks@saIz/| 1ÆÈE-Tç_, 2ÆÈE-Tç_-q‰N-R, || 1Playing basketball is good exercise.
`P-G…C-ßÈ-`È-˛‰-T-P…-ÆÈE-Tç_-^C-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N, 2After I exercise I feel tired. ÆÈE-Tç_-qc-ä‰c, E-ME-GN,
exist /Ig"zIst/| ^ÈN-R, CPc-R, || The school didn’t exist before 1978. ≠…-`È1978 `È]Ã-¢ÈP-Oÿ-ÜÈT-≈-N‰-U‰N,
expand /Ik"sp&nd/| î-H‰-G‰_-CKÈE-T, || We want to expand the farming area. E-WÍc-c-Z…E-C…-î-H‰-G‰_-CKÈE-]NÈN,
expect /Ik"spekt/| _‰-°‡C || He expects to attend the university in the fall.
BÈc-§ÈP-B_-ÜÈT-≈-G‰P-UÈ-PE-[÷Cc-î‡]Ã-_‰-°‡C-q‰N-^ÈN,
expel /Ik"spel| p…_-S“N-R, || Several students were expelled from school last year. ÜÈT-U-]C]-P-P…E-ÜÈT-≈-Pc-p…_-S“N,
experiment /Ik"sperIm@nt/| WÍN-õ, || In science class we do experiments. WP-_…C-C…-ÜÈT-t…N-tÈN-E-WÍc-WÍN-õ-q‰N-l…P-^ÈN,
expert /"eksp3:t/| G‰N-`c-UBc-R, || They had to call an expert to help with the problem.
BÈ-WÍc-G‰N-`c-UBc-R-Z…C-CNP-xEc-K‰-CPN-NÈP-c‰`-_ÈCc-q‰N-NCÈc-qŸE-,
explain /Ik"spleIn/| ]u‰`-TaN-q‰N-R, || Can you explain your answer to the question?
mÈN-l…c-mÈN-l…-x…c-`P-`-]u‰`-TaN-q‰N-M“T-TU,
explode /Ik"spl@Ud/| Cc-R, || The bomb made a loud noise when it exploded. ]CN-íc-N‰-Cc-B_-±-G‰P-RÈ-uCc,
explore /Ik"splO:/| ]WÍ`-Z…T, || They explored the area and found gold. BÈ-WÍc-CPc-N‰_-]WÍ`-Z…T-qc-K‰-Cc‰_-ã‰N,
export /Ik"spO:t/| 1p…_-]x‰P, 2p…_-]x‰P-q‰N-R, || 1Wool is an important export product.
T`-P…-p…_-]x‰P-q‰N-R]Ã-MÈP-íc-C`-G‰P-Z…C-^…P, 2Next year our country will export more than it imports.
cE-`È_, E-WÍ]Ã-î`-BT-l…c-PE-]x‰P-`c-p…_-]x‰P-UE-TÈ-q‰N-î‡-_‰N,
▪210▪

express /Ik"spres/| 1UnÈCc-RÈ, rŸ_-T, NU…Cc-Tc`, 2mN-R_-T, || 1We decided to take the express bus rather than the
slow one. E-WÍc-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-N`-UÈ-`c-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-UnÈCc-RÈ-N‰_-]OÿC-î‡-MC-TFN, 2My express purpose for visiting you
is to see if how you are. Ec-mÈN-`-]WUc-]x…-q‰N-R]Ã-NU…Cc-Tc`-n…-NU…Cc-^“`-P…-mÈN-TN‰‰-UÈ-^…P-U…P-`-Tõ-î‡-N‰-^…P,
extend /Ik"stend/| H‰-_…E-Oÿ-CKÈE-T, || The visitors chose to extend their time in the countryside.

]u⁄`-T-éUc-l…c-uÈE-Cc‰T-Lfi-]OÿC-R]Ã-Oÿc-WÍN-H‰-_…E-Oÿ-CKÈE-î‡]Ã-MC-TFN,
extra /"ekstr@/| ]S_-U, üC-U, || I will buy some extra clothes for the journey.
Ec-öÈEc-î‡-q‰N-R_-nÈP-Gc-üC-U-]C]-IÈ-î‡-^…P,
extreme /Ik"stri:m/| a…P-Lfi, d-FE-, || It is extremely hot during the summer. Nq_-B-W-T-d-FE-G‰,
eye (right eye, left eye) /aI/| U…C || The doctor examined both her right eye and her left eye.
©P-Rc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-U…C-C^c-R-NE-C^ÈP-R-CI…c-`-õ-Z…T-qc,
eye exercises | U…C-C…-ÆÈE-Tç_, || The teacher suggested she do some eye exercises to help improve her
eyesight. NC‰-àP-n…c-BÈ-UÈ_-U…C-C…-ÆÈE-Tç_-qc-Pc-U…C-a‰N-H‰-T\E-Oÿ-CKÈE-î‡]Ã-ÉÈ-T@ÈN-TKÈP,

F
face /feIs/|

1

2

3

EÈ-, CNÈE-, B-EÈ, B-CKÈN-R, ||

1

The young girl has a beautiful face. T“-UÈ-G”E-G”E-N‰-P…-EÈ-^C-

F…C-_‰N, 2I lost face when I was publicly reprimanded. E-`-3A-P=-/?-B-çflE-TKE-Pc-E]Ã-B-EÈ-aÈ_-Oÿ-TF“C 3The teacher
punished the disobedient student by making her face the blackboard for ten
minutes. NC‰-àP-n…c-ÜÈT-U-y-G`-N‰-`-°È-cU-`-ˇ_-U-TF“]Ã-_…E-B-CKÈN-Oÿ-TF“C-Pc-GN-R-TFN,
fact /f&kt/| NÈP-NEÈc, || It is important to separate fact from fiction. NÈP-NEÈc-åÈC-T\È-`c-NC_-î‡-C`-G‰,
factory /"f&ktri; -t@ri/| T\È-≈ || Many people work at the factory. U…-UE-TÈc-T\È-≈-N‰_-q-T-±„T-TZ…P-^ÈN,
fail /feIl/| î‡Cc-U-]zÈN-R, || If she doesn’t study hard she will fail in school.

C`-K‰-UÈc-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-^C-RÈ-U-qc-P-BÈ-UÈc-ÜÈT-≈-Pc-î‡Cc-]zÈN-î‡-U-_‰N,
fair /fe@/ | 1xE-£ÈUc, C\“-TÈ, 2N@_-UNEc-GCc-R, || 1We don’t think that rule is very fair. E-WÍc-±…C-t…UcN‰-xE-£ÈUc-a…C-_‰N-U…-]NÈN, 2She easily gets sunburn because she has a fair complexion.
BÈ-UÈ-`-B-]{c-N@_-UNEc-GCc-R-Z…C-^ÈN-Rc-I…-Uc-]WÀC-Ü,
fall /fO:l/| 1§ÈP-@ ü‚E-T, 2]TT-R, || 1The leaves on the trees turn colour every fall. §ÈP-@-_‰-_‰_-•ÈE-`È]Ã-UNÈC-]nŸ_, 2Snow
falls every winter. NDÿP-B-_‰-_‰_-BEc-]TT,
fall off | 1ü‚E-T, 2]u…T-R, || 1One needs to be a good rider to not fall off a horse.
U…-Z…C-å-`c-U…-ü‚E-T]Ã-´-U…-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^…P-NCÈc, 2Our factory’s production will fall off if we don’t buy some new
machines. C`-K‰-E-WÍc-]z⁄`-Gc-Cc_-T-_‰-U-IÈc-P, E-WÍ]Ã-T\È-≈]Ã-MÈP-WN-]u…T-î‡-_‰N,
fall out of | 1]TT-R, ü‚E-T, 2 Z‰P-B-Pc-aÈ_-T, || 1Snowflakes fall out of the sky. B-T]Ã-]NT-U-CPU-Pc-U_-]TT, 2We will fall
out of favor with our teacher if we don’t do better on the next examination.

C`-K‰-E-WÍ-î‡Cc-ä‰c-U]Ã-§‰E-H‰-NC]-`-U-^ÈE-P, E-WÍ-NC‰-àP-n…-Z‰P-B-Pc-aÈ_-î‡-_‰N,
false /fO:ls/ | í’P, || Please answer if the question is true or false. x…-T-]N…-`-TN‰P-í’P-F…-^…P-n…-`P-]N‰Tc-_ÈCc,
family /"f&m@li/ | m…U-WE-, || She has a very large family. BÈ-UÈ-`-m…U-WE-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
family tree | m…U-î‡N, || A picture of the family tree hung on the wall. m…U-î‡N-l…-]x-R_-Z…C-nE-EÈc-c“-T@`-]OÿC
▪211▪

famous /"feIm@s/ | U…E-uCc-FP, || Michael Jackson is a famous singer. U‰-a‰`-H‰-B‘-c“E-P…-LJ-T-U…E-uCc-FP-Z…C-^…P,
far /fA:/ | MC-_…E-, || The village is far from here. •‰-T-N‰-]N…-Pc-MC-_…E-,
farm /fA:m/ | 1c-Z…E-, 2êÈ-]N‰Tc-q‰N-R, || 1The farmer grows barley and vegetables on the farm.

Z…E-Rc-c-Z…E-§‰E-Oÿ-Pc-NE-WÍN-U-]N‰Tc, 2He wants to farm those two fields but I think they are too rocky.
BÈc-Z…E-]N…-CI…c-`-êÈ-]N‰Tc-q‰N-]NÈN-UÈN, Ec-Z…E-]N…-CI…c-çÈ-c-^…P-xCc-]NÈN,
farmer /"fA:m@/ | Z…E-R, || The farmer works very long hours every day.
Z…E-Rc-I…P-_‰-TZ…P-Oÿc-WÍN-_…E-TÈ_-`c-@-`c-TZ…P-^ÈN,
farther /"fA:D@/ | N‰-`c-lE-MC-_…E-T, || The market is farther from town than I thought.
uÈE-Tç`-Pc-WÍE-_-`-E]Ã-TcU-WÍN-`c-MC-_…E-,
farthest /"fA:DIst/ | MC-G‰c-_…E-TÈ, || The other side of the county is the farthest he has ever travelled.
íÈE-C…-¶‰-UÈ-CZP-N‰-P…-BÈ-_E-]uÈ-rÈE-T]Ã-c-G-G‰c-MC-_…E-TÈ-_‰N,
fast /fA:st/ | UnÈCc-R, || The young children run fast to catch the bus to town.
`È-G”E-q…c-R-éUc-UnÈCc-RÈ_-Tî‡Cc-K‰-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-]uÈ-T]Ã-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-n…-ä‰c-GÈN-R_-qc,
fat /f&t/ | WÍP-RÈ, || That yak is fat, not thin. C^C-N‰-WÍP-RÈ-^…P-R-`c-_…N-RÈ-U-_‰N,
father /"fA:D@/ | e-S, || The son was looking for his father at the market. T“c-WÍE-_-_“-BÈ]Ã-e-S-]WÍ`-n…P-]OÿC
favourite (favorite) /"feIv@rIt/ | NC]-T, NC]-pÈCc, || Red is my favourite colour. NU_-TÈ-P…-E-_E-G‰c-NC]-T]Ã-B-NÈC-^…P,
fear /fI@/ | 1]H…Cc-R, 2∞C-R, || 1My biggest fear during class is that the teacher will ask me a question and I
won’t be able to answer correctly.

ÜÈT-t…N-§‰E-E]Ã-]H…Cc-R-G‰c-G‰P-RÈ-P…-NC‰-àP-n…c-E-`-x…-T-]SEc-P-Ec-x…c-`P-^E-NC-]N‰Tc-U…-M—T-R-N‰-^…P, 2I fear walking on the dark road
at night. E-_E-NCÈE-UÈ]Ã-U—P-PC-C…-`U-Pc-]uÈ-T_-∞C
feast /fi:st/ | NC]-§ÈP, CcÈ`-§ÈP, || At New Year’s we always have a feast. `È-Cc_-`-E-WÍc-î‡P-R_-CcÈ`-§ÈP-TaÈU,
feather /"feD@/ | q-±È, || The feather floated in the air. q-±È-Ö‡E-`-T´ÈN,
February /"febru@ri/ | ≠…-Ñ-CI…c-R, || March follows February. ≠…-Ñ-CI…c-R]Ã-ä‰c-c“-≠…-Ñ-Cc“U-R-^…P,
feed /fi:d/ | 1C\P-Gc, 2ú‡N-R, || 1Is there enough feed for the cattle this winter?
N-`È]Ã-NDÿP-B_-PÈ_-`-C\P-Gc-]NE-E‰c-a…C-^ÈN-NU, 2What will you feed the children? mÈN-l…c-q…c-R-`-F…-Z…C-ú‡N-î‡-^…P,
feel /fi:l/ | WÍ_-T, || How do you feel today? N‰-_…E-mÈN-l…-WÍ_-T-H…-]x-]OÿC
feel worried | c‰Uc-t`-q‰N-R, || I feel worried before examinations. Ec-î‡Cc-l…-¢ÈP-Oÿ-c‰Uc-t`-q‰N,
female /"fi:meIl/ | UÈ, || "Female" is the opposite of "male." UÈ-P…-SÈ-^…-úÈC-Ñ-^…P,
fertile /"f3:taIl/ | WÍP-RÈ, Ca…P-RÈ, || Fertile land is good for growing crops. c-Z…E-Ca…P-RÈ-P…-`È-KÈC-´‰-T_-T\E-,
few /fju:/ | JfiE-E“-, || There are few lakes in this area. CPc-]N…_-UWÍ-JfiE-E“-`c-U‰N, I have a few toys.
E-`-˛‰N-≠N-JfiE-E“-Z…C-`c-U‰N,
field /fi:ld/ | Z…E-, || The horses grazed out in the field. å-WÍc-Z…E-PE-Pc-`È-KÈC-\Èc,
fierce /fI@s/ | ]H…Cc-c“-_“E-T, TVP-RÈ, || The fierce dogs scared the robbers away.
m…-TVP-RÈ-NC-C…c-HC-R-éUc-`-]H…Cc-Tˇ‡`-K‰-p…_-T∞N,
fifteen /%fIf"ti:n/ | TFÈ-ò, || Fifteen days ago I went home. I…P-TFÈ-ò]Ã-¢ÈP-Oÿ-E-_E-^“`-Oÿ-p…P-R-^…P,
▪212▪

fifth /fIfT/ | ò-T, eE-ò-T, || This is the fifth day of the New Year. N‰-_…E-P…-`È-Cc_-n…-WÂc-ò-T-^…P,
fifty /"fIfti/ | ò-TF“, || He was sick for fifty days. BÈ-I…P-ò-TF“]Ã-_…E-`-P-T-_‰N,
fight /faIt/ | 1]t‹C-˛ÈN, 2çflE-_‰c-q‰N-R, || 1The drunk men got into a fight. T\…-TÈ-N‰-]t‹C-˛ÈN-F…C-C…-PE-Oÿ-[÷Cc, 2I don’t want to
fight you because you are my friend. mÈN-P…-E]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ-^…P-Rc, E-mÈN-NE-çflE-_‰c-q‰N-U…-]NÈN,
fill /fIl/ | ]CE-T_-q‰N-R, CcT-R, || We should fill that hole in the road. E-WÍc-B‘E-T“-N‰-CcT-NCÈc,
film /fIlm/ | 1≠…P-aÈC-]u…`-U, 2TãP-ST, || 1Do you have any film for your camera? mÈN-`-R_-Gc-l…-≠…P-aÈC-]u…`-U-^ÈN-NU, 2I
want to film the traditional dance in my village this summer.

N-`È]Ã-Nq_-B_, Ec-E-WÍ]Ã-•‰-T]Ã-~È`-î‡P-n…-]GU-TãP-]z…P-`-ST-]NÈN,
final /"faInl/ | UH“C || At the end of the year the teacher gives a final exam. `È-UH“C-Lfi-NC‰-àP-n…c-î‡Cc-ÉEc,
find /faInd/ | ã‰N-R, || I can’t find one of my shoes. Ec-E]Ã-üU-^-CF…C-U…-ã‰N,
find out | ˛N-CFÈN-R, || How can we find out who was here yesterday? B-cE-]N…_-c“-^ÈN-R-E-WÍc-H…-õ_-˛N-CFÈN-q‰N-M—T-TU,
fine /faIn/ | ^C-RÈ, 1T\E-TÈ, 2GN-R, 3GN-R-CFÈN-R, || 1I’m feeling fine today. N‰-_…E-E]Ã-WÍ_-T-T\E-TÈ-_‰N, 2I didn’t have enough
money to pay the fine. E-`-GN-R-≥ÈN-R]Ã-NE“`-]NE-RÈ-U‰N, 3Our teacher will fine us if we don’t come to class on
time. E-WÍ-Oÿc-MÈC-Lfi-ÜÈT-t…N-`-U-^ÈE-P-E-WÍ]Ã-NC‰-àP-n…c-E-WÍ-`-GN-R-CFÈN-î‡-_‰N,
finish /"fInIS/ | W_-T, UH“C-íÈCc-R, || Did you ever finish reading that book? mÈN-l…c-NR‰-G-N‰-ÅÈC-W_-_U,
fire /"faI@/ | U‰, || Quick, bring some water to put out the fire. _‰U, G”-m‰_-aÈC-`-U‰-cÈN-F…C
firm /f3:m/ | 1AÿE-\…, ~-T, 2Ut‰Cc-RÈ, || 1The business firm lost money last year. P-P…E-WÍE-CI‰_-AÿE-\…]Ã-U-˛-GC 2The firm
potatoes are the freshest ones. ZÈC-BÈC-Ut‰Cc-RÈ-NC-P…-G‰c-Cc_-T-^…P,
first /f3:st/ | NE-RÈ, || He wanted to be first in line at the store. BÈc-BÈ-_E-WÍE-BE-Oÿ-u`-T±…Cc-R]Ã-PE-C…-eE-NE-RÈ-^…P-P-]NÈN,
fish /fIS/ | 1I, 2I-]XÀP-R, || 1There are big fish in the lake. UWÍ-PE-Oÿ-I-G‰P-RÈ-^ÈN, 2I don’t like to fish but my father
does. E-I-]XÀP-R_-U…-NC], ]ÈP-lE-E]Ã-e-S-NC],
five /faIv/ | ò, || There are five fingers on each hand. `C-R-_‰-`-UX“T-UÈ-ò-_‰-^ÈN,
fix /fIks/ | `c-R, IUc-CcÈ-q‰N-R, || Do you know how to fix the radio? mÈN-l…c-±-•‡N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_-N‰-H…-õ_-IUc-CcÈ-q‰N-NCÈc-R-a‰c-cU,
flag /fl&g/ | 1N_-G, 2`C-Tç-§ÈP-R, || 1The flag was flapping in the wind. N_-G-Ö‡E-C…c-T´ÈN, 2If our car has a
mechanical problem while we are travelling we can flag down another car and ask for help.

C`-K‰-E-WÍ]Ã-ÖEc-]BÈ_-`-]z⁄`-Gc-l…-GC-´ÈP-qŸE-P-E-WÍc-ÖEc-]BÈ_-CZP-Z…C-`-`C-Tç-T§P-Pc-_ÈCc-q‰N-Oÿ-TF“C-P-GÈC
flee /fli:/ | {Èc-qÈ`, || The people had to flee from the overflowing river. U…-UE-G”-`ÈC-`-{Èc-qÈ`-U…-q‰N-@-U‰N-qŸE-,
float /fl@Ut/ | C^‰E-T, || Wood floats on water. a…E-G”]Ã-§‰E-Oÿ-C^‰E-,
flood /flVd/ | 1G”-`ÈC 2¶‡T-R, || 1The flood destroyed the crops last season. Oÿc-W…Cc-¢ÈP-U]Ã-PE-Oÿ-G”-`ÈC-C…c-`È-KÈC-T¶‡Tc, 2If
the dam breaks the reservoir’s water will flood the countryside. C`-K‰-_Cc-aÈ_-P, G”-UXÍN-l…-G”c-uÈE-Cc‰T-T¶‡T-î‡-_‰N,
floor /flO:/ | ME-, UM…`, || Don’t put the clothes on the floor. nÈP-Gc-NC-ME-Oÿ-U-]HÈC
flow /fl@U/ | 1T[÷_-î‡P, 2T[÷_, || 1The river’s flow is less than last year because of this year’s severe drought.
N-`È]Ã-MP-R-WTc-G‰P-n…-NTE-C…c, G”-TÈ]Ã-T[÷_-î‡P-P-P…E-`c-H‰-G”E-`-cÈE-, 2The river flows swiftly in the springtime.
No…N-@_-G”-TÈ-rŸ_-Oÿ-T[÷_,
flower /"flaU@/ | 1U‰-KÈC 2TZN-R, || 1The poppy is a beautiful flower. î-U‰P-U‰-KÈC-P…-U‰-KÈC-^C-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N, 2This plant will
▪213▪

soon flower. ˛…-a…E-]N…]Ã-U‰-KÈC-U…-]CÈ_-T_-TZN-î‡-_‰N,
fluid /"flu:Id/ | Ca‰_-B‘, || There is very little fluid in the bottle. NU-T…]Ã-PE-Oÿ-Ca‰_-B‘-K…`-VU-`c-U‰N,
fly /flaI/ | 1~…P-]T“, ߇_-T, ]S“_-T, 2TˇÈ_-T, || 1My mother is so religious that she won’t even kill a fly.

E]Ã-e-U-NN-R-G‰-Pc-M-P-~…P-]T“-Z…C-lE-U…-CcÈN, 2He wanted to learn how to fly a plane. BÈc-CPU-u⁄-H…-õ_-TˇÈ_-î‡-ÆE-]NÈN,
fog /fQg/ | ©‡C-R, || The truck had to go very slow because of the fog.
©‡C-R]Ã-ì‰P-n…c-]u…U-]u⁄`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-N‰-N`-UÈ_-U…-´ÈN-@-U‰N-qŸE-,
follow /"fQl@U/ |TÑ-`-]{Ec-R, ä‰c-£‰Cc-R, || The calf followed its mother everywhere. T‰]“N‰-e-U]Ã-eJ?-?-CE-c_-]{Ec,
food /fu:d/ | \-U, || We go to the market to buy food. E-WÍ-WÍE-__-cÈE-Pc-\-U-IÈ,
fool /fu:l/ | 1ljP-R, 2UCÈ-ˇÈ_-CKÈE-T, || 1The clown acted like a fool. e-V-_-N‰c-ljP-R-Z…C-v<-]tT-§ÈP-qc, 2Don’t try to fool
me with your silly answers. mÈN-l…c-`P-NCÈN-{È-T-N‰c-E-`-UCÈ-ˇÈ_-U-CKÈE-,
foot /fUt/ | 1ZTc, 2áE-T, || 1The shoes were at the foot of the bed. üU-U`-t…]Ã-ZTc-P-^ÈN, 2The horse stepped on his
foot. å-N‰-BÈ]Ã-áE-T]Ã-§‰E-Oÿ-Tí…c,
football /fUtbO:l/ | áE-˛‰N-ßÈ-`È, || We like to play football with our friends.
E-WÍ-uÈCc-RÈ-éUc-NE-UIU-Oÿ-áE-˛‰N-ßÈ-`È-˛‰-T_-NC],
for /f@; fO:/ | _…E-`, || We played outside for a few hours. E-WÍ-p…-_“-Oÿc-WÍN-]C]-`-˛‰c,
force /fO:s/ | 1TVP-a‰N, 2TVP-ˇ‡`-q‰N-R, || 1The policemen were criticized for using unnecessary force to subdue
the criminal. I‰P-åÈC-Rc-I‰c-FP-GU-`-]T‰Tc-R_-NCÈc-U‰N-l…-TVP-a‰N-T@È`-T_-CZP-n…c-´ÈP-TäÈN-qc, 2She had to force him to do
the dishes. BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-`-TVP-ˇ‡`-qc-K‰-\c-C^È-_“-]H“C-NCÈc-qŸE-,
foreign /"fQr@n/ | p…-Ç…E-, || Travelling to foreign places is interesting. p…-Ç…E-Oÿ-^“`-ˇÈ_-q‰N-R-P…-d-FE-NC]-¶E-´‰N-R-Z…C-_‰N,
forget /f@"get/ | Tä‰N-R, || Don’t forget to do your homework. mÈN-l…c-_E-C…-`c-q-]{…-î‡-Tä‰N-Oÿ-U-]H“C
forgive /f@"gIv/ | T\ÈN-°ÈU-q‰N-R, || She could forgive him if he said he was sorry.
C`-K‰-BÈc-NCÈEc-NC-[÷c-P-BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-`-T\ÈN-°ÈU-q‰N-M—T,
form /fO:m/ | 1]X“Cc-R, 2_‰]“-U…C || 1He wants to form a new academic organisation.
BÈc-Z…T-]H“C-˛-]X“Cc-Cc_-T-Z…C-]X“Cc-P-]NÈN, 2To get the job the form must be filled out.
q-T-N‰-]MÈT-M—T-R]Ã-G‰N-Oÿ-_‰]“-U…C-N‰-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-TˇE-NCÈc,
former /"fO:m@/ | 1¢ÈP-U, 2¢-U, || 1The former chief lived in that house. ]CÈ-t…N-¢ÈP-U-N‰-BE-TN‰]Ã-PE-Oÿ-T•N-R-_‰N, 2I agree with your former point but not your latter point.
E-mÈN-l…-õ-T-¢-U-`-]MN, ]ÈP-lE-mÈN-l…-õ-T-p…-U-`-U…-]MN,
forward /"fO:w@d/ | UOÿP-Oÿ, || The car moved forward slowly. ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-N‰-C-`‰_-UOÿP-Oÿ-´ÈN,
four /fO:/ | TZ…, || There are four people in the bus. ≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-PE-Oÿ-U…-TZ…-^ÈN,
fourth /fO:T/ | TZ…-T, || On her fourth birthday she was very happy. BÈ-UÈ:A-´‰c-ˇ_-M‰Ec-TZ…-T]Ã-§‰E-d-FE-NC]-TÈ-qŸE-,
free /fri:/ | 1_E-NTE-^…P-R, 2_…P-U…-NCÈc-R, || 1People do not like to be controlled by others, they like to be free.
U…-éUc-l…c-_E-NTE-]NÈN-R-`c-CZP-n…-WÍN-]XÀP-M‰Tc-P-U…-]NÈN, 2The newspaper is free. WCc-R_-N‰_-_…P-U…-NCÈc,
freeze /fri:z/ | ]mC-R, || If the apples are left outside they will freeze. C`-K‰-Aÿ-b÷-éUc-p…-_“-TZC-P-]mC-î‡-_‰N,
▪214▪

French /"frentS/ | n-_P-c‰]Ã-ˇN, || Do you know how to speak French? mÈN-l…c-n-_P-c‰]Ã-ˇN-TaN-a‰c-cU,
fresh /freS/ | Cc_-T, xÈP-RÈ, || The milk is fresh from the cow. ]È-U-N‰-P…-T-UÈ-`c-TZÈc-R]Ã-]È-U-Cc_-T-^…P,
Friday /"fraIdeI; "fraIdi\ | C\]-R-cEc, || Friday is the last school day in the week.

C\]-R-cEc-P…-C\]-]BÈ_-CF…C-C…-PE-ÜÈT-≈-]WÍCc-R]…-I…P-ä‰c-U-^…P,
fridge (refrigerator, ice-box) /frIdZ/ | ]mC-°U, || They were happy with their new fridge.
BÈ-WÍ-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-]mC-°U-Cc_-T_-^…N-WÀU-^ÈN,
fried /fraId/ | 1T~‰Cc-U, 2T~‰Cc,|| 1Fried mutton makes a good meal. `“C-a-T~‰Cc-U-P…-\c-d-FE-Z…U-RÈ-Z…C-^…P, 2I fried this
bread yesterday. B-˛E-Ec-CÈ-_‰-]N…-T~‰Cc,
friend /frend/ | uÈCc-RÈ, || I want to bring my friend to the party. Ec-E]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ-≥È-WÍCc-§‰E-Oÿ-]t…N-P-]NÈN,
friendly /"frendli/ | UX]-UM—P-úP-R, || Those people are so friendly. U…-]N…-WÍ-UX]-UM—P-úP-R-Z…C-_‰N,
frighten /"fraItn/ | ∞C-ÜÈE-T, ]H…Cc-ˇ‡`-T, ∞C-R, || Don’t let the fierce dog frighten you. m…-TVP-RÈ-N‰-`-U-∞C
frisbee (frisby) /"frIzbi/ | ]S“_-•‰_, || Toss me the frisbee! ]S“_-•‰_-N‰-E-`-C^“C-NE-,
from /fr@m; frQm/ | Pc, `c, || I went from Lhasa to Lanzhou last year by bus.
P-P…E-E-_E-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-`-T•N-N‰-ü-c-Pc-`P-u⁄-`-cÈE-,
front /frVnt/ | UOÿP, || There were many trees in front of the house. BE-T]Ã-UOÿP-Oÿ-•ÈE-TÈ-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
fruit /fru:t/ | c…`-KÈC || We went to pick fruit from the trees last week. E-WÍ-C\]-]BÈ_-¢ÈP-U_-c…`-•ÈE-C…-c…`-KÈC-]MÈC-R_-cÈE-,
fry /fraI/ | ¶‡U-Oÿ-TVÍ-T, TâÈ-T, || She doesn’t like to fry food. BÈ-UÈ-\-U-¶‡U-Oÿ-TVÍ-T_-U…-NC],
fuel /"fju:@l/ | ¶‡U, || Be sure to buy some fuel for the car. ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T_-¶‡U-IÈ-î‡-Tä‰N-U…-_“E-,
full /fUl/ | CE-T, || This bus is too full. ≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-]N…-U…-^…c-CE-xCc,
fun /fVn/ | CN-UÈ, || After school we like to have fun. ÜÈT-≈-uÈ`-ä‰c-E-WÍ-CN-UÈ-ÜÈE-T_-NC],
funeral /"fju:n@r@l/ | Oÿ_-c, ]Nc-UGÈN, || They were all very quiet on the way to the funeral.
BÈ-WÍc-Oÿ_-c-_“-]uÈ-T]Ã-`U-Oÿ-B-U-uCc,
furious /"fjU@ri@s/ | BÈE-tÈ-`Ec-R, || His father was furious when he learned his son missed school.
BÈ]Ã-e-Sc-T“-ÜÈT-≈_-U-cÈE-T-MÈc-Pc-BÈE-tÈ-G‰P-RÈ-`Ec,
future /"fju:tS@/ | U-]ÈEc-R, || In the future we will have two schools in this village.
U-]ÈEc-R_-•‰-T-]N…-P-E-WÍ_-ÜÈT-≈-CI…c-^ÈN-î‡-_‰N,

G
gain /geIn/ |]N‰Cc-R, ]MÈT-R, || The doctor told her to gain weight. ©P-Rc-BÈ-UÈ-`-`“c-RÈ]Ã-ö…N-WN-]N‰Cc-NCÈc-\‰_,
game /geIm/ | ˛‰N-_…Cc, || They played a new game in the schoolyard. BÈ-WÍc-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-_-T]Ã-PE-˛‰N-_…Cc-Cc_-T-Z…C-˛‰c,
garden /"gA:dn/ | U‰-KÈC-_-T, || Shall we plant some flowers in the garden? E-WÍc-U‰-KÈC-_-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-U‰-KÈC-]C]-C\“C-NCÈc-cU,
gas /g&s/ | ¶‡U, ||The car stopped running when it ran out of gas. ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-N‰-¶‡U-\N-Pc-T•N-qŸE-,
gate /geIt/ | °È, || Be sure to close the gate behind you. (_E-C…-îT-Lfi-) °È-CKP-î‡-U-Tä‰N-n…c,
gather /"g&D@/ |•‡N-R, _“T-R,, || They left early to go gather the sheep. BÈ-WÍ-¢-UÈ-Pc-`“C-_“T-R_-cÈE-,
general /"dZenr@l/ | 1^ÈEc-mT, 2NUC-≠…, || 1The general idea about going to school is to get an education.

ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-T]Ã-^ÈEc-mT-l…-NU…Cc-^“`-P…-ÜÈT-CcÈ-Z…C-]MÈT-î‡-N‰-^…P, 2He recently was promoted to the rank of general.
▪215▪

BÈ-I‰-`U-NUC-≠…]Ã-CÈ-CPc-`-CKN,
gentle /"dZentl/ | N`-UÈ, ]HU-RÈ, || She patted the horse’s neck gently. BÈc-å]Ã-UH…E-`-]HU-RÈc- q…`-q…`-qc,
get /get/ | ]T“N-R, `‰P-R, IÈ-T, || Can you get me some things from the store? mÈN-l…c-E-`-WÍE-BE-Pc-NEÈc-RÈ-]C]-IÈ-M—T-TU,
get down /get daUn/ | U_-]TT-R, || She told the child to get down from the roof.
BÈ-UÈc-q…c-R-N‰-BE-T]Ã-ÅN-Pc-U_-]TT-Lfi-TF“C
get dressed /get dresd/ | CÈP-R-nÈP-R, || We have to get dressed and go to school. Ec-CÈP-R-nÈP-Pc-ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-NCÈc,
get home /get h@Um/ | m…U-Oÿ-]qÈ_-T, || I hope I will get home before it gets dark.
Ec-E-_E-U—P-U-_“T-R]Ã-¢ÈP-=-m…U-Oÿ-]qÈ_-î‡]Ã-_‰-T-q‰N-l…P-^ÈN,
get on /get Qn/ | PE-Oÿ-•ÈN-R, || They are hoping to get on the bus to Ziling.
BÈ-WÍc-\…-`…E-Oÿ-]uÈ-T]Ã-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-PE-Oÿ-•ÈN-î‡]Ã-_‰-T-q‰N-TZ…P-^ÈN,
get ready for /get "redi f@/ | u-±…C || He had to get ready for the evening party. BÈc-NCÈE-WÍCc-`-u-±…C-q‰N-NCÈc-qŸE-,
get ready to /get "redi tu:/ | §-CÈP, || Let’s get ready to go to lunch. E-WÈc-DÿE-\c-\-T_-]uÈ-î‡]Ã-§-CÈP-q,
get to /get tu:/ | NCÈc-R, || Do you think we will get to go to town today? mÈN-l…c-Tõc-P-N‰-_…E-E-WÈ-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-]uÈ-NCÈc-cU,
get up /get Vp/ | ^_-`Ec-R, || We get up early everyday to go to school. E-WÍ-I…P-TZ…P-PEc- ¢-UÈ_-`Ec-K‰-ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ,
get warm /get wO:m/ | xÈP-RÈ-q‰N-R, || Let’s go inside the house and get warm. E-WÍ-BE-T]Ã-PE-`-]uÈ-Pc-xÈP-RÈ-q‰N,
gift /gIft/ | `‰Cc-´‰c, || She wanted to bring her friend a nice gift. BÈ-UÈc-_E-C…-uÈCc-RÈ-`-`‰Cc-´‰c-^C-RÈ-Z…C-]m‰_-]NÈN,
girl /g3:l/ | T“-UÈ, || There is only one girl in our class. E-WÍ]Ã-]XÀP-≈_-T“-UÈ-CF…C-`c-U‰N,
give /gIv/ | Æ…P-R, CPE-T, || Maybe someone will give us some money. U…-Z…C-C…c-E-WÍ_-°È_-UÈ-]C]-§‰_-^E-~…N,
give ... the message /"mesIdZ/ | EC-]z…P-CKÈE-T, || Be sure to give her the message. BÈ-UÈ_-EC-]z…P-CKÈE-î‡-BC-M‰C-n…c,
glass /glA:s/ | 1a‰`, 2a‰`-SÈ_, || 1He broke the glass window pane by accident. BÈc-§Tc-U-`‰Cc-R_-a‰`-n…-°‰]“-B‘E-TFCc, 2I
would like to have a glass of hot water. Ec-G”-WP-a‰`-SÈ_-CE-]M—E-P-]NÈN,
go /g@U/ | ]uÈ, || Don’t go there. N‰_-U-]uÈ,
go for a walk /wO:k/ | ]GU-]GU-`-]uÈ-T, || We like to go for a walk after lunch.
E-WÍ-DÿE-\c-l…-ä‰c-Pc-]GU-]GU-`-]uÈ-T_-NC],
go for supper /"sVp@/ | NCÈE-\c-\-T_-]uÈ-T, || Do you want to go for supper at that restaurant?
mÈN-_E-\-BE-N‰_-NCÈE-\c-\-T_-]uÈ-]NÈN-NU,
go home | m…U-Oÿ-`ÈC-R, || He didn’t want to go home right away. BÈ-_E-`U-cE-m…U-Oÿ-`ÈC-U-]NÈN,
go on | U—-UM—N, || She was so tired that she didn’t think she could go on working.
BÈ-UÈ-ME-GN-xCc-Rc-U—-UM—N-Oÿ-áE-ME-`-]uÈ-M—T-R_-U-TcUc,
go shopping /"SQpIN/ | IÈ-G-îC-R_-]uÈ-T, || I want to go shopping with my mother.
E-E]Ã-e-U-NE-UIU-Oÿ-IÈ-G-îC-Lfi-]uÈ-P-]NÈN,
go skating /"skeItIN/ | ]mCc-b÷N-ÇÈN-R, || We could go skating if the lake is frozen.
C`-K‰-UWÍ-`-N_-GCc-P-E-WÍ-]mCc-b÷N-ÇÈN-R_-]uÈ-GÈC
go to bed /bed/ | I`-T, || I told my sister to go to bed at eight o’clock. Ec-~…E-UÈ_-Oÿc-WÍN-TîN-GA-§‰E-I`-NCÈc-Z‰c-TaN,
go to class /klA:s/ | ÜÈT-t…N-`-[÷Cc-R, || We have to go to class now. E-WÍ-N-õ-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-ÜÈT-t…N-`-[÷Cc-NCÈc,
▪216▪

go to the classroom /"klA:sru:m; -rUm/ | ÜÈT-BE-Oÿ-]uÈ-T, || After lunch we go to the classroom.

DÿE-\c-l…-ä‰c-Pc-E-WÍ-ÜÈT-BE-Oÿ-]uÈ,
goal /g@Ul/ | NU…Cc-^“`, || If we work hard we will achieve our goals. C`-K‰-E-WÍc-]TN-R-qc-P-E-WÍ]Ã-NU…Cc-^“`-]u⁄T-E‰c-^…P,
god /gQd/ | ü, || He did not know the name of the god in his village’s temple.
BÈc-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-•‰-T]Ã-ü-BE-PE-C…-ü-N‰]Ã-U…E-UWP-U-a‰c,
gold /g@Uld/ | Cc‰_, || There is a lot of gold in Qinghai. UWÍ-¢ÈP-Oÿ-Cc‰_-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
good /gUd/ | T\E-TÈ, ^C-RÈ, || She did a good job on her school paper. BÈ-UÈc-_E-C…-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-˛ÈU-^…C-§‰E-Pc-q-T-^C-RÈ-Z…C-T±„Tc,
Good idea! /aI"dI@/ | MTc-UBc, MTc-^C-RÈ, || Good idea! Let’s go to the party now.
N‰-MTc-^C-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N, E-WÍ-N-õ-≥È-WÍCc-`-]uÈ,
goodbye /%gUd"baI/ | TN‰-UÈ-qÈc, || "Goodbye. See you tomorrow." "TN‰-UÈ-qÈc, cE-I…P-UH`-^ÈE-,"
goodness /"gUdn@s/ | 1T\E-TÈ, 2CPU-àP-U, || 1She is so kind and full of goodness.
BÈ-UÈ-P…-Ca…c-î‡N-T\E-`-CZP-c‰Uc-G‰, 2My goodness! That is a very big problem. CPU-àP-U, N‰-P…-CPN-NÈP-d-FE-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
goods /gUdz/ | WÍE-\ÈE-, || We had better return these goods to the shelves. E-WÍc-WÍE-\ÈE-]N…-WÍ-p…_-§‰Cc-T“-`-≥N-P-T\E-,
govern /"gVvn/ | NTE-¨„_-T, || It takes many people to govern a nation. î`-BT-F…C-NTE-¨„_-q‰N-R_-U…-UE-TÈ-NCÈc,
government /"gVv@nm@nt/ | ~…N-C[÷E-, || The Chinese government is a large organisation.
s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-~…N-C[÷E-P…-±…C-]X“Cc-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
grade /greId/ | 1ˇ_-uEc, _…U-R, 2`È-_…U, || 1What grade did you get on the test? mÈN-l…c-î‡Cc-l…-ˇ_-uEc-F…-VU-ÉEc, 2My
daughter is in Grade Two in primary school. E]Ã-T“-UÈ-P…-ÜÈT-G”E-C…-ÜÈT-_…U-CI…c-R-^…P,
grain /greIn/ | ]{⁄-_…Cc, || There are many piles of grain in the yard. _-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-]{⁄-_…Cc-l…-߇Ec-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
grant /grA:nt/ | 1GÈC-UGP, 2GÈC-UGP-]CÈN-R, || 1I got a grant that will allow me to do research on Tibetan folk
songs for one year. E-`-TÈN-l…-NUEc-tÈN-LJ-NqEc-`È-CF…C-`-Z…T-]H“C-q‰N-R]Ã-GÈC-UGP-MÈT, 2Perhaps he could grant three
wishes. BÈc-_‰-T-Cc“U-`-GÈC-UGP-]CÈN-lE-~…N,
grand /gr&nd/ | C`-G‰P, || The store opening was a grand event. ¶-UE-WÍE-BE-C…-°È-p‰c-R-P…-q-T-C`-G‰P-Z…C-_‰N,
granddaughter /"gr&ndO:t@/ | W-UÈ, || My mother loves her granddaughter very much.
E]Ãe-U-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-W-UÈ-`-d-FE-Z‰P,
grandfather /"gr&nfA:D@/ | ßÈ-TÈ, || My grandfather lives in our house. E]Ã-ßÈ-TÈ-E-WÍ]Ã-m…U-Oÿ-T•N-^ÈN,
grandma (grandmother, granny, gran) /"gr&nmA:/ | ßÈ-UÈ, || My grandma is eighty years old.
E]Ã-ßÈ-UÈ-`È-P-TîN-F“-^…P,
grandparents /"gr&npe@r@nts/ |ßÈ-TÈ-NE-ßÈ-UÈ, || Will your grandparents come to visit us?
mÈN-l…-ßÈ-TÈ-NE-ßÈ-UÈ-CI…c-E-WÍ_-Tõ-T_-]ÈE-î‡-_‰N-NU,
grandson /"gr&nsVn/ | W-TÈ, || He was an obedient grandson. BÈ-P…-W-TÈ-B-`‰P-UBP-Z…C-_‰N,
grass /grA:s/ | », || The horses are eating the grass. å-éUc-l…c-»-\-TZ…P-]OÿC
grassland /grA:sl@nd/ | »-ME-, || Mgolog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has much grassland.
UCÈ-`ÈC-Lfi-»-ME-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
grey (gray) /greI/ | ´-TÈ, || The sky has been grey all day. PU-UB]-I…P-CE-TÈ_-´-TÈ_-$%-,
▪217▪

great /greIt/ | NC], `‰Cc, || It’s great to see you again. m‰N-NE-^E-T´_-]zN-R-a…P-Lfi-`‰Cc,
Great idea! /greIt aI"dI@ / | MTc-UBc-_‰N, || Great idea! I wish I had thought of that.

N‰-MTc-UBc-_‰N, Ec-N‰-¢-UÈ-Pc-xP-qŸE-P-F…-U-_“E-,
green /gri:n/ | öE-B‘, || The trees turn green in the spring. No…N-@_-•ÈE-TÈ-éUc-öE-B‘_-`ÈC
grind /graInd/ | ]MC-R, || We use this machine to grind the flour. E-WÍc-]z⁄`-Gc-]N…-≠N-N‰-p‰-]MC-R-^…P,
ground /graUnd/ | 1ME-, 2TçflEc-U, || 1The apples all dropped on the ground. Aÿ-b÷-MUc-FN-ME-`-ü‚E-]OÿC 2I added
some ground spices to the soup. Ec-B‘-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-{È-©P-TçflEc-U-TKT,
group /gru:p/ | WÍCc, ˇÈ_, || The group of students went out to play. ÜÈT-U-ˇÈ_-N‰-p…-_“-˛‰-T_-cÈE-,
grow /gr@U/ | ]N‰Tc-R, || We grow many different kinds of vegetables. E-WÍc-WÍN-U-_…Cc-UE-TÈ-]N‰Tc,
guarantee /%g&r@n"ti:/ | BC-M‰C || This letter guarantees that the equipment will be replaced if it
breaks. ^È-Gc-N‰_-GC-´ÈP-qŸE-P-Tä‰-î‡-^…P-R-^…-C‰-]N…c-BC-M‰C-q‰N-]OÿC
guard /gA:d/ | 1~⁄E-NUC 2~⁄E-T, || 1The guard stood all night outside the building.
~⁄E-NUC-N‰-UWP-CE-TÈ_-BE-T]Ã-p…-_“-`Ec, 2Don’t be afraid because several policemen are guarding your apartment.
I‰P-åÈC-R-]Cc-mÈN-l…-aC-WE-~⁄E-TZ…P-^ÈN-Rc-∞C-U…-NCÈc,
guerrilla /g@"rIl@/ | 1E‰c-U‰N-àÈ`-çflE-_“-BC-C…-NUC-U…, 2E‰c-U‰N-àÈ`-çflE-|| 1She showed me a picture of a big black guerrilla
in the jungle. BÈ-UÈc-E-`-PCc-Cc‰T-Lfi-•ÈN-R]Ã-E‰c-U‰N-àÈ`-çflE-_“-BC-C…-NUC-U…-G‰-Z…E-PC-R-Z…C-C…-]x-R_-T§P, 2He was a guerrilla fighter
during the last war. ]MT-]XÀE-C…-ˇTc-c“-BÈ-P…-E‰c-U‰N-àÈ`-çflE-C…-]MT-UÈ-T-Z…C-^…P,
guess /ges/ | 1WÍN-NRC 2NRÈC-R, || 1Your guess is correct. mÈN-l…-WÍN-NRC-]u…C 2I can’t guess the answer to that
question. Ec-x…-T-N‰]Ã-`P-NRÈC-U…-M—T,
guide /gaId/ | 1¶‰-aP-R, 2t…N-R, || 1He wants to become a tour guide after he finishes school.
BÈ-ÜÈT-≈-Pc-UM_-p…P-ä‰c-^“`-ˇÈ_-¶‰-aP-R-Z…C-q‰N-]NÈN, 2My friend can guide you because he speaks three
languages. E]Ã-uÈCc-RÈc-ˇN-_…Cc-Cc“U-µ-Tc-BÈc-mÈN-t…N-M—T,
guilty /"gIlti/ | I‰c-R-^ÈN-R, || The court found that he was guilty of a crime. t…Uc-BE-C…c-BÈ-`-t…Uc-]C`-n…-I‰c-R-^ÈN-R-åÈCc,
gun /gVn/ | 1U‰-UN], 2U‰-UN]-]S‰P-R, || 1He doesn’t know how to clean a gun. BÈc-U‰-UN]-H…-õ_-CN-TN_-q‰N-R-U…-a‰c, 2The
criminal threatened to gun down his hostages unless his demands were met. I‰c-FP-n…c-BÈ]Ã-]NÈN-R-3-TˇEc-5KCKÈCc-BÈc-U…-CK]-`-U‰-UN]-îC-î‡-^…P-R]Ã-]H…Cc-ˇ‡`,

H
ha /hA:/ | d, || "Ha!" he laughed out loud. "d" Z‰c-BÈ-TCN-qŸE-,
hair /he@/ | ∞ || She has such long and thick hair. BÈ-UÈ_-∞-_…E-Z…E-UM—C-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
half /hA:f/ | p‰N-@ W`-T, || Please cut the bread in half. CÈ-_‰-N‰-p‰N-@_-CLfiT-NE-,
half an hour | Oÿc-WÍN-p‰N-@ || After half an hour I will go home. Oÿc-WÍN-p‰N-@]Ã-ä‰c-Pc-E-_E-^“`-Oÿ-]uÈ-î‡-^…P,
halt /hO:lt/ | •ÈN, || "Halt," said the policeman to the thief running away.
"•ÈN," I‰P-åÈC-Rc-]{È-TZ…P-R]Ã-áflP-U_-N‰-õ_-TaN,
hand /h&nd/ | 1_ÈCc-_U, 2`C-R, || 1If you can’t do it by yourself, please tell me and I’ll give you a hand.

C`-K‰-mÈN-_E-C…c-±„T-U…-M—T-P, E-`-aÈN-NE-Ec-mÈN-`-_ÈCc-q, 2The mother held the child’s hand as they crossed the street.
▪218▪

î-`U-Tà`-ˇTc-e-Uc-q…c-R]Ã-`C-R_-]H“c,
handbag /"h&ndb&g/ | `C-B‘C || She put her money in her handbag. BÈ-UÈc-°È_-UÈ-`C-B‘C-PE-Oÿ-TF“C
hang /h&N/ | ]C‰`-T, || We hang out the laundry when the sun is shining. I…-U-a_-T-P-E-WÍc-CÈP-R-Ts⁄c-R-éUc-I…-U_-ú‰,
happen /"h&p@n/ | ]qŸE-T, || We all stood around waiting for something to happen.
E-WÍ-WE-U-UM]-_“-`Ec-K‰-F…-]qŸE-`-°‡C-T•N,
happily /"h&pIli/ | NC]-T]ÃEE-, || The two sisters talked together happily. ~…E-UÈ-CI…c-l…c-NC]-T]Ã-EE-UIU-Oÿ-B-Tç-qc,
happy /"h&pi/ | NC]-T, || I was happy to see my father coming down the street.
Ec-_E-C…-e-S-î-~E-Pc-W”_-MÈP-R-UMÈE-Tc-NC],
happy birthday /"h&pi "b3:TdeI/ | ´‰c-ˇ_-`-Ts-a…c-TN‰-`‰Cc-[÷, || We all sang "Happy Birthday" at her birthday
party. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-n…-≥È-WÍCc-§‰E-Pc-E-WÍ-WE-Uc "´‰c-ˇ_-`-Ts-a…c-TN‰-`‰Cc-[÷-" Z‰c-R]Ã-LJ-NqEc-ÉEc,
Happy New Year! | `È-Cc_-T\E-, CPU-`È-Cc_-T_-Ts-a…c-TN‰-`‰Cc-[÷, || Everyone yelled, "Happy New Year!" when
the clock struck midnight. PU-DÿE-C…-FÈE-Tç-uCc-R-NE-U…-éUc-l…c- "`È-Cc_-T\E-" Z‰c-]“_-TîT,
harbour (harbor) /"hA:b@/ | u⁄-B, || There were many boats in the harbour. u⁄-B-_“-u⁄-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
hard /hA:d/ | 1]TN-R-G‰P-RÈ, 2~-UÈ, Ut‰Cc-R, || 1She worked very hard at her studies. BÈ-UÈc-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-`-]TN-R-G‰P-RÈ-qc, 2Rocks
are a hard material. {C-çÈ-P…-NEÈc-RÈ-~-UÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
hard-working | ]TN-T˛ÈP-FP, || They were all hard-working students. BÈ-WÍ-WE-U-ÜÈT-U-]TN-T˛ÈP-FP-]T]-Z…C-_‰N,
harm /hA:m/ | 1CPÈN-]WÂ, 2CPÈN-´‰`-T, || 1I’ll take care of you and make sure that you don’t come to harm.
Ec-mÈN-`-CF‰c-´ÈE-q-î‡-^…P-R-NE-mÈN-`-CPÈN-]WÂ-U…-]qŸE-T]E-BC-M‰C-q, 2He was careful not to harm the animals.
BÈc-~ÈC-GCc-`-CPÈN-U…-´‰`-T_-c‰Uc-G”E-qc,
harvest /"hA:vIst/ | 1`È-KÈC-C…-MÈP-]TT, 2§ÈP-•‡N-R, || 1The wheat harvest was bigger this year than last year.
N-`È]Ã-uÈ]Ã-MÈP-]TT-P-P…E-`c-G‰, 2All the villagers help to harvest the crops. •‰-U…-^ÈEc-l…c-§ÈP-•‡N-_ÈCc-q‰N,
has /h@z; | ^ÈN, || He has two children. BÈ-`-q…c-R-CI…c-^ÈN,
hat /h&t/ | æ-UÈ, || Don’t forget to wear your hat. mÈN-l…-æ-UÈ-nÈP-î‡-U-Tä‰N,
hate /heIt/ | 1Z‰-•E-, 2U…-]NÈN-R, •E-T, || 1"Hate" is the opposite of "love." "Z‰-•E-"P…-"T˛‰-c‰Uc"l…-úÈC-Ñ-^…P, 2I hate to see
that child cry. Ec-q…c-R-N‰-E“-T-UMÈE-P-U…-]NÈN,
have /h&v/ | ^ÈN, || Do you have any money? mÈN-`-°È_-UÈ-^ÈN-NU,
have a cup of tea | H-SÈ_-T-CE-]M—E-T, || Let’s go and have a cup of tea. E-WÍ-]uÈ-Pc-H-SÈ_-T-CE-]M—E-,
have a good time /gUd taIm/ | ´…N-RÈ-q‰N-R, ≥È-≥È-q‰N-R, || I think we will have a good time on our journey.
Ec-Tõc-P-E-WÍ]Ã-öÈEc-î‡-`-´…N-RÈ-^ÈE-î‡-_‰N,
have a look | õ-T, || We went to have a look at the mountains. E-WÍ-cÈE-Pc-_…-`-õ-ˇÈ_-qc-R-^…P,
have a rest | E`-CcÈ-q‰N-R, || They stopped for a while to have a rest. BÈ-WÍ-^“N-VU-`-T•N-N‰-E`-CcÈ-qc,
have a swim | G”-ì`-T, || It was so hot that they decided to have a swim. W-T-d-FE-G‰-Tc-BÈ-WÈc-G”-ì`-T_-]uÈ-î‡-MC-TFN,
have breakfast | ZÈCc-\c-\-T, || It’s important to have a good breakfast. ZÈCc-\c-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-\-î‡-P…-C`-G‰,
have lunch | DÿE-\c-\-T, || Where shall we have lunch? DÿE-\c-`-E-WÍc-F…-Z…C-T\]-]U,
have supper | NCÈE-\c-\-T, || I’d like to have supper soon. Ec-rŸ_-Oÿ-NCÈE-\c-2\:-T_-]NÈN,
▪219▪

have to | E‰c-R_-Oÿ, || Do we have to go home now? E-WÍ-N-õ-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-^“`-`-]uÈ-NCÈc-cU,
he /hi:/ | BÈ, || He didn’t want to go. BÈ-]uÈ-U-]NÈN,
he’d /hi:d/ | BÈc, || He’d always drink too much at parties. BÈc-≥È-WÍCc-§‰E-PU-^E-e-_C-TLfiE-xCc-]uÈ,
head /hed/ | UCÈ, || That horse has a big head. å-N‰_-UCÈ-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
headquarters /%hed"kwO:t@z/ | ≠…-mT-`c-B‘Ec, || That brick building is the police headquarters.

S-C…]Ã-cÈ-SC-C…-MÈC-BE-N‰-P…-≠…-TN‰]Ã-≠…-mT-`c-B‘Ec-^…P,
health /helT/ | TN‰-ME-, `“c-BUc, || Eating good food will improve your health. \-U-T\E-TÈ-\Èc-P-_E-C…-TN‰-ME-H‰-`‰Cc-c“-CKÈE-,
healthy /"helTi/ | TN‰-ME-FP, || Getting enough exercise makes a healthy body. ÆÈE-Tç_-]NE-E‰c-a…C-qc-P-`“c-RÈ-TN‰-ME-]ÈE-,
hear /hIђ/ | CÈ-T, MÈc-R, || Speak louder, I can’t hear you. ˇN-UCÈ-UMÈP-RÈc-aÈN-NE-Ec-mÈN-l…c-TaN-R-CÈ-U…-M—T,
heard /h3:d/ | CÈ-T, MÈc-R, || I never heard what happened to them. BÈ-WÍ_-F…-qŸE-T-Ec-CKP-Pc-CÈ-U-qŸE-,
heart /hA:t/ | £…E-, || He has some problem with his heart. BÈ]Ã-£…E-`-´ÈP-Z…C-]OÿC
heat /hi:t/ | W-T, || The heat in the summer feels good. Nq_-B]Ã-W-T-P…-TN‰-¶E-G‰,
heavy /"hevi/ | ö…N-R, || The load was too heavy for the donkey. B`-N‰-TÈE-T“-`-ö…N-xCc-cÈE-,
hell /hel/ | Nr`-T, || Some people believe hell is on earth. U…-`-`c-Nr`-T-c]Ã-CÈ-`]Ã-§‰E-P-^ÈN-R_-^…N-G‰c-q‰N,
helicopter /"helIkQpt@/ | n‰P-]S“_-CPU-u⁄, || You don’t see many helicopters in Ziling.
\…-`…E-Pc-mÈN-l…c-n‰P-]S“_-CPU-u⁄-UE-TÈ-UMÈE-U…-M—T,
hello /h@"l@U/ | e-_ÈCc, || Hello! How are you? e-_ÈCc, mÈN-TN‰-UÈ,
help /help/ | 1_ÈCc-_U, 2_ÈCc-_U-q‰N-R, || 1I appreciate your help. mÈN-l…-_ÈCc-_U-`-M—Cc-ä‰-G‰, 2We always like to help
our teacher after school. ÜÈT-t…N-l…-ä‰c-c“-E-WÍ-î‡P-R_-NC‰-àP-`-_ÈCc-_U-q‰N-R_-NC],
her /h3:/ | BÈ-UÈ]Ã, || She didn’t want to give her sister the book. BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-~…E-UÈ_-NR‰-G-N‰-§‰_-U-]NÈN,
here /hI@/ | ]N…, || You are welcome here. mÈN-WÍ-]N…_-]ÈE-T_-NC]-Tc“-[÷,
hero /"hI@r@U/ | NR]-TÈ, || Many boys want to become heroes. T“-UE-TÈ?-NR]-TÈ-q‰N-]NÈN,
hers /h3:z/ | BÈ-UÈ]Ã, || She didn’t know if the book was hers or her brother’s.
BÈ-UÈc-NR‰-G-N‰-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-^…P-PU-UÈ]Ã-Q÷-TÈ]Ã-^…P-R-U-a‰c,
herself /h3:"self/ | UÈ-_E-I…N, || She wanted to bake the bread all by herself. BÈ-UÈ_-UÈ-_E-I…N-l…c-CÈ-_‰-T~‰C-]NÈN-´‰c,
hey /heI/ | d‰, || Hey! What are you doing over there? d‰, mÈN-l…c-N‰-P-F…-Z…C-q‰N-TZ…P-^ÈN-NU,
hi /haI/ | e-_ÈCc, || Hi! Nice to see you. e-_ÈCc, mÈN-NE-]zN-R_-NC]-TÈ-qŸE-,
hide /haId/ | CT-R, ˇ‡E-, || The child liked to hide behind the trees. q…c-R-N‰-•ÈE-TÈ]Ã-îT-Lfi-ˇ‡E-T_-NC],
high | UMÈ-T, || That mountain is very high. _…-TÈ-N‰-d-FE-UMÈ,
highland barley /"haIl@nd "bA:li/ | Pc, || Highland barley is a common crop in this area.
Pc-P…-c-G-]N…]Ã-î‡P-]qUc-l…-]{⁄-_…Cc-a…C-_‰N,
hijack /"haIdZ&k/ | 1TVP-t…N, 2TVP-n…c-t…N-R, || 1The airplane hijack attempt occurred when the plane was over
the Atlantic Ocean. CPU-u⁄-Q÷T-l…-î-UWÍ-G‰P-RÈ-Tà`-Oÿc-TVP-t…N-q‰N-˛…c-qc, 2The thieves hijacked the bus.
HC-áflP-n…c-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-N‰-TVP-n…c-:HJ<,
hill /hIl/ | N‰]—-]T“_, || That is only a small hill over there. S-C]ÃÃ-N‰-P…-N‰]“-]T“_-G”E-G”E-Z…C-_‰N,
▪220▪

him /hIm/ | BÈ, || Did you give the letter to him? mÈN-l…c-^…-C‰-N‰-BÈ-`-e‰-q…P,
himself /hIm"self/ | BÈ-_E-I…N, BÈ-CF…C-R“, || He went to the festival by himself. BÈ-CF…C-R“_-Oÿc-G‰P-`-cÈE-,
his /hIz/ | BÈ]Ã, || His hat was made out of fox skin. BÈ]Ã-æ-UÈ-P…-Y-RCc-`c-T\Èc-R-_‰N,
history /"hIstri/ | `È-î‡c, || She didn’t know the history of her village. BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-•‰-T]Ã-`È-î‡c-U-a‰c,
hit /hIt/ | TçflE-T, || I told him not to hit his brother. Ec-BÈ_-_E-C…-Q÷-TÈ-`-U-TçflE-Z‰c-TaN,
hmm | ]“P, || Hmm, I wonder how much this costs? ]“P, ]N…]Ã-_…P-CÈE-C-WÍN-^…P,
hold /hђUld/ | T\“E-T, ]XÀP-R, || Would you like to hold the baby for a while? mÈN-l…c-q…c-R-^“N-VU-`-T\“E-P-e‰-]NÈN,
hole /hђUl/ | B—E-T“, || The fox jumped into the hole. Y-UÈ-N‰-B‘E-T“]…-PE-Oÿ-UGÈEc,
holiday /"hQl@deI/ | CPE-T, || During the winter we have a holiday from school. NDÿP-B_-ÜÈT-≈c-E-WÍ_-CPE-T-Z…C-§‰_,
holy | q…P-ÖTc-FP, || We often go to visit the holy mountain. E-WÍ-Oÿc-î‡P-_…-TÈ-q…P-ÖTc-FP-N‰_-UH`-T_-]uÈ-C…-^ÈN,
home /hђUm/ | m…U, || Do you think your brother is at home? mÈN-l…c-mÈN-l…-S“-TÈ-m…U-Oÿ-^ÈN-R_-c‰Uc-cU,
hometown /h@UmtaUn/ | S-^“`, || She always likes to go visit her hometown.

BÈ-UÈ-Oÿc-î‡P-_E-C…-S-^“`-`-õ-ˇÈ_-Oÿ-]uÈ-T_-NC],
homework /"h@Umw3:k/ | `c-q, m…U-ÆÈE-, || The good students do their homework. ÜÈT-U-T\E-TÈc-BÈ-WÍ]…-`c-q-]{…,
honest | Ca…c-xE-, C[÷E-xE-, || She was an honest girl. BÈ-UÈ-P…-T“-UÈ-C[÷E-xE-Z…C-_‰N,
honour (honor) /"Qn@/ | T˛…-]HÈC || They wanted to honour their grandparents’ wishes.
BÈ-WÍc-ßÈ-TÈ-NE-ßÈ-UÈ-CI…c-l…-_‰-]OÿP-`-T˛…-]HÈC-q‰N-]NÈN,
hope /hђUp/ | 1_‰-T, 2_‰-T-]XÀP-R, || 1His biggest hope is that he will be able to graduate from college and then
get a good job. BÈ]Ã-_‰-T-G‰c-G‰P-RÈ-P…-BÈ-ÜÈT-≈-G‰P-UÈ-Pc-UM_-p…P-F…E-N‰-Pc-q-T-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-ã‰N-M—T-î‡N‰-^…P, 2We hope they don’t get caught in the rain. E-WÍc-BÈ-WÍ-G_-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-U…-`“c-R]Ã-_‰-T-]XÀP,
horrible /"hQr@bl/ | WTc-G‰-T, ^-E-T, || There was a horrible accident on the road. î-`U-§‰E-Oÿ-NÈP-ì‰P-^-E-T-Z…C-qŸE-]OÿC
horse /hO:s/ | å, || I like to ride my horse. E-_E-C…-å-`-ZÈP-P-]NÈN,
hospital /"hQspItl/ | ©P-BE-, || We had to take him to the hospital when he was sick.
BÈ-P-Oÿc-E-WÍc-BÈ-©P-BE-Oÿ-U…-´‰`-@-U‰N-qŸE-,
hostile /"hQstaIl/ | Z‰-•E-FP, Z‰-•E-]XÀP-R]Ã, || The people were hostile to the strangers. UE-WÍCc-l…c-U…-î‡c-U‰N-`-Z‰-•E-]XÀP,
hostilities | Nu_-]XÀP-n…-TcU-R, || Before a war there are usually some smaller hostilities among people.
NUC-]t‹C-U-qŸE-T]Ã-¢ÈP-Oÿ-U…-NUEc-l…-T_-P-Oÿc-î‡P-Nu_-]XÀP-n…-TcU-R-zP-VU-^ÈN,
hot /hQt/ | W-UÈ, || The soup is too hot to eat. B‘-T-d-FE-W-UÈ-^…P-Rc-]M—E-N@],
hotel /hђU"tel/ | UuÈP-BE-, || They just finished building a new hotel in town.
BÈ-WÍc-uÈE-Tç`-Oÿ-UuÈP-BE-Z…C-T˛…Cc-Pc-]u⁄T-U-MC-^…P,
hour /"aU@/ | Oÿc-WÍN, || I will be back in one hour. E-_E-Oÿc-WÍN-CF…C-C…-PE-Oÿ-p…_-`ÈC-E‰c-^…P,
house /haUs/ | BE-T, || Would you like to come to our house for dinner? mÈN-_E-E-WÍ]Ã-m…U-Oÿ-NCÈE-\c-\-T_-]ÈE-]NÈN-NU,
housework /"haUsw3:k/ | m…U-`c, || My sister doesn’t do much housework. E]Ã-~…E-UÈc-m…U-`c-UE-TÈ-U…-`c,
how /haU/ | 1F…-]x, 2H…-õ_, || 1How long will it take to get there? CPc-N‰_-]qÈ_-T_-Oÿc-WÍN-F…-]x-Z…C-NCÈc, 2I don’t know
how you did it but I’m glad you did. mÈN-l…c-NÈP-N‰-H…-õ_-`c-R-Ec-U…-a‰c-UÈN, ]ÈP-lE-mÈN-l…c-NÈP-T±„Tc-\…P-R-`-E-NC]-≥È-´‰c,
▪221▪

How are you? | mÈN-TN‰-UÈ, || How are you? I’m fine and you? mÈN-TN‰-UÈ, E-TN‰-UÈ-^…P, mÈN-TN‰-UÈ-^…P-PU,
how many | Oÿ, || How many brothers do you have? mÈN-`-߇P-Oÿ-^ÈN,
how much | Oÿ, || How much money do you have? mÈN-`-°È_-UÈ-Oÿ-^ÈN,
how often | Oÿc-î‡P-Oÿ, î‡P-Oÿ-M‰Ec-Oÿ-U, || How often do you go to the market? mÈN-Oÿc-î‡P-Oÿ-tÈU-__-]uÈ-]U,
How old are you? | mÈN-_E-`È-Oÿ-^…P, || How old are you? I’m ten years old. mÈN-_E-`È-Oÿ-^…P, E-_E-`È-TF“-^…P,
however /haU"ev@/ | ]ÈP-lE-, CE-õ_-lE-, || I don’t know if it’s possible, however, you can try.

Ec-N‰-NR‰-U…-NR‰-U…-a‰c-UÈN, ]ÈP-lE-mÈN-l…c-WÍN-õ-q‰N-GÈC
huge /hju:dZ/ | G‰P-RÈ, || I saw a huge animal on the mountain. Ec-_…-§‰E-Pc-~ÈC-GCc-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-UMÈE-,
human /"hju:m@n/ | U…]Ã-_…Cc, || The people said the strange creature didn’t look human.
U…-éUc-l…c-~ÈC-GCc-G-U‰N-N‰-U…]Ã-_…Cc-NE-U…-UW”Ec-\‰_,
humour (humor) /"hju:m@/ | TC-{È-T, || He has an excellent sense of humour. BÈ-`-TC-{È-T]Ã-Ca…c-î‡N-mN-UW_-Z…C-^ÈN,
hundred /"hVndr@d/ | Tî, || We learned how to count to a hundred in English class.
E-WÍc-Nq…P-^…C-C…-ÜÈT-t…N-tÈN-eE-C…-Tî-T_-T˛…-î‡-ÆEc,
hunger /"hVNg@/ | õÈCc, U—-C‰ || No one should die from hunger. U…-éUc-U—-C‰c-a…-U…-_“E-,
hungry /"hVNgri/ | õÈCc-R, || The child was crying because she was hungry. T“-UÈ-N‰-õÈCc-Pc-E“-TZ…P-^ÈN,
hunt /hVnt/ | 1âÈP-R, 2_…-ªCc-âÈP-R, || 1During the hunt one hunter accidentally shot another hunter.
_…-ªCc-âÈP-ˇTc, âÈP-R-Z…C-C…c-§Tc-U-]u…C-R_-âÈP-R-CZP-Z…C-TcN, 2The older boys left to hunt wild animals.
q…c-R-G‰-T-éUc-_…-ªCc-âÈP-R_-cÈE-,
hurry /"hVri/ | 1]W”T-G, 2rŸ_-UÈ_-]uÈ-T, || 1I’m not in a hurry so take your time. ]W”T-G-U-`Ec-R_-_E-¶E-n…c, 2We had to
hurry or be late for school. E-WÍ-rŸ_-UÈ_-]uÈ-NCÈc-qŸE-, N‰-U…P-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-ä‰c-c“-`“c-]uÈ,
hurt /h3:t/ | 1c‰Uc-•‡C 2êc-R, êc-´ÈP-SÈC-R, || 1It has taken me a long time to get over the hurt you caused me.
mÈN-l…c-E-`-c‰Uc-•‡C-Tˇ‡`-T-`c-M_-T_-Oÿc-^“P-_…E-TÈ-Z…C-]CÈ_, 2Be careful. Don’t hurt yourself using that hammer.
C\T-C\T-n…c, §-_‰c-_E-I…N-êc-c“-U-]H“C
husband /"hVzb@nd/ | mÈ-C || She was happy to find a nice husband. BÈ-UÈ-mÈ-C-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-ã‰N-Pc-NC],

I
I /aI/ | E-, || I don’t know when I will be home again. Ec-E-p…_-m…U-Oÿ-PU-]ÈE-U…-a‰c,
ice /aIs/ | GT-_ÈU, N_, || Do you think the water has turned to ice yet? mÈN-l…c-G”-N‰-N_-`-]GCc-^ÈN-e‰-]NÈN,
idea /aI"dI@/ | MTc, || It would be a good idea if you wore warm clothes. mÈN-l…c-CÈP-R-xÈP-RÈ-nÈP-P-MTc-`‰Cc-RÈ-Z…C-^…P,
if /If/ | C`-K‰, || If she knew him she would tell me. C`-K‰-BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-a‰c-P, BÈ-UÈc-E-`-TaN-E‰c-^…P,
ill /Il/ | P-T, P-W, || My grandmother was very ill last year. P-P…E-E]Ã-ßÈ-UÈ-d-FE-P-qŸE-,
illegal /I"li:gl/ | t…Uc-]C`, || He didn’t want to do anything illegal. BÈc-t…Uc-]C`-n…-q-T-F…-^E-T±„T-U-]NÈN,
imagine /I"m&dZIn/ | TcU-WÍN-q‰N-R, NRÈC-R, ^…N-WÍN-q‰N-R, || Can you imagine what a bird sees?

]NT-GCc-l…c-F…-Z…C-UMÈE-T-mÈN-l…c-^…N-WÍN-q‰N-M—T-TU,
immediate /I"mi:di@t/ | `U-cE-, || Mother said to come home immediately. e-Uc-`U-cE-m…U-Oÿ-aÈC-\‰_,
import /"ImpO:t/ | PE-]x‰P, || Our country needs to import certain goods.
▪222▪

E-WÍ]Ã-î`-BT-l…c-WÍE-\ÈC-E‰c-FP-Z…C-PE-]x‰P-q‰N-NCÈc,
important /Im"pO:tnt/ | C`-G‰P, C`-G‰, || It is very important to go to school. ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-î‡-P…-d-FE-C`-G‰,
improve /Im"pru:v/ | CÈE-]S‰`, H‰-`‰Cc-c“-CKÈE-T, || They bought the machines to improve farming methods.
BÈ-WÍc-cÈ-PU-q‰N-MTc-H‰-`‰Cc-c“-CKÈE-T_-]z⁄`-Gc-Cc_-T-Z…C-IÈc,
in /In/ | PE-, || In two years I will finish school. `È-CI…c-l…-PE-Oÿ-E-_E-ÜÈT-UM_-p…P-î‡-^…P,
in bed | I`-c]Ã-PE-, || She was so sick that she stayed in bed all day. BÈ-UÈ-`-P-W-ö…N-UÈ-SÈC-^ÈN-Rc-I…P-CE-TÈ_-I`-c]Ã-PE-Pc-T•N,
in Chinese | î-^…C-C…c, || That book is written in Chinese. NR‰-G-N‰-î-^…C-C…c-T˛Uc,
in English | Nq…P-^…C-C…c, || Do you know how to write a letter in English? mÈN-l…c-Nq…P-^…C-C…c-]z…P-^…C-]{…-a‰c-cU,
in front of | UOÿP-Oÿ, || I waited for him in front of the school. E-_E-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-UOÿP-Oÿ-BÈ-`-T°‡Cc-R-^…P,
in line | u`-Oÿ, || We had to stand in line at the cinema. E-WÍ-ÑÈc-C_-BE-Oÿ-]uÈ-T_-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-u`-±…C-NCÈc-qŸE-,
in luck | §Tc-]u…C-R, || I think we are in luck. Here comes the bus. Ec-E-WÍ-§Tc-]u…C-cÈE-c‰Uc, ]N…-_“-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-MÈP-qŸE-,
in the classroom | ÜÈT-BE-PE-Oÿ, || The teacher is usually in the classroom. NC‰-àP-PU-î‡P-Oÿ-ÜÈT-BE-PE-Oÿ-^ÈN,
in the desk | UOÿP-FÈC-C…-PE-Oÿ, || She likes to keep her pencils in the desk. BÈ-UÈ-_E-C…-Z-Ø„C-éUc-UOÿP-FÈC-C…-PE-Oÿ-]HÈC-R_-NC],
in the end | UH“C-UM_, || In the end he agreed it was a good idea. UH“C-UM_-N‰-P…-MTc-H“c-`‰Cc-RÈ-Z…C-^…P-R_-BÈ-]MN-R-qŸE-,
in the kitchen | C^Èc-BE-PE-, || It is very warm in the kitchen. C^Èc-BE-PE-d-FE-xÈ,
in the toilet | ≠ÈN-BE-, || He’s in the toilet now. N-õ-BÈ-≠ÈN-BE-PE-Oÿ-^ÈN,
in Tibetan | TÈN-ˇN-l…c, || We can all say that in Tibetan. E-WÍ-WE-Uc-N‰-TÈN-ˇN-l…c-TaN-a‰c,
in trouble | ãÈC-x, || I hope they don’t get in trouble for being late again.
BÈ-WÍ-^E-T´_-܉Tc-]p…-Pc-•‡C-U…-rÈE-T_-Ec-_‰-T-q‰N,
incident /"InsIdђnt/ | NÈP-ì‰P, || The newspaper reported the incident in great detail.
WCc-R_-§‰E-NÈP-ì‰P-N‰-îc-R_-T@ÈN-]OÿC
incite /In"saIt/ | ÜÈE-T, Ns⁄C-a…E-]S‰P-R, || It was said that those boys incited a riot. TaN-R-õ_-P-q…c-R-N‰-WÍc-\…E-G-Z…C-TÜEc,
include /In"klu:d/ | ]Oÿc-R, || She wanted to be included in planning the party.
BÈ-UÈ-≥È-WÍCc-]G_-]CÈN-q‰N-R]Ã-tÈN-Oÿ-[÷Cc-P-]NÈN,
increase /In"kri:s/ | 1]S_-T, 2H‰-UMÈ_-CKÈE-T, || 1I’m worried about my recent weight increase.
NÈ-ZC-E]Ã-ö…N-WN-]S_-T-`-Ec-c‰Uc-B‘_-q‰N, 2They might have to increase the price of meat soon.
BÈ-WÍc-U…-]nE?-T_-a-CÈE-H‰-UMÈ_-CKÈE-NCÈc-G%-~…N,
independent /%IndI"pend@nt/ | _E-UCÈ-MÈP-R, _E-TVP-FP, || She is an independent woman.
BÈ-UÈ-P…-_E-UCÈ-MÈP-R]Ã-T“N-U‰N-F…C-^…P,
industry /"Ind@stri/ | T\È-`c, || The tobacco industry makes money from selling cigarettes.
M-UC-T\È-`c-l…c-M-UC-TVÍEc-K‰-B‰-T\E-\,
inflation /In"fleISn/ | NE“`-`È_-]u‰U-M`-aÈ_-T, || Inflation can lower the value of money.
NE“`-`È_-]u‰U-M`-aÈ_-P-NE“`-`È]Ã-]X]-ME-U_-ü‚E-E‰c,
influence /"Influ@ns/ | b÷Cc-ì‰P, || The leaders have a great influence over the country.
]CÈ-t…N-éUc-l…c-î`-BT-`-b÷Cc-ì‰P-G‰P-RÈ-™È`,
▪223▪

inform /In"fO:m/ | T±Cc-R, Tç-TKE-T, || The radio programme didn’t inform the people about the storm in
time. îE-T±Cc-`‰-WP-PE-Oÿ-U…-éUc-`-xC-G_-n…-Tç-Oÿc-MÈC-Lfi-U-TKE-,
injure /"IndZ@/ | êc-R, || I injured my foot when I fell the other day. E-I…P-Z…C-ME-`-]n‰`-K‰-_E-C…-áE-T-êc,
innocent /"In@snt/ | Z‰-¶E-NC-R,È || She looks so innocent in that pretty dress. BÈ-UÈc-CÈP-R-^C-RÈ-N‰-nÈP-P-Z‰-¶E-NC-RÈ-]OÿC
insane /In"seIn/ | ØÈc-R, || That man screaming over there is insane. S-C…_-]“_-îC-TZ…P-R]Ã-U…-N‰-ØÈc-]OÿC
insect /"Insekt/ | ~…P-]T“, || I thought I saw an insect under the bed. Ec-U`-tÃ]Ã-]ÈC-Lfi-~…P-]T“-Z…C-^ÈN-R-UMÈE-qŸE-,
inside /In"saId/ | PE-Oÿ, || They wanted to keep the puppy inside the house. BÈ-WÍc-m…-z⁄C-N‰-BE-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-]HÈC-P-]NÈN,
inspect /In"spekt/ | Z…T-Ta‰_, || The police came to inspect the building. I‰P-åÈC-R-éUc-BE-T-N‰_-Z…T-Ta‰_-q‰N-R_-]ÈEc,
instead /In"sted/ | `c, || Instead of meat he wanted to eat vegetables. BÈc-a-`c-}R-WÍN-\-T_-]NÈN,
instrument /"Instr@m@nt/ | _È`-Gc, || Do you know how to play a musical instrument?

mÈN-l…c-_È`-Gc-a…C-NsÈ`-a‰c-cU,
insult /In"sVlt/ | 1NU]-]T‰Tc, 2NU]-]T‰Tc-q‰N-R, || 1His insult made me angry. BÈ]…-NU]-]T‰Tc-l…c-E-BÈE-tÈ-`Ec-c“-TF“C 2He
didn’t want to insult anyone. BÈc-c“-`]E-NU]-]T‰Tc-q‰N-U-]NÈN,
intelligent /In"telIdZ@nt/ | UXEc-R, _…C-R-éÈ-T, || The scholar is very intelligent. UBc-R-N‰-_…C-R-d-FE-éÈ-T-Z…C-^…P,
intense /In"tens/ | xC-RÈ, || The heat in the summertime is intense. Nq_-Oÿc-l…-W-T-P…-xC-RÈ-^…P,
interest /"Intr@st/ | 1´‰N-@ 2≥È-¶E-, || 1What percent interest does the bank pay on one-year deposits?
NE“`-BE-N‰c-`È-CF…C-^“P-n…-NE“`-CcÈC-`-´‰N-@-Tî-G]Ã-Oÿ-§‰_, 2Do you have any interest in studying English?
mÈN-`-Nq…P-^…C-ÆE-T]Ã-≥È-¶E-^ÈN-NU,
interesting /"Intr@stIN; -trest-/ | ≥È-¶E-úP-R, || I find travelling to other places is interesting.
Ec-CPc-CZP-Oÿ-öÈEc-î‡-q‰N-R-P…-≥È-¶E-úP-R-Z…C-^…P-R-a‰c,
interfere /%Int@"fI@/ | M‰-CKÈCc, T_-GN-CKÈE-T, || His mother wanted to interfere in their neighbour’s business.
BÈ]Ã-e-Uc-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-m…U-UWÂc-l…-NÈP-NC-`-M‰-CKÈCc-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
international /%Int@"n&Sn@l/ | î`-≠…]Ã, || They waited at the airport for the international flight to arrive.
BÈ-WÍ-CPU-u⁄-]TT-ME-Oÿ-î`-≠…]Ã-CPU-u⁄-]qÈ_-T_-T°‡Cc,
intervene /%Int@"vi:n/ | T_-]OÿU, || The teacher had to intervene in the fight between two boys.
NC‰-àP-n…c-q…c-R-N‰-CI…c-l…-]XÀE-_‰c-`-T_-]OÿU-q‰N-NCÈc-qŸE-,
into /"Int@; before vowels "Int@; "Intu:/ | PE-Oÿ, || It was difficult getting into the sleeping bag.
I`-B‘C-Lfi-]X“`-î‡-P…-N@]-UÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
invade /In"veId/ | TVP-]X“`-q‰N-R, || The enemy was going to invade in the morning. Nu-TÈc-¢-xÈ_-TVP-]X—`-q‰N-˛…c-qc,
invent /In"vent/ | Cc_-CKÈN-q‰N-R, || China invented paper. s⁄E-CÈc-aÈC-T“-Cc_-CKÈN-qc,
invest /In"vest/ | U-NE“`-CKÈE-T, || If you put your money in the bank they will invest it for you.
C`-K‰-mÈN-l…c-mÈN-l…-°È_-UÈ-NE“`-BE-Oÿ-TFÈ`-P, BÈ-WÍc-mÈN-l…-WT-qc-Pc-U-NE“`-CKÈE-î‡-_‰N,
investigate /In"vestIgeIt/ | Z…T-Ta‰_-q‰N-R,, || The police needed to investigate the crime.
I‰P-åÈC-Rc-I‰c-FP-N‰_-Z…T-Ta‰_-q‰N-NCÈc-qŸE-,
invite /In"vaIt/ | CNP-[÷-q‰N-R, || I will invite her to my home for dinner. Ec-BÈ-UÈ-E]Ã-m…U-Oÿ-\-U-\-T_-CNP-[÷-q‰N-î‡-^…P,
▪224▪

involve /In"vaIt/ | [÷Cc-R, M‰-T, || It’s better not to involve too many people in the problem.

CPN-NÈP-]N…]Ã-PE-Oÿ-U…-[÷Cc-UBP-UE-xCc-P-T\E-î‡-U‰N,
iron /"aI@n/ | ôCc, || The hammer is made out of iron. MÈ-T-N‰-P…-ôCc-`c-T\Èc,
is bad for | CPÈN-G‰, || Smoking is bad for you. M-UC-]M‰P-P-mÈN-`-CPÈN-G‰,
is different from | mN-R_-úP-R, || Frying food is different from baking. ¶‡U-\c-NE-\-U-T~‰Cc-U-CI…c-`-mN-R_-^ÈN,
is good at | `-T\E-T, || He is good at English. BÈ-Nq…P-^…C-`-T\E-,
is good for | `-SP-R, || Exercise is good for you. ÆÈE-Tç_-P…-_E-C…-`“c-S“E-`-SP,
is out | 1UH“C-íÈCc-R, 2W_-T, || 1School is out for the summer after one month. ÜÈT-≈-Ñ-T-CF…C-C…-ä‰c-c“-UH“C-íÈCc-]uÈ, 2The
shop is out of salt. WÍE-BE-N‰c-NEÈc-RÈ-TVÍEc-W_,
island /"aIl@nd/ | Ç…E-zP, || Have you ever been on a desert island? mÈN-_E-q‰-U]Ã-Ç…E-zP-Z…C-Lfi-cÈE-rÈE-EU,
inside | PE-Oÿ, || Shall we go inside the house? E-WÍ-BE-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-]uÈ-î‡-^…P-PU,
issue /"ISu:; "Isju:/ | 1CPc-W”`, q-T, 2NR_, || 1The newspaper reports on many issues.
WCc-R_-§‰E-CPc-W”`-UE-TÈ-T@ÈN-]OÿC 2When will the publishing house issue their next book?
R_-∞„P-BE-C…c-NR‰-G-C[÷C-U-PU-WÍN-NR_-î‡-_‰N,
It doesn’t matter. | ´ÈP-U‰N-R, || It doesn’t matter how long you stay. mÈN-_E-^“P-F…-VU-T•N-lE-´ÈP-U‰N,
it’s | N‰-P…, N-P…, || It’s your turn to do the dishes. (N-P…)-•‰_-U-]t‹N-_‰c-mÈN-^…P,
jail /dZeIl/ | 1TVÍP-BE-, 2TVÍP-BE-Oÿ-]H“C-R, || 1The mother was sad to hear that her son was going to jail.
T“-TVÍP-BE-Oÿ-]uÈ-NCÈc-R-MÈc-Rc-e-U]Ã-c‰Uc-d-FE-´È, 2The police will jail you if you commit a crime.
C`-K‰-mÈN-l…c-PC-I‰c-TcCc-P-I‰P-åÈC-BE-C…c-mÈN-TVÍP-BE-Oÿ-]H“C-î‡-_‰N,

J
January /"dZ&nju@ri/ | ≠…-Ñ-NE-TÈ, || January is a cold month in this area. c-]N…-_“-≠…-Ñ-NE-TÈ-P…-Ñ-T-uE-UÈ-Z…C-^…P,
Japanese | ]H_-RP-ˇN, || Are you learning how to speak Japanese? mÈN-l…c-]H_-RP-ˇN-ÆÈE-TZ…P-^ÈN-NU,
jewel /"dZu:@l/ | _…P-RÈ-G‰, || She kept a precious jewel in a box. BÈ-UÈc-_…P-RÈ-G‰-˛-G‰P-Z…C-°U-G”E-Z…C-C…-PE-`-I_,
job /dZQb/ | q-T, || He hopes to get a good job after school. BÈc-ÜÈT-UM_-p…P-ä‰c-q-T-`‰Cc-RÈ-Z…C-ã‰N-R_-_‰-°‡C-q‰N,
join /dZOIn/ | [÷Cc-R, || She will join the army someday. BÈ-UÈ-PU-Z…C-NUC-`-[÷Cc-î‡-_‰N,
joint /dZOInt/ | 1UM—N-UWUc, 2UIU-]{‰`-n…, || 1The joint in the water pipe is broken. G”-®‡C-C…-UM—N-UWUc-N‰-Cc-\…P, 2Our
joint effort resulted in success. E-WÍ]Ã-UIU-]{‰`-`c-˛È`-T-`-î`-B-MÈT,
joke /dZ@Uk/ | Aÿ-_‰, || He always likes to tell a good joke. BÈ-î‡P-R_-Aÿ-_‰-˛‰-î‡_-NC],
judge /dZVdZ/ | 1TåC-UBP, Z`-ô‰-T, 2Tç_-a-CFÈN-R, || 1The teacher is a very good judge of character.

NC‰-àP-N‰-P…-Ca…c-@-TåC-UBP-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^…P, 2Don’t judge people until you know them well.
mÈN-l…c-U…-`-G-î‡c-T\E-TÈ-`ÈP-_‰C-T_-Oÿ-Tç_-a-U-CFÈN,
July /dZu"laI/ | ≠…-Ñ-TOÿP-R, || July is a month during the summer. ≠…-Ñ-TOÿP-R-P…-Nq_-B]Ã-Ñ-T-Z…C-^…P,
jump /dZVmp/ | UGÈE-T, ||The children like to jump into the river. q…c-R-éUc-G”]Ã-PE-UGÈE-î‡_-NC],
June /dZu:n/ | ≠…-Ñ-x⁄C-R, || June is a lovely month for looking at flowers. ≠…-Ñ-x⁄C-R-P…-U‰-KÈC-`-C\…Cc-R]Ã-Ñ-T-´…N-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
jungle /"dZVNgl/ | PCc-íÈT, || There is no jungle in Qinghai. UWÍ-¢ÈP-Oÿ-PCc-íÈT-U‰N,
▪225▪

jury /"dZU@ri/ | ]x…-CFÈN-`c-_ÈCc-WÍCc-R, || The jury decided that the man was guilty.

]x…-CFÈN-`c-_ÈCc-WÍCc-Rc-U…-N‰_-I‰c-R-^ÈN-R_-MC-CFÈN-qc,
just /dZVst/ | KC-KC CVÀCc-DVÀCc, || The bus arrived just in time. ≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-Oÿc-WÍN-CVÀCc-CVÀCc-c“-]qÈ_,

K
keep /ki:p/ |

1

2

•ÈN-R, I_-CcÈC-q‰N-R, ||

1

Keep quiet! Mother is sleeping. B-_ÈC-C‰_-•ÈN, e-U-I`-^ÈN, 2How much of the

money do you want to keep for yourself? mÈN-l…c-_E-`-°È_-UÈ-Oÿ-I_-CcÈC-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
keep busy | {‰`-T]Ã-EE-•ÈN-R, || My father always likes to keep busy. E]Ã-e-S-PU-^E-{‰`-T]Ã-EE-•ÈN-î‡_-NC],
keep healthy | `“c-RÈ-TN‰-T_-•ÈN-R, || You must eat good food if you want to keep healthy.

C`-K‰-mÈN-l…c-`“c-RÈ-TN‰-T_-•ÈN-TcU-P-\-U-T\E-TÈ-T\]-NCÈc,
kick /kIk/ | ]z-^…c-îC-R, çÈC-îC-C[÷-T, ||The horse kicked me in the leg. å-N‰c-E]Ã-TÖ-MÈC-`-]z-^…c-TîT,
kidnap /"kIdn&p/ | TVP-t…N, T܇-t…N-q‰N-R, || It is illegal to kidnap anyone. U…-T܇-t…N-q‰N-R-P…-t…Uc-]C`-^…P,
kill /kIl/ | CcÈN-R, Ta]-T, || They kill chickens and sheep for the market. BÈ-WÍc-q-NE-`“C-Tac-K‰-WÍE-__-CKÈE-,
kilo (kilogram) /"ki:l@U/ /"kIl@gr&m/ | ≠…-î, || I’ll buy a kilo of oranges. Ec-W-`“-U-≠…-î-CF…C-IÈ-î‡-^…P,
kilometre (kilometer) /"kIl@mi:t@; kI"lQmIt@/ | ≠…-`‰, || We walked one kilometre to his home.
E-WÍ-BÈ-WE-`-≠…-`‰-CF…C-C…-`U-`-cÈE-,
kind /kaInd/ | 1T˛‰-c‰Uc-FP, 2_…Cc, || 1My teacher is kind. E]Ã-NC‰-àP-P…-T˛‰-c‰Uc-FP-Z…C-^…P, 2What kind of husband do
you want? mÈN-l…c-mÈ-C-_…Cc-CE-Z…C-]NÈN,
kinds of crops | ]{⁄-_…Cc-¶-WÍCc, || I grow all kinds of crops. Ec-]{⁄-_…Cc-¶-WÍCc-]N‰Tc,
kiss /kIs/ | ]È-q‰N-R, || Mother is kissing her baby. e-Uc-q…c-R_-]È-q‰N-TZ…P-^ÈN,
kite /kaIt/ | aÈC-q, || The kite flew into the sky. aÈC-q-PU-UB_-]S“_-cÈE-,
knife /naIf/ | u…, || My knife is long. E]Ã-u…-P…-_…E-,
know /n@U/ | a‰c, || I don’t know English very well. Ec-Nq…P-^…C-d-FE-^C-RÈ-Z…C-U…-a‰c,

L
1

2

1

E`-˛È`-q‰N-R, E`-˛È`, || I labor every day under harsh working conditions.
Ec-I…P-_‰_-CPc-TT-•‡C-RÈ-Pc-E`-˛È`-qc-R-^…P, 2Building a road requires hard labour. `U-Z…C-`c-P-E`-˛È`-BC-RÈ-q‰N-NCÈc,
laboratory /lђ"bQrђtri/ | WÍN-õ-BE-, || Scientists do their work in a laboratory. WP-_…C-Rc-WÍN-õ-BE-Oÿ-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-q-T-±„T,
lack /l&k/ | U…-]NE-T, || For lack of money she had to wear old shoes.
°È_-UÈ-U…-]NE-T]Ã-ì‰P-n…c-BÈ-UÈc-üU-ã…E-T-U…-nÈP-MTc-U‰N-qŸE-,
ladder /"l&d@/ | ˇc, || I will climb a ladder to reach the roof top. E-_E-ˇc-`-]XÂCc-K‰-BE-T]Ã-ÅN-Oÿ-]uÈ-î‡-^…P,
lake /leIk/ | UWÍ, || Qinghai Lake is very large. UWÍ-¢ÈP-RÈ-d-FE-G‰,
lama /lO:mV/ | É-U, || The lama prays in the temple. É-Uc-ü-BE-PE-Oÿ-CcÈ`-T-]N‰Tc,
lamb /l&m/ | `“-Dÿ, || The baby lamb was brought into the tent. `“-Dÿ-N‰-¥]Ã-PE-Oÿ-m‰_-^ÈE-,
land /l&nd/ | 1c-Z…E-, 2]TT-R, || 1How much land does your family have? mÈN-WE-`-c-Z…E-H…-VU-^ÈN, 2Our airplane
was forced to land in the ocean. E-WÍ]Ã-CPU-u⁄-î-UWÍ]Ã-PE-Oÿ-]TT-NCÈc-qŸE-,

labour (labor) /"leIb@/ |

▪226▪

language /"l&NgwIdZ/ | ˇN, ˇN-_…Cc, || We are learning to speak the English language in school.

E-WÍc-ÜÈT-≈_-Nq…P-ˇN-TaN-î‡-ÆÈE-TZ…P-^ÈN,
large /lA:dZ/ | G‰P-RÈ, TÈEc-G‰P-RÈ, || She is a large woman. BÈ-UÈ-P…-T“N-U‰N-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
last /lA:st/ | UH“C || I’m always last in line. E-PU-^E-u`-n…-UH“C-U-^…P,
last month | Ñ-¢ÈP-U, || Last month was my birthday. E]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-P…-Ñ-¢ÈP-U]Ã-PE-^…P,
last time | M‰Ec-¢ÈP-U, || The last time I saw you, you were ill. Ec-M‰Ec-¢ÈP-U_-mÈN-_…C-Oÿc-ˇTc-mÈN-_E-P-TZ…P-]OÿC
last week | C\]-]BÈ_-¢ÈP-U, || I saw that movie last week. Ec-ÇÈC-TãP-N‰_-C\]-]BÈ_-¢ÈP-U]Ã-PE-Tõc,
last year | P-P…E-, || Last year I studied French. P-P…E-E?-n-_P-c…]Ã-^…-C‰-ÆEc-R-^…P,
late /leIt/ | ä‰c-c“-`“c-R, || Don’t be late for class! ÜÈT-t…N-l…-ä‰c-`-`“c-c“-U-]H“C
later on | ä‰c-cÈ_, || Later on let’s go to your home. ä‰c-cÈ_-E-WÍ-m‰N-WE-Oÿ-]uÈ,
laugh at | BÈE-NCÈN-q‰N-R, || When you fell we laughed at you. mÈN-_E-ME-`-]n‰`-Oÿc-E-WÍc-mÈN-`-BÈE-NCÈN-qc,
laugh /lA:f/ | 1TZN-CN, 2NCÈN-R, || 1When I hear his laugh I also laugh. Ec-BÈ]Ã-TZN-CN-MÈc-P, E-^E-NCÈN, 2When I laugh
I am happy. E-_E-NCÈN-ˇTc, E-_E-´…N-RÈ-^…P,
laugh with | UIU-Oÿ-NCÈN-R, || When you tell a joke, we laugh with you. mÈN-l…c-PU-Aÿ-_‰-˛‰-P-E-WÍ-mÈN-NE-UIU-Oÿ-NCÈN,
launch /lO:ntS/ | UEC-CKÈE-q‰N-R, CKÈE-T, || When they are finished building the ship they must launch it.
BÈ-WÍc-u⁄-N‰-`c-W_-T-NE-G”-`-CKÈE-NCÈc,
law /lO:/ | t…Uc-`“Cc, || The court system upholds the law. t…Uc-BE-±…C-]X“Cc-l…c-t…Uc-`“Cc-~⁄E-´ÈE-q‰N,
lead /li:d/ | 1UX“T-t…N, 2t…N-R, || 1I will follow your lead. Ec-mÈN-l…-UX“T-t…N-`-IP-î‡-^…P, 2You can lead a horse to water,
but you can’t make it drink. mÈN-l…c-å-Z…C-G”-B_-t…N-M—T-UÈN, ]ÈP-lE-mÈN-l…c-TVP-n…c-G”-]M—E-T_-]H“C-U…-M—T,
leak /li:k/ | ]XC aÈ_, || The windows in our classroom leak when it rains.
G_-T-]TT-ˇTc-E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-BE-C…-°‰]“-B‘E-Pc-G”-]XC
learn /l3:n/ | ÜÈT-R, || Will you learn Tibetan next year? mÈN-l…c-`È-ä‰c-U_-TÈN-^…C-ÜÈT-î‡-^…P-PU,
learned /"l3:nd/ | 1MÈc-R-FP, 2TÜTc-R, || 1He is a very learned monk. BÈ-P…-≈-T-d-FE-MÈc-R-FP-Z…C-_‰N, 2He learned almost
nothing. BÈc-S`-G‰_-F…-^E-U-TÜTc,
learning /"l3:nIN/ | ÜÈT-R, || He is learning English. BÈc-Nq…P-^…C-ÜÈT-l…P-^ÈN,
leave /li:v/ | T´„_-T, ]HÈC-R, || Please leave your coats here. mÈN-l…-CÈP-R-]N…-_“-T´„_-_ÈCc,
left /left/ | 1{`-T, n‰c-R, 2C^ÈP, || 1He left my home an hour ago. BÈ-Oÿc-WÈN-CF…C-C…-¢ÈP-Oÿ-E]Ã-m…U-NE-{`, 2I write with my
left hand. Ec-C^ÈP-`C-C…c-^…-C‰-]{…,
leg /leg/ | TÖ, || My right leg is painful. E]Ã-TÖ-C^c-R-P,
legal /"li:gl/ | t…Uc-UM—P, || The lawyer asked the judge a legal question.
t…Uc-CFÈN-Rc-]x…-CFÈN-R-`-t…Uc-UM—P-n…-x…-T-Z…C-TKÈP,
lend /lend/ | T´…-T, || Can you lend me some money? mÈN-l…c-E-`-°È_-UÈ-]C]-T´…-M—T-TU,
less /les/ | JfiE-T, ZP-R, || I have less money than you do. E]Ã-°È_-UÈ-mÈN-l…-°È_-UÈ-`c-JfiE-,
less than a day | I…P-CF…C-`c-JfiE-T, || He worked less than a day. BÈc-q-T-`c-Pc-I…P-CF…C-U-]CÈ_,
less than a month | Ñ-CF…C-U-]CÈ_-T_, || In less than a month I will be thirteen. Ñ-CF…C-U…-]CÈ_-T_-E-_E-`È-TF“-Cc“U-`ÈP-]uÈ,
▪227▪

less than a week | C\]-]BÈ_-CF…C-U…-]CÈ_-T_, || I will leave school in less than a week.

C\]-]BÈ_-CF…C-U…-]CÈ_-T_-E-_E-ÜÈT-≈-NE-]{`-î‡-^…P,
less than a year | `È-CF…C-VU, || I have studied English for less than a year. Ec-Nq…P-^…C-`È-CF…C-VU-`-ÆEc,
lesson /"lesn/ | ÜÈT-WP, || What lesson will we learn today? N‰-_…E-E-WÍc-ÜÈT-WP-CE-TÜT-î‡-^…P,
let /let/ | (q-T-Z…C-`c-c“,) ]H“C-R, CPE-T, || I let my students go home early. Ec-ÜÈT-U-éUc-¢-UÈ_-^“`-Oÿ-]uÈ-_“-]H“C
letter /"let@/ | 1Cc`-q‰N, 2]z…P-^…C || 1The English alphabet has twenty-six letters. Nq…P-^…C-`-Cc`-q‰N-I‰_-x⁄C-^ÈN,
2
Please write a letter to your friend. mÈN-l…c-uÈCc-RÈ_-]z…P-^…C-F…C-z…c,
level /"levl/ | _…U-R, 1G”-WN, 2UIU-RÈ, || 1What is the writing level in your class?
mÈN-WÍ]Ã-]XÀP-≈]Ã-˛ÈU-]{…-R]Ã-G”-WN-F…-]x-^…P, 2The topography here is level in some areas and sloping in other areas.
]N…-C]Ã-c-G-B-ac-Pc-c-_…c-UIU-RÈ-^…P-`-c-G-CZP-]C]-Pc-c-C\_-G‰,
liberal /"lIb@r@l/ | ^Ec-UÈ, || She had some liberal ideas about education. ÜÈT-CcÈ]Ã-MÈC-Pc-BÈ-UÈ-`-õ-T-^Ec-UÈ-^ÈN,
license /"laIsns/ | `C-]m‰_, || My mother has a driver’s license. E]Ã-e-U-`-B-`È-T]Ã-`C-]m‰_-Z…C-^ÈN,
lie /laI/ | 1í’P, 2í’P-TaN-R, || 1Why did you tell her a lie? mÈN-l…c-F…]Ã-p…_-BÈ-UÈ_-í’P-TaN-R-^…P, 2Don’t lie! Tell the truth!
í’P-U-TaN, TN‰P-R-aÈN,
life /laIf/ | ]WÍ-T, || Most people want to have a good life. U…-UE-aÈc-l…c-]WÍ-T-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^ÈN-P-]NÈN,
lift /lIft/ | ]N‰Cc-R, || Help me lift this box. E-`-°U-]N…-]N‰Cc-_ÈCc-qÈc,
light /laIt/ | ]ÈN, ÇÈC || The light in this room is not good. BE-T-]N…]Ã-PE-C…-ÇÈC-U…-T\E-,
lightning /"laItnIN/ | ÇÈC-ZCc, || The lightning pierced the night sky. ÇÈC-ZCc-l…c-UWP-UÈ]Ã-PU-UB]-TåÈ`,
like /laIk/ | 1]NÈN, 2]x-T, || 1I like to study English. Ec-Nq…P-^…C-ÆÈE-P-]NÈN, 2Do you have any trousers like these?
mÈN-`-áE-¶U-]N…-NE-]x-T-^ÈN-NU,
limit /"lImIt/ | 1WN, 2WÍN-]XÀP-R, || 1There is no limit to the number of cups of tea I can drink.
Ec-H-SÈ_-Oÿ-]M—E-GÈC-R-`-WN-U‰N, 2Please limit yourself to two bottles of beer.
mÈN-l…c-Y“-GE-NU-T…-CI…c-l…-U-CKÈCc-U…-]M—E-T_-WÍN-\“Ec,
line /laIn/ | M…C || Draw a line on your paper. mÈN-l…-aÈC-T“]Ã-§‰E-M…C-F…C-z…c-NE-,
link /lINk/ | 1ØP-R, ]{‰`-CLfiC 2UM—N-R, || 1He is the link between the two sides. BÈ-P…-pÈCc-CI…c-l…-ØP-R-^…P, 2A bridge
links the two villages. \U-R-N‰c-•‰-T-N‰-CI…c-UM—N-^ÈN,
liquid /"lIkwId/ | Ca‰_-B‘, || The kettle was overflowing with liquid. H-N‰U-`c-Ca‰_-B‘-]pŸ_-TZ…P-]OÿC
list /lIst/ | 1MÈ-]CÈN-q‰N-R, 2MÈ, || 1Please list your expenses for last year. P-P…E-C…-]uÈ-uÈP-MÈ-]CÈN-qÈc, 2We should make a
list of what to buy from the store. E-WÍc-WÍE-BE-`c-F…-Z…C-IÈ-NCÈc-R-`-MÈ-Z…C-T@ÈN-P-`‰Cc,
listen and repeat | IP-K‰-T´_-ÑÈc-q‰N-R, || As I read the new words please listen and repeat.
Ec-U…E-WÀC-éUc-TKÈP-P, mÈN-WÍc-IP-K‰-T´_-ÑÈc-qÈc-a…C
listen /"lIsn/ | IP-R, || Don’t listen to what she says. BÈ-UÈc-F…-TaN-R_-U-IP,
listen to | IP-R, || Please carefully listen to your teacher. NC‰-àP-n…c-F…-Cc“Ec-`-`‰Cc-R_-IÈP,
little /"lItl/ | 1G”E-G”E-, 2JfiE-E“-, || 1My little brother is now a student. E]Ã-߇P-G”E-T-P…-N-õ-ÜÈT-U-Z…C-^…P, 2I want a little chilli
in my soup. E]Ã-B‘-T]Ã-PE-c…-RP-JfiE-E“-Z…C-NCÈc,
▪228▪

live /lIv/ | 1CcÈP-IUc-úP-R, 2•ÈN-R, || 1They will do a live performance of music.

BÈ-WÍc-_È`-NqEc-l…-]tT-§ÈP-CcÈP-IUc-úP-R-Z…C-q‰N-î‡-_‰N, 2Where do you live? mÈN-_E-CE-Oÿ-•ÈN,
load /l@Ud/ | B`, || The yak is carrying a very heavy load. C^C-N‰c-B`-d-FE-ô…-UÈ-Z…C-]B‘_-^ÈN,
local /"l@Ukl/ | c-CPc-l…, c-N‰]Ã, || Those thanggas were drawn by local artists. ME-C-N‰-WÍ-P…-c-N‰]Ã-_…-UÈ-Tc-{…c-R-_‰N,
lonely /"l@Unli/ | B‰_-ìE-, || It was lonely walking on the road at night. UWP-UÈ_-~E-`U-Oÿ-]uÈ-P-B‰_-ìE-C…-WÍ_-T-´‰,
long /lQN/ | _…E-TÈ, || He has very long legs. BÈ-`-áE-T-_…E-TÈ-^ÈN,
look /lUk/ | 1p…-W”`, õ-T, 2õÈc, || 1This product has a new modern look. MÈP-íc-]N…-`-N‰E-_Tc-l…-p…-W”`-Cc_-T-úP, 2Please
look both ways before you cross the street. î-`U-Tî‡N-N‰-]uÈ-ˇTc-`U-n…-`ÈCc-CI…c-@_-õÈc-a…C
look after | TNC-´ÈE-, || When I’m gone, please look after my children. E-_E-cÈE-b÷`-Pc-E]Ã-q…c-R-éUc-`-TNC-´ÈE-q‰N-_ÈCc,
look around | ]WÍ`-T, || Please look around your bedroom for the book. mÈN-l…c-U`-BE-Oÿ-NR‰-G-N‰-]WÍ`-_ÈCc,
look at | õ-T, õÈc, || Please look at your book. mÈN-l…c-NR‰-G-`-õÈc-NE-,
look by | `c-õ-T, `c-õÈc, `ÈCc-Pc-õ-T]U-]WÍ`-T, || Please look by the window for your missing watch.
x-U]Ã-`ÈCc-c“-mÈN-l…c-TÈ_-\…P-R]Ã-G”-WÍN-]BÈ_-`È-]WÍ`,
look for | ]WÍ`-T, || Look for the missing bag in the kitchen. TÈ_-\…P-R]Ã-B‘C-U-N‰-C^Èc-BE-Oÿ-]WÍ`-NE-,
look like | TZ…P-]x-T, ]x-T, || You look like your mother. mÈN-Tõc-WÍN-`-mÈN-l…-e-U-NE-]x,
look over | _Cc-VU-õ-T, || After you look over my shop’s merchandise, I hope you buy something.
mÈN-l…c-E]Ã-WÍE-BE-C…-WÍE-\ÈE-`-_Cc-VU-Tõc-ä‰c, mÈN-l…c-NEÈc-RÈ-]C]-IÈ-T_-Ec-_‰-T-q‰N,
look the same | ]x-T, || You look the same as you did ten years ago. mÈN-_E-`È-TF“]Ã-¢ÈP-n…-mÈN-NE-]x,
lose /lu:z/ | TÈ_-T, aÈ_-T, || The man thought he would lose the bet. U…-N‰c-U-CZ…_-BÈc-îP-N‰-aÈ_- ]uÈ-T_-TcUc,
lot /lQt/ | 1ˇÈ_, 2UE-TÈ, || 1This lot of students is the best I’ve ever taught.
ÜÈT-U-ˇÈ_-]N…-P…-Ec-ÜÈT-t…N-qc-rÈE-T]Ã-G‰c-NC]-TÈ-^…P, 2He eats a lot. BÈc-\-U-UE-TÈ-\,
lots of | UE-TÈ, || There are lots of students in my school. E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-≈_-ÜÈT-U-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
loud /laUd/ | (±-cÈCc,) G‰P-RÈ, || The truck engine makes a loud sound.
]u⁄U-]u…`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-n…-°‡`-q‰N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_-n…c-±-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-±ÈC
love /lVv/ | 1T˛‰-c‰Uc, NC]-T, 2Z‰P, || 1The love I have for my wife is greater than the love I have for myself.
Ec-E]Ã-ôU-UÈ_-TFEc-R]Ã-T˛‰-c‰Uc-E-_E-`-TFEc-R]Ã-T˛‰-c‰Uc-`c-G‰, 2I love my mother very much. E-_E-E]Ã-e-U_-d-FE-Z‰P,
low /l@U/ | NU]-T, || The car is low on fuel. ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T]Ã-¶‡U-n…-]uÈ-uÈP-NU],
loyal /"lOI@l/ | éU-NC EÈ-åC || She was a loyal friend. BÈ-UÈ-P…-uÈCc-RÈ-éU-NC-F…C-^…P,
luck /lVk/ | ˇ`-T, || We didn’t have any luck finding her mother at the market.
E-WÍ_-WÍE-_-Pc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-e-U-ã‰N-R]Ã-ˇ`-T-U-qŸE-,
lunch /lVntS/ | DÿE-\c, || When did you eat lunch? mÈN-l…c-DÿE-\c-PU-\Èc-R-^…P,

▪229▪

M
machine /m@"Si:n/ | ]z⁄`-Gc, || I’ve never seen a machine like this before.

Ec-]z⁄`-Gc-]N…-]x-Z…C-¢ÈP-GN-CKP-Pc-UMÈE-U-rÈE-,
mad /m&d/ | 1ØÈc-R, 2]WÀC-R-\-T,|| 1She’s not sane, she’s mad. BÈ-UÈ-`-NTE-˛-WE-U‰N, BÈ-UÈ-ØÈc-^ÈN, 2I got so mad at him
because he insulted me. BÈc-E-`-NU]-]T‰Tc-qc-Rc-E-BÈ]Ã-MÈC-`-]WÀC-R-\Èc,
madam /"m&d@m/ | ôU-UÈ, || Madam Wang just had her eightieth birthday.
ôU-UÈ-YE-C…c-BÈ-UÈ-`È-P-TîN-F“-`ÈP-R]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-_È`-U-MC-_‰N,
mail /meIl/ | 1¥C-^…C-ÖEc-]BÈ_, 2ˇ‡_-T, || 1Did you get any letters in the mail today?
N‰-_…E-mÈN-`-¥-^…C-`c-^…-C‰-Z…C-e‰-]qÈ_, 2I will mail your package when I go to the post office tomorrow.
cE-I…P-E-¥C-~…N-BE-Oÿ-p…P-P-Ec-mÈN-l…-NÈc-RÈ-Tˇ‡_-E‰c,
main /meIn/ | CVÍ-TÈ, || She bought some stamps at the main post office. BÈ-UÈc-¥C-BE-CVÍ-TÈ-`c-¥C-åCc-]C]-IÈc,
major /"meIdZ@/ | 1G‰N-ÆÈE-, 2G‰N-ÆÈE-q‰N-R, || 1Is English your major area of study? Nq…P-^…C-P…-mÈN-l…-G‰N-ÆÈE-TÜT-q-^…P-PU, 2I
major in Tibetan language and literature. Ec-TÈN-ˇN-^…C-NE-˛ÈU-_…C-G‰N-ÆÈE-qc,
majority /m@"dZQr@ti/ | UE-aÈc, || The majority of students wanted to have a party at the school.
ÜÈT-U-UE-aÈc-l…c-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-PE-Oÿ-≥È-WÍCc-a…C-]WÍC-P-]NÈN,
make /meIk/ | `c, || Do you know how to make bread? mÈN-l…c-CÈ-_‰-H…-õ_-`c-NCÈc-R-a‰c-cU,
make faces | B-CI‰_-¶-CI‰_, || Don’t make faces at your classmates. mÈN-l…c-ÜÈT-uÈCc-`-B-CI‰_-¶-CI‰_-U-q‰N,
make | `c, TˇÈ`, || How do you make milk tea? mÈN-l…c-]È-H-H…-õ_-TˇÈ`-T-^…P-PU,
male /meIl/ | SÈ, || Men are male. ´‰c-R-P…-SÈ-^…P,
man /m&n/ | ´‰c-R, || I am a man. E-P…-´‰c-R-Z…C-^…P,
many /"meni/ | 1Oÿ, 2UE-TÈ, || 1How many oranges do you want? mÈN-`-W-`“-U-Oÿ-NCÈc, 2Many people want to learn
English all over the world.]XU-Ç…E-^ÈEc-P-U…-UE-TÈc-Nq…P-^…C-ÜÈT-P-]NÈN,
map /m&p/ | 1c-t, 2c-t-`-]CÈN-R, || 1The map of China looks like a cock. s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-c-t-P…-q-TÈ-Z…C-NE-]x-GCc, 2We will
map that remote county next year. E-WÍc-íÈE-^“`-]BÈT-N‰-cE-`È_-c-t-`-]CÈN-î‡-^…P,
march /mA:tS/ | NR“E-´ÈN, NR“E-´ÈN-q‰N-R, Ta_-T, || The soldiers learn how to march in a line.
NUC-U…-éUc-l…c-NR“E-´ÈN-H…-õ_-q‰N-R-ÆÈE-,
March /mA:tS/ | ≠…-Ñ-Cc“U-R, || March is a windy month. ≠…-Ñ-Cc“U-R-P…-Ö‡E-G‰-T]Ã-Ñ-T-Z…C-_‰N,
mark /mA:k/ | 1åCc, 2ˇ_-uEc, 3ˇ_-U-îC-R, || 1What is that mark on your arm?
mÈN-l…-NR“E-T]Ã-§‰E-C…-åCc-N‰-P…-F…-Z…C-^…P-PU, 2He got a good mark on the test. BÈc-î‡Cc-l…-ˇ_-uEc-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-ÉEc, 3The teacher
said that she would mark our examinations tomorrow. NC‰-àP-n…c-BÈ-UÈc-cE-I…P-E-WÍ]Ã-î‡Cc-`-ˇ_-U-îC-î‡-^…P-\‰_,
market /"mA:kIt/ | 1WÍE-_, 2]WÍE-T, || 1What kind of things do they sell in the market?
WÍE-_]Ã-PE-Oÿ-BÈ-WÍc-F…-Z…C-]WÍE-, 2We can market our greenhouse production in town.
E-WÍc-E-WÍ]Ã-¢È-T£`-BE-C…-MÈP-íc-uÈE-Tç`-Pc-]WÍE-M—T,
marry /"m&ri/ | CI‰P-±…C || That woman is going to marry my brother. T“N-U‰N-N‰-E]Ã-S“-TÈ-NE-CI‰P-±…C-˛…c-^ÈN,
mass /m&s/ | WÍCc, || A great mass of flies gathered on the dead sheep. ¥E-WÍCc-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-`“C-_È]Ã-§‰E-Oÿ-]Oÿc,
▪230▪

material /m@"tI@ri@l/ | î‡-G, || Wool is strong material for a coat. T`-P…-CÈc-l…-î‡-G-~-UÈ-Z…C-^…P,
matter /"m&t@/ | 1´ÈP, 2NÈP-NC || 1What’s the matter with you? mÈN-`-F…-´ÈP, 2I have a matter to discuss with you
in private. E-`-mÈN-NE-ñÈC-Lfi-uÈc-T•‡_-L-î‡]Ã-NÈP-NC-F…C-^ÈN,
may /meI/ | GÈC M—T, || May I help you? Ec-mÈN-`-_ÈCc-q‰N-M—T-TU,
May /meI/ | ≠…-Ñ-ò-T, || May is in spring. ≠…-Ñ-ò-T-P…-No…N-@-^…P,
maybe /"meIbi/ | ~…N, || Maybe I will be a nurse. E-_E-PN-C^ÈC-F…C-q‰N-P-t…Cc-t…Cc-U‰N,
mayor /me@/ | (uÈE-m‰_-n…-) ]CÈ-]XÀP, || Who do you think will be appointed mayor of this town?

mÈN-l…c-Tõc-P-c“-Z…C-uÈE-Tç`-]N…]Ã-]CÈ-]XÀP-Oÿ-TˇÈ-î‡-_‰N,
me /mi:/ | E-, || Don’t laugh at me! E-`-]p-NCÈN-U-q‰N,
meal /mi:l/ | \c, || When can we have a meal together? E-WÍc-PU-Z…C-`-UIU-Oÿ-\c-T\]-M—T,
mean /mi:n/ | 1NÈP, 2t‰`-U‰N, || 1What does "apple" mean in Chinese? î-^…C-C…-PE-"Aÿ-b÷"-\‰_-T-F…-Z…C-`-CÈ, 2Don’t be
mean to your sister. _E-C…-~…E-UÈ_-t‰`-U‰N-U-q‰N,
measure /"meZ@/ | WN-]H`-T, || Do you have a way to measure the size of this room?
mÈN-`-BE-T-]N…]Ã-î-mÈP-n…-WN-]H`-T]Ã-MTc-a…C-^ÈN-NU,
meat /mi:t/ | a || Is there meat in this dish? \c-]N…]Ã-PE-Oÿ-a-^ÈN-NU,
medicine /"medsn/ | ©P, || Did the doctor give you any medicine for your cold? ©P-Rc-mÈN-`-GU-PN-l…-©P-q…P-PU,
meet /mi:t/ | UH`-T, M—C-R, ||When can we meet? E-WÍ-PU-WÍN-UH`-M—T,
meeting /"mi:tIN/ | WÍCc-]Oÿ, EÈ-]zN, || 1Where shall we have our meeting? E-WÍ]Ã-WÍCc-]Oÿ-CE-Oÿ-]WÍC-î‡-_‰N, 2I am very
glad to be meeting all my old friends again. E-_E-C…-uÈCc-RÈ-àP-R-`-]È_-n…c-EÈ-]zN-qŸE-T-`-E-_T-Lfi-NC],
melt /melt/ | T[÷-T, || The weather is so warm, perhaps the ice on the lake will melt.
PU-Ñ-d-FE-xÈ-Tc, UWÍ-§‰E-C…-GT-_ÈU-T[÷-P-t…Cc-t…Cc-U‰N,
member /"memb@/ | _“-U…, ]M—c-U…, || Are you a member of the basketball team? mÈN-_E-`P-G…C-ßÈ-`È-_“-BC-C…-_“-U…-^…P-PU,
memorial /m@"mO:ri@l/ | ä‰c-xP-çÈ-_…E-, || They built a large memorial to remember those who died in the
war. NUC-]t‹C-C…-Ca…P-RÈ-éUc-ä‰c-xP-q‰N-R]Ã-G‰N-Oÿ-BÈ-WÍc-ä‰c-xP-n…-çÈ-_…E-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-TZ‰Ec,
memory /"mem@ri/ | ^…N-]XÀP, || That student has such a good memory for numbers.
ÜÈT-U-N‰_-uEc-@]Ã-MÈC-Pc-^…N-]XÀP-mN-R_-FP-Z…C-^ÈN,
men | ´‰c-R-éUc, || The men take a bath in this room. ´‰c-R-éUc-l…c-BE-T-]N…]Ã-PE-Oÿ-t‹c-q‰N,
mend /mend/ | WÂU-R, TVÂU-R, || Please mend my socks. mÈN-l…c-E]Ã-]TÈT-TVÂU-_ÈCc,
mercenary /"m3:s@n@ri/ | NE“`-`È_-BÈ-P-c‰Uc-R, || His motives for working were purely mercenary.
BÈc-q-T-`c-R]Ã-AÿP-ÜÈE-P…-NE“`-`È_-BÈ-P-c‰Uc-R-N‰-_‰N,
mercy /"m3:si/ | £…E-ä‰, || The fox had no mercy for the chicken. Y-UÈc-HA3-q-`-£…E-ä‰-U…-]XÀP,
message /"mesIdZ/ | ]z…P, || Did you want to leave a message? mÈN-l…c-]z…P-Z…C-]HÈC-]NÈN-NU,
metal /"metl/ | ôCc, || The bridge is made out of strong metal. \U-R-N‰-P…-ôCc-~-Ut‰Cc-FP-n…c-`c-R-_‰N,
method /"meT@d/ | MTc, || What is the best method for teaching English? Nq…P-^…C-t…N-R]Ã-MTc-G‰c-T\E-TÈ-P…-F…-Z…C-_‰N,
metre (meter) /"mi:t@/ | ©…c, || I am one and a half metres tall. E]Ã-C\“Cc-`-©…c-CE-NE-p‰N-@-^ÈN,
▪231▪

microscope /"maIkr@sk@Up/ | z-UMÈE-U…C-a‰`, || A microscope helps the eye see very small objects like
bacteria. z-UMÈE-U…C-a‰`-n…c-NEÈc-RÈ-d-FE-G”E-T-~…P-]T“-z-UÈ-õ-T“-^E-UMÈE-Oÿ-]H“C
middle school | ÜÈT-]{…E-, || The nearest middle school is in the county town. MC-G‰c-I‰-T]Ã-ÜÈT-]{…E-P…-íÈE-MÈC-Lfi-^ÈN,
middle /"mIdl/ | Nl…`, || The boy sitting in the middle of the picture is my brother.

]x-R_-n…-Nl…`-Oÿ-VÍC-^ÈN-R]Ã-Z…-`…-N‰-P…-E]Ã-Q÷-TÈ-^…P,
militant /"mIlIt@nt/ | TVP-RÈ, ]t‹C-˛ÈN-`-Z‰P-R, || The general’s speech was full of militant ideas.
NUC-NRÈP-n…-Cc“E-TaN-PE-]t‹C-˛ÈN-`-Z‰P-R]Ã-õ-Tc-B‰Ec-]OÿC
military /"mIl@tri/ | NUC-U…, NUC-NR“E-, NUC-NÈP-n…, || The military life is full of hardship. NUC-NÈP-n…-]WÍ-T-P…-N@]-BC-G‰,
milk /mIlk/ | 1]È-U, 2TZÈ-T, || 1Yak milk is rich. ]{…]Ã-]È-U-P…-¶‡U-n…c-pŸC 2After my mother milks the yaks she collects
dung. E]Ã-e-Uc-]{…-UÈ-TZÈc-ä‰c-ô…-T-]M—,
mind /maInd/ | 1TcU-ÉÈ, 2c‰Uc-NÈCc-q‰N-R, || 1Our teacher has a very open mind. E-WÍ]Ã-NC‰-àP-n…-TcU-ÉÈ-^Ec, 2Do you
mind if I smoke? Ec-M-UC-]M‰P-P-mÈN-l…c-c‰Uc-NÈCc-q‰N-NU,
mine /maIn/ | 1E]Ã, 2CK‰_-B, || 1This book is mine. NR‰-G-]N…-P…-E]Ã-^…P, 2There is no gold mine in this country.
î`-BT-]N…-P-Cc‰_-n…-CK‰_-B-U‰N,
mineral /"mIn@r@l/ | íc, || There are many types of minerals in Qinghai. UWÍ-¢ÈP-P-íc-_…Cc-¶-WÍCc-^ÈN,
minister /"mInIst@/ | ≠…-NRÈP, || The Minister of the Education Department is a very busy person.
ÜÈT-CcÈ-R“]“-^…-≠…-NRÈP-P…-U…-d-FE-{‰`-T-FP-Z…C-^…P,
minor /"maIn@/ | 1zP-W‰Cc, VC-VÀC 2P-CZÈP, || 1I’m not concerned with minor problems.
Ec-CPN-NÈP-zP-W‰Cc-éUc-`-c‰Uc-t`-U…-q‰N, 2Until you are an adult you are a minor.
U…-N_-U-Z…C-Lfi-IP-_‰C-T_-Oÿ-mÈN-P…-P-CZÈP-Z…C-^…P,
minority /maI"nQr@ti/ | uEc-JfiE-, || Tibetans are one of China’s minority populations.
TÈN-_…Cc-P…-s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-uEc-JfiE-U…-_…Cc-PE-C…-CF…C-^…P,
minute /"mInIt/ | ˇ_-G, || I will come to your room in a minute. E-_E-ˇ_-G-CF…C-C…-PE-Oÿ-mÈN-WE-Oÿ-]ÈE-E‰c,
miss /mIs/ | xP-R, || I’m going to miss school when it is over. ÜÈT-≈-uÈ`-ˇTc-Ec-ÜÈT-≈-xP-]CÈ-T˛Uc,
Miss /mIs/ | ~c-UÈ, || Miss Li teaches us French. ~c-UÈ-`…c-l…c-E-WÍ_-n-_P-c…]Ã-^…-C‰-t…N-l…P-^ÈN,
missile /"mIsaIl/ | U‰-b÷Cc-]S“_-UN], || They launched a missile that will go to the moon.
BÈ-WÍc-Ñ-T]Ã-§‰E-]S“_-T]Ã-U‰-b÷Cc-]S“_-UN]-Z…C-TKE-,
missing /"mIsIN/ | TÈ_-T, C_-cÈE-U‰N-R, || Her brother was missing from school yesterday.
BÈ-UÈ]Ã-Q÷-TÈ-B-cE-ÜÈT-≈-Pc-C_-cÈE-U‰N-R_-nŸ_,
mistake /mI"steIk/ | PÈ_-]t‹`, || I made a mistake. Ec-PÈ_-]t‹`-Z…C-`c,
mix /mIks/ | T~‰c-R, || Milk mixed with tea is a common Tibetan drink.
H-NE-]È-U-UIU-Oÿ-T~‰c-R-P…-TÈN-l…-î‡P-úP-n…-TLfiE-G”-Z…C-^…P,
mmm | e…P, || Mmm, this tastes good. e…P, ]N…-Z…U-RÈ-_‰N,
mob /mQb/ | U…-WÍCc, || A loud and angry mob of people raided the store.
]“_-±-G‰-Z…E-BÈE-tÈ-`Ec-R]Ã-U…-WÍCc-a…C-C…c-WÍE-BE-]zÈC-TFÈU-qc,
▪232▪

moderate /"mQd@r@t/ | 1CIÈU-RÈ, 2Z…-]HCc-c“-CKÈE-T, || 1This area has a moderate climate during the summer.

c-G-]N…_-Nq_-B_-PU-Ñ-CIÈU-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN, 2I’ve been asked to moderate the discussion. E-`-uÈc-B-N‰-Z…-]HCc-c“-CKÈE-T]Ã-_‰-T-qc,
modern /"mQdn/ | N‰E-_Tc, || I like to read books about modern times. E-N‰E-_Tc-CPc-W”`-MN-l…-NR‰-G-ÅÈC-R_-NC],
mom (mummy) /mQm/ /"mVmi/ | e-U, || My mom worked late last night.
E]Ã-e-Uc-UNE-NCÈE-`c-@-d-FE-]p…-_‰C-T_-Oÿ-`c, My mummy is a doctor. E]Ã-e-U-P…-©P-R-Z…C-^…P,
moment /"m@Um@nt/ | ˇ_-G, ^“N-VU, || I’ll leave in a moment. E-_E-^“N-VU-n…-PE-Oÿ-]{`-î‡-^…P,
Monday /"mVndeI; -di/ | C\]-Ñ-T, || I start work on Monday. Ec-C\]-Ñ-T-Pc-q-T-`c-]CÈ-˛ÈU,
money /"mVni/ | °È_-UÈ, || I don’t have much money. E-`-°È_-UÈ-UE-TÈ-U‰N,
monk /mVNk/ | ≈-T, || There are many monks at that temple. NCÈP-R-N‰]Ã-PE-Oÿ-≈-T-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
monkey /"mVNki/ | ≥‰`, || I saw a monkey in the zoo. Ec-~ÈC-GCc-Ç…E-C-Pc-≥‰`-Z…C-UMÈE-,
month /mVnT/ | Ñ-T, || Which month do you like best? mÈN-_E-G‰c-NC]-T]Ã-Ñ-T-CE-^…P,
moon /mu:n/ | Ñ-T, || The moon is beautiful tonight. N‰-NCÈE-C…-Ñ-T-d-FE-UXÂc,
more /mO:/ | üC N‰-`c-UE-TÈ, || I don’t need more money. E-`-°È_-UÈ-N‰-`c-UE-TÈ-U…-NCÈc,
morning /"mO:nIN/ | ¢-xÈ, || I do some exercises in the morning. ¢-xÈ_-Ec-ÆÈE-Tç_-]C]-_‰-q‰N,
most /m@Ust/ | UE-aÈc, || Most of my classmates are Tibetan. E]Ã-ÜÈT-uÈCc-UE-aÈc-P…-TÈN-_…Cc-^…P,
mother /"mVD@/ | e-U, || My mother died last year. E]Ã-e-U-P-P…E-WÂ-`c-]Nc,
motion /"m@USn/ | IUc-]nŸ_, || She danced with such smooth motions. BÈ-UÈc-IUc-]nŸ_-d-FE-NÈN-RÈ]Ã-EE-ZTc-{È-]tT,
mountain /"maUnt@n/ | _…-TÈ, || We didn’t have time to climb to the top of the mountain.
E-WÍ_-_…-TÈ-N‰]Ã-˛‰_-]XÂCc-R]Ã-Oÿc-WÍN-U-qŸE-,
mourn /mO:n/ | 1r-EP-q‰N-R, 2r-EP, || 1We all mourned the passing of our grandmother.
E-WÍ-WE-Uc-E-WÍ]Ã-ßÈ-UÈ-]Nc-R_-r-EP-qc, 2Now that the period of mourning has passed for our deceased father, we
can attend parties. N-õ-E-WÍ]Ã-S-NU-R]Ã-r-EP-n…-Oÿc-]Nc-Rc, E-WÍ-≥È-WÍCc-`-[÷Cc-GÈC
move /mu:v/ | 1ßÈ_-T, ]Dÿ`-T, 2Q÷_-T, || 1The move to my new apartment required one week.
E]Ã-aC-WE-Cc_-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-ßÈ_-T-`-TOÿP-CF…C-]CÈ_, 2Please move over so I can sit down. S_-Q÷_-NE-E-_E-•ÈN-Oÿ-G”Cc,
movie /"mu:vi/ | ÇÈC-TãP, || I didn’t like the movie. E-ÇÈC-TãP-N‰-`-U-NC],
Mr. (Mister) /"mIst@/ | ˇ‡-ZTc, || Mr. Jones came to your classroom yesterday.
ˇ‡-ZTc-HÈP-c…-`Cc-B-cE-mÈN-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-BE-Oÿ-S‰Tc-qŸE-,
Mrs. /"mIsIz/ | ôU-UÈ, || Mrs. Sgrol ma teaches us Tibetan. ôU-UÈ-±È`-Uc-E-WÍ_-TÈN-^…C-t…N,
Ms. /mIz; m@z/ | ~c-UÈ, || Ms. Smith is our English teacher. ~c-UÈ-c…-U‰-M…-`Cc-P…-E-WÍ]Ã-Nq…P-^…C-C…-NC‰-àP-^…P,
much /mVtS/ | 1UE-TÈ, F…-]x, 2Oÿ, || 1I don’t have much knowledge of the history of Portugal.
S“]“-M]È-^]Ã-`È-î‡c-l…-ˇÈ_-Pc-E-`-a‰c-q-UE-TÈ-U‰N, 2How much does this cost? ]N…]Ã-_…P-CÈE-Oÿ-^…P,
mum /mVm/ | e-U, || My mum is a bus driver. E]Ã-e-U-P…-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-n…-B-`È-T-Z…C-^…P,
murder /"m3:d@/ | 1ñÈC-CcÈN, 2TsÈEc-R, || 1There has never been a murder in this town.
uÈE-Tç`-]N…]Ã-PE-ñÈC-CcÈN-l…-q-T-Z…C-CKP-Pc-qŸE-U-rÈE-, 2He made me so angry that I wanted to murder him.
BÈc-E-BÈE-tÈ-N‰-]x-`Ec-c“-TF“C-Rc-Ec-BÈ-TsÈEc-P-]NÈN,
▪233▪

music /"mju:zIk/ | _È`-NqEc, || I love to listen to music on the radio. E-_E-±-•‡N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_-Pc-_È`-NqEc-`-IP-R_-NC],
mustn’t /"mVsnt/ | U…-GÈC-R, || You mustn’t leave your home alone. mÈN-_E-CF…C-R“_-^“`-NE-]{`-U…-GÈC
must /m@st; mVst/ | E‰c-R_-Oÿ, || I must see you this evening. NÈ-Q÷T-E-mÈN-NE-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-]zN-NCÈc,
mustn’t /"mVsnt/ | CKP-Pc-q‰N-U…-_“E-T, || You mustn’t tell him about the problem at school.

mÈN-l…c-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-PE-C…-CPN-NÈP-N‰-BÈ-`-CKP-Pc-TaN-U…-_“E-,
mutton /"mVtn/ | `“C-a || Mutton is now very cheap. N-õ-`“C-a]Ã-_…P-CÈE-d-FE-Ü,
my /maI/ | E]Ã, || This is my book. ]N…-P…-E]Ã-NR‰-G-^…P,
myself /maI"self/ | _E-I…N, || I hurt myself with the knife. Ec-u…c-_E-I…N-êc,
mystery /"mIstri/ | NRÈC-N@]-T, || It is a mystery how the books were stolen. NR‰-G-éUc-H…-õ_-Táflc-R-P…-NRÈC-N@]-T-Z…C-_‰N,
naked /"neIkId/ | CF‰_-T“_, || The baby slept naked in his mother’s arms. q…c-R-N‰-BÈ]Ã-e-U]Ã-RE-Oÿ-CF‰_-T“_-I`,

N
name /neIm/ |

1

2

U…E-, U…E-T˛…-T, ||

1

What is your name? mÈN-l…-U…E-`-F…-Z…C-\‰_, 2Can you name all of China’s

provinces, autonomous regions, and special economic zones?

mÈN-l…c-s⁄E-CÈ]…-Z…E-G‰P-NE-_E-´ÈE-öÈEc, NR`-]qÈ_-NU…Cc-Tc`-c-B‘`-n…-U…E-T˛…-M—T-TU,
nation /"neISn/ | î`-BT, || China is a very large nation. s⁄E-CÈ-P…-î`-BT-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-^…P,
nature /"neItS@/ | 1_E-TZ…P, 2_E-qŸE-BUc, || 1She has a kind nature. BÈ-UÈ_-_E-TZ…P-]HU-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN, 2Trees are a beautiful
part of nature. •ÈE-TÈ-P…-_E-qŸE-BUc-l…-NR`-^ÈP-n…-u⁄T-G-CF…C-^…P,
navy /"neIvi/ | UWÍ-NUC || The British used to have the largest navy in the world.
Nq…P-H…-î`-BT-`-¢ÈP-GN-]XU-Ç…E-§‰E-C…-UWÍ-NUC-G‰c-G‰-T-^ÈN,
near /nI@/ | I‰-T, ]t…c-c“, `ÈCc-c“, || Please sit near the fire. U‰]Ã-`ÈCc-Pc-•ÈN-NE-,
nearly /"nI@li/ | S`-G‰_, || I learned nearly all the new words. Ec-S`-G‰_-M-£N-Cc_-T-^ÈN-WN-ÆEc,
necessary /"nes@s@ri/ | NCÈc-R, NCÈc-E‰c, || Do you feel it is necessary to talk like that?
mÈN-l…c-ˇN-G-N‰-N‰-õ_-TäÈN-NCÈc-]NÈN-NU,
need /ni:d/ | NCÈc-R, || I don’t need any help. E-`-_ÈCc-_U-F…-^E-q‰N-U…-NCÈc,
need never | CKP-Pc-U…-NCÈc, || You need never say that again. mÈN-l…c-N‰-^E-T´_-CKP-Pc-TaN-U…-NCÈc,
negotiate /nI"g@USieIt/ | uÈc-UÈ`, || The businessmen negotiated a good price for the land.
WÍE-T-éUc-l…c-c-CZ…-N‰-_…P-CÈE-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-Lfi-uÈc-UÈ`-qc,
neither /"naID@; "ni:D@/ | ^E-U‰N-R, || She has neither money nor food. BÈ-UÈ_-°È_-UÈ-U‰N-`-\-U-^E-U‰N,
nerve /n3:v/ | 1NTE-˛, 2ßÈTc-R, || 1When he cut his foot he injured a nerve. BÈc-BÈ]Ã-áE-R-CFÈN-ˇTc-NTE-˛-Z…C-êc, 2It
took a lot of nerve for him to question the leader’s motives at the public meeting.

≠…-T±Cc-WÍCc-]Oÿ]Ã-§‰E-Pc-]CÈ-t…N-l…-AÿP-ÜÈE-]x…-T_-BÈc-ßÈTc-R-G‰P-RÈ-T´‰N-NCÈc-qŸE-,
neutral /"nju:tr@l/ | T_-CPc, TKE-£ÈUc, || He said he felt neutral about the situation.
BÈc-CPc-W”`-N‰_-õ-T-TKE-£ÈUc-T\“E-^ÈN-\‰_,
never /"nev@/ | CKP-Pc-U (NCC-±,), || I never saw that movie. Ec-ÇÈC-TãP-N‰_-CKP-Pc-U-Tõc,
new /nju:/ | Cc_-T, || My coat is new. E]Ã-§ÈN-CÈc-P…-Cc_-T-^…P,
▪234▪

New Year | `È-Cc_, || What will you do during the New Year holiday? `È-Cc_-n…-CPE-T]Ã-ˇTc-c“-mÈN-l…c-F…-Z…C-`c-î‡-^…P,
news /nju:z/ | Cc_-]nŸ_, || Did you hear the news about China today? mÈN-l…c-N-ˇTc-s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-ˇÈ_-n…-Cc_-]nŸ_-MÈc-cU,
next day | p…-I…P, || The next day he again did not go to school. p…-I…P-BÈ-^E-T´_-ÜÈT-≈_-U-cÈE-,
next time | M‰Ec-ä‰c-U, || Next time we have lunch together I’ll pay. M‰Ec-ä‰c-U_-E-WÍc-UIU-Oÿ-\-U-\, _…P-Ec-≥ÈN,
next to | `ÈCc-c“, ]t…c-c“, || Who sits next to you? mÈN-l…-`ÈCc-c“-c“-T•N-^ÈN,
next /nekst/ | N‰-Pc, N‰]Ã-ä‰c, || What will we do next? N‰]Ã-ä‰c-E-WÍc-F…-Z…C-q‰N-NCÈc,
next year | `È-ä‰c-U, || Next year I will be fourteen. `È-ä‰c-U_-E-_E-`È-TF“-TZ…-`-cÈP-î‡-_‰N,
nice /naIs/ | ^C-RÈ, 1NC]-TÈ, 2Z…U-RÈ, || 1Nice to meet you. mÈN-NE-]zN-Pc-NC]-TÈ-qŸE-, 2This mutton soup is nice.

`“C-a]Ã-B‘-T-]N…-Z…U-RÈ-]OÿC
night /naIt/ | UWP-UÈ, || When night came his tooth was more painful. UWP-UÈ-܉Tc-Oÿc-BÈ]Ã-cÈ-üC-Lfi-P,
night-time | UWP-Oÿc, || I sleep during the night-time. UWP-Oÿc-E-_E-I`,
nine /naIn/ | NDÿ, || My sister is nine. E]Ã-~…E-UÈ-`È-NDÿ-^…P,
ninth /naInT/ | NDÿ-T, || Her ninth birthday was last week. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-M‰Ec-NDÿ-T-P…-C\]-]BÈ_-¢ÈP-U]Ã-PE-^…P,
no /n@U/ | (NCC-±,) U…P, U…, || No, I don’t want to go to the store. U…P, E-_E-WÍE-BE-Oÿ-]uÈ-U…-]NÈN,
no longer | î‡P-]mÈEc-U…-q‰N-R, _…E-Oÿ-U…-q‰N-R, || I no longer study English. Ec-Nq…P-^…C-ÜÈT-R-î‡P-]mÈEc-U…-q‰N,
no /n@U/ | (NCC-±,) U…P, || No, I don’t want any. U…P, E-`-F…-^E-U…-NCÈc,
no problem | ´ÈP-U‰N-R, CPN-NÈP-U‰N-R, N@]-`c-U…P-R, || It’s no problem for me to help you study.
mÈN-l…-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-`-_ÈCc-_U-q‰N-R-P…-N@]-`c-a…C-U…P,
No. (number) /"nVmb@/ | eE-uEc, || I’ll buy No. Seven. Ec-eE-TOÿP-R-IÈ-î‡-^…P,
nobody /"n@Ub@di/ | U…-U‰N-R, || Nobody came to see me last night. UNE-NCÈE-E-`-õ-T_-^ÈE-T]Ã-U…-U‰N,
noise /nOIz/ | ]“_-±, || There was so much noise from the thunder last night. UNE-NCÈE-C…-]{⁄C-±c-]“_-±-G‰P-RÈ-T\Èc,
nominate /"nQmIneIt/ | CKP-]B‰`-q‰N-R, TˇÈ-TZC-q‰N-R, || I’m going to nominate her for class monitor.
Ec-BÈ-UÈ-]XÀP-≈]Ã-]CÈ-CVÍ-_“-TˇÈ-TZC-q‰N-˛…c-^ÈN,
noodles /"nu:dlz/ | M—C-R, || I want noodles for lunch. Ec-DÿE-\c-`-M—C-R-]M—E-î‡-^…P,
noon /nu:n/ | I…P-DÿE-, || We usually eat lunch at noon. E-WÍc-Oÿc-î‡P-I…P-DÿE-DÿE-\c-\-TZ…P-^ÈN,
normal /"nO:ml/ | î‡P-úP, || It is normal to want to eat food every day. I…P-_‰_-\c-\-]NÈN-R-P…-î‡P-úP-^…P,
north /nO:T/ | qE-pÈCc, || Grassland is in the north of the valley. »-ME-P…-`“E-T]Ã-qE-pÈCc-c“-^ÈN,
Northeast /nO:T/ | qE-a_, || Liaoning is in Northeast China. `]È-I…P-P…-s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-qE-a_-P-^ÈN,
northerly/ "nO:D@li/ | qE-Oÿ-CKN-R, || We walked in a northerly direction. E-WÍc-B-pÈCc-qE-Oÿ-CKN-K‰-cÈE-,
Northwest /nO:Twest/ | Q÷T-qE-, || Gansu is in Northwest China. @P-c“]—-P…-s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-Q÷T-qE-Oÿ-^ÈN,
nose /n@Uz/ | ¶, || My nose is cold. E]Ã-¶-]mCc-RÈ-_‰N,
not at all | CKP-Pc-U‰N-NE-U…P-R, || When she said, "Thank you," I said, "Not at all."
BÈ-UÈc-"T@]-x…P-G‰,"Z‰c-TaN-R-P, Ec-"T@]-x…P-CKP-Pc-[÷-U…-NCÈc,"Z‰c-TaN,
not /nQt/ | (NCC-±,) U…, U‰N, U…P, || Not everyone wanted to do it. U…-WE-Uc-q-T-N‰-`c-P-]NÈN-R-U-_‰N,
▪235▪

note /n@Ut/ | 1Tç-^…C 2±-åCc, || 1Please take a note to my friend. E]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ_-Tç-^…C-F…C-]m‰_-_ÈCc, 2I couldn’t read
the notes on the sheet music. Ec-±-NqEc-]N…]Ã-PE-C…-±-åCc-éUc-]NÈP-U…-a‰c,
nothing /"nVTIN/ | F…-^E-, || I understood nothing he said. Ec-BÈc-TaN-R-F…-^E-d-CÈ-U-cÈE-,
November /n@U"vemb@/ | ≠…-Ñ-TF“-CF…C-R, || It begins to get much colder in November.

≠…-Ñ-TF“-CF…C-R-Pc-T\“E-PU-Ñ-H‰-uE-Oÿ-G‰c-G‰_-]uÈ,
now /naU/ | N-õ, || Now I am learning how to write Tibetan. N-õ-Ec-TÈN-^…C-H…-õ_-]{…-W”`-ÆÈE-C…P-^ÈN,
nowhere /"n@Uwe@/ | CPc-U‰N-R, CE-`]E-, || The poor man had nowhere to sleep that night.
NCÈE-UÈ-N‰_-≥E-TÈ-N‰-`-I`-c]Ã-CPc-U‰N,
nuclear /"nju:kli@/ | I…E-çfl`, || Nuclear weapons are extremely dangerous. I…E-çfl`-UWÍP-G-P…-d-FE-I‰P-B-G‰,
number /"nVmb@/ | eE-uEc, || Three is a special number. Cc“U-P…-eE-uEc-mN-R_-FP-Z…C-^…P,
nurse /n3:s/ | PN-C^ÈC || I want to become a nurse when I grow up. E-_E-P_-cÈP-P-PN-C^ÈC-F…C-q‰N-]NÈN,

O
o’clock /@"klQk/ | Oÿc-WÍN, || At four o’clock we go home. Oÿc-WÍN-TZ…]Ã-§‰E-Oÿ-E-WÍ-^“`-Oÿ-]uÈ,
obey /@"beI/ | B-`-IP-R, || The sons didn’t obey their father. T“-N‰-WÍc-e-S]Ã-B-`-U-IP,
object /"QbdZIkt/ | NEÈc-RÈ, || A ball is a round object. óE-`…-P…-NEÈc-RÈ-_…`-_…`-Z…C-^…P,
observe /@b"z3:v/ | õ-T, || She only likes to observe basketball games. BÈ-UÈc-`P-G…C-ßÈ-`È-]uP-T•‡_-BÈ-P-`c-õ-U…-]NÈN,
occupy /"QkjupaI/ | NTE-T, NU-]XÀP, ]XÀP-T\“E-q‰N-R, || He knows how to occupy his time well.

BÈc-_E-C…-Oÿc-WÍN-H…-õ_-NU-]XÀP-q‰N-NCÈc-R-Cc`-TÈ_-a‰c,
ocean /"@USn/ | î-UWÍ, || It takes many days to drive to the ocean from here.
]N…-Pc-î-UWÍ]Ã-T_-`-I…P-UE-TÈ_-ÖEc-]BÈ_-`-T•N-Pc-]uÈ-NCÈc,
October /Qk"t@Ub@/ | ≠…-Ñ-TF“-T, || How many days are in October? ≠…-Ñ-TF“-T-`-I…P-U-Oÿ-^ÈN,
of /@v; Qv/ | (]{‰`-±]Ã-zN,) `c, || She is the best of all the students. BÈ-UÈ-P…-ÜÈT-U]Ã-PE-Pc-G‰c-T\E-TÈ-^…P,
off /Qf/ | (ÇÈC-cÈCc,) UWUc-CFÈN-R, GN-R, || The light is off. ÇÈC-GN-cÈE-,
offer /"Qf@/ | Æ…P-R, || I tried to offer him my coat because he was cold. BÈ-uE-C…P-]OÿC-Rc-Ec-_E-C…-§ÈN-CÈc-BÈ_-§‰_-MTc-qc,
office /"QfIs/ | C[÷E-±„T-BE-, || My office is here. E]Ã-C[÷E-±„T-BE-]N…-P-^ÈN,
officer /"QfIs@/ | NRÈP-RÈ, || Is your father an officer in the army? mÈN-l…-e-S-NUC-NR“E-C…-NRÈP-RÈ-Z…C-^…P-PU,
official /@"fISl/ | ]CÈ-CVÍ, || Did the official say that it was OK? ]CÈ-CVÍc-N‰-GÈC-F‰c-e‰-TaN,
often /"Qfn; "Qft@n/ | Oÿc-î‡P, || I often speak English. Ec-Oÿc-î‡P-Oÿ-Nq…P-ˇN-µ,
Oh dear! /dI@/ | ]È, N@ÈP-UGÈC-Cc“U-RÈc-Um‰P, || Oh dear! I can’t believe it is true! ]È, N@ÈP-UGÈC-Cc“U-RÈc-Um‰P,
E-_E-N‰-EÈ-U-^…P-R_-^…N-U…-G‰c,
oh /@/ | ]È, || Oh, is it really true? ]È, N‰-NEÈc-CPc-NÈP-NEÈc-^…P-PU,
oil /OIl/ | ¶‡U, çÈ-¶‡U, || We need more cooking oil. E-WÍ_-\c-¶‡U-N-OÿE-UE-TÈ-NCÈc,
OK | ^, || OK, we will do what you suggest. ^, E-WÍc-mÈN-l…c-F…-TaN-T±„T-E‰c,
old /@Uld/ | àc-R, || My grandmother is very old. E]Ã-ßÈ-UÈ-d-FE-àc-]OÿC
on duty | `c-_‰c, || My father was on duty last night at the hospital. E]Ã-e-S-UNE-NCÈE-©P-BE-C…-`c-_‰c-^…P,
▪236▪

on foot | áE-ME-, || I went on foot to the shop. E-WÍ-WÍE-BE-N‰_-áE-ME-Oÿ-cÈE-T-^…P,
on /Qn/ | 1MÈC 2B-]q‰N-R, || 1The book is on the desk. NR‰-G-FÈC-VÂ]Ã-MÈC-Lfi-^ÈN, 2Please turn the radio on.

±-•‡N-]BÈ_-`È]Ã-B-p‰-NE-,
on the way home | ^“`-Oÿ-`ÈC-R]Ã-`U-Oÿ, || On the way home I fell and hurt my wrist.

^“`-Oÿ-`ÈC-R]Ã-`U-Oÿ-E-_E-ME-`-]n‰`-Pc-Ut…C-U-êc,
once /wVns/ | M‰Ec-a…C || I once was very sick. M‰Ec-a…C-`-E-_E-d-FE-P-qŸE-,
one /wVn/ | CF…C || One day later he was well again. I…P-CF…C-C…-ä‰c-c“-BÈ]Ã-PN-^E-T´_-xC
only /"@Unli/ | BÈ-P, U-CKÈCc, || I only want this book. E-`-NR‰-G-]N…-BÈ-P-NCÈc,
open /"@Up@n/ | 1^Ec-R, 2]q‰N-R, || 1After a policy of economic reforms was implemented the country
became more open. NR`-]qÈ_-TFÈc-¨„_-n…-~…N-H“c-`C-T§_-qc-ä‰c, î`-BT-l…-°È-H‰-^Ec-c“-cÈE-, 2Please open the window.
x-U-p‰-NE-,
operation /%Qp@"reISn/ | 1CaCc-TFÈc, 2TNC-CI‰_, || 1I must have an operation next week.
C\]-]BÈ_-ä‰c-U_-E-`-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-CaCc-TFÈc-q‰N-NCÈc, 2Our financial operations require several accountants.
E-WÍ]Ã-NR`-]qÈ_-TNC-CI‰_-`-˛…c-CI‰_-T-]C]-NCÈc,
opinion /@"pInj@n/ | õ-T, || In his opinion everyone should get a good education.
BÈ]Ã-õ-T_-U…-_‰-_‰_-ÜÈT-CcÈ-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-]MÈT-NCÈc,
oppose /@"p@Uz/ | EÈ-àÈ`, || I don’t mean to oppose you but I really don’t agree.
Ec-mÈN-`-EÈ-àÈ`-q‰N-R-U…P-UÈN, ]ÈP-lE-E-_E-CKP-Pc-U…-]MN,
opposite /"Qp@zIt/ | úÈC-Ñ, || The opposite of "black" is "white." "PC-RÈ]Ã-"úÈC-Ñ-P…- "N@_-TÈ"^…P,
oppress /@"pres/ | TVP-àÈ`, || Sometimes stronger animals like to oppress weaker ones.
ˇTc-]C_-_…-ªCc-TVP-RÈc-_…-ªCc-*3?-(%-`-TVP-àÈ`-q‰N,
or /O:/ | ^E-P, || Do you want coffee or tea? mÈN-`-B-nJ-NCÈc-cU-^E-P-H-NCÈc,
orange /"QrIndZ/ | 1W-`“-U, 2`…-NU_, || 1The orange was spoiled. W-`“-U-N‰-_“`-]OÿC 2Her orange jacket was easy to
see from far away. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-`…-NU_-n…-§ÈN-¡-N‰-îE-_…E-Pc-UMÈE-Ü,
orbit /"O:bIt/ | 1]BÈ_-`U, 2ˇÈ_-T, ]BÈ_-T, || 1The earth’s orbit around the sun has been carefully studied.
I…-U_-TˇÈ_-T]Ã-c]Ã-CÈ-`]Ã-]BÈ_-`U-`-Z…T-]H“C-Z…T-UÈ-qc-^ÈN, 2The planets orbit the sun. î‡-ˇ_-éUc-I…-U_-TˇÈ_-Pc-]BÈ_,
orchestra /"O:kIstr@/ | ]T“N-NsÈ`-_È`-Gc-_“-BC || Ten musicians were in the orchestra.
]T“N-NsÈ`-_È`-Gc-_“-BC-N‰_-_È`-UÈ-T-TF“-^ÈN,
order /"O:d@/ | 1CÈ-_…U, 2u`-NC-RÈ_-]HÈC-R, 3T@], 4T@]-CPE-T, || 1Put your things in order. mÈN-l…-NEÈc-RÈ-éUc-CÈ-_…U-õ_-ZÈC
2

Please order your books and other belongings so that your room looks neat.

mÈN-l…-NR‰-G-NE-NEÈc-RÈ-CZP-R-NC-u`-NC-RÈ_-TZC-Pc-mÈN-l…-BE-T-P=-NC-Lfi-MÈEc, 3I must obey my leader’s order.
Ec-E]Ã-]CÈ-t…N-l…-T@]-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-≠…-TÈ_-`‰P-NCÈc, 4"I order you to come to class on time," the teacher told the tardy
student. NC‰-àP-n…c-ÜÈT-U-¨…N-`“C-N‰-`- "Ec-mÈN-`-ÜÈT-t…N-`-Oÿc-MÈC-Lfi-^ÈE-î‡]Ã-T@]-CPE-T-^…P,"Z‰c-Cc“Ec,
organise (organize) /"O:g@naIz/ | DÿE-±…C-R, ˛-]X“Cc-q‰N-R, || I can’t organise my thoughts.
Ec-_E-C…-xP-W”`-éUc-DÿE-±…C-U…-M—T,
▪237▪

other /"VD@/ | CZP, || Do you want the other one? mÈN-`-CZP-R-N‰-NCÈc-cU,
our /A:; "aU@/ | E-WÍ]Ã, || This is our home. ]N…-P…-E-WÍ]Ã-m…U-^…P,
ours /A:z; "aU@z/ | E-WÍ]Ã, || This basketball is ours.S-:1J/-ßÈ-`È-]N…-E-WÍ]Ã-^…P,
ourselves /A:"selvz; %aU@"s-/ | E-WÍ-_E-I…N, || We cleaned the room by ourselves. BE-T-N‰-E-WÍ-_E-I…N-l…c-CN-TN_-qc-R-^…P,
out /aUt/ | p…, || He threw the paper out the window. BÈc-aÈC-T“-N‰-x-U]Ã-p…-_“-]SEc,
out of | p…, || I walked out of the classroom. E-_E-ÜÈT-BE-C…-p…-_“-p…P,
outside /%aUt"saId/ | p…, || Outside it was colder than inside. p…-^…-PU-Ñ-PE-`c-]mCc,
over /"@Uv@/ | 1uÈ`-T, UH“C-íÈCc-R, 2§‰E-Pc, || 1Class is not over yet. ÜÈT-t…N-N-OÿE-U-uÈ`, 2I don’t think I can jump over
this river. Ec-E-G”-TÈ-]N…]Ã-§‰E-Pc-UGÈEc-M—T-U…-]NÈN,
over there | S-C…_, || I live over there. E-_E-S-C…_-T•N-^ÈN,
owe /@U/ | GN-R, || How much money does he owe you for those potatoes? BÈc-mÈN-`-ZÈC-BÈC-C…-_…P-Oÿ-°È_-C-WÍN-GN-^ÈN,
own /@Un/ | 1_E-C…, U…-_E-I…N-l…, 2NTE-T, || 1This is my own home that my father left me when he died.

]N…-P…-E-_E-C…-BE-T-§‰, E]Ã-e-Sc-BÈ-r-EP-`c-]Nc-ˇTc-E-`-TZC-R-^…P, 2That family doesn’t own their house.
m…U-WE-N‰]Ã-BE-T-BÈ-WE-`-U…-NTE-,

P
page /peIdZ/ |

1

2

aÈC-uEc, íÈCc-R, ||

1

Turn to page ten. aÈC-uEc-TF“-T-`-íÈCc, 2If you page through the book, you

will see that it contains a number of spelling mistakes.

mÈN-l…c-NR‰-G-^ÈEc-c“-íÈCc-P, mÈN-l…c-NR‰-G]Ã-PE-Oÿ-^…C-PÈ_-UE-TÈ-^ÈN-R-ã‰N-M—T,
pain /peIn/ | P-\“C || The doctor tried to stop the pain. ©P-Rc-P-\“C-]CÈC-R_-]TN-R-qc,
paint /peInt/ | 1˛…Tˇ‡-T, 2˛…,|| 1Every year we paint the outside of our house. E-WÍc-`È-_‰_-BE-T]Ã-p…-`ÈCc-`-˛…-Tˇ‡, 2The
red paint was cheaper than the blue paint. ˛…-NU_-TÈ-N‰-˛…-¢ÈP-RÈ-N‰-`c-CÈE-Ü,
pair /pe@/ | G, || I bought this pair of shoes last month. Ec-üU-G-]N…-Ñ-¢ÈP-U_-IÈc-R-^…P,
palace /"p&l@s/ | SÈ-{E-, || The king and queen lived in a beautiful palace.
î`-TÈ-NE-TV“P-UÈ-CI…c-SÈ-{E-õ-P-•‡C-R-Z…C-Lfi-T[÷Cc-^ÈN,
pamphlet /"p&mfl@t/ | N‰T-G”E-, || Have you seen a pamphlet describing the new school?
mÈN-l…c-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-CPc-W”`-]BÈN-R]Ã-N‰T-G”E-Z…C-UMÈE-EU,
pan /p&n/ | Ü-E-, || We need a big pan to cook all the meat. a-]N…-MUc-FN-TVÍN-R_-E-WÈ_-Ü-E-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-NCÈc,
panda /"p&nd@/ | NÈU, || That panda is black and white. NÈU-N‰-P…-PC-t-<J.,
paper /"peIp@/ | aÈC-T“, || I don’t have any paper. E-`-aÈC-T“-U‰N,
parade /p@"reId/ | 1tÈU-ˇÈ_, 2tÈU-ˇÈ_-q‰N-R, || 1On May first we always have a parade.
≠…-Ñ-ò-T]Ã-WÂc-CF…C-`-E-WÍc-î‡P-R_-tÈU-ˇÈ_-Z…C-q‰N, 2We will parade down main street and then return to our school.
E-WÍc-C[÷E-`U-Tî‡N-Pc-tÈU-ˇÈ_-qc-ä‰c-p…_-E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-≈_-`ÈC-î‡-^…P,
pardon /"pA:dn/ | 1NCÈEc-NC 2NCÈEc-NC-[÷-T, || 1I beg your pardon, I didn’t hear what you said.
NCÈEc-NC-[÷-_ÈCc, Ec-mÈN-l…c-F…-Z…C-TaN-R-CÈ-U-cÈE-, 2The governor refused to pardon his crimes so he was executed.
~…N-]XÀP-R-N‰c-BÈ]Ã-I‰c-R-`-NCÈEc-NC-U-[÷c-Rc-BÈ-~ÈC-t…Uc-`-Æ_,
▪238▪

parent /"pe@r@nt/ | S]U-U, || After my father died I only had one parent. E]Ã-S-WÂ-`c-]Nc-ä‰c-E-`-U-CF…C-R“-`c-U‰N,
parents /"pe@r@nts/ | S-U, || My parents are both teachers. E]Ã-S-U-CI…c-@-NC‰-àP-^…P,
parents-in-law | n‰c-RÈ-NE-n‰c-UÈ, || My parents-in-law live in Rebgong. E]Ã-n‰c-RÈ-NE-n‰c-UÈ-CI…c-@-_‰T-CÈE-Oÿ-T•N-^ÈN,
park /pA:k/ | 1≠…-Ç…E-, 2•ÈN-R(ÖEc-]BÈ_-cÈCc), || 1I went to People’s Park last Sunday.

C\]-I…-U-¢ÈP-U]Ã-I…P-E-_E-U…-NUEc-≠…-Ç…E-Oÿ-cÈE-, 2Please park your car here. mÈN-l…-ÖEc-]BÈ_-]N…-_“-•ÈN,
parliament /"pA:l@m@nt/ | î`-WÈCc, || Britain uses a parliamentary system of government.
Nq…P-H…-î`-BT-l…c-î`-WÍCc-\‰_-T]Ã-~…N-C[÷E-C…-`U-`“Cc-a…C-`C-T§_-q‰N,
part /pA:t/ | G-ac, || Which part of this bread do you want? mÈN-`-CÈ-_‰-]N…]Ã-G-ac-CE-NCÈc-cU,
partly /"pA:tli/ | p‰N-VU, || She recognised that the accident was partly her fault.
BÈ-UÈc-NÈP-ì‰P-N‰]Ã-p‰N-VU-_E-C…-´ÈP-^…P-R_-EÈc-\…P-qc,
party /"pA:ti/ | 1≥È-WÍCc, 2KE-BC || 1We will have a party in our classroom this afternoon.
E-WÍc-N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ_-_E-_‰]Ã-ÜÈT-BE-PE-Oÿ-≥È-WÍCc-a…C-]WÍC-î‡-^…P, 2I don’t know very much about America’s political parties.
e-U‰-_…-B]Ã-GT-~…N-KE-BC-C…-ˇÈ_-Pc-Ec-UE-TÈ-U…-a‰c,
pass /pA:s/ | 1IC-C î‡N-R, 2§‰_-T, || 1That mountain pass was an important military location many years ago.
`È-UE-TÈ]Ã-¢ÈP-`-_…-TÈ]Ã-IC-C-N‰-P…-NUC-NR“E-C…-•ÈN-CPc-C`-G‰P-Z…C-^…P, 2Please pass the salt. Ω-N‰-]N…_-§‰_-_ÈCc,
passage /"p&sIdZ/ | ]u⁄`-T[÷N, || It was a long passage by ship to America from England.
Nq…P-H…-Pc-e-_“-T_-u⁄-´ÈN-qc-P-]u⁄`-T[÷N-l…-`U-MC-_…E-,
passenger /"p&sIndZ@/ | `U-UuÈP, || The passenger gave the ticket to the conductor.
`U-UuÈP-n…c-]XÀP-^…C-ZTc-[÷-T_-≥N,
passport /"pA:spO:t/ | `U-^…C `C-m‰_, || He thought he had lost his passport. BÈc-_E-C…-`U-^…C-TÈ_-\…P-TcUc-qŸE-,
past /pA:st/ | ¢_, ]Nc-R, || In the past I did not study English. ¢_-Ec-Nq…P-^…C-U-ÆEc,
path /pA:T/ | `U-zP, || There is a lovely path going through the forest. PCc-W`-n…-Cc‰T-Lfi-^…N-Oÿ-]ÈE-T]Ã-`U-zP-Z…C-^ÈN,
pay /peI/ | _…P-≥ÈN-R, || I didn’t have to pay much money for these shoes. Ec-üU-]N…_-°È_-UÈ-UE-TÈ-≥ÈN-U-NCÈc,
pea /pi:/ | ~P-U, || A small green pea fell off her plate onto the floor. ~P-U-¢ÈP-RÈ-G”E-G”E-Z…C-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-•‰_-U-`c-c_-ü‚E-,
peace /pi:s/ | ü…E-]HCc, Z…-TN‰, || There was not much peace to be found in the middle of town.
uÈE-Tç`-n…-Nl…`-Oÿ-ü…E-]HCc-ã‰N-N@],
pear /pe@/ | a…E-KÈC-`…, || The yellow pear fell on the floor. a…E-KÈC-`…-c‰_-TÈ-N‰-c_-ü‚E-,
peas /pi:s/ | ~P-U, || Many children don’t like to eat peas. q…c-R-UE-TÈ-~P-U-\-T_-U…-NC],
pen /pen/ | ôCc-Ø„C || This pen wasn’t expensive. ôCc-Ø„C-]N…]Ã-_…P-CÈE-U…-G‰,
pencil /"pensl/ | Z-Ø„C || Please sharpen my pencil. E]Ã-Z-Ø„C-CZÈCc,
pencil-box | Ø„C-°U, || I bought this pencil-box in that shop. Ec-Ø„C-°U-]N…-WÍE-BE-N‰-_“-IÈc-R-^…P,
penfriend /"penfrend/ | Ø„C-uÈCc, || I have a penfriend in New Zealand. E-`-P‰]“-VÀ-`P-P-Ø„C-uÈCc-a…C-^ÈN,
people /"pi:pl/ | U…, NUEc-WÍCc, || I like to be with other people. E-_E-U…-CZP-NE-UIU-Oÿ-]OÿC-î‡<-NC],
percent /p@"sent| Tî-G]Ã-WN, || What percent of students graduate from this school?
ÜÈT-≈-]N…-`c-ÜÈT-U-Tî-G]Ã-Oÿ-UM_-p…P-TZ…P-^ÈN,
▪239▪

perfect /"p3:fIkt/ | 1S“`-Oÿ-qŸE-T, 2x…-Uc-U-CÈc-R, || 1That is a perfect answer to that question.

N‰-P…-x…-T-N‰]Ã-`P-S“`-Oÿ-qŸE-T-Z…C-_‰N, 2Over time I hope to perfect my singing style.
Oÿc-l…-]uÈc-NE-T§flP-Pc, Ec-_E-C…-LJ-`‰P-§Ec-x…-Uc-U-CÈc-R-Z…C-Lfi-CKÈE-]NÈN,
perhaps /p@"h&ps; pr&ps/ | ~…N, t…Cc-t…Cc-U‰N-R, || Perhaps it would be better if I didn’t come tomorrow.
E-_E-cE-I…P-U-]ÈE-P-T\E-^E-~…N,
period /"pI@ri@d/ | 1aN, 2M—P, || 1Always put a period at the end of a sentence.
WÀC-F…C-C…-UH“C-Lfi-î‡P-R_-aN-F…C-BÈN-F…C 2Our class period is over at two p.m. E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-M—P-p…-xÈ]Ã-Oÿc-WÍN-CI…c-R]Ã-§‰E-uÈ`,
permanent /"p3:m@n@nt/ | CKP-]HCc, ^“P-_…E-, || They decided to make a permanent change in the school
rules. BÈ-WÍc-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-±…C-`U-MN-^“P-_…E-C…-TFÈc-T¨„_-Z…C-q‰N-î‡-MC-TFN,
permit /p@"mIt/ | 1GÈC-UGP, 2GÈC-UGP-§‰_-T, || 1You need to get a permit to build that building.
mÈN-l…c-BE-T-N‰-T˛…C-R_-GÈC-UGP-Z…C-`‰P-NCÈc, 2Please permit me to miss class tomorrow because I need to go to the
hospital to see my sick father. E-©P-BE-Oÿ-P-TZ…P-R]Ã-e-S-`-Tõ-_“-]uÈ-NCÈc-Rc, E-`-cE-I…P-ÜÈT-t…N-`-U-^ÈE-P-GÈC-R]Ã-GÈC-UGP-§‰_-_ÈCc,
person /"p3:sn/ | U…, || What person would want to go out in a storm like this?
]N…-]x]Ã-G_-Ö‡E-C…-PE-Oÿ-U…-c“-Z…C-p…-_“-]uÈ-]NÈN-NU,
phone /f@Un/ | 1B-R_-CKÈE-T, 2B-R_, || 1Please phone me. E-`-B-R_-CKÈE-_ÈCc, 2Does your family have a phone?
mÈN-WE-`-B-R_-^ÈN-NU,
photo /"f@Ut@U/ | ]x-R_, || This photo was taken in Ziling. ]x-R_-]N…-P…-\…-`…E-Pc-T´ÈP-R-^…P,
physics /"fIzIks/ | NEÈc-`“Cc, || Physics is the study of the laws of motion.
NEÈc-`“Cc-P…-NEÈc-RÈ]Ã-]Dÿ`-´ÈN-l…-GÈc-I…N-l…-Z…T-]H“C-`-CÈ
piano /pi"&n@U/ | éÈ-¥‰E-, || She played the piano beautifully. BÈ-UÈc-éÈ-¥‰E-±-£P-UÈ_-NsÈ`,
pick /pIk/ |1]HÈ_, 2]T`-T, 3TKÈC-R, || 1I used a pick to dig through the stony earth. Ec-]HÈ_-n…c-çÈ-c-TáÈc, 2Don’t pick
at your whiskers. mÈN-l…-B-߇-U-]T`, 3I will pick apples this afternoon. Ec-N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ_-Aÿ-b÷-TKÈC-î‡-^…P,
picnic /"pIknIk/ | 1≥È-Cc‰E-, 2W-SÈC-îC-R, || 1We went to the mountain for a picnic. E-WÍ-_…-]CÈ_-≥È-Cc‰E-`-cÈE-T-^…P, 2I don’t
like to picnic where there is a lot of garbage. CN-£…Cc-UE-TÈ-^ÈN-c-Pc-Ec-W-SÈC-îC-U…-]NÈN,
picture /"pIktS@/ | 1_…-UÈ, 2Z…T-]{…-q‰N-R, || 1This picture was painted one hundred years ago.
_…-UÈ-]N…-P…-`È-EÈ-Tî]Ã-¢ÈP-Oÿ-{…c-R-_‰N, 2Whenever I feel nervous and upset I try to picture a quiet forest scene.
E-_E-]WT-R-NE-´È-¶E-´‰-WÂ, Ec-ü…E-]HCc-l…-PCc-W`-^“`-öÈEc-a…C-Z…T-]{…-q‰N-˛…c-q‰N,
piece /pi:s/ | OÿU-T“, 1`‰T-UÈ, 2 _“T-R, || 1I want a small piece of cake. E-`-TC-`‰T-`‰T-UÈ-Z…C-NCÈc, 2After asking many
questions we were able to piece together what had happened. x…-T-UE-TÈ-]SEc-ä‰c, E-WÍc-NÈP-F…-qŸE-T-éUc-_“T-M—T-cÈE-,
pilot /"paIl@t/ | 1]S“_-´ÈN-R, 2CPU-u⁄-ˇÈ_-T, || 1The pilot flies the aeroplane. ]S“_-´ÈN-Rc-CPU-u⁄_-B-`È-¨„_, 2I will only feel
safe if you pilot our aeroplane. mÈN-l…c-E-WÍ]Ã-CPU-u⁄-ˇÈ_-P-N-C\ÈN-E]Ã-^…N-c‰Uc-TN‰,
ping-pong /pIN-pQN | S‰P-SE-ßÈ-`È, || My brother plays ping-pong very well. E]Ã-Q÷-TÈc-S‰P-SE-ßÈ-`È-˛‰-T-d-FE-T\E-,
pioneer /%paI@"nI@/ | CNÈE-`‰P-R, ¢ÈP-´ÈN-R, || The American pioneers were constantly moving west.
e-U‰-_“-B]Ã-CNÈE-`‰P-R-éUc-U—-UM—N-Oÿ-Q÷T-Lfi-T´ÈN,
▪240▪

pipe /paIp/ | 1®‡-Dÿ, 2®‡-Dÿ-Pc-G”-]x‰P-R, || 1We buried a pipe so that the town could have fresh water.

E-WÍc-®‡-Dÿ-Z…C-c-]ÈC-Lfi-®c-K‰-uÈE-Tç`-^ÈEc-l…c-G”-CVE-U-]M—E-M—T-R_-qc, 2They plan to pipe water to every
home. BÈ-WÍc-m…U-WE-_‰-_‰_-®‡-Dÿ-Pc-G”-]x‰P-˛…c-^ÈN,
pirate /"paIr@t/ | HC-R, || I once read a story about a pirate and a ship.
Ec-¢ÈP-GN-HC-R-Z…C-NE-u⁄-C\…Ec-a…C-C…-CKU-î‡N-F…C-TÅCc-rÈE-,
place /pleIs/ | CPc, || This is a nice place to live. CPc-]N…-P…-•ÈN-c-^C-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
place of interest | c-G-≥È-¶E-úP-R, || Beijing is a place of interest to all Chinese.
R‰-F…P-P…-s⁄E-CÈ-T-^ÈEc-`-UWÍP-P-c-G-≥È-¶E-úP-R-Z…C-_‰N,
plan /pl&n/ | 1]G_-CZ…, 2]G_-]CÈN-q‰N-R, || 1What is the plan for the party next week?
C\]-]BÈ_-ä‰c-U]Ã-≥È-WÍCc-`-]G_-CZ…-F…-Z…C-^ÈN, 2Let’s now plan our party for this weekend.
N-õ-E-WÍc-C\]-UH“C-]N…]Ã-≥È-WÍCc-`-]G_-]CÈN-q‰N-_ÈCc,
plane /pleIn/ | CPU-u⁄, || The plane landed with a bump. CPU-u⁄-^U-^ÈU-EE-c-`-TTc,
planet /"pl&nIt/ | î‡-ˇ_, || Each planet has its own orbit. î‡-ˇ_-_‰-`-_E-_E-C…-]BÈ_-`U-^ÈN,
plant /plA:nt/ | 1˛…-a…E-, ]N‰Tc-R, 1]X“Cc-R, || 1Some people like to grow plants in their houses.
U…-`-`-BE-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-˛…-a…E-]X“Cc-R_-NC], 2Soon it will be time to plant the rice
seedlings. U…-]nEc-R_-]{c-Ø„C-]X“Cc-_P-`-܉Tc-î‡-_‰N,
plate /pleIt/ | •‰_-U, || I broke a plate when I was washing dishes. Ec-N@_-^È`-]t‹-ˇTc-•‰_-U-Z…C-TFCc,
play /pleI/ | ˛‰-T, ˛‰N-UÈ, || I like to play with my baby brother. E-_E-E]Ã-߇P-G”E-NE-UIU-Oÿ-˛‰-T_-NC],
player /"pleI@/ | 1˛‰N-UBP, 2§ÈP-≠N, || 1He is a good volleyball player. BÈ-P…-S]‰-G…C-ßÈ-`È-˛‰N-UBP-NC]-TÈ-Z…C-_‰N, 2My VCD
player is broken. E]Ã- VCD§ÈP-≠N-GC-cÈE-,
please /pli:z/ | 1NC]-T_-q‰N-R, 2Dÿc-WÀC (_ÈCc-õ-T“,) || 1It will please my mother if I study well.
C`-K‰-Ec-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-^C-RÈ-qc-P-E]Ã-e-U-NC]-T_-q‰N-E‰c, 2Please give me some water. E-`-G”-CPE-_ÈCc,
pleased /pli:zd/ | ^…N-WÀU-R, NC]-T, || I was pleased with your good study. E-_E-mÈN-l…-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-^C-RÈ-`-^…N-WÀU-qŸE-,
pleasure /"pleZ@/ | NC]-≥È, || What gives you the most pleasure? F…-Z…C-C…c-mÈN-`-NC]-≥È-G‰c-G‰P-RÈ-§‰_,
plenty /"plenti/ | ]NE-TÈ, UÈN-RÈ, || There is plenty of meat here for everyone to eat. ]N…_-U…-éUc-`-a-\-î‡-]NE-TÈ-^ÈN,
plot /plQt/ | 1Tî‡N-_…U, 2`‰P-R-]XÀP-R, || 1Can you describe the plot of the film to me?
mÈN-l…c-E-`-ÇÈC-TãP-N‰]Ã-Tî‡N-_…U-TaN-GÈC-CU, 2You need to spend more time doing your work well and less time
plotting your leader’s demise. mÈN-l…c-_E-C…-q-T-`‰Cc-±„T-q‰N-R-`-Oÿc-WÍN-UE-Oÿ-T@È`-T-`c-mÈN-l…-]CÈ-t…N-l…-CÈ-CPc-`-`‰P-R-N‰-]x-U-]XÀP,
pocket /"pQkIt/ | eU-zC || My pocket has a hole in it. E]Ã-eU-zC-`-B‘E-T“-Z…C-^ÈN,
poem /"p@UIm/ | £P-EC || My teacher taught us how to write poems in class.
E-WÍ]Ã-NC‰-àP-n…c-ÜÈT-t…N-l…-§‰E-Pc-E-WÍ_-£P-EC-]{…-W”`-t…N,
point /pOInt/ | 1˛‰-UÈ, 2£…E-NÈP, || 1A needle has a very sharp point. BT-`-˛‰-UÈ-d-FE-éÈP-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN, 2What is the point of
your story? mÈN-l…-CKU-î‡N-l…-£…E-NÈP-P…-F…-Z…C-^…P,

▪241▪

poison /"pOIzn/ | 1OÿC 2OÿC-ú‡N-R, || 1Poison is used to kill weeds and animals.

OÿC-P…-»-ú‡U-NE-~ÈC-GCc-CcÈN-R_-T@È`, 2The attempt to poison the enemy leader was successful.
Nu-NUC-C…-]CÈ-T<-OÿC-ú‡N-R]Ã-AÿP-ÜÈE-`‰Cc-]u⁄T-qŸE-,
police /p@"li:s/ | 1I‰P-åÈC-R, 2TN‰-´ÈE-q‰N-R, || 1I called the police. Ec-I‰P-åÈC-R-TÈc, 2It is my turn to police the campus
this evening. N‰-NCÈE-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-_-T-`-TN‰-´ÈE-q‰N-_‰c-E-`-˛‰Tc-^ÈN,
police station /p@"li:s/ | I‰P-åÈC-c-W…Cc, || The police station is near a large intersection.
I‰P-åÈC-c-W…Cc-P…-TZ…-UNÈ-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-C…-I‰-c_-^ÈN,
policeman /p@"li:sm&n//| I‰P-åÈC-R, || The policeman stopped that red car. I‰P-åÈC-Rc-ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-NU_-RÈ-N‰-T@C
policy /"pQl@si/ | ±…C-`U, ~…N-H“c, || What is the school policy on being late? ä‰c-c“-`“c-R_-ÜÈT-≈-`-±…C-`U-F…-Z…C-^ÈN,
politics /"pQl@tIks/ | GT-~…N, || You can read about politics in the newspaper.
mÈN-l…c-WCc-R_-`c-~…N-H“c-l…-pÈCc-ÅÈC-M—T,
pollute /p@"lu:t/ | 1TVÍC-RÈ_-CKÈE-T, 2]TC-TVÍC || 1Don’t pollute the river with your garbage.
mÈN-l…c-CN-£…Cc-l…c-CVE-TÈ-TVÍC-RÈ_-U-CKÈE-, 2Some cities in the world are very polluted.
]XU-Ç…E-§‰E-uÈE-m‰_-`-`-P…-d-FE-]TC-TVÍC-^…P,
poor /pO:/ | NT“`-TÈ, || Poor people want to become rich. NT“`-TÈ-éUc-pŸC-RÈ_-]nŸ_-T_-]NÈN,
popular /"pQpj@l@/ | N_-mT-G‰-T, || Popular music can be heard everywhere in the city.
uÈE-m‰_-n…-CE-c_-N_-mT-G‰-T]Ã-LJ-NqEc-MÈc-M—T,
population /%pQpju"leISn/ | U…-uEc, || China has the largest human population of any country in the world.
s⁄E-CÈ-`-]XU-Ç…E-§‰E-C…-î`-BT-CE-`c-lE-U…-uEc-G‰c-G‰P-RÈ-^ÈN,
pork /pO:k/ | SC-a || I like pork dumplings. E-SC-a]Ã-UÈC-UÈC-`-NC],
port /pO:t/ | u⁄-B, || New York City is a busy port on the east coast of America.
P‰]“-^ÈC-uÈE-m‰_-P…-e-U‰-_“-B]Ã-a_-UM]Ã-UWÍ-î‡N-l…-u⁄-B-{‰`-\…E-G‰-T-Z…C-^…P,
position /p@"zISn/ | 1•ÈN-CPc, CÈ-CPc, 2CPc-a…C-Lfi-]H“C-R, || 1He doesn’t like to sit in one position for a long time.
BÈ-^“P-_…E-TÈ_-•ÈN-CPc-CF…C-Lfi-•ÈN-U…-]NÈN, 2He tried to position himself in the financial market so that he could
make as much money as possible. BÈc-_E-I…N-NR`-]qÈ_-WÍE-_]Ã-PE-Oÿ-TF“C-Pc-°È_-UÈ-F…-M—T-F…C-_‰C-˛…c-qc,
possess /p@"zes/ | ^ÈN-R, TNC-]XÀP-q‰N-R, || She wants to possess many nice dresses. BÈ-UÈc-TaÈ_-¡-UE-TÈ-^ÈN-P-]NÈN,
possible /"pQs@bl/ | ~…N-R, || Will it be possible for you to visit me in the future?
U-]ÈEc-R_-mÈN-_E-E-`-Tõ-T_-]ÈE-~…N-NU,
post /p@Ust/ | 1@-T, 2¥C-MÈC-Pc-Tˇ‡_-T, || 1The wooden post was leaned against a tree. a…E-C…-@-T-N‰-•ÈE-TÈ-Z…C-`-B‰P-^ÈN, 2I
will post your letter this afternoon. N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ_-Ec-mÈN-l…-]z…P-^…C-¥C-MÈC-Pc-Tˇ‡_-î‡-^…P,
post office | ¥C-BE-, || I walked to the post office yesterday. B-cE-E-_E-b%-,%-.-¥C-BE-`-cÈE-,
postcard /"p@UstkA:d/ | ˇÈCc-U‰N-]z…P-^…C || I bought a postcard a few minutes ago.
Ec-ˇ_-U-]C]Ã-¢ÈP-Oÿ-ˇÈCc-U‰N-]z…P-^…C-F…C-IÈc,
postpone /p@"sp@Un/ | p…_-]nE-T\È-T, || The storm caused us to postpone the picnic.
xC-G_-N‰c-E-WÍ]Ã-W-SÈC-p…_-]nE-T\Èc,
▪242▪

potato /p@"teIt@U/ | ZÈC-BÈC || My family likes to eat potatoes. E]Ã-T\]-U…-éUc-ZÈC-BÈC-\-T_-NC],
pour /pO:/ | ɇC-R, || Please pour me some tea. E-`-H-ɇCc,
power /"paU@/ | a‰N, Q÷c-§ÈTc, || Lifting weights increases muscle power. a‰N-ÆÈE-ôCc-_…`-TlCc-P-a-çÈ]Ã-a‰N-b÷Cc-T´‰N,
practice /"pr&ktIs/ | 1ÆÈE-Tç_-q‰N-R, 2ÆÈE-Tç_, || 1I practice speaking English everyday.

Ec-I…P-_‰_-Nq…P-ˇN-TaN-î‡-ÆÈE-Tç_-q‰N-TZ…P-^ÈN, 2Football practice is this afternoon. áE-˛‰N-ßÈ-`È]Ã-ÆÈE-Tç_-P…-N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ-^…P,
praise /preIz/ | 1T¢Cc-TäÈN, 2T¢Cc-TäÈN-q‰N-R, || 1I have only praise for my mother.
E-`-E]Ã-e-U-BÈ-P_-T¢Cc-TäÈN-q‰N-î‡-`c-U‰N, 2She will praise the leader if she meets him.
BÈ-UÈ-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-]CÈ-t…N-`-M—C-P-BÈ-UÈc-T¢Cc-TäÈN-q‰N-î‡-_‰N,
pray /preI/ | CcÈ`-T-]N‰Tc-R, ©ÈP-`U-[÷-T, || The monks pray in the temple daily. ≈-T-éUc-l…c-I…P-õ_-ü-BE-Oÿ-CcÈ`-T-]N‰Tc,
prefecture "pri:fIktS@/ | B‘`, || My home is in Malho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.
E]Ã-S-^“`-P…-ê-üÈ-TÈN-_…Cc-_E-´ÈE-B‘`-^…P,
pregnant /"pregn@nt/ | UE`-`-GCc-R, || My sister is pregnant with her first baby.
E]Ã-~…E-UÈ-`-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-q…c-R-NE-TÈ-UE`-`-GCc,
prepare /prI"pe@/ | u-±…C-q‰N-R, || We must prepare a meal for the workers.
E-WÍc-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-T\È-T-éUc-`-CcÈ`-WÀCc-u-±…C-q‰N-NCÈc,
present /"preznt/ | 1`‰Cc-´‰c, 2[÷Cc-R, 3EÈ-≥ÈN-q‰N-R, || 1Don’t buy me a present for my birthday.
E]Ã-´‰c-ˇ_-n…-NÈP-Oÿ-E-`-`‰Cc-´‰c-U-IÈ, 2Who is not present in our class today? N‰-_…E-E-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-t…N-`-c“-[÷Cc-U‰N, 3Because you
are a new teacher, I will present you to the students at this morning’s school meeting.

mÈN-P…-NC‰-àP-Cc_-T-Z…C-^…P-Rc, N-PEc-C…-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-WÍCc-]Oÿ]…-§‰E-Ec-mÈN-ÜÈT-U-éUc-`-EÈ-≥ÈN-q‰N,
president /"prezId@nt/ | ≠…-mT-NT“-t…N, V“P-M—P, || Do you know the name of the President of the United States?
mÈN-l…c-e-_…]Ã-≠…-mT-NT“-t…N-l…-U…E-a‰c-cU,
press /pres/ | 1NT“_-K…-îC-R, 2PÈP-R, || 1The dry cleaners will press your shirt for you.
ˇU-]t‹-q‰N-UBP-éUc-l…c-mÈN-l…-CÈP-R_-NT“_-K…-îC-E‰c, 2Press this button and the light will go on. CF“c-°È-N‰-PÈP-NE-ÇÈC-T@_-]uÈ,
pressure /"preS@/ | CPÈP-b÷Cc, || The tires will be flat if they don’t have enough air pressure in them.
]n…C-]BÈ_-n…-PE-Oÿ-NT“Cc-l…-CPÈP-b÷Cc-]NE-E‰c-a…C-U‰N-P-`‰T-UÈ_-IP-]uÈ,
prevent /prI"vent/ | ¢ÈP-]CÈC-q‰N-R, || Keeping warm is a good way to prevent a cold.
xÈP-RÈ_-•ÈN-R-P…-GU-PN-¢ÈP-]CÈC-q‰N-R]Ã-MTc-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^…P,
price /praIs/ | 1_…P-CÈE-, 2CÈE-CFÈN-R, || 1What is the price of that bread? CÈ-_‰-N‰]Ã-_…P-CÈE-C-WÍN-^…P, 2I will price new
computers this afternoon and then decide if I can afford one.

N‰-_…E-p…-xÈ_-Ec-ÇÈC-ÅN-Cc_-T-Z…C-`-CÈE-TFN-Pc-Ec-IÈ-M—T-U…P-`-Tõ-î‡-^…P,
prison /"prIzn/ | TVÍP-BE-, || The guards stood outside the prison gate. °È-¿-T-TVÍP-BE-C…-°È-B_-`Ec-^ÈN,
private /"praIv@t/ | °‰_-n…, || My brother wants to start his own private business. E]Ã-S“-TÈc-_E-C…-°‰_-WÍE-C…-]CÈ-˛ÈU-]NÈN,
prize /praIz/ | q-NC], || If we study hard we may get a prize for knowing the most words.
C`-K‰-E-WÍc-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-`-]TN-R-qc-P-E-WÍc-M-£N-G‰c-UE-TÈ-a‰c-Pc-q-NC]-]MÈT-~…N,

▪243▪

probably /"prQb@bli/ | S`-G‰_, ~…N, || I will probably buy a new shirt next year.

cE-`È_-Ec-S`-G‰_-WÀ-`‰P-Cc_-T-Z…C-IÈ-~…N,
problem /"prQbl@m/ | CPN-NÈP, || Learning English without a book is a problem.
Nq…P-^…C-ÆÈE-T_-NR‰-G-U‰N-P-CPN-NÈP-Z…C-_‰N,
produce /pr@"dju:s/ | 1MÈP-íc, 2MÈP-´‰N-q‰N-R, || 1Did you see a lot of fresh produce at the market?
mÈN-l…c-WÍE-_-Pc-MÈP-íc-Cc_-T-UE-TÈ-UMÈE-EU, 2How many new cars can your factory produce in one year?
mÈN-WÍ]Ã-T\È-≈c-`È-CF…C-`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-Cc_-T-Oÿ-MÈP-´‰N-q‰N-M—T,
professor /pr@"fes@/ | NC‰-àP-G‰P-UÈ, || I want to be a history professor after I graduate from school.
E-_E-ÜÈT-UM_-p…P-ä‰c-`È-î‡c-l…-NC‰-àP-G‰P-UÈ-Z…C-q‰N-]NÈN,
programme (program) /"pr@Ugr&m/ | `‰-WP, || I heard there is a good television programme on tonight.
E]Ã-CÈ-MÈc-c“-NÈ-NCÈE-TãP-]z…P-`‰-WP-^C-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
progress /"pr@Ugres/ | CÈE-]S‰`, CÈE-]S‰`-]qŸE-T, || The teacher was pleased with the students’ progress.
ÜÈT-U]Ã-CÈE-]S‰`-`-NC‰-àP-^…N-WÀU-]OÿC
project /"prQdZekt/ | 1`c-NÈP, éU-uEc, 2§ÈP-R, || 1The town leader asked if the people were interested in the
road building project. uÈE-Tç`-n…-]CÈ-CVÍ-^…c-UE-WÍCc-`-C[÷E-`U-Z…C-`c-R]Ã-`c-NÈP-MN-≥È-c‰Uc-^ÈN-U‰N-x…c, 2Can you project
what this city may look like ten years from now? N-Pc-`È-TF“]Ã-ä‰c-uÈE-m‰_-]N…-H…-]x-Z…C-Lfi-]nŸ_-î‡-^…P-R-mÈN-l…c-§ÈP-M—T-TU,
promise /"prQmIs/ | 1B-NP, 2NU-TF]-T, Bc-`‰P-q‰N-R, || 1You broke your promise so I don’t believe you any more.
mÈN-l…c-mÈN-l…-B-NP-TFCc-Rc-eJ?-KR$?-E-mÈN-`-^…N-U…-G‰c, 2He promised to love her forever. BÈc-BÈ-UÈ_-CKP-Oÿ-NC]-î‡]Ã-NU-TFÈc,
propaganda /%prQp@"g&nd@/ | x…`-T±Cc, || The speaker was discussing the benefits of propaganda.
CKU-TäÈN-Rc-x…`-T±Cc-l…-NC‰-UWP-ljE-TZ…P-]OÿC
property /"prQp@ti/ | î‡-PÈ_, || Who owns that property by the river? G”-]uU-n…-î‡-PÈ_-N‰-c“-`-NTE-,
propose /pr@"p@Uz/ | uÈc-CZ…-]NÈP-R, || The governor proposed to build four new schools next year.
~…N-]XÀP-Rc-cE-`È_-ÜÈT-≈-Cc_-T-TZ…-`c-î‡]Ã-uÈc-CZ…-TKÈP,
protection /pr@"tekSn/ | ~⁄E-´ÈT, ]CÈC-R, || Yaks have thick hair for protection from the cold.
C^C-`-uE-E_-]CÈC-R]Ã-˛…N-R-UM—C-RÈ-^ÈN,
protest /"pr@Utest/ | EÈ-àÈ`, EÈ-àÈ`-q‰N-R, || No one wanted to protest against the teacher’s
ideas. NC‰-àP-n…-TcU-W”`-`-c“c-lE-EÈ-àÈ`-q‰N-U-]NÈN,
proud /praUd/ | ßÈTc-R, C\…-Tä…N, E-î`, || The parents were very proud when their daughter graduated from
school. T“-UÈ-ÜÈT-UM_-p…P-Rc-S-U-CI…c-E-î`-n…-B‰Ec-]OÿC
prove /pru:v/ | TN‰P-NRE-q‰N-R, _-≥ÈN-q‰N-R, || Can you prove he took the money? mÈN-l…c-BÈc-°È_-UÈ-m‰_-T_-TN‰P-NRE-q‰N-M—T-TU,
provide /pr@"vaId/ | ]NÈP-≥ÈN, || The father wanted to provide the best opportunities for his children.
e-Sc-_E-C…-T“-z⁄C-éUc-`-CÈ-ˇTc-G‰c-`‰Cc-RÈ-]NÈP-≥ÈN-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
public /"pVblIk/ | UE-WÍCc, || Finally, after many years, they made the secret documents available to the
public. `È-UE-TÈ-]CÈ_-T]Ã-UM_, BÈ-WÍc-CcE-T]Ã-^…C-G-N‰-UE-WÍCc-`-T§P,
▪244▪

publication /%pVblI"keISn/ | NR_-∞„P, || Is your novel ready for publication?

mÈN-l…-±„E-˛ÈU-NR_-∞„P-q‰N-R_-u-±…C-q‰N-^ÈN-NU,
publish /"pVblIS/ | NR_-∞„P-q‰N-R, || She hopes to get a book of her poems published next year.
BÈ-UÈc-_E-C…-£P-EC-C…-NR‰-G-Z…C-cE-`È_-NR_-∞„P-q‰N-î‡]Ã-_‰-T-TFEc-^ÈN,
pull /pUl/ | 1b÷Cc-ì‰P, 2]M‰P-R, || 1I don’t have much pull with the leaders any more. ]CÈ-t…NéUc-l…-§‰E-N-õ-E-`-b÷Cc-ì‰P-U‰N, 2Please pull this string. ˇ‡N-R-]N…-]M‰P-_ÈCc,
pump /pVmp/ | 1G”-]M‰P-]z⁄`-]BÈ_, 2G”-]M‰P-R, || 1The water pump is broken so the car won’t work.
G”-]M‰P-]z⁄`-]BÈ_-GC-\…P-Rc-ÖEc-]BÈ_-]BÈ_-´ÈN-q‰N-U…-M—T, 2The basement classroom is flooded so we will have to pump
out the water before we can have class. c-]ÈC-C…-ÜÈT-BE-PE-Oÿ-G”-Tî‡Cc-Rc-ÜÈT-t…N-U-qc-CÈE-E-WÍc-G”-]M‰P-NCÈc-qŸE-,
punish /"pVnIS/ | GN-R-CFÈN-R, || The teacher knew she had to punish the naughty young boy. NC‰-àP-n…c-q…c-R-T5$-N‰_-GN-R-U…-CFÈN-MTc-U‰N-^…P-R-a‰c,
purchase /"p3:tS@s/ | IÈ-T, || I would like to purchase a new car someday. Ec-PU-Z…C-`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-Cc_-T-Z…C-IÈ-]NÈN,
pure /pjU@/ | ªEc-U, ÜN-U‰N-R, || The butter tasted so fresh and pure. U_-N‰_-{È-T-Cc_-Z…E-ÜN-U‰N-R-úP,
purpose /"p3:p@s/ | NU…Cc-]OÿP, NU…Cc-^“`, || Learning is a life-long purpose. ÜÈT-ÆÈE-q‰N-î‡-P…-WÂ-CE-C…-NU…Cc-]OÿP-^…P,
push /pUS/ | 1d◊_-TçT-R, ^_-CKÈC CKÈN-R, 2S“N-îC-q‰N-R, || 1I’m grateful for the push my teacher gave me many years
ago. `È-Oÿ-U]Ã-¢ÈP-NC‰-àP-n…c-E-`-d◊_-TçT-R_-Ec-M—Cc-ä‰-G‰-T]Ã-TcU-R-]XÀP, 2Don’t push me! E-`-S“N-îC-U-q‰N,
put away | S_-]HÈC-R, || Please put away your books and papers. mÈN-WÍ]Ã-NR‰-G-NE-aÈC-T“-éUc-S_-ZÈC
put on | CÈP-R, || Put on your cap now. N-õ-mÈN-l…c-æ-UÈ-ˇÈP,
put /pUt/ | ]HÈC-R, ZÈCc, || Please put this book on the table. NR‰-G-]N…-FÈC-VÂ:A-§‰E-Oÿ-ZÈCc,
puzzle /"pVzl/ | 1N@]-CPN, 2UCÈ-IÈC-RÈ_-T\È-T, || 1I could not solve the puzzle after several hours of trying.
Oÿc-WÍN-]C]-`-WÍN-õ-qc-lE-Ec-N@]-CPN-N‰-c‰`-U-M—T, 2This problem will puzzle you. CPN-NÈP-]N…c-mÈN-_E-UCÈ-IÈC-RÈ_-T\È-E‰c,

Q
Qinghai Province /"prQvIns/ | UWÍ-¢ÈP-Z…E-G‰P, || Qinghai Province is in Northwest China.

UWÍ-¢ÈP-Z…E-G‰P-P…-s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-Q÷T-qE-Oÿ-^ÈN,
quarter /"kwO:t@/ | TZ…-G]Ã-CF…C || A quarter of my study time I spend learning Chinese.
Ec-î-^…C-ÆÈE-T_-E]Ã-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-Oÿc-WÍN-l…-TZ…-G]Ã-CF…C-T@È`,
question /"kwestS@n/ | 1x…-T, 2]x…-T, || 1Please ask me a question. E-`-x…-T-Z…C-z…c-NE-, 2I will question him
tomorrow. Ec-BÈ-`-cE-I…P-]x…,
queue /kju:/ | 1_`-T, 2u`, || 1Men wore queues during the Qing Dynasty. G…P-î`-_Tc-l…-ˇTc-c“-´‰c-Rc-_`-T-]HÈC
2
Don’t jump the queue. u`-n…-_…U-R-U-Ta…C
quick /kwIk/ | UnÈCc-RÈ, || Please be quick. UnÈCc-RÈ-n…c-NE-,
quickly /"kwIkli/ | UnÈCc-rŸ_-n…c, || We walked quickly to the classroom. E-WÍ-UnÈCc-rŸ_-n…c-ÜÈT-BE-Oÿ-p…P,
quiet /"kwaI@t/ | N`-T, B‘-c“U-U‰_, ü…E-]HCc, || I like to listen to quiet music. E-_E-ü…E-]HCc-l…-_È`-UÈ_-IP-R_-NC],
quite /kwaIt/ | d-FE-, G‰, || He is quite quiet in the evenings. UWP-UÈ_-BÈ-<%-#-<R$-$J<-:.$
▪245▪

R
race /reIs/ | 1î‡C-_‰c, 2_…Cc, || 1Let’s go to the horse race at the festival. E-WÍ-Oÿc-G‰P-n…-å-î‡C-`-]uÈ, 2What race of
mankind do you belong to? mÈN-P…-U…]Ã-_…Cc-l…-_…Cc-CE-`-CKÈCc,
radiation /%reIdi"eISn/ | ]n‰N-]zÈ, || Radiation from the sun can be harmful. I…-U]Ã-]n‰N-]zÈ-P…-CPÈN-R-G‰-~…N,
radio /"reIdi@U/ | ±-•‡N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_, || I don’t own a radio. E-`-±-•‡N-]z⁄`-]BÈ_-U‰N,
railroad /reIlr@Ud/ | ôCc-`U, || The railroad runs past our house. ôCc-`U-E-WÍ]Ã-BE-T-Tî‡N-^ÈN,
rain /reIn/ | G_-T, || When will the rain stop? G_-T-PU-Z…C-`-]TT-UWUc-]HÈC-î‡-^…P-PU,
raining /reIniN/ | G_-T-]TT-R, || It was raining all this morning. N‰-_…E-¢-xÈ_-G_-T-]TT-TZ…P-^ÈN,
rainy /"reIni/ | G_-T-FP, G_-T-]TT-R]Ã, || I don’t like rainy weather but the farmers do.

E-_E-G_-T-]TT-R]Ã-CPU-Ca…c-`-U…-NC]-UÈN, ]ÈP-lE-Z…E-T-éUc-N‰-`-NC],
raise /reIz/ | 1CcÈ-T, 2CIÈ_, 3]nÈC-R, || 1The people in that village raise a lot of chickens. •‰-T-N‰]Ã-U…-éUc-l…c-HA3q-UE-TÈ-CcÈ, 2My older brother and his wife raised me. E]Ã-S“-TÈc-E-CIÈ_-T-^…P, 3I asked the students to raise their
hands if they knew the answer to the question. Ec-ÜÈT-U-WÍ-<-x…-T]Ã-x…c-`P-a‰c-P-`C-R-mÈCc-Z‰c-TaN,
rapid /"r&pId/ | rŸ_-T, || The water in the river rose rapidly after the storm. G_-ZÈN-l…-ä‰c-c“-CVE-TÈ]Ã-G”-TÈ-rŸ_-Oÿ-îc,
rare /re@/ | N@ÈP-RÈ, || The doctor didn’t know how to cure the rare disease.
©P-Rc-PN-N@ÈP-RÈ-N‰-H…-õ_-©P-TFÈc-q‰N-NCÈc-R-U-a‰c,
rate /reIt/ | WN, Tî-G]Ã-WN, || The rate of growth for the town was steady after they finished the new road.
C[÷E-`U-Cc_-T-`c-R]Ã-ä‰c-c“-uÈE-Tç`-N‰]Ã-]S‰`-îc-l…-WN-CKP-]HCc-c“-CPc-^ÈN,
reach /ri:tS/ | ˛‰Tc-R, ܉Tc-R, || I can’t reach it. E-N‰_-U…-˛‰Tc,
react /ri"&kt/ | WÈ_-¶E-]XÀP-R, éU-]nŸ_-§ÈP-R, || The mother didn’t react to the news about the accident at first.
e-Uc-NE-MÈC-NÈP-ì‰P-N‰]Ã-MN-l…-Cc_-]nŸ_-`-éU-]nŸ_-U-T§P,
read /ri:d/ | ÅÈC-R, ||Please read this text. ÜÈT-WP-]N…-ÅÈCc-NE-,
ready /"redi/ | §-CÈP-q‰N-^ÈN-R, || Are you ready to go? mÈN-l…c-]uÈ-o:A-§-CÈP-q‰N-^ÈN-NU,
real /rI@l/ | EÈ-U, \È`-\ÈE-U‰N-R, || He is a real person. BÈ-P…-U…-\È`-\ÈE-U‰N-R-Z…C-_‰N,
realistic /%rI@"lIstIk/ | NEÈc-^ÈN-l…, NÈP-NEÈc-NE-UM—P-R, || Do you think his wanting to become president is realistic?
mÈN-l…-TcU-R_-BÈ-_E-≠…-mT-NT“-t…N-q‰N-]NÈN-R-N‰-NÈP-NEÈc-NE-UM—P-PU,
really /"rI@li/ | NEÈc-CPc, || Do you really want to come with me? mÈN-_E-E-NE-UIU-Oÿ-NEÈc-CPc-]uÈ-]NÈN-NU,
reason /"ri:zn/ | î‡-UWP, || What are your reasons for studying English? mÈN-l…c-Nq…P-^…C-ÜÈT-R]Ã-î‡-UWP-F…-^…P-PU,
reasonable /"ri:zn@bl/ | NÈP-NE-UM—P-R, CPc-`“Cc-NE-UM—P-R, || It is not reasonable for me to buy a new car at this
time. Ec-N-M‰Ec-ÖEc-]BÈ_-G”E-T-Z…C-IÈc-P-NÈP-NE-UM—P-R-Z…C-U-_‰N,
rebel /"rebl/ | 1îT-CKÈN-UBP, 2EÈ-àÈ`-q‰N-R, || 1He has always been a rebel against every established and accepted
idea. BÈ-P…-õ-T-î‡P-]qUc-c“-cÈE-^ÈN-R-WE-U_-îT-CKÈN-UBP-Z…C-^…P, 2The younger students were rebelling against the
teachers’ authority. ÜÈT-U-`È-G”E-éUc-l…c-NC‰-àP-n…-°‰_-NTE-`-EÈ-àÈ`-q‰N-l…P-^ÈN,
receive /rI"si:v/ | ]qÈ_-T, || Did you receive any mail today? N‰-_…E-mÈN-`-]z…P-^…C-]qÈ_-_U,
▪246▪

recent /"ri:snt/ | U…C-¢_, || The recent developments caused a delay in plans.

U…C-¢_-n…-]S‰`-_…U-n…c-]G_-CZ…-`-]CÈ_-]nE-T\Èc,
recession /rI"seSn/ | IUc-àflN, || A failing economy is called a recession. NR`-]qÈ_-IUc-NUc-c“-]uÈ-T-`-IUc-àflN-\‰_,
recognize (recognise) /"rek@gnaIz/ | EÈc-\…P-R, || I didn’t recognise her after she got her hair cut.
BÈ-UÈ]Ã-∞-TZ_-ä‰c-Ec-BÈ-UÈ-EÈc-U-\…P,
record /"rekO:d/ | 1\…P-MÈ, 2±-ST, 3±-ST-R,|| 1The temperature today is a record high.
N‰-_…E-C…-W-uE-P…-\…P-MÈ-§‰E-C…-G‰c-UMÈP-RÈ-_‰N, 2This old record player was made about thirty years ago.
±-ST-]BÈ_-`È-ã…E-T-]N…-`È-c“U-F“]Ã-¢ÈP-`-MÈP-´‰N-qc-R-^…P, 3This summer I want to record as many folk songs as I can.
N-`È]Ã-Nq_-B_-Ec-NUEc-tÈN-l…-LJ-F…-M—T-F…C-±-`-ST-î‡-^…P,
red /red/ | NU_-TÈ, || Blood is red. tC-P…-NU_-TÈ-_‰N,
reduce /rI"dju:s/ | H‰-JfiE-Oÿ-CKÈE-T, || The traffic light helps reduce accidents on that corner.
]u⁄`-´ÈN-ÇÈC-[÷P-P…-´ÈCc-UWUc-l…-GC-°È-H‰-JfiE-Oÿ-CKÈE-T_-SP,
reform /rI"fO:m/ | 1TFÈc-¨„_, 2TFÈc-¨„_-q‰N-R, || 1The new economic reform will stimulate
production. NR`-]qÈ_-TFÈc-¨„_-Cc_-T-N‰c-MÈP-´‰N-`-E_-ɇN, 2The government wants to reform labour laws.
~…N-C[÷E-C…c-E`-˛È`-n…-TF]-t…Uc-TFÈc-¨„_-q‰N-]NÈN,
refrigerator (fridge, ice-box) /rI"frIdZ@reIt@/ | ]mC-°U, || Our family’s refrigerator is in our kitchen.
E‰N-WE-C…-]mC-°U-P…-MT-WE-PE-Oÿ-^ÈN,
refugee /%refju"dZi:/ | ]m_-U…, || There are many refugees from war in the world.
]XU-Ç…E-§‰E-NUC-]t‹C-`c-qŸE-T]Ã-]m_-U…-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
refuse /rI"fju:z/ | 1CN-£…Cc, 2NE-`‰P-U…-q‰N-R, || 1In the summer heat the pile of refuse began to stink.
Nq_-B]Ã-WN-R]Ã-]ÈC-Pc, CN-£…Cc-߇E-N‰-`-x…-EP-{È-]CÈ-T˛Uc, 2He refused to tell the police where his friends had gone.
I‰P-åÈC-R_-BÈ]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ-éUc-CE-Oÿ-cÈE-T-TaN-î‡-N‰-BÈc-NE-`‰P-U-qc,
region /"ri:dZ@n/ | c-B‘`, || My home is in Haidong Region. E]Ã-S-^“`-P…-UWÍ-a_-c-B‘`-Oÿ-^ÈN,
regret /rI"gret/ | 1]nÈN, 2]nÈN-R, || 1I don’t regret studying hard for the exam.
E-î‡Cc-l…-NÈP-Oÿ-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-`-]TN-R-q‰N-î‡_-U…-]nÈN, 2I’m full of regret for the terrible things that I did. Ec-`c-R]Ã-q-T-%/-0-.J<E-<%-]nÈN-R-G‰P-RÈ-´‰c,
relations /rI"leISns/ | ]{‰`-T, || It’s important to maintain good relations between countries.
î`-BT-T_-n…-]{‰`-T-T\E-TÈ-î‡P-]mÈEc-q‰N-î‡-C`-G‰,
release /rI"li:s/ | §ÈP-R, ]u‰U-§ÈP-q‰N-R, || They decided to release a new model car.
BÈ-WÍc-ÖEc-]BÈ_-Nq…Tc-Cc_-T-Z…C-]u‰U-§ÈP-q‰N-î‡-MC-C…c-TFN,
religion /rI"lIdZ@n/ | GÈc-`“Cc, || Religion is practised by monks and lamas in the temple.
NCÈP-R-Pc-É-TV“P-n…c-GÈc-`“Cc-`C-`‰P-q‰N,
remain /rI"meIn/ | •ÈN-R, cÈ_-CPc-q‰N-R, || Do you want to remain in this village for more than one year?
mÈN-•‰-T-]N…-Pc-`È-CF…C-üC-`-T•N-P-]NÈN-NU,
remember /rI"memb@/ | xP-R, || Do you remember what you said yesterday? B-˛E-HR.-GA?-F…-Z…C-TaN-R-xP-PU,
▪247▪

remove /rI"mu:v/ | ßÈ_-T, `‰P-R, || The workers had to remove the broken glass from the window.

T\È-Tc-°‰]“-B‘E-Pc-a‰`-°È-GC-RÈ-`‰P-NCÈc-qŸE-,
repair /rI"pe@/ | 1Z…C-CcÈ, 2Z…C-CcÈ-q‰N-R, || 1Where is a shop that does electronic appliance repair?
ÇÈC-C…-^È-Gc-Z…C-CcÈ-q‰N-R]Ã-WÍE-BE-Z…C-CE-P-^ÈN, 2Do you know anyone who can repair my bicycle?
mÈN-l…c-c“-Z…C-C…c-E]Ã-ôCc-å-Z…C-CcÈ-q‰N-M—T-R-a‰c-cU,
repeat /rI"pi:t/ | ÑÈ-T, ^E-T´_-aÈN-R, || Please repeat the question. x…-T-ÑÈc-NE-,
report /rI"pO:t/ | 1£P-Oÿ-CcÈ`-T, 2£P-[÷, || 1Please report what you saw and did. mÈN-l…c-F…-Z…C-`c-R-NE-MÈc-R-£P-Oÿ-CcÈ`, 2He
made a very good report on his study. BÈc-_E-C…-q-T]Ã-§‰E-Pc-£P-[÷-d-FE-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-S“`,
repress /rI"pres/ | TVP-CPÈP-q‰N-R, T@C-]CÈC-q‰N-R, || Some people like to repress others’ ideas.
U…-`-`-CZP-R]Ã-õ-T-T@C-]CÈC-q‰N-R_-NC],
request /rI"kwest/ | 1_‰-T, 2_‰-T-[÷-T, NCÈc-R, || 1Your latest request is unreasonable.
mÈN-l…-I‰-`U-n…-_‰-T-N‰-`-CPc-`“Cc-U‰N, 2Can we request more food if we are hungry?
C`-K‰-E-WÍ-õÈCc-P, E-WÍc-\-U-UE-T_-_‰-T-[÷c-P-e‰-GÈC
rescue /"reskju:/ | They hoped to rescue all the climbers from the mountain storm.

BÈ-WÍc-_…-]CÈ-UBP-WE-U-_…-TÈ]Ã-Ö‡E-]W”T-Pc-´ÈT-P-]NÈN,
resign /rI"zaIn/ | `c-]m‹_-q‰N-R, || The general was asked to resign from his post.
≠…-NRÈP-`-BÈ]Ã-CÈ-CPc-`c-]m‹_-q‰N-î‡]Ã-_‰-T-TKÈP,
resolution /%rez@"lu:Sn/ | GÈN-c‰Uc, MC-CFÈN-MTc, || Every year I make a resolution never to smoke again.
`È-_‰-_‰_-Ec-M-UC-^E-T´_-U…-]M‰P-R]Ã-GÈN-c‰Uc-TFEc,
responsible /rI"spQns@bl/ | ]CP-`‰P-R, || The mother behaved in a responsible manner with her children.
e-Uc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-q…c-R-`-]CP-`‰P-R]Ã-≠ÈN-R-]XÀP,
rest /rest/ | 1E`-CcÈ, 2E`-CcÈ-T, || 1Our rest period will be over soon. E-WÍ]Ã-E`-CcÈ]Ã-Oÿc-WÍN-rŸ_-UÈ_-íÈCc-î‡-_‰N, 2Let’s rest
for ten minutes. E-WÍc-ˇ_-U-TF“-`-E`-CcÈ-q,
restrain /rI"streIn/ | T@C-]CÈC-q‰N-R, CF“P-R, || The man was so angry that his friends had to restrain him from
starting a fight. ´‰c-R-N‰-]WÀC-R-\Èc-Pc, BÈ]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ-WÍc-BÈ-çflE-_‰c-q‰N-R-T@C-]CÈC-q‰N-NCÈc-qŸE-,
result /rI"zVlt/ | 1UH“C-]{c, 2]H“C-R, ÜÈE-T, || 1What was the result of the argument? ˛ÈN-CZ…-N‰]Ã-UH“C]{c-P…-F…-Z…C-^…P, 2Your wrongdoing will result in your being punished. mÈN-l…-`ÈC-≠ÈN-l…c-mÈN-`-GN-R-≠ÈN-Oÿ-]H“C
retire /rI"taI@/ | `c-]m‹_-q‰N-R, || That worker is surely old enough to retire. T\È-T-N‰-àc-Pc-`c-]m‹_-q‰N-WN-`-EÈ-Uc-MÈP-^ÈN,
return /rI"t3:n/ | 1p…_-`ÈC 2p…_-`ÈC-R, || 1We will eagerly await your return. E-WÍc-mÈN-p…_-`ÈC-`-_‰-T-G‰P-RÈc-T°‡C-î‡-^…P, 2My
brother said he wouldn’t return until next week. E]Ã-߇P-UG‰N-l…c-BÈ-C\]-]BÈ_-C[÷C-U]Ã-T_-_‰C-Lfi-p…_-U…-`ÈC-\‰_,
revolt /rI"v@Ult/ | 1Z‰P-`ÈC 2Ç…E-`ÈC || 1That kind of talk could start a revolt. B-Tç-N‰:A-_…Cc-l…c-Z‰P-`ÈC-ÜÈE-~…N, 2Peasants
revolt when they are oppressed. Z…E-R-WÍ-`-CI]-CPÈP-qc-P-BÈ-WÍc-Ç…E-`ÈC-îC
rice /raIs/ | ]{c, || Rice is an important food for Chinese people. s⁄E-CÈ-T-`-UWÍP-P-]{c-P…-\-U-C`-G‰P-Z…C-^…P,
rich /rItS/ | pŸC-RÈ, || She’s rich, not poor. BÈ-UÈ-P…-pŸC-RÈ-^…P-R-`c-NT“`-TÈ-U…P,
ride /raId/ | 1•ÈN-R, 2ZÈP-R, T´ÈP-R, || 1The ride in the old bus was unpleasant for everyone. ≠…-≠ÈN▪248▪

ÖEc-]BÈ_-ã…E-T-`-•ÈN-R-P…-U…-WE-U_-UWÍP-P-TN‰-UÈ-U-_‰N, 2I like to ride horses. E-å-`-ZÈP-R_-NC],
right /raIt/ | 1]u…C-RÈ, 2C^c-pÈCc, || 1You gave the right answer. mÈN-l…c-`P-]u…C-RÈ-TKTc, 2I like to sit on the right
side of the room. E-BE-T]Ã-C^c-pÈCc-Pc-]OÿC-P-]NÈN,
ring /rIN/ | 1UX“T-Ns…c, 2C^‰_-x…`, || 1My mother likes her wedding ring very much.
E]Ã-e-U-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-CI‰P-±…C-C…-UX“T-Ns…c-`-d-FE-NC], 2The bell will ring at noon. I…P-DÿE-`-C^‰_-x…`-uCc-î‡-_‰N,
riot /"raI@t/ | 1\…E-G, 2\…E-G-T\È-T, || 1The crowd became so angry I thought they would start a riot.
U…-WÍCc-BÈE-tÈ-G‰P-RÈ-`Ec-Rc, Ec-BÈ-WÍc-\…E-G-T\È-î‡-_‰N-TcU-qŸE-, 2The workers will riot if the factory leaders don’t meet
with them. T\È-≈]Ã-]CÈ-T-BÈ-WÍ-NE-3-M—C-WÂ, T\È-T-WÍc-\…E-G-T\È-î‡-_‰N,
rise /raIz/ | a_, ]N‰Cc-R, || The sun rises every morning in the east. I…-U-PEc-uEc-`-a_-pÈCc-Pc-a_,
river /"rIv@/ | G”-TÈ, CVE-TÈ, || The Mekong River begins in Yulshul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.
í-G”-P…-^“`-b÷`-TÈN-_…Cc-_E-´ÈE-B‘`-Pc-:$R-5$?,
road /r@Ud/ | `U, || The road to the airport is very rough. CPU-u⁄-ME-`-]M‰P-R]Ã-`U-P…-d-FE-CVÍC
rob /rQb/ | ]zÈC-TFÈU-q‰N-R, || Has anyone ever robbed your home? mÈN-l…-BE-T-`-CZP-n…c-]zÈC-TFÈU-qc-rÈE-EU,
rock /rQk/ | 1{C-çÈ, 2´ÈU-R,|| 1There are many big rocks on the mountainside. _…-EÈc-P-{C-çÈ-G‰P-RÈ-UE-TÈ-^ÈN, 2Don’t
rock the boat or it will turn over. u⁄-TÈ-´ÈU-Oÿ-U-]H“C N‰-U…P-UCÈ-å…E-ÜÈC-î‡-_‰N,
rocket /"rQkIt/ | U‰-b÷Cc-]S“_-UN], || A rocket flies in the air, high into the sky. U‰-b÷Cc-]S“_-UN]-UMÈP-RÈ-Nq…Ec-`-]S—_,
roll /r@Ul/ | ±…`-T, Tí‰-T, || It’s easier to carry if you roll up the blanket. C`-K‰-mÈN-l…c-I`-CNP-±…`-P-]m‰_-Ü,
room /ru:m; rUm/ | 1BE-U…C 2]BÈ_-î, || 1This room is where I sleep. BE-U…C-]N…-P…-E]Ã-I`-c-^…P, 2Your new home has
a lot of room. mÈN-l…-BE-T-Cc_-T-`-]BÈ_-î-G‰,
root /ru:t/ | ˛-T, || Laziness is the root of many problems. `‰-`È-P…-CPN-NÈP-UE-TÈ]Ã-˛-T-^…P, The roots of that tree are
very big. •ÈE-TÈ-N‰]Ã-˛-T-P…-d-FE-G‰,
rope /r@Up/ | MC-R, || He didn’t have enough rope to tie up all the yaks. BÈ-`-C^C-WE-U-•ÈU-q‰N-l…-MC-R-]NE-TÈ-U‰N,
rough /rVf/ | ˛ŸT-RÈ, || His hands were rough from years of hard work outside.
BÈc-p…-_È`-Pc-`È-Oÿ-U-`-`c-˛È`-qc-Pc-BÈ]Ã-`C-R-˛ŸT-RÈ_-nŸ_,
round /raUnd/ | °È_-°È_, CÈ_-CÈ_, I-CE-T, || The moon is round tonight. N‰-NCÈE-Ñ-T-I-CE-^ÈN,
row /r@U/ | 1u`, 2u⁄-CKÈE-T, || 1Which row do you sit in? mÈN-u`-CE-P-•ÈN, 2I’m tired so can you row the boat for a
while? E-ME-GN-Rc-mÈN-l…c-F“E-VU-`-u⁄-CKÈE-_ÈCc,
rubber /"rVb@/ | ]n…C-íc, || The rubber on that old tire is very thin. ]BÈ_-`È-ã…E-T-N‰]Ã-§‰E-C…-]n…C-íc-N‰-d-FE-~T,
ruin /"ru:In/ | 1CKÈ_-TÖC-q‰N-R, 2TÖC-_È, || 1Standing in the cold weather without a good jacket can ruin your
health. §ÈN-¡-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-U‰N-R_-PU-Ñ-]mCc-UÈ]Ã-PE-Pc-`Ec-P-mÈN-l…-TN‰-ME-`-CKÈ_-TÖC-M‰Tc-E‰c, 2The castle ruin is situated near a
mountain pass. CP]-UB_-n…-TÖC-_È-/A-IC-C-Z…C-C…-I‰-c-P-^ÈN,
rule /ru:l/ | ±…C-~È`, || What are the rules of the school? ÜÈT-≈]Ã-±…C-~È`-P…-F…-Z…C-^…P,
run /rVn/ | î‡C-R, || Don’t run, walk. U-î‡C-R_-N`-UÈ_-cÈE-,

▪249▪

S
sad /s&d/ | ^…N-´È-T, || Don’t be sad, be glad. ^…N-U-´È-T_-´…N-RÈ-n…c,
safe /seIf/ | TN‰-]HCc-^…P-R, || We are safe here. ]N…-Pc-E-WÍ-TN‰-]HCc-^…P,
sail /seIl/ | 1u⁄-C^È_, CNÈc-T“, 2u⁄-´ÈN-q‰N-R, || 1The boat’s sail is made of strong white cloth.

u⁄-C^È_-_c-N@_-TÈ-~-UÈ-Z…C-C…c-T\Èc, 2Have you ever been sailing in a boat? mÈN-u⁄-G”E-Z…C-`c-u⁄-´ÈN-qc-rÈE-EU,
salt /sO:lt/ | Ω-B‘, || I don’t like salt in my milk tea. E-]È-H]Ã-PE-Oÿ-Ω-B‘-]N‰Tc-R_-U…-NC],
same /seIm/ | ]x-UW”Ec, CF…C-]x, || "Big" and "large" have the same meaning. "G‰-T"NE- "G‰P-RÈ]Ã"CÈ-NÈP-P…-CF…C-]x-^…P,
satellite /"s&t@laIt/ | U…c-T\Èc-]BÈ_-ˇ_, || There are many satellites in the sky orbiting the earth.
PU-UB]-P-c]Ã-CÈ-`-`-TˇÈ_-TZ…P-R]Ã-U…c-T\Èc-]BÈ_-ˇ_-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
satisfy /"s&tIsfaI/ | ^…N-WÀU-R, || Even that delicious meal didn’t satisfy him. M-P-\-U-Z…U-RÈ-N‰c-lE-BÈ]Ã-^…N-U-WÀU,
Saturday /"s&t@deI; -di/ | C\]-߉P-R, || I will wash my clothes this Saturday. C\]-߉P-R-]N…-`-Ec-E]Ã-CÈP-R-Ts⁄-î‡-^…P,
say /seI/ | TaN, || What did you say? mÈN-l…c-F…-Z…C-TaN,
school /sku:l/ | ÜÈT-≈, || I walk to school every morning. PEc-uEc-`-E-áE-ME-Oÿ-ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ,
science /"saI@ns/ | WP-_…C || Science helps us understand the weather. WP-_…C-C…c-E-WÍ-`-CPU-Ca…c-a‰c-c“-]H“C
score /skO:/ | ˇ_-U, î‡Cc-]{c, || What was your score on the examination? mÈN-l…-î‡Cc-]{c-Oÿ-_‰N,
scream /skri:m/ | ]“_-îC-R, Aÿ-FÈ-îC-R, || Don’t scream. I can hear you. Aÿ-FÈ-U-îC Ec-mÈN-l…-ˇN-G-CÈ-M—T,
sea /si:/ | î-UWÍ, || The lake seemed as large as a sea. UWÍ-N‰-î-UWÍ-NE-G‰-G”E-U‰N-R-]x,
search /s3:tS/ | ]WÍ`-T, || We spent hours searching for the lost boy in the forest.
E-WÍc-Oÿc-WÍN-UE-TÈ-T@È`-Pc-PCc-Cc‰E-Pc-TÈ_-T]Ã-Z…-`…-TV`,
season /"si:zn/ | 1Oÿc-WÀCc, 2ßÈN-©P-]N‰Tc-R, || 1Which season of the year is your favourite?
`È-]BÈ_-PE-Oÿ-mÈN-G‰c-NC]-T]Ã-Oÿc-WÀCc-P…-CE-^…P, 2I’ll season the soup with salt and prickly ash.
Ec-B‘-T]Ã-PE-Oÿ-ßÈN-©P-Ω-B‘-NE-C^‰_-U-]N‰Tc-î‡-^…P,
seat /si:t/ | ]OÿC-§‰Cc, || Would you please give your seat to the old person on the bus?
mÈN-l…c-mÈN-l…-]OÿC-§‰Cc-N‰-≠…-≠ÈN-ÖEc-]BÈ_-§‰E-C…-U…-àP-R-N‰-`-q…P-P-GÈC-CU,
second /"sek@nd/ | 1CI…c-R, 2ˇ_-G, || 1I’m the second oldest child in my family.
E-P…-E‰N-WE-C…-q…c-R-G‰-T-eE-CI…c-R-^…P, 2I’ll be there in a second. E-ˇ_-G-CF…C-C…-PE-N‰-C_-MÈP-]ÈE-,
secret /"si:kr@t/ | CcE-T, || I’ll tell you because it’s not a secret. N‰-P…-CcE-T-Z…C-U…P-Rc-Ec-mÈN-`-TaN,
security /sI"kjU@r@ti/ | TN‰-]HCc, || For security purposes I’m going to lock the door.
TN‰-]HCc-l…-G‰N-Oÿ, Ec-°È-`-ø-îC-˛…c-^ÈN,
see /si:/ | _…C UMÈE-, || I can’t see the blackboard. Ec-°È-cU-U…-_…C
seek /si:k/ | ]WÍ`-T, TV`-T, || She went out to seek a way to earn a living. BÈ-UÈ-p…-_“-p…P-Pc-]WÍ-MTc-a…C-TV`,
seem /si:m/ | ]x-T, ¶E-T, || He doesn’t seem to want to go to school today. N‰-_…E-BÈ-ÜÈT-≈_-]uÈ-]NÈN-U‰N-R-]x,
seize /si:z/ | ]XÀP-R, || He thought it best to seize the opportunity to get a job.
BÈc-q-T-Z…C-MÈT-R]Ã-CÈ-ˇTc-]XÀP-î‡-P…-_T-^…P-R_-]NÈN,
self /si:z/ | _E-I…N, || Psychology is the study of the self and others. c‰Uc-BUc-_…C-R-P…-U…-_E-NE-CZP-n…-Z…T-]H“C-`-T§P,
▪250▪

sell /sel/ | ]WÍE-T, || Do you want to sell that sheep? mÈN-l…c-`“C-N‰-]WÍE-P-e‰-]NÈN,
send /send/ | Tˇ‡_-T, || Was it you who sent me the flowers? E-`-U‰-KÈC-N‰-Tˇ‡_-UBP-P…-mÈN-^…P-PU,
sense /sens/ | NÈP-£…E-, WÍ_-T, || That film doesn’t make any sense to me. ÇÈC-TãP-N‰-E-`-UWÍP-P-NÈP-£…E-U‰N,
sentence /"sent@ns/ | WÀC || This sentence is not correct. WÀC-]N…-U…-]u…C
separate /"sepr@t/ | cÈ-cÈ, NC_-T, || They decided to live separately from each other. BÈ-WÍc-cÈ-cÈ_-]OÿC-î‡-MC-CFÈN-qc,
September /sep"temb@/ | ≠…-Ñ-NDÿ-T, || September follows August. ≠…-Ñ-TîN-R]Ã-C[÷C-Pc-≠…-Ñ-NDÿ-T-^…P,
series /"sI@ri:z/ | U—-]{‰`-`‰-WP, || Did you watch the soccer series on TV last year?

P-P…E-mÈN-l…c-`P-G…C-ßÈ-`È]…-TãP-]z…P-U—-]{‰`-`‰-WP-`-Tõc-cU,
serious /"sI@ri@s/ | PP-UÈ, WTc-G‰-T, || He was the most serious student in the class. BÈ-P…-]XÀP-≈]Ã-PE-C…-ÜÈT-U-G‰c-PP-UÈ-^…P,
sermon /"s3:m@n/ | NTE-EU-`“E-, || The minister gave a sermon every Sunday in church.
GÈc-]GN-UBP-n…c-GÈc-BE-Pc-C\]-I…-U-_‰-_‰_-NTE-CPE-C…P-^ÈN,
serve /s3:v/ | ú‡N-R, §‰_-T, ZTc-[÷-q‰N-R, || The daughters were happy to serve their mother tea.
T“-UÈ-éUc-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-e-U-`-H-ú‡C-R_-≥È,
settle /"setl/ | MC-CFÈN-q‰N-R, Z…-]HCc-c“-CKÈE-T, || Will you please help settle this argument?
mÈN-l…c-˛ÈN-ljE-]N…-Z…-]HCc-c“-CKÈE-_ÈCc-q‰N-NU,
seven /"sevn/ | TOÿP, || Seven people came to visit us. U…-TOÿP-E-WÍ-`-]WUc-]x…-q‰N-R_-MÈP,
several /"sevr@l/ | ]C], || I will be gone for several days. E-I…P-]C]-`-]ÈE-î‡-U…P,
severe /"sevr@l/ | xC-RÈ, || The snowstorm was very severe in Chabmdo last winter.
P-P…E-C…-NDÿP-B_-GT-UNÈ-`-BEc-´ÈP-xC-RÈ-qŸE-,
sex /seks/ | UWP, 1UWP-U, 2Ut…C-≠ÈN, || 1My sex is female. E]Ã-UWP-U-P…-UÈ-^…P, 2She wanted to have sex with him but
he didn’t want to have sex with her. BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-NE-Ut…C-≠ÈN-qc-P-]NÈN-UÈN, ]ÈP-lE-BÈc-BÈ-UÈ-NE-Ut…C-≠ÈN-q‰N-P-U-]NÈN,
shake /SeIk/ | ]N_, || She was so cold that she was shaking. BÈ-UÈ-uE-Pc-]N_-C…P-^ÈN,
shape /SeIp/ | Nq…Tc, || The shape of the moon is round. Ñ-T]Ã-Nq…Tc-P…-°È_-°È_-^…P,
share /Se@/ | 1ˇ`, 2UIU-≠ÈN-q‰N-R, || 1Your share of the food is less than my share.
mÈN-l…-\c-ˇ`-N‰-E]Ã-\c-ˇ`-`c-JfiE-, 2Can you share your book with me? mÈN-l…c-mÈN-l…-NR‰-G-E-NE-UIU-≠ÈN-q‰N-P-GÈC-CU,
sharp /SA:p/ | éÈP-RÈ, || The tip of a needle is very sharp. BT-˛‰-P…-d-FE-éÈP-RÈ-^…P,
she /Si:/ | BÈ-UÈ, || She doesn’t want to come. BÈ-UÈ-:R%-:.R.-3J.,
shine /SaIn/ | ]WÂ_, || The sun will shine today. N‰-_…E-I…-U-]WÂ_-î‡-_‰N,
ship /SIp/ | 1UWÍ-u⁄, 2u⁄-]x‰P-q‰N-R, || 1The ship was lost at sea. UWÍ-u⁄-N‰-î-UWÍ]Ã-§‰E-Pc-TÈ_, 2We will ship the books that
you bought to your home address. mÈN-l…c-IÈc-R]Ã-NR‰-G-E-WÍc-mÈN-WE-]OÿC-c-`-u⁄-]x‰P-q,
shirt /S3:t/ | WÀ-`‰P, || I like my brother’s shirt. E-E]Ã-߇P-Ñ]Ã-WÀ-`‰P-`-NC],
shoe /Su:/ | üU, || That shoe is black. üU-N‰-P…-PC-RÈ-_‰N,
shoot /Su:t/ | 1îC-R, 2¨„_-T, || 1Don’t shoot that gun near me. E]Ã-I‰-c-Pc-U‰-UN]-U-îC 2The film director wanted to
start shooting the film tomorrow. ÇÈC-TãP-]tT-t…N-Rc-cE-I…P-ÇÈC-TãP-¨„_-]CÈ-˛ÈU-P-]NÈN,
▪251▪

shop /SQp/ | 1WÍE-BE-, 2IÈ-T, || 1The shop is closed. WÍE-BE-C…-°È-TîT-]OÿC 2I like to shop for new clothes in spring.

Ec-No…N-@_-CÈP-R-IÈ-T_-NC],
shopping /"SQpIN/ | IÈ-G, || Let’s go shopping. E-WÍ-IÈ-G-îC-Lfi-]uÈ,
short /SO:t/ | M—E-, || My brother is short. E]Ã-߇P-^-C\“Cc-M—E-,
shout /SaUt/ | 1ˇN-FÈ_-îC-R, 2ˇN-FÈ_, || 1Don’t shout, I can hear you. ˇN-FÈ_-U-îC Ec-mÈN-l…c-TaN-R-CÈ-M—T, 2Her shout was
not very loud. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-ˇN-FÈ_-N‰-]x-U…-G‰,
show /S@U/ | 1§ÈP-R, 2]u‰U-§ÈP, || 1Please show me your stamp collection. mÈN-l…-¥C-åCc-TLfic-U-E-`-§ÈP-NE-, 2What time
does the show start? ]u‰U-§ÈP-PU-WÍN-q‰N-î‡-_‰N,
shrink /SrINk/ | ˇ‡U, || Sometimes clothes shrink after they are washed. UWUc-UWUc-c“-CÈP-R-Ts⁄c-P-ˇ‡U-]uÈ,
shut /SVt/ | CKP, îC || Please don’t shut the door. °È-N‰-U-CKP,
sick /sIk/ | 1P-W-FP, 2P-T, || 1Nurses and doctors help sick people in the hospital.
PN-C^ÈC-NE-©P-Rc-©P-BE-Pc-U…-P-W-FP-`-_ÈCc-_U-q‰N, 2She got very sick and died two days later.
BÈ-UÈ-d-FE-P-Pc-I…P-CI…c-l…-ä‰c-Pc-:.?,
side /saId/ | pÈCc, EÈc, || I live on this side of the river. E-G”-TÈ]Ã-W”_-pÈCc-P-2#.-;R.,
sigh /saI/ | 1âP-R-]M‰P-R, 2âP-R, || 1I sigh when I’m tried and bored. E-ME-GN-R-NE-c“P-¶E-´‰-Oÿc, Ec-âP-R-]M‰P, 2The girl was
so sad that she heaved a deep sigh. T“-UÈ-N‰-c‰Uc-´È-Pc-âP-R-_…E-UÈ-Z…C-]M‰P,
sign /saIn/ | åCc, || The villagers decided to put a sign at the intersection.
•‰-U…c-TZ…-UNÈ-Pc-åCc-a…C-]HÈC-î‡-MC-CFÈN-qc,
signal /"sIgn@l/ | 1Tç-åCc, 2Tç-§ÈP-R, || 1A red light is a signal to stop. ÇÈC-NU_-TÈ-P…-T´ÈN-UWUc-]HÈC-î‡]Ã-Tç-åCc-^…P, 2Please
signal with your hands if you want us to come and help you. mÈN-l…c-E-WÍ-^ÈE-Pc-_ÈCc-q‰N-]NÈN-P-`C-Tç-§ÈP,
silence /"saIl@ns/ | B-B‘_-c…U-RÈ, || At night in the grassland there is nothing to hear but silence.
UWP-UÈ_-»-ME-Pc-B-B‘_-c…U-RÈ-`c-F…-^E-U…-CÈ
silver /"sIlv@/ | NE“`, || She looks so pretty with all her silver neklaces.
BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-NE“`-n…-ˇ‰-îP-WE-U-TKCc-P, BÈ-UÈ-d-FE-UXÂc,
similar/ "sIm@l@/ | ]x-UW”Ec, || "Tall" and "long" have similar meanings. "UMÈ-T"NE-"_…E-T"`-CÈ-NÈP-]x-UW”Ec-^ÈN,
simple /"sImpl/ | Ü-UÈ, ìE-T, || I can understand simple English. Ec-Nq…P-^…C-Ü-UÈ-`-CÈ-T-`‰P-M—T,
since /sIns/ | W”P-Pc, || I haven’t seen her since last year. P-P…E-C…-W”P-Pc-Ec-BÈ-UÈ-U-_…C
sing /sIN/ | `‰P-R, || Please sing this song. LJ-]N…-`‰P-R_-n…c,
sir /s3:/ | ˇ‡-ZTc, || Sir, I do know the answer. ˇ‡-ZTc, Ec-x…c-`P-N‰-EÈ-Uc-a‰c,
sister /"sIst@/ | ~…E-UÈ, || My sister is seven years old. E]Ã-~…E-UÈ-P…-`È-TOÿP-^…P,
sit down /sIt daUn/ | U_-`-•ÈN, || Please sit down. U_-•ÈN-NE-,
sit /sIt/ | •ÈN-R, T[÷Cc-R, || Please sit on that chair. áflT-§‰Cc-N‰]Ã-§‰E-Oÿ-T[÷Cc-_ÈCc,
situation /%sItSu"eISn/ | CPc-TT, CPc-W”`, || They have improved their living situation.
BÈ-WÍc-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-]WÍ-T]Ã-CPc-TT-H‰-`‰Cc-c“-TKE-,
six /sIks/ | x⁄C || I have six pencils. E-`-Z-Ø„C-x⁄C-^ÈN,
▪252▪

size /saIz/ | G‰-G”E-, || What size are your shoes? mÈN-l…-üU-n…-G‰-G”E-C-WÍN-^…P,
skate /skeIt/ | N_-b÷N-îC-R, || I learned how to skate last winter. P-P…E-NDÿP-B_-Ec-N_-b÷N-îC-R-ÆEc,
skeleton /"skelItn/ | @‰E-_“c, || If you want to become a doctor, you must study a skeleton.

C`-K‰-mÈN-©P-R-Z…C-q‰N-]NÈN-P, mÈN-l…c-@‰E-_“c-`-E‰c-R_-Oÿ-Z…T-]H“C-q‰N-NCÈc,
skill /skIl/ | `C-˛`, || Being a surgeon requires great skill. p…-PN-WP-BC-C…-©P-R-Z…C-`-`C-˛`-G‰P-RÈ-NCÈc,
skin /skIn/ | RCc-R, || That young lady has such lovely smooth skin. Cc_-UÈ-N‰-`-RCc-R-]HU-RÈ-N‰-]x]Ã-^…N-Oÿ-]ÈE-T-Z…C-^ÈN,
skirt /sk3:t/ | ©N-C^ÈCc, || My skirt is new. E]Ã-©N-C^ÈCc-P…-Cc_-T-^…P,
skull /skVl/ | MÈN-R, || He fell down and cracked open his skull. BÈ-ME-`-]n‰`-Pc-BÈ]…-MÈN-R-T@N,
sky /skaI/ | PU-UB], || The sky is blue today. N‰-_…E-PU-UB]-P…-¢ÈP-RÈ-_‰N,
slave /sleIv/ | {P-C^ÈC || Without freedom of choice one becomes a slave.
U…-Z…C-`-CNU-@]Ã-NTE-G-U‰N-P-{P-C^ÈC-`-nŸ_-T-^…P,
sleep /sli:p/ | 1CI…N, 2I`-T, || 1I didn’t get enough sleep last night. UNE-NCÈE-E-`-CI…N-]NE-TÈ-U-MÈT, 2It’s late so let’s
sleep. Oÿc-WÍN-]p…-Tc-I`-Oÿ-]uÈ,
slow /sl@U/ | N`-T, || Don’t be slow to answer my questions. E]Ã-]x…-WÀC-`-`P-]N‰Tc-î‡-U-N`,
slowly /"sl@Uli/ | N`-UÈc, || She was tired and slowly walked home. BÈ-UÈ-ME-GN-Pc-N`-UÈc-^“`-Oÿ-`ÈC
small /smO:l/ | G”E-G”E-, || He is a small man. BÈ-P…-U…-G”E-G”E-Z…C-^…P,
smash /sm&S/ | TFCc, CFÈC-R, || She was so angry that she smashed the pot. BÈ-UÈ-BÈE-tÈ-`Ec-Pc-N‰U-TFCc,
smell /smel/ | 1x…-U-¶ÈU-R, 2x…-U, || 1Please smell this cake. @-_-CÈ-_‰-]N…]Ã-x…-U-¶ÈU-NE-, 2I don’t like that smell.
E-x…-U-N‰-`-U…-NC],
smile /smel/ | 1]X“U-UNEc, 2NCÈN-R, || 1They greeted her with big smiles. BÈ-WÍc-]X“U-UNEc-l…c-BÈ-UÈ<-Tc“-T-qc, 2I smile
when I’m happy. E-`-≥È-T-]S‰_-Oÿc-E-NCÈN,
smooth /smu:D/ | 1]HU-RÈ, 2qŸC-R, || 1Her hair is black, long, and smooth. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-∞-P…-PC-F…E-_…E-`-]HU-RÈ-^…P, 2Please
smooth down your unkempt hair. mÈN-l…-∞-íT-T‰-íÈT-T‰-N‰-qŸCc,
smoke /sm@Uk/ | 1Oÿ-T-]M‰P-R, 2M-UC 3Oÿ-T, || 1My mother doesn’t like it if I smoke. Ec-Oÿ-T-]M‰P-P-E]Ã-e-U-U…-NC], 2Do
you have a smoke? mÈN-`-M-UC-F…C-^ÈN-NU, 3I like the smell of dung smoke early in the morning.
E-PEc-¢-UÈ]Ã-ô…-T]Ã-Oÿ-T]Ã-x…-U-`-NC],
snow /sn@U/ | 1BEc-]TT, 2BEc, || 1It will snow tomorrow. cE-I…P-BEc-]TT-î‡-_‰N, 2The snow was white and
beautiful. BEc-P…-N@_-Z…E-UXÂc,
so /s@U/ | 1N‰-õ_, 2ì‰P-n…c, || 1I think so. Ec-N‰-õ_-]NÈN, 2He left so we also left. BÈ-T“N-cÈE-T]Ã-ì‰P-n…c-E-WÍ-^E-T“N-cÈE-,
social /"s@USl/ | ≠…-WÈCc-]{‰`-T-`-UBc-R, || All the people were very social at the party.
≥È-WÍCc-l…-§‰E-Pc-U…-WE-U-≠…-WÍCc-l…-]{‰`-T-`-UBc,
sock /sQk/ | ]TÈ`, || This sock is blue. ]TÈ`-]N…-¢ÈP-RÈ-^…P,
soft /sQft/ | £…-UÈ, || The baby’s cheeks are so soft. q…c-R-N‰]Ã-]uU-R-P…-d-FE-£…-UÈ-^…P,
soldier /"s@UldZ@/ | NUC || My brother is a soldier. E]Ã-߇P-P…-NUC-F…C-^…P,
▪253▪

solid /"sQlId/ | Ut‰Cc-RÈ, || When it gets cold outside water turns into solid ice.

p…-_È`-n…-PU-Ñ-]mC-P-G”-TÈ-Ut‰Cc-RÈ-N_-`-]nŸ_,
solve /sQlv/ | c‰`-T, MC-CFÈN-R, || Do you think we will be able to solve the problem?
mÈN-l…c-E-WÍc-CPN-NÈP-N‰-c‰`-M—T-î‡-_‰N-]NÈN-NU,
some /s@m/ | ]C], || Do you want some paper? mÈN-`-aÈC-Dÿ-]C]-NCÈc-cU,
somebody /"sVmb@di/ | U…-B-ac, || Does somebody here speak English? ]N…-_“-U…-B-ac-l…c-Nq…P-ˇN-µ]U,
something /"sVmTIN/ | NÈP-]C]-_‰, || I heard something about that recently. I‰-G_-Ec-N‰]Ã-ˇÈ_-n…-NÈP-]C]-_‰-MÈc,
sometimes /"sVmtaImz/ | UWUc-UWUc-c“, ˇTc-]C_, || Sometimes I listen to music. UWUc-UWUc-c“-Ec-LJ-NqEc-`-IP,
son /sVn/ | T“, || He is my son. BÈ-P…-E]Ã-T“-^…P,
soon /su:n/ | U…-]nEc-R_, rŸ_-UÈ_, || Soon we will go home. E-WÍ-U…-]nEc-R_-^“`-`-]uÈ-î‡-^…P,
sorry /"sQri/ | NCÈEc-R-U-WÍU, || I’m sorry I made you angry. NCÈEc-R-U-WÍU, Ec-mÈN-BÈE-tÈ-`Ec-c“-TF“C
sound /saUnd/ | ±, ˇN, || That tractor is making a very loud sound. `C-´È_-]BÈ_-`È-N‰c-±-d-FE-G‰P-RÈ-±ÈC
south /saUT/ | üÈ-pÈCc, üÈ, || Sichuan is south of Gansu. \…-tÈP-P…-@P-c“]“-^…-üÈ-pÈCc-P-^ÈN,
southeast /saUTi:st/ | a_-üÈ, || A tall mountain is southeast of our village. E-WÍ]Ã-•‰-T]Ã-a_-üÈ-P-_…-UMÈP-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
southwest /saUTwest/ | üÈ-Q÷T, || Tibet is in Southwest China. TÈN-öÈEc-P…-s⁄E-CÈ]Ã-üÈ-Q÷T-P-^ÈN,
space /speIs/ | UB]-Nq…Ec, || Many people are interested in space travel. U…-UE-TÈ-UB]-Nq…Ec-Pc-]u⁄`-´ÈN-q‰N-R_-NC],
speak /spi:k/ | TaN, µ, || Don’t speak so loudly. ˇN-UMÈP-RÈc-U-TaN,
special /spi:k/ | mN-R_-T, || We all think she is a special student. E-WÍ-WE-Uc-BÈ-UÈ-P…-ÜÈT-U-mN-R_-T-Z…C-^…P-R_-]NÈN,
speed /spi:d/ | UnÈCc-WN, || The aeroplane flies at a fast speed. CPU-u⁄-UnÈCc-WN-UMÈP-RÈ]Ã-°È-Pc-]S“_,
spell /spel/ | WÂC-Tç_-q‰N-R, || Can you spell this word? mÈN-l…c-M-£N-]N…-W‰C-Tç_-q‰N-M—T-TU,
spend /spend/ | T@È`, || How much money do you spend every month on food?
mÈN-l…c-\-U]Ã-§‰E-`-Ñ-_‰_-°È_-UÈ-Oÿ-T@È`,
spirit /"spIrIt/ | NC]-T, £…E-§ÈTc, || The happy children are in high spirits. q…c-R-´…N-RÈ-WÍ-`-NC]-T-G‰P-RÈ-îc,
split /splIt/ | TCÈ-T, || They split the money they won in the contest. BÈ-WÍc-]uP-•‡_-n…-MÈC-Pc-ÉEc-R]Ã-°È_-UÈ-TCÈc,
sport /spO:t/ | ˛`-ÆÈE-, || What is your favourite sport? mÈN-G‰c-NC]-T]Ã-˛`-ÆÈE-P…-$%-^…P,
spring /sprIN/ | 1No…N-@ 2ú‰U-˛…T, 3G”-U…C || 1Many kinds of plants bloom in spring. No…N-@_-˛…-a…E-_…Cc-UE-TÈ-`-´‰-§ÈTc-]T_,
2
The metal spring was made of strong steel. ôCc-l…-ú‰U-˛…T-N‰-éÈ-ôCc-~-UÈ-^…c-`c, 3We get our water from a
spring at the bottom of the mountain. _…-ZÈ`-n…-G”-U…C-F…C-Pc-E-WÍc-G”-`‰P,
spy /spaI/ | 1rŸ`-U, 2rŸ`-T, || 1The villagers thought the strange man was a spy.
•‰-U…c-U…-G-U‰N-N‰-P…-rŸ`-U-Z…C-^…P-R_-]NÈN, 2I’m not interested in spying on anyone. U…-CZP-`-rŸ`-]NÈN-E-`-U‰N,
stamp /st&mp/ | 1¥C-åCc, 2MU-C-îC-R, || 1Did you remember to put a stamp on the letter?
mÈN-l…c-^…-C‰-MÈC-`-¥C-åCc-ÆÈ_-î‡-U-Tä‰N-NU, 2I won’t stamp your document with an official seal until our leader
signs it. E-WÍ]Ã-]CÈ-t…N-l…c-U…E-åCc-U-T@ÈN-CÈE-Ec-mÈN-l…-^…C-G-`-C[÷E-M‰`-U…-îC

▪254▪

stand /st&nd/ | 1`Ec-pÈCc, 2`Ec, || 1I don’t agree with your stand on that question.

x…-T-N‰]Ã-§‰E-Pc-E-mÈN-l…-`Ec-pÈCc-`-U…-]MN, 2The students need to stand when they answer a question.
ÜÈT-U-WÍc-x…-T-`-`P-]N‰Tc-Oÿc-^_-`Ec-NCÈc,
star /stA:/ | 1ˇ_-U, 2ÇÈC-TãP-]tT-§ÈP-R, 3]tT-§ÈP-CVÍ-TÈ-q‰N-R, || 1There are many stars in the night sky.
UWP-UÈ]Ã-PU-UB]-P-ˇ_-U-UE-TÈ-^ÈN, 2She was a famous movie star when she was younger.
BÈ-UÈ-G”E-Oÿc-Pc-ÇÈC-TãP-]tT-§ÈP-U-uCc-FP-Z…C-^…P, 3I’m going to star in a new movie.
Ec-ÇÈC-TãP-Cc_-T-Z…C-C…-PE-Oÿ-]tT-§ÈP-R-CVÍ-TÈ-q‰N-˛…c-^ÈN,
start /stA:t/ | 1]CÈ, 2]CÈ-˛ÈU-R, || 1He wanted to get off to a good start in his new job.
BÈ]Ã-q-T-Cc_-T]Ã-MÈC-Pc-BÈc-]CÈ-^C-RÈ-Z…C-˛ÈU-P-]NÈN, 2Let’s start our class now. N-õ-E-WÍc-ÜÈT-t…N-l…-]CÈ-˛ÈU-R_-q,
starve /stA:v/ | õÈCc-R, || Without food people starve. \-U-U‰N-P-U…-éUc-õÈCc,
station /"steISn/ | 1c-WÀCc, 2T@ÈN-±…C TˇÈ-TZC-q‰N-R, || 1The nearest petrol station is far away.
MC-G‰c-I‰-T]Ã-¶‡U-¶ÈP-c-WÀCc-`-`U-MC-_…E-, 2The army will station one hundred soldiers at the new military outpost.
NUC-NR“E-C…c-UOÿP-`‰P-NUC-NR“E-Cc_-T-`-NUC-U…-Tî-T@ÈN-±…C-q‰N-î‡-_‰N,
statue /"st&tSu:/ | ]x-ˇ‡ || There is a statue of a man in the front of the school. ÜÈT-≈]Ã-UOÿP-P-´‰c-R-Z…C-C…-]x-ˇ‡-^ÈN,
stay /steI/ | 1•ÈN-R, 2•ÈN, || 1We enjoyed his stay at our home. BÈ-E‰N-WE-Oÿ-•ÈN-R-P…-E-WÍc-NC]-UÈc-q‰N-RZ…C-^…P, 2I want to stay with you. E-mÈN-.%-UIU-Oÿ-•ÈN-P-]NÈN,
steal /sti:l/ | áfl, Táflc, || He said he didn’t steal anything from the store. BÈc-TaN-P-BÈc-UXÍN-BE-PcF…-^E-U-Táflc,
steel /sti:l/ | éÈ-ôCc, || The building is made out of steel and concrete. BE-T˛‰Cc-N‰-éÈ-ôCc-NE-e_-]NU-n…c-`c,
step /step/ | ˇc-§‰Cc, || The children sat on the steps outside the school. q…c-R-WÍ-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-p…-_È`-n…-ˇc-§‰Cc-§‰E-P-2#.,
still /step/ | N-OÿE-, || It was late and she still hadn’t returned home. Oÿc-WÈN-]p…-_“E-BÈ-UÈ-N-OÿE-^“`-`-U-`ÈC
stomach /"stVm@k/ | SÈ-T, uÈN-BÈC || His stomach was full after eating a big dinner.
H-M—P-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-TZ‰c-ä‰c-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-SÈ-T-]uEc,
stone /st@Un/ | çÈ, || The statue is made of stone. ]x-ˇ‡-N‰-çÈ-`c-T\Èc,
stop /stQp/ | UWUc-]HÈC-R, || Don’t stop running, we are almost there. î‡Cc-UWUc-U-]HÈC E-WÍ-S`-G‰_-N‰-`-MÈP-NE-M`,
store /stO:/ | 1WÍE-BE-, 2I_-CcÈC-q‰N-R, || 1Can you buy me some milk from the store?
mÈN-l…c-WÍE-BE-N‰-Pc-E-`-]È-U-_‰-IÈ-M—T-TU, 2Please store these boxes in your home. °U-]N…-NC-mÈN-WE-Pc-I_-CcÈC-qÈc,
storm /stO:m/ | Ö‡E-]W”T, || The crops were destroyed by the storm yesterday. B-cE-Ö‡E-]W”T-l…c-`È-KÈC-TÖCc,
story /"stO:ri/ | CKU-î‡N, || Tell me a ghost story. E-`-]x‰-^…-CKU-î‡N-F…C-aÈN-NE-,
stove /st@Uv/ | ôCc-MT, || The kettle of tea is on the stove. N‰U-ôCc-MT-l…-§‰E-P-^ÈN,
straight /streIt/ | xE-UÈ, || Can you draw a straight line? mÈN-l…c-M…C-xE-UÈ-Z…C-]{…-M—T-TU,
strange /streIndZ/ | G-U‰N, ^-UWP-FP, || No one knew the strange man. U…-G-U‰N-N‰-c“-CF…C-C…c-lE-U-a‰c,
street /stri:t/ | ~E-`U, || I walked down the street yesterday. B-˛E-E-~E-`U-N‰-Tî‡N-Pc-cÈE-,

▪255▪

strike /straIk/ | 1`c-]HÈC 2çflE-ç‰C-q‰N-R, || 1The workers’ strike lasted two weeks.

`c-T\È-Tc-`c-]HÈC-C\]-]BÈ_-CI…c-_…E-qc, 2The man didn’t strike the child even though he was very angry.
´‰c-R-N‰-BÈE-tÈ-`Ec-_“E-BÈc-q…c-R-N‰-`-çflE-ç‰C-U-qc,
strong /strQN/ | §ÈTc-FP, §ÈTc-G‰, || My father is very strong. E]Ã-e-S-P…-d-FE-§ÈTc-G‰,
strongly /strQNli/ | G‰P-RÈ_, b÷Cc-G‰P-RÈc, || The house smelled strongly of incense. BE-T-N‰-`-ßÈc-x…-G‰P-RÈ-]M—`,
struggle /"strVgl/ | 1EÈ-àÈ`, 2]SC-]WC-îC-R, || 1The peasants’ struggle against the corrupt government soon
grew into a nationwide revolution. Z…E-Rc-~…N-C[÷E-`N-R-`-EÈ-àÈ`-q‰N-R-U…-]nEc-R_-î`-^ÈEc-_E-TZ…P-n…-Cc_-Tä‰-Z…C-Lfi-nŸ_, 2The
climbers struggled to make their way to the top of the mountain.

_…-TÈ_-]CÈ-UBP-n…c-]SC-]WC-TîT-Pc-_…-UCÈ_-]XÂCc-MTc-qc,
stubborn /"stVb@n/ | _‰Ec-RÈ, nÈE-TÈ, || She was very stubborn and didn’t want to study her lessons.
BÈ-UÈ-P…-d-FE-nÈE-TÈ-^…P-Rc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-TÜT-q-ÆÈE-P-U-]NÈN,
student /"stju:dnt/ | ÜÈT-U, || I am a student. E-P…-ÜÈT-U-Z…C-^…P,
study /"stVdi/ | 1ÜÈT-ÆÈE-, 2ÜÈT-R, || 1His English study is something that he enjoys.
Nq…P-^…C-`-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-q‰N-R-P…-BÈc-Z‰P-B-]XÀP-R-Z…C-^…P, 2Do you like to study English? mÈN-<%-Nq…P-^…C-ÜÈT-R_-NC]-]U,
stupid /"stju:pId/ | ɇP-RÈ, _…C-å·`, ljP-åCc, || Spending all the money is a stupid thing.
°È_-UÈ-WE-U-T@È`-T-P…-ljP-åCc-a…C-^…P,
substitute /"sVbstItju:t/ | NÈN, U…-NÈN, 1WT-U, WT-q‰N-R, 2WT-`-§‰_-T, || 1If our teacher is sick, the school sends a
substitute to replace her. E-WÍ]Ã-NC‰-àP-P-WÂ, ÜÈT-≈c-U…-WT-U-Z…C-UECc-Pc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-WT-q‰N, 2Please substitute a larger size for
this smaller size coat. §ÈN-¡-G”E-T-]N…]Ã-WT-`-§ÈN-¡-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-§‰_-_ÈCc,
succeed /s@k"si:d/ | î`-B-MÈT-R, || If you try very hard you can succeed at whatever you do.
C`-K‰-mÈN-l…c-]TN-T˛ÈP-G‰P-RÈ-qc-P, mÈN-l…c-F…-`c-lE-î`-B-]MÈT-M—T,
such /sVtS/ | ]N…-]x, || There is such a strong wind today. N‰-_…E-Ö‡E-]N…-]x-G‰,
sudden /"sVdn/ | ÇÈ-T“_, || All of a sudden the house fell down. ÇÈ-T“_-Oÿ-BE-T-Tç…Tc,
suffer /"sVf@/ | •‡C-rÈE-T, || The sick people in the hospital are all suffering from some kind of disease.
©P-BE-Oÿ-PN-R-WÍc-PN-_…Cc-CE-_“E-C…-•‡C-rÈE-TZ…P-^ÈN,
sugar /"SUg@/ | @-_-p‰-U, || I like sugar in my tea. E-H]Ã-PE-Oÿ-@-_-p‰-U-]S‰P-R_-NC],
summer /"sVm@/ | Nq_-B, || It is hot in summer. Nq_-B_-PU-Ñ-W-UÈ-^…P,
sun /sVn/ | 1I…-U, 2I…-U_-ú‰-T, || 1The sun felt hot on our backs. E-WÍ]Ã-îT-Pc-I…-U-W-T]Ã-¶E-T-´‰c, 2We will sun our quilts
and blankets today. N‰-_…E-E-WÍc-E-WÍ]Ã-I`-M—`-NE-I`-CNP-I…-U_-ú‰-î‡-^…P,
Sunday /"sVndeI; -di/ | C\]-I…-U, || I don’t go to school on Sunday. C\]-I…-U_-E-ÜÈT-≈_-U…-]uÈ,
sunny /"sVni/ | I…-]ÈN-úP-R, || Today is a sunny day. N‰-_…E-P…-I…-]ÈN-úP-R]Ã-I…P-UÈ-Z…C-^…P,
sunshine /"sVnSaIn/ | I…-]ÈN, || The sunshine warmed the cold winter day. I…-]ÈN-l…c-NDÿP-B]Ã-I…P-U-uE-UÈ-H‰-xÈ_-TKE-,
supervise /"su:p@vaIz/ | õ-åÈC-q‰N-R, || The teacher asked the best student to supervise the others while she
was gone. NC‰-àP-n…c-ÜÈT-U-G‰c-NC]-TÈ-`-BÈ-UÈ-cÈE-b÷`-Pc-ÜÈT-U-CZP-`-õ-åÈC-q‰N-î‡-TFÈ`,
supper /"sVp@/ | NDÿE-\c, || When did you eat supper? mÈN-l…c-NDÿE-\c-PU-WÍN-\Èc-R-^…P,
▪256▪

supply /s@"plaI/ | 1]NÈP-≥ÈN, 2]NÈP-≥ÈN-q‰N-R, || 1We don’t have a large supply of books at the school.

ÜÈT-≈-Pc-E-WÍ-`-NR‰-G-]NÈP-≥ÈN-G‰P-RÈ-U…-q‰N, 2We can supply you with all the coal that you need.
mÈN-`-UBÈ-T]Ã-çÈ-cÈ`-WE-U-E-WÍc-]NÈP-≥ÈN-q‰N-M—T,
support /s@"pO:t/ | 1îT-´È_, 2îT-´È_-q‰N-R, || 1The son had to provide support for his mother after his father
died. T“c-BÈ]Ã-e-S-]Nc-ä‰c-BÈ]Ã-e-U-`-îT-´È_-q‰N-NCÈc-qŸE-, 2Please support the decisions that the leaders make.
]CÈ-t…N-l…c-UXN-R]Ã-MC-CFÈN-`-îT-´È_-q‰N-_ÈCc,
suppose /s@"p@Uz/ | TcU-WÍN-q‰N-R, ]NÈN-R, || I don’t suppose you know his phone number?
mÈN-l…c-BÈ]Ã-B-R_-eE-uEc-a‰c-î‡-_‰N-Ec-U…-]NÈN,
suppress /s@"pres/ | T~P-R, UPÈP-R, || He had to suppress his laughter during the class.
ÜÈT-t…N-l…-ˇTc-c“-BÈc-BÈ]Ã-CN-UÈ-T~P-NCÈc-qŸE-,
sure /SO:/ | BÈ-MC || Are you sure you want to do this? mÈN-l…c-]N…-`c-]NÈN-R-BÈ-MC-^…P-PU,
surplus /"s3:pl@s/ | üC-U, || There is a surplus of barley this year. N-`È_-Pc-üC-U-^ÈN,
surprise /s@"praIz/ | 1dE-cEc-R, 2^-UW_-T, || 1His surprise was an act—it wasn’t genuine.
BÈ-dE-cEc-R-P…-éU-]nŸ_-VU-`c-EÈ-U-U…P, 2I was so surprised to see him again. BÈ-NE-^E-T´_-M—C-R-`-E-^-UW_,
surrender /s@"rend@/ | UCÈ-°‡_-T, || The enemy surrendered after one battle. ]MT-]t‹C-CF…CC…-ä‰c-Pc-Nu-NUC-C…c-UCÈ-T°‡_,
surround /s@"raUnd/ | UM]-TˇÈ_, || There are flowers surrounding the tree. •ÈE-TÈ]Ã-UM]-TˇÈ_-P-U‰-KÈC-^ÈN,
survive /s@"vaIv/ | M_-T, || We weren’t sure he would survive his injury. E-WÍc-BÈ-êc-´ÈP-`c-M_-U…P-MC-C…c-U…-GÈN,
suspect /s@"spekt/ |1]NÈN-R, 2I‰c-NÈCc-FP, || 1I suspect that he won’t be able to finish school.
Ec-BÈ-ÜÈT-≈-Pc-UM_-p…P-M—T-R_-U…-]NÈN, 2The police arrested several suspects after the murder.
NU_-CcÈN-qŸE-ä‰c-I‰P-åÈC-Rc-I‰c-NÈCc-FP-]C]-]XÀP-T\“E-qc,
suspend /s@"spend/ | NoEc-R, || The kite hung suspended from its string in the tree.
aÈC-q-N‰-•ÈE-UCÈ_-MÈCc-R]Ã-ˇ‡N-R-`c-U_-NoEc,
swallow /"swQl@U/ | U…N-R, || His throat was so sore that he couldn’t swallow easily.
BÈ]Ã-U…N-R-P-Tc-BÈc-\-U-`c-Ü-UÈc-U…N-U-M—T,
sweater /"swet@/ | T`-¡, || I lost my sweater. Ec-E]Ã-T`-¡-TÈ_,
sweet /swi:t/ | UE_-UÈ, || She likes to drink sweet tea. BÈ-UÈ-H-UE_-UÈ-TLfiE-T_-NC],
swim /swIm/ | 1G”-ì`, 2G”-ì`-q‰N-R, || 1Our swim in the lake lasted one hour. E-WÍ-UWÍ]“-PE-Pc-G”-WÍN-CF…C-`-G”-ì`-qc, 2I
like to swim in the river. E-G”-TÈ]Ã-PE-Oÿ-G”-ì`-q‰N-R_-NC],
sympathy /"sImp@Ti/ | £…E-ä‰, || We all had a lot of sympathy for him after his mother died.
BÈ]Ã-e-U-]Nc-ä‰c-E-WÍ-WE-Uc-BÈ-`-£…E-ä‰-G‰P-RÈ-TFEc,
system /"sIst@m/ | U-`C `U-`“Cc, || Lawyers study the legal system. t…Uc-˛ÈN-Rc-t…Uc-`“Cc-`U-`“Cc-`-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-q‰N,

▪257▪

T
table /"teIbl/ | FÈC-VÂ, || The teacher’s table is bigger than my table. NC‰-àP-n…-FÈC-VÂ-P…-E]Ã-FÈC-VÂ-`c-G‰,
take /teIk/ | ]t…N, ]m‰_, `‰P, || Take my brother with you when you go to the market.

mÈN-tÈU-`-]uÈ-ˇTc-E]Ã-߇P-^-]t…N-_ÈCc, Please take this money. °È_-UÈ-]N…-`‰P-_ÈCc,
take care of | õ-´ÈE-q‰N-R, || Take care of yourself when you go abroad. mÈN-p…-î`-`-cÈE-P-_E-`-2.$-´ÈE-qÈc,
take off | S“N-R, ]S“N-R, || Please take off your shirt. mÈN-l…-WÀ-`‰P-S“N-_ÈCc,
talk /tO:k/ | 1ljE-UÈ`, 2B-Tç-q‰N-R, || 1The subject of his talk was Tibetan linguistics.
BÈ]Ã-ljE-UÈ`-n…-TäÈN-CZ…-P…-TÈN-l…-±-_…C-R-^…P, 2Don’t talk so much. B-Tç-N‰-]x-UE-TÈ-U-q‰N-F…C
tall /tO:l/ | _…E-T, || How tall are you? mÈN-l…-C\“Cc-H…-]x]Ã-_…E-T-`,
tank /t&Nk/ | ¶ÈN, || The tank was full of water. ¶ÈN-l…-PE-Oÿ-G”-U‰_,
tape /teIp/ | 1≠…P-MC 2ÆÈ_-T, || 1Put some tape on the envelope. ^…C-b÷Tc-l…-§‰E-`-≠…P-MC-]C]-ÆÈ_, 2I need to tape this
torn paper. Ec-aÈC-T“-M‰N-RÈ-N‰-ÆÈ_-NCÈc,
target /"tA:gIt/ | 1NU…Cc-]T‰P, 2NU…Cc-cÈ-`-]XÀP-R, || 1The arrow hit the centre of the target.
UN]-UÈc-NU…Cc-]T‰P-n…-Nl…`-`-SÈC 2Cigarette advertisers target young people.
M-UC-UWUc-ÆÈ_-Tç-mT-l…c-CZÈP-Q÷-éUc-NU…Cc-cÈ-`-]XÀP,
task /tA:sk/ | `c-]CP, || We had many tasks to do. E-WÍ-`-`c-]CP-UE-TÈ-T±„T-î‡-^ÈN,
taste /teIst/ | 1{È-T, 2_È-rÈE-T, || 1The taste of boiled mutton is good. `“C-a-TVÍc-U]Ã-{È-T-Z…U, 2Please taste the soup
and tell me if you think that it is salty enough. mÈN-l…c-B‘-T]Ã-_È-rÈE-Pc-Ω-B‘-]NE-^ÈN-U‰N-E-`-aÈN,
tax /t&ks/ | 1No-t`, 2t`-]C‰`-T, || 1How much tax do you need to pay this year?
N-`È_-mÈN-l…c-No-t`-C-WÈN-≥ÈN-NCÈc, 2The city will tax all retail sales beginning next year.
uÈE-m‰_-n…c-p…-`È-Pc-T\“E-c…`-]WÍE-`-t`-]C‰`-î‡-_‰N,
tea /ti:/ | H, || She has tea in the morning. BÈ-UÈc-PEc-UÈ_-H-TLfiE-,
teach /ti:tS/ | ]GN-R, ]t…N, || What does he teach you? BÈc-mÈN-`-F…-Z…C-t…N,
teacher /"ti:tS@/ | NC‰-àP, || The teacher came to class late. NC‰-àP-ÜÈT-t…N-`-^ÈE-2-]p…,
team /ti:m/ | _“-BC || Our basketball team played last night. UNE-NCÈE-E-WÍ]Ã-`P-G…C-ßÈ-`È-_“-BC-C…c-óE-`…-˛‰c,
tear /tI@/ | U…C-G”, || Her tears felt hot as they streamed down her face. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-U…C-G”-CNÈE-Pc-T[÷_-T-P-xÈP-RÈ]Ã-WÍ_-T-´‰c,
technical /"teknIkl/ | `C-˛`-n…, || He wanted to attend the local technical college.
BÈ-c-CPc-l…-`C-˛`-ÜÈT-Ç…E-`-[÷Cc-P-]NÈN,
teeth /ti:D/ | cÈ, || His teeth are very white. BÈ]Ã-cÈ-P…-d-FE-N@_,
telephone /"telIf@Un/ | 1B-R_, 2B-R_-CKÈE-T, || 1Our family has no telephone. E‰N-WE-`-B-R_-U‰N, 2Please telephone
me this evening. NÈ-NCÈE-E-`-B-R_-MÈEc,
television (TV, telly) /"telIf@Un/ | TãP-]z…P, || There was no electricity so we couldn’t watch television.
ÇÈC-U‰N-Rc-E-WÍc-TãP-]z…P-`-Tõ-U-M—T,
tell /tel/ | aÈN, µ, || Please tell me about yourself. mÈN-l…?-<%-$A-$/?-5=-%<->R.-.%-,
temperature /"tempr@tS@/ | xÈN-uE-, || What is the temperature now? N-õ-xÈN-uE-C-WÍN-_‰N,
▪258▪

temporary /"tempr@ri/ | ˇTc-MÈC CPc-ˇTc, || The building they made was only temporary.

BÈ-WÍc-`c-R]Ã-MÈC-BE-P…-ˇTc-MÈC-VU-Z…C-^…P,
ten /ten/ | TF“, || Here are ten pens. ]N…-_“-ôCc-Ø„C-TF“-^ÈN,
tense /tens/ | 1]WT-R, 2Oÿc, || 1She was tense before taking the test. î‡Cc-`-U-[÷Cc-CÈE-BÈ-UÈ-]WTc, 2They wrote in the
past tense. BÈ-WÍc-Oÿc-]Nc-R-T@È`-Pc-{…c,
tent /tent/ | Dÿ_, || Our village has a large tent. E-WÍ]Ã-•‰-T-`-Dÿ_-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-^ÈN,
term /t3:m/ | 1M-£N, WÀC-WÍCc, 2ÜÈT-ˇTc, || 1I don’t understand some of these new terms and expressions.
M-£N-NE-WÀC-WÍCc-Cc_-T-]N…-NC-PE-C…-B-ac-`-Ec-CÈ-T-U…-`ÈP, 2The new term will begin soon.
ÜÈT-ˇTc-Cc_-T-U…-]CÈ_-T_-]CÈ-˛ÈU-î‡-_‰N,
terrible /"ter@bl/ | ∞C-UÈ, ]H…Cc-G‰P, || That was a terrible storm we had yesterday.
B-cE-E-WÍ_-qŸE-T]Ã-Ö‡E-]W”T-N‰-P…-∞C-UÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
territory /"ter@tri/ | UE]-BÈEc, c-G, || Qinghai has much grassland territory. UWÍ-¢ÈP-`-»-c]Ã-UE]-BÈEc-G‰P-RÈ-^ÈN,
terror /"ter@/ | NEEc-∞C || She felt terror at the thought of giving a speech in front of the class.
]XÀP-≈]Ã-UOÿP-Pc-CKU-TaN-NCÈc-R-TcU-P-BÈ-UÈ_-NEEc-∞C-´‰c,
test /test/ | î‡Cc-G”E-, || We always have a test on Friday. C\]-R-cEc-`-E-WÍ_-î‡P-R_-î‡Cc-G”E-Z…C-^ÈN,
textile /"tekstaIl/ | ]B‰`-]MC-MÈP-íc, || Cotton and wool are materials used to make textiles.
~…E-T`-NE-T`-P…-]B‰`-]MC-MÈP-íc-`-T@È`-T]Ã-î‡-G-^…P,
than /D@n; D&n/ | `c, T•‡_, || I am taller than you. mÈN-`c-E-C\“Cc-_…E-,
thank /T&Nk/ | T@]-x…P-[÷-T, || I want to thank him for his help. BÈc-_ÈCc-qc-R_, Ec-T@]-x…P-[÷-P-]NÈN,
Thank goodness! | CPU-àP-Uc-Um‰P-qŸE-, || Thank goodness! I didn’t become ill. CPU-àP-Uc-Um‰P-qŸE-, E-`-P-W-U-qŸE-,
thanks /T&Nks/ | M—Cc-ä‰-G‰, || Thanks for your help. mÈN-l…c-_ÈCc-qc-R_-M—Cc-ä‰-G‰,
that /D&t/ | N‰, || What is that person doing? U…-N‰c-F…-Z…C-`c-TZ…P-^ÈN, That’s all right. N‰-GÈC-C…
the Chinese /tSaI"ni:z/ | s⁄E-CÈ-T, || The Chinese have a long history. s⁄E-CÈ-T-`-`È-î‡c-_…E-UÈ-^ÈN,
the day after tomorrow | CZ‰c-I…P, || The day after tomorrow will be a holiday. CZ‰c-I…P-P…-CPE-T-^…P,
the day before yesterday | B-I…P, || The day before yesterday I was ill. B-I…P-E-`-P-W-qŸE-,
the middle of the day | I…P-DÿE-, || We will eat lunch in the middle of the day. I…P-DÿE-`-E- WÍc-DÿE-\c-T\]-î‡-^…P,
the next day | I…P-C[÷C-U, p…-I…P, || On the next day I could not go home. p…-I…P-E-^“`-`-]uÈ-U-M—T,
the next year | p…-`È, || The next year I became a student. p…-`È_-E-ÜÈT-U-Z…C-Lfi-nŸ_,
the people | U…-éUc, || The people of our village are all Tibetan. E-WÍ-•‰-T]Ã-U…-éUc-P…-TÈN-R-^…P,
the Tibetans | TÈN-U…, || The Tibetans have a beautiful and important language. TÈN-U…-`-ˇN-G-£P-`-C`-G‰-T-Z…C-^ÈN,
theatre (theater) /"TI@t@/ | ÑÈc-C_-BE-, || She wants to become an actress in the theatre.
BÈ-UÈc-ÑÈc-C_-BE-Pc-]tT-UBP-Z…C-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
their /De@/| BÈ-WÍ]Ã, || This is their classroom. ]N…-P…-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-ÜÈT-BE-^…P,
theirs /De@z/ BÈ-WÍ]Ã, || It is theirs, not ours. N‰-P…-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-^…P, E-WÍ]Ã-U…P,
them /D@m; Dem/ | BÈ-WÍ, || Please give it to them. N‰-BÈ-WÍ-`-q…P-NE-,
▪259▪

BÈ-WÍ-_E-, || They did it all by themselves. ^ÈN-WN-BÈ-WÍ-_E-C…c-`c,
then /Den/ | N‰-Pc, || What will you do then? N‰-Pc-mÈN-l…c-F…-Z…C-`c,
there /De@/ N‰-P, || He lives there with his family. BÈ-BÈ]Ã-T\]-U…-NE-üP-Oÿ-N‰-P-•ÈN,
these /Di:z/ | ]N…-NC || These girls are all good students. T“-UÈ-]N…-NC-WE-U-ÜÈT-U-T\E-TÈ-a-§C-_‰N,
they /DeI/ | BÈ-WÍ, || They will not give you any trouble. BÈ-WÍc-mÈN-`-]È-Tî`-CKÈN-U…-~…N,
thick /TIk/ | UM—C-RÈ, || The wool on that sheep is very thick. `“C-N‰]Ã-§‰E-C…-T`-P…-d-FE-UM—C-RÈ-_‰N,
thin /TIn/ | ˇU-RÈ, _…N-R, || She dieted until she was quite thin. BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-UÈ-_…N-_‰C-T_-Oÿ-\-U-WÍN-]XÀP-qc,
thing /TIN/ | NEÈc-RÈ, || I don’t have a thing to wear. E-`-CÈP-î‡-Z…C-lE-U‰N,
think /TINk/ | ]NÈN, TcU, || I think we must leave now. Ec-E-WÍ-N-õ-]uÈ-NCÈc-2?3,
third /T3:d/ | Cc“U-R, || This is the third time I’ve told you to stop that. ]N…-P…-Ec-HR.-=-.J-353?-8R$-&J?-2>.-0:A-,J%?themselves /D@m"selvz/

$?3-0-;A/,
thirteen /%T3:"ti:n/ | TF“-Cc“U, || She was thirteen before she went to the big city.

uÈE-m‰_-G‰P-RÈ-N‰-`-U-cÈE-CÈE-, BÈ-UÈ-`È-TF“-Dc“U-^…P,
thirty /"T3:ti/ | c“U-F—, || My mother is thirty years old. E]Ã-e-U-P…-`È-c“U-F“-^…P,
this /DIs/ | ]N…, || This is a big yak. ]N…-P…-C^C-G‰P-RÈ-Z…C-_‰N,
those /D@Uz/ | N‰-NC || Those are an old pair of socks. N‰-NC-P…-]TÈ`-ã…E-G-CF…C-_‰N,
threat /Tret/ | 1]H…Cc-∞C 2∞C-ÜÈE-T, || 1Your threats don’t frighten me. mÈN-l…-]H…Cc- ∞C-C…c-E-0$-+-U…-]H“C 2The older
boys threatened the younger ones. Z…-`…-G‰-T-WÍc-Z…-`…-G”E-T-NC-`-∞C-TÜEc,
three /Tri:/ | Cc“U, || There are three girls in our family. E‰N-WE-P-T“-UÈ-Cc“U-^ÈN,
through /Tru:/ | Tî‡N, || I like watching the horses run through the grass. E-»-ME-Tî‡N-Pc-î‡C-R]Ã-å-`-Tõ-T_-NC],
throw /Tr@U/ | ]S‰P, C^“C || Throw me the ball. óE-`…-N‰-E-`-C^“C-NE-,
Thursday /"T3:zdeI; -di/ | C\]-S“_-T“, || On Thursday we will have a picnic. C\]-S“_-T]Ã-I…P-E-WÍc-W-SÈC-F…C-îC-î‡-^…P,
Tibetan /t@betIn/ | TÈN-ˇN, TÈN-^…C TÈN-U…, || Do you speak Tibetan? mÈN-l…c-TÈN-ˇN-TaN-a‰c-cU,
ticket /"tIkIt/ | R-c‰, || Can you buy me a bus ticket? mÈN-l…c-E-`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-n…-R-c‰-Z…C-IÈ-M—T-TU,
tidy /"taIdi/ | u`-NC || She always keeps her room tidy. BÈ-UÈc-UÈ]Ã-BE-T-î‡P-R_-u`-NC-q‰N,
tiger /"taIg@/ | §C || Have you ever seen a tiger? mÈN-l…c-§C-_…C-rÈE-EU,
time /taIm/ | Oÿc-WÍN, || What time is our English class? E-WÍ]Ã-Nq…P-^…C-C…-ÜÈT-t…N-Oÿc-WÍN-Oÿ]Ã-§‰E-^…P,
tired /"taI@d/ | ME-GN-R, || He was tired after studying for many hours. BÈc-Oÿc-WÍN-UE-TÈ-`-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-qc-ä‰c-ME-GN,
to /t@; tu:/ | `, || I’m going to go to the market. E-tÈU-`-]uÈ-˛…c-^ÈN,
today /t@"deI/ | N‰-_…E-, || Today I want to tell you all a story. N‰-_…E-Ec-mÈN-WÍ-WE-U-`-CKU-î‡N-F…C-TaN-P-]NÈN,
together /t@"geD@/ | UIU-Oÿ, || We ate a delicious dinner together. E-WÍc-UIU-Oÿ-\-U-Z…U-RÈ-Z…C-\Èc,
toilet /"tOIl@t/ | ≠ÈN-BE-, || The toilet stopped working last night. UNE-NCÈE-≠ÈN-BE-≠ÈN-U-M—T,
tomorrow /t@"mQr@U/ | cE-I…P, || Tomorrow I’m leaving on a long trip. cE-I…P-E-c-MC-_…E-Z…C-`-]uÈ-î‡-^…P,
tonight /t@"naIt/ | N‰-NCÈE-, || Tonight he thought it would rain. N‰-NCÈE-BÈc-G_-T-]TT-î‡-_‰N-]NÈN,
too /tu:/ | lE-, ]E-, ^E-, || Do you want to read a book, too? mÈN-l…c-lE-NR‰-G-Z…C-ÅÈC-P-]NÈN-NU,
▪260▪

tool /tu:l/ | `C-G, || A hammer is a useful tool. MÈ-T-P…-`C-G-CÈ-GÈN-F…C-_‰N,
tooth /tu:T/ | cÈ, || The baby is growing a new tooth. q…c-R-N‰-`-cÈ-Cc_-T-Z…C-´‰-TZ…P-^ÈN,
top /tQp/ | ˛‰, MÈC || Put the book on top of the table. NR‰-G-N‰-FÈC-VÂ]Ã-MÈC-`-ZÈC
torture /"tO:tS@/ | CPÈN-R, CVÂc-R, || Trying to read a book in the dark is torture for the eyes.

U—P-PC-C…-PE-Pc-NR‰-G-ÅÈC-R-P…-U…C-`-CPÈN-R-G‰,
total /"t@Utl/ | ≠…-T•ÈUc-q‰N-R, || Can you total these numbers for me? mÈN-l…c-uEc-@-]N…-NCE-`-≠…-T•ÈUc-q‰N-M—T-TU,
touch /tVtS/ | _‰C-R, || He was so fat that he couldn’t touch his toes. BÈ-WÍP-RÈ-^…P-xCc-Pc-BÈ]Ã-áE-T]Ã-UX“T-Dÿ-`-_‰C-U-M—T,
toward /t@"wO:dz/ | pÈCc-`, || We walked toward the village. E-WÍ-•‰-T]Ã-pÈCc-c“-cÈE-,
town /taUn/ | uÈE-Tç`, || Are you going to town today? N‰-_…E-mÈN-uÈE-Tç`-`-]uÈ-˛…c-^ÈN-NU,
township | ZE-, CaÈC-@ || My home is in Maba Township. E]Ã-^“`-©N-R-ZE-P-^ÈN,
trade /treId/ | 1IÈ-WÍE-, 2IÈ-WÍE-q‰N-R, || 1The computer trade in China is growing. ÇÈC-ÅN-IÈ-WÍE-s⁄E-CÈ-P-îc-TZ…P-^ÈN, 2Do
you think he will trade this blanket for some food? mÈN-l…c-Tõc-P-BÈc-U`-CÈc-]N…-\c-]C]-`-IÈ-WÍE-q‰N-~…N-NU,
tradition /tr@"dISn/ | ~È`-î‡P, || Singing loudly is a tradition in this area. ˇN-UMÈP-RÈc-LJ-`‰P-R-P…-^“`-u⁄-]N…]Ã-~È`-î‡P-^…P,
traffic jam /"tr&fIk dZ&m/ | ]u…U-]u⁄`-T_-GN, || There was a traffic jam so I’m late.
]u…U-]u⁄`-T_-GN-F…C-qŸE-Pc-E-ä‰c-`-`“c,
traffic /"tr&fIk/ | 1]u…U-]u⁄`, 2IÈ-WÍE-q‰N-R, || 1Late at night there is little traffic. NCÈE-UÈ-]p…-Oÿc-c“-]u…U-]u⁄`-q‰N-R-JfiE-, 2They
traffic in drugs. BÈ-WÍc-OÿC-IÈ-WÍE-q‰N,
tragic /"tr&dZIk/ | ´È-COÿE-G‰-T, || The death of the two boys was tragic. Z…-`…-CI…c-a…-T-P…-´È-COÿE-G‰-T-Z…C-_‰N,
train /treIn/ | U‰-]BÈ_, || I have never been on a train. E-U‰-]BÈ_-`-CKP-Pc-T•N-U-rÈE-,
traitor /"treIt@/ | EÈ-`ÈC-R, || The police arrested the woman for being a traitor.
I‰P-åÈC-Rc-´‰c-U-N‰-EÈ-`ÈC-R-Z…C-Lfi-]X…P-T\“E-qc,
transport /"tr&nspO:t/ | ´‰`-]x‰P-q‰N-R, || That big truck is used to transport goods to the market.
]u…U-]u⁄`-ÖEc-]BÈ_-G‰-T-N‰-NEÈc-\ÈC-WÍE-__-´‰`-]x‰P-q‰N-R_-T@È`,
travel /"tr&vl/ | 1]u⁄`-´ÈN, 2]u⁄`-´ÈN-q‰N-R, || 1Travel by ship is slower than travel by plane.
u⁄-T•N-N‰-]u⁄`-´ÈN-q‰N-R-CPU-u⁄-T•N-N‰-]u⁄`-´ÈN-q‰N-R-`c-N`, 2They wanted to travel only at night.
BÈ-WÍc-NCÈE-UÈ-BÈ-P-`-]u⁄`-´ÈN-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
treasure /"treZ@/ | PÈ_-˛-G‰P, || They hoped to find a treasure in the cave. BÈ-WÍc-{C-S“C-N‰-Pc-PÈ_-˛-G‰P-Z…C-ã‰N-R_-_‰-T-TFEc,
treat /tri:t/ | 1UuÈP-]TÈN-q‰N-R, 2¶‰-`‰P, || 1I’ll treat you to a nice meal at noon in a restaurant.
I…P-DÿE-`-\-BE-Z…C-Pc-Ec-mÈN-\c-S“N-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-`-UuÈP-]TÈN-q, 2She gave him a treat after he helped her so much.
BÈc-BÈ-UÈ-`-_ÈCc-G‰P-RÈ-qc-Rc-BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-`-¶‰-`‰P-qc,
treaty /"tri:ti/ | G…Ec-^…C || The two countries ended the war by signing a treaty.
î`-BT-CI…c-l…c-G…Ec-^…C-TZC-Pc-]MT-]XÀE-C…-UWUc-TZC
tree /tri:/ | •ÈE-TÈ, || The tree was cut down. •ÈE-TÈ-N‰-TFN,
trial /"traI@l/ | Z…T-CFÈN, || The murder trial lasted only two days. NU_-CcÈN-Z…T-CFÈN-`-I…P-CI…c-KC-KC-]CÈ_,
▪261▪

trip /trIp/ | ^“`-´ÈN, ^“`-ˇÈ_, || We don’t have enough money for the trip. ^“`-ˇÈ_-q‰N-R_-E-WÍ-`-°È_-UÈ-]NE-RÈ-U‰N,
trouble /"trVbl/ | N@]-E`, •‡C || I hope we don’t have any trouble on the way. Ec-E-WÍ_-`U-B-Pc-•‡C-U‰N-R_-_‰,
trousers /"traUz@z/ | áE-¶U, || I’ve bought some new trousers. Ec-áE-¶U-Cc_-T-]C]-IÈc,
truce /tru:s/ | ]t‹C-UWUc-]HÈC-R, || The armies declared a truce. NUC-NR“E-C…c-]t‹C-UWUc-]HÈC-î‡-T±Cc,
true /tru:/ | EÈ-U, TN‰P-R, || I swear it is a true story. Ec-]N…-P…-CKU-î‡N-EÈ-U-Z…C-^…P-R-BC-M‰C-q‰N,
trust /trVst/ | 1^…N-G‰c, 2^…N-G‰c-R, ÖÈU, || 1The trust that I have in your ability explains why I am promoting
you. Ec-mÈN-l…-]HÈP-ME-`-^…N-G‰c-]XÀP-R-P…-Ec-mÈN-l…-CÈ-]SE-CKÈN-R]Ã-î‡-UWP-^…P, 2I’m not sure that person can be trusted.

U…-N‰-`-^…N-G‰c-IP-U…-IP-`-E-`-CN‰E-WÍN-U‰N,
try /traI/ | 1WÍN-õ, 2˛…c, WÍN-õ-q‰N-R, || 1Although it was a good try it was unsuccessful.
N‰-WÍN-õ-T\E-TÈ-Z…C-^…P-UÈN-`‰Cc-]u⁄T-U-qŸE-, 2She will try to come to see you in the hospital.
BÈ-UÈ-©P-BE-Oÿ-mÈN-`-Tõ-_“-^ÈE-˛…c-^ÈN,
Tuesday /"tju:zdeI; -di/ | C\]-U…C-NU_, || I’ll see you next Tuesday. C\]-U…C-NU_-ä‰c-U-`-E-mÈN-`-Tõ-_“-]ÈE-,
turn off /t3:n Qf/ | B-îC-R, || Please turn off the radio. ±-•‡N-]BÈ_-`È]Ã-B-îÈT,
TV (television /"telIvIZn/) TãP-]z…P, || I don’t like to watch TV. E-TãP-]z…P-`-Tõ-T_-U…-NC],
twelve /twelv/ | TF“-CI…c, || I’m twelve years old. E-`È-TF“-CI…c-^…P,
twenty /"twenti/ | I…-b÷, || There are twenty students in my class. E]Ã-]XÀP-≈-P-ÜÈT-U-I…-b÷-^ÈN,
twenty one /"twenti wVn/ | I‰_-CF…C || My oldest brother is twenty one. E]Ã-߇P-Ñ-G‰c-G‰-T-P…-`È-I‰_-CF…C-^…P,
twin | UWÂ-U, || My twin is now a doctor. E]Ã-UWÂ-U-P…-N-õ-©P-R-Z…C-^…P,
two /tu:/ | CI…c, || Two boys ran across the road. Z…-`…-CI…c-`U-/%-Pc-S_-Tî‡Cc,

U
uncle /"VNkl/ | e-B‘, || His uncle is a teacher. BÈ]Ã-e-B‘-P…-NC‰-àP-Z…C-^…P,
under /"Vnd@/ | ]ÈC-P, || The dog ran under the house. m…-N‰-BE-T]Ã-]ÈC-Pc-Tî‡Cc,
understand /%Vnd@"st&nd/ | CÈ-T, d-CÈ-T, || Do you understand? mÈN-l…c-d-CÈ]U,
universe /"ju:nIv3:s/ | ]H…C-å‰P, || The scientists study the elements in the universe.

WP-_…C-Rc-]H…C-å‰P-n…-u⁄T-G-`-Z…T-]H“C-q‰N,
unite /ju:"naIt/ | UM—P-±…`-q‰N-R, || We should all unite for equal rights. NTE-G-]x-UIU-n…-G‰N-Oÿ-E-WÍ-WE-Uc-UM—P-±…`-q‰N-NCÈc,
United States of America (US, USA) | e-U‰-_…-B, || My English teacher is from the USA.
E]Ã-Nq…P-^…C-C…-NC‰-àP-P…-e-U‰-_…-B-Pc-^ÈE-T-^…P,
university /%ju:nI"v3:s@ti/ | ÜÈT-≈-G‰P-UÈ, || He passed the entrance exam and will go to a university.
BÈc-î‡Cc-]zÈN-Pc-ÜÈT-≈-G‰P-UÈ_-]uÈ-î‡-_‰N,
unless /@n"les/ | N‰-U…P, U…P-P, U-CKÈCc, || I don’t want you to come unless you will be happy.
mÈN-_E-´…N-RÈ-^…P-P-U-CKÈCc, Ec-mÈN-^ÈE-P-U…-]NÈN,
unlike /%Vn"laIk/ | U…-]x, || Tibetan is unlike English. TÈN-ˇN-P…-Nq…P-ˇN-NE-U…-]x,
until | /@n"tIl/ T_-_‰C-Lfi, || I won’t see you again until tomorrow. cE-I…P-T_-Lfi-E-mÈN-`-U…-M—C
unusual /Vn"ju:Zu@l/ | î‡P-úP-U…P-R, || That is an unusual rock. N‰-P…-î‡P-úP-U…P-R]Ã-{C-çÈ-Z…C-^…P,
▪262▪

up /Vp/ | `Ec, n‰P, §‰E-, || Let’s go up the mountain. E-WÍ-_…-TÈ]Ã-§‰E-`-]XÂC-R_-q,
up and down | ^_-U_, || His hand moved up and down. BÈ]Ã-`C-R-^_-U_-`-]Dÿ`,
urgent /"3:dZ@nt/ | WTc-G‰-T, X-xC-G‰-T, || This is an urgent message for your teacher.

mÈN-l…-NC‰-àP-`-UWÍP-P-]N…-P…-]z…P-X-xC-G‰-T-Z…C-^…P,
us /Vs/ | E-WÍ, || Please tell us the answer. E-WÍ-`-x…c-`P-aÈN,
use /ju:z/ | ≠ÈN-R, || Please use my pencil. E]Ã-Z-Ø„C-≠ÈN-R_-n…c,
usual /"ju:Zu@l/ | î‡P-úP, || As usual the road gets muddy after it rains. î‡P-úP-PE-TZ…P, G_-T-TTc-ä‰c-`U-öP-ö…P-Oÿ-nŸ_,
usually /"ju:Zu@li/ | î‡P-R_, || I usually have bread for breakfast. Ec-ZÈCc-\c-`-î‡P-R_-CÈ-_‰-\,

V
valley /"v&li/ | `“E-T, || There is a large valley between those two mountains. _…-TÈ-N‰-CI…c-l…-T_-P-`“E-T-G‰/-0R-Z…C-^ÈN,
value /"v&lju:/ | _…P-ME-, ]X]-ME-, || With inflation the value of money is reduced.

NE“`-`È-]u‰U-M`-aÈ_-T-NE-T§flP-Pc, °È_-UÈ]Ã-]X]-ME-IUc,
vegetable /"vedZt@bl/ | ¢È-WÍN, || This vegetable is my favourite. :.A-/A-%-<%-(J?-.$:-2:A-}R-5S.-;A/,
vehicle /"vi:@kl/ | ÖEc-]BÈ_, || Have you seen our new vehicle on the road? =3-/%-/?-HR.-GA?-EWÍ]Ã-ÖEc-]BÈ_-Cc_-T-e‰-_…C
version /"v3:Sn/ | T¨„_-^…C || This is the best version of the poem I’ve ever read.
]N…-P…-Ec-TÅCc-R]Ã-£P-EC-C…-T¨„_-^…C-G‰c-T\E-TÈ-^…P,
very much | d-FE-, a…P-Lfi, || I don’t like to eat beef very much. E-ˇUc-a-\-î‡-N‰-]x-U…-NC],
very /"veri/ | d-FE-, || She is very tall. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-C\“Cc-d-FE-_…E-,
veto /"vi:t@U/ | t-ÜÈC-q‰N-R, || The President chose to veto the new law. V“P-M—P-n…c-t…Uc-Cc_-T-t-ÜÈC-qc,
vicious /"vIS@s/ | Z‰-EP, || That is a vicious dog barking over there. ^-C…-P-\“C-R]Ã-m…-N‰-P…-Z‰-EP-Z…C-_‰N,
victory /"vIkt@ri/ | î`-B, || The players were celebrating their recent victory.
˛‰N-UBP-éUc-l…c-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-I‰-`U-n…-î`-B-`-å‰P-]{‰`-[÷-TZ…P-^ÈN,
village /"vIlIdZ/ | •‰-T, || My village is behind the mountain. E-WÍ]Ã-•‰-T-P…-_…-TÈ-N‰]Ã-SC-P-^ÈN,
violence /"vaI@l@ns/ | ˛ŸT-≠ÈN, || It would be awful to have violence in the classroom.
ÜÈT-BE-PE-˛ŸT-≠ÈN-]qŸE-T-P…-M-a`-_‰N,
virus /"vaIr@s/ | PN-OÿC || The virus was spread through water. G”-Tî‡N-Pc-PN-OÿC-mT,
visit /"vIzIt/ | 1]WUc-]x…, 2]WUc-]x…-q‰N-R, || 1My mother left for her own home yesterday after a three-day visit
to my home. E]Ã-e-Uc-E‰N-WE-Oÿ-I…P-Cc“U-_…E-C…-]WUc-]x…-qc-ä‰c-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-m…U-Oÿ-`ÈC-cÈE-, 2When will you visit me?
mÈN-l…c-E-`-PU-WÍN-]WUc-]x…-q‰N-î‡-^…P,
visitor /"vIzIt@/ | ]u⁄`-T, ]WUc-]x…-q‰N-UBP, || The visitor left after two hours. ]u⁄`-T-Oÿc-WÍN-CI…c-l…-ä‰c-Pc-T“N-cÈE-,
voice /vOIs/ | ˇN, || Her voice sounded strange on the phone. BÈ-UÈ]Ã-ˇN-B-R_-Pc-IP-P-G-U‰N-F…C-_‰N,
volcano /vQl"keIn@U/ | U‰-_…, || There are volcanoes erupting in Hawaii. Z-Y‰-Nq…c-P-U‰-_…-]pŸ_-TZ…P- ^ÈN,
volleyball /"vQlibO:l/ | S]‰-G…C-óE-`…, || The new volleyball was expensive. S]‰-G…C-óE-`…-Cc_-T-N‰-CÈE-N@],
▪263▪

vote /vђUt/ | 1]N‰Uc-aÈC 2]N‰Uc-aÈC-]S‰P-R, || 1How many votes did each candidate receive?

]N‰Uc-±„C-R-_‰-_‰-`-]N‰Uc-aÈC-Oÿ-_‰-M‰Uc, 2At what age do you get to vote in the election?
mÈN-l…c-`È-Oÿ]Ã-§‰E-Pc-]N‰U-TˇÈ]Ã-]N‰Uc-aÈC-]S‰P,
voyage /"vOIIdZ/ | UWÍ-´ÈN, || My mother arrived after a long voyage over the ocean. E]Ã-e-U-î-UWÍ]Ã-§‰E-Pc-;/-<A%-$AUWÍ-´ÈN-qc-Pc-]qÈ_,

W
wages /weIdZ/ | Ç-^ÈP, || He hopes improving his education level will increase his wages.

BÈc-_E-C…-ÜÈT-CcÈ-H‰-NC]-`-TKE-Pc-BÈ]Ã-Ç-^ÈP-H‰-UMÈ_-CKÈE-T_-_‰,
wait for /weIt/ | °‡C-R, || Please wait for me by the school. E-`-ÜÈT-≈]Ã-`ÈCc-Pc-°‡Cc-NE-,
wake /weIk/ | ÜÈE-T, cN-R, || Please wake me up early tomorrow morning. cE-I…P-PEc-¢-UÈ-Pc-E-CI…N-`c-ÜÈEc-NE-,
walk /wO:k/ | 1áE-ME-, 2áE-ME-Oÿ-]uÈ-T, || 1After a long walk in the mountains I felt much better.
_…-tÈN-Pc-áE-ME-`-^“P-_…E-p…P-R-P, E]Ã-WÍ_-T-H‰-NC]-`-cÈE-, 2I’ll walk to your home this evening. N‰-NCÈE-E-mÈN-WE-`-áE-ME-Oÿ-]uÈ-î‡-^…P,
wall /wO:l/ | nE-, || The wall is made of bricks. nE-N‰-cÈ-SC-C…c-`c,
want /wQnt/ | ]NÈN-R, NCÈc-R, || Do you want any tea? mÈN-l…c-H-TLfiE-P-]NÈN-NU,
war /wO:/ | ]MT-]t‹C || Many people die in war. U…-UE-TÈ-]MT-]t‹C-`c-]Nc-TZ…P-^ÈN,
warm /wO:m/ | xÈP-RÈ, || Today is warm. N‰-_…E-P…-xÈP-RÈ-_‰N,
wash /wQS/ | Ts⁄-T, || I’ll wash the dishes later. ä‰c-cÈ_-Ec-•‰_-U-N‰-Ts⁄,
waste /weIst/ | G”N-\Èc-c“-CKÈE-T, || Don’t waste your time playing sports all the time.
o/-.-˛`-ÆÈE-˛‰c-Pc-mÈN-l…-Oÿc-WÍN-G”N-\Èc-c“-U-CKÈE-,
watch /wQtS/ | 1Oÿc-WÍN-]BÈ_-`È, 2Tõ-T, || 1I lost my new watch. Ec-E]Ã-Oÿc-WÍN-]BÈ_-`È-Cc_-T-TÈ_, 2Please watch my
children while I go to town. E-uÈE-`-cÈE-b÷`-Pc-E]Ã-q…c-R-`-Tõ-_ÈCc,
water /"wO:t@/ 1G”-ú‡N-R, 2G”, || 1I water the yaks and sheep in the evening. NCÈE-UÈ_-Ec-\ÈC-`“C-`-G”-ú‡N, 2Please give
me a glass of hot water. E-`-G”-BÈ`-a‰`-SÈ_-CE-q…P-NE-,
wave /weIv/ | 1G”-ÖTc, 2S_-C^ÈP-W”_-C^ÈP, 3`C-Tç-§ÈP-R, || 1She likes to stand in the waves at the
ocean. BÈ-UÈ-î-UWÍ]Ã-G”-ÖTc-tÈN-Pc-`Ec-R_-NC], 2I can recognize his wave from far away.
Ec-îE-_…E-Pc-BÈc-`C-R-S_-C^ÈP-W”_-C^ÈP-q‰N-R-UMÈE-M—T, 3He waved goodbye when he left. BÈ-n‰c-ˇTc-BÈc-`C-Tç-T§P-Pc-TN‰-UÈ-qc,
way /weI/ | `U, MTc || This way please! `U-]N…-_“-aÈC
we /wi:/ | E-WÍ, || We are Tibetan. E-WÍ-P…-TÈN-R-^…P,
weak /wi:k/ | CIÈU-RÈ, IUc-G”E-, || I prefer weak tea over strong tea. E-H-TVP-RÈ-`c-CIÈU-RÈ-`-NC],
wealth /welT/ | î‡-PÈ_, || There is a great deal of wealth in that part of town. uÈE-Tç`-n…-G_-N‰-P-î‡-PÈ_-UE-TÈ-^ÈN,
weapon /"wep@n/ | UWÍP-G, || The rebels hid their weapons near the forest. EÈ-`ÈC-Rc-BÈ-WÍ]Ã-`CG-PCc-W`-Oÿ-®c,
wear /we@/ | CÈP, nÈP-R, || I’ll wear my new hat tonight. N‰-NCÈE-Ec-E]Ã-æ-UÈ-Cc_-T-nÈP-î‡-^…P,
weather /"weD@/ | PU-Ñ, CPU-Ca…c, || The weather is nice today. N‰-_…E-CPU-Ca…c-T\E-,
Wednesday /"wenzdeI; -di/ | C\]-üC-R, || The party is on Wednesday. ≥È-WÍCc-P…-C\]-üC-R]Ã-I…P-^…P,
▪264▪

week /wi:k/ | C\]-]BÈ_, || One week from today is her birthday. N‰-_…E-Pc-C\]-]BÈ_-CF…C-]CÈ_-P-BÈ-UÈ]ô‰c-ˇ_-^…P,
weekday /"wi:kdeI/ | C\]-]BÈ_-n…-I…P-3R, || Monday is a weekday. C\]-Ñ-T-P…-C\]-]BÈ_-n…-I…P-U-Z…C-^…P,
weekend /%wi:k"end/ | C\]-UH“C || Saturday and Sunday are the weekend. C\]-߉P-R-NE-C\]-I…-U-P…-C\]-UH“C-^…P,
welcome /"welk@m/ | NC]-Tc“-q‰N-R, || Welcome to my home! E‰N-WE-`-S‰Tc-R_-NC]-Tc“-[÷,
west /west/ | Q÷T-pÈCc, || My home is west of here. E]Ã-^“`-]N…-C]Ã-Q÷T-pÈCc-P-^ÈN,
wet /wet/ | ÖÈU-R, TEc-R, || My shirt is wet from the rain. E]Ã-WÀ-`‰P-G_-T-`c-TEc,
what /wQt/ | F…-Z…C || What did you learn in class today? N‰-_…E-$A-aR2-OA.-=?-mÈN-l…c-ÜÈT-t…N-§‰E-Pc-F…-Z…C-ÆEc,
what about | H…-]x-^…P-R, || What about next week? C\]-]BÈ_-C[÷C-U-P…-H…-]x-_‰N, What about the new teacher?

NC‰-àP-Cc_-T-N‰-H…-]x-_‰N,
wheat /wi:t/ | uÈ, || China grows a lot of wheat. s⁄E-CÈc-uÈ-UE-TÈ-]N‰Tc,
wheel /wi:l/ | ]BÈ_-`È, || The wheel was invented a long time ago. ]BÈ_-`È-N‰-Oÿc-_…E-UÈ-Z…C-C…-¢ÈP-`-Cc_-CKÈN-qc,
when /wen/ | PU-Oÿc, 1Oÿc, 2PU-WÍN || 1When she left she was sad. BÈ-UÈ-n‰c-Oÿc-BÈ-UÈ]Ã-^…N-´È-qŸE-, 2When will you visit me
again? mÈN-l…c-E-`-PU-WÍN-^E-T´_-]WUc-]x…-q‰N-î‡-^…P,
where /we@/ | CE-`, CE-P, || Where are you going? mÈN-CE-`-]uÈ-TZ…P-^ÈN,
which /wItS/ | CE-, || Which colour do you like best? mÈN-G‰c-NC]-T]Ã-B-NÈC-P…-CE-^…P,
while /waIl/ | Oÿc, V-P, ˇTc-c“, || While she was out a friend came to visit.
BÈ-UÈ-°È-`-cÈE-T]Ã-ˇTc-c“-uÈCc-RÈ-Z…C-BÈ-UÈ-`-Tõ-_“-^ÈE-,
white /waIt/ | N@_-TÈ, || My trousers are white. E]Ã-áE-¶U-P…-N@_-TÈ-^…P,
who /hu:/ | c“, || Who telephoned you? c“c-mÈN-`-B-R_-TKE-,
whole /h@Ul/ | WE-U, G-WE-, CE-TÈ, || I ate the whole dish of food. Ec-\-U-•‰_-U-CE-TÈ-\Èc,
whose /hu:z/ | c“]Ã, || Whose book is this? ]N…-P…-c“]Ã-NR‰-G-^…P,
why /waI/ | F…]Ã-p…_, || Why are you weeping? mÈN-l…c-F…]Ã-p…_-S‰-]N‰Tc-TZ…P-^ÈN,
wide /waId/ | î-G‰-T,, || The river is wide and deep. CVE-TÈ-N‰-P…-î-G‰-Z…E-CK…E-\T,
wife /waIf/ | G”E-U, ôU-UÈ, || My wife is younger than me. E]Ã-ôU-UÈ-E-`c-G”E-,
willing /"wIlIN/ | ]NÈN-R, || I’m willing to help you with your homework. m…U-n…-`c-q]Ã-MÈC-Pc-Ec-mÈN-`-_ÈCc-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
win /wIn/ | î`-T, || The team struggled to win the match. _“-BC-N‰c-]uP-T•‡_-`c-î`-T_-T˛ÈP,
wind /wInd/ | Ö‡E-, || The wind is cold. Ö‡E-N‰-]mCc-UÈ-^…P,
window /"wInd@U/ | °‰]“-B‘E-, || The window is broken. °‰]“-B‘E-N‰-GC
windy /"wIndi/ | Ö‡E-G‰-T, || Yesterday was windy. B-cE-Ö‡E-G‰,
winter /"wInt@/ | NDÿP-B, || Winter will soon come. NDÿP-B-rŸ_-UÈ_-܉Tc-î‡-_‰N,
wise /waIz/ | a‰c-î-FP, || I hope to become wise when I grow older. E-(J<-*J?-5K-a‰c-î-FP-Z…C-q‰N-P-]NÈN,
wish /wIS/ | _‰-T-]XÀP-R, || She wished she could go to the university. BÈ-UÈc-BÈ-UÈ-ÜÈT-≈-G‰P-UÈ_-]uÈ-M—T-R_-_‰-T-T\“E-,
with /wID; wIT/ | UIU-Oÿ, || I’ll come with you. E-mÈN-NE-UIU-Oÿ-]uÈ-î‡-^…P,
withdraw /wID"drO:/ | p…_-]M‰P-R, p…_-`‰P-R, || I’ll need to withdraw some money from the bank tomorrow.
cE-I…P-Ec-OE“`-BE-Pc-°È_-UÈ-]C]-p…_-`‰P-NCÈc-î‡-_‰N,
▪265▪

without /wI"DaUt/ | U‰N-P, U‰N-R_, U‰N-R, || Without my friends, I’d be quite lonely. E]Ã-uÈCc-RÈ-U‰N-P-E-CF…C-R“_-B-_ÈC-Lfi-]OÿC
woman /"wUm@n/ | ´‰c-U, || That woman is Tibetan. ´‰c-U-N‰-P…-TÈN-UÈ-^…P,
women /"wImIn/ | ´‰c-U, || Those women are Tibetan. ´‰c-U-N‰-NC-P…-TÈN-_…Cc-^…P,
wonder /"wVnd@/ | a‰c-P-]NÈN-R, || I wonder what they will be doing next week? C\]-]BÈ_-ä‰c-

U_-BÈ-WÍc-F…-Z…C-`c-TZ…P-R-Ec-a‰c-P-]NÈN,
wood /wUd/ | a…E-, || Can you help me collect some wood? mÈN-l…c-E-`-a…E-]C]-]WÍ`-•‡N-q‰N-R_-_ÈCc-q‰N-M—T-TU,
word /w3:d/ | WÀC || How do you pronounce this word? mÈN-l…c-W…C-]N…-H…-õ_-]NÈP,
work /w3:k/ | `c-@ 1q-T, 2q-T-q‰N-R, || 1I don’t like my work. E-E]Ã-q-T-`-U…-NC], 2I will work hard.
Ec-q-T_-]TN-T˛ÈP-q-î‡-^…P,
worker /"w3:k@/ | `c-q‰N-UBP, T\È-T, || My father is a worker. E]Ã-e-S-P…-T\È-T-Z…C-^…P,
world /w3:ld/ | ]XU-Ç…E-, || I’d rather live here than anywhere else in the whole world.
E-]XU-Ç…E-l…-^“`-u⁄-CZP-R-CE-`c-lE-]N…-C_-]OÿC-P-]NÈN,
worried /"wVrid/ | c‰Uc-B‘_-q‰N-R, || I’m worried about your study. Ec-mÈN-l…-ÜÈT-ÆÈE-`-c‰Uc-B—_-q‰N,
worry /"wVri/ | c‰Uc-B‘_-q‰N-R, || I worry about you. Ec-mÈN-`-c‰Uc-B‘_-q‰N, Don’t worry! c‰Uc-B‘_-U-q‰N,
worse /w3:s/ | H‰-ZP, || If I don’t study my English becomes worse and worse.
C`-K‰-Ec-ÆÈE-T-U-qc-P, E]Ã-Nq…P-^…C-H‰-ZP-/?--H‰-ZP-Oÿ-]nŸ_,
worst /w3:st/ | M-U, G‰c-ZP-R, || He is the worst student in the class. BÈ-P…-]XÀP-≈]Ã-PE-C…-ÜÈT-U-G‰c-ZP-R-^…P,
wound /wu:nd/ | êc-´ÈP, || She got a serious wound when she fell off her horse.
BÈ-UÈ-å-,R$-Pc-ü‚E-!J-êc-´ÈP-WTc-G‰P-SÈC
write /raIt/ | ]{…-T, || Will you write a letter to me very soon? mÈN-l…c-E-`-^…-C‰-Z…C-U…-]nEc-R_-]{…-î‡-^…P-PU,
wrong /rQN/ | U…-]u…C-R, || What’s wrong with your sister? mÈN-l…-~…E-UÈ-`-U…-]u…C-R-F…-Z…C-qŸE-,

X
X-ray /eks reI/ | x-]ÈN, || I had an x-ray yesterday. B-cE-E-`-X]ÈN-l…c-TåC-NoN-F…C-qc,

Y
year /j3: jI@/ | `È, || In what year were your born? mÈN-P…-`È-PU-`-´‰c,
yellow /"jel@U/ | c‰_-TÈ, || Butter is yellow. U_-P…-c‰_-TÈ-^…P,
yes /jes/ | `‰Cc-cÈ, ^…P, || Yes, I am Tibetan. ^…P, E-P…-TÈN-R-^…P,
yesterday /"jest@deI; "jest@di/ | B-cE-, || I forgot what I said yesterday. Ec-B-cE-F…-Z…C-TaN-R-Tä‰N-cÈE-,
yesterday evening /"jest@deI; "jest@di/ | UNE-NCÈE-, || Yesterday evening I went to visit my uncle.

UNE-NCÈE-E-E]Ã-e-B‘-`-]WUc-]x…-q‰N-R_-cÈE-,
yet /jet/ | N-_“E-, || I haven’t been to class yet. E-N-_“E-ÜÈT-t…N-`-cÈE-U‰N,
you /j@; ju:/ | mÈN, || Do you want to learn English? mÈN-l…c-Nq…P-^…C-ÆÈE-]NÈN-NU,
young /jVN/ | Cc_-T“, `È-G”E-, || I’m not young anymore. E-N-`È-G”E-U…P,
your /j@; jO:/ | mÈN-l…, || Your dress is beautiful. mÈN-l…-CÈP-R-P…-d-FE-UXÂc,
yours /jO:z/ | mÈN-l…, || Is this book yours? NR‰-G-]N…-P…-mÈN-l…-^…P-PU,
▪266▪

yourself /jO:"self; j@"self/ | mÈN-_E-I…N, || Did you paint this picture by yourself? _…-UÈ-]N…-mÈN-_E-I…N-l…c-{…c-R-^…P-PU,

Z
zero /"zI@r@U/ | CÈ_-M…C || Zero is a number. CÈ_-M…C-P…-uEc-@-Z…C-^…P,

▪267▪

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.