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PİPE WORKS

PİPE WORKS

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Sections

  • STEEL PIPES
  • 1 SUBJECT AND SCOPE
  • 2.1 Materials
  • 2.2 Chemical Composition
  • 2.3 Mechanical Characteristics
  • 3 PIPE MANUFACTURING
  • 3.2 Weld Seam
  • 3.2.1 Post Weld Process
  • 3.3.1 Dimensions
  • 3.3.2 Pipe lengths
  • 3.3.3 Tolerances
  • 3.3.4 Outside Diameter and Tolerances
  • 3.3.5 Wall Thickness and Tolerances
  • 3.3.6 Weld Seam Height Tolerance
  • 3.3.7 Pipe End Tolerances
  • 3.3.8 Tolerance Class and Certification
  • 3.4 Weights
  • 3.5 Pipe Straightness
  • 3.6 Ovality
  • 3.7 Surfaces
  • 3.8 Marking of Pipes and Special Parts
  • 4 ISOLATION OF STEEL PIPES
  • 4.1 Cleaning of Pipe Surfaces
  • 4.2 Isolation of Pipe External Surfaces
  • 4.2.1 External Coating
  • 4.2.1.1 Epoxy Coating
  • 4.2.2 Polyethylene Coating
  • 4.2.2.1 Polyethylene Coating Thickness
  • 4.2.3 Bitumen-based Isolation
  • 4.3 Internal Isolation of Steel Pipes
  • 4.3.1 Internal Isolation of Small Diameter Pipes
  • 4.3.2 Internal Coating of Pipes
  • 4.3.3.2.1 Scope
  • 4.3.3.2.2 Description
  • 4.3.3.2.3 Application Method and Necessary Equipment
  • 4.3.3.2.5 Coating Surface Smoothness and Layer Thickness
  • 4.3.3.2.6 Pipe Ends
  • 4.3.3.2.8 Proof of Quality
  • 4.3.3.2.9 Internal Isolation of Drinking water Pipes
  • 5 SAMPLING, INSPECTION AND TESTS
  • 5.1 Sampling
  • 5.1.1 Separation of Samples
  • 5.1.2 Material Tests
  • 5.1.3 Pipe Material Characteristics and Material Tests
  • 5.1.3.1 Steel and Steel Characteristics
  • 5.2 External Coating Inspection and Tests
  • 5.2.1 Visual Inspection
  • 5.2.2 Control of Coating Adherence to Pipe
  • 5.2.3 Control of Coating Defects
  • 5.2.4 Other Tests
  • 5.2.5 General Provisions Regarding External Coating Tests
  • 5.2.6 Sampling and Tests During Delivery of Pipes
  • 5.2.7 Inspection and Tests Reports
  • 5.3 Characteristics of Manufactured Pipe
  • 5.4 Waterproofing
  • 5.5 Pipe Delivery and Quality Warranty
  • 6 GENERAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS FOR PIPES
  • 6.1 Delivery
  • 6.2 Place of Delivery:
  • 6.3 Transport and Storage of Pipes
  • 6.3.1 Loading and Unloading of Pipes
  • 6.3.2 Storage of pipes
  • 7 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • 9 INSPECTION
  • 9.1 Visual inspection
  • 9.2 Dimensional Inspection
  • 9.3 Pipe Isolation Test
  • 9.4 Production Tests
  • 9.5 Factory Made Bends
  • 9.6 Tees and Y’s
  • 9.8 Coating of Weld Seams
  • 10 MARKING
  • 11 PACKAGING
  • 12 CONTENT OF OFFER
  • 13.1 Acceptance
  • 13.2 Conditional Acceptance
  • 13.3 Rejection
  • 14 DELIVERY
  • 15 ORDER FORM
  • 2 GENERAL
  • 2.2 Pipe Characteristics
  • 2.2.1 Physical Characteristics
  • 2.2.2 Chemical Characteristics
  • 2.3 Standards
  • 2.4 Raw Materials
  • 2.5 Technical Characteristics
  • 2.6 Pipe Jointing Methods
  • 2.7 Wear Resistance
  • 2.8 Nominal Pressure
  • 2.9 Special Conditions
  • 3 INSPECTION AND TESTS
  • 4 DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES
  • 5 JOINTING
  • 6 LAYING DESIGN
  • 7 MARKING
  • 8 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PIPES
  • 8.1 Loading and unloading of pipes
  • 8.2 Storage of pipes
  • 9 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • 11.1 Delivery
  • GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC (GRP) PIPES
  • 2 DEFINITIONS
  • 2.1 Glazing gasket
  • 2.3 Glass Texture
  • 2.4 Surface Tulle
  • 2.5 Coating Layer
  • 2.6Resin
  • 2.7 Glass Felt
  • 2.8 Aggregate
  • 2.9 Nominal Pressure
  • 2.10 Nominal Rigidness
  • 3.1 Sleeve Joint
  • 3.2 Gasket Spigot Joint
  • 3.4 Flanged Joint
  • 4 CLASSIFICATION
  • 5.1.2 Strength Layers
  • 5.2.2 Strength Layers
  • 5.2.3 Barrier Layer
  • 5.2.4 Primer layer
  • 6.1 Length
  • 6.2 Surface Quality
  • 6.3 Nominal Diameters
  • 6.4 Wall Thickness
  • 6.5 Flatness of Pipe Ends
  • 6.6 Impermeability
  • 6.7 Nominal Diameters
  • 6.8 Inside diameter
  • 7.1 Impermeability Test
  • 7.2 Circular Tensile Strength Test
  • 7.3 Longitudinal Tensile Strength Test
  • 7.4 Rigidness Tests
  • 7.5 Factory Product Control Tests
  • 8.1 Marking of Pipes and Special Parts
  • 8.2 Surface Appearance of GRP Pipes
  • 9.1 Hydraulic
  • 9.2 Rigidness Class
  • 10.1 Fittings
  • 10.2 Entrance into Pipelines (Manholes)
  • 10.3 Manhole Covers
  • 11 PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION
  • 11.1 General
  • 11.2 Application
  • 11.3 Excavation Works
  • 11.4 Trench Filling
  • 11.5 Loading, Unloading and Storage of GRP Pipes
  • 11.6 Laying Method of GRP Pipes
  • 11.6.1 Control of Pipes before Laying
  • 11.6.2 Lowering of Pipes into Trench
  • 11.6.4 Rigid Connections and Fixing Blocks of GRP Pipes
  • 11.6.5 Hydrostatic and Impermeability Tests of GRP Pipeline
  • ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPE
  • 1 GENERAL
  • 1.2 Characteristics and Manufacturing
  • 2 SAMPLING, INSPECTION AND TESTS
  • 2.1 Sampling, Pressure and Impermeability Test
  • 2.2 Test Costs
  • 3 MARKING
  • 4 PACKAGING
  • 5 CONTENT OF OFFER
  • 6.1 Acceptance
  • 6.2 Conditional Acceptance
  • 6.3 Rejection
  • 7 DELIVERY
  • 8 ORDER FORM
  • 9 TECHNICAL INSPECTION
  • 10 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
  • DUCTILE PIPES
  • 1.1 Norms and Standards
  • 1.2 Materials
  • 2 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Molds
  • 2.3 Working Pressure
  • 2.4 Dimensions
  • 2.5 Thickness of Ductile Pipes and Fittings
  • 2.6 Quality of Ductile Pipe, Fitting and Other Pipes
  • 2.7 Thickness and Mass Tolerances
  • 3 COATINGS
  • 3.1 Internal Coatings
  • 3.2 External Coatings
  • 4 HEAD CONNECTIONS
  • 4.1 Pipes with Socket and Spigot
  • 4.2 Flanged Pipes
  • 4.3 Fittings and Connecting elements
  • 5 GASKETS
  • 6 BOLTS AND NUTS
  • 7 TOLERANCES
  • 7.1 Thickness Tolerances
  • 7.2 Manufacturing Lengths and Length Tolerances
  • 7.3 Mass Tolerances
  • 7.4 Coating Tolerances
  • 8 SAMPLING AND TESTS
  • 8.1 Sampling
  • 8.2 Manufacturing Tests
  • 8.3.1 Physical Inspection
  • 8.3.2 Chemical Inspections
  • 8.3.3 Metallographic Inspections
  • 8.3.4 Mechanical Inspections
  • 8.4 Coating Tests
  • 8.5 Test Costs
  • 9 MARKING
  • 10 PACKAGING
  • 11 CONTENT OF OFFER
  • 12.1 Acceptance
  • 12.2 Conditional Acceptance
  • 12.3 Rejection
  • 13 DELIVERY
  • 14 ORDER FORM
  • 15 TECHNICAL INSPECTION
  • CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES
  • 2.1 Vertical Casting and Vibration Method
  • 2.2 Spinning Method
  • 3 CLASSIFICATION
  • 5 TYPES OF FITTINGS
  • 6 SEALING OF FITTINGS
  • 8 SUPPLY OF CONCRETE PIPES
  • 8.1 Concrete Pipes without Steel
  • 8.2 Reinforced Concrete Pipes
  • 8.3 Coated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes
  • 8.3.1 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes
  • 8.3.2 Coated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes
  • 8.4 Repair of Defects
  • 8.4.1 Method I Manual Repair with Mortar
  • 8.4.1 .1 Preparation of Surfaces to be Repaired
  • 8.4.1.2 Placement of Mortar
  • 8.4.1.3.1 Preparation of the Surface to be Repaired
  • 8.4.1.3.2 Placement of Mortar
  • 9 SAMPLING, INSPECTION AND TESTS
  • 9.1 Waterproofing
  • 9.2 Resistance of Pipes
  • 9.3 Cost of Tests
  • 16 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
  • 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
  • 1.1 References and Standards
  • 1.2 Classification
  • 1.3 Characteristics
  • 1.3.1 External Appearance
  • 1.3.2 Structural Characteristics
  • 1.4 PRCSJ Design
  • 2 PIPE FITTINGS
  • 3 SPECIAL FITTINGS AND PIPES
  • 4 FABRICATION
  • 5.1 Type of Pipes
  • 5.2 Special Pipe Parts
  • 5.3 Welding for Special Fittings Fabrication
  • 6 PIPELINE ROUTE
  • 9 TESTING AND OBSERVATION
  • 9.1 Cost of Tests
  • 9.2 Technical Inspection
  • HARD POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPES
  • 1.2 Technical Characteristics
  • 1.5 General Characteristics
  • 2.2 Cost of Tests
  • 6 CONTENT OF OFFER
  • 7.1 Acceptance
  • 7.2 Conditional Acceptance
  • 7.3 Rejection
  • 8 DELIVERY
  • 8.1 Place of Delivery
  • 9 ORDER FORM
  • 10 TECHNICAL INSPECTION
  • 11 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
  • POLYETHYLEN (PE) PIPES
  • 1 General
  • 1.1 Scope
  • 1.2 Standards
  • 1.3 Pipe Specifications
  • 1.4 Raw Materials
  • 1.5 Technical Specifications
  • 1.6 Pipe Jointing Methods
  • 1.6.1 Butt Welding
  • 1.6.1.1 Butt Welding Requirements
  • 1.6.1.2Butt Welding Procedure
  • 1.6.2Electro-fusion Welding
  • 1.6.2.1Electro-fusion Welding Requirements
  • 1.6.2.2Electro-fusion Welding Steps
  • 1.6.2.3Spigot Joints
  • 1.6.2.4 Flanged Joints
  • 2.1 Sampling
  • 2.2 Tests
  • 2.2.1Resistance
  • 2.2.2Cost of Tests
  • 1 CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM
  • 1.2Cathodic Protection Surveys and Application Drawings
  • 1.3Preparation of Application Drawings
  • 1.4 Cathodic Protection Life
  • 1.5 Submission of Project to Employer for Approval
  • 1.6 Material and Equipment
  • 1.6.1 Anodes
  • 1.6.1.1 Auxiliary Anodes
  • 1.6.1.2 Galvanic Anode System
  • 1.6.1.3 Magnesium Anodes
  • 1.6.2 External Current Source System
  • 1.6.2.1 Titanium Anodes Coated with Mixed Oxide
  • 1.6.2.2 Iron-Silicon Anodes
  • 1.6.2.3 Anode Bed Material
  • 1.6.2.4 Galvanic Anode System Anode Bed Material
  • 1.6.2.5 Anode Bed Material for Magnesium Anodes
  • 1.6.2.6 External Current Source System Anode Bed Material
  • 1.6.2.7 Anode Material for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes
  • 1.6.2.8 Anode Bed Material for Iron-Silicon Anodes
  • 1.6.3 Transformator- Rectifier (T/R) Unit
  • 1.6.3.1 External Current Source System
  • 1.6.3.2 T/R Unit for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes
  • 1.6.4 T/R Unit for Iron-Silicon Anodes
  • 1.6.5 Measurement Boxes
  • 1.6.5.1 External Current Source System
  • 1.6.5.2 Measurement Boxes for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Oxide Anodes
  • 1.6.5.3 Measurement Box for Iron – Silicone Anodes
  • 1.6.6 Cables
  • 1.6.6.1 Electrical Isolation (Isolated Flange Gasket Set)
  • 1.6.7 Production and Mounting
  • 1.6.7.1 Mounting of Anodes
  • 1.6.7.2 Galvanic Anode System
  • 1.6.7.3 Mounting of Galvanic Anodes
  • 1.6.7.4 External Current Source System
  • 1.6.7.6 Mounting of Iron-Silicone Anodes
  • 1.6.8 Mounting of Transformer/Rectifier Unit
  • 1.6.9 Mounting of Measurement Boxes
  • 1.6.9.1 Mounting for Galvanic Anode System
  • 1.6.9.2 Mounting for External Current Source System
  • 1.7 Mounting of Cables
  • 1.8 Excavation and Filling Works
  • 1.9 Interaction with Surrounding Buildings
  • 1.10 Transition and Acceptance
  • 1.10.1Transition and Acceptance of Galvanic Anode System
  • 1.10.2Transition and Acceptance of External Current Source System
  • 1.11 Cathodic Protection System Tests
  • 1.12 Cathodic Protection System Signalization
  • 1.13 Works after Temporary Acceptance
  • PIPE LAYING WORKS
  • 1 EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING
  • 1.1Trench Depths
  • 1.2Trench Widths
  • 1.3Trench Bottom
  • 1.5Road Pavements
  • 1.6Trench Fillings
  • 1.7Preparation of Pipes at Trench Side
  • 2.1Pipe Laying – General
  • 2.2Granulated Material for Pipeline Bed
  • 2.3Laying of Concrete Pipes
  • 2.5Pipe Jointing
  • 2.6Pipes Passing through Structures
  • 2.7Connection to Existing Pipes
  • 2.8Test and Cleaning of Pipelines
  • 2.8.1 Pipeline Test– General
  • 2.8.2Implementation and Workmanship
  • 2.9Cleaning of Pipeline
  • 3.1Welding of Pipeline
  • 3.2 Materials
  • 3.3 Welding Methods
  • 3.4 Welding Procedure Qualification
  • 3.6Welding Preparation
  • 3.7 Welding
  • 3.8Cleaning after Welding
  • 3.9Post Weld Heat Treatment
  • 3.10Numbering of Weld Seams
  • 3.11 Coating of Weld seams
  • 3.12 Closing of Pipe Ends
  • 3.13Post Weld Process
  • 3.15Application
  • 3.16Cleaning of Expropriation Area
  • 3.17Leveling and Trench Excavation
  • 3.18Use of Excavation Material
  • 3.19Discharge of Water during Construction
  • 3.20Pipe Trench Filling
  • 3.21 Pipe Lowering and Laying
  • 3.21. 1 Examination of Pipes before Laying
  • 3.21.2 Lowering of Pipes into Trench
  • 3.21.3Laying of Steel Pipes
  • 3.21.4Minimum and Maximum Soil Cover for Steel Pipes
  • 3.22.1Elastic Bends
  • 3.22.2Field Bends
  • 3.22.3 Factory Made Bends
  • 3.22.4 Tees and Y's
  • 3.23Cutting of Pipe Heads
  • 3. 23.1 Connection of Pipe Heads
  • 3. 24Other Jointing Methods
  • 3.24.1 Threads
  • 3.24.2 Flanged Joints
  • 3. 25 Pipeline Tests
  • 3.25.1 Hydrostatic and Impermeability Test of Completed Pipeline
  • 3.25.2 Pressure Test
  • 3.25.3 Tests
  • 3.25.4 Cleaning of Pipeline
  • 3.25.5 Welding Inspection
  • 3.25.6 Scope of Examination
  • 3.25.7 Production Tests
  • 4 LAYING OF ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPES
  • 4.2Deviation from Axis
  • 4.4Trench Fillings
  • 4.5Acceptance Test of Laid Pipes
  • 5 LAYING OF CAST-IRON DUCTILE PIPES
  • 5.1Straightening and Cutting of Pipes
  • 5.2Trench Excavation
  • 5.3Bedding of Pipes
  • 5.4Laying and Jointing of Pipes
  • 5.5Fixing Masses
  • 5.6Retaining Wall
  • 5.7Clamped Joints
  • 5.8Filling around Pipes
  • 5.10Equipment
  • 5.10.1 Dismountable Joints
  • 5.10.2 Surface Boxes
  • 5.10.3 Flanged Anchoring Sleeves
  • 5.11Pipe Support
  • 5.12Marking Posts of Route
  • 5.13Corrosion Protection
  • 5.14Testing of Pipeline
  • 5.15Cleaning of Pipeline
  • 6 LAYING OF PVC, CTP PIPES
  • 6.1Laying of Pipes
  • 6.2 Pipe Trenches
  • 6.3Pipe Connections
  • 6.4Testing of Constructed Pipeline
  • 6.4.1 Length of Pipeline
  • 6.4.2 Supporting and Fixing of Pipeline
  • 6.4.3 Filling of Pipeline
  • 6.4.4 Manometer Installation
  • 6.4.5Preliminary Test
  • 6.4.6Water Leakage
  • 6.4.7Main Test
  • 6.4.8Connection Places of Partial Pipelines
  • 6.4.9Activation of Pipeline
  • 7 THE LAYING OF PE AND HDP PIPES
  • 7.1Laying of Pipes
  • 7.2Calculation Methods
  • 7.3Effect of Temperature
  • 7.4Testing of Constructed Pipeline
  • 7.4.1Length of Pipeline

CONTENTS

STEEL PIPES.........................................................................................................................20 1 SUBJECT AND SCOPE ...................................................................................................20 2 STEEL MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS..................................................................20 2.1 Materials...........................................................................................................................20 2.2 Chemical Composition ....................................................................................................20 2.3 Mechanical Characteristics ............................................................................................20 3 PIPE MANUFACTURING...............................................................................................21 3.1 Manufacturing..................................................................................................................21 3.2 Weld Seam........................................................................................................................22 3.2.1 Post Weld Process........................................................................................................22 3.3 Dimensions and Dimension Tolerances..........................................................................22 3.3.1 Dimensions...................................................................................................................22 3.3.2 Pipe lengths..................................................................................................................22 3.3.3 Tolerances....................................................................................................................23 3.3.4 Outside Diameter and Tolerances ...............................................................................23 3.3.5 Wall Thickness and Tolerances ..................................................................................23 3.3.6 Weld Seam Height Tolerance .....................................................................................23 3.3.7 Pipe End Tolerances ....................................................................................................23 3.3.8 Tolerance Class and Certification................................................................................24 3.4 Weights .............................................................................................................................24 3.5 Pipe Straightness..............................................................................................................25 3.6 Ovality...............................................................................................................................25 3.7 Surfaces.............................................................................................................................25 3.8 Marking of Pipes and Special Parts ..............................................................................25 4 ISOLATION OF STEEL PIPES......................................................................................26 4.1 Cleaning of Pipe Surfaces................................................................................................26 4.2 Isolation of Pipe External Surfaces................................................................................26 4.2.1 External Coating..........................................................................................................26 4.2.1.1 Epoxy Coating.......................................................................................................26 4.2.1.2 Copolymer Layer Application..............................................................................26 1

4.2.2 Polyethylene Coating...................................................................................................27 4.2.2.1 Polyethylene Coating Thickness ..........................................................................27 4.2.3 Bitumen-based Isolation..............................................................................................27 4.3 Internal Isolation of Steel Pipes......................................................................................28 4.3.1 Internal Isolation of Small Diameter Pipes..................................................................28 4.3.2 Internal Coating of Pipes..............................................................................................28 4.3.3.2 Coating of Pipe Internal Surfaces Using Concrete with Special Additive ..........28 4.3.3.2.1 Scope..............................................................................................................28 4.3.3.2.2 Description.....................................................................................................28 4.3.3.2.3 Application Method and Necessary Equipment.............................................29 4.3.3.2.4 Concrete Coating Adherence and Strength Characteristics ..........................29 4.3.3.2.5 Coating Surface Smoothness and Layer Thickness.......................................30 4.3.3.2.6 Pipe Ends........................................................................................................30 4.3.3.2.7 Concrete Coating Adherence and Strength Characteristics ..........................30 4.3.3.2.8 Proof of Quality.............................................................................................30 4.3.3.2.9 Internal Isolation of Drinking water Pipes.....................................................31 5 SAMPLING, INSPECTION AND TESTS......................................................................31 5.1 Sampling ..........................................................................................................................31 5.1.1 Separation of Samples .................................................................................................31 5.1.2 Material Tests...............................................................................................................32 5.1.3 Pipe Material Characteristics and Material Tests ........................................................32 5.1.3.1 Steel and Steel Characteristics..............................................................................32 5.2 External Coating Inspection and Tests..........................................................................33 5.2.1 Visual Inspection..........................................................................................................33 5.2.2 Control of Coating Adherence to Pipe.........................................................................33 5.2.3 Control of Coating Defects ........................................................................................33 5.2.4 Other Tests..................................................................................................................33 5.2.5 General Provisions Regarding External Coating Tests................................................33 5.2.6 Sampling and Tests During Delivery of Pipes ............................................................33 5.2.7 Inspection and Tests Reports.......................................................................................34 5.3 Characteristics of Manufactured Pipe...........................................................................35 5.4 Waterproofing..................................................................................................................35 5.5 Pipe Delivery and Quality Warranty.............................................................................35 6 GENERAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS FOR PIPES...................................................35 6.1 Delivery.............................................................................................................................35 6.2 Place of Delivery:.............................................................................................................35 6.3 Transport and Storage of Pipes......................................................................................35 6.3.1 Loading and Unloading of Pipes ................................................................................35 6.3.2 Storage of pipes ..........................................................................................................36 7 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS..................................................................................37 2

8 DIMENSIONS AND QUANTITY OF STEEL PIPES TO BE SUPPLIED.................38 9 INSPECTION.....................................................................................................................38 9.1 Visual inspection .............................................................................................................38 9.2 Dimensional Inspection....................................................................................................38 9.3 Pipe Isolation Test............................................................................................................38 9.4 Production Tests...............................................................................................................38 9.5 Factory Made Bends........................................................................................................39 9.6 Tees and Y’s ...................................................................................................................39 9.7 Steel Pipes with Rubber Gasket Spigots .......................................................................39 9.7.1 Manufacturing of Steel Pipes with Rubber Gasket Spigots.........................................39 9.7.2 Joints of Steel Pipes with Rubber Gasket Spigot ........................................................40 9.8 Coating of Weld Seams....................................................................................................40 10 MARKING.......................................................................................................................40 11 PACKAGING...................................................................................................................41 12 CONTENT OF OFFER ..................................................................................................41 13 ACCEPTANCE - CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE - REJECTION .......................41 13.1 Acceptance......................................................................................................................41 13.2 Conditional Acceptance.................................................................................................41 13.3 Rejection.........................................................................................................................42 14 DELIVERY .....................................................................................................................42 15 ORDER FORM................................................................................................................42 16 TECHNICAL INSPECTION ........................................................................................42 17 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE.....................................................................................42 HDPE 100 (HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLEN) PIPES..................................................43 1 SUBJECT AND SCOPE ...................................................................................................43 2 GENERAL.........................................................................................................................43 3

2.2 Pipe Characteristics.........................................................................................................43 2.2.1 Physical Characteristics.............................................................................................43 2.2.2 Chemical Characteristics............................................................................................44 2.3 Standards..........................................................................................................................44 2.4 Raw Materials..................................................................................................................44 2.5 Technical Characteristics................................................................................................45 2.6 Pipe Jointing Methods.....................................................................................................46 2.7 Wear Resistance...............................................................................................................46 2.8 Nominal Pressure.............................................................................................................46 2.9 Special Conditions............................................................................................................47 3 INSPECTION AND TESTS .............................................................................................47 4 DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES .............................................................................47 5 JOINTING..........................................................................................................................47 6 LAYING DESIGN ............................................................................................................48 7 MARKING.........................................................................................................................48 8 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PIPES....................................................................48 8.1 Loading and unloading of pipes ....................................................................................48 8.2 Storage of pipes ..............................................................................................................49 9 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS..................................................................................49 10 DIMENSIONS AND QUANTITY OF STEEL PIPES TO BE SUPPLIED...............50 11 GENERAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS FOR PIPES.................................................50 11.1 Delivery...........................................................................................................................50 GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC (GRP) PIPES...............................................................51 1 GENERAL..........................................................................................................................51 2 DEFINITIONS...................................................................................................................51 2.1 Glazing gasket..................................................................................................................51 4

2.2 Trimmed Glass Fiber ......................................................................................................51 2.3 Glass Texture ...................................................................................................................51 2.4 Surface Tulle ....................................................................................................................52 2.5 Coating Layer ..................................................................................................................52 2.6Resin....................................................................................................................................52 2.7 Glass Felt...........................................................................................................................52 2.8 Aggregate .........................................................................................................................52 2.9 Nominal Pressure ............................................................................................................52 2.10 Nominal Rigidness .........................................................................................................52 3 CONNECTION TYPES....................................................................................................53 3.1 Sleeve Joint.......................................................................................................................53 3.2 Gasket Spigot Joint .........................................................................................................53 3.3 Hand lay-up connection...................................................................................................53 3.4 Flanged Joint....................................................................................................................53 4 CLASSIFICATION...........................................................................................................53 4.1 Classification by Pressure Classes..................................................................................53 4.2 Classification by Rigidness Classes................................................................................54 5 MANUFACTURING.........................................................................................................54 5.1 Fiber Wrapping Method ................................................................................................54 5.1.1 Internal Surface Layer..................................................................................................54 5.1.2 Strength Layers ...........................................................................................................54 5.1.3 External Surface Layer ................................................................................................55 5.2 Centrifugal Casting Method...........................................................................................55 5.2.1 External Surface Layer ................................................................................................55 5.2.2 Strength Layers ..........................................................................................................55 5.2.3 Barrier Layer ...............................................................................................................55 5.2.4 Primer layer .................................................................................................................55 6 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS..................................................................................55 6.1 Length...............................................................................................................................55 6.2 Surface Quality ................................................................................................................55 5

6.3 Nominal Diameters..........................................................................................................56 6.4 Wall Thickness.................................................................................................................56 6.5 Flatness of Pipe Ends ......................................................................................................56 6.6 Impermeability ................................................................................................................56 6.7 Nominal Diameters .........................................................................................................56 6.8 Inside diameter.................................................................................................................56 7 INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA.........................................................57 7.1 Impermeability Test.........................................................................................................57 7.2 Circular Tensile Strength Test........................................................................................58 7.3 Longitudinal Tensile Strength Test................................................................................58 7.4 Rigidness Tests.................................................................................................................58 7.5 Factory Product Control Tests ......................................................................................58 8 GENERAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS FOR GRP PIPES..........................................59 8.1 Marking of Pipes and Special Parts...............................................................................59 8.2 Surface Appearance of GRP Pipes.................................................................................59 9 DESIGNING OF GRP PIPES AND SPECIAL PARTS................................................59 9.1 Hydraulic..........................................................................................................................59 9.2 Rigidness Class.................................................................................................................60 10 WATER SUPPLY PIPELINE EQUIPMENT..............................................................62 10.1 Fittings.............................................................................................................................62 10.2 Entrance into Pipelines (Manholes)..............................................................................62 10.3 Manhole Covers .............................................................................................................62 11 PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION.......................................................................................62 11.1 General............................................................................................................................62 11.2 Application......................................................................................................................63 11.3 Excavation Works..........................................................................................................63 11.4 Trench Filling.................................................................................................................63 6

....................................................................64 11.........................6 Laying Method of GRP Pipes...........................................71 2............................................................................................................................................................................................CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE ................75 1............................................................................................3 Rejection................................1 Sampling..................................2 Test Costs .................6............................73 9 TECHNICAL INSPECTION.................................................73 8 ORDER FORM..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Characteristics and Manufacturing................................................................. Unloading and Storage of GRP Pipes............. INSPECTION AND TESTS.............72 5 CONTENT OF OFFER......................................................71 2................2 Materials............................................................................................72 6...........................................67 1...............74 DUCTILE PIPES.......................67 1 GENERAL.........................1 Norms and Standards.............................................................................................................6......................................64 11......4 Rigid Connections and Fixing Blocks of GRP Pipes....... Pressure and Impermeability Test.......75 1.................................73 7 DELIVERY........................................................................66 ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPE.................................................1 Acceptance.........1 Control of Pipes before Laying......75 1 SUBJECT AND SCOPE............5 Hydrostatic and Impermeability Tests of GRP Pipeline.............73 10 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE...6...................68 2 SAMPLING...........................71 3 MARKING........................................................72 6................................................................64 11..................................5 Loading..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Lowering of Pipes into Trench...........73 6.................................................75 7 ..........................................72 6 ACCEPTANCE ..............REJECTION ....................................................................................6..........11............................65 11....................................64 11..........................................72 4 PACKAGING ............2 Conditional Acceptance.........

............................................................................................79 4.........................8 Maximum Working Pressure And Internal Pressure Test....81 6 BOLTS AND NUTS..............82 7............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Fitting and Other Pipes ..................82 8..3 Mass Tolerances .........................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Working Pressure...2 Manufacturing Tests...............75 2.......................................1 General..........1 Internal Coatings.......................5 Thickness of Ductile Pipes and Fittings..............1 Pipes with Socket and Spigot.............4 Coating Tolerances .....3 Tests and Inspections at the Time of Entrance into the Employer’s Warehouse .................76 2......................................................................81 7.............................................................................6 Quality of Ductile Pipe....................................78 4 HEAD CONNECTIONS .......................................................1 Thickness Tolerances .................................76 2.............................................75 2................................7 Thickness and Mass Tolerances........................................................76 2.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................81 7......2 Molds .........................................76 2............77 2.............................79 4...........................82 8 SAMPLING AND TESTS ...................81 7 TOLERANCES ..............77 3.......82 8...................................................2 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS .....................................................................................................................................................................80 5 GASKETS.....................................77 2...............2 Flanged Pipes....................................2 Manufacturing Lengths and Length Tolerances ................................2 External Coatings...........................................................................................................................79 4.....3 Fittings and Connecting elements.................................................................................................................................................................................83 8 ...........81 7....................................................82 8...................................................................................1 Sampling ...........................................................................................................................................................77 3 COATINGS.....................................77 3................4 Dimensions............................................

................................................................................................................88 2...................................................................................84 8........................84 9 MARKING.............................................................3........88 3 CLASSIFICATION.......................................................................................8............................................................................................................................88 2 MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES 88 2..........................................................................................1 Physical Inspection ..........................3 Metallographic Inspections .......................85 12 ACCEPTANCE............................4 Mechanical Inspections ...90 6 SEALING OF FITTINGS.....................................................................................86 12.....CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE ........................................................................................86 15 TECHNICAL INSPECTION..........................................................................86 12..............................................................2 Spinning Method.................................................................................................................................................................................................90 9 .............................2 Chemical Inspections .83 8...........................................................................86 13 DELIVERY .......................................86 14 ORDER FORM..............................................................................................83 8.........................................................86 12.....................................................................................................................................................................................5 Test Costs............4 Coating Tests ..........................................3.............................87 CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES....................................89 4 QUALITY AND TESTING OF MATERIALS ..............................3.............................................................................1 Vertical Casting and Vibration Method .............................................................................83 8...............................................................................1 Acceptance .............................3.................................84 10 PACKAGING.....................89 5 TYPES OF FITTINGS............................87 16 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE.........................................................................................................................................83 8.......................2 Conditional Acceptance .....................................................88 1 GENERAL...................85 11 CONTENT OF OFFER......3 Rejection......................REJECTON ..................................................

..................................................4..................95 8........2 Resistance of Pipes ......................................................1 Waterproofing.....................................................................................3.............93 8..................................96 9 SAMPLING................4 Repair of Defects........................1 Preparation of the Surface to be Repaired.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 13 DELIVERY ................92 8...........................................................................................................................................................3 Cost of Tests ................1............................92 8...............................................95 8...........91 8.1 ..96 8...........3 Coated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes .................................2 Reinforced Concrete Pipes...............................................................................................CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE .........4.......................................3.......................................................94 8................................................................97 11 CONTENT OF OFFER..............................................................2 Placement of Mortar ................................................7 APPLICATION DRAWINGS AND CALCULATIONS ...........98 12.................3.........................................94 8..................................1...........................................90 8 SUPPLY OF CONCRETE PIPES....................................................................................................................................3 Rejection .........................................................2 Conditional Acceptance ............4...94 8............................97 12 ACCEPTANCE ...................1......................92 8...............1 Preparation of Surfaces to be Repaired...............................1 Concrete Pipes without Steel................97 9...96 9.........4 Method III Repairs by Using Bonding Mortar with Epoxy Resin ................................................................................................................................................2 Coated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes .....................1...................99 10 ..................................91 8.......................................................4.........1.1 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes.4.................98 12..............................95 8.............................................................. INSPECTION AND TESTS ...98 14 ORDER FORM ..................................................................4...................97 9.....1 Method I Manual Repair with Mortar.....................................................3 Method II Repair by Using Mortar Applied by Pressure (MABP)....98 16 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE..98 15 TECHNICAL INSPECTION ..........3..............97 10 MARKING....................................4................................................................1 Acceptance............REJECTION ...........................................98 12..........................2 Placement of Mortar......................

...............................................................................................................................................106 9.............3....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................106 13 ACCEPTANCE ....................106 10 MARKING..................................2 Classification...............................106 11 PACKAGING...................................................3...................................101 1...............................................................................................................................................................................................103 5.....103 5......................................................................................................2 Special Pipe Parts.....................................................................................102 3 SPECIAL FITTINGS AND PIPES .....................................................104 7 SPECIAL FITTINGS TO BE USED IN THE PIPELINE ........101 2 PIPE FITTINGS ....................104 8 PROTECTION AGAINST ABRASION ........PRE-STRESSED REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES WITH STEEL JACKETS (PRCSJ)..............................................................105 9...........................101 1..............................................................................107 11 ............4 PRCSJ Design..............1 External Appearance .......................................................................................100 1........102 5 TYPE OF PIPES AND SPECIAL PARTS .........100 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS...........................................................................................................2 Technical Inspection ................................3 Characteristics........1 Cost of Tests.......2 Structural Characteristics .......................................CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE ..........1 Type of Pipes .....................................................102 4 FABRICATION................................................................................................106 12 CONTENT OF OFFER...........................................................................................................................................103 6 PIPELINE ROUTE .......101 1..................................................................3 Welding for Special Fittings Fabrication................................................................................................................................................104 9 TESTING AND OBSERVATION.......................................................................................................1 References and Standards ..103 5........................................................................................100 1.........REJECTION .............................................................................100 1..................

.......................113 7..........................107 13.....................REJECTION ...........................................................107 15 ORDER FORM................................................... Pressure and Impermeability Test .............................112 7 ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................111 3 MARKING...............2 Cost of Tests .............................................................107 16 HANDLING AND STORAGE................................5 General Characteristics.....................109 1 GENERAL PROVİSİONS .......................... INSPECTION AND TESTS ............113 12 ..............107 14 DELIVERY ...............................................................2 Conditional Acceptance .............1 Acceptance.......113 7..3 Rejection ...............................113 7...........................................................................................................................................................................................2 Technical Characteristics.........109 1..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................109 1.............................108 HARD POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPES ...................................................................................................................................................................3 PVC Pipes for Pressure Applications.............................................107 13............. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PIPES ..........................110 2 SAMPLING.....................113 8 DELIVERY ................................................................................2 Conditional Acceptance ..........................................................1 Sampling..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13.........................1 Acceptance.......CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE ...........................................110 1..........................107 17 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE........................111 2...................................................................................111 2.....112 6 CONTENT OF OFFER.....................................4 PVC Pipes for Non-pressure Applications .........................................................111 5 DELIVERY..............................................111 4 PACKAGING ..................110 1................................................................................................3 Rejection .........

...................................................1 Sampling.....................................113 10 TECHNICAL INSPECTION ...............121 3 MARKING...................119 1..................................................................................................................................................2 Electro-fusion Welding......................................1 Electro-fusion Welding Requirements................................................6.................................................121 5 DELIVERY.....................................................................................................................................................................115 1...................................................................................................115 1.6..................................................................................2 Electro-fusion Welding Steps................118 1...................................................................................2..........2...........................................................1 Butt Welding Requirements....................2 Standards............................................... TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PIPES .........113 9 ORDER FORM .......115 1....................3 Pipe Specifications...................115 1 GENERAL.........................................116 1.........................................................................................................117 1................................118 1............CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE ........................1....114 POLYETHYLEN (PE) PIPES.........................................118 1...............................................................................2 Butt Welding Procedure ..............1 Butt Welding ..6.......................2............................................................................120 2...............................................1........................................................................................4 Raw Materials..........................................120 2............................114 11 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE.............................8..........................................................4 Flanged Joints...............................................122 13 .............. INSPECTION AND TESTS ....................121 4 PACKAGING ..2 Tests ................2...............................................................................REJECTION ................6...........120 2.........6.............................................115 1..................................................................119 1...........................................121 6 CONTENT OF OFFER..............................................................................................6.........................................................................119 2 SAMPLING..........................................................................................................................................6 Pipe Jointing Methods......................122 7 ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................................................................................2.........2 Cost of Tests ....5 Technical Specifications...............................................1 Place of Delivery..................118 1......6............................................2...................119 1.1 Resistance ................120 2.116 1....................................................................6..................3 Spigot Joints...............................................1 Scope........................................................

..........................................1 Acceptance........................................................Rectifier (T/R) Unit..............136 14 .............................................................................................130 1..........2 T/R Unit for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes........3 Transformator......3 Magnesium Anodes....................133 1.......2.......................................................................................................................3 Anode Bed Material.......................4 Galvanic Anode System Anode Bed Material.....123 1 CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM.1 External Current Source System ..............3...........129 1................1 Place of Delivery....................................6......6............................................................2..................6..5......................................125 1.........................2 Conditional Acceptance ............................................................6.....2 Iron-Silicon Anodes........131 1.............................................................3.......................131 1.......132 1................135 1.....6....123 8.......................................................123 11 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE...2...........................................6............................................133 1....................................................................6.......................................133 1......123 9 ORDER FORM..............8 Anode Bed Material for Iron-Silicon Anodes...1 External Current Source System ........................................3 Measurement Box for Iron – Silicone Anodes.6.........6 External Current Source System Anode Bed Material.........................................134 1..........................130 1........................5 Measurement Boxes...........................1..................6..........123 8 DELIVERY ..............6....................3 Preparation of Application Drawings..........6...........136 1.133 1........................134 1.....................................................2 Cathodic Protection Surveys and Application Drawings....................................6.............124 1.................6.............6.........2.......................7..........................122 7.....................................122 7.......................6.......................................1 Anodes..................5 Anode Bed Material for Magnesium Anodes.............123 10 TECHNICAL INSPECTION ..........................136 1................................130 1................................................6 Cables..............130 1...............................................................6...................................6...........................................................1.....................1 Titanium Anodes Coated with Mixed Oxide..............................134 1.................3 Rejection .................136 1..136 1........................6 Material and Equipment................................................4 T/R Unit for Iron-Silicon Anodes............................5.......1 General .....................................................2 Measurement Boxes for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Oxide Anodes..........................................................5 Submission of Project to Employer for Approval...................133 1........................................................2 Galvanic Anode System..130 1...............................133 1....................................................2........................5..............................................................6........................6..2..............................2 External Current Source System .............................6..........................124 1........................1......130 1.........................................................................................................................126 1..........................................................2..............2.............................................................4 Cathodic Protection Life.....................7 Anode Material for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes .....................................................6......................1 Auxiliary Anodes.........6..

................................................................................141 1...................................................................144 1...................139 1......................................................................137 1....2 Granulated Material for Pipeline Bed ...........140 1.....137 1................139 1..........................10.10...146 2.................138 1....................................................2 Trench Widths..............................6......11 Cathodic Protection System Tests.........................................................................144 1.......145 1................................................................................1 Mounting for Galvanic Anode System ..9.....1..139 1.....................................................................7 Preparation of Pipes at Trench Side...........................7 Production and Mounting............................................144 1............................140 1......................................................6..............137 1...............................140 1....................13 Works after Temporary Acceptance.......6..........4 Pipe End Pits.....................................................................................................................................6 Mounting of Iron-Silicone Anodes....7.................. REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES AND STEEL PIPES COATED WITH CONCRETE.........................................6....146 15 ................7............7.................................................6...................6 Trench Fillings.....................................................................1Transition and Acceptance of Galvanic Anode System..........1 Trench Depths .................7..5 Road Pavements.........5 Mounting of Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes Karma ..................................................................................................................6...............................6..................139 1................................................................................................................9 Mounting of Measurement Boxes.7......145 1..145 1............7 Mounting of Cables.........8 Mounting of Transformer/Rectifier Unit..............143 PIPE LAYING WORKS........................6..............................137 1..............................................139 1............6............................................8 Excavation and Filling Works........................................7.........2 Galvanic Anode System....6........9....................................2 Mounting for External Current Source System..................................................6...........................................137 1............145 1......................................................6...................1 Mounting of Anodes..............138 1...................................................................................9 Interaction with Surrounding Buildings ...........................................................................................................3 Trench Bottom............................................................................................1 Pipe Laying – General .....................4 External Current Source System ........136 1...........................146 2......6......................2Transition and Acceptance of External Current Source System.........142 1...............1 Electrical Isolation (Isolated Flange Gasket Set)........................................................10 Transition and Acceptance..140 1.....................................144 1 EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING..3 Mounting of Galvanic Anodes.....................137 1..............................................................................................12 Cathodic Protection System Signalization.................145 2 LAYING OF CONCRETE PIPES............

........................................149 2...153 3......................................................................1 Welding of Pipeline ...........154 3...............5 Pipe Jointing.............................................6 Welding Preparation..........151 3..................................4 Impermeability Barrier for Pipelines with Granulated Cushion ..152 3.........148 2.......149 2............................................................................................................................147 2.........................153 3................7 Connection to Existing Pipes ....................18 Use of Excavation Material ............149 2................................................154 3.................................................147 2......................................155 16 ...............................152 3..........................8 Test and Cleaning of Pipelines ................................................155 3........151 3..................11 Coating of Weld seams .............................................................................................152 3....................17 Leveling and Trench Excavation.......................................................13 Post Weld Process......................................9 Cleaning of Pipeline .............2 Materials.2.....12 Closing of Pipe Ends....................................................2 Implementation and Workmanship .....................8.............................................................................................................3 Welding Methods..............................................................................................................................................................10 Numbering of Weld Seams............149 2......................................................................................150 2.........................................................................9 Post Weld Heat Treatment...............................................................................16 Cleaning of Expropriation Area....................................................................................................................8......................................................................................................................5 Qualification of Welders and Welding Operations.............................................8 Cleaning after Welding...............1 Pipeline Test– General .............................................3 Laying of Concrete Pipes...................................154 3......................150 3 LAYING OF STEEL PIPES AND REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES WITH STEEL JACKET .............................................................6 Pipes Passing through Structures ......................................................................14 Tests .................................................................153 3..............................................................................154 3.........................................................7 Welding.....................154 3................155 3....................................................................................15 Application...........................................................................................................................................................151 3....................155 3........................................................4 Welding Procedure Qualification .................................................151 3........................

........................................................................................................3 Bedding of Pipes................................. 1 Examination of Pipes before Laying.........................22 Bends .....................22.................................21.............................163 3.......................................................168 5..........................2 Deviation from Axis....................................................................................................4 Laying and Jointing of Pipes................................19 Discharge of Water during Construction...............................156 3...........................................22....................2 Field Bends..................................................................2 Pressure Test..........25.............165 4............................................................................25............5 Acceptance Test of Laid Pipes......5 Welding Inspection..3......161 3..2 Flanged Joints.................................................................22.........157 3.................21..................21............25.......168 5..1 Pipe Laying ...........................................160 3.........................156 3.......25......................169 17 ...................................................................................................................4 Minimum and Maximum Soil Cover for Steel Pipes ....................................................1 Connection of Pipe Heads............................4 Tees and Y's .............................................158 3................................................156 3...........................3 Tests...........................................24.....................................................20 Pipe Trench Filling ..........................................4 Cleaning of Pipeline ...................................................................................................................................................................168 5..............................................................166 4............................................1 Threads ......................162 3.............157 3...1 Elastic Bends .......157 3.......................165 4..............2 Lowering of Pipes into Trench ....................................................................................161 3............... 24 Other Jointing Methods...........2 Trench Excavation..............................164 4 LAYING OF ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPES.................................25....................................................................................................................................................................................161 3....................166 5 LAYING OF CAST-IRON DUCTILE PIPES ...........24..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21 Pipe Lowering and Laying.........................................158 3................160 3...............................166 4...............................................................1 Hydrostatic and Impermeability Test of Completed Pipeline .......................159 3.....................................................22...........................................6 Scope of Examination.........155 3.........................................................................................160 3.....................................................162 3..........1 Straightening and Cutting of Pipes.....................................................................................162 3.................................................................................... 25 Pipeline Tests ................162 3............. 23.....................................169 5....................................163 3...................................3 Laying of Steel Pipes ..............................165 4.......157 3......25........4 Trench Fillings .21.............3 Factory Made Bends........25...................................163 3.............................................................................................................23 Cutting of Pipe Heads ............3 Trench Width..............................7 Production Tests.......................................................

..........................................................................10.182 6......................................................4......... CTP PIPES .....................................................................6 Retaining Wall.........................4.................................................................................................177 6......................................................................................................................................................10......................171 5.....................1 Laying of Pipes .......180 6...............................................................7 Clamped Joints.......................13 Corrosion Protection ...........................................................14 Testing of Pipeline ..................4..174 5.....12 Marking Posts of Route ......................................................................................................174 5..........................................................3 Filling of Pipeline ..................................4 Testing of Constructed Pipeline...............................................................................3 Flanged Anchoring Sleeves....................................4.................................5..............................................................................................11 Pipe Support.........................4...............8 Connection Places of Partial Pipelines..........175 5..........182 7..............................................................................182 7.....................................................................................................1 Laying of Pipes...............183 7...................2 Surface Boxes ..............................................................................................................4...................................................................182 7 THE LAYING OF PE AND HDP PIPES .......174 5..................1 Length of Pipeline ...........4.......179 6.........................................2 Calculation Methods..................................9 Activation of Pipeline...6 Water Leakage .....................................................184 7.........9 Backfilling ..............5 Fixing Masses..........................181 6...........181 6............................................................................................................15 Cleaning of Pipeline ..................184 18 ..............172 5.....7 Main Test .....................4.............................10.....................................................................177 6 LAYING OF PVC.........................................................................................................................................2 Supporting and Fixing of Pipeline.........5 Preliminary Test........................................................................175 5...............181 6....................................................4 Testing of Constructed Pipeline..................................................................................................................................4.174 5....................1 Length of Pipeline .............3 Effect of Temperature...............................................179 6...................177 6...............................................4........................................180 6.............................................................................................................................................................8 Filling around Pipes......................................183 7..............3 Pipe Connections .................................................................173 5.............................................174 5.4 Manometer Installation.............................................................................................................................................................181 6.........................................................................175 5.....10 Equipment...........2 Pipe Trenches ......................................180 6...........1 Dismountable Joints.........174 5....181 6.........................................................................................172 5....................................

......4.........................................4.............................................................................................4...................185 7...................4 Manometer Installation.......4...........7..............................................................................................................185 19 .....................185 7..........................................................184 7...............4...................9 Activation of Pipeline ......................................184 7.....................4...............6Water Leakage .....2 Supporting and Fixing of Pipeline ...........7 Main Test .........................................................8 Connection Places of Partial Pipelines ................184 7............................................................................................4...........................................................184 7...............185 7.....4...............3 Filling of Pipeline ......5 Preliminary Test ..

maximum Phosphor. Steel pipes shall be manufactured and tested according to the requirements of this Specifications and its annexes. DIN and AWWA standards of relevance to the subject matter.3 Mechanical Characteristics Mechanical characteristics of the steel pipes shall be as given in Table 1. ISO 2604 standards. maximum Sulphur. maximum 2. as determined by TS 1997. and specifically to the TSE. These steel pipes shall be used for the water supply pipeline by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (Employer).2 Chemical Composition Steel quality shall be grade Fe 44.1 Materials Unalloyed steel bands or rolled steel sheets of grade Fe 44 shall be used for the manufacturing of pipes. ISO 4200. 2. Steel pipes shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with TS 1997.04% 0. : : : 0. or their equivalents acceptable to the Employer. TS 416.21% 0. TS 346. whether or not their numbers are shown in this Specifications or its annexes.04% 20 .STEEL PIPES 1 SUBJECT AND SCOPE This Specifications describes the technical characteristics as well as control and inspection methods and acceptance criteria for spiral-welded steel pipes coated with cement mortar inside that is harmless to health and polyethylene outside or with polyethylene outside and epoxy inside. Chemical composition of the steel shall be as follows: Carbon. 2 STEEL MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS 2. The minimum yield and ultimate strength values shall also apply to the weld seams.

ULTIMATE EXTENSION % MIN.0254 23. gas induction and other welding types. pressure electric. The manufacturing process shall be as follows: For pipes DN ≤ 300 mm.5 kgf/mm2 : 26. pressure up to 90% of the theoretical tension allowed for weld seam during impermeability test with internal pressure shall be used.TABLE 1 UPPER YIELD STRENGTH STEEL MATERIAL kgf/mm² N/mm² REPRESENTATION NO ULTIMATE STRENGTH MIN. in all cases Longitudinal extension Transverse extension Mandrel for bending test *SMYS **SMTS : 27. For pipes 300 mm < DN < 500 mm. Pipes shall be welded in such a way that the weld seams will be continuous. o 3 PIPE MANUFACTURING 3. and the work of welding shall be perfect.48 350-480 Longitudinal Transverse 25 23 S = Pipe Wall Thickness (mm) bending angle = 180º Mechanical characteristics shall be as follows: • SMYS* for wall thickness less than 16 mm SMYS for wall thicknesses between 16 and 40 mm SMTS **. seamless or gas shielded (HFI) welded pipes can be accepted. For pipes.1 Manufacturing Pipes shall be manufactured from rolled strips or bands using double sided submerged. seamless or spiral welded pipes can be accepted.5 235 35 .5 kgf/mm2 : 42-55 kgf/mm2 : 21% : 19% : 3 x wall thickness : Specified Minimum Yield Strength : Specified Minimum Tensile Strength Allowable service pressure shall be 16 bar and maximum working temperature shall be 300 C. 21 . The manufacturing method and issues to be considered in manufacturing of these pipes under this specifications are given in DIN 1626. The Employer shall be free to choose a standard equivalent to DIN 1626 instead of it or a manufacturing method equivalent to that shown in DIN 1626. kgf/mm² N/mm² Fe 37 1.

length and quantities of the pipes are given in the attached list.3.For pipes DN > 500 mm. DIN 1626 requirements shall be complied with. and the welding burrs shall be cleaned. 3. Repairs by welding are not permitted in: • • • Parent materials Seamless or HFI welded pipes. Cracks in weld seams. Dimensions shall correspond to the values given in this list.1 Dimensions The outside diameters and wall thicknesses.3 Dimensions and Dimension Tolerances 3. 3. cavities and accumulation.2. blisters. 3.2 Weld Seam Weld seam shall be clean. spiral welded pipes can be accepted. The Company shall indicate in its offer the proposed welding method for pipe manufacturing. and to the weld zones of electric resistance or induction welded pipes. electric resistance and induction welded elements shall not include welds used for joining lengths of strip steel. and the elements shall have no visible defects and pass all the specified tests. Binding of the weld material to the parent material should be good. Other defects in the weld seams shall be repaired in accordance with an approved weld repair method. as well as free from cracks. Finishes of all the elements shall be completed. and subsequently radiographed. Butt welded. There should no shape deformations that can degrade the circularity of the pipe near the weld seam during folding of strips and bands. uniform and have a homogeneous structure. Sheet and plate steel shall be shaped by rolling or pressing. width adjustment of sheet and plate shall be permitted. Heat treatment shall be applied to all cold finished pipes. 3.3. Skelp-end welds if required on spiral pipe shall be as close to the middle of the pipe as possible and never closer to the pipe ends than 3 x nominal pipe diameter.1 Post Weld Process Heat treatment shall be applied to the pipes welded. Jointers and girth welds shall not be permitted.2 Pipe lengths 22 .

and pipes with larger diameter. inside weld seam height should not be more than 0.45 mm . s < 5 mm dy = 2.6 Weld Seam Height Tolerance If pipes are manufactured by fusion welding. DIN 1626 values shall be taken as basis.5% outside diameter + 1) mm 3. and edges for welding shall be prepared in accordance with DIN 2559.3.For pipes up to 406 mm in diameter. S= wall thickness (mm) 3.0. Pipe ends shall be at an angle of 30° and edges for welding shall be (1.6 mm + 0.3.2 < s < 5: + 0.25 mm Upper tolerance is determined by weight tolerance.3.3 Tolerances Pipe length tolerances are summarized in the Table below: Length Up to 6 m between 6 – 12 m D = up to 500 m + 10 mm 0 + 15 mm 0 D = larger than 500 m + 25 mm 0 + 50 mm 0 For pipe length tolerances. weld seam height (dy) shall not exceed by wall thickness (s) the values given below. pipe length shall be 6 m. weld seam height shall not exceed 0. 3.3 < outside diameter <406 ± (0. for the electric pressure welded pipes.4 Outside Diameter and Tolerances At pipe body and pipe end: 114.3 mm inside the pipe after the post weld surface treatment.5 Wall Thickness and Tolerances In the range of 3.3.5 mm If pipes are manufactured by pressure welding. 23 . For the pressure welded pipes.7 Pipe End Tolerances Pipe ends shall be cut in such a way that the pipe will have a vertical cross section. 3. pipe length shall be 8 m. 3.5 s (s: wall thickness). for the fusion welded pipes.3. Edges for welding shall be smooth and free from burrs and indentation.3 mm + 0.8 mm).

all marked with the supply contract number and containing: • • • • • • • Heat and product analysis results. . . if necessary. . . . Mechanical tests results. . . . . The payment transactions shall be based on the weight (except the weight of the isolation material). . . .8 +0. . . . . . . . . A report verifying compliance with visual and dimensional checks and with material. Then the corresponding symbol shall be marked on both ends using a template. . . . . . . . . .00 ton/m3 .3. . .8 to +1. . . (4) Weight shall be calculated using the following formula: G = 3. . . . . . . . . .6 to -0. Non destructive examination reports with a statement of method used.8 to +0. Independent Inspector Reports and third party approval certificates. G (ton/m): Inside diameter (mm) + wall thickness (mm) .8 . . 3. . . .5 24 .6 SYMBOL 0 + Inside diameters of the pipe ends shall be determined according to their circumference and shall be included in the appropriate tolerance class. . (2) Unit length = 1 m . . accordingly.0. . . .8 Tolerance Class and Certification Tolerances of the pipes larger or equal to 500 mm shall be marked as shown below. . (1) Specific weight = 8. Pipe certification documents shall comprise Manufacturer’s Certified Test Reports and inspection certificate (certified to DIN 50059-3 1B or equivalent) and. .3. . TOLERANCE CLASS (mm) -1.4 Weights Pipe weights. A report verifying compliance with hydrostatic test requirements including test pressure. . . .14 x (1) x (4) x (2) x 10-6 (ton/m). Deviation limits from the weights calculated above shall be as follows according to DIN 1626. Weight tolerance for a single pipe For a consignment of minimum 10 tons : Upper limit (%) +12 Lower limit (%) – 8 : Upper limit (%) + 10 Lower limit (%) . . Statement of manufacturing process and type of heat treatment. . . . . . (3) Wall thickness (mm) . . Inspection certificates and reports for surface treatments. . . . .

cracks and non-metallic large particles as well as other unacceptable defects at weld zones shall not be permitted.7 Surfaces Both internal and external surfaces of the pipes shall be brilliant. etc. cracks. 3. burrs. plication. During surface treatment.Pipe length .8 Marking of Pipes and Special Parts The following markings shall be made on each pipe in such manner that they will be legible and non-erasable. As for the pipe surface structure and appearance. However. 3. and pitting shall be remedied following an appropriate procedure. or visible differences in some parts of the surface due to manufacturing method may be permitted. scrapes. DIN 1626 requirements in addition to those prescribed herein shall be complied with regarding the form and appearance of weld seams.Company’s business title . Surface defects like such as scrapes.Representation and number of the standard (TS 1997. When wall thickness is within the dimension tolerance limits and the pipe usability is affected. Deviation from circularity shall be minimum 1%. regardless of compliance with the specified limits. clean and smooth as required by the manufacturing method used.On each pipe face. scales. the wall thickness tolerances for the pipe shall certainly be taken into consideration. Fusion of the pipe material with the welding material shall be complete and weld seams shall be provided at both internal and external surfaces. Pipe ends shall be cut perpendicular to the pipe axis. DIN 1626 requirements shall be complied with.6 Ovality Pipes shall be as circular (round) as possible. some projections and indentation.) .3.Material grade . the word “Employer” shall be written in letters of minimum 1/4 of the nominal pipe diameter .5 mm at every 1 m. 3. differences (variations in wall thickness) shall not be permitted if result in hesitation about the pipe usability.Outside diameter (mm) and wall thickness (mm) . .5 Pipe Straightness Deviation from a straight line shall not be more than 1.The company’s business title shall not be written in letters bigger than 5 cm. 25 . Total penetration.

It should be resistant to forces and impacts during storage.) During that process. dirt. 4. It should be easily repairable. Such materials prevent sufficient adherence of the coating to the pipe surface. there is a risk that hydrocarbon and soot deposits can stick on the pipe surfaces. It should adequately adhere to the pipe surface.1. the pipe temperature shall be controlled by infrared temperature sensors. transportation and laying. at minimum.2.1. It should not produce pores in the course of time. dust. and other extraneous substances by sandblasting to quality Sa 2 1/2 Sa 3.2 Copolymer Layer Application Copolymer layer application shall be performed during curing period of Epoxy paint following performance of the issues specified in Article 4. 26 . It should not loose its electrical resistance in the course of time.2. 4.1 External Coating 4. Cathodic protection of supply pipes against external impacts shall not mean a reduction in the importance of isolation.1. have the following characteristics: It should be an effective electrical insulator.1 Epoxy Coating Pipes shall be heated by induction in the induction furnace up to 180 – 220 °C temperature so that epoxy powder paint is kiln-dried. pipe surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove rust. electrostatic epoxy powder coating approximately 70 um in thickness shall be applied.1. At LPG furnaces.1 Cleaning of Pipe Surfaces Prior to coating.2. 4.2 Isolation of Pipe External Surfaces Pipes shall be protected against harmful impacts of soil and underground water by an external coating in accordance with the requirements prescribed in this specifications and its annexes and with the relevant standards. 4. External coating should. Following these operations. (This process must be carried out in an induction furnace.4 ISOLATION OF STEEL PIPES Three-fold coating shall be applied for the pipe coating in accordance with the DIN 30670 requirements as described below.2. in order to protect the quality of the steel. It should be easily applied. grease.

4. If the coating of the required materials by profile extrusion method is not possible.The copolymer material to be used shall be of material that provides an optimal adherence force between Epoxy coating layer and polyethylene coating to be applied. When applied. rust and similar substances and shall be polished by sandblasting. and it shall be applied as a layer approximately 300 um in thickness.2. or equivalent applicable to the Employer. Protective layer thickness on the pipe is measured with an accuracy of 0. both coating methods shall be as defined in DIN 30670 norm.5 mm. External isolation shall be applied with a bitumen-based material approved by the Employer. the coating shall be performed by wrapping method. the external isolation shall be done made with bitumen-based fiber glass.V) GV5 and GV6 standards or with AWWA (American Water Works Association) C-203 Standard.2 Polyethylene Coating Polyethylene coating shall be applied on the pipe surface by using profile extrusion method. external surfaces of the pipes shall be carefully cleaned from tinder layers. 4. exceptions can be allowed locally by the written permission of the Control Engineer and. Before coating. coating of the pipes between DN 100 and DN 800 in diameter shall be peeled of after coating to allow a 50 mm wide welding.1 Polyethylene Coating Thickness External coating of the buried pipes shall be made by polyethylene wrapping in accordance with TS 5139 or DIN 30670.2.3 Bitumen-based Isolation Isolation described below shall be in accordance with German DVGW (Deutscher Verein von Gas-und wasser fachmaenner e. for such cases. PIPE DIAMETER DN 100 mm Between DN 100 and DN 250 mm Between DN 250 and DN 800 mm MINIMUM COATING THICKNESS (mm) 3 mm 3 mm 4 mm Unless otherwise specified. unless otherwise specified.2. Note: If it is required by the Employer. 27 .1 mm Coating thickness on the pipes shall correspond to the values given below.2. for some points. Fiber glass or a similar material that does not decay or become fibrous shall be used and thickness of the isolation layer shall be 4 mm However. 4. thickness of the isolation layer can not be less than 3.

3.2. Before coating. and Reduce curing period of the concrete coating. Verification by the certificates of relevant institutions shall be made to show that the material is harmless to public health.3 Internal Isolation of Steel Pipes 4.3. 4. Allow application with thinner layers than mostly used concrete coatings. 28 . Parasites.3. it includes binder fillers and water retaining active materials.3. Coating material shall be water resistant (not soluble in water). 4. All the surfaces of the elements homogeneously coated by sticky zinc shall pass from an accepted copper sulphate solution dipping test.4.2.2 Description Special additive is the combination of minerals reacting with cement and acrylic resin distribution resistant to soaping. Internal isolation shall be in accordance with AWWA 205 (Cement Mortar Protective coating add coating for steel water pipe) or equivalent. Galvanizing shall be made on the surfaces before threading and jointing. internal surfaces of the pipes shall be carefully cleaned from all types of tinder layers. rust and similar substances and shall be polished by sandblasting. 4. Galvanizing shall be made by dipping in a bath containing minimum 98.1 Internal Isolation of Small Diameter Pipes For pipe fittings up to 150 mm nominal diameter (150 mm inclusive) shall be hot-dip galvanized. in addition to this.3.3.2 Internal Coating of Pipes The purpose of the internal coating is to prevent corrosion and reduce the load losses.5% melted zinc by weight.3.3. dirt on the elements shall be thoroughly cleaned before galvanizing. an epoxy internal coating can be made upon the request of the Employer.2 Coating of Pipe Internal Surfaces Using Concrete with Special Additive 4. Reduce shrinkage cracks and thermal stress. Use of other coating types than the cement mortar coating mentioned above shall be subject to the Employer’s approval and coating shall be made according to the related standards. and it shall not be detrimental to public health. or equivalent applicable to the Employer. What is aimed with the use of special additives in the concrete mortar is to: Provide adherence of the concrete coating to the steel surface. For small diameter pipes where internal coating can not be applied as concrete. rust.1 Scope This method describes the conditions for the application method and quality requirements for coating of the internal surfaces of the steel pipes using concrete with special additives. it shall not give any taste or odor to water.

Mortar machine.100 2.5 N/mm² (for 28 days) in accordance with ZIV SIB 87. This equipment consists of the following parts: Compressor. Unavoidable minor rusts due to hydrostatic pressure test of the pipes do not provide any inconvenience for this method.200 0.3. grease. Material Quantity for 1. Special spraying equipment. coating channels shall be readjusted according to diameters.000 1.4. if necessary.600 5. Cleanness grade st-2 as defined in DIN 5592 Section 4 shall be sufficient. isolation thickness shall be 3 mm.00 m2 according to Steel Pipe Internal Isolation Thickness: Isolation thickness For 3 mm For 4 mm For 5 mm Cement 2. spraying and spinning methods. The equipment shall include all accessories so that pipes having a diameter of 200−1600 mm can be used. parasite.4 Concrete Coating Adherence and Strength Characteristics Adherence shall be minimum 1. this shall be verified by the tests and.3.500 Material Quantity (kg) Quartz Sand Water 4.2. Surface Preparation: The surface to be coated shall be free from loose rust. Compressive strength shall be minimum 50 N/mm² (for 28 days) in accordance with DIN 1164.250 Losses are included in these quantities.000 1. For pipes < 1000 mm in diameter. Mortar pump.3. 4.800 3. paint and other dirt. Special conveyor equipment.3.600 0.2. Tensile strength at bending shall be minimum MO N/mm² (for 28 days) in accordance with DIN 1164.000 Special Additives 0. Generally mortar is applied by the spraying equipment.3 Application Method and Necessary Equipment Concrete with special additives shall be applied using coating.750 1.800 7. 29 .

it may fall below the minimum individual coating thickness provided for. Primarily.e. 4.4.7 Concrete Coating Adherence and Strength Characteristics Adherence: It shall be minimum 1.5 mm in thickness can be acceptable. transmission zone) shall not be more than 100 mm.2.2. However.3. where the coating diminishes gradually (i. 4.. at least the following tests and controls shall be performed and documented. 4. Each pipe shall be subjected to measurement and visual inspection with respect to layer thickness.2.0 mm Individual and average values are defined for a cross section plane. However. Compressive Strength: It shall be minimum 50 N/mm2 (for 28 days) in accordance with DIN 11642. If coating ends by diminishing gradually. Coating may end as a sharp edge.2.5 mm Minimum average value: 3.3. cracks and voids.0 mm Maximum individual value: 6.3. or by diminishing gradually.5 Coating Surface Smoothness and Layer Thickness Coating surface shall be smooth as much possible and free from undulation. surface quality. a creamy layer less than 0. All types of topographical differences shall be within + 1 mm. Equivalent sand roughness on the surface shall be Ks = 0.6 Pipe Ends For pipes with a weld edge. When hardened. Minimum individual value: 2.3. Tensile Strength at Bending: It shall be minimum 10 N/mm2 (for 28 days) in accordance with DIN 1164. Layer thickness shall be nominal 14 mm.3.3. cratering and deep traces. Coating shall essentially be free from cracks and voids. 30 .3. there shall be no creamy layer on the surface. the length of the zone. local capillary cracks can be acceptable. the concrete coating surface shall be firm enough to resist to wear under friction. However.5 N/mm2 (for 28 days) in accordance with ZTV SIB 87. no coating shall be made in a zone extending around 25 mm from the pipe end. provided that there is no space between coating and the steel surface.3.1 mm maximum.8 Proof of Quality To prove that the concrete coating provides the quality requirements anticipated with this method.

2 5 SAMPLING. sieve analysis shall be made and cleanness grade shall be determined. For each consignment of special additive supply. normal sand that complies with TS 2717 and water. together with a second flat test part whose length is perpendicular to the pipe axis.1 Sampling Inspection shall be carried out with pipes of the same steel and of the same size batched as follows by diameter and provided at one time: pipes < 500 mm .3. water-cement value shall be determined for mortar at least once a week if production parameters remain the same. 31 . a test part perpendicular to the weld seam shall be cut. Test parts shall be cold flattened and. Before tests. if necessary. For larger sample pipes having a diameter more than 500 mm.2. Mix ratio.3.2 .1. . two test parts shall be cut perpendicular to the weld seam of the sample pipe. : 100 pipes or up to 100 pipes pipes > 500 mm .1. : 50 pipes or up to 50 pipes 5. Water cement ratio shall not exceed 0.1.9 Internal Isolation of Drinking water Pipes Internal surfaces of the pipes shall be coated in accordance with DIN 2614 and AWWA C 205. Adherence and strength tests for 7 days. . 14 days and 28 days shall be made on 3 different pipes selected from a batch of around 500 pipes if production parameters remain the same. . 4. short proportion test part (5 do) shall be cut. For tensile test.1. INSPECTION AND TESTS 5.6 / + 3. with the latter in the middle.For each sand supply. .42. . For bending tests of the fusion-welded pipes. Cement mortar coating shall be applied using a centrifugal method and shall have the thicknesses and tolerances given below: Nominal Diameter (mm) 250 – 580 600 – 900 More than 900 Coating thickness (mm) 8 10 13 Tolerance (mm) . they can be annealed at a temperature under 500 °C.6 / + 3.6 / + 3. Heat treatment shall not be applied on the test part and it shall not be flattened within the measurement length. .2 . Internal surfaces of the water supply pipes shall be coated with a cement mortar mixed in a concrete mixer and prepared with Portland cement with admixtures that comply with TS 19. with the weld seam in the middle. the test parts can be kept at a temperature of 250 °C for 6 hours for removal of the hydrogen.1 Separation of Samples A test part shall be cut perpendicular to the weld seam and along the pipe axis of the sample pipe having an outside diameter of 500 mm. soaping strength value shall be determined.

the following shall be carried out: Hydrostatic tests for all pipes Surface inspection of all pipes Non destructive controls of all pipes Diameter inspection of all pipes Tensile strength shall be made in accordance with TS 138. with the latter in the middle. and shall show no sign of fracturing until the distance between the plates is less than 75% of the original pipe diameter.3. around a mandrill having a diameter three times the pipe wall thickness.g..2 Material Tests For destructive testing.3 Pipe Material Characteristics and Material Tests 5. and test reports shall be submitted to the Control Engineer for approval. as well as a sample cut perpendicular to weld seam. The test shall be made at a room temperature of 20o + 2o and undergo a water pressure of 50 bar for minimum 5 seconds.1. The sample shall be regarded as having passed the test if the fracture surfaces show no gas pockets or slag having a length more than 2 mm. e.5.1. Bending test shall be made by bending the sample. For non destructive tests. Characteristics for some steel types are as follows: 32 . type and material characteristics of the steel to be used for steel pipe manufacturing shall be in accordance with TS 1997. No sign of fracture in the parent material shall occur until the distance between the plates is less than 60% of the pipe diameter. or between weld material and parent material. if cracking or fracture occurs. Bending tests shall be made on a sample cut. Flattening tests: Test rings with a width not less than 38 mm cut from the pipes of nominal diameter more than 50 mm and up to 150 mm and flattened between parallel plates. Alternatively. The Contractor shall bear all costs of the impermeability tests. Bending tests shall be made in accordance with TS 205. Hydrostatic test shall be made at a test laboratory approved by the Employer. with a dimension more than 3 mm. the sample shall show no crack in the weld material. through 180o. the sample shall be opened and the fracture surfaces shall be examined. 5. After bending. Non destructive tests shall be in accordance with TS 4822. one pipe shall be selected from each batch as described below and it shall undergo a heat treatment at 250o C 6 hours before the test: Tensile tests shall be made on a sample cut from the parent material.1 Steel and Steel Characteristics Quality. and the sample shall be bended through 180o. Any weld in the sample shall be positioned at the point of maximum bending.1. Test shall be made before pipe isolation. with the weld seam in the middle.

and notch strength shall be made in accordance with DIN 30670.2. 23.5 Ultimate Extension Min.6 Sampling and Tests During Delivery of Pipes a. If the amount of the remaining pipes is 33 .0254 1.04 50-65 Ultimate Strength (kg/mm2) min.2. extension strength due to torn. i. If the amount of the remaining pipes is less than 50% of a single lot. b.2 Control of Coating Adherence to Pipe Coating adherence to the pipe.5 34.5 26.2 External Coating Inspection and Tests 5. 5. 5.0421 Max.Steel Type Kfe 37 Fe 37 Fe 44 Fe 52 Material No 1. 10 additional samples shall be taken from the same batch if one of the samples does not meet the requirements.e.17 0.0253 1. shall be checked making the test specified in DIN 30670.22 0.5 General Provisions Regarding External Coating Tests All external coating tests shall be made at a temperature between 15 – 35 °C. % Longitudinal Transverse 25 23 25 23 21 19 21 19 5. crushing. all the pipes in the test batch shall be regarded as defective. such other tests as peeling strength.1 Visual Inspection When finished. impact strength.0256 1.2.5 23. 5. 5 pipes shall be randomly selected from each batch of pipes manufactured.01 42-55 0..4 Other Tests For the pipes coated.20 0. Pipes shall be divided into lots and subjected to tests. 5.21 0. whether it is firm or not. slag or blister.2. then these pipes shall be equally distributed to the lots. visual inspection of the pipe coating shall be made to check for any torn. foreign substance ratio in the steel structure (%) C P S 0.04 35-48 0.2. 5. if one of those samples taken additionally does not meet the requirements.04 35-48 0.5 Yield strength (kg/mm2) min.3 Control of Coating Defects Existence of micro electrical pores on the coating shall be checked making the electrical control test specified in DIN 30670.5 27. 22.5 35. Then.2.

Four folding samples shall be taken from each lot of fusion-welded pipes for technological tests in accordance with DIN 50121. one ring shall be cut from the one end of the pipe obtained from the said long pipe and subjected to test. If. test pieces in 200 mm length shall be cut from both pipe ends or from the zones shown by the Control Engineer. as well as the name. c. pipes are obtained by cutting one big piece from the pipe whose length is several times the determined pipe length. e. The reports related to non destructive tests shall be type “B” reports. in addition to the weld seam test. For the scraped pipe. chemical analysis of the steel shall be made by cutting at least one sample from one pipe for each lot. j. Outside diameter. The Control Engineer shall select at least one pipe from each lot. and they shall be x-rayed by calorification. k. as drawn up in accordance with DIN 50049. and subject it to tensile test. h. Chemical structure of the material to be used for pipe manufacturing is described in this specifications. wall thickness and weld seam dimensions of pipes shall be measured and controlled. they shall be scraped. DIN 1626 requirements shall be complied with in sampling and testing described above. then that amount shall be regarded as a lot and subject to normal procedures. Weld seams of all the manufactured pipes shall be subjected to non destructive tests (Ultra-sound. Both internal and external surfaces of pipes shall be visually inspected. For testing in accordance with DIN 1626. if the pipes that have undergone tests do not meet the requirements. For pipes manufactured individually. two rings from both pipe ends shall be cut and subjected to test. Chemical analysis of the steel shall be submitted to the Employer together with that report. For non destructive tests. two samples shall be cut from pipes (one sample will be with weld seam in the middle and the other will be seamless) and tested in accordance with DIN 50120 and DIN 50122.more than 50% of a single lot. Each pipe shall be subjected to waterproofing test. and any pipes that do not meet the requirements shall be scraped. The numbers of the standards followed in the tests and inspections. which will be set up as described above. Date of inspection and test. 5. and the analysis results shall be compared with the specifications value and the compliance with the specifications shall be ensured. After completion of the pipe delivery tests. If both pipes do not produce the expected results. all pipes in that lot shall be subjected to tests one by one. The name of the place and laboratory where test is made.7 Inspection and Tests Reports Inspection and test reports shall include at least the following information. i. As for pressure-welded pipes. d. two additional pipes shall be taken from the relevant lot and shall be subjected to tests. Description of the sample. pipes in the lot shall be subjected to ring-folding test each as a technological test. For fusion-welded pipes.2. or if the amount of the pipes that will be delivered is less than 50% of a single lot. f. 34 - . position and occupation of the authorized personnel who have made the tests and signed the report. the Contractor shall draw up a report (certificate) according to the DIN 50049. Unless otherwise agreed upon. magnetic or X-ray tests) along the pipe length. g. with the manufacturing method used.

1 Delivery Early delivery shall be preferred. manufactured pipes shall be in compliance with the testing requirements set out in this specifications and the relevant standards. Compliance with the standard. 6. 5. Particularly. Where possible. 5. All pipes shall be protected against adverse weather conditions (including the sunlight) and fouling during transportation. the Contractor shall ensure that the weight 35 .4 Waterproofing Pipes should be waterproof. 6. Precautions taken to prevent the negative effects of the factors that can change the inspection and test results. storage and stringing.3 Characteristics of Manufactured Pipe The characteristics of the pipe manufactured from the steel whose features are given above and the delivery tests to be made are detailed in this specifications and in DIN 1626.3. The fouled pipes shall be cleaned before placement. 6 GENERAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS FOR PIPES 6. 6.3 Transport and Storage of Pipes The Contractor shall supply all necessary equipment for loading.5 Pipe Delivery and Quality Warranty The Contractor shall guarantee that the materials used and the pipes are in compliance with the requirements and the relevant standards. Date and number of the report. transportation to the construction site or storage site and unloading.- Results.1 Loading and Unloading of Pipes The responsibility for obtaining all necessary permits for the transportation of pipes shall rest with the Contractor.2 Place of Delivery: Places or pipe storages designated by the Employer. 5.

stacking. When pipes are collected from a storage site. and storing of the pipes and supplying all the necessary tools and workers. and the contact of the pipes with each other shall be uniform and along their whole length. When stringing the pipes according to diameter tolerance symbols. Support and stack height for the stored pipes shall be such that the pipes are prevented from any damage and permanent deformation. slippage. The isolated pipes shall not be transported when the ambient temperature falls below -7o C. the contact of the pipes with the frozen ground shall be avoided and the pipes shall be protected from sticking on the ground. with at least two per pipe. loading. The 36 . special precautions shall be taken during loading and unloading..3. and shall be determined so that external isolation is protected. Since vegetable exiles irritate the bitumen-based external isolation. mud. damaging of the isolation layer shall be definitely prevented by using wide bands or similar arrangements. pipes shall never be laid on the vegetable soil directly. During loading and unloading of the pipes with external isolation. bending and vibration. The Contractor shall be responsible for the transportation. the “+” signed ends shall never touch the “-” signed ends. The pipes shall be strung in such a way that the normal use of the surrounding areas is disturbed as little as possible. When a storage site is emptied of materials. if there are any. Isolated pipes shall be protected against sunlight by covering during hot seasons. overlapping pipe limits shall be separated from each other by intermediary layers placed between them and pipes shall be secured against rolling. Pipes shall be lifted up and put down with minimum damage as much as possible. the Contractor shall clean the site and any access road and reinstate both to their original condition. If storage of the pipes is inevitable at places where there is a risk of frost. The pipes shall be strung consecutively along their length on timbers or similar. unloading. The Contractor shall be responsible for making good any damages caused to these roads. Pipes shall not be stacked diagonally. Pipes shall be definitely protected against strikes (e. or dropping the pipes onto the floor or something else). rapid pull or drop of lifting bands. Pipe isolation layer shall never be in contact with the materials harmful to the isolation. the Contractor shall secure the remaining pipes against slippage. Pipes shall be stacked in such manner that the pipes will not roll and will be clear of local contacts.g. throwing the pipes to the floor. water or other substances can not enter the pipes. to avoid damaging or fouling the pipes.limits on public roads are not exceeded. shall inform the Control Engineer in respect thereof. The Contractor shall visually examine the pipes in order to check for the damages and. In order to protect the pipes and special parts against any damage. Pipes shall be secured against rolling. The Contractor shall be responsible for making good any damage or defect with the approval of the Control Engineer. 6. They shall be lifted by a sling made from a material that does not cause any damage to the pipes and their coating.2 Storage of pipes Storage of pipes shall be such that soil.

All these operations shall be in accordance with TS 2170. unloading and transportation of the pipes. However. Tests shall be made at three steps as described below: Step 1: Once the spiral-welded steel pipe is manufactured. The Company shall provide accommodation. 4. at a laboratory designated by the Employer. 2. Step 2: The tests to be made after external coating of the pipe. 7. and the pipes shall be bedded accordingly to protect coatings against any damage. The rules specified in the specifications regarding the protection and transportation of the pipes shall be followed. DIN 100 and DIN 150 steel pipes shall be manufactured with ERW (longitudinal electric resistance) and larger diameter pipes with SAW (spiral submerged) welding. The tests required at each phase from manufacturing of the pipe until delivery shall be made under the supervision of the Employer. cleaned and remade. and the test results shall be submitted to the Employer in a report. 3. 5. the “Employer” shall assume no liability for such cost. 37 . and they shall perform welding in accordance with the specifications. travel and boarding services for the committee to be set up by the Employer for conduction of all the necessary test(s) during manufacturing. 6. Companies shall not include the expenses concerning the tests in the material cost and shall indicate them as a separate item. the Contractor shall take precautions to secure them against slippage or bending.Contractor shall take all safety precautions during loading. Any damaged part of coating shall be broken. or a laboratory designated by the supplier. 7 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. The pipes shall be supported by reinforcement elements during transportation. Step 3: The tests to be made after internal coating of the pipe. Companies shall indicate in their offers the type of curing to be applied to internal coating. the tests to be made on the plain pipes before coating. Companies shall indicate in their offers the welding method they propose.

9.3 Pipe Isolation Test Isolation layer shall be tested in accordance with the DIN 19630 or equivalent. Unless otherwise agreed upon. which includes the sufficiency tests of the welding methods.8 DIMENSIONS AND QUANTITY OF STEEL PIPES TO BE SUPPLIED PIPE WALL EXTERNAL DIAMETER THICKNESS COATING (NOMINAL DIAMETER) INTERNA PİPE QUANTITY L COATING LENGTH 6m 6m 9 INSPECTION 9. 9. opening of the pipe ends and rewelding of the joints shall rest with the Employer. the destructive tests shall be in accordance with the requirements of the related general welding specifications. 9.1 Visual inspection Visual inspection of both inside and outside of the pipes shall be carried out.4 Production Tests The Control Engineer shall be entitled to select a set of weld seams for destructive tests. 38 . The responsibility for cutting and removal of the weld seams.2 Dimensional Inspection Dimensional inspection of all pipes shall be carried out for compliance purposes.

If it is proved that the welds are of the required quality. the cost of test and of replacement shall be born by the Contractor. DIN 2614. Appropriate reinforcement threads and securing elements shall be provided for the Tees to be manufactured. In this case. 9. A change in personnel during welding may have effect on the quality of the weld seams.7. 39 . and UNI 6363. or other fittings that provide means of dividing or uniting flow in pipelines shall be either factory-made or manufactured at the site. If the second weld is not in compliance with the requirements. When this is the case. DIN 2460. The wrappings and collars shall be designed using the method described in the ASME Pressurized Vessels Not Contacting with Flame. the cost of tests shall be born by the Contractor. in any case. Tees and Y’s shall be reinforced by wrappings or collars as shown on the drawings. NFA 49-150.1 Manufacturing of Steel Pipes with Rubber Gasket Spigots Manufacturing of the pipes with spigot shall be in accordance with the standards including AWWA C 200.6 Tees and Y’s Tees. branches. the inspections may be expanded at the Contractor’s expense.7 Steel Pipes with Rubber Gasket Spigots 9. Design shall. The Control Engineer shall determine the scope of the additional inspections to ensure better understanding of the compliance of the welding with the relevant requirements. If it is found out that the welds are not in compliance with the requirements.5 Factory Made Bends Changes of direction or inclination which cannot be made either with elastic bend or field bends shall be made with factory-made bends supplied by the Contractor. 9. the Control Engineer may insist on testing of a second weld. 9. Y’s. the portion not immediately required shall be marked with its new angle. manifolds. crosses. Factory-made bends shall be made with R = 1. the cost of tests shall be born by the Employer. the Control Engineer may request the destructive test of a new welding at the Contractor’s expense. whatever the result of this second test. When factory-made bends which are cut in the field. Section VIII.5 x D or 3 x D . be submitted to the Control Engineer for approval.

9. and the spigot end shall be welded to the other end using the cross-section provided by the manufacturer. FR. or substitute materials for elastic rubber. etc. The joints shall be enclosed by jointless plastic ring gaskets supplied by the manufacturer. The gasket shall be the only element that provides sealing of the joint and shall have a smooth surface free from dents. pores and other defects. or rolling. the weld seams and the surrounding zone shall be carefully cleaned. When tested according to the relevant standard. the pipe axes shall be coincided using a centering mechanism.2 Joints of Steel Pipes with Rubber Gasket Spigot The flat end of the pipe shall be placed so that its rubber spigot end contacts with sufficient pressure.8 Coating of Weld Seams After successful completion of all the inspections. 10 MARKING The name of the “Employer” Manufacturer’s emblem or descriptive mark Symbol of the part’s name (A. blisters. F.) Diameter of the part 40 .The spigot ends shall be manufactured by pressing without hammering. the composition shall have a tensile strength and ultimate extension within the acceptable limits. The manufacturer shall provide the drawings of the additional details to the approval by the customer. After that.7. or from separate plate or sheet or special parts for jointing the pipe. 9. and protected by internal and external coating as stated in the specification. Different types are available from several manufacturers. Before welding. These processes shall be in accordance with the welding and welding workmanship specifications. Flat and spiral seams in the spigot or on the outside of flat end shall be grinded up to pipe surface in a distance not less than that of the flat end section that enters the spigot. materials harmful to health. bitumen or epoxy paste shall be applied to the pipe ring between the rubber gasket and the flat end. The flat ends shall be manufactured and shaped as shown in order to hold the gasket. K. Both the spigot end and the flat end shall be cleaned. Composition of the gasket shall consist of first class natural crude rubber or first class synthetic rubber in an amount not less than 50%. The remaining portion of the composition shall consist of filler not containing scrap rubber. The gasket shall contact with the spigot and flat end of the pipe with a sufficient pressure in order to maintain sealing under any allowable jointing conditions and shall have a cross section size.

if this does not lead to non-use of the material. bolts and nuts are to be offered free of charge.1 Acceptance The lot represented by the sample and test pieces.11 PACKAGING All connecting pieces shall be packaged and shipped in wooden crates. unit prices and total prices of the parts.2 Conditional Acceptance If 2% of the samples that have been taken for the inspections mentioned above are found out to be defective. The quantities of the necessary gaskets shall be stated separately. gaskets. together with the symbols shown in the list attached hereto. If gaskets. 13. Packing crates shall be enclosed by steel strips on four sides. Packing crates shall be strong enough to allow the transportation of the materials without breaking. however. bolts and nuts shall be indicated separately and their detailed technical values shall be provided in tables. For all technical issues incorporated in this technical specifications. Crate bottoms shall be reinforced on both sides with wooden battens having a dimension of 12 x 12 (in order to provide loading and strength). No payment shall be made for the parts found defective and returned at the end of the 41 . this should be indicated in the offer. The Contractor shall.REJECTION 13. shall be accepted. give to the Employer for examination a sample pipe connecting piece having the characteristics stated in the offer. Calculated gaskets shall be supplied free of charge in excess of 20%. 13 ACCEPTANCE . the conditional acceptance of the lot shall be made.CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE . which appear to be compatible with all the requirements at the end of the inspections and tests made on the test pieces that represent the condition corresponding to the samples taken from the lot delivered. at the time of submission of offers. the offered pipe and its parts as well as its coatings. clearly indicating their unit and total prices. 12 CONTENT OF OFFER The Contractor shall state in its offer the quantities.

42 . the pipes shall be delivered to the Employer as packaged and marked. All the accommodation and travel expenses in respect thereof shall be at the Contractor’s expense. loaded and stacked by throwing. Pipe connecting pieces shall be delivered as packaged. 16 TECHNICAL INSPECTION The Contractor shall invite the Employer’s technical committee consisting of 2 members for technical inspection of the manufacturing progress for a duration of 1 week. wooden beams.inspection of the lot. ends and top in order to prevent any accidental damage during transportation. Gaskets may be delivered in a separate package since they will be proposed in excess of 20%. or lifting mechanisms or machines. The pipes shall be always lifted by hand and using rope. and the pipes shall not be unloaded. 14 DELIVERY As described above. The transportation shall involve minimum loading/unloading operations. Bolts and nuts shall be separately packaged and delivered. with the gaskets placed on them. rolling and dragging.3 Rejection The lot shall be rejected if the samples and/or the test pieces representing the condition corresponding to the samples are found to be incompatible with the required characteristics and tolerances at the end of the aforementioned tests. 15 ORDER FORM An order form for the pipes and parts demanded is given in the Annex. Utmost care shall be taken during the transportation of the asbestos cement pipes. 17 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Pipes shall be supported by timbers not only at the bottom row and between rows but also from their sides. 13.

HDPE 100 pipes shall be manufactured and tested according to the requirements of this Specifications and its annexes.1 Physical Characteristics The physical characteristics of the HDPE 100 drinking water pipes are as follows: • They are resistant to impacts (outer pressure. The suppliers that have laboratories with sufficient equipment and regularly calibrated shall be preferred. or their equivalents acceptable to the Employer. control and inspection methods as well as acceptance criteria for the production of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe and its connecting pieces. whether or not their numbers are shown in this Specifications or its annexes. 2 GENERAL HDPE 100 pipes are generally used for distribution of pressurized clean water and irrigation water. DIN. norm numbers. Chemical analysis shall be conducted by sending the samples selected from the produced pipes to the Technical Research and Quality Control Department (TRQCD) or to a laboratory approved by it. HDPE 100 pipes should have ISO 9000 quality assurance system and should be certified. ASTM and AWWA standards of relevance to the subject matter. strokes). They can achieve the pressure values resisted by the pipe at the same diameter produced from PE with smaller wall thickness. 43 . Since it is able to extend by 6 times of its length is flexible and resistant to the ground movements. nominal diameter. and the manufacturer’s name shall be written on the pipes. wall thickness.2 Pipe Characteristics 2.2. and specifically to the TSE. Production standard. 2. These pipes shall be used for the water supply pipeline and for irrigation purposes by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (Employer).HDPE 100 (HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLEN) PIPES 1 SUBJECT AND SCOPE This specifications describes the technical specifications. The pipes shall be used at the places where high pressure is needed for the distribution of irrigation water and drinking water.

Their inner surfaces are smooth and frictional losses are at minimum. • They do not effected by the moisture when under the ground. They contribute to heat insulation during transportation of hot and cold fluids. They are resistant to corrosion and pressure. provides energy savings.2. 2. and this condition shall be proved with certificates and 44 .940 gr/cm3 or higher. loading. When pipes are filled with water it is possible to make service water connections by use of special branch separator without cutting the water Since there is no rupture. • They are hygienic 2. They can stretch and bend easily and they do not break. there is not any damage due to transportation. • They have high chemical resistance. Specific gravity of the high density polyethylene defined as Type III and Type IV according to the ASTM Standards is 0. For this reason.3 Standards HDPE 100 pipes shall be in accordance with TSE 2490. 2494 and 2494. 2492. The raw material used in HDPE 100 pipe production shall be provided from member producers of “PE 100 Association”.• • • • • • • They are resistant to ram impact pressure When pipes are filled with water and without use of any valves it is possible to repair with the suffocate method. The supplier shall submit to the Employer all information and documents regarding the source of the raw material and all the characteristics. roll can be made. etc. For this reason the project design diameter can be minimized. 2491. They do not react with these types and do not decay. unloading and mounting. HDPE provides 33% raw material saving when compared with PE. fracture.2 Chemical Characteristics The chemical characteristics of the HDPE 100 drinking water pipes are as follows: • They maintain their standard characteristics even they are stored at the open air thanks to the high UV resistance • They have high resistance to soil alkaline metals. High density polyethylene includes 90% crystal structure in its composition and have at least 200 carbon atoms.4 Raw Materials HDPE 100 pipes are produced from high density polyethylene raw material which is also named as linear polyethylene. 2.

does not affected from corrosion. They are light weight and easily and quickly laid. The longitudinal expansion coefficient shall be approximately 0. and significant savings can be achieved in main projects by on Site production. 2. pipe and connecting pieces from HDPE shall be in accordance with DIN 8074 – DIN 8075 standards. The density of the material shall not be less than 950 ± 10 kg/m3 when measured in accordance with ISO 1183 D/ ISO 1872 . They can be connected out of the channel. The pipe diameter in the project can be minimized. The need for less filling material transported from outside. less excavation. The solution flow rate shall be between 3 . The extension at the rupture moment shall not be less than 350% according to the ISO 6259 test method.7 gr/10 minutes when measured in accordance with ISO 1133 test method less than 190 C temperature and 5 kg load. The minimum life is 50 years and operational cost are very low without need for maintenance. terminating the membership of the companies who are not sustainable in quality and continuously updating the member list. need of bends is minimum.2B test method. Chemical resistance of the pipe material is high. definite impermeability. It generally reduces the operational costs. “PE 100 Association” is an association who is responsible of maintaining the quality of PE 100 by controlling the suppliers who produce PE 100 at a certain quality semiannually. This is advantageous for places with short construction season and high traffic. streams.documents. Since they are able to rotate with a radius 20-35 times of the pipe diameter. Flexible High fracture strength and impact strength Adapts to the shape of the land Do not affected from the sun light thanks to the carbon black in its structure (UV strength) Diversity in pressure strength (can be produced for 12 different pressure class from PN 2. does not decay or wear out.2 mm/m C when determined in accordance with ISO 6259 test method at temperature between 20 C and 90 C The product. Inner surface is hydraulically smooth. 45 .0. the energy utilization during operation is at minimum.5 Technical Characteristics Technical characteristics of the HDPE pipes are as follows : • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • There is no rupture or separation at the connections. During laying there is no need for concrete masses for places like bend and T parts. rivers. Strength (laying and transporting without loss) The production plants can be mobilized. Can be easily used at sea. defected grounds and places where ground movement is possible like mines. 5 to PN 32) Since they are not affected form the cathodic materials under the ground they do not require protection systems like cathodic protection.

09 mm. S and SDR values of MRS class material at 20 C.5 3.5 16 20 25 PE 100 4 5 6 8 10 12.3 5.5 10.6 17 13.4 6 S 20 16 13.5 SDR 41 33 27.5 3.7 Wear Resistance The most resistant material to fluid particles are the pipes produced from HDPE 100. the draft version of CEN 155.5 16 20 PE 80 3.2 4 3.2 4 5 6 8 10 12. 100.4 9 7. PN ( Bar) Material PE 40 2.5 PE 32 2.2 4 5 6 8 10 12.6 11 9. Polyethylene classification according to EN 12201.6 Pipe Jointing Methods The same jointing methods with that of the PE pipes shall be used for the HDPE.000 test cycles conducted for inner surface of the pipe produced from the HDPE 100 material the wearing out result is only 0. The relations between PN.5 10 8.2 4 5 6 8 10 12.2. 2.8 Nominal Pressure Nominal pressure is the maximum working pressure level that can be used by the HDPE 100 pipe.6 11.3 8 6.5 16 20 25 32 46 .2 4 5 6 8 10 Class PE 63 2. At first.3 12.2 2.3 5 4. calculated by the Employer with the parameters of 50 years of service life and 20 C operational temperature.6 26 22 21 17.5 3. 2.

a.Electro-fusion welding 47 .Fillet welding for one side d. • If it is considered as necessary by the Tendering committee. The raw material shall be provided from raw material company. The pipes shall be 12 m in length or close degree.Fillet welding for both sides c. The sizes and tolerances of the pipes and the connecting pieces shall be in accordance with DIN 16963.Butt welding b. The environmental tensile strength of the HDPE pipes due to internal pressure effect shall be in accordance with ISO /DIS 4427 standards. The manufacturers shall make commitment for owning production technology for each diameter and connection piece related to the project.9 Special Conditions • • • • The raw material shall be with Carbon Black additive and shall be in the granular form ready for extrusion in order to increase the UV resistance.2. 3 INSPECTION AND TESTS • The test and cross sections of the pipes and connecting pieces shall be in accordance with DIN standards. The resistance of the pipe and connecting pieces to chemicals shall be submitted together with the raw material characteristics by the manufacturer. withstanding -40 C temperature in rigids. 5 JOINTING The connections shall be in accordance with one of the following methods acceptable to the Employer. the test and tests specified in the standards shall be conducted for pipes and connecting pieces at the manufacturer’s expense. The manufacturer shall give all the characteristics of the raw material. • The factory test pressure shall be in accordance with DIN 8075 4 DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES • • • • The manufacturer shall provide the technical pictures and all sizes of the manufactured pipes and connecting pieces for each diameter and pressure.

g. During loading and unloading of the pipes with external isolation. rapid pull or drop of lifting bands. or dropping the pipes onto the floor or something else). 7 MARKING The name and logo of the “Employer” shall be written on the pipes. 8. The Contractor shall be responsible for making good any damages caused to these roads. if there are any. overlapping pipe limits shall be separated from each other by intermediary layers placed between them and pipes shall be secured against rolling. 48 . bending and vibration. Pipes shall be lifted up and put down with minimum damage as much as possible.6 LAYING DESIGN The manufacturers shall guarantee the smooth operation of the pipe by submitting suitable burying design according to the soil load and traffic load that can effect the pipe within this project. The Contractor shall be responsible for making good any damage or defect with the approval of the Control Engineer. slippage. shall inform the Control Engineer in respect thereof. storage and stringing. The Contractor shall visually examine the pipes in order to check for the damages and. Where possible. Pipes shall be definitely protected against strikes (e. In order to protect the pipes and special parts against any damage.1 Loading and unloading of pipes The responsibility for obtaining all necessary permits for the transportation of pipes shall rest with the Contractor. special precautions shall be taken during loading and unloading. They shall be lifted by a sling made from a material that does not cause any damage to the pipes and their coating. All pipes shall be protected against adverse weather conditions (including the sunlight) and fouling during transportation. transportation to the construction site or storage site and unloading. the pipes with damaged isolation layer due to use of wide bands or similar arrangements shall definitely not be used.. the Contractor shall ensure that the weight limits on public roads are not exceeded. throwing the pipes to the floor. The isolated pipes shall not be transported when the ambient temperature falls below -7o C. The fouled pipes shall be cleaned before placement. 8 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PIPES The Contractor shall supply all necessary equipment for loading.

and the pipes shall be bedded accordingly to protect coatings against any damage. Support and stack height for the stored pipes shall be such that the pipes are prevented from any damage and permanent deformation. The pipes shall be supported by reinforcement elements during transportation. at a laboratory designated by the Employer. unloading. and the contact of the pipes with each other shall be uniform and along their whole length. Pipes shall not be stacked diagonally. The pipes shall be strung in such a way that the normal use of the surrounding areas is disturbed as little as possible.8. Any damaged part of coating shall be broken. Isolated pipes shall be protected against sunlight by covering during hot seasons. If storage of the pipes is inevitable at places where there is a risk of frost. However. and storing of the pipes and supplying all the necessary tools and workers. 9 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Companies shall indicate in their offers the welding method they propose. Companies shall not include the expenses concerning the tests in the material cost and shall indicate them as a separate item. or a laboratory designated by the supplier. water or other substances can not enter the pipes. and shall be determined so that external isolation is protected. and the test results shall be submitted to the Employer 49 . Pipe isolation layer shall never be in contact with the materials harmful to the isolation. pipes shall never be laid on the vegetable soil directly. with at least two per pipe. The Contractor shall take all safety precautions during loading. loading. the Contractor shall secure the remaining pipes against slippage. The Contractor shall be responsible for the transportation. The pipes shall be strung consecutively along their length on timbers or similar. the Contractor shall take precautions to secure them against slippage or bending. Pipes shall be stacked in such manner that the pipes will not roll and will be clear of local contacts. and they shall perform welding in accordance with the specifications. the “Employer” shall assume no liability for such cost. When stringing the pipes according to diameter tolerance symbols. stacking. the Contractor shall clean the site and any access road and reinstate both to their original condition. unloading and transportation of the pipes. When pipes are collected from a storage site. All these operations shall be in accordance with TS 2170. to avoid damaging or fouling the pipes. Since vegetable exiles irritate the bitumen-based external isolation.2 Storage of pipes Storage of pipes shall be such that soil. The tests required at each phase from manufacturing of the pipe until delivery shall be made under the supervision of the Employer. the contact of the pipes with the frozen ground shall be avoided and the pipes shall be protected from sticking on the ground. the “+” signed ends shall never touch the “-” signed ends. When a storage site is emptied of materials. Pipes shall be secured against rolling. mud. cleaned and remade.

Companies shall provide accommodation. 50 . 10 DIMENSIONS AND QUANTITY OF STEEL PIPES TO BE SUPPLIED PIPE WALL EXTERNAL DIAMETER THICKNESS COATING (NOMINAL DIAMETER) INTERNAL COATING PIPE LENGTH QUANTITY 6m 6m 11 GENERAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS FOR PIPES 11. Early delivery shall be preferred. travel and boarding services for the committee to be set up by the Employer for conduction of all the necessary test(s) during manufacturing. The rules specified in the specifications regarding the protection and transportation of the pipes shall be followed.1 Delivery Delivery place: Place Places or pipe storages designated by the Employer.in a report.

2. ASTM D 3262. GRP pipes to be used for the water supply pipeline and for water system shall be in accordance with the requirements of this Specifications and its annexes.1 Glazing gasket Glass reinforcement material formed by wrapping up parallel continuous glass fibers coated by sizing and binder from E or ECR glass in order to form a bobbin (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5.3 Glass Texture Reinforcement material formed by weaving the glazing gasket (leaving spaces between them) to form a mat (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5. ASTM D 3754. 2. AWWA M-45. ASTM D 4162.2.3). DIN 16869. In case of any difference between the standards and the requirements of this Specifications. classification.GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC (GRP) PIPES 1 GENERAL This Specifications gives the descriptions. inspection and test methods as well as acceptance criteria for the glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes produced by combining glass fiber reinforced material.2 Trimmed Glass Fiber Glass reinforcement material formed by trimming and cutting the product glazing gasket from E or ECR glass in 50-60 mm length to be used for reinforcement material (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5. and with AWWA C 950-88.3) 2. calcium carbonate and other chemical additive materials as composite material. the Employer shall be free to decide on which will prevail. BS 5480 and TS 4355 or equivalent acceptable to the Employer. thermostat resin.3) 51 . sand.2. 2 DEFINITIONS 2. ASTM D 3517. technical specifications. Document and catalog demonstrating the conformity with the relevant standards shall be submitted to the Control Engineer for approval.

7 Glass Felt A reinforcement layer formed by homogeneously distributing the glass fibers trimmed to 60 mm pieces to form a surface and pressing with a suitable binder material. 2.2) 2. Except for the grounds that are very strong and 52 . (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5. static loads like backfilling material and natural ground of the pipe. silica sand that are used for increasing the performance and/or decreasing the costs in the manufacturing of glass fiber reinforced pipe connecting pieces.2.2.2.1) 2.2.3) 2.4 Surface Tulle A kind of material produced from glass fiber (30-50 gram per square meter) for reinforcement of coating layers (when necessary) increasing the chemical strength at the surfaces.8 Aggregate Inert materials like calcium carbonate. 2. (Silica sand in compatible with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5. ISO Standards recommends that the rigidness value of the pipes laid under the ground shall be at least 2000 N/m2 in long term.10 Nominal Rigidness The rigidness or stiffness value in the pipes is the peak load bearing strength representing the strength against negative pressure (vacuum) and dynamic loads like traffic.2.5 Coating Layer A layer composed of completely pure resin whose purpose is to increase the chemical strength applied at the surfaces of the glass fiber reinforced pipe and connecting pieces that are in contact with the corrosive or fluid environment.3) 2. (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5.6 Resin Thermosetting ortaphalic and/or hydropthalic polyester resin (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5.9 Nominal Pressure Maximum working pressure level of the glass reinforced plastic pipes calculated on the basis of 50 years of service life by the producer.

3 Hand lay-up connection Joint formed by jointing the ends of both pipes and coating the jointing place with glass reinforcement material and polyester resin at sufficient width and thickness for providing adequate connection strength. and connecting them with bolts.2 Gasket Spigot Joint It is a flexible joint formed by inserting the flat end of the pipe through the spigot end of the other pipe by using a gasket. 3.4). 53 .1 Classification by Pressure Classes Glass reinforced plastic pipes are classified in five nominal pressure groups as a standard. 3. (ethyl propylene) at 55 + 5 shore A hardness. 4 CLASSIFICATION 4. It can be formed with DC type sleeves where there are holes for elastomeric gaskets at both sides and middle of the joint sleeve in order to provide impermeability. 3. (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 5.1 Sleeve Joint Joint formed by flexible connection of pipes in a flat end sleeve.M. The hole for placing elastomeric gaskets can be at the spigot part or on the flat pipe end.D. nuts and gaskets.durable and with no under ground water. or it can be formed by FWC type sleeve whose inner surface is completely coated with elastomer E.4 Flanged Joint Joint formed by placing face to face the flanges that are jointed to the pipes by hand lay-up and manufactured from Glass Reinforced Plastic. the pipes whose rigidness value are less or equal to 2500 N/m2 shall never be used for buried applications.P. 3 CONNECTION TYPES The pipe shall have a impermeable joint in order to provide the service conditions. 3.

2 Classification by Rigidness Classes Glass fiber reinforced plastic pipes are classified in three different rigidness class as shown in Table 1 as standard. PN 10 Atm. Table 1 – CTP Pipe Rigidness Values Normal Rigidness SN: N/m2 (ISO) SR:N/mm2(DIN. 5.ATV) F/dv: Psi (ASTM) Group I SN 2500 0. However.08 72 However. 4.Gravity PN 6 Atm. for project purposes they can be produced for ungraded different nominal pressures from gravity to 35 atm.1 Internal Surface Layer It shall produce a resin rich layer minimum 0.1. 54 . 5 MANUFACTURING Glass reinforced plastic pipes can be manufactured by centrifugal casting method where materials are introduced into a rotating mold for compaction or can be manufactured by fiber wrapping method. PN 16 Atm.04 36 Group III SN 10000 0. PN 25 Atm.5 mm in thickness in the internal surface of the pipe.1 Fiber Wrapping Method Pipes produced by fiber wrapping method consist of three main layers: 5.1. CTP pipes can be produced for different rigidness classes according to the project requirements. 5.2 Strength Layers There are strength layers according to the design of its manufacturer in this layer.02 18 Group II SN 5000 0.

5.2 mm in thickness mixed with sand at the external surface of the pipe.2 Strength Layers There are 10 strength layers designed according to operational conditions of the pipe at this section.4 Primer layer At the innermost layer of the pipe. barrier layer for preventing the leakages.1 External Surface Layer A resin rich layer minimum 0.2 Centrifugal Casting Method Pipes produced by centrifugal casting method are consist of from four layers.2.2 mm in thickness on the external surface of the pipe. pure resin layer 1. 5. Since this layer is compacted by approximately 60 bar of centrifugal force it is as smooth as glass (in 1/100 mm precision).0-2.2.0-2.1 Length Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipes shall be produced according to sizes and tolerances given in the ASTM D 3754 Clause 6. protects the pipe from ultra-violet light and impacts. resin rich.2. 2.2.1. reinforced with fiberglass 10-40% by weight. 6 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 6.2 Surface Quality There shall be no foreign substances.2. For each m2of I surface there shall not be holes more than 20 and 3. 5. 6.5 mm in thickness (Standards prohibits the fiberglass in this layer). consist of 2 separate layers.1. 5. wrinkles and cracks on the I surfaces of the pipes.3 Barrier Layer On the primer layer.2 mm in diameter 55 .5 mm in thickness. 5.5.3 External Surface Layer It shall produce a resin rich layer minimum 0.

7 Nominal Diameters Glass reinforced plastic pipes shall be produced in accordance with the nominal diameters and tolerances specified in ASTM D 3754 Article 6.4 Wall Thickness U uniformity of the Glass Reinforced Plastic concrete shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Article 6. 6. 56 .4) 6.1. Pipe ends shall be perpendicular to pipe axis.5 Flatness of Pipe Ends Regularity of the Glass Reinforced Plastic Concrete shall be in accordance with tolerances suitable to ASTM D 3754 Article 6.4.3 Nominal Diameters Glass reinforced plastic pipes shall be produced according to nominal diameters and tolerances specified in ASTM D 3754 Article 6.8 Inside diameter The measured pipe inside diameter shall not be different from the specified inside diameter values more than + 2%. (D represents nominal diameter given in mm) 6. Pipe useful length shall not be different from pipe nominal length more than + 5%.2.and there shall not be any glass fibers not weaved by resin.2. 6.6 Impermeability All GRP pipes and joint sleeves (one by one) shall be subjected to impermeability tests under pressure values given in Table 2 at the factory and existence of leakages and defects shall be controlled.005 x D”.2.1. (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 6.4. 6. (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Clause 6. Deviation of pipe ends from the plane perpendicular to pipe axis shall be smaller than “2 mm + 0.1 ) 6.2.

The impermeability test shall be performed in accordance with TS 4355 Article 2. A sample is taken from each lot. There shall be no dripping. If the results are negative the lot is rejected. The internal pressure is increased with a rate not more than 1 Atmosphere per second until it reaches to a value given in Table 2. In the blow up test. 57 . leakage and defect on the pipe.) 6 10 16 25 Impermeability Test Pressure (Atm. For pipes manufactured by centrifugal casting method. The sample size is 1000 mm for all the diameters with sleeves at both ends. necessary number of samples are taken again and the lot is accepted provided that the new samples give positive result. The surface appearance of the glass fiber reinforced pipes shall be in accordance with the specification. From this sample pipe: A sample for rigidness test 3 samples for circumferential tensile strength test 3 samples for longitudinal tensile strength Circumferential tensile strength and longitudinal tensile strength results are calculated by taking averages of the test results. the fiberglass reinforced pipes are placed in the hydrostatic presser test device such that there will be no force in the axial direction. a new sample pipe is taken. the pipes and sleeves with the same diameter and nominal pressure are considered as one party.1 Impermeability Test For pipes manufactured by fiber wrapping method the impermeability test shall be applied for all the pipes (one by one). 7.2. leakage or defect on the pipe. for negative results due to that sample. in addition to this it can be performed by blow up method. Otherwise. it can also be performed. After that. they are filled with water and air is discharged. For pipe tests each 50 pipes with the same diameter are considered as one party. If the required values are provided according to the test results the lot shall be accepted. the 2% of the pipes are tested under pressure equal to the 4 times of nominal pressure value given in Table 4. Table 2 – Factory Test Pressure Values of the GRP Pipes Pressure Class (Atm.7 INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA The GRP pipes shall be manufactured and marked in accordance with the requirements given in the specification.) 12 20 32 40 There shall be no dripping.3. It is then waited for 3 minutes at this condition.

When surface hardness is tested in accordance with TS 4355 Clause : 2. Table 3 – Deflection without any defect or structural damage Deflection Level At Level A under load for 6 min.4 Rigidness Tests The values found after performing rigidness tests according to the related standards shall be compatible with Table 1 and 3. 7.7.5.1 Circular tensile strength test shall be performed at least once at every work shift Longitudinal Tensile strength test shall be performed at least once at every work shift Rigidness tests shall be applied at least once at every work shift Surface hardness tests shall be performed at least once at every work shift. 58 . B: There shall be no segregation among laminates.3.5 Factory Product Control Tests During manufacturing of fiberglass reinforced plastic pipes the following tests shall be performed periodically at the required frequency: Impermeability tests shall be performed in accordance with Clause 7.1 the result shall be minimum 40 Barcol hardness. At Level D under load for 24 hours Rigidness Class SN 2500 SN 5000 SN 10000 15% 12% 9% 25% 20% 15% 20% 16% 12% A: There shall be no trace of defect on the pipe. no separation of fibers D: Deflection without fracture or leakage (flexibility) 7.2 Circular Tensile Strength Test The results found after circular tensile strength test performed in accordance with the related standards shall be compatible with the TS 4355 Clause 1. 7.2.3.3.3 Longitudinal Tensile Strength Test The results found after longitudinal tensile strength test performed in accordance with the related standards shall be compatible with the TS 4355 Clause 1.2.5. At Level A under load for 6 min.

Manning.2 Surface Appearance of GRP Pipes Pipe surfaces shall be free of the following: Glass fibers not dampened with resin hanging out from the pipe or loosely connected to the pipe on the surface of glass fiber reinforced plastic pipe.1 Marking of Pipes and Special Parts The Manufacturer shall write the following information with a permanent paint on each pipe. Not dampened glass fibers Pipe surfaces shall be free of the following. 59 .1) 9 DESIGNING OF GRP PIPES AND SPECIAL PARTS 9. too: Segregations as layer on GRP pipe wall Cracks generally in star form due to impacts Holes more than 10 and bigger than 1. (shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3754 Article 6. Darcy-Weisbach and Colebrook-White formulas.1 Hydraulic International designing of fiberglass reinforced plastic pipes shall be in accordance with the books: a ) AWWA M-45 “Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe Design Manual” b ) ATV – A 127 “Guideline for Static Calculations of Drain Canals and Lines” Hydraulic load loss calculations are made by using Hazen-Willams.8 GENERAL DELIVERY CONDITIONS FOR GRP PIPES 8. Chezy. Deposits of sand or resin. 8. sleeve and special part: Nominal diameter (DN) Nominal pressure (PN) Nominal Rigidness (SN) Production Date Production Number Length A sign indication the quality control check Manufacturer logo and/or brand * * Only for the pipes.5 mm in diameter per square meter of internal surface.

Ps = Water impact pressure.4 times nominal pressure 9. traffic loads and underground water level criterion. Table 4 – Classification of Ground Groups. valves. Thermosetting Resin (GRP) Flexible Pipes” book Section: 1. 60 .Additional load losses in the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipes. bends and special parts shall be taken into consideration.2 Rigidness Class Rigidness class of the GRP pipes are determined in accordance with AWWA M-45 Hand Book Section : 5 and/or ISO TR 10465 “Under Ground Laying Of Fiberglass Reinforced. In order to simplify the selection of rigidness class natural ground is divided into four main groups as given in the Table 4.4 . natural ground type. Pc > (Pw + Ps) / 1. Pw = Working pressure Pc = GRP Pipe Nominal Pressure The equation Pc > Pw shall be provided. The sum of working pressure and water impact pressure shall be less than or equal to the 1.2 and 3 by considering filler height. ISO/TR 10465-1 Definition Ground Group I II III GRANULES HIGH MEDIUM (coarse grained) DENSITY Light silica or fine matter And dense clay gravel or LOOSE content is less stable grounds sand than 5% COHESION HARD STIFF MEDIUM Fluid limit is With cohesion (fine grained) With very stiff less than 50% and/or loose cohesion grain IV VERY LOOSE SOFT And very loose According to ground groups and trench depths the minimum pipe rigidness (SN) and laying types are given in Table 5. Necessary precautions shall be taken in order to ensure that the permissible impact pressure on the pipeline is not exceeded. filler type in the pipe zone. in other words GRP Pipe Nominal Pressure shall be greater than or equal to Working Pressure.

A light compaction can be allowed for only SN 2500. where filler material of the required quality is not available. Pipes with SN 10000 rigidness class shall be preferred for ground with high under ground water and grounds that are not capable of holding itself. pipes with SN 5000 rigidness class shall be used. For that reason. filler material has great importance. In case there is an ambiguity on this information. the external loads shall be born by the pipe or the ground. the quality and compaction of the pipe zone. reshaping (tensile) of GRP pipes with low rigidness is higher than the bending. improving the laying process or increasing the rigidness class shall be considered. in order to prevent permanent deformation on the pipes the quality of the backfilling material and ground compaction operations shall be carefully controlled. bending. the pipe with rigidness class SN 2500 can be used at very hard and tight grounds. use of compactor is not appropriate and in cases of fast laying. Even for this natural ground case. As it is given in the tables given above. Consequently. The sudden “negative pressure” due to wrong operation of automatic ventilation/discharge valves causes shrinkage at the pipes. Since GRP files fall into flexible and semi-flexible pipe category. 1 (one) bar of negative pressure requires 4166 N/m2 rigidness. The necessity of compaction of backfilling material comes from. reshaping of GRP pipes with high rigidness. compaction of pipe zone back filling material is forbidden according to ISO TC 138/SC 6 SN 1250 (against the possible damaging of pipe). it is very important to determine the natural ground characteristics and variations throughout the pipeline.Table 5– Relationship Between Pipe Rigidness and Laying Types and Trench Depths– ISO/TR 10465-1 Trench Rigidness Natural Ground Depth Class I II III IV (m) SN ( N / m2 ) 1250 Special 2500 Laying < 3 5000 10000 Special Laying > 3 1250 2500 5000 10000 When determining the rigidness class. 61 . For GRP pipes. for pipelines where there is a possibility of formation of vacuum or negative pressure or Group III (most of the grounds fall in this class in Turkey) natural ground conditions.

The manholes shall be projected in different types according to its location and this projects shall be submitted to the Employer for approval. ÖNORM. ASTM. The covers shall be GRP or cast iron and shall be in the size and type shown in the project. 11 PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION 11. All the blind flanges on the access points of the complete water supply pipeline shall be equipped with an air discharge tap of 25 mm as a security precaution in order to control the internal pressure before loosening the blind flange.10 WATER SUPPLY PIPELINE EQUIPMENT 10. if distance between two suction rooms is more than 1 km.3 Manhole Covers Cast iron covers of heavy service type or another type recommended by the Employer shall be provided for all rooms on the water supply pipeline. On the top surface of the cover.1 General The GRP pipes to be used at the water supply pipeline shall be laid and tested in accordance with the requirements of this specifications and its annexes. BS. 10. In addition to this. 10. manholes shall be provided in order to keep the distance between two access points less than 1 km. 62 . The valves and fittings shall be provided by considering the maximum working pressure including the impact pressure.2 Entrance into Pipelines (Manholes) Entrance points shall be provided with specific intervals in order to provide access to the line throughout the water supply pipeline. the equipment type under it and the name or logo of the Employer responsible for operation of that equipment shall be written as casting. manufacturer name. All the valves and fittings used for connections and water supply pipeline. and particularly the related TSE. AWWA or an equivalent standard applicable to the Employer whether its number specified in this specifications and annexes or not. Generally suction rooms shall be used for this purpose. DIN.1 Fittings All types of fittings to be used for the water supply pipelines shall be provided and mounted in accordance with its own special specifications and standards. shall be projected for meeting the environmental and operational conditions given in this specifications.

construction of anchorage blocks at the required locations and other works necessary for operation of the pipeline. excavation and filling works due to laying and connection of the pipes. In addition to that for places with weak natural ground structure wider trenches can be required in order to provide sufficient leaning strength. 11. 11.4 Trench Filling Filling of trenches shall be in accordance with “Excavation and Filling Works Specification”. excavation of pipe trenches and back filling. Table 7 – Maximum grain size DN ( mm ) < 600 600 – 1600 > 1600 Maximum gravel or crushed stone grain size 13 mm 19 mm 25 mm In case that the natural ground structure of the trench ground is weak the bearing height of the trench ground shall be increased to a degree in order to provide enough support for the pipe in longitudinal direction. the Employer is free to select the principle to be applied. gravel or crushed sand compatible with the values specified in Table 7 shall be used as bearing material. loading and unloading of the pipes. Bearings with minimum 10 cm of height shall be constructed for pipes on the trench ground according to the structure of the ground. Coarse grained sand. 11. valves and equipment. the test of the completed pipelines whose head connections are in accordance with specification and other contract documents. 63 . The works to be done on the pipeline are: transportation. supply and mounting of the special parts. construction of trade structures.3 Excavation Works Excavation works shall be in accordance with the “DSİ Excavation Works Technical Specifications”.2 Application Application shall be performed in accordance with the project specifications.If there is a difference between the various standards and the requirements of this specifications.

Carrying the pipes by passing a rope inside it shall not be permissible.5 1. 64 .Table 8 . During transportation of the pipes chain.6. rubber or cord ropes in order to prevent sliding or falling because of the shakes that can occur during transportation. They shall be fixed with wedges.6. the inside and outside of them shall be cleaned. The maximum storing height shall be 3 meters.0 1.2 Lowering of Pipes into Trench The vehicles and tools used for placing the pipes in the trenches shall allow uniform lowering of the pipe. loading and unloading shall be checked. Unloading and Storage of GRP Pipes During loading and unloading of the GRP pipes rubber or cord ropes shall be used. During transportation of the pipes they shall be stored on smooth surfaced timbers and they shall be fixed with wedges.0 11. The maximum storage height shall be 2. pipes shall not hit to the sides or edges of the trench during this operation. 11. 11. Carrying the pipes by passing a rope inside it shall not be permissible.5 Loading.1 Control of Pipes before Laying The pipes and the connecting pieces shall be examined before placing in the trench. The pipes shall be stored on a smooth base and smooth surface timbers. existence of any damage due to transportation. steel ropes or similar materials that can damage the pipe shall not be used. 11.Minimum Filling Height on Traffic Load (wheel) Pipe Type of the Load AASHTO H 20 (20) BS 153 HA (C9) ATV LKW 12 © ATV SLW 30 © ATV SLW 60 © Cooper E 80 kN 72 90 40 50 10 Railway kgf 7250 9000 4000 5000 10000 Meter 1.0 1. During loading and unloading chain or steel ropes shall never be used. During lowering/unloading the pipe shall be lowered under control by attaching a control cord at one end of the pipe.0 1. rubber or cord ropes in order to prevent sliding or falling.5 meters during transportation at the vehicles.6 Laying Method of GRP Pipes Pipes shall be laid in accordance with ASTM D 3839.5 3.

and they shall be attached by considering the section of the pipe that will enter in the sleeve for pipes without sleeves. Table 9 . Y piece shall be supported with fixing blocks.5 2.0 2. shall be completely cleaned from dust and dirt.00 500 < DN < 900 2. For pipes manufactured by centrifugal casting method and in rigidness class equal to or more than 5000 N/m 2. Short GRP pipe 1 meter in length at both sides of the fixing blocks. The housing for the gasket at the inner surface of the sleeve.0 6.Angular deviation allowed in joint sleeves Nominal pipe diameter(mm) Angular deviation(degree) DN < 500 3. slippery paraffin or yellow soap shall be applied on the inner surface of the sleeve and end of the pipe. there is 65 . 11. After thoroughly cleaning the end of the pipe to be connected.0 The bottom of the pipes shall be adequately supported during laying and attention shall be paid in order to prevent any open space between pipe and trench edges. The tensioning apparatus and the clips shall be removed sequentially. Connections like bend.0 Long term deflection 6. The gasket shall be correctly placed in its housing by considering the direction of the gasket. the pipes.5 3. Table 10 – Allowable Vertical Deflection Values (In the degree of diameter percentage) Ground class of the zone 1 2 3 4 5 Nominal diameter is 300 mm or more Maximum Initial Deflection value 4.0 6.4 Rigid Connections and Fixing Blocks of GRP Pipes Short GRP pipe 1 meter in length during passage to different natural grounds in GRP pipeline. reduction. Pipe mounting operation shall continue in this way. T.0 3.6.11. Clips prepared for this purpose shall be attached so that it will remain at the back of the sleeve for the pipes with sleeves.00 DN > 1800 0.3 Laying GRP Pipes For the places of GRP sleeves used for connection of GRP pipes. head holes shall be digged so that sleeves can lean through the pipe.0 6. The tensioning apparatus used for connection of the pipes shall be attached to the clip and shall be pushed through the sleeve of the pipe until it lean on the stopper at the middle section of the pipe by the help of the tensioning.6.00 900 < DN < 1800 1. underside of the pipes and sides shall be supported with filler material.0 6.50 The maximum pressure deflection and long term deflection for laid and completely covered pipe shall not exceed the values given in Table 10. The connection place shall be supported with filler material. Angular deviation allowed according to the diameter at the connection places of the joint sleeves are given in Table 9. The pipes to be connected shall be jointed end to end at the same axis and lowered in the trench at this condition.

16 Atm. 11. the line shall be fixed so that it cannot move and the pressure value to be tested shall not be more than 24 Atm. Pumps and valves shall be anchored. When pipeline is filling with water. 32 Atm. The important issues during this control shall be as follows: Maximum deflection value related to the pipes shall not exceed the values given in the Table 10: The connecting elements shall be checked again whether or not they are correctly attached. in order to leave open the connection places (sleeves) on them. The power in the axial direction generated due to covering of the pipes at the test points shall be supported and the loads in the axial direction on pipeline shall be prevented. Necessary controls shall be performed before tests in order to check the correctness of the mounting of the section to be tested. the causes like temperature difference. The pressure in the pipe shall be slowly increased. Flange screws shall be tightened to the specified torque value Pipeline filling shall be completed.5 Hydrostatic and Impermeability Tests of GRP Pipeline Hydrostatic test shall be conducted regularly during mounting operations. Pipeline. 24 Atm. 45 Atm. The manometer shall be placed at the bottom part of the pipe so that it will indicate the highest pressure level in the pipe. An important amount of energy is stocked under pressure. The length of the line mounted and to be tested shall not pass 1 km. For pipes over 16 Atm nominal pressure. In order to prevent rotation and other movements of the sleeves they shall be covered.6. The fixing blocks shall completely cover the GRP pipe connecting pieces and complete impede their movement. fixing blocks and other anchorages shall be correctly fixed in their places. Attention shall be paid so that the maximum pressure values given in Table 11 shall not be exceeded. expansion in the pipe and air pressed in the pipe shall be checked (Glass reinforced plastic product pipe can expand under pressure. Water shall be fed to the system by opening the pipes. 25 Atm. Also for flanged joints and similar rigid connections these short pipes 1 meter in length shall be used. If the required pressure can not be maintained at a constant value for a specific period. 66 . 35 Atm. Table 11 . 15 Atm. For this reason the amount of water to be fed into the pipe shall not be more than expansion losses). Maximum Field Test Pressure 9 Atm. The connection places (sleeves) can be left as open in pipes under 16 Atm nominal pressure.Maximum Field Test Pressure Pressure Class 6 Atm. this power shall be kept in control. 10 Atm. the air shall be discharged and fluctuations (variation) in the pressure shall be prevented.no need for using this short pipes 1 meter in length in these connections.

67 . the diameters are 40-800. the Contractor shall order for the material.ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPE 1 GENERAL These pipes are manufactured by wrapping a homogeneous paste consisting of cement and 15% asbestos as thin layer by pressure. the ends of the pipes are corrected. b. According to Sweden specification. Asbestos wires are 15 micron in thickness. UNİ . The valves are metallic and generally they are connected to the pipes with metallic parts.1000 mm. for issues not specified here they shall be compatible with ISO. If the characteristics of the pipes supplied by the Contractor are not compatible with the requirements of the Employer.5 Free aggressive CO2 < 35 mg/l . > 3.BS.B. Asbestos wires act as fitting and the thickness is calculated according to the required pressure.5 T. or an equivalent standard. Asbestos cement pipes are not effected from distributed current. sleeves and special parts shall be in accordance with DIN 19802 – 19803 19804 – 19805 – 19806 – 19807.D. The asbestos cement pipes shall be in accordance with TS 102. Asbestos cement mixture are manufactured by pressing and wrapping on a steel cylinder as thick layers in 2-10 mm thickness. The cylinder provides the inside diameter of the pipe and after waiting in water for two weeks and drying. The pipe lengths are 4-5 meter. the following conditions shall be met for asbestos cement: a.A.S. The pipes cylinder shaped Tee are manufactured from large diameters of fonts. the Employer shall prevent them from use and the loss due to that reason shall be at the Contractor’s expense.. Water : pH > 6.S. Field : pH > 6 Sulphate (SO3) < 0. S. because asbestos and cement is a better and more homogeneous mixture than concrete.2% Magnesia (MgO) < 2% . The asbestos cement pipes are more resistant to corrosion when compared with the concrete. The Contractor shall give information about the specification of the material and submit the specification to the Employer together with this information and after approval of the Employer.

cm respectively. Fracture with Peak Pressure The pipe 20 cm in length is carried throughout the pipe axis at the bottom and broken with pressure from the top. e kg/cm2. in. 250 kg/cm2 3556 lb/sq. DIN : German norm . cm 4000 lb/sq. load in kg. in. 280 2 k kg/ g/cm 3556 lb/sq. in. 280 kg/cm2 4000lb/sq. 1 . P. • ISO : International norm.53 Explosion strength 200 k 225 kg/cm2 225 kg/cm2 2 due to internal g/cm 3200 lb/sq. 2 . 500 kg/cm2  3 min. in. in. 3= 8PL/ . AWWA : American norm. cm. Crushing strength due to external load Bending strength due to external load 450 2 k g/cm 6400 lb/sq. 3 . 527 2 kg/ cm 7500 lb/sq. 2 2 wall thickness e shall be taken as kg/cm .1. in. Bending Test The pipe up to 200 mm in diameter is carried till distance between supports is 2 m. in. Pressure Test Water is filled in water and the pressure is increases very slowly until pipe fractures. 3 . 450 kg/cm2 6400 lb/sq. According to TS 102: 1 min. 250 2 527 kg/cm2 7500lb/sq. BS : British norm. 450 kg/cm2  min. cm and cm respectively. 225 kg/cm2  min. d+2e/(d+2e) 4-d4 kg/cm2. L length (opening). hydraulic pressure 2845 lb/sq. P. 4 . In formula   P. kg. Crushing (Fracture by Peak Pressure). in. The tension is calculated with the formula  = Pd/2e. Here 3. Impermeability. e shall be taken as kg/cm2. kg/cm . 200 kg/cm2 min.2 Characteristics and Manufacturing The following tests shall be performed at the factories: 1 .  VALUES ACCORDING TO VARIOUS NORMS ISO BS AWWA Rago – 1960 486 . e wall thickness in cm and L pipe length in cm. Pressure. The pressure increase shall mot be more than 10 -20 kg/sn. 2 . 275 kg/cm2 Norm : wet (pipe) dry (pipe) wet (pipe) dry (pipe) wet (pipe) dry (pipe) DIN 19800 . d inside diameter in cm.1956 200 kg/cm2 2845 lb/sq. in. in. inside diameter d. in.in. 250 kg/cm2 min. 3200 lb/sq. Bending. Formula is  =3P(d+e)/  2L.1956 0 409 . cm. Force is applied in the middle of it. 1 1. D. 68 .

Water absorption shall not be more than 20%. The rings 2.5 cm in length are left in 15 – 18o of water for 18 hours and completely dried until there is not any water drop on it. It is heated under 150o for 4 hours at and weighed. The ratio of weight difference to dry material is water absorption amount.
o

Impermeability; for all pipes under 2 times of working pressure there shall be no leakage, oozing and watering. It is applied for one connection per 200 pipes in the same test and maximum deviation is introduced to the pipe in this test. Since asbestos cement pipes are light weight, their transportation and placement is easy. One master and one worker can lay 150-200 meter of pipe 500-600 mm in diameter and 500-600 meter of pipe 50-80 mm in diameter. The lightness provides economy for transportation. Since they are too brittle they shall be carefully transported. According to German norms the characteristics of asbestos cement pipe and collars are as follows:
Inside diameter (mm) 50 65 80 100 125 150 PIPE Atm e (mm) 9 9 9 10 9 10 13 10 12 14 10 11 14 17 11 13 18 22 12 15 19 25 14 17 23 30 15 19 27 35 18 21 30 40 d2 Outside diameter (mm) 68 83 98 100 118 120 126 115 149 153 170 172 178 184 222 226 236 244 274 280 288 300 328 334 346 360 380 388 404 420 436 442 460 480 Weight (kg/m) 4.1 5.4 6.3 6.7 7.5 8.7 10.7 10.6 12.8 14.3 12.3 13.0 17.8 20.8 17.5 22.0 28.5 35.5 23.5 30.0 37.5 49.0 32.5 39.5 54.0 69.0 40.0 51.0 78.0 94.0 55.0 65.0 92.0 120.0 Weight with collar (kg/m) 4.4 5.9 6.9 7.3 8.1 9.3 11.3 11.3 13.7 15.4 13.2 14.0 19.0 22.0 18.5 23.1 29.8 37.1 25.1 31.7 39.5 51.1 34.5 42.1 57.1 72.3 42.5 54.2 76.8 99.1 58.3 68.8 96.4 126.4 COLLAR Length Outside (mm) diameter (mm) 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 109 124 143 147 143 147 179 194 202 210 219 223 235 247 275 283 303 319 331 343 359 383 390 403 427 455 445 461 493 525 507 519 555 595 Weight (kg) 1.2 1.8 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 3.3 3.7 4.4 3.4 3.8 4.7 5.0 4.8 5.5 6.5 7.9 7.9 8.7 10.0 10.7 10.2 12.8 15.6 16.7 12.3 15.8 19.0 25.5 16.5 18.9 21.9 31.9

200

250

300

350

400

12.5 12.5 10 12.5 6 10 12.5 6 10 12.5 2.5 6 10 12.5 2.5 6 10 12.5 2.5 6 10 12.5 2.5 6 10 12.5 2.5 6 10 12.5 2.5 6 10 12.5

69

Note : Weight tolerance : + 7%,

Connections : Same with flat pipe connections.

The specific gravity is approximately 2000 kg/m3. The comparison by weight with cast-iron pipe is as follows:

Diameter Cast-iron (mm) Weight(kg/m) 60 11.5 100 20.0 200 45.7

Pipe

AC Pipe Weight(kg/m) 5.9 10.8 34.5

The mounting of the heads shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. The gaskets used for heads shall be in accordance with the related international standards acceptable to the Employer. Gibault and Reka Tayton are mostly used ones. Gibault type is similar with the cast-iron pipes. For connections the flat pipes are pushed into the collars by hand in case of small diameters, and by tensioning elements in case of large diameters. In order to provide easiness, the pipe and the rubbers are lubricated with yellow soap or glycerin. Before pushing the pipe into the sleeve, its end is marked 2.5 mm from the sleeve and pushed until this mark or a ring is tightened at this distance. There shall be a distance of 5-6 mm between both of the pipe ends. For the Reka type connection this condition is met. The following deviations are permissible for the Reka type connection. Diameter (mm) 50 – 100 125 – 175 200 – 300 350 – 400 Diameter ( o ) 6 5 4 3

The ends of cast-iron special parts to be used together with the asbestos cement pipe, shall be processed to a shape and size suitable for mounting of sleeves (heads) related to the pipe. With the approval and requirement of the Employer, normal cast-iron special parts with abutment or brite special for cast-iron pipes shall be made use of by placing one end appropriately to the joint sleeve and the other end to special transition parts with abutment or brite. The spurs and ends of the special part in contact with special part shall be in its set square and lathed. Fittings shall be the same with ones used for cast-iron and steel pipe plants. Asbestos cement pipes can be cut by saw easily, drilled with gimlet, pass can be opened, filed and rasped. The pipes can be cut at big diameters withy portable lathes and at small diameters with taws. The pipes are tried at the trenches with the half of the manufacturing pressure (factory test pressure). 70

Branches can be made with asbestos pipes, but generally lead or copper pipes are used. In order to protect the pipe from shock effect, it shall be under a depth at least 1.2 meter for under roads and 0.8 meter for other places as the same with cast-iron pipes. The issues taken into consideration for laying asbestos cement pipes are as the same with that of cast-iron pipes. The formulas and coefficients used for cross section calculations are as follows: Formula : Bazin Kutter Scimemi Hazen Wilhams Strikler Colbrook Stucky Coefficient :  = 0.06 m = 0.12 V = 64.28 d 0.28 I 0.56 V = 1.318 CR 10.63 I 0.54, C = 140 V = 105 R 2/3 I ½ K = 0.025 mm – 0.030 mm V = 140 R 0.645 I 5/9

The roughness at the pipes is very small for the asbestos cement pipes. It is almost considered as polished. This property does not change in time, in other words there is no sedimentation by time.

2 SAMPLING, INSPECTION AND TESTS

2.1 Sampling, Pressure and Impermeability Test Pipes ready for delivery shall be visually inspected in order to determine the manufacturing faults. The faulty pipes shall not be accepted. Finally, sufficient number of samples compatible with the standards shall be taken from each lot and they shall be subjected to pressure and impermeability test after thickness control. The pressure test shall be applied as 2 times of pressure class of the pipe at the factory test.

2.2 Test Costs The cost associated with the tests acceptable to international standards shall be at the Contractor’s expense. The test and inspections shall be conducted at an official laboratory determined by the Employer.

71

6 ACCEPTANCE . the offered pipe and its parts as well as its coatings. etc. If gaskets. K. 5 CONTENT OF OFFER The Contractor shall state in its offer the quantities. Packing crates shall be strong enough to allow the transportation of the materials without breaking. Calculated gaskets shall be supplied free of charge in excess of 20%.REJECTION 6.CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE . this should be indicated in the offer. at the time of submission of offers. clearly indicating their unit and total prices. The quantities of the necessary gaskets shall be stated separately.1 Acceptance The lot represented by the sample and test pieces. bolts and nuts are to be offered free of charge. For all technical issues incorporated in this technical specifications. Packing crates shall be enclosed by steel strips on four sides. FR.3 MARKING The name of the “Employer” Manufacturer’s emblem or descriptive mark Symbol of the part’s name (A. bolts and nuts shall be indicated separately and their detailed technical values shall be provided in tables. The Contractor shall. which appear to be compatible with 72 .) Diameter of the part 4 PACKAGING All connecting pieces shall be packaged and shipped in wooden crates. give to the Employer for examination a sample pipe connecting piece having the characteristics stated in the offer. gaskets. together with the symbols shown in the list attached hereto. Crate bottoms shall be reinforced on both sides with wooden battens having a dimension of 12 x 12 (in order to provide loading and strength). unit prices and total prices of the parts. F.

all the requirements at the end of the inspections and tests made on the test pieces that represent the condition corresponding to the samples taken from the lot delivered. 73 . 6. the pipes shall be delivered to the Employer as packaged and marked. the conditional acceptance of the lot shall be made. 8 ORDER FORM An order form for the pipes and parts demanded is given in the Annex. Bolts and nuts shall be separately packaged and delivered. if this does not lead to non-use of the material. 7 DELIVERY As described above. No payment shall be made for the parts found defective and returned at the end of the inspection of the lot. Pipe connecting pieces shall be delivered as packaged. 9 TECHNICAL INSPECTION The Contractor shall invite the Employer’s technical committee consisting of 2 members for technical inspection of the manufacturing progress for a duration of 1 week.3 Rejection The lot shall be rejected if the samples and/or the test pieces representing the condition corresponding to the samples are found to be incompatible with the required characteristics and tolerances at the end of the aforementioned tests. with the gaskets placed on them. Gaskets may be delivered in a separate package since they will be proposed in excess of 20%. All the accommodation and travel expenses in respect thereof shall be at the Contractor’s expense.2 Conditional Acceptance If 2% of the samples that have been taken for the inspections mentioned above are found out to be defective. however. 6. shall be accepted.

Utmost care shall be taken during the transportation of the asbestos cement pipes. or lifting mechanisms or machines.10 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Pipes shall be supported by timbers not only at the bottom row and between rows but also from their sides. The pipes shall be always lifted by hand and using rope. The transportation shall involve minimum loading/unloading operations. loaded and stacked by throwing. wooden beams. rolling and dragging. ends and top in order to prevent any accidental damage during transportation. and the pipes shall not be unloaded. 74 .

These fittings shall be used for drinking water system.3 Nodular distribution between micro structure shall be at least 80 pieces/mm. These pipes have high strength and flexible characteristics when compared with the usual cast iron pipes. quality and quality control. The pipes are coated with clay cement internally and bitumen over zinc externally. 2 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS 2. sampling.DUCTILE PIPES 1 SUBJECT AND SCOPE This specifications describes the technical specifications. water supply pipeline and irrigation system by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Affairs. manufacturing and manufacturing sufficiency. For issues not specified in these 75 . 1.1 General The manufacturing of the pipe pieces shall be completely in accordance with the replaced ISO 2531-1979 (E). Ductile pipes are spheroid cast iron pipes manufactured by centrifugal casting method. 1.2 Materials The material used for manufacturing of fittings shall be spheroid nodular graphite structure ductile cast-iron material. conditional acceptance and rejection criteria and delivery of fittings manufactured from ductile cast-iron material.1 Norms and Standards The pipes and fittings manufactured from ductile cast iron shall be in accordance with ISO 2531 Standard and shall be capable of passing from the tests defined in this specifications. these pipes shall be in accordance with BS 4772 and DIN EN 545. The relation between the percentages in the iron. ISO 13 and ISO/R 79 standards. as well as acceptance. In addition to this. The Material hardness shall be maximum HB 250. carbon and silicium alloy of the material to be used in the manufacturing shall be as follows: % C + 1/3 % Si = 4. When the material to be used in the manufacturing is compared with the cast-iron material. the result shall be a material with higher tensile strength and less fragile (more flexible) material.

manufacturer can recommend his own standards. However. splits.5 + 0. 76 . the manufacturer shall take the approval of the Employer before production. cracks. if the manufacturing principles of the manufacturer is compatible with the internationally accepted standards. etc). The wall thickness of the fittings (except “T” parts) shall be calculated by taking K=12. 2.2 Molds • • The molds shall be made from sand or metal The attention shall be paid to the measurements (in mm) in the molds in order to prevent any fault on the ductile cast-iron material due to the molds (holes. sand deposits. 2.4 Dimensions The manufacturing dimensions of the fittings shall be in accordance with the table values given in ISO 2531.5 Thickness of Ductile Pipes and Fittings Standard thickness of pipe and fittings is a function of nominal diameter and calculated as follows: e = K ( 0. pipe wall thicknesses shall be calculated by taking K=9. 2.001 ND ) Where: e: standard wall thickness (mm) ND: nominal diameter (mm) K: the coefficient depending on the operational conditions of the pipe and fitting In this specifications. The wall thickness of the “T” parts shall be calculated by taking K=14. For dimensions not defined in the ISO Standard.3 Working Pressure The fittings shall be resistant to 16 bar of working pressure unless otherwise stated in this project and specification. the Employer shall accept.standards. 2.

Fitting and Other Pipes There shall be no defect that will prevent the use of pipes. before coating application.7 Thickness and Mass Tolerances Thickness and mass tolerances shall not exceed the values given in ISO 2531. Nominal Diameter (ND) 80 – 300 350 – 600 700 – 1000 Test Pressure (bar) 50 40 32 3 COATINGS 3. The related DIN 30677 standard shall apply for epoxy.1 Internal Coatings The coating surface shall be uniform and smooth. 2. 2. and the surface shall be smooth and regular. the inner and external coating of cast-iron ductile pipes manufactured in accordance with ISO 2531. fittings and other pipes. on the coated surface there shall be no cracks or blisters on the mortar.6 Quality of Ductile Pipe. these materials shall not be rejected. the manufacturing and quality of the cement material shall be in accordance with the last amendment of the ISO 4179 standard. In case of cement mortar. It shall stick on the inner surface of the pipe without any spaces. 77 .8 Maximum Working Pressure And Internal Pressure Test The pipes shall be subjected to hydraulic pressure tests under minimum pressures given in the table below for a duration of 300 seconds at the factory. the surfaces to be coated with cement shall be cleaned from cast sand and cast spallings and all other foreign substances in order to provide complete contact with the coating mortar. The Manufacturer can correct these little surface defect in a suitable way provided that the responsibility shall be born by him. If little defects are caused by the manufacturing method and do not impede the use.2. In case epoxy is used for internal coating. can be proposed with suitable polyurethane compatible with the international standards in addition to its norms. the company can make isolation with epoxy instead of cement. In case of polyurethane.

The mortar shall be prepared by mixing one part of cement and 3. a bitumen based special hot coating in accordance with BS 4147 standard shall be applied on the outer surface for a minimum 0.3 mm thickness in order to provide protection for corrosion. a black paint shall be applied on the outer surface of all the pipes at the factory.In case of proposals for polyurethane coating. in other wards sand/cement ratio shall be equal to or less than 3. The characteristics. the outer surface shall be applied with electrolyte zinc protection. Before laying the pipes. the proposal shall include a certificate taken from an independent international health organization in order to certify that the internal coatings are not harmful to health. epoxy or polyurethane. The inner surface of the shell section (not in contact with water) of connection piece with sockets shall be coated with bitumen and isolated. the outer surface shall be applied with electrolyte zinc protection. a black paint shall be applied on the outer surface of all the pipes at the factory. a bitumen based special hot coating in accordance with BS 78 . The mortar shall not contain toxic or materials soluble in water and elements give odor to the water. For pipes with nominal diameter less than or equal to 250 mm. The zinc coating shall be covered by black bitumen 70 micron in thickness.9% pure and the application shall be with spraying method. The distribution shall be 130 gr/m².5. In addition to this. For pipes with nominal diameter less than or equal to 250 mm. Drinking Water Pipes The inside of the drinking water pipes shall be coated by rotary cement mortar. the chemical composition and application method shall be provided in the proposal. Before laying the pipes.2 External Coatings Ductile cast-iron pipe and pieces shall be coated with zinc in order to control the corrosion. Pressurized Sewer Pipeline The inner surface of the pipes to be used for pressurized sewer lines shall be coated with polyethylene in accordance with DIN 30674. placement and control of the mortar shall be in accordance with ISO 4179. In case the internal coatings are proposed as cement mortar. The bitumen to be coated shall be resistant to all types of climatic conditions. 3. The zinc shall be 99.5 part of sand. In addition to this. The quality control shall be performed in accordance with ISO 6600. the conformity of the technical characteristics of ISO 2531 related to the all technical characteristics determined in this specifications with the internationally accepted standards related to the polyurethane coating shall be provided. The external coating shall continue up to the internal section of the pipe connecting element with ambuatman.

the pipes with socket and spigot shall be used throughout the under ground pipeline as specified above.2 Flanged Pipes All the pipes that are not buried (such as the pipes at the pumping stations) shall be flanged and the internal coating shall be as specified above. There shall be a projection in the ring form suitable to the recess of the socket on the outer surface of the gasket body. there shall be a deep recess with seating places in the ring form and a long space allowing angular and longitudinal movement of pipes connected to each other. for the side of the projection facing the entrance of the socket there shall be a chamfer for providing complete seating at the socket recess. Inside the socket: For gasket. shall be manufactured in homogeneous form from natural rubber or equivalent elastomer based materials. The maximum continuous operational temperature of the gaskets shall be 70o C. All connections shall be standard and in a type shall be easily seated in their places.4147 standard shall be applied on the outer surface for a minimum 0. The factors that shall be avoided for elastomer based vulcanized products: They shall not be stored under very dry or very humid conditions. Water tight gaskets shall be used for drinking water or sewer pipes. The gaskets to be used for pipes between 60 mm and 1000 mm in nominal diameter. shall be protected from atmospheric conditions and particularly effects of ozone. If these gaskets are stored at lower temperatures. 4 HEAD CONNECTIONS 4. they shall not be exposed to direct sun light or infrared rays. The joints shall be sealed with gaskets. 4.3 mm thickness in order to provide protection for corrosion. The gaskets shall be stored under the following conditions: The storage temperature shall be between +5o C and +20o C. necessary attention shall be paid during transportation and usage in order to prevent deformation and shall be kept at approximately 30o C temperature for a sufficiently log time so that it can gain its original elasticity before being used. The gaskets shall have a strong body and two thick cheeks extending through the bottom of the socket. 79 . In order to provide complete impermeability and sufficient degree of flexibility. standard gaskets shall be molded to have a wide cross section covering the wide seating surfaces.1 Pipes with Socket and Spigot Unless otherwise specified. The spigot and sockets shall act as connecting elements at the pipes.

The bolts are mounted by placing gaskets between the flanges. The places are adjusted so that the bolt holes stay face to face. Flanged Water Pipes The flanges of the flanged water pipes shall be bored according to NG16. Textile coated gaskets shall not be used for NP 10 and NP 16 flanges. During laying of the pipes on the water supply pipeline and water system. The fittings shall be subjected to impermeability test under the pressure applied on the pipes as project requirement at the working place.3 Fittings and Connecting elements The fittings shall be in accordance with ISO 2531. wall thicknesses shall be designed according to K=14 at T pieces and K=12 for all the fittings. terminating the ends of pipelines when changing diameter and connecting the pieces under certain circumstances (They shall be referred as “Connecting elements” or “Fittings”). The Flanged Pipes Used for Pressurized Sewer Lines The flanges of the flanged pipes to be used for pressurized sewer lines shall be bored according to NG16. The gaskets used in the flanged joints shall be prepared by cutting elastomeric layers one side textile coated and uncoated. The mounting of the flanged joints shall be as follows: The parts to be connected are aligned. The flanged fittings shall be drilled at NG 10 or NG 16 size as required for the pipes. The storing conditions of the gaskets are the same with the conditions given for rubber gaskets specified in “Pipes with sockets and without socket” title. 4. several layers of paint shall be applied.The external coatings shall be as specified above except from the bitumen at the factory and after application of coating. and the color of the finishing paint shall be determined by the Employer. 80 . they are the pieces used for providing new branches when changing the direction of the pipelines. A space is left between the flanges for gasket. For the water and waste water pipes natural rubber gaskets shall not be used. The nuts are mounted and the operation is completed by tightening the two nuts at the two corresponding sides of the pipe diameter. The gasket is seated between the projections on two flanges.

They shall be fiber cotton type. The quality of the rubber gaskets and technical specifications to be used at connecting elements shall be in accordance with the last amendment of BRITISH STANDARD 2494. The gaskets to be used for connections with abutment shall be from natural rubber or equivalent material.5 GASKETS Gaskets shall be as specified in ISO 2531. 81 . depending on the composition of casting for shrinkage and expansion and thermal application and shape of the piece. The gaskets shall not be delivered separately but they shall be delivered as mounted in the connecting elements.2 Manufacturing Lengths and Length Tolerances The length tolerances of pipe connections shall be in accordance with ISO 2531-1979 (E) section 4. Dimension --------Fitting wall thickness Flange thickness Tolerance ------------(2. The bolts and nuts to be used for flanged joints shall be calculated according to flanges prepared in accordance with ISO 2531 PN 16 and their quantities shall be specified in the proposal.1 Thickness Tolerances The wall thickness of the pipe shall be as follows: The standard thickness is expressed in b/mm.05 b) 7. The gaskets to be used for flanged joints shall be 3 mm in thickness and fiber reinforced. they shall be produced from rubber or equivalent material.001DN) ± (3 + 0. + 0. 7 TOLERANCES 7. 6 BOLTS AND NUTS Bolts and nuts are mechanical elements coated with zinc that are used for connection pipe pieces from the holes drilled on the flanged joints. “GASKETS” shall provide clamping of Ductile Cast-iron pipes and their “connecting elements” in order to provide impermeability. "DN" is the nominal diameter.3. catalogue and the drawings shall be supplied in the proposal.

7. metallographic and chemical tests. sand. The manufacturer shall show each of them per part in his catalogue.5 kg for 20 kg.1 Sampling Sufficient number of samples shall be taken from each lot ready for delivery in accordance with the standards and the samples shall be subjected to mechanical. In case the internal coating is applied with epoxy. 8 SAMPLING AND TESTS 8. hardness (micro test). the cement. tensile strength.100 kg c) The tolerance in normal mass shall be % ± 12 for masses higher than 100 kg 7.2 Manufacturing Tests a) Chemical tests (measurement of element and determination of nodular structure) b) Hydrostatic test (under 25 atm pressure for 15 seconds) shall be applied for 100% of the parts. For gaskets: it shall be stated that there is no cracks during ozone tests and hardness change at low temperatures. a) Approximately 0. organic substances in the cement mortar.1 kg for masses 20 kg or less.3 Mass Tolerances The mass tolerances of each type of connecting element shall be in accordance with the international standards. For that reason a comparison table covering the characteristics given above shall be included in the proposal. swelling. water ratio shall be clearly stated. compaction. pressure reducing. it shall remain within the tolerance limits specified in DIN 30677. c) Tensile tests d) Brinnel Hardness test e) Inner and external coating tests: 82 . extension during fracture. b) Approximately 0. water absorption. In this table the acceptable tolerances are provided by comparing the proposed gasket type and the gasket type specified in BS 2494 (1986).4 Coating Tolerances If the cement mortar is internal coating shall be in the sizes specified in ISO 4179 1985 (E). 8.

The tensile strength values shall be at least 40-42 DAN/mm.3. 83 .2 Chemical Inspections The analytic structure of the metal shall be controlled. Pressure and Impermeability Tests Samples shall be subjected to pressure and impermeability tests at least for 15 seconds in hydraulic circuits prepared earlier.5 times of the working pressure (approximately 25 bars). 8. Under 25 bar pressure there shall be no leakage and oozing on the piece.3. the Contractor shall prepare and send sufficient number of test bars related to the lot together with each lot to the Employer. and the samples taken shall be subjected to metallographic. 8. cracked.3 Tests and Inspections at the Time of Entrance into the Employer’s Warehouse 8. The parts shall have full spheroid graphite structure and shall have at least 80 nodules/mm3.1 Physical Inspection The parts whose coating is spilling.3. 8.3 Metallographic Inspections The structure and numbers of the nodules in micro structure shall be inspected and investigated. chemical or physical inspections.3. For sampling. 2. 8. crushed or having another observable defect shall be refused. Sufficient number of samples which are in accordance with the standards shall be taken from each lot of product.The products shall be subjected all the tests mentioned above before being delivered to the Employer and the Contractor shall submit a certificate taken from an international audit company in order to certify the performance of the tests for each lot being delivered. Tensile Test Test bars prepared and cast suitable to its method from cast charge of connecting pieces shall be subjected to tensile test.4 Mechanical Inspections 1. The pressure applied for this test shall be 1. the nodular structure and number of nodules of the surfaces branded with dicral.

The external coating and zinc inspection shall be subjected to test with methods specified in international standards. The test and inspections shall be conducted at an official laboratory determined by the Employer. etc. 4. 8. FFR. Hardness Test The samples shall be subjected to hardness test.4 shall be investigated in the tests. tests specified in DIN 30677shall be performed.8 mm. Part wall thicknesses shall be in accordance with the standard and homogeneous at each point. Cross section inspection The samples shall be cut at suitable workbenches. The coating thickness and characteristics mentioned in Clause 7. 8.5 Test Costs The cost associated with the tests acceptable to international standards shall be at the Contractor’s expense. The products up to 250 HB of hardness degree shall be accepted. In case epoxy is applied for internal coating.) Diameter of the part Special marks for each casting charge 84 .3.4 Coating Tests In case cement mortar is applied for internal coating. the cracks on the coating shall not exceed 0. MK. 9 MARKING The name of the “Employer” Manufacturer’s emblem or descriptive mark Symbol of the part’s name (MMA.

3 Tensile tests The results under hydrostatic tests shall be considered and clearly specified for each part if necessary The Contractor shall. and FOB-C+F-CIF total prices of the parts. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 85 . These are: The chemical test results of ductile cast-iron pipe piece Nodular distribution Hardness Wall thickness Weight All physical and chemical characteristics of internal or external coating The characteristics of the gaskets in Clause 7. give to the Employer for examination a sample pipe connecting piece having the characteristics stated in the offer. The quantities of bolts and nuts for flanged parts shall be calculated. the offered pipe and its parts as well as its coatings. bolts and nuts shall be indicated separately and their detailed technical values shall be provided in tables. including in the offer the unit and total prices. If gaskets.10 PACKAGING All connecting pieces shall be packaged and shipped in wooden crates. Packing crates shall be enclosed by steel strips on four sides. unit prices. Calculated gaskets shall be supplied free of charge in excess of 20%. both individually and in total. these should be included). For all technical issues incorporated in this technical specifications. Crate bottoms shall be reinforced on both sides with wooden battens having a dimension of 12 x 12 (in order to provide loading and strength). gaskets. 11 CONTENT OF OFFER The Contractor shall state in its offer the quantities. The necessary gaskets shall separately be stated.4. The Contractor shall clearly explain in the quoted price whether or not the internal and external coating is included in it (preferably. at the time of submission of offers. Packing crates shall be strong enough to enable the transportation of the materials without breaking. together with the symbols shown in the list attached hereto. clearly indicating their unit and total prices. bolts and nuts are to be offered free of charge. this should be indicated in the offer.

Pipe connecting pieces shall be delivered as packaged. 12. 14 ORDER FORM An order form for the pipes and parts demanded is given in the Annex. No payment shall be made for the parts found defective and returned at the end of the inspection of the lot. the conditional acceptance of the lot shall be made. however. 13 DELIVERY As described above. if this does not lead to non-use of the material. 12.REJECTON 12. which appear to be compatible with all the requirements of Article 3. Gaskets may be delivered in a separate package since they will be proposed in excess of 20%.12 ACCEPTANCE.1 Acceptance The lot represented by the sample and test pieces.3 Rejection The lot shall be rejected if the samples and/or the test pieces representing the condition corresponding to the samples are found to be incompatible with the required characteristics and tolerances at the end of the aforementioned tests. the pipes shall be delivered to the Employer as packaged and marked.CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE . with the gaskets placed on them. Bolts and nuts shall be separately packaged and delivered. shall be accepted. at the end of the inspections and tests made as per Article 8 on the test pieces that represent the condition corresponding to the samples taken from the lot delivered.2 Conditional Acceptance If 2% of the samples that have been taken for the inspections mentioned above are found out to be defective. 86 .

In the construction site. 16 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Pipes shall be supported by timbers not only at the bottom row and between rows but also from their sides. Pipes can be stored in such manner that both ends be placed either face to face or at the same direction. and supported by the frameworks. ends and top in order to prevent any accidental damage during transportation. the pipes shall be stored on an elevated ground so that the spigot ends do not contact with the soil. All the accommodation and travel expenses in respect thereof shall be at the Contractor’s expense.15 TECHNICAL INSPECTION The Contractor shall invite the Employer’s technical committee consisting of 2 members for technical inspection of the manufacturing progress for a duration of 1 week. 87 .

Granulometry is usually 0-2. Concrete is rotated 8 to 15 meters per second. Placing mortar in a formwork and compacting it by vibration is more successful because satisfactory pipes cannot be manufactured by using this method. 50 to 60 pipes can be cast daily. 88 . Steel fittings for concrete pipes shall be manufactured in accordance with the applicable steel works standards and specifications.4. and 20-30 mm. 2. 2. and similar purposes. the funnel is retracted so that mortar spreads to all parts. Concrete pipes. Dry mortar is used and water/cement ratio is 0. The whole process is completed in three to 20 minutes. and gaskets shall generally conform to the provisions of DIN 4032. and 4035. Type of concrete used for manufacturing the pipes shall conform to "DSİ Concrete Works Special Technical Specifications". 4033. 4034. Concrete additives shall be subject to the Employer's approval and may only be used after obtaining necessary consents. But. b ) Spinning method. When mortar starts pouring inside the formwork. 2 MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES Concrete and reinforced concrete pipes shall be manufactured by using two methods: a ) Vertical casting and vibration method.1 Vertical Casting and Vibration Method Mortar is placed in a vertical formwork to obtain a height of 8 to 10 cm and then compacted with a rod-shaped mallet. The formwork is rotated slowly initially (in order to spread mortar) and then rapidly in order to compact it. More time is needed for a larger mass of concrete.2 Spinning Method A metal formwork is placed on platforms and the formwork turns rapidly when the platforms are rotated. Sections compacted excessively or loosely are observed at every 6 to 8 cm in a pipe so cast (because the thickness of mortar is reduced from 8 to 10 cm to 6 to 8 cm). 2-20. fittings. Proportion is usually 300 to 350 kg.CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES 1 GENERAL Concrete pipes shall be used for sewerage. This second method also increases the rate of production and external and internal formwork give required integration. storm water. A satisfactory result can be achieved only if this method is used by experienced and qualified workmen. wastewater. Cement forms a rich glossy layer inside of the formwork. a uniform compaction cannot be achieved by using this method.

Compact and impermeable pipes of high quality are manufactured by using the spinning method. Longitudinal steel rods are connected to transverse steel rods by welding or wire. DIN 1045 or "DSİ Concrete Works Special Technical Specifications" where applicable. 8. Steel mat may also be used according to newly developed Technologies. Quality of concrete for pipes shall conform to DIN 4032. A layer of dense concrete covering the reinforcement cage or cages. A preformed sealing in order to provide a spigot joint or a socket connection automatically inserted with a rubber ring. Reinforced concrete pipes shall have the following characteristics: • • • • A reinforcement cage (or cages) consisting of steel rods. No reinforcement shall be used for the manufacturing of pipes unless materials are tested generally in accordance with the Technical Specifications. 89 . 10 and 12 mm. Certified copies of the test certificates shall be submitted to the Employer. Reinforced concrete pipes shall basically have the following characteristics: There shall be PVC coating material capable of being cast together with the pipe where applicable. Transverse steel rods are manufactured in helical form. DIN 4035. Steel rods are recommended to be placed only in the middle section in pipes with a small diameter and in the internal and external pipes in case of pipes with a larger diameter. Pipes shall be so designed to withstand internal and external pressure. 3 CLASSIFICATION Concrete pipes to be used shall be classified into following categories: a) b) c) Concrete pipes without reinforcement (inside diameter 600 mm or less) Reinforced pipes (reinforced with steel rod or steel mat but not pre-stressed) Pre-stressed reinforced concrete pipes with a diameter larger than 600 millimeters. PVC coating material cast together with the pipe for diameters equal to or higher than 500 cm if required by the Employer. including 6. steel mat or welded mat. a preformed sealing in order to provide a spigot joint or a socket connection automatically inserted with a rubber ring. 4 QUALITY AND TESTING OF MATERIALS The quality of reinforcement for concrete pipes shall conform to DIN 488 TI requirements and B St 22/34 quality. Steel rods used in reinforced concrete pipes have various diameters.

Ein Regelwerk der Abwassertechnischen Verein igung e. Pipe bedding types shall be derived from the drawings. In situ density shall be determined as the percentage of maximum dry density. 2 ) Determination of soil conditions and geotechnical parameters. Sealing rings shall be stored in well protected covered areas and rings of different types and/or sizes shall be stacked separately. Delivery lists shall be drawn up and submitted to the Employer. pipe calculations shall be based on the assumptions given hereinafter. They shall conform to safety class A127. pipe test load. The static calculations of pipes shall be done by using the detailed calculation method outlined in the publication entitled "Arbeitsblatt A 127 “Richtlilie für die statische Berechnung von Entvasserrungskanalen und – leitungen-. the flexibility coefficient of pipe materials). 6 SEALING OF FITTINGS Fittings between pipes shall be sealed by sealing rings made of styrene-butadiene rubber where required.5 TYPES OF FITTINGS Except as otherwise specifically provided herein. (ATV). Unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer. The fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with the requirements set forth in the applicable standards (DIN 4032 and DIN 4035) and manufacturer's recommendations in case of pipes manufactured in factories. Separate soil surveys shall be conducted in the pipe gaskets in order to monitor the level of underground water. Materials shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation and pipe fittings shall be of quality guaranteeing sealed connections. Calculations shall be based on geotechnical data obtained by the Contractor as a result of his own examinations at pipe depths shown in drawings in accordance with DIN 4032. DIN 4035 and DIN 1045 depending on maximum traffic load classification (SLW 60) as defined in DIN 1072. v. The calculation method and procedures are as follows: 1 ) They will cover the creation of pipe data (pipe sizes. December 1984”. Lubriating materials for sliding fittings shall be of a type not causing an abrasion effect on rubber rings and pipes and they shall not be affected by liquids flowing through pipes. The existing soil shall be classified in accordance with DIN 18196 and A 127. 7 APPLICATION DRAWINGS AND CALCULATIONS The contractor shall provide construction drawings and calculations covering ancillary components of concrete pipes depending on various bedding types in accordance with the applicable specifications. fittings for concrete pipes shall be of spigot and socket types. The Contractor shall create the geotechnical parameter estimations of the existing soil needed for its own calculations. 90 .

1 Concrete Pipes without Steel Concrete pipes (with a diameter equal to or less than 600 mm) to be provided and laid by the Contractor shall be as shown on the drawings or defined in the measurements. The following details shall be specified on the pipes to be supplied: Spigot and socket. etc. 6 ) Safety Check: Safety factors shall be applied in accordance with safety class A 127 in order to determine whether stress is above the permitted level. underground water. Calculations shall be approved by the Employer before the pipes are manufactured or an order is placed. torsion moment and stress above. pipe fixed load and water filled in the pipe. 91 . solder pile and working method shall comply with the specifications.5 meter) and different soil conditions. traffic. Material surrounding pipe and backfilling shall be compacted to the same density as the surrounding soil. below and within the pipe shall be calculated. 5 ) Calculation of stress: Vertical forces. Circumference of the sealing ring in loose position The thickness and shape of the sealing ring Permitted angular deviation Form of bedding required depending on different load and soil conditions. 3 ) Creation of pipe trench data: soil cover.Material surrounding pipes above the bedding shall be screened soil such as group G1 or G2 in A 127. which has not been excavated or at 100% of maximum dry Proktor density as defined in A 127. working methods. The Contractor shall be fully responsible even if the calculations have been approved by the Employer. excavation profile. 4 ) Calculation of load on pipe: Load on pipe shall be calculated depending on soil. Concrete pipes without steel shall be manufactured by using type V sulfate resistant concrete with minimum characteristic resistance of 45 N/mm2 in accordance with DIN 4032 and DIN 1045 and conform to provisions of the Technical Specifications. Backfilling shall be excavated material suitable for required compaction. Such programs shall also be furnished to the Employer. Calculations shall be made systematically by using a computer program and submitted in a form acceptable to the Employer. 8 SUPPLY OF CONCRETE PIPES 8. the width of the trench at the upper pipe level. The Contractor shall make calculations for pipes with different diameters depending on all differences observed in pipe depths (intervals of differences shall not be above 0.

Minimum characteristic resistance shall comply with 45 N/mm2 in accordance with DIN 4032 and DIN 1045. There shall be no crevice.3 Coated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes Pipes with an inside diameter equal to or above 500 mm used for carrying waste water by gravity shall be coated with PVC plastic coating materials. crack.1 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes Pipes containing any of the following defects shall be rejected: 1. Defects indicating inappropriate concrete mixture or coating. Distance between the two coils of the spiral reinforcement shall be less than 150 mm. 8. If any part of a pipe has been broken irrespective of the size of the broken part. Pipes shall conform to the requirements related to concrete and reinforced concrete pipes set forth above. 2. 8.2 Reinforced Concrete Pipes Reinforced concrete pipes (with an inside diameter over 600 mm) shall be manufactured of concrete prepared by using Type V sulfate resistant cement. 4. Surrounding rods or wires in the cage(s) shall be adjusted and affixed so that they will have precise intervals by means of longitudinal rods or wires affixed to them (by using an approved method). Any crack the longitudinal or transverse length of which is wider than the wall thickness of the pipe. Surrounding steel reinforcements shall be made of continuous or welded steel rods or coils manufactured by welding in helical shape on condition that sectional area is minimum 1% of the concrete sectional area for each meter of the pipe on welded mats shall be connected end to end or there shall be corbels. Bearing or corrosion clearance parts between reinforcing bars and formwork or bottom chord shall be stainless steel or a non-metal materials approved by the Employer and the bearing or corrosion tolerance part shall not come into contact with the coating layer.3.The plane of pipe ends shall be vertical to the longitudinal axis of the pipe except for special shapes. 92 . Its internal surface shall be smooth and surfaced. 8. or scaling on the finished pipe and it shall have a smooth surface. Concrete pipes shall be manufactured either by using the centrifuge method or by casting vertically in a steel formwork and subjected to mechanical vibration during manufacturing. Layer to cover the fittings shall be 25 mm thick unless the Employer requires otherwise. If the concrete around the crack has become crumbled or stratified. 3.

13.5 mm in case of pipes with a maximum diameter of 750 mm or 6% in case of pipes with an inside diameter above 750 mm. 93 . 8.50 mm or any crack inside or outside with a minimum interruption of 1.5 mm from its specified place after the pipe has been placed in formwork.25 mm and a minimum length of 300 mm irrespective of the depth or place on the pipe wall. 5. 12. 11.00 mm in case of a sewerage pipe (except for cracks caused during an external loading test specified in these Technical Specifications). If there is a deviation from the specified inside diameter and there is retreated internal surfaces after the concrete has been poured. 8.2 Coated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipes A pipe coated with plastic coating material may be rejected due to any of the following reasons: 1.5. Permitted deviations from wall thicknesses shall not be applied to surfaces coming into contact with gaskets in case of pipes with gaskets. 4. If the concrete around the crack has become crumbled or stratified. 7. 2. If the deviation from the specified wall thickness is above 6. If the wall thickness of a pipe with a maximum inside diameter of 750 mm is more than 7. The sizes and tolerances of such contact surfaces shall be submitted for approval. If the deviation from the specified wall thickness is above in case of pipes with an inside diameter above 750 mm.5 mm on the internal or external surface of the pipe have not been filled with mortar or other approved materials. 10. 6. If the cover or bearing used for securing reinforcement structure at its place other than the rings used for carrying or the reinforcing steel on the surface of the pipe is exposed. If the pipe has been coated by cement or slurry without authorization. 6. If air bubble cavities with a depth exceeding 6. Stone or water cavities in any pipe. If the pipe fails in the resistance test. Any visible crack with a minimum continuous length of 0. Permitted deviations from wall thicknesses shall not be applied to surfaces coming into contact with gaskets in case of pipes with gaskets. A deviation above 1% of the real circle of the specified inside diameter of the pipe. Deviation may be connected to the longitudinal fitting by 8% on condition that it is not close more than 20% of the inside diameter in the vertical axis of the pipe along the axis and the fitting section of the pipe and does not extend more than 20% of the inside diameter around the circumference of the pipe. Deviation may be connected to the longitudinal fitting on condition that it is not close more than 20% of the inside diameter in the vertical axis of the pipe along the axis and the fitting section of the pipe and does not extend more than 20% of the inside diameter around the circumference of the pipe. The sizes and tolerances of such contact surfaces shall be submitted for approval. 9. The transversal reinforcing steel has shifted more then 6. The exposure of any reinforcement or insufficient thickness of corrosion tolerance. 8. Separation or swelling.3. Presence of honey-combed or open texture surface defects. Any continuous crack with a minimum surface width of 0. 3. 7. The permitted deviation from inside diameter shall not be applicable to the joint contact surface of an attached pipe with a joint.5 mm thinner than the specified thickness.

4.4. then the total length of all those broken parts at any end shall not exceed a length equal to 9o section of the circle and there shall be solid concrete with a minimum width of 230 mm between the broken sections. 10. (a) a crack which has a minimum width of 0. Sides where the concrete has been scraped shall be sharp and consistent with the surface and no sides with pointed edges shall be left.25 mm wide and does not constitute a reason for rejection shall be filled with pure cement slurry consisting of mixed cement and water in fluid consistency. which is longer than the pipe's wall thickness and extends along the wall of the pipe.30 mm long. (b) any crack.1 Method I Manual Repair with Mortar 8.60 m long and shows two separation lines or with a minimum interruption of 0. A water cavity longer than 750 mm or three times wider than the specified wall thickness (it shall be determined by hitting the internal surface of the pipe gently. 8.1 .).1 Preparation of Surfaces to be Repaired Concrete.4 Repair of Defects 8. Any of the following cracks : 12. Such defective areas not exceeding those limits shall be repaired as specified in the Technical Specifications.90 meters on any internal or external section. Defects not exceeding those limits shall be repaired as specified in (9) and (10) above. 94 . The total length of the broken sections of an attached pipe with a joint extending to the joint contact surfaces shall not exceed a circumferential length of 150 mm. (c) any crack which is minimum 0.5 times the wall thickness or defects deeper than the size of screened maximum aggregate or local concrete defects exceeding the limit specified in (9) and (10) above when the defective concrete is removed. Sand images appearing at the end of the pipe may be repaired for the whole circumference. which is not strong or smooth. Unsound sections at the end of the pipe shall be removed and if the removed parts do not exceed the limits specified above. the pipe shall be repaired in a similar manner. Defects showing that the concrete has not been formed properly or a faulty area exposing surface defects with a hole or open texture (air cavities) larger than a square one side of which is 2.9.25 mm along a continuous line which is minimum 0. Any crack which is 0. If one or more part at the end of the pipe has been broken and it is longer than 60 o of the circumferential length of the circle or extends to the body of the pipe or has a circumferential length exceeding 150 mm in an attached pipe with a joint (which intersects the central point of the joint contact surface at the end of the pipe bell. 11. shall be removed by scraping.

which has hardening consistency. 8. Surfaces shall be formed and completed so that they are at the same level as the surface of the adjacent pipe.1.2 Placement of Mortar Mortar to be used for repairs shall have the same mixture of sand and cement as the mixture used for manufacturing the pipe. Any hole or small defective areas on the surface shall be repaired by using "readymixed mortar" with required characteristics. 8.4. Care shall be taken to prevent air bubbles that can remain in the cavity to be filled by mortar and to ensure that the sides are bonded together. 95 . As an exception. In addition there shall be an admixture for expansion.3 Method II Repair by Using Mortar Applied by Pressure (MABP) MABP shall not be used if the repair extends to the area below the section where the reinforcement bar is exposed.1. Such repairs shall be carried out by using mortar. Curing Newly repaired surfaces shall be kept humid for 24 hours after the completion of the repair. The mortar shall be mixed until it absorbs water and acquires plastic consistency as much earlier as possible before it is used. Wetted surface of the area to be repaired shall be rubbed thoroughly with a little amount of dense cement slurry by using a wire brush immediately before the application of mortar.Surfaces within the prepared areas shall be kept wet for several hours and preferably overnight before the repair.4. the sides of the areas where the concrete has been removed shall be cut if they are not sound or smooth so that reinforcement bar is not covered. Loose sand grains remaining on the surface shall be swept away immediately before applying mortar.4.3. All surfaces on the areas to be repaired shall be humid but not wet when the material is applied.1. 8. They shall later be covered by a membrane made of an approved white painting substance. Trial mixtures shall be prepared and kept for a certain period in order to determine the longest delay period during which mortar will have sufficient plasticity permitting good workmanship.1 Preparation of the Surface to be Repaired Surfaces where MABP is to be used shall be prepared as defined in the Technical Specifications.

A first coat consisting of an epoxy resin compound and care shall be taken to ensure that there is full contact. which have been approved by the Engineer for such uses in advance. An adequate number of samples shall be taken from each lot in accordance with the applicable standards. the sides shall have a sharp and cornered edge.1. shall be used as bonding material as specified by the Engineer. which are not sound or smooth. Mortar shall be applied before the epoxy resin compound hardens.8. Epoxy resins. 96 . Mortar shall be applied by using Method I or Method II as specified in the Technical Specifications. 9 SAMPLING. Curing The areas where MABP is used shall be cured as defined in the Technical Specifications. The area to be repaired shall be kept dry. INSPECTION AND TESTS The following tests shall be conducted on the pipes at the place of production.1.4. The areas where MABP is used shall be cured as defined in the Technical Specifications. Pipe shall be rotated so that the repaired area is placed vertically on one side and spillage is prevented.4. The samples shall be subjected to pressure and waterproofing tests after checking their thickness. If MABP is used.3. Loose material or concrete dust remaining after cutting shall be removed by compressed air. shall be removed by using a concrete chisel. A form ring shall be placed before repairing spigot ends of grooved concrete and the form ring shall remain in the same place until the joint groove has sufficient resistance so that no damage occurs.2 Placement of Mortar Mortar shall be prevented from spreading or spilling. Pipes ready for delivery shall be inspected visually in order to find out whether or not there is any manufacturing defect and defective pipes shall not be accepted.4 Method III Repairs by Using Bonding Mortar with Epoxy Resin Concrete sections. 8. Mortar to be used for repair shall contain the same ratio of cement and sand as the mixture used for manufacturing the pipe. If mortar placed manually is used. the sides shall be incluned.

97 .9.2 Resistance of Pipes Concrete pipes and reinforced concrete pipes shall be subjected to resistance tests in accordance with DIN 4032 and DIN 4035. 10 MARKING The name of the Employer Manufacturer's emblem or descriptive mark Symbol of the part’s name Diameter of the part 11 CONTENT OF OFFER The Contractor shall state in its offer the quantities. 9. 9. Inspections and tests shall be conducted at the factory or a laboratory of a public agency to be designated by the Employer. Calculated gaskets shall be supplied free of charge in excess of 20%. In addition. For all technical issues incorporated in this technical specifications. unit prices and total prices of the parts. the offered pipe and its parts shall be indicated separately and their detailed technical values shall be provided in tables. this should be indicated in the offer. If gaskets are to be offered free of charge. respectively.3 Cost of Tests The costs of tests acceptable in accordance with international standards shall be paid by the Contractor at its own expense.1 Waterproofing Concrete pipes and their fittings shall be subjected to testing against cracks as defined in DIN 4032. The quantities of the necessary gaskets shall be stated separately. together with the symbols shown in the list attached hereto. pre-stressed concrete pipes shall also be subjected to concrete density (water penetration) tests in accordance with the requirements set forth in DIN 1048 TI. clearly indicating their unit and total prices.

12 ACCEPTANCE - CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE - REJECTION

12.1 Acceptance The result of tests conducted by using samples taken from a lot delivered shall be deemed to represent the outcome of the test fort he whole lot. 12.2 Conditional Acceptance If 2% of the samples taken for the inspections referred to above are found to be defective and the Contractor is able to remedy such defects, then the lot in question shall be accepted conditionally. No payment shall be made for the parts found defective and returned at the end of the inspection of the lot. 12.3 Rejection Any lot, which is found not to be compliant with the required specifications and tolerances as a result of the tests conducted by using samples, shall be rejected. 13 DELIVERY As described above, the pipes shall be delivered to such place or pipe storage as will be designated by the Employer. Gaskets may be delivered in a separate package since they will be proposed in excess of 20%. 14 ORDER FORM An order form for the pipes and parts demanded is given in the Annex.

15 TECHNICAL INSPECTION The Contractor shall invite the Employer’s technical committee consisting of 2 members for technical inspection of the manufacturing progress for a duration of 1 week. All the accommodation and travel expenses in respect thereof shall be at the Contractor’s expense.

98

16 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Concrete pipes shall be transported and stored in accordance with the applicable Technical Specifications and the directives set forth in DIN 19695. Pipes shall be supported by wooden planks or laths not only at the bottom row and between rows but also from their sides, ends and top in order to prevent any accidental damage during transportation. Utmost care shall be taken during the transportation of the pipes, and the pipes shall not be unloaded, loaded and stacked by throwing, rolling and dragging. The transportation shall involve minimum loading/unloading operations. Lifting shall be always by hand and using rope, wooden beams, in case of small diameter pipes, or using lifting mechanisms or machines, in case of large diameter pipes.

99

PRE-STRESSED REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES WITH STEEL JACKETS (PRCSJ)

1 GENERAL PROVISIONS Pre-stressed concrete pipes are manufactured as follows: core concrete is poured after applying pre-stress to longitudinal steel rods of core concrete to be used in pipelines for conveyance of water with nominal pressure 50 N/cm2 – 180 N/cm2 and then steam cure is applied to ensure that core pipe acquires a certain degree of resistance before stress is applied to it in certain intervals and steel wire is wrapped around it in helical form and then covered with jacketing concrete. PRCSJ and fittings designed and manufactured in accordance with AWWA Standards for Pre-stressed Concrete Pressure Pipes shall be consistent with reference standards issued by AWWA. If another acceptable standard is recommended, all details, including design, materials, tests, etc. shall be provided in a comparable set of the reference standards. The inside diameters of pre-stressed concrete pipe shall be 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200, 2400 and 2600 mm or another standard diameter may be proposed by the Contractor and accepted by the Employer. The Contractor shall be responsible fort he design of all pipes and special fittings.

1.1 References and Standards The following standards or any other international standard acceptable to the Employer shall be applied to PRCSJ and fittings to be manufactured under the contract: American Water Works Association ( AWWA ) C 301-92 Pre-stressed Concrete Pressure Pipes, Steel Cylindrical Type, for Water and Other Liquids American Water Works Association ( AWWA ) C 304-92 Design of Pre-stressed Pressure Pipes

1.2 Classification Pre-stressed concrete pipes are classified into the following 14 categories depending on their nominal pressure: - Nominal pressure(50 N/cm2) , H = 50 m - Nominal pressure(60 N/cm2) , H = 60 m - Nominal pressure(70 N/cm2) , H = 70 m - Nominal pressure(80 N/cm2) , H = 80 m 100

.Nominal pressure(140 N/cm2) . They shall meet project pressures in respect of all pipes and special fittings. . resistance to internal pressure and waterproofing. Pipe designs shall permit internal working pressures and greater pressures resulting from normal and abnormal operation.1 External Appearance The internal and external surfaces of pre-stressed concrete pipes shall be even and smooth and there shall be no cracks. H = 180 m 1. 1.Nominal pressure(160 N/cm2) .Nominal pressure(90 N/cm2) . External loading will depend on pipe bedding. But. Detailed drawings of the pipes and special fittings shall be submitted to the Employer for approval. 101 . H = 150 m . porosity. H = 90 m . H = 110 m . H = 160 m .3.Nominal pressure(180 N/cm2) .3 Characteristics 1. H = 130 m . H = 140 m . It shall be taken into consideration that pipes may be stored in a warehouse for 12 months or a longer period. H = 170 m . H = 120m. 1.Nominal pressure(170 N/cm2) .Nominal pressure(110 N/cm2) .3. water absorption rate in core concrete and imperviousness of jacketing concrete.Nominal pressure(130 N/cm2) . and burs. especially their surfaces. The design of the pipes and materials used for manufacturing them shall ensure that they will have sufficient resistance for a minimum life cycle of 50 years.2 Structural Characteristics The pipe shall be free of any defects within tolerances specified in respect of the straightness of internal surface. which will come into contact with the rubber seal to be used for connecting pipes shall be smooth and free of any crack.Nominal pressure(120 N/cm2) . H = 100 m .Nominal pressure(100 N/cm2) . The corners and sides of the pipe ends. filling conditions and excess loads caused by traffic. The design shall permit loads resulting from special methods used for constructing trenches.4 PRCSJ Design Pipes and fittings shall be designed in accordance with AWWA C 304-92 and the requirements of AWWA Manual M9 or other standards acceptable to the Employer. pressure load on peak point. thin capillary cracks may occur on the external surface when internal pressure is applied. The Contractor shall provide necessary tolerances in respect of loads arising from the construction of the system. the smoothness of front face (deviation from carpenter's square).Nominal pressure(150 N/cm2) .

The Contractor shall furnish the Employer with concrete mixture designs for its approval 1 month ahead of pipe production.1. acting as the "Purchaser". materials and welding shall be submitted to the Employer for approval and filled out in accordance with the Engineer in order to facilitate future reference. 2 PIPE FITTINGS Pipe fittings shall be of welded type containing rings with steel ends. Production diagrams. 4 FABRICATION Materials and Steel Jacketed Pre-stressed Reinforced Concrete pipes and special fittings shall be fabricated in accordance with AWWA C 301-92 or reference standards defined in Article 1. Spare part control. at any time be entitled to make observations and conducting tests in accordance with AWWA C 301-92. Maintenance programs. 3 SPECIAL FITTINGS AND PIPES The Contractor shall submit the designs and drawings of all special hardware and pipes for approval prior to production. undercoat steel components. Design of pipes. Observation and tests. The Contractor shall mixtures for concrete and undercoat only if they have been approved by the Employer. Quality assurance. Supply of materials.Design calculations shall be submitted to the Employer for approval minimum 2 months before the commencement of pipe production. Flanged fittings and borings shall comply with the requirements of ISO 2531 and ISO 7005. special pipes and fittings. The Engineer shall. which are integrated with the steel cylinder and assembled by a single internal side seam welding after the pipe has been placed. All fittings and connections shall be protected externally and internally by concrete or cement undercoat. Observation and test reports related to concrete. Assembling method shall also be described fully and submitted to the Employer for approval. Outlets and connections shall be either made of special pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipes or steel plates. Fittings shall comply with Section 4 of AWWA G 30192 or the reference standards defined in Article 1. 102 .2. Full details of pipe fittings shall be submitted by the Contractor to the Employer for approval. The Contractor shall establish an efficient fabrication control system comprising the following items: Production planning and programming.

who has caused an undesired cases of damage. All fittings shall have a straight edge prepared for a profile required for welding. 5 TYPE OF PIPES AND SPECIAL PARTS 5. Detailed records showing the name of each welder assigned to a welding work shall be kept and any welder. Heated warehouses and furnaces shall be provided for electrodes.Industrial safety procedures. DIN 1910 or equivalent standard. Special parts. 103 . Welding and fabrication shall be conducted so that pressure will be minimized and bending will be prevented. Each unit shall be fabricated. Special care shall be taken to ensure that there is no bending after the related section is formed. T pipes. Only experienced and qualified welders with a proven track record shall be employed.3 Welding for Special Fittings Fabrication Welded sections comprising steel conforming to DIN 17100 or similar steel shall comply with the requirements provided that they are not below DIN 1910 or an equivalent standard. Semi-straight pipes like spigot. Semi-straight pipes with a discharge outlet. Reducing pipes.2 Special Pipe Parts Special parts are divided into seven groups depending on their shapes : • • • • • • • Semi-straight pipes. 5. Bends.1 Type of Pipes Pre-stressed concrete pipes are divided into two categories depending on their shapes: • • Straight pipes. shall be removed from the Works until he passes the tests again. Records. Welding shall be fabricated and subjected to testing in accordance with ASME VIII. DIN 8529 or equivalent standard. The sections shall then be mounted and checked prior to welding. Electrodes used shall be of low hydrogen type and meet the requirements related to carbon steel provided that they are not below TS 5387. Adaptors. 5.

blunt weld seams around the circumference of the circle shall be minimum 100 mm along their length of 1000 mm tested radiographically. 6 PIPELINE ROUTE Pipelines shall be designed so that the route shown on the Contractor's approved drawings will be followed. ● soil conditions. bends.) shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with data and documents prepared by the Contractor. facilities.10 m in unchanging inclinations and filled with an approved material. Tees. services. Black shall be the minimum level for acceptance. Pipes shall be placed straightly to the extent practicable. connections to steel pipes. 7 SPECIAL FITTINGS TO BE USED IN THE PIPELINE All special fittings (washer. The quality of water conveyed through the pipeline. Within one month after the commencement of the Works and before the commencement of fabrication the Contractor shall furnish the Employer with full details of anti-corrosion control measures proposed based on surveys conducted by the Engineer for approval. 104 . Side seams shall be tested by detecting cracks ultrasonically or by using another approved method. Any change to the route proposed by the Contractor shall be accepted only if it has been approved by the Employer. air valves. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. “International Agency fort he Reference Radiographs of Welding" shall be used as a source material for interpretation of radiographs and a basis for comparing welding defects. etc. Changes in direction shall be performed by fabricated bends. 8 PROTECTION AGAINST ABRASION The Contractor shall be responsible for the design and implementation of measures against abrasion in order to meet the 50-year project term of the pipes and special fittings placed in the pipeline. The standards referred to in this section may be replaced by the Employer if another standard ensuring an equivalent or better quality is provided. Interaction with adjacent structures.Any horizontal blunt weld seams shall be tested radiographically. If required by the Engineer. Bimetallic connections. Differential ventilation. PRCSJ shall be covered by a minimum cover on condition that it is not less than 1. etc. They shall include the following: Atmospheric conditions.

Quality assurance processes. Electric insulation of components. There shall be no visible crack on the surface of the undercoat of the pipes and fittings.withstand fabrication. . handling. Operating and flow processes. 9 TESTING AND OBSERVATION ÖBSB shall be tested and observed in accordance with the requirements of AWWA C 301-92. .be ineffective against penetration of acid. The welding of fabricated special steel fittings shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of "Welding for Fabrication of Special Fittings". Test and observation processes. Protective coating and finishes. . The protective coating proposed by the Contractor in order to protect the external surfaces of PRCSJ shall be fully conducive to the coating of the pipe by and undercoat during fabrication. All other cracks shall be repaired or recoated. Repair works.be fully impervious against chloride and sulfate ions. References.have high dielectric force. . Coating shall ensure full protection of the pipes embedded in difficult soil conditions.have minimum impermeability for the leakage of humidity and oxygen. Coating shall provide full protection after 12 months when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions of unprotected storage in ambient conditions. transportation. placing and filling without suffering a loss.Abrasion control measures shall comprise the following during fabrication if required: ● Appropriate construction materials. Preparation and implementation of instructions. Areas with minimum damages not exceeding 105 .have sufficient mechanical and adhesive characteristics to withstand maximum expansion of pipes under maximum pressure without loss of adhesion or a breakage. Hydrostatic tests at factory shall not be required for such fittings. Coating shall have a thickness allowing the free pores to be covered. . The Contractor shall prove these characteristics by a report to be issued by an approved independent laboratory. Abrasion limits. The Contractor shall submit full details of the anti-abrasion control systems covering the following items to the Employer for approval if required : Specification. Coating shall: . Test method shall be approved by the Engineer.

Inspections and tests shall be conducted at the factory or a laboratory of a public agency to be designated by the Employer. Core casting date. 9. clearly indicating their unit and total prices. Minor damages at pipe ends or coating resulting from handling may be repaired. 9.1 Cost of Tests The cost of tests acceptable under international standards shall be paid by the Contractor at its own expense.0. Records shall be kept at the office of the factory of each enumerated unit for all completed pipes. 106 . Project pressure class. unit prices and total prices of the parts.05 m2 may be repaired before curing. 12 CONTENT OF OFFER The Contractor shall state in its offer the quantities. Repair methods shall be approved by the Employer. All loose or hollow undercoats shall be rejected. 11 PACKAGING Pre-stressed concrete pipes shall be placed on the market without packaging. The quantities of the necessary gaskets shall be stated separately. Diameter.2 Technical Inspection The contractor shall host a two-strong technical delegation representing the Employer for one week in order to conduct technical inspections about the manufacturing process provided that all travel and accommodation expenses are borne by the contractor. 10 MARKING Each straight pipe and special fittings shall be marked from inside and outside in order to display the following: Serial number. The Employer's emblem shall be printed on the external surface of the pipe. Larger areas may be stressed and the pipe may be recoated. together with the symbols shown in the list attached hereto.

15 ORDER FORM An order form for the pipes and parts demanded is given in the Annex. Pipes and special fittings shall be stored in the factory until they are taken by the Contractor. Such storage of pipes shall ensure that they will be used upon fabrication. Pipes and their parts shall be placed vertically on floor and each point of their base shall come into contact with floor.CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE . Pipes shall be stored in the form of a row. the pipes shall be delivered to such place or pipe storage as will be designated by the Employer. Gaskets may be delivered in a separate package since they will be proposed in excess of 20%. 107 . the offered pipe and its parts shall be indicated separately and their detailed technical values shall be provided in tables. 13. then the lot in question shall be accepted conditionally.2 Conditional Acceptance If 2% of the samples taken for the inspections referred to above are found to be defective and the Contractor is able to remedy such defects. shall be rejected. 13. this should be indicated in the offer.3 Rejection Any lot. Calculated gaskets shall be supplied free of charge in excess of 20%. 14 DELIVERY As described above.1 Acceptance The result of tests conducted by using samples taken from a lot delivered shall be deemed to represent the outcome of the test fort he whole lot.REJECTION 13. For all technical issues incorporated in this technical specifications.If gaskets are to be offered free of charge. 13 ACCEPTANCE . 16 HANDLING AND STORAGE All newly coated pipes shall be carried by bedded equipment and slowly in order to prevent damage or bending. which is found not to be compliant with the required specifications and tolerances as a result of the tests conducted by using samples. It shall be taken into consideration that some pipes may be stored in the pipe storage for a period longer than 12 months.

17 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Concrete pipes shall be shipped and stored in accordance with the applicable Technical Specifications and directives set forth in DIN 19695. loaded and stacked by throwing. and the pipes shall not be unloaded.Stored pipes and special fittings shall be regularly checked by the Contractor in respect of their shapes. Utmost care shall be taken during the transportation of the pipes. ends and top in order to prevent any accidental damage during transportation. Any visible damage shall be reported to the Engineer and necessary measures shall be taken in order to remedy such damage. Pipes shall be supported by wooden planks or laths not only at the bottom row and between rows but also from their sides. rolling and dragging. The pipes shall be lifted by cranes and machines using steel ropes and slings. 108 . No damage shall be caused to pipe ends and coatings during loading and unloading. The Contractor shall be liable if any pipe or special fitting is rejected due to damage at the pipe storage. The transportation shall involve minimum loading/unloading operations.

With a thin wall thickness (B).40 gr/cm3 : 500 – 550 kg/cm2 (tension) 800 kg/cm2 (pressure) : 0. and other materials shall comply with TS 275-1 EN 1329-1 Standard. Water flowing through the pipe is affected by atmospheric conditions slightly because it does not conduct heat.38 – 1. therefore. and waste water. PVC pipes are resistant to organic and inorganic acids and alkalis. Linear coefficient of expansion is high and it must be taken into consideration during pipe laying process. Boiling 109 .145 C o . 1.13 Kcal/mhC o : 10 – 50% : 30 000 kg/cm2 ’ dir.HARD POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) PIPES 1 General Provisions PVC pipes shall be used by the Employer for closed system irrigation projects and drinking water Networks within sites and have the characteristics described hereinafter. permeate more water than other types of pipes with the same diameter. Calcerous materials shall not accumulate inside of pipes (encrustation) and they are flexible. 2. PVC pipes shall maintain their resistance up to 60 C o and softens above that temperature (thermo-plastic). Thus. There are two types of pipes depending on the area of use: 1. They are resistant to chemicals (they are affected by few substances).2 Technical Characteristics The technical characteristics of PVC pipes (resistant to a temperature of 20o C ) are listed below: Density Breaking Stress Elongation Heat Permeability Elongation at Breaking Point Elastic Module : 1. With a thick wall thickness (BD). odor or flavor to water. They are. It does not release color. They are not affected by frost. therefore. PVC pipes and their special parts. PVC pipes are light and can be transported and placed easily. They do not require isolation and conduct little electricity and are.40 o C and + 60 o C. PVC pipes can be transported very easily.08 mm/m C o : 0. The porosity level of PVC pipes is very low and they look like polished. fittings. They can be processed between 120. The weight of one meter of PVC with a diameter of 80 mm is approximately 3 kg whereas the weight of a cast-iron pipe with the same diameter is 15 kg. sea water. They are used for conveying drinking water. industrial water. They can be used in a temperature range between . not affected by leaked current.

7 m/sn.0 kg/cm2 .range is 200 – 220 C o .5 o sagging while pipes with a minimum nominal diameter of 600 mm shall withstand 0. PVC is carbonized without flame because it is not combustible. Flanged fittings and pipe connections except for cases otherwise determined or approved by the Engineer shall be flexible and covered by a rubber ring or seal as approved by the Engineer and resist various tests determined according to selected standards. 1. PVC pipes are resistant to frost and water shocks. A compound preventing corrosion shall be used for pipe production. 110 . All pipes shall resist tension over 13 mm at initial junction tolerance. 1. 1. Shock = 3. For example: 60 mm Cast-iron pipe.3 PVC Pipes for Pressure Applications PVC pipes for pressure applications shall conform to BS 3505. They shall correspond to the figure given in the pressure class project.7 m/sn. The Contractor shall inform the manufacturer about the atmospheric conditions at the site and shipment conditions and obtain the manufacturer's proposals about the storage of PVC materials at the site. V = 0. Shock = 1. which is the distance measured parallel to the center line of the pipe and it may not be below 6 mm or over 13 mm or as recommended by the pipe manufacturer and approved by the Engineer.0 kg/cm2 .5 o sagging. Such recommendations. V = 0. Connections and fittings to be used shall conform to BS 4346.3 kg/cm2. It is not affected by corrosion observed inside of the pipe or resulting from soil at temperatures below 60 C o .7 m/sn.5 General Characteristics PVC pipes shall be resistant to corrosion arising from ultra-violet rays. Real junction tolerance shall be marked on pipes and fittings by using indelible paint before they are laid. Pipes which are not covered by BS 5481 shall comply with BS 3506 and pressure class shall be PN 6 Atm. which will be subject to approval by the Engineer. Shock = 9. 60 mm Polyethylene pipe. shall always be taken into consideration.4 PVC Pipes for Non-pressure Applications PVC pipes for non-pressure applications shall conform to BS 5481. 60 mm PVC pipe. V = 0. Pipes with a maximum nominal diameter of 600 mm shall be capable of resisting minimum 1.

2 SAMPLING. 3 MARKING The name of the “Employer” Manufacturer’s emblem or descriptive mark Symbol of the part’s name (MMA. Pressure at factory test shall be twice the pressure class of the pipe.2 Cost of Tests The cost of tests acceptable under international standards shall be paid by the Contractor at its sole expense. Pressure and Impermeability Test Pipes ready for delivery shall be inspected visually in order to find out whether or not there is any manufacturing defect and defective pipes shall not be accepted. Crate bottoms shall be reinforced on both sides with wooden battens having a dimension of 12 x 12 (in order to provide loading and strength). Inspections and tests shall be conducted at the factory or a laboratory of a public agency to be designated by the Employer. INSPECTION AND TESTS 2. etc. MMR. An adequate number of samples shall be taken from each lot in accordance with the applicable standards. Packing crates shall be strong enough to allow the transportation of the materials without breaking. 2. F. Packing crates shall be enclosed by steel strips on four sides. MK. 111 .1 Sampling. The samples shall be subjected to pressure and waterproofing tests after checking their thickness. MMB.) Diameter of the part 4 PACKAGING All connecting pieces shall be packaged and shipped in wooden crates.

etc. transported and unloaded in accordance with the applicable procedures and recommendations. and other sources of contamination. Calculated gaskets shall be supplied free of charge in excess of 20% For all technical issues incorporated in this technical specifications.0 and 1. Maximum care shall be taken during loading.5 DELIVERY. If gaskets.5 m. Hard PVC pipes shall be loaded and unloaded by two persons. transportation. All materials shall be loaded on vehicles. gasoline. bolts and nuts shall be indicated separately and their detailed technical values shall be provided in tables. oil. together with the symbols shown in the list attached hereto. mud. the offered pipe and its parts as well as its gaskets. 112 . There shall be maximum 10 rows in a stack. Rubber seals used for inserted spigots shall be stored in cool and dry places and brought to the site after removing packaging material immediately before their use. Pipes shall be stacked on even grounds and rows of pipes shall be separated from each other by straight lathes. give to the Employer for examination a sample pipe and connecting piece having the characteristics stated in the offer. paint. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PIPES The Contractor or its authorized technical staff shall deliver the pipes to be provided under the agreement to the site and take necessary precautions against any damage or loss. clearly indicating their unit and total prices. Distance between lathes shall range between 1. at the time of submission of offers. bolts and nuts are to be offered free of charge. unit prices and total prices of the parts. one of whom shall hold the spigot and the other shall hold the other end without suffering any shock. Pipes shall be covered by a sheet during storage. 6 CONTENT OF OFFER The Contractor shall state in its offer the quantities. Plastic pipes shall be stored so that they are protected against direct sunlight. The quantities of the necessary gaskets shall be stated separately. The Contractor shall. this should be indicated in the offer. unloading and stacking as hard PVC materials can be easily broken due to shocks especially in temperatures below zero.

CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE . or the Employer's pipe storage to be designated by the Employer.7 ACCEPTANCE .1 Acceptance The test representing the condition corresponding to the samples taken from the lot delivered is compatible with all the requirements at the end of the inspections and tests made on the pieces and it shall be accepted for the lot it represents. 9 ORDER FORM An order form for the pipes and parts demanded is given in the Annex. 8. the conditional acceptance of the lot shall be made. if this does not lead to non-use of the material. site. 7. which is found not to be compliant with the required specifications and tolerances as a result of tests conducted by using samples. 113 . 7. Pipe connecting pieces shall be delivered as packaged. No payment shall be made for the parts found defective and returned at the end of the inspection of the lot. the pipes shall be delivered to the Employer as packaged and marked. Gaskets may be delivered in a separate package since they will be proposed in excess of 20%. 8 DELIVERY As described above. with the gaskets placed on them.2 Conditional Acceptance If 2% of the samples that have been taken for the inspections mentioned above are found out to be defective. Bolts and nuts shall be separately packaged and delivered. shall be rejected. however.REJECTION 7.3 Rejection Any lot.1 Place of Delivery Pipes and fittings shall be delivered to a route.

11 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Pipes shall be supported by timbers not only at the bottom row and between rows but also from their sides. 114 .10 TECHNICAL INSPECTION The Contractor shall invite the Employer’s technical committee consisting of 2 members for technical inspection of the manufacturing progress for a duration of 1 week. ends and to in order to prevent any accidental damage during transportation. All the accommodation and travel expenses in respect thereof shall be at the Contractor’s expense.

They are resistant to shocks. . . basic.There are numerous connection options.1 Scope These Technical Specifications provides for minimum requirements applicable to polyethylene pipes and fittings made of polyethylene. . 1. Irrigation water systems.POLYETHYLEN (PE) PIPES 1 General Polyethylene pipes are used in the following areas: Underground and surface drinking water systems. The diameter of long coils used for winding pipes may be 18 to 20 times higher than the diameter of the pipe.2 Standards PE pipes shall comply with TS 418/1 and ISO 4427 Standards. Fire water and cooling water systems. . Section 3. and salty environments because they are highly resistant to chemicals. Sewer discharge systems.They are not affected by sun beams due to catalysts they include. the number of head connections is reduced 115 .They are highly resistant to abrasion.3 Pipe Specifications Characteristics of polyethylene pipes: .It can be easily installed and used because of its light weight. Wastewater systems. .It is perfectly compatible with type of soil and it is not affected by movement of soil.Polyethylene pipes can be rotated 360o even without using an bend due to their mechanical characteristics. Fittings shall be pressure type fittings complying with BS 684. . Thus. which are required for drinking water and irrigation water systems. . . Polyethylene pipes to be used for drinking water services shall comply with BS 3284.They can be easily connected within and outside of a channel during installation. Sea discharge systems. . . 1.There is not leakage from fittings due to perfect welding characteristics.They can be used in acidic. . 1.Minimum quantity of bends are used because pipes are bendable.The life cycle of pipes is very long (approximately 50 years).

1. they shall not release any odor or unpleasant taste to drinking water flowing through them.4 Raw Materials The material used for manufacturing polyethylene pipes shall have the following characteristics: . . related to the raw materials used for fabrication of pipes and fittings.Raw materials used and fittings produced shall comply with the regulation on foodstuff in terms of their physical and toxicological characteristics. In addition.The manufacturer shall not add any substance to the raw material in the form of granules during production of fittings provided that anti-oxidants. Minimum required resistance of raw material used shall be (MSR) 8 N/mm2 – 10 N/mm2. . test reports. . 116 .Color shall be distributed homogenously in all sections of fittings. Costs arising from inspections shall be paid by the company. In addition. . 1. installation and labor costs as well as transportation and storage costs are reduced. . and shipment capacity that could be allocated to the Works.Test and tests for the acceptance of pipes and fittings shall be conducted in accordance with TSE and ISO standards. nominal diameters and pressure shall be printed on the pipe so that they could be easily read and cannot be erased in accordance with the Regulation on Foodstuff issued by the Ministry of Health.The Employer may have any test conducted after the pipes and fittings are manufactured and laid at the site and tested successfully provided that costs incidental to such tests are borne by the manufacturer. Electro-fusion welding may be performed if considered necessary by the Employer. . .while pace of installation is increased.The manufacturer shall provide its cost analysis and production. .PE pipes and fittings shall be taken over by the Employer in presence of the manufacturer. etc. .The manufacturer shall furnish the Employer with material certificates.Raw material used for manufacturing of fitting may be black or blue in color.Pipes shall be laid by butt welding.5 Technical Specifications Technical characteristics of polyethylene pipes: .The raw materials of pipes and fittings shall not be colored later.The manufacturer shall provide one year warranty for the pipes and fittings after they have been laid and tested successfully. . . they shall be purchased from a company with a proven track record. .The density of the fitting raw material used shall be higher than 930 kg/m3 according to ISO 1183 test method. standard seal. .Pipes and fittings shall comply with the regulation on foodstuff issued by the Ministry of Health in terms of their physical and toxicological characteristics. The manufacturer shall furnish the Employer with a hygiene certificate issued by the competent hygiene agency.The Employer's name. unloading. loading. In addition.Polyethylene (PE) shall be used as raw material for producing fittings. . ultra-violet ray stabilizers and pigments may be added to the raw material.

The branch end of the fittings shall permit EF sleeve or coupling sleeve connection. Spigot joints. c .Steel flanges shall be in PN class and have suitable holes for bolts compatible with the flanges of the valves to be used in the pipelines. blind flange. .Steel flanges to be used for flange adapters shall be coated by galvanized steel or another anti-corrosive material depending on the requirements. flange adapter. e . .A certificate issued by the related standardization organizations in the country where the materials were manufactured shall be presented to the Employer in respect of imported materials..Standard size. and fittings shall be connected by electro-fusion welding in case of pipes up to φ 180 mm and by butt welding for diameters equal to or above ø 200 mm (including). Flanged joints. . SDR 17) may be used in EF type connections. . .There shall be a barcode label containing welding data on EF fittings or it shall be delivered together with the fittings.The manufacturer shall have TSE and ISO 9001 certificates in respect of fittings. Electro-fusion welding.pipes required in the form of coils and fittings shall be connected by using EF method. 117 .Type of polymer. The following details shall be marked on the fittings legibly and indelibly: a .The diameter and pressure of the fitting.Sleeves or taping tees shall be suitable for welding main pipelines or the ends of spigot fittings with EF collars. Different materials (PE 80.Components such as T. 1.Year of fabrication. Requirements about connections : a .Fittings of taping tee type shall be used for subscriber connections and such fittings shall have a collar for electro-fusion (EF) bonding method.Manufacturer's name. which cannot be wound in the form of a coil. But. the same wall thickness shall be required in case of butt welding.6 Pipe Jointing Methods Polyethylene pipes may be jointed by using 4 (four) different methods: Butt welding.Fittings may be fabricated by injection / confection method provided that the manufacturer shall use both fabrication methods in accordance with the applicable standards. b . .Fittings shall have the same operating pressure as the pipes. PE 100) or different wall thicknesses (SDR 11. . . . d . and reducing pipes shall be connected by using spigot or self EF collar according to the applicable method. b .Pipes. 90o bend. Taping tees shall be capable of being boiled under pressure and bored. 45o bend.

Voltage is applied to those wires by an electro-fusion machine and the surface of the PE sleeve. . temperature.1 Butt Welding Requirements The first requirement in butt welding is that materials to be welded shall have the same parameters. dust.6.) and that welding shall be carried out by experienced welders. Special resistance wires shall be placed on the internal surfaces of the sleeves. 1.6. .6. during fabrication. 1. In addition. humidity.Butt welding and electro-fusion welding are the most commonly used welding techniques. . The welding process is economic because it does not require additional sleeves.The shaved surfaces shall be on the same axis and their fronts shall come into contact with each other. . which will be connected to the pipe. The process is based on heating the pipe fronts to be welded under preset pressure and for a specified period by using a plate with resistance and bonding surfaces under preset period and time before they are cooled.The front surfaces of pipes shall be separated from each other enough to insert a heating plate.1.2 Butt Welding Procedure Butt welding shall be carried out in the following sequence: .Pipes shall be placed in a butt welding machine and affixed firmly by using required apparatus. . which will be welded to the pipe. 1. suitable weather conditions (wind. 1.1 Butt Welding It is carried out by using a special welding machine. shall be heated to melting temperature and then welded.2 Electro-fusion Welding It shall be used where butt welding cannot be applied due to lack of sufficient space. there shall be a clean working environment. 118 .The heating plate is removed and front surfaces of the pipes shall be pressed against each other for a certain period and under a certain pressure and temperature.The heating plate shall be applied to the front surfaces under the temperature and pressure determined according to the technical data of the manufacturer of the welding machine or calculated by using a formula. .Pressure is removed at the end of the period and the pipe shall be cooled.Shaving apparatus shall be placed on the column shafts of the welding machine and the front surfaces of the pipes shall be shaved carefully. Special sleeves shall be used for connecting pipes. etc.6.1.

An appropriate slippery substance (liquid soap) shall be applied to the seals within the spigot so that the pipe is attached to the spigot easily and the seals are not damaged during its insertion. . the related figures shall be entered manually.The flanged part (pipe.The pipe installed and the pulling apparatus on the spigot shall be disassembled and a new connection process starts. . If it is not available.The spigot and the pipe shall be placed on the same axis so that their ends are placed opposite to each other.The pipe and the spigot shall be connected to each other by using the levers of the pulling apparatus. .The insertion process is completed when the insertion depth marked on the pipe reaches the mouth of the spigot. fitting.The machine reads the fitting's barcode. .2 Electro-fusion Welding Steps .2. . mud. snow.6.) shall be placed opposite the flange welded to the pipe and a rubber seal is placed between those two parts to be connected.Insertion depth within the spigot shall be measured and it shall be marked on the pipe. . oil.2.1. .Care shall be taken to ensure that the pipe is pulled when it is on the same axis as the spigot. 1. etc. 1. The welding area shall be protected against rain. 119 .3 Spigot Joints Steps for spigot joints are as follows: .6. Otherwise.The metal flange and the plastic flange is welded to the end of the pipe by butt welding.4 Flanged Joints Steps for flanged joints are as follows: .The end of the pipe shall be cut out so that it forms a right angle with its own axis.2.2. .Metal flange is inserted in the plastic flange.The fitting is attached to the pipe. Allowable temperature for electro-fusion is between -10o C and +45o C. 1. The substance shall also be applied to the section of the pipe to be inserted in the spigot.The welding machine is operated and the process is completed.The surface of the pipe to be welded shall be scraped by a scraping apparatus and cleaned and wiped with alcohol so that there is no oil or stain residue.6. the seal may be damaged. . .1 Electro-fusion Welding Requirements Only materials of the same type shall be welded in the electro-fusion welding system. Electro-fusion welding shall only be carried out by trained welders. .6. Pulling apparatus compatible with the diameter of the pipe to be inserted in the pipe shall be mounted on the top of the pipe and the section with a spigot. and similar substances. hydrant. .

In order to determine the attitudes of the pipe before it is put into service. which is an international test method.2 Tests Raw material and pipe tests shall be conducted in accordance with ISO 4427. the longitudinal coefficient of expansion (ASTM 696) and thus the maximum load to be supported by the pipe.1 Resistance The resistance of the polyethylene material shall be computed by using regression curve extrapolation. ISO 4437 and TS EN 12201 standards.1 Sampling Pipes ready for delivery shall be inspected visually in order to find out whether or not there is any manufacturing defect and defective pipes shall not be accepted. for 65 hours at 80o C and for 1000 hours in accordance with ISO 4427 and ISO 4437. 2.Design stress of raw material selected for PE pipes is N/mm 2 ’ dir. The system is ready for operation after that phase. Melted flow figure so calculated shall not be below 950 kg/m 2 according to TS 1310. 120 . the density of the fabricated pipe is calculated for comparison. . 2 SAMPLING. Distribution of carbon black in material is determined in accordance with ISO/DIS 11420 Standard. . An adequate number of samples shall be taken from each lot in accordance with the applicable standards.Bolts so installed shall be turned several rounds more and the resulting gaps shall be eliminated. Its long-term hydrostatic strength. Pressure tests are conducted for 100 hours at 20o C. tensile strength of raw material at the moment of flow (ISO 6259).Butt welding and electro-fusion welding shall be performed in different combinations. the resistance of such raw material and fabricated pipes to pressure and their useful life is calculated. which will be followed by pressure and tensile tests at the welded sections of the pipe (ISO 442 ISO 527).2.. Lengthwise change shall not exceed 3%. Thus. tests shall be conducted in accordance with ISO 527 to determine elongation of raw material at breaking point (ISO 6256). INSPECTION AND TESTS 2. . 2. The samples shall be subjected to the tests described below. It is a test method applied under a load of 5 kg at 190o C. . Density is calculated by the weight of raw material in air and a special fluid.The seals and nuts are inserted through the flanges and tightened in order to connect the system so that the seal provides waterproofing after the seal is crushed between plastic flanges. . . In addition.A melted flow index test shall be conducted in accordance with ISO 1133 in order to determine flow attitudes of the raw material at the corner.A density test shall be conducted in accordance with ISO 1183. The quantity of carbon black in the material is calculated by conducting a test in accordance with ISO 6964. Disinfecting oven tests may be conducted in accordance with TS 5450 in order to observe expansion and longitudinal changes in the pipe at a certain temperature and time.

The level of that unit rounded up in accordance with Renard series is called MSR (minimum strength required).2 Cost of Tests The cost of tests acceptable under international standards shall be paid by the Contractor at its sole expense. Its unit is megapascal. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF PIPES The Contractor or its authorized technical staff shall deliver the pipes to be provided under the agreement to the site and take necessary precautions against any damage or loss All materials shall be loaded on vehicles. considered as a property of PE material.5% lower reliability limit. 121 . transported and unloaded in accordance with the applicable procedures and recommendations. 3 MARKING The name of the “Employer” Manufacturer’s emblem or descriptive mark Symbol of the part’s name Diameter of the part 4 PACKAGING All connecting pieces shall be packaged and shipped in wooden crates. Packing crates shall be enclosed by steel strips on four sides. MSR also indicates PE material classification (DIN EN ISO 12162). Crate bottoms shall be reinforced on both sides with wooden battens having a dimension of 12 x 12 (in order to provide loading and strength).which could occur when it is subjected to a 50-year long-term hydrostatic test at 20 o C is represented by 97. 5 DELIVERY. Inspections and tests shall be conducted at the factory or a laboratory of a public agency to be designated by the Employer.2. 2. Wall tension and safety coefficient factors shall be taken into consideration while calculating operating pressure of PE pipe systems. Packing crates shall be strong enough to allow the transportation of the materials without breaking. Its unit is Mpa. Wall tension is calculated by dividing MSR by coefficient C.

For all technical issues incorporated in this technical specifications. 7 ACCEPTANCE . Calculated gaskets shall be supplied free of charge in excess of 20%. however. 122 . paint.CONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE . if this does not lead to non-use of the material. the offered pipe and its parts as well as its gaskets. bolts and nuts are to be offered free of charge. give to the Employer for examination a sample pipe and connecting piece having the characteristics stated in the offer. and other sources of contamination. together with the symbols shown in the list attached hereto. gasoline. mud. 6 CONTENT OF OFFER The Contractor shall state in its offer the quantities. The Contractor shall.2 Conditional Acceptance If 2% of the samples that have been taken for the inspections mentioned above are found out to be defective. the conditional acceptance of the lot shall be made. etc. Pipes shall be stacked on even grounds. this should be indicated in the offer. clearly indicating their unit and total prices. Pipes shall be covered by a sheet during storage.REJECTION 7. bolts and nuts shall be indicated separately and their detailed technical values shall be provided in tables.1 Acceptance The test representing the condition corresponding to the samples taken from the lot delivered is compatible with all the requirements at the end of the inspections and tests made on the pieces and it shall be accepted for the lot it represents. 7. No payment shall be made for the parts found defective and returned at the end of the inspection of the lot. unit prices and total prices of the parts. If gaskets. at the time of submission of offers.Plastic pipes shall be stored so that they are protected against direct sunlight. oil. The quantities of the necessary gaskets shall be stated separately.

shall be rejected. 8 DELIVERY As described above.3 Rejection Any lot.7. Gaskets may be delivered in a separate package in excess of 20%. which is found not to be compliant with the required specifications and tolerances as a result of tests conducted by using samples. ends and to in order to prevent any accidental damage during transportation. 10 TECHNICAL INSPECTION The Contractor shall invite the Employer’s technical committee consisting of 2 members for technical inspection of the manufacturing progress for a duration of 1 week. 8. All the accommodation and travel expenses in respect thereof shall be at the Contractor’s expense. 11 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Pipes shall be supported by timbers not only at the bottom row and between rows but also from their sides. 123 . Bolts and nuts shall be separately packaged and delivered. or the Employer's pipe storage to be designated by the Employer. Pipe connecting pieces shall be delivered as packaged. with the gaskets placed on them. 9 ORDER FORM An order form for the pipes and parts demanded is given in the Annex. site.1 Place of Delivery Pipes and fittings shall be delivered to a route. the pipes shall be delivered to the Employer as packaged and marked.

The process in the cathodic protection system is to give the structure to be protected a cathodic form by artificial means and continuously maintain this structure in cathodic form by giving energy. the pipe voltage shall be minimum 850 mV in each location or it is sufficient to shift the potential in unprotected condition 300 mV. taking into operation and conduction of necessary tests in Turkey is TS 5141. In the Cathodic Protection System composite anodes coated with titanium oxide shall be used as auxiliary anodes and an external current supply shall be used. In order to significantly reduce the current requirements of steel pipes hot bitumen absorbed FT-66 glass fiber by melting Blown-Asphalt with 20 x 10 penetration compatible with TS 4356-4357 and TS 4357 Standards shall be applied on outer surfaces and after application of two coats it shall provide a thickness of 6. the potential of the pipe in unprotected condition shall be shifted to 300 mV in the negative direction. equipment supply and assembly.5 kV for isolation penetration. In order to maintain the cathodic form. the concerned international standards on corrosion acceptable to the Employer and Special and Technical Specifications of Bank of Provinces General Directorate Drinking water Cathodic Protection Project and Plant Construction can also be used. pipeline is protected against corrosion. The inner surfaces of the pipes shall be coated in accordance with A 24. so the related rules and instructions of this standard shall apply. electric current is given to the pipe by artificial anodes and pipe voltage is shifted in the negative direction. Except from the principles specified here the current standard for the issues of project performance. In order to prevent corrosion on the steel pipeline. Lime shall be applied on outer surfaces of the pipes. The responsibilities of the producer and minimum principles to be followed are determined in this specifications. sizing. 124 . In that way. In order to prevent the pipe laid under ground.7.1 CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM 1. it is observed that there is formation of chemical and electrochemical reactions in anode. In addition to the related Turkish Standards. The outer surfaces of pipes shall be inspected with a detector of 14.1 General For the anode and cathode zones formed throughout the pipeline. The steel pipeline shall be protected against external corrosion by means of Cathodic Protection. whereas there is no formation of such reactions in cathode. since there is no formation of anodic regions.5 mm when measured by caliper.

1.2

Cathodic Protection Surveys and Application Drawings

The route shall be inspected on Site in order to determine the placement points of anode beds, location of high voltage lines parallel or blocking the line and the most economic and sufficient location for supplying the cathodic protection system with electricity. During this inspection the geological conditions, ground characteristics and local conditions shall be considered and unless otherwise agreed or required, the resistivity shall be measured by WENNER method for maximum 500 m of intervals. In order the determine the location of external current electrodes, for the sections where anodes are going to be located, measurements with sufficient number and frequency shall be conducted within the anode system placement interval. The resistivity values determined according to the measurements shall be processes on a semi-logarithmic diagram throughout the route. The resistivity degree of the ground and consequently the scope of the cathodic protection system shall be determined according to this. The Contractor shall determine the cathodic protection current requirement in addition to the ground resistivity, conduct the necessary electricity tests for determination of the conductivity of protective coating of the pipe, enhance the energy supply means for determination of feeding points that will make isolated flanges to be used for all the structure and plants throughout the pipeline like discharge, suction, inspection chimney, air chimney, stream and road passages, fixing masses etc. and shall prepare detailed application drawings and submit to the approval of the Employer with a report by considering the data obtained from here. After completion of the Cathodic Protection Construction Works, the adjustment, measurement and acceptance tests and document dossiers, operation and maintenance instructions and guides shall also be accepted in the scope of survey and project. The following measurement and survey shall be conducted throughout the pipeline at 100 meter intervals. TS 5141 Measurement and Research: Clause No : • Ground Electricity Specific Resistance 1.1.1.1 • Ground pH Value 1.1.1.2 • Ground Redox Potential 1.1.1.3 • Pipe / Ground Potential 1.1.1.4 • Sulphate Reducing Bacteria 1.1.1.5 • Underground Water level 1.1.1.6 • Leaking Currents 1.1.1.7 • Pipe Isolation Permeability -

125

The determination of protective current and determination of pipe isolation conductivity shall be found by tests and calculations. In these tests pipe/ground potential shall be measured between the pipe by a reference electrode at intervals exceeding 500 meters and the anodic and cathodic zones shall be detailed in order to determine the limits of minimum protection criterion.

Measurement and Testing: The Ground Electrical Specific Resistance measurements shall be in accordance with TS 4363. For the sections where anodes are going to be located, measurement with sufficient number and frequency shall be conducted within the designed anode system and placement interval. The resistivity values determined according to the tests shall be processed on a semilogarithmic diagram throughout the route. The aggressiveness degree and the scope of the Cathodic Protection System to be established shall be determined herein. Cathodic protection current requirement shall also be determined in addition to ground resistivity. Accordingly, the locations of the isolated flanges to be used with all structure and plants like discharge, suction, inspection chimney, air chimney, passage of road and stream, fixing masses throughout the pipeline, conductivity of the protective coating of the pipe shall be determined. The determination of suitable locations for anode beds shall be in accordance with the tests and the locations of the feeding points and current requirements shall be determined according to this measurements.

1.3

Preparation of Application Drawings The calculations shall be made in accordance with the survey data gathered throughout

the pipe route and laboratory findings and the acquired values shall be processed into plans and tables. The project calculations shall be based on the values of related standards and specifications. These sources shall be submitted to the Employer if requested. The Contractor shall proceed the following before project is drawn up: • • Necessary measurements for determination of soil specific resistivity PH control for different soil samples taken from places where ground demonstrate variation throughout the pipeline route 126

• •

Inspection of pipe blow up for determining the pipe current requirement and electrical tests if necessary Investigation of electrical continuity throughout the pipeline, determination of isolated flange data to be used for all structure and plant like pressure reduce chamber, line drains, air relief valves, passage of road and stream, fixing masses, determination of suitable locations for anode beds, research for energy opportunities for determination of current injection points, the underground plants close to pipeline and high voltage transmission lines

The followings shall be considered during Project organization a ) Determination of Cathodic Protection Types The followings two types of protection method can be applied partially or completely within the project: 1 . Galvanic Method 2 . External Current Source Method

1 . Galvanic Method: The pipeline is protected against corrosion by connection of sufficient number of galvanic anodes manufactured from magnesium, zinc, aluminum or their alloys that are more electronegative potential than the steel at different locations of the pipeline. The protective current necessary for the pipe is obtained through dissolving of galvanic anode. In order to provide the performance of galvanic anode system the following issues shall be considered. • • The galvanic anode beds shall be installed for low resistance places. The beds shall receive underground water from the base as much as possible, when determining the locations of the beds this shall be considered. If there is not any possibility of receiving water from the ground, the anodes shall be watered from time to time in order to provide efficiency. • The zinc anodes can be successfully used at places where resistance is higher than 1500 ohm-cm and the magnesium anodes can be used at places where resistance is higher than this value. However the protective current value supplied by magnesium anodes decrease to very small values for soils with specific resistance value between 6000 ohm-cm and 10000 ohm-cm, it is not an economical method for some cases. 127

(isolated) flanges shall be installed between two pipes.1. The selection of suitable types from them shall be performed by economical analysis of the whole protection system. (shall be in accordance with TS 5141 Clause 1.8) c ) The resistance of the anode bed shall not pass 1 ohm (as far as possible) d ) The anticipated anode life shall not be less than 30 years e ) The determination of cathodic protection resistance requirement The current requirement of the pipe or pipe part shall be determined in accordance with tests.1.3)    Pumping stations and treatment plants Current leak zones Concrete walls/road passages 128 . (Application shall be in accordance with TS 5141 Clause 1. The increase in the current requirement due to deformation of isolation by the passage of time shall be considered in the project.1. External Current Source Method: The protective current required by the pipe is provided through the rectifiers that transforms the alternating current from the city network to direct current in external current source method.1) The following issues shall be considered herein: • • • • Current cost Initial plant cost Interference effect Operational and maintenance costs b ) Cathodic protection criteria (shall be in accordance with TS 5141 Clause 1. The negative end of the rectifier is connected to the pipe and the positive end is connected to the anodes.• In order to reduce the transition resistance of galvanic anode according to the ground resistance filler materials are used.1. f ) Electrical Insulations In order to prevent the cathodic protection current flowing through undesired installations or to protect from undesired current at the following plants. As the resistance value of the anode increases the amount of filler material shall be increased.

for that reason the cathodic protection life shall be taken as the length of the period for consuming the 85% of the anode in the system.it shall be considered that the anode metal is used up in the cathodic protection system. electrical connection from pipe to pipe shall be in accordance with TS 5141 Clause 1. anode beds. When the Works are completed the functionality of the system shall be tested and the test results shall be submitted to the Employer together with a report.4 h ) The number and installation locations of measurement stations and measurement boxes. Transformer/rectifier units shall be determined by considering the structure of the land and suitable locations on the pipe route. 1. All values for construction of the joints shall be submitted to the approval of the Employer and the joints shall provide the following: • • • • • • Construction Economical analysis Sizes Operational and test pressures Test method Operational and maintenance guides etc. The test pressure of the joints shall be the same as the water supply pipeline test pressure. Welding. -except from the failures. inner and outer isolation and tensioning shall be in accordance with the pipe specification. The minimum isolation level required from the joint (when pipes are empty) shall be determined during application project phase.4 Cathodic Protection Life Cathodic protection life shall be considered as minimum life of all the material and equipment used for cathodic protection application. Underwater passages g ) Electrical Contacts For the seamless pipe joints in order to conduct the Cathodic Protection current. Anode life shall be calculated with the following formula 129 . welding inspection. However.1. and with the staff of the Employer.

1.1.6.1 Auxiliary Anodes 1. and other foreign substances.6.1. NYY cables (1 x 6 mm2 in cross section and minimum 3 m in length) shall be mounted on the anodes and a separate cable shall come from each magnesium anode to measurement box.considering the amount of current from the anode and intensity of the current and the values given in the project calculations: Anode Life(year) = Anode Mass(kg) x Wearing Factor(0.3 Magnesium Anodes The type of the magnesium anode as galvanic anode in the cathodic protection systems with magnesium anodes shall be determined as 17 lb or 32 lb according to the electrical specific resistance of the ground from where the pipelines will pass from. oil etc. 130 .6 Material and Equipment 1. shall be such that they can be connected to the pipe by shunting from the top of the measurement box without extension and there shall be a separate cable from each magnesium anode to the measurement box. The current carrying conductor placed in the magnesium anodes during casting.85) /Intensity of the current From anode(A) x Wearing of the Anode(kg/A-yıl) For the cathodic protection projects the cathodic protection life or in other words anode life shall be at least 15 (fifteen) years.5 Submission of Project to Employer for Approval The Cathodic Protection Project shall be drawn up by the Contractor and submitted to the Employer for approval.1 Anodes 1. The length of the cables of the magnesium anodes that will be used individually or in groups.2 Galvanic Anode System 1.1. rust.6.6. 1. During casting the surface of the material shall be free from dirt. shall be from nervure iron.

.1 Titanium Anodes Coated with Mixed Oxide The anodes used at external current source system for pipeline protection are named as current source anode or auxiliary anode. If it is required by the Employer samples can be taken in order to perform chemical and electrochemical tests. .03% (maximum) Magnesium (Mg) . During casting of the magnesium anodes scrap material like previously used anode or another magnesium alloy shall not be used. : 0. . . Cu/CuSO4 saturated > (-) 1500 mV (in sea water) Theoretical current capacity (A . . The chemical composition of the cast magnesium anodes shall be as follows: Aluminum (Al) . . . .6.9% pure. .6.03% (maximum) Iron (Fe) . : 2. . . 1.2. .15% (minimum) Silicium (Si) . hour/kg) Anode yield = 2200 > 50% The cost of chemical and electrochemical tests shall be at the Contractor’s expense. It shall be determined by the Employer (by observation) that the anodes are manufactured from pure material and the anodes shall be sealed by the Employer after casting with a suitable way. . : 0.. The types and sizes of mixed oxide coated Titanium anodes. . . . : % 0. . . . . one of the anode type to be used. . Deep well anode channel shall be used inevitably in order to prevent the interference effect at cathodic protection of pipelines with external current source. : 0. .3-6. : 5. . . . . . . . . . The technical specifications of mixed oxide coated titanium anodes are as follows: 131 . . . . .5% Manganese (Mn) . . . .05% (maximum) Nickel (Ni) .3 (maximum) Copper (Cu) . The most economical and longest life anode for deep well anode channel opened in the ground is mixed oxide coated titanium anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of these magnesium anodes shall be as follows: Electrode potential (Ref. . : 0. . . : remaining Aluminum and zinc shall be used for manufacturing the determined chemical composition of the magnesium anode. . . . shall be given in their projects. . . . . .5-3. . .The mass magnesium used for the manufacturing of the magnesium anodes shall be 99.2 External Current Source System 1.7% Zinc (Zn) .

. . . . : 1% (maximum) Iron (Fe) . : 14-16% Chrome (Cr) . . . . . . : 100 A/m2 Anode mass loss mg/year (maximum) . . . ferrosilicon and ferrochrome shall be used for casting of anodes. . . (45 kg). . . . . : 4 A 1. . . : 4-4. . An adaptor from good quality steel and at least 1 cm in diameter shall be placed in the anode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 cm length Current . : 1% (maximum) Manganese (Mn) . . . . The chemical composition of the auxiliary anodes shall be as follows: Silicium (Si) . . . . . . . . . . . : 1. . . . . . . : remaining The head sections of the iron silicon anodes shall be protected with an isolated substance. . . . The amount of these materials shall be proportional to the chemical composition of the anode. . . . L (length) = 150 mm and weight 100 lb. . . Anode cable can be connected to this adaptor.2. . . after observing the casting in the working place. . . . . . 132 . If the Employer requires so. . . . At the head section of the anode. . . . . . . .6 mm diameter. . : 5 Anode life . . Cast iron. . . .Current intensity in fresh water and ground. : 25 years (minimum) Anode sizes . . . In order to determine the conformity of these requirements during casting. . . . he can give order for chemical analysis and electrochemical test of a sample taken from any anode at the Contractor’s expense. . . The surrounding of the connection of the connection cable with the anode and the section in the anode head shall be isolated with a protolin type hardening material. . . . . . . . . .2 Iron-Silicon Anodes Iron-silicone anode shall be used as auxiliary anode at the pipelines that shall be protected with external current source cathodic protection system. . there shall be a connection cable 1 x 10 mm2 NYY whose connection is completely isolated and that has no contact with the outside. . . .. . . the Subcontractor shall inform the Contractor who will then inform the Employer of the location and time of the casting. . . . . . .6. . . . The cast anodes shall be free from cracks. . The iron-silicone anode: D (head diameter) = 100 mm . . d (body diameter) = 75 mm . . . .5% Carbon (C) . . .

6.2. 1.8 Anode Bed Material for Iron-Silicon Anodes In order to decrease the electrical resistance of the iron-silicone anodes and prevent polarization they shall be placed in an anode bed material.7 Anode Material for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes Mixed oxide coated titanium anodes shall be used by placing in an anode bed material in order to reduce their electrical resistance and prevent polarization. The maximum grain diameter of the coke dust shall be 10 mm and the portion passed from no 100 sieve shall be less than 5%.2. Metallurgical coke dust shall be used as anode bed material. 200 kg of anode bed filler material shall be used for each anode.3 Anode Bed Material 1.6.2. The anode bed electrical specific resistance (resistivity) shall not be more than 50 ohm-cm under these conditions. Caustic lime shall be mixed in coke dust during application at a proportion up to 10%. The maximum grain diameter of the coke dust shall be 10 mm and portion passed from no 100 sieve (dust) shall be less than 5%. 133 . Coke dust shall be used as anode bed material.6 External Current Source System Anode Bed Material 1.6.6.6. The electrical current of the anode bed filler material shall not be more than 50 ohm-cm.2.4 Galvanic Anode System Anode Bed Material 1.2.1.5 Anode Bed Material for Magnesium Anodes Component Name: Jibs (CaSO4 2H2O) % Betonite % Sodium Sulphate(Na2SO4) % Specific electrical resistance (ohm-cm) Type A 70-75 20-25 5-6 50-100 Type B 25-30 40-50 25-30 25-50 1.2.6.

zinc phosphate based epoxy paint with two components (7/1 in proportion) shall be applied on DKP sheet iron surface coated with electro cadmium. The inner and outer cabins of the T/R unit shall be manufactured from 3 mm DKP sheet iron. The voltmeter. The outer panel shall be external type. and the output potential of rectifier shall be a required value between 0-50 V DC.6. For ventilation of the uninterrupted operating T/R unit all the necessary precautions shall be taken and panels shall be designed to provide a very good ventilation.Rectifier (T/R) Unit 1. The paint application shall provide the following characteristics. Diodes that will be used at the rectifier shall be resistant to at least 1000 V of reverse current. two coats of anticorrosive intermediate paint and one coat of last paint shall be applied on T/R unit. electronic equipments and measurement tools shall be mounted on the inner panel.3. The electricity.6.3 Transformator. one outer panel and one inner panel. For this purpose at least one coat of anticorrosive primer.1.2 T/R Unit for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes The transformer-rectifier unit shall be air-cooled type.6. Dry film thickness of this paint shall be at least 35 micron. Acrylic isocyanate (izosiyanet-automobile paint) based two component paint shall be applied on this paint applied to form 100 micron dry film thickness. ammeter and AC counter shall be at least 2% precision and shall be in a water tight enclosure. T/R unit shall be uninterruptedly operational under temperatures between -30o C and +70o C. The complete scale of the ammeter shall be 50 A and the minimum readable value shall be 1 A. The outer and inner cabin shall not require any maintenance for 5 years and shall provide a 10 years of life span according to the atmospheric conditions and the thickness of paint to be applied on the prepared surface shall provide this condition.3.1 External Current Source System 1. The wires that will be used for the internal connections for the transformer of T/R unit shall be TSE certified and enameled. The current received from the T/R unit shall be supplied from continuously changing voltage grades or grades with at least 60% current yield. It shall have two panels. The inlet of the transformer shall be 50 V AC – 40 V AC mono phase. The amount of solid matter in this pain shall be 66%. Initially. 134 . The scale of the voltmeter shall be (0-50 V) and the minimum readable value shall be 2 V.

For diodes. 135 . The scale of the voltmeter shall be (0-60 V) and the minimum readable value shall be 2 V. 24 and 48 V at the simple adjustment grade. filling cover and a oil plug for discharging the oil. The Contractor shall demonstrate this adaptability with one or several rectifiers selected by the Employer. A transformer and diodes mounted on coolers shall be placed in the oil boiler. The complete scale of the ammeter shall be 50 A and the minimum readable value shall be 1 A. T/R Unit shall be uninterruptedly operational under temperatures between -15o C and +70o C.5 mm DKP sheet iron and there shall be an oil indicator. The voltmeter and ammeter shall be at least 2% precision and shall be in a water tight enclosure. a cooling body with sufficient size shall be used. 1. a thermometer for measurement of oil temperature. the rectifier can be adaptable to SCADA system with the addition of electronic cards.T/R units shall be servo variac system functionally and shall be capable of automatic manual state operation with a commutator.6. In addition to this. There shall be AC inlet fuse. If requested by the Employer the T/R units shall be manufactured as air cooled or automatic type. The oil boiler shall be manufactured from 2. 9.4 T/R Unit for Iron-Silicon Anodes The transformer/rectifier unit shall be silicone diode and oil-cooled type. inlet phase lamp. T/R unit shall e capable of applying current to the circuit automatically. The outer cabin of the T/R unit shall be from 2. paco circuit breaker capable of fine and simple adjustment of voltage adjustment grades. The reverse potential value of the diodes shall be at least 1000 V and shall be protected so that it will not retard the excess potential.5 mm DKP sheet iron and the surface shall be coated with 1 coat of primer and 2 coats of anticorrosive paint resistant to air and sea conditions. The connections in the rectifier panel shall not be effected from the oil temperature and shall be made with neoprene isolated cables. 18. After a sufficient period following the short circuit condition. The current inlet shall be mono phase and output potential shall be selected between 0-60 V DC. Paco circuit breakers shall be designed such that they can adjust the potential grades of 1-5 V at fine adjustment grade and 6. 12. if diodes are to operate under two times of the normal load. Oil boiler of the T/R unit shall be in size and volume sufficient for cooling the heat generated when transformer is operating at full load at a temperature that can rise up to +70 o C.

1.6.5.6. A measurement and failure alarm panel shall be placed in the buildings of the pumping station and when the value falls an audible alarm shall be generated.6. the available flanges on the pipeline 136 .3 Measurement Box for Iron – Silicone Anodes A steel pipe with φ150 shall be placed in a reinforced concrete mass in 40 x 40 x 50 cm size and there shall be a cast cover with impulse bolts at two side on the top of the steel pipe in order to prevent intrusion of dust and humid. The shape of the measurement box and the number of polars inside of it can be changed by the Employer according to the needs of usage. The inside of the pipe shall be filled with bitumen up to polar ends of φ20 and a fiber plate shall be placed on the bitumen 3 mm in thickness such that brass polars can pass through it. 1. In addition to this there shall be measurement card with transparent plastic enclosure in the measurement box. 1.1 External Current Source System 1.5.6. 1. multi wired and single vessel.2 Measurement Boxes for Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Oxide Anodes The detailed pictures of the measurement boxes shall be given in the project schematically.6. The conductor of the cables to be used at DC contact shall be from electrolyte cupper. after application the heading sections of the measurement boxes shall be numbered and pipe distances and pipe kilometer shall be written on its surface. In addition to this. For this purpose. The paint of measurement box shall be in accordance with the paint rules for T/R units and same materials shall be used.5.6 Cables The cables used in the cathodic protection system shall be in NYY type and in accordance with TS 212.1 Electrical Isolation (Isolated Flange Gasket Set) At the both ends of the pipeline or valve connections of the branches isolated flanges shall be placed as shown in its project. T/R unit – pipe space and T/R unit – between the anode bed and anode ring cable 1 x 16 mm2 NYY type cable shall be used. 2 x 6 mm2 NYY type cable shall be used for 220 V AC feeding of T/R unit. There shall be two ends in the measurement box providing the connection between the pipe and the T/R unit and one end in the measurement box providing the measurement of the pipe potential.6.5 Measurement Boxes 1.6.

Separate storage of anode bed material shall be dry and under a nonhumid condition.7.2 Galvanic Anode System 1. this area shall be isolated at a precision such that it will demonstrate a higher resistance than the pipe coating. The potential difference between the two sides of the isolated flange (cathodic protected section and cathodic unprotected section) shall be at least 300 mV. cable from each anode to the measurement box shall be without extension. nuts).6. The anodes to be used as packaged shall be kept as dry during storage.7. 1. The galvanic anodes shall be connected to the pipe by shunting with brass plywood from the top of the measurement boxes.4 External Current Source System 1.1 Mounting of Anodes 1.5 Mounting of Mixed Oxide Coated Titanium Anodes Karma The deepwell shall be 22 cm in diameter and at depth and size calculated in the project reports as specified in their projects. Isolated flange shall consist of thrusts (bolts.3 Mounting of Galvanic Anodes Galvanic anodes shall be placed at a distance at least 3 m from the pipeline and at least 2 m of depth.shall be isolated. After cable mounting at the connection points of galvanic anodes and the pipe. The galvanic anodes shall be placed in the anode bed material of the type and size determined in the application drawings. During placement of anodes. shim and insulating material (neoprene or rubber). 137 .6. 1. anode cable shall not be damaged and the cables whose insulator has been damaged shall be changed.7. If more than one anodes are used.6. All the cables used for galvanic anodes shall be NYY type TSE certified (TS 212) and shall be passed through a polyethylene pipe if necessary.6.6.7.7 Production and Mounting 1.7.6. The anodes shall be connected to the pipe so that it will generate the minimum electrical resistance by termite type welding. Anodes shall be placed as packaged in cloth bags with anode bed material in standard size. There shall be normal caisson pipe at the first 10 meter section from ground surface and there shall be perforated caisson pipes at deeper sections of the deep well.

7. The first 10 meter section from the ground surface of the ventilation and gas discharge pipe is without holes and deeper sections are with holes. The shaft mouth shall be 30 cm higher than the ground surface and a cover with exit pipe shall be at the pipe end in order to provide gas exit. 138 . The interval between the holes shall be 15 cm and hole diameter shall be 5 mm. Anodes shall be connected to this pipe with plastic clips. At least 40 cm of section of the reinforced concrete shall be above the ground surface. The connections of the anodes and ring cable shall be done Thermoweld (Cadweld) by welding and the connection places shall be isolated with protolin type material.There shall be a ventilation and gas discharge pipe ¾ inches in thickness at the middle of the shaft.6 Mounting of Iron-Silicone Anodes After opening of the anode bed trench in accordance with the issues and sizes defined in the application drawings. The connecting element that holds the anodes in this type of connection shall be resistant to rust.6.8 Mounting of Transformer/Rectifier Unit Transformer/Rectifier unit shall be seated on reinforced concrete base 60 x 100 x 60 cm in size. Transformer/rectifier unit shall be seated on the reinforced concrete base as anchored at 4 points. particularly combined resistance of the anode bed shall not have a value higher than 1 ohm. There shall be pipes for 1 x 16 mm2 NYY cables going to anode bed and pipe in the reinforced concrete base. The connections of anodes in the anode bed shall form a ring and a measurement box with suitable polar shall be placed at the beginning and end of the anode bed. T/R unit outer and inner cabin shall be grounded in accordance with its method. During installation of the anode bed. the iron silicone anodes shall be filled in the trench with 20-25 cm anode bed material. The bottom section where anodes are connected shall be filled with metallurgical coke dust of the suitable grain size or coke dust with 50 ohm-cm maximum resistivity.6. 1. The inner cabin that will be mounted in the outer cabin of Transformer / Rectifier unit shall be easily removable and mountable in case of a failure (both in size and characteristic). there shall not be any open spaces during this operation. These pipes that are placed with the anodes in this way shall be connected to each other by PVC clips. There shall be no anodes connected for a section of 10 m from each face of the shaft. 1.

1 box for each 500 meters for short lines and 1 box for each 1000 meters for long lines. The top of the pipe shall be opened for the anode bed. the pipe and the pipe coating shall not be damaged.9 Mounting of Measurement Boxes 1.8 Excavation and Filling Works The anode bed excavation shall be in accordance with the size and minimum pipe bottom depth level calculated in the project according to the determined issues during survey phase.1 Mounting for Galvanic Anode System Measurement boxes shall be mounted for each anode or anode group. cable between transformer/rectifier unit and pipe and cable between anode bed and transformer/rectifier unit are placing in the trench 80 cm in depth.2 Mounting for External Current Source System The measurement boxes shall be mounted at the specified numbers:    One box for current injection points One box for at the beginning and the end of anode bed.6. after connection of connection cable with thermal welding without damaging the pipe and pipe coating. the trench shall be filled with soil 139 . this section shall be isolated with a material equivalent to the pipe coating.6. After that.9. and the welding places on the pipe shall be isolated with a material equivalent of the insulating material of the pipe. 1. Thermoweld (Cadweld) Welding shall be used for contact between all the cables in the system and pipe.9.6. the bottom of the trench and surrounding of the cables shall be covered with sand and one row of brick shall be laid on them. cable channels and cable connection. According to the length of the pipeline. 1. Particularly when opening and filling the top of the pipe. 1. 1.The ammeter and voltmeter on the panel of the transformer / rectifier unit shall not pass the ¼ of the indication scale during transition and first one year of the system. the filling works shall be layer by layer and the surface shall be brought into the previous condition. For this purpose.7 Mounting of Cables When AC cable feeding transformer/rectifier unit.

1. root. etc. Anode current (mV).1 Transition and Acceptance of Galvanic Anode System The measurements after manufacturing and mounting for the galvanic anode system: 1. Anode bed resistance 3. 5.free from stone. The current received from the anode bed. compacted and the finally the top surface shall be brought into the previous condition by filling with filler material. Pipe / ground potential (mV). All kinds of negative effects shall be removed. Pipe / ground potential 2. Anode / ground potential (mV). a committee formed by the Employer. Pipe/ground potential at the current injection point 140 .9 Interaction with Surrounding Buildings Negative effects on cathodic protection caused by the possible “interference” due to other metallic structures and negative effects of the high voltage energy transportation lines shall be removed and this operation shall be in the additional works scope.10 Transition and Acceptance After completion of manufacturing and mounting works of the cathodic protection system. layer by layer at least 20 cm.10. If all these conditions are fulfilled the project application shall be accepted and if one of them are not fulfilled the acceptance shall not proceed. grass. In this case the Contractor shall perform the necessary corrections and prepare system for the temporary acceptance. Current output potential through transformer/rectifier unit 4. 1. 2. System / ground potential (mV). 1.2 Transition and Acceptance of External Current Source System The measurement after production and mounting of the external current source system shall be as follows: 1.10. 3. The system / ground potential shall not be less than (-850 mV) potential value against saturated Cu / CuSO4 reference electrode at each point on the pipe. 1. Contractor and Technical Staff shall conduct the necessary measurements. 4.

all the necessary precautions to be taken by the Employer shall be performed by the Contractor without any objection. The same potential value shall be obtained during feeding from other centers. 5141 Clause 1. The current received from the transformer / rectifier unit shall not be less than 90% of the system current requirement 1.The adequacy of the material and equipment to be used shall be compatible with the construction and mounting works and the following conditions shall be provided: a.11 Cathodic Protection System Tests After completion of all the installation works related to the Cathodic Protection system. shall be measured simultaneously at all the Centers. c. and the results shall be evaluated. The performance of Cathodic Protection Criteria conformance tests defined in Conformity with the “Operation. potential and current adjustment. After that. Combined anode bed resistance shall not be higher than 1 ohm d.1. Maintenance and Repair Rules” defined in TS Performance of tests defined in TS 5141 Clause 2 During feeding from current source at one point in the pipeline.8.1 b. The pipe/ground potential shall not be less than (-) 2 V at the current injection point to the pipe. test and inspections shall be conducted for 1 year of warranty period.3 c. At the end of this period. operation and maintenance instruction and guides shall be drawn up and submitted to the Employer. d. measurement and acceptance tests and document dossiers. The pipe/ground potential shall not be less than (-) 850 mV potential value against Cu / CuSO4saturated reference electrode at each point on the pipe b. Acceptance Tests: After installation of Cathodic Protection System the acceptance test of the pipeline shall be as follows: a. the potentials TS 5141 Clause 1. 141 . Finally all the current centers shall be adjusted to an average value in order to achieve the negative potential given in Clause (a).

During installation of the continuous test units. continuous reference electrodes that can work at the required measurement intervals shall be installed in order to provide the signalization in the computer media. Transformer/Rectifier outlet potential.1. transducers. This centre shall be SCADA centre. All the necessary technical equipment and the installation shall be performed by the Contractor.    b. the alarming audible and illuminated warnings shall inform the operator at the SCADA centre.    In case these values reach to value that can jeopardize the cathodic protection system. 142 . all the necessary equipment like detectors. Current intensity received from the anode. Continuous Test Units: The followings defined in TS 5141 Clause 1. Cathodic Protection System shall be installed with separate control hardware and software in order not to disturb the other plants operations. the continuous test units shall be installed and controlled from the SCADA centre : a. Maintenance and Repair Rules. Closed circuit pipe-ground potential. For the galvanic anode cathodic protection: Pipe-ground potential.12 Cathodic Protection System Signalization Purpose of this signalization system is to continuously control of the protection of the pipeline against corrosion and to decrease the control works at the land by monitoring the main values of the system from a centre. c.3: Operation. Current intensity supplied for the cathodic protection system External Source Cathodic Protection .

13 Works after Temporary Acceptance After temporary acceptance The Contractor shall drawn up a detailed instruction manual on operation. the repair or corrections of these failures or remanufacturing and remounting works shall be at the Contractor’s expense. The continuous test units and structure of the measurement stations shall be resistant against external conditions.6 and for signalization plants specified in addition to this. 1. 143 .1.Measurement Stations: Throughout the pipeline the measurement stations shall be installed to be used for purposes defined in TS 5141 Clause 1. For the period between the temporary acceptance and final acceptance the necessary measurement and controls shall be performed by the Contractor periodically (minimum four times in a year) and shall be submitted to the Employer in a report format. Size of these measurement stations shall be in accordance with the equipment of it and its functionality. In case there are failures in the system due to project manufacturing and installation. maintenance and repair of the system.

d ≤ 40 cm for trenches with slope b= 60 cm for trenches with revetment b= 60 + 2*5 = 70 cm If cm  d ≤ 70 cm For trenches with slope. for trenches with an ° inclination less than 60 b = d + 2*45 cm For trenches with slope. for trenches with an ° inclination more than 60 b= d+ 2*60 cm For trenches with revetment b= d + 2*60+ 2*5 cm In the case that more than one pipe is laid in the same trench.00 m as of the pipe. 1.2 Trench Widths The trench widths shall be as follows. The decision as to whether the trenches deeper than 150 cm is constructed with slope or revetment will be made by taking into consideration the technical and economical issues 144 • . 1. No payment shall be made for any reason whatsoever for the excessive excavation of the trenches that will be excavated wider and deeper than that the conditions indicated above and the filling of such trenches shall be carried out by using material that conforms to the instructions given by the control organization. a distance of 20 cm shall be left separately between each pipe.PIPE LAYING WORKS 1 EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING The trench excavation Works shall be carried out in accordance with the principles laid down in the “DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications”. whereby (d) is the outside diameter of the pipe and (b) is the width of the trench. The minimum trench depth for the drinking water facilities shall be 1.1 Trench Depths The depth of the pipe trenches shall be specified to be under the frost level. This distance shall be as much as the distance indicated in Cathodic Protection Works to prevent the cathodic protection from being affected for the steel pipes. for trenches with an ° inclination less than 60 b = d + 2*20 cm For trenches with slope. for trenches with an ° inclination more than 60 b= d+ 2*35 cm For trenches with revetment b= d + 2*35+ 2*5 cm If d  70 cm For trenches with slope.

5 Road Pavements Asphalt and concrete road pavements shall be cut with cutting machines at the width of the trench and the other parts of the pavement shall not be damaged. The sideways shall be carefully dismounted.4 Pipe End Pits Head pits of necessary width and depth shall be excavated in order to easily carry out the connection of both the pipes with spigot and the welded pipes. The Contractor shall be responsible for the safety of the employees and third persons at the trench excavations and shall therefore take all necessary security measures. 145 .3 Trench Bottom The granulated bed material on the trench bottom shall be leveled so that the pipes can be laid in a straight line. The price for dismounting and repair works exceeding these dimensions in the pavements shall be assumed by the Contractor. 1.7 Preparation of Pipes at Trench Side The pipes shall be carefully placed on the trench side and the necessary measures shall be taken so that they will not slide and roll. 1. The Contractor shall construct provisional passages using panels at the trench excavations over the trench in order to provide the passage for the pedestrians. 1. 1. The width to be dismounted shall be taken into consideration as the maximum trench width + 2 x 15 cm.and no act shall be carried out pertaining to this issue without the prior approval of the Employer.6 Trench Fillings The trench fillings shall be carried out as explained in the “DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications” and attention shall be paid that no stones larger than 3 cm will be present in the material used for the jacketing of the pipes. 1. The revetment to be constructed for the trench security shall be constructed in accordance with the principles laid down in the “DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications”.

2 LAYING OF CONCRETE PIPES. if deemed necessary. The lathes shall have a vertical shoe so that they can stay on the bottom point. and also document this.. 2. A marking band shall be placed 30 cm over the pipe and cables in the trench and the canals and similar structures. The pipes that are damaged or have a visually detectable flaw shall be rejected by the Control Engineer and they shall be replaced with new ones. The Contractor shall keep the internal part of the pipeline clean and shall make sure that foreign substances do not enter the pipe as the construction proceeds. The pipes shall be placed in the dry excavation. the plant cover.1 Pipe Laying – General The contractor shall ensure that the conditions and assumptions used for the static calculations comply with the actual ground conditions. for the use of a control system with laser beams. Each pipe shall be carefully cleaned and they shall be checked whether they are undamaged or not before being laid. The material for the pipes with inside diameter up to 120 cm shall have grain sizes between 20 mm and 5 mm. The Control Engineer may bring forward the request. Furthermore. The pipes of large diameter shall be pushed with mechanical equipment to the jointing place. In the case that the excavation trench bottom is under the groundwater level. the Contractor shall discharge the water with the approval of the Control Engineer. the trench cross-section. etc. Discharging shall be carried on until the works have been completed or for the period that will be set out by the Control Engineer. The Contractor shall take the necessary measures to prevent the floating of the pipes. The excavation bottom of the pipe trench and the side walls shall be smooth and there shall be no juts. REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES AND STEEL PIPES COATED WITH CONCRETE 2. The Contractor shall lay the pipes in the correct alignment and inclination and shall ensure that the pipes are on a straight line in the horizontal and vertical plane. the open ends of the pipes shall be plugged using an appropriate plug after the completion of the daily work or at the other times where no assembly work is carried out. the compression. 146 .2 Granulated Material for Pipeline Bed The granulated material for the pipeline beds shall consist of gravel or broken stones. all of these grains shall pass through 20 mm sieve and maximum 5% of these grains shall pass through 5 mm sieves. The Contractor shall provide conveniently painted marking posts and lathes at the places where the pipelines is constructed in the trench provided that the intervals do not exceed 10 m or at the places specified by the Control Engineer and ensure that the pipes will be constructed in alignment. The marking posts shall be placed almost adjacent to the vertical line on the pipeline and the number of the marking posts placed along the length of the pipeline constructed with a certain inclination shall under no circumstances be less than 3 (three). the materials. the excavation method.

4 Impermeability Barrier for Pipelines with Granulated Cushion At the places where the pipes is laid with granular bed filling material or backfilling an impermeability barrier (an impervious barrier designed along the trench to prevent the underground water) shall be established at the entire trench width and at intervals less than 50 m generally at the middle of the chimney or pressure blocks along the layer or filling depth. the Contractor shall not support the pipes with any material other than granulated material at any stage of the pipe laying process. etc. Sufficient empty place shall be left for checking and testing the joints. The hanger will not be removed before the pipe has been sufficiently supported after the construction of the joint and before the approval has been granted by the Control Engineer. The grain size of this material shall be within the limits indicated above. through which the pipe trenches will pass or in which they will enter.The material for the pipes with inside diameter up to 200 cm shall have grain sizes between 37. Provisional fillings carried out with brick. stone.5 mm sieve and maximum 45% of the grains shall pass through 20 mm sieve and maximum 20% of the grains shall pass through 5 mm sieve. and in the layer. This filling shall be compressed by using a method approved by the Control Engineer without inflicting any damage on the pipes and joints. Apart from the situations where concrete protection is carried out. The trench shall be filled in accordance with the “DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications” after the pipeline has been tested and approved by the Control Engineer. 2.5 mm and 5 mm. the barrier shall be established at the crossing point of the layer with the trench excavation in order to achieve the continuity of the impermeability or low permeability of the layer. An impermeability barrier shall also be established in the impervious layer. all of these grains shall pass through the 37. 147 . 2. In such case. The bed for the pipes that consists of the granular material shall be shaped by compressing the material laid over the entire width of the trench. of which the impermeability is lower than that of the adjacent layer. The pipes shall be generally laid in the trench on the granulated material that has been laid after the execution of the excavation and has been well compressed except for the situations where the drying of the concrete is necessary. shall not be permitted. Sufficient amount of material shall be placed in order to place the pipes in the granulated material and to have a ground at the correct direction and height. The Contractor shall ensure that at least three fourth of the pipe is completely supported. The thickness of the material under the pipe body shall comply with the section of Filling Works in the “DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications”. The displacement of the rubber ring will be prevented when the sliding method will be used for the construction of the joints.3 Laying of Concrete Pipes The pipes shall be laid in accordance with the conditions laid down in DIN 4033 and according to the instructions of the manufactures with regard to the factory manufactured pipes unless a request to the contrary is brought forward by the Control Engineer.

shall be coated with an imperviousness material (clay. The Contractor shall ensure that the spigot and socket ends and the rubber ring are completely dry for the joints to be constructed with the “rolling” of the rubber ring. The Contractor shall ensure that the internal part of each pipe or fitting material is clean before a joint is constructed. The Contractor shall only use the proper joint parts that have been indicated in the specification and supplied from the pipe or fitting manufacturers. 2. 148 . The protective or other kinds of external coatings shall be corrected after the joint has been constructed and the internal coating and additional protections shall be completed without any delay in accordance with the specification or the drawings. The spigot and socket passing ends shall be centered to each other. Special attention shall be paid that the axis of the pipe to be laid establishes a straight line with the axis of the previously laid pipe. The coatings of all mechanical joints shall be constructed prior to the assembly. A slippery substance that is not acidic shall be applied on the slippery surfaces of the masculine and feminine sections of the socket end and rubber gasket but attention shall be paid for the compliance with the recommendations of the manufacturer of the rubber rings pertaining to the substance to be used. in which the pipe is laid. The following measures shall be taken for the joints carried out with the sliding method”. Bitumen shall not be used in the canals where thermoplastic pipes are present. bitumen with sand or plastic with a minimum thickness of 1 mm) or shall be placed on the filling material. All methods to be applied must be able to achieve the impermeability. The joint rings and gaskets shall be protected against sunlight until the time they are used.The impermeability barriers. The Contractor shall clean the ends of each pipe to be jointed and prepare these ends to be jointed as necessary. The rubber ring shall be implemented by preventing the folding when tension is applied each time before each joint is constructed. All joints shall be constructed and tightened according to the instructions of the manufacturer.5 Pipe Jointing The Contractor shall ensure that all pipe joints is constructed fully in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. The trench.

7 Connection to Existing Pipes At the places where it is shown on the drawings that there should be a connection to the pipeline or where the request for the construction of such connection is brought forward by the Employer. of which the nominal inside diameter is less than 60 cm. This shall extend 50 cm out of the surrounding concrete wall or structure and shall have a thickness of 50 cm for the pipes. • Waterproofing test In the case that the pipeline does not meet the conditions indicated in the Specification. Additional cleaning and disinfection that will be necessary for the connection shall be carried out by the Contractor without any need for expenditure on the part of the Employer. Subsequently. 149 .8 Test and Cleaning of Pipelines 2. The tests shall be repeated until successful results is achieved. 2. The pipes. The tests on the pipelines shall be carried out under the surveillance of the Employer. The test shall be repeated as soon as the repair work has been completed.6 Pipes Passing through Structures The pipes and the external faces of the structure shall be protected with a single piece C class concrete where the pipes pass through a concrete or a wall unless there is anything to the contrary in the drawings. The Employer shall have the right to request the excavation of the related sections. which will be determined to be flawed in the test as a result of a damage that has occurred during the connection act. of which the inside diameter is more than 60 cm.8. The Contractor shall pay attention and make sure that the interruption of the services in the existing pipelines remains at minimum level and see to it that such connections will be constructed at the time deemed appropriate by the Employer.2.1 Pipeline Test– General The pipelines for the drinking water shall be tested on site as indicated below: • Test for the straightness of the horizontal and vertical direction. unless there is anything to the contrary in the drawings. the new pipeline and connection shall be tested with respect to impermeability including the existing adjacent pipeline section that could have been damaged by the Contractor. This shall extend 30 cm out of the surrounding concrete wall or structure and shall have a thickness of 30 cm for the pipes. 2. the Contractor shall open test pits for this purpose if the need arises to examine such connections at the beginning of the contract in order to set out the likelihood of such connections and make sure that the material that has been supplied in the scope of the contract is suitable for the construction of the connections. unless there is anything to the contrary in the drawings. shall be removed and replaced by the Contractor. the Contractor shall do whatever is necessary for the elimination of the leakages or damages.

2. The arrangements that will be made for the test on the pipeline shall encompass the supply of the equipment necessary for removing the air from the pipeline prior to the water test.The fittings to be used for temporarily plugging the open places in the pipeline that will be subject to the test shall be designed to suit the purpose and the connection shall be made to withstand the indicated test pressure. Provisional repairs or the implementation of patch combinations shall not be permitted. dirt. manometers and the reserves. A water gauging device and a recording manometer for each pump to be used by the Employer as well as an additional connection installation for this manometer and a control device for dead weight shall be supplied by the Contractor. 2. The internal part of the pipeline shall be completely washed out with water in order to clean the foreign substances after the laying and jointing works have been completed and the pipes shall be kept in the same status until they are taken over by the Employer. In the case that leakages or flawed pipe is set out in the joint. 150 . There shall be a place for the signature of the Employer on each page to confirm that the test records have been kept on site. The Contractor shall supply at any time such request is brought forward by the Employer all employees. waste and foreign substances. The staff shall have such qualifications as are indicated by the Control Engineer.8. A copy of each page of this book shall be submitted to the Employer. The complementary test shall be carried on after the correction has been carried out until satisfactory working conditions are achieved. pumps. All tests shall be carried out at a time where the Employer is also present. the flawed work shall be specified and corrected or replaced to satisfy the Employer. stone.2 Implementation and Workmanship The sections to be tested shall be tightly plugged and the air hole system shall be completed. The pumps and manometers shall be of the appropriate brand and art for the work to be carried out and a good maintenance and adjustment shall be carried out. The pumps and/or manometers shall be subject to the approval of the Employer.9 Cleaning of Pipeline The Contractor shall keep the internal part of the pipes clean during the assembly and keep them free of water. The Contractor shall keep the records of all tests in a book and this book shall be available for controls.

nor shall undermatching be allowed.3 LAYING OF STEEL PIPES AND REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES WITH STEEL JACKET 3.2 Materials The steel covered by this specifications shall comply with the base metal used for the pipe manufacturing. insulating mats for the internal insulation of girth welds (at least 1. if accepted by the Employer. 3. Methods may be used in combination if the same 151 . The equipment shall include.5 x diameter wide). Pre-heating equipment which ensures uniform preheating around the whole circumference of welding ends. The welding shall be inspected by an independent inspection company engaged by the Contractor.3 Welding Methods Acceptable welding methods are as follows: Spiral Metal Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Melting Core Arc Welding The use of welding methods other than those listed above is permitted only with the prior approval of the Employer. It is the sole responsibility of the Contractor to document that welding and welding inspection fulfill all specified requirements. but not be limited to: Welding machines suitable for pipeline welding.1 Welding of Pipeline The Contractor shall provide all necessary personnel. an engineer with documented thorough theoretical knowledge and practical experience in the performance and evaluation of the welding work. the welders and their work during the entire working period. equipment and materials. Internal and external line-up clamps (the external clamp shall be hydraulically operated). Weather proof. Protective canopies (or umbrellas and wind shield collars) so that welding can be carried out even in relatively bad weather. 3. The yield strength of consumables shall neither overmatch the base material yield strength by more than the level in EN 499. The Contractor shall supervise the site. For this purpose the Contractor shall use a qualified welding engineer or alternatively. Post-weld heat treatment equipment. The weld filler metal selected shall give a weld metal matching the base metal properties as closely as possible.

152 . The testing shall be carried out by an approved laboratory. These certificates are only valid for six months after the last welding. 3. Each pipe or component shall be visually inspected to ensure that it has not sustained any visually determinable damage. The procedure to be followed is subject to the approval by the Supervisor. operators shall qualify for the relevant welding procedures according to API 1104. The qualification tests are acceptable if they meet the requirements for visual examination. Prior to the performance of any welding. 3. All dimensions. wall thicknesses and pressure ratings shall conform to the requirements laid down in the applicable drawings and specifications.combination and sequence of methods have been qualified by the welding procedure qualification test. Welder and welding operator performance test certificates shall be issued and kept on site during the whole working period. all combinations of materials to be joined and all repair-welding shall be explained in the report.6 Welding Preparation Material items’ grades. All the results from the procedure qualification documents shall be submitted to the Employer for approval of welding procedures. the Contractor shall carry out welding of test joints under site conditions following all of the details of the approved procedure specifications. The qualification test shall be carried out on steel with the highest specified minimum yield strength/maximum carbon equivalent which is expected to be covered by the Welding Procedure Specification. destructive testing and for radiographic examination as specified in API 1104. For each stage of welding and prior to start of production welding. Transfer of welding procedure qualification documents from one Contractor to another is not permitted. 3. sufficiently tested and documented procedures not more than 2 years old. The Employer may approve the use of already established.5 Qualification of Welders and Welding Operations Only skilled welders and welding operators who can document qualifications relevant for pipe welding will be accepted by the Employer. Reuse of damaged items shall be resolved in consultation with the Employer.4 Welding Procedure Qualification The Contractor shall submit a detailed report concerning welding procedure specifications complying with API 1104.

airborne moisture. Straying outside the weld line is not permitted. Welds fabricated with basic finer metals shall be washed with fresh water. Each pass shall be completed around the whole circumference before the next pass is started. Welding shall be suspended by the Contractor when prevailing weather conditions impair the quality of the work (e. Welding chassis connections shall always be positioned in the centre of the joint during point welding.7 Welding All welding shall be performed by qualified welders and strictly in accordance with qualified welding procedures. Therefore a stock of readily accessible new brushes is required. this shall be brought to the attention of the Control Engineer. 153 . 3. the weld and the pipe surface shall be cleaned of weld spatter and other deposits. These shall be mechanically or magnetically connected to the pipe. high winds or lightning). Upon completion of the point welding. The position of start/stop on subsequent passes shall not be identical.8 Cleaning after Welding The surface shall be dry and free of oil. grease. soil and concrete residues. Should straying outside this area occur. Cleaning by sandblasting to grade Sa 2 is allowed as an alternative. brushing shall be done mechanically using sharp brushes to avoid polishing of the steel surface. 3. and shall then be wrapped with a dry waterproof insulating mat to ensure a slow cooling of the weld zone and to give protection against rain.9 Post Weld Heat Treatment Heat treatment of weld seams shall only be carried out if specified in the approved welding procedure or where this is indicated in the projects. 3. All loose rust and mill scale shall be removed by wire brushing immediately before welding inspection.. On straight pipes. Heat treatment procedures shall be approved by the Employer.All requirements for welding preparation contained in the qualified welding procedure specification shall be strictly adhered to.g. who may require any such damaged section to be repaired or cut out. blowing sand.

the Contractor shall fill out preprinted forms and enter these in a pipe log. 3. whether or not their numbers are shown in this Specifications or its annexes. and the welding burrs shall be cleaned. the Contractor shall close the open ends of the pipes. As the work progresses. Before the start of a pressure test. The closure shall be tight enough to prevent any entry of foreign matter into the pipe. the Contractor shall submit the pipe log forms to the Control Engineer.13 Post Weld Process Heat treatment shall be applied to the pipes welded. 3.3.14 Tests The steel pipes with quality specification. and specifically to the TSE. the complete pipe log for the section in question shall be handed over to the Control Engineer. They shall be securely attached to the pipe and shall remain in place until the pipes are laid. 3.5 m and 1.10 Numbering of Weld Seams Every girth weld shall be numbered by the Contractor in accordance with a system to be specified by the Control Engineer. 154 . the Employer shall be free to decide on which will prevail.0 m from the seam together with the pipe number to write down in the pipe book. Plugs shall not be fixed by welding or by any other method which damages the pipe. shall be laid and subsequently tested according to the requirements of this Specifications and its annexes. In case that there are any difference between the standards and the requirements of this Specifications.12 Closing of Pipe Ends During welding on a pipeline segment. which will be used in the construction of the water supply pipeline and will be subject to special tests. DIN 1626 requirements shall be complied with. DIN and AWWA standards of relevance to the subject matter. When an intervention in the pipeline construction occurs. For each pipeline and each pressure test section. 3. all open ends of that segment shall be closed with a plug. or their equivalents acceptable to the Employer. This number shall be painted on the pipe coating on one side of the joint between 0.11 Coating of Weld seams The weld seams and their surroundings shall be carefully cleaned upon completion of all inspection procedures and shall be protected with internal and external coating.

The material obtained from trench excavation shall be heaped along the trench at sufficient distance from the trench not fall into the trench or cause the side walls to collapse with its weight. the curve.16 Cleaning of Expropriation Area The expropriation area of the pipeline shall be cleaned of all trees. the cutting of which will not be desired by the Control Engineer. bushes.18 Use of Excavation Material The material of good quality obtained from the excavation shall be used for filling works. the transport and loading/unloading of the pipes. The material that shall be obtained from the excavation and selected for filling shall be stored at appropriate places. the trees in the expropriation area.15 Application The pipeline shall be specified along the expropriation border with marking posts and shall be applied to the field together with the curves on the plan.17 Leveling and Trench Excavation This shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the “DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications”. Before starting with the work at any section of the pipeline. shall not be cut. The distance between the application post shall not exceed 50 m. " 3. However.19 Discharge of Water during Construction 155 . The material resulting from the clean up shall be in the possession of the Employer and shall be removed from the work area prior to the end of the contract or in the way as requested by the Control Engineer. weeds. the excavation and backfilling of the trenches and the joints as well as the excavation and filling works resulting from that. the construction of the infrastructures. 3. tangent and other important application piles of the line shall be attached to the protection piles and this shall be exhibited in the application plan. 3. dirt and other harmful substances. 3.The works to be carried out on the pipeline shall encompass the following. Piles in sufficient number shall be rammed in order to indicate the bends. execution of the head connections as indicated in the specifications and other contract documents and all other operations necessary for the construction of the pipelines. 3. the supply and installation of the special parts and valves.

the pipe shall be protected against the raising power with concrete blocks or with anchorage to the robust ground and the security factor 1. The plant soil layer removed at the cultivated areas shall be placed on top of the filling. A clearance of at least 20 cm shall be left from the wall of the trench and the pipe shall be laid as far as possible as a straight line.As long as the work is carried on. The Contractor shall be held responsible for keeping the internal parts of the pipes clean and keeping them free of foreign substances.20 Pipe Trench Filling The trench filling shall be carried out in such manner and under such conditions as are indicated in the “DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications”. the actions shall be carried out as instructed by the Control engineer. The damaged places shall be repaired in accordance with DIN 19630. Where possible. 1 Examination of Pipes before Laying The pipes and pipe parts shall be examined before being lowered in the trench. 3. the ends of all pipeline sections that have been lowered shall be closed with waterproof plugs. 3. In case of the occurrence of any damage that would affect the structural quality of the pipe. 156 . No permission shall be given for changing the anchorages or any other action that would inflict damage on the galvanization of the anchorage. The damaged parts of the pipes shall be repaired before lowering in the trenches in accordance with DIN 19630 if any damage or shortcoming is specified at the internal and external insulation. At the places where there is a danger of floatation for the pipe. from which it has been taken in the first place. The pipes shall be examined once again after they have been laid and before filling has been carried out to check whether or not the insulation layer has been damaged. equal to the thickness prior to the excavation but in a thickness that will not exceed 30 cm.21. The pipe shall be supported along the entire length and shall be sealed as much as possible. Any section that will be damaged during the lowering shall be pulled up again and lowered once again after it has been repaired. The necessary measures shall be taken to ensure that the pipe will not be subject to shocks or unnecessary tensions during the lowering act. The plant soil of the excavations shall be stored separately than the other materials at the places where the plant surface soil is placed again and the plant surface soil is generally placed at the location. they shall be cleaned inside and outside and it shall be checked and specified whether or not the insulation and the pipes have been damaged during the transport and unloading.2 shall be obtained against floating.21 Pipe Lowering and Laying 3. the surface or groundwater shall be discharged into the places where this is necessary and the pump pits and derivation canals shall be filled at the end of the contract.

attention shall be paid that the weld seam will be at upper one third section of the pipe circumference as far as possible while the pipe is placed in the trench. 3. These calculations shall be carried out according to recognized and documented standards and methods or Application Regulations. These calculations shall be carried out according to the recognized and documented standards and methods or Application Regulations.21.3 Laying of Steel Pipes As far as the weld seams can be recognized under the insulation material if pipes with longitudinal welded pipes is to be used. : Full air gap. Attention shall be paid that the weld seam will correspond as far as possible with the impartial axis at the bends of the pipes welded in longitudinal direction. underground water and traffic loads or that different load situations will result from empty or full pipeline and such calculations shall be carried out in such way that the Control Engineer will approve them and the costs shall be assumed by the Contractor. The wall thicknesses given in the Special Specifications of the projects or in the measurements are the minimum thicknesses. 3.4 Minimum and Maximum Soil Cover for Steel Pipes The pipes shall be laid according to the actual speed and real level indicated in the project.21.21.3. DIN 19630 shall apply for these issues. The issues.22 Bends 157 . The Contractor shall be responsible for the execution of the calculation of water goat and impact tank in order to be able to specify the definite values that will be approved by the Control Engineer. The Contractor shall carry out the calculations for the wall thickness of the pipes that will be used for the purpose of achieving the stabilization under all circumstances by taking into consideration that the full and partial air gaps in the pipeline will lead to a load in addition to the loads resulting from the soil. The following values shall be taken as the basis for the air gaps to be applied: • • Drinking Water Pipes Waste Water Pipes : Half air gap.2 Lowering of Pipes into Trench The equipment and tools to be used for lowering the pipes in the trench shall be suitable for uniform lowering and shall prevent the pipes from striking the side walls and trench bottom. which are indicated in DIN 19630 and pertain to the equipment and tools to be used shall also apply here. 3. weight. The longitudinal and spiral weld seams shall be placed in overlaps at the joints of the pipes.

The Contractor shall only use factory made bends where stated on the drawings. For the control of bending radius.5 14. Field bends shall be made in the field by bending straight pipe with a suitable bending machine.0 12.0 Wall Thickness (mm) 10.0 Elastic Bend (mm) 1086 1086 1241 1241 1397 1397 1552 1552 1552 1863 1863 2169 2169 Minimum Radius (mm) 1207 1207 1379 1379 1552 1552 1724 1724 1724 2070 2070 2410 2410 .0 1220. Over the whole bent section.2 16. Adjustment to the outline of the terrain shall.5 10. the pipeline shall be laid in such a way that it follows the outline of the terrain as closely as possible.0 12.2 16. The bending 158 Outside Diameter (mm) 711.1 Elastic Bends Changes of direction or inclination with elastic deformations .5 12.4 1016.0 1420.22. be made by suitable excavation of the trench.0 1016.22.Unless otherwise specified in the drawings. so that the pipe can follow an elastic trench only.2 812. Bending operations may only take place when the coating over the last 12 hours has had a surface temperature not higher than 40°C measured on the sunlit side.8 812.2 12.0 1420.shall be made in circular arcs with minimum radius as defined in the following table: Nominal Diameter (mm) 700 700 800 800 900 900 1000 1000 1000 1200 1200 1400 1400 3.0 14.5 14. field bends may be applied. The Contractor shall be responsible for adapting the bends to its technology as a result of technological reasons.0 1220.2 Field Bends Changes of direction or inclination which cannot be made with elastic bends shall be made with field bends that will be produced by the Contractor in accordance with the standard drawings and longitudinal cross-sections.2 711.0 1016.4 914.8 914. The bends shall be made in such a way that no measurable reduction of the wall thickness occurs during bending.0 14. The application of bends shall be limited to sudden changes of direction or inclination. use suitable and well supporting matrices during the bending of the coated pipes of 2. these bends shall have a constant radius as shown on the applicable standard drawings. the Contractor shall. where possible. 3. If the Contractor so wishes and has obtained the Control Engineer’s approval. for each diameter used.2 16.5 m that are produced according to the specified radius.elastic bends .

All bends (the bends in the opposite direction to each other) constructed shall be legibly paint marked with angle and scope. Bending operations only to take place in the morning. the approval of the Control Engineer shall be obtained. Pipes shall not be bent closer to the ends than that shown on the standard drawings and no cuts shall be made closer than 2 m (1. the longitudinal weld seam shall be along the neutral axis. the two bends shall be separated by at least 1. Factory-made bends shall be made with R = 1. However. only pipes not containing iron strip ends may be used.5 m for pipes with nominal diameter D ≤ 300 mm) from the bent section. Shielding against direct sunshine. the portion not immediately required shall be marked with its new angle. Water cooling.3 Factory Made Bends Changes of direction or inclination which cannot be made either with elastic bend or field bends shall be made with factory-made bends supplied by the Contractor. Irrespective of longitudinally or spiral welded pipes being used at these crossings. When bending longitudinally welded pipes.45° from the neutral axis if the weld seam is visible. 159 . When bending spiral welded pipes.22. For the specific precautions to be applied.0 m of straight pipe in order to ensure the required inclination of the pipe. The Contractor shall maintain a record of all bends constructed. pipe length. No wrinkles shall occur in the wall. the weld seam shall be placed in the tensile side 30° . Bending in steps shall be made in accordance with the applicable standard drawings. of which only one has a length that allows the use of two pipes in the opposite direction. The bending machine shall be operated by a skilled person with experience in the production of field bends. When factory-made bends which are cut in the field. Pipes that are rendered unusable through incorrect bending shall be replaced.itself may only take place when the surface temperature of the coating is 30°C or less. at these crossings. angle of bend and location in the pipeline. Pipe coating which is damaged during bending shall be repaired by the Contractor. Precautions to be taken during periods of time where the temperatures specified above cannot be ensured by usual procedures may be as follows: Whitewash with suitable paints. and the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters shall at no place exceed 3% of nominal diameter. including pipe number.5 × D or 3 × D. 3.

The cutting action shall be carried out with the machine or device that will be used to suit the characteristics of the material that will be used. Tees and Y’s shall be reinforced by wrappings or collars as shown on the drawings. The wrappings and collars shall be designed using the method described in the ASME Pressurized Vessels Not Contacting with Flame. 3. The staff to carry out the welding operations shall have a qualification document given according to DIN 1850 or equivalent standard. Section VIII. be submitted to the Control Engineer for approval. The pipes shall under no circumstances be cut with impact cutters. The external insulation shall be cut at a distance of 150 mm to the pipe ends and the internal insulation at a distance of 100 mm and only primer paint shall be applied to these sections. Design shall. 3. manifolds. the compliance with the conditions laid down in DIN 8563 (Quality control and guarantees of welding and welding workmanship) shall also be requested with regard to the welding works of the pipe heads in the trench. The welding work shall be stopped in case of bad weather conditions. the materials that could lead to leakage shall be removed from the connection point of the pipes. Y's. or other fittings that provide means of dividing or uniting flow in pipelines shall be either factory-made or manufactured at site. crosses. in any case.4 Tees and Y's Tees.1 Connection of Pipe Heads Before starting with the connection of the pipe heads.22. branches. All pipe ends shall be wrapped up for protection during both loading and loading and transport. particularly when the temperature falls under °C. sample welds shall be performed before carrying out the actual welding and it will be set out with a report using the results of the additional test that the weld has the requested characteristics. In the case that it will be necessary to continue with the welding work under such conditions. Although the compliance with the essentials. of which the main points have been given below. The issues indicated in DIN 1960 about this are valid.23 Cutting of Pipe Heads Both ends of each pipe shall be cut in perpendicular direction to the axis. Appropriate reinforcement threads and securing elements shall be provided for the Tees to be manufactured.3. The roughness at the cross-section surface shall be eliminated. Beside the issues that have been indicated. The starting and end points of the cross-section surface shall not be at different planes. 23. 160 . the principles that will be given by the manufacturer of the pipe shall be more important. shall be obligatory while connecting the pipe heads.

Bolts and nuts shall be manufactured as specified for ductile iron pipes. Pipe ends shall be provided with conical threads. Couplings shall have a minimum length of 44% of the pipe diameter. they shall be forgings or made from steel plate having the same characteristics as the pipe material. the welder shall substantiate that the weld has been carried out by him by affixing the number or signature. 161 . 3.2 Flanged Joints Where flanges are required. At least the qualification. The pipes shall be centralized before starting with the welding works with a centralization mechanism and the pipe axes shall be matched. Flanges shall be weld-on type and drilled according to NP 10 or NP16. pipe ventilation equipment shall be supplied. After the completion of each weld. When the welding type is electric arc type. 3. the standard on the shape of the weld mouths). the welding electrodes shall conform to the type given in DIN 1913 or shall be at least of equivalent quality. identity. 24 Other Jointing Methods 3. The Contractor shall keep records in two copies on each welder. place where the weld has been carried out and the quality of the weld shall be included in these records.The welders that have the requested welder documents shall be engaged by the Contractor by assigning a number.24. plus 30 mm. Coupling bodies shall be made from similar material to that of the pipes. The fact that the welders have a qualification document does not mean that they can work without control and the Contractor shall engage a qualified employee that will lead each welding group and control the works. The necessary contracts must have been concluded so that the welders will not quit the work during the construction period. The body weight between the pipe welding mouths shall be kept as small as possible. The weld seams shall be checked with x-ray in accordance with the principles laid down in DIN 54111 unless there is a statement to the contrary by the Control Engineer. Any and all operations to be carried out on the weld seam shall be carried out while the seam is red. In the case that workers must work within the pipe. and shall have parallel threads. One copy of these records shall be submitted to the Control Engineer.1 Threads Steel pipes with nominal diameters up to 150 mm (150 mm inclusive) may be threaded at both ends and provided with a detachable screwed coupling attached to one end. The weld seam shape shall be set out according to DIN 2559 (the weld seam preparation.24.

25. 3.3 Tests The test pressure shall be applied according to the principles laid down in DIN 4279. According to the principles laid down in DIN 4279.3. The implementation period of the test pressure shall be specified according to the principles laid down in DIN 5279. Lengths of the pipeline to be tested shall be specified according to DIN 4279. The test pressure to be applied shall be 2 Atm. All repair and pipe replacement works shall be carried out to achieve the impermeability after the test and the test shall be repeated until a successful result can be obtained.2 Pressure Test Filling of the pipeline with water shall be carried out in accordance with DIN 4279. which will then be recorded in the table given in the standard. The water that will be used for the hydrostatic test and remains in the pipe shall not be discharged until the Control Engineer gives an instruction to the contrary. The additional amount of water to keep the pressure at the desired level shall be specified in accordance with DIN 4279. The insulation layer shall be tested according to DIN 19630 or equivalent standards. The test pressure shall be at least 10 kg/cm2. The test pressure shall be applied according to the principles laid down in DIN 4279.25. 25 Pipeline Tests 3.25.1 Hydrostatic and Impermeability Test of Completed Pipeline Pipeline Test: The completed parts of the pipeline shall be subject to hydrostatic and impermeability tests. The pressure to be applied at the tests shall comply with DIN 4279. the weld seams shall be subject to test using air prior to the implementation of the hydrostatic test. The implementation period of the pressure shall comply with the principles laid down in DIN 4279. 162 . 3. The temperature of the air and water shall be measured according to DIN 7279.

Section V. Non-destructive Testing. Visual examination: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The procedure shall conform to the requirements of the adequate method standard and this specifications.25. Ultrasonic examination may substitute radiography where radiographic examination is impractical and may be used as general back-up for radiography in case of interpretation/verification problems.25. Article 9. Radiographic examination according to ISO 1106. Penetrant Inspection. Nondestructive Examination. Socket welds and branch connection welds which are not radiographed shall be examined by magnetic particle or penetrant methods to the extent stated for butt welds. Ultrasonic examination: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.3. Standard Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers. Part 3. Procedures shall be submitted to the Control Engineer for approval and shall be qualified to the satisfaction of the Control Engineer. 3.6 Scope of Examination All welds shall be 100% visually examined Guarantee welds (welds which will not be pressure tested) and tie-in welds shall be examined by radiography and be 100% re-examined. Liquid penetrant examination : ISO 3452. Nondestructive Examination. Section V. All valves and movable connections shall be cleaned and lubricated.5 Welding Inspection Examination shall be performed according to this specifications and the following codes and standards. 163 .25. evaluate and document all welding inspection. The Contractor shall engage a qualified independent inspection company which shall perform. and in operation. 3.4 Cleaning of Pipeline After the completion of the pipeline. Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Materials and Fabrication. Magnetic particle examination: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Article 7. Visual Examination. Magnetic Particle Examination. particularly the places of the pipes and fittings that are in contact with water shall be cleaned and the foreign substances shall be removed. All non-destructive examination shall be performed according to a written procedure. Practice for Radiographic Examination of Fusion Welded Joints. Non-destructive Examination. Fusion Welded Circumferential Joints in Steel Pipes of up to 50 mm Wall Thickness. Article 6. The inspection company shall be approved by the Control Engineer. Hardness measurement: ASTME 110. Section V. General Principles.

this could influence the quality of the weld seams. The Control Engineer may require a more extensive examination. and the costs of the testing and renewal of this seam shall be paid by the Contractor. the Contractor itself shall bear the costs. If any change of staff takes place during the course of the welding work. be made in accordance with the requirements in the respective general welding specifications covering qualification tests for welding procedures. 164 . irrespective of the results. 3. three preceding and three subsequent welds shall be examined. opening the pipe ends and rewelding the joint.25. unless otherwise agreed. If at the end of the spot examination a defect is found out. if it turns out that the seam does not comply with all the requirements.7 Production Tests The Control Engineer shall be entitled to select a number of seams for destructive testing. If five or more subsequent welds of one welder show defects. In this case. all welds of this particular welder shall be additionally examined. the welds shall be selected to ensure that the work of each welder and each welding procedure is included. The Employer shall bear the cost of these tests if the welds are proved to be acceptable. The destructive tests shall. the Control Engineer may insist on an additional seam being tested. However. The Contractor shall be responsible for cutting out the seams. the Control Engineer may require a new seam to be destructively tested at the Contractor's expense. In this case. the control may be further extended at the Contractor's expense. If this seam does not comply with the requirements. At least 10% of other butt welds shall be examined by radiography along their entire circumference as described above.Where spot examination is required in subsequent sections. The extent of any such supplementary inspection work shall be decided by the Control Engineer with the aim of establishing in a satisfactory manner whether the welding work complies with the requirements or not. All butt welds in pressurized systems with design pressure >16 bar shall be examined by 100% radiography.

Before a pipe lowered into a trench is connected with the adjacent pipe. crane or excavator: 1 . A smaller value shall be used in pipes with a diameter greater than 100 mm. it appears immediately. It is not always possible to see all cracks.4 LAYING OF ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPES 4. but any hard materials such as stones or wood won’t be placed under the pipe definitely. its heads and additional parts shall be cleaned thoroughly and shall be checked again for its solidity. 2 .After the pipe is raised a little. Afterwards. Cutting work can be performed by using cutting apparatus. They should be checked carefully for possible cracks and crushes during transportation. 3 . In order to determine them.Pipe is rolled over these wooden beams and brought at the line with middle axis of the trench and a wire or hemp rope is wrapped around it.2 Deviation from Axis Asbestos cement pipes may be laid deviating from their axis due to the elasticity of joints. 4. after it is satisfied that they are undamaged.1 Pipe Laying Pipes should be strung longitudinally on the side of trench ready for getting down. But before. Axis deviation at turning passages won’t exceed 5 o. Then accessory part shall be attached accordingly. pipe head shall be ready for attaching to other pipe. Defective pipes can be used by cutting defective parts. Pipes shall be lowered into trench carefully by using hand. 165 . wooden beams under pipes are removed and pipes are lowered down to their places in the trench.Two wooden beams are placed on the trench temporarily. The following procedures shall be performed on big diameter pipes to be lowered into a trench with the help of a tripod. rope. Medium-size springs can be turned without using bends due to this feature. pipe should be thoroughly examined and suspicious places should be wetted by pouring water. For this purpose bottom of the pipe shall be fed by some additional amount of sand or fine soil. If there is a crack at wetted place. pipe ends shall be aligned and corrected as required. crane and other equipments on bigger ones. bring them down. slope platform and mechanical equipment.

4 26. storage.9 5 53.4 Trench Fillings Trench fillings are performed according to the requirements of the "DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications.30 Radius of the smallest curve that may be turned (m) Discrepancy of one pipe from the other (cm) 3.5 Acceptance Test of Laid Pipes Objective for subjecting laid pipes to water tests is to determine if heads are made well and any failure occurred on pipes due to ignorance and accidents during shipment. Outer part of a trench should be excavated a little larger at turning points for providing this. The following issues should be provided before test: a ) Conditions of adjustment masses on the line and their resistance against forces that will appear during test. In case there is more than one pipe in the same trench. This test performed after pipe lay out shall generally be performed on 500 m parts of pipeline.5 8. This distance shall be determined by Control Engineer according to its place depending on land condition and slope.1 4 46 34. Trench excavations are performed according to the requirements of the "DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications". maximum 20 cm distance shall be left between two pipes. 4.7 1 11.7 43. Pipes passed into with complete axis and then desired deviation obtained by pulling free end towards one side.4 3 34.The table below gives the radius of smallest arches (curves) that can be turned in case a deviation angle of 5o and shows how much pipe ends will deviate from each other is shown. 166 . 4.7 2 23 17.5 2. 4. Pipe length (m) 0. lowering into trench and connecting heads of pipes and special parts.6 Sometimes pipes need to be cut in short lengths for performing these types of turns and this is very easy with asbestos cement pipes.3 Trench Width Trench base shall be such that maximum 20 cm for each will remain on both sides for pipes with diameters up to 20 cm (including 20 cm) and 60 cm width. as well as larger diameter pipes.

5 26. pipe shall be filled at least 24 hours before.5 5 7. cracks and heads and for analyzing every point. and by this way a first elimination shall be performed and faults shall be corrected. it shall be checked if smaller pressure to be formed at upper end is less than the corresponding test pressure for that part and test distance shall be shortened if needed. This time depends on appreciation of Control Engineer and cannot be shorter than half an hour for a distance of 500 m.5 Pressure Test Value to be applied (kg/cm2) 3. At this first stage. This limit is the first stage of pressure test. Because pipe heads will move with movement of pipes. Pressure Test Evaluation Table Maximum Acceptable (nominal) Pressure Value of Pipe Used that is subject to Tests (kg/cm2) 2.0 22. they move more easily under any pressure and therefore more filling should be done at places where these are laid. but a value found this way shall never be less than the test pressure given in the table below. After pipeline is filled with water completely.5 7.0 Manometer shall be attached on lower end of pipeline part being tested.5 10 12. Bottom and surrounding of heads shall be carefully filled after pressure test. Pipeline is kept under test pressure such that it will be sufficient for formation of leakages at defects. this won’t be permitted definitely. c ) They shall be supported accordingly in order that plugs inserted at both ends of the line don’t rush and come out. 1. A slight dampening may be seen at first 15 – 20 cm part adjacent to heads.5 15 17. complying with principles of “Filling Pipe Trench” and therefore movement of the line on vertical and horizontal plane shall be prevented with the influence of forces formed during test. This situation can be observed in asbestos cement 167 . pipeline under pressure shall be checked thoroughly and it shall be looked at if there are any defective pipes and special parts and if heads are generally made well.0 15. Test pump shall be placed under the pipeline and its pressure shall be gradually increased to corresponding working pressure by 1 kg/cm2 per minute (this pressure is half of the factory test pressure).5 times of working pressure shall be taken as test pressure. kept under working pressure and test shall be made after this period. Asbestos cement pipes absorb water in negligible amounts of water (10% of pipe weight).5 11.0 18. In order to obtain a healthy result. Therefore test should be started only after pipes absorbed as much water as they can.b ) Pipes shall be partially filled over their top so as to their heads will remain open at their middle parts. Such dampening may be consisted of small amount of water going from end of the pipe and oozing (leaking) under the upper layer of pipe. Because small diameter pipes are light. it is allowed for some time both for their air exit from suction cups and they absorb as much water as pipes can absorb.

06 4. IF there is any failure. should be avoided to damage elastomer jointing ring. Soil filling thickness over the pipeline should be minimum 1 m and shouldn’t exceed thicknesses given below: Maximum Thickness of Soil Cover (m) Nominal Diameter (mm) 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 With truck load 5. The Contractor is responsible for correcting them. 5 LAYING OF CAST-IRON DUCTILE PIPES 5.61 4.28 168 . Test is continued until no deficiency is left. special part. care should be given for eliminating all roughness and smoothing the thread. But if dampening occurs too much.36 5.2 Trench Excavation Trenches shall be excavated to the width.1 Straightening and Cutting of Pipes Spigot ends of pipes that cannot be elevated or lowered smoothly become flattened and may prevent correct mounting.76 4.16 5.00 4.97 4. 5. This dampening completely disappears after 4 – 5 days of operation. fittings (including fountains) are subjected to last test. Such flattening may be recovered with special stretching equipments depending on approval of Control Engineer.58 4.80 4. and pipe.90 4.49 5.pipes. Pipes shall be cut vertical to their axis.16 5. It is recommended to use circular blade cutters in cutting procedure.42 4.48 Without truck load 5. head shall be replaced or corrected. trench is filled in a suitable way and the line is subjected to a pressure 20% more than working pressure. alignments and elevations shown on the drawings and in accordance with the requirements of "DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications". After the pressure test resulted positively.30 5. depth. For attaching accessory part well.

The Contractor shall provide that inside of pipes are free of water. when angle of pipe arch remaining inside the channel is 60o: Nominal Diameter (mm) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 5. direction of pipes shall be changed after one or more joints are made if any replacement is required. In order to provide elevations shown in drawings. 169 . Minimum slope should be 1 mm per meter of pipe. Channel material shall go down to minimum 100 mm depth from lower point of the pipe.5. Channel material shall be from clean sand. At the end of daily works or at other times when a break is given to laying pipes.3 Bedding of Pipes All hard masses and big stones at the base of the trench shall be cleaned. smoothing and altitude of the pipe should be checked by a surveyor level and leveling rod.5 Change of direction won’t be permitted on clamped joints. The contractor shall take the required precautions for pipes not float.25o. before lowering pipes down to the trench. Deviation angle at each joint depends on nominal diameter and maximum values are given below: Nominal Diameter (mm) 100 – 150 200 – 300 350 – 500 600 – 700 800 – 1200 Maximum Deviation Angle ( o ) 5 4 3 2 1. Pipes shall be laid on a smooth alignment both at vertical and horizontal directions. Provided that it makes an angle less than 11. soil. stones and other foreign materials during lay out process.4 Laying and Jointing of Pipes Anchorage Thickness (mm) 150 150 150 150 200 200 200 200 200 250 250 The Contractor shall carefully check and clean the pipe for ensuring that the pipe is free of foreign materials. It won’t be permitted the slope to be zero. open ends of pipes shall be closed with a suitable cap.

impermeability of the washer also increases.Spigot of pipe T2 is coated until 25 mm remains to two marks for determining socket depth. As the pressure inside the pipe increases. For that: It is checked if spigot end of pipe T2 threaded correctly. Spigot of pipe T2 is inserted into socket of pipe T1 up to washer level. .Inside the socket of pipe T1 and especially the place where washer settles. spigot end of pipe T2 to be laid down shall be inserted such that it would completely settle into socket end of T1 pipe. Cheek of seal is inserted into pipe T1 such that they extend towards bottom of socket.Seal is cleaned. Because of elastic structure of ductile iron material. General cleaning. By using wire brush or a piece of cloth if needed: • • • . Two events can be observed here: • • . Putting on components to their correct places.Spigot of pipe T2 flattened and may not allow forming a joint. Pipe T2 is brought down into trench by crane. basic conditions are the following.Pipe is inserted correctly and mounting can continue or . General pipe jointing is as follows. . Obeying Manufacturer’s mounting instructions strictly. Spigot is kept about 400 mm near the socket of pipe T1. • With lubricating paste: • • . 170 . As a result of axial deviations on the line. It is checked if it is settled in a correct and uniform way. In this case the pipe need to be straightened. socket with washer used and behavior of connection as a joint provides high functional safety.Inner part of seal is coated.Spigot of pipe T2 to be attached and . Settlement of spigot into the socket correctly.General Pipe Jointing Though general pipe jointing depending on the type of joint. Normal joint depth is marked on both sides of pipe over the spigot of pipe T2. washer maintains its impermeability. Washers are used in all connections of ductile pipes with socket. The Contractor shall be responsible for providing required copies of these instructions.

The worker who will mount the pipe takes his position in the trench. When this stage has reached. Note: Excavator shouldn’t be used for driving pipe T2 into the socket of pipe T1. It is checked by a scanning device if washer settled into its place correctly. Trench filling shall absorb this pressure in small curves provided by adjusting pipe joints. reinforcement is performed by inserting a backfilling material without stones under them. It is important that no metal is present between pipes. this angulation is given by adjusting pipe T2 which is still hanged on the hook of the crane.two hangs in loop form behind the socket ring of pipe T1. Pipe ends closed permanently or temporarily during testing that part of pipeline (blunt flanges). Fixing masses should be used at pressure points for balancing these pressures: Points where there are route changes (angular deviation) or diameter changes.Two tripore clamps are required. 171 . The worker mounting the pipe and his assistant adjust their movements in coordination with each other. 5. and . Tripore clamps are loosened.5 Fixing Masses Forces applied by the fluid flowing through the pipe or appearing during pressure tests may be very high. adjustment is performed via a crane and tripore clamps. Spigot of pipe T2 is inserted into the socket of pipe T1 until border of the socket reaches to marks. in order that joint has a certain elasticity. Pipe is settled on the bottom of the trench.For settling into its place: • • . Points opening to branching (Tees). Spigot of pipe T2 is brought to the socket of pipe T1 . It is checked if two pipes are at the same line. Process of jointing two pipes is performed. Two workers put on tripore clamps to hanger loops and socket end of pipe T2 to be laid by using a hook. If needed. if there is a change of direction shown in pipeline location plan. For maintaining pipes in this position.

172 . A slight conical settlement surface of the ring which forms a radial force provides that the socket settles in this indent and becomes stable. No pressure shall be applied until concrete solidifies. On shafts. Underway of rivers. Clamped joints shall be used at places shown in drawings or requested by Control Engineer.Use of clamped joints for not making anchorage at all joints of pipeline. This ring has a rectangular cross-section with an angular edge and is cut horizontally with a saw. Concrete to be used will be Class C reinforced concrete. It is molded as to it has an indent where ring settles in the socket. brooks and streams.6 Retaining Wall Pipes may slide in the following conditions on lines laid slope: If pipe passes through a shaft. The joint prepared this way don’t move at even very high pressures. its fitting shall be made accordingly and they shall be placed such that all joints could be reached for repair if otherwise wasn’t shown in drawings. In case slope is 25% on underground pipes. on industrial networks. in case slope is 20%. Two solutions can be offered in this situation: . Clamped joints prevents movement (dislodging) of joint from its place.Anchoring pipeline by anchorage bolts fixed on concrete clocks located just behind of sockets (sockets normally faces source direction). Leaning blocks shall extend from fitting to intact soil level. on big urban regions. 5. 5. . Concrete won’t be subjected to any load until it solidifies. . The Contractor shall construct a retaining wall as shown in drawings or will be clamped joints. The Contractor shall perform fixing masses at all points indicated above.There is no need for additional supports when clamped joints are used. etc. On low-resistant grounds where massive concrete pressure blocks are needed. Here. a metal clamped ring prevents longitudinal movement of joint and connected pipe and fittings.7 Clamped Joints Clamped joints: On areas where a lot of lines pass underground. Fixing masses shall be produced from Class C reinforced concrete or Class D concrete without iron in dimension obtained as a result of calculation.

900 75 150 150 25 901 – 1200 75 230 230 25 Before pipes are installed. plain concrete will solidify and washed thoroughly. On spigot and socket pipes with flexible joints. Concrete protection shall be placed all along the length of trench and won’t be shorter than 15 cm at both sides of pipe body. until a suitable profile is obtained for a desired position and type in order that Class C concrete shall be placed carefully and compacted and joints aren’t damaged. a suitable cover shall be laid on that support before pouring concrete in order to make elevation of them easier. PIPE INNER DIAMETER (mm) 300 or less 301 to 600 (incl. Before concreting pipeline. Control Engine may request a Class D plain concrete layer complying with the following conditions to be installed: PLAIN CONCRETE DETAILS Minimum plain concrete thickness (mm) Minimum plain concrete extension at both borders of pipe body (mm) Minimum distance between plain concrete and pipe body (mm) Minimum distance between plain concrete and lower part of pipe socket (mm) < 600 75 150 150 25 PIPE INNER DIAMETER (mm) 601 . If excavation supports are performed.1200 ) 173 PLYWOOD THICKNESS (mm) 12 24 36 . Material shall be compacted by using hand hammer for obtaining optimum intensity. Concrete Channel Filling: If a concrete protection is to be constructed on pipelines. 600) 601 to 1200 (incl. concrete protection shall be cut at each joint on the border of socket as a vertical plane with a plywood band in a given thickness or another material approved by the Employer. it shall be provided by Control Engineer that the pipeline is in desired length in order to lay out pipes correctly and filling is compacted accordingly. Pipes having inner diameter of 1200 mm or less shall be settled strongly on precast concrete blocks and they shall be sealed from these blocks with a filling material made of saturated soft plywood with 2. concrete shall be washed thoroughly. Material to be laid around pipes shall be in type as per sand or gravel used for making bearing.5 cm thickness. After pipeline is tested by the Contractor and approved by the Employer.5.8 Filling around Pipes Selective Filling: Backfilling procedure shall commence with laying material around the pipe up to 200 mm height from upper part of the pipe.

all pumps in the pumping facilities and the complex piping systems in the pumping stations can be dismounted.10. of which the diameter exceed 100 mm. The nominal working pressure of the fittings and other equipment shall be 16 bar. 5.1 Dismountable Joints : SA 2.10. average thickness 200 micron Dismountable or adjustable/dismountable joints shall be supplied that have been manufactured in such way that all valves. and joining of lines constructed with shorter pipes shall be surrounded by concrete.2 Surface Boxes The surface boxes shall be manufactured in accordance with ISO 3531 or BS 5834 from cast iron and coated with a tar-based material.10. average thickness 100 micron : Epoxy. 5. average thickness 150 micron : Epoxy.9 Backfilling The remaining part of trench shall be filled with an approved selected backfilling material complying with "DSİ Excavation and Filling Works Technical Specifications". 5.3 Flanged Anchoring Sleeves Flanged anchoring sleeves complying with ISO 2531 shall be used at all locations where the iron pipes pass through a concrete wall or structure.11 Pipe Support The Contractor shall ensure that sufficient pipe support is achieved during the process of laying the pipes until the permanent support and anchorage works or the other measures that have been approved by the Control Engineer have been completed. 5. The Contractor shall 174 . joints shall face each other at points where concrete filling interrupted on a pipeline constructed with longest pipes.If two or more pipeline is to be laid down in the same trench.5 sanding or hammering : Pure epoxy.10 Equipment The nominal working pressure of the valves shall be 16 bar. Coating Coating of the valves and fire hydrants: Preparation of the surface Internal coating External coating (for the parts outside) External coating (for built-in parts) 5. 5.

which will comply with the typical details shown on the drawings and on which a plate with the necessary information will be installed. The backfilling of the joints can be carried out on condition that written permit is obtained from the Employer on the roads with heavy traffic. The Employer shall be notified of the issue in written form at least two days before a pressure test has been carried out at any part of the pipeline. the Contractor shall also supply the provisional marking posts and shall be responsible for the correct information on the plates.see to it that excessive tensions and loads is not imposed on the fittings. closed pipe ends and at the other locations that could be requested by the Control Engineer. The marking posts shall be erected in the shortest possible period after the trench excavations have been filled. The depth of the upper point of the pipeline shall be indicated on all marking plates. valve chambers. The trenches shall be filled up to half of the pipe. The coatings shall be applied in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer. The marking posts shall be erected with a distance of 200 m between them at the locations where the line changes the direction.12 Marking Posts of Route Marking posts shall be supplied and erected by the Contractor in order to permanently mark the route and depth of the underground lines and pipelines. The distance between the marking posts could be changed in line with the request brought forward by the Control Engineer in order to prevent the obstruction of the traffic or other land utilizations. The separate protection of the protective windings and joints and uninterrupted winding along the joints shall be included in the implementation method. 5.14 Testing of Pipeline The pressurized pipelines (together with all accessories. However. There is no need to erect marking posts along the sewage lines that are equipped with manholes. The determination masses should have been constructed prior to the test. The piping system shall be completed and it shall be checked before or after the pipes are buried in the concrete whether or not the pipes are at the right position and correctly aligned. the joints shall be in the open and as a result while the movement of the pipeline is prevented. house valves) shall be tested with water according to BS 6700. beside all valves. pipes or structures during the process of laying the pipes. 5. access to the joints shall be possible. 175 . The test pressures at the water and sewage pipes shall be at the level as required in the project. 5.13 Corrosion Protection Polyethylene coating shall be established in accordance with the drawings and at the locations required by the Control Engineer.

3 bar in the pressure shall be permitted if this period is exceed. The length tested and a clear description of the end points of this length.2 bar shall be applied at least for a period of 30 minutes. Blind flanges shall be installed in place of all cleaning and air discharge valves before the start of the test. install and operate the test pump. The valves shall not be used for this purpose. A list exhibiting the sequence of pipe laying in the pipeline section that has been subject to the test. 176 . Test Report shall be signed by the Contractor and Employer. The ends of the pipes that will be tested shall be closed with plugs or with blind flanges with anchorage that will be supplied by the Contractor. In the case that leakage is observed in the joints. the Contractor shall replace the flawed of the pipe or joint. It shall be tested during the course of the test if there is a leakage in the pipe joints but the test period shall not exceed 2 hours. of which the internal surface have been covered with mortar. the joint shall be dismounted and mounted again in order to eliminate the leakage or if this is not possible the Contractor shall supply new joints and install them. The Contractor shall provide the necessary workmanship for the test as subject to the approval of the Employer and supply. The test pressure shall be applied by using a test pump that will be controlled manually or with an engine and that will be connected to two parallel manometers that have been calibrated in an approved laboratory. the fittings and other parts that have been used. Test period. shall be left to wait at least for 24 hours as filled with water before the test. The test pressure that will not be reduced by more than 0. In case of the occurrence of a hole or any leakage in a pipe or joint. The pipes. the length of the pipeline that had been tested shall be subject to a new test as described above and these operations shall be repeated until it can be satisfactorily substantiated that the pipeline can withstand the test pressure. Decisions and results pertaining to the likely repairs. joined and anchored and the air in the pipeline shall be let outside from the upper point of the air pipe or by constructing a service connection with cock if there is a higher point in between. A pipe report shall be prepared for each test that will be carried out. The pipes shall be filled slowly and carefully with water in such way to prevent a water impact after the pipes have been laid. At least the following information shall be included in this report: • • • • • Number and date of the test. A reduction of 0. The water that will be drained from pipes shall be removed in such way that the stability of the works carried out or the adjacent buildings shall not be spoiled. In such cases. The length that will be subject to test at one time regarding the pipes laid with inclination shall be specified according to the instructions of the Employer.The pipes shall be filled in appropriate lengths that will not exceed 500 m and tested. test pressure and the results that have been obtained. the number and characteristics of the pipes. manometer and other equipment and shall first fill the pipes with water and then discharge the water after the test.

6 LAYING OF PVC. The other methods that will be suggested for the construction of the pipeline shall be explained in detail within the recommendations of the pipe manufacturer. The outer edge of the ends that have been cut shall be coned with a depth that is half of the wall thickness of the pipe and with an angle of 15o’lik. 177 . The Contractor shall draw up a washing plan and submit it to the Control Engineer for approval. placement in the open canals and jointing of the pipes and fittings to the Control Engineer for approval.All expenditures pertaining to the tests shall be assumed to have been included in the unit prices or amounts related to the laying of the pipeline submitted by the Contractor. Cleaning: All pipes shall be cleaned for a period of at least 5 minutes using clean water with a flow amount over 1 m/sec. The Contractor shall lay the flexible pipes and fittings in accordance with the placing recommendations of the pipe manufacturer and in the way as approved by the Employer. The flexible pipes shall be laid in the approved material other than at the places where protection with cement is necessary and then covered. these sections must be cut off and removed. The granulated material shall be compressed manually. The pipeline and similar materials must be checked before the laying of the pipeline.1 Laying of Pipes The Contractor shall submit its own detail projects together with the recommendations of the pipe manufacturer with regard to the transport. It would be useful to remove the burrs and other rough parts. This operation shall be repeated so long until there is no odor or taste in the water. In the case that some sections of the pipes are damaged. shall be subject to a pre-washing for at least once using fast flowing water (at least 1. The granulated material shall cover the entire width of the canal and shall be laid along the entire pipeline 150 mm under the sockets and couplings or 150 mm above the upper part of the pipes or in the manner as foreseen by the Employer. the spigots and rubber gaskets must be cleaned using a wet cloth.15 Cleaning of Pipeline The cleaning and disinfection of the pipeline shall be carried out in accordance with AWWA C 651 in four stages. of which the diameter is between 100 mm and 600 mm (including 600 mm).5 m/sec). The cut must be perpendicular to the axis and clean. Pre-cleaning: All pipes. The inserted spigots shall be placed to face the hill at large inclinations. 5. The PVC pipes shall be cut with fine-toothed saw. CTP PIPES 6. The pipelines shall be laid with the inclination indicated in the project.

The necessary measures shall be taken to prevent any damage being inflicted on the pipeline by the impacts resulting from the vehicles. The grains larger than 3 cm shall be considered as stones. To this end. The filling material from the trench bottom up to 30 cm from the upper point of the pipe must be free of stones. No other art of sliding material shall be used. The concrete cushions that should be under the armatures must also be placed as needed and without flaw. The necessary measures must be taken to prevent that damage will be inflicted on the supports. In the cases where work must be carried out. The trenches cannot be left open for a long period of time at dangerous grounds. Furthermore. In such cases. the trench shall be filled and compressed in such way and with the correct thickness that the connection places is open during the test period and the movement of the pipes shall be prevented during the test. The tolerance for the deviation from the direction is 1 cm at a length of 4 m and on the axis of the pipe. they should be laid vet carefully by making sure that they will not be subject to any impact. The bends. The pipe ends shall not be pushed in the spigot all the way up to the end and a clearance of approximately 10 mm shall be left for expansion. The recommendations of the authorized persons of the pipe manufacturer shall be taken into consideration for specifying the actual value of this clearance. the pipeline must be buried sufficiently in the ground so that the needles of the valves and fire faucets shall not be subject to direct wheel load. The transfer of effect of the impacts to the pipeline should be prevented with armatures particularly at the network lines. the pre-pressure test shall be carried out with pressurized air of 1 atm.The sliding material supplied from the pipe factory shall be applied to facilitate the access of the pipe ends in the spigots. The pipes shall be laid in the direction that has been foreseen unless there is an obligation. The inserted pipes with spigot. 178 . All open ends of the pipes that are being laid shall be tightly closed during the work interruptions in order to prevent the access of foreign substances. the long pipelines laid in the correct direction shall be sufficiently supported at the trench edges. Special tools shall be used for pushing the pipes with a diameter over 100 mm in the spigots. shall be lowered in the trench by jointing in parts outside the trench and shall be laid on the trench bottom by pressing with filling soil. Hand hammers shall be used in this section for compressing the ground. branch points and the line ends must be fixed as necessary with concrete supports. After the pipeline has been laid. which will be laid in trenches with underground water in them. The laying of PVC pipes at a temperature under zero degree shall not be recommended. fixation masses and pipeline because the bottom will be softened as a result of the precipitation and other waters coming to the trench.

d. soil or clay as much as the extra excavation and the pipe shall be laid on top of it after it has been compressed. naturally there shall be an expansion of the diameter. The pipeline shall be placed on the bottom along the length. it should be restored. The connections that shall be used most frequently: a. The plastic pipes should not be threaded. b.6. In the cases where the filling is removed or reduced as a result of rain or similar reasons. filling with fine gravel or sand with sufficient thickness shall be constructed at the crossing places of the layers with the permission obtained from the Employer. Reka type. The trench bottom shall be fortified at the grounds that are not robust. In the case that there are stones in the material extracted during the excavation. Tayton type. 6. Leaving an empty stripe of 50 cm width along the length of the trench and at both sides of the trench between the side of the trench and the soil extracted from the excavation shall be recommended. Special passage parts shall be used at the connections to other arts of pipes.2 Pipe Trenches The trench depth should at no point be less than the frost depth. In the case that changing layers at the trench bottom and varying bearing strength depending on that is in question. which leads to the reduction of wall thickness and the wall thickness of the abutment shall be less than the wall 179 . Supports in form of point should be avoided since such support leads to fractures of the pipe. The following shall be taken into consideration at the manufacture of abutment for connection: In the case that abutment is carried out by heating the pipeline and putting a hot template in it. c. Special measures should be taken in cases of necessity against frost damages with the approval of the Employer.3 Pipe Connections All connections in the pipeline should be sound and waterproof. Gluing. the necessary measures must be taken to prevent that they roll into the trench and damage the pipeline. The trench shall be excavated 15 cm deeper at the grounds with rocks and stones and the trench shall be filled with the fine grained material. Pimadur type. The trench bottom shall be straight out.

mm Outside diameter of the pipe. Good quality material must be used for the pipe connections. mm Glue.1 Testing of Constructed Pipeline Length of Pipeline The length of the pipeline that will be subject to the pressure test should not be more than 500 m. This way. etc. the top of the pipes shall be sufficiently filled in such way that the heads will be in open to ensure that they do not move under pressure. The gluing material amounts are given below: Main diameter of the pipe.thickness of the pipe. 6.) the pipes shall deviate from the axis. g 50 63 12 65 75 17 80 90 23 100 110 34 110 125 44 125 140 53 150 160 69 The types such as Tayton type. The wall thickness of this section should be more than the wall thickness of the pipe because the diameter has been enlarged. Taking into consideration that particularly at the pipelines that cannot take axial force (inserted. The supports at the end of the line should not be removed before the pressure has been totally reduced. There are methods for providing excessive wall thickness at the abutment section.4 6. 6. The compression tensions affecting the ground should be taken into consideration here. the movements of the pipeline and the leakage of water from the joints during the operation shall be prevented. A solution without abutment would be that straight pipes are connected with clamping sleeves with more wall thickness but it must be taken into consideration that in such case the connection number will be doubled. If this cannot be achieved. Pimador type and the like that allow elongation are the preferred types. Fixing the pipeline at the trench sides in appropriate intervals would be useful at straight lines too.4. 180 . The supports and fixation kits must be calculated according to the test pressure to be applied.4. the pipe can only be operated at the pressure that corresponds to the diameter and wall thickness at the abutment section.2 Supporting and Fixing of Pipeline Not only the pipe ends but also all vertical and horizontal bends and forks must be supported and fixed as needed before filling the pipeline with water. with spigot.

6 Water Leakage In the case that water leakage (drops.4. The manometer shall be generally installed at the lowest point of the line.3 times the static pressure if the test is to be carried out at the gravity water supply pipeline and 1.25 kg/cm2. 181 .7 Main Test The main test shall be immediately started if the preliminary test is successful.4. The main pressure test shall be carried out for a period of two hours using a pressure that is 1. armatures and all kinds of connection places so that this test can be considered to be acceptable.3 times the maximum working pressure if the test is to be carried out at the elevation line. 6.4. water leakage.5 Preliminary Test A preliminary test shall be carried out as a preparation before the test pressure has been established.4.) is set out during the preliminary test. 6. There should be no water leakages in the pipes. the test shall be interrupted and the pipeline shall be slowly emptied until there is no water in the pipeline.6. another manometer must be available as backup. At the end of the test: a ) If the pressure reduction is at the most 0.4 Manometer Installation The manometer to be used for the pressure test must be adjusted and accurate. special parts. 6.3 Filling of Pipeline The pipelines shall be filled with water of appropriate characteristics in such way that there will be no air in the pipeline. b ) If a movement in the pipeline not detected at the end of the examination of the line as a result of the insufficiency of the support fixations and anchorages or no signs of movement that could lead to water leakages at a later time. The test shall be repeated after the leakages have been eliminated. the test shall be considered to have yielded positive results. 6. Furthermore. The preliminary test shall be carried out with static pressure and at least for a period of 2 hours. etc.4.

y = 20 cm . 182 . 7 THE LAYING OF PE AND HDP PIPES 7.8 Connection Places of Partial Pipelines This shall have a length maximum 500 m and it must be detected that there is no water leakage at the connection places of the pipelines that will be subject to the main pressure test under the least static pressure (if possible.6. Jacket layer: Compressed soil filling free of hard substances. The trench shall consist of three layers and shall contain the following materials: Upper layer: Compressed soil filling (except for road passages).4. The relationships of the cushion layer height (y) and trench width (b) according to the pipe diameter (d) are given below: For D < 600 mm. 6. b = D + 2 x 30 cm The distance between the upper level of the pipe and the natural ground (H upper) should be minimum 50 cm. y = 20 cm . b = D + 2 x 20 cm For 600 mm < D < 1000 mm.4. the main test pressure). b = D + 2 x 30 cm For D > 1000 mm.1 Laying of Pipes The purpose of this specifications is to have maximum productivity for the trench excavation and workmanship pertaining to the pipe assembly works and at the same time to ensure the reliability of the assembly. y = 30 cm . Cushion layer: Compressed sand.9 Activation of Pipeline The pipeline shall be activated after the pressure tests have been carried out in accordance with the relevant specifications of the Employer and the subsequently the PVC pipelines laid in accordance with the project have been well washed and disinfected according to the relevant specification of the Employer.

The expansion and shortening amounts during the temperature changes in the PE pipe shall be given in mm in the table below: Table: Temperature Expansion/ Shortening Amounts (mm) PIPE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (  T) LENGTH (m) 10 20 30 1 1.2 Calculation Methods The definitions used in the calculations are given below: Standard Dimension Rate (SDR) = Nominal outside diameter (  mm) / Wall .3 Effect of Temperature The response of polyethylene to temperature changes is more clear when compared with many materials. mm) Hydrostatic Design Tension (  = MRS / C (Mpa) ) Hydrostatic Pressure (nominal pressure) (P. Polyethylene can protect its mechanical characteristics at temperatures between – 50 °C and + 50 °C. thickness (s. 183 .02 mm For Hazen Williams 149 For Darcy Weissbach 0.5 x 10-4 m/m oC. mm) = P x D / 2  + P The roughness coefficient of the HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipes used in the pressurized lines For Colebroke White 0.02 mm dir. 7. Bar) = 2 s / (D – s) PE Pipe Wall Thickness (s.7.5 3 4. The linear temperature expansion coefficient for each 1 °C shall be accepted as 1.5 6 9 18 27 12 18 36 54 50 75 150 225 100 150 300 450 o C 40 6 36 72 300 600 The temperature is an important factor that also influences the mechanical characteristics of polyethylene.

7. The manometer shall be usually installed at the lowest point of the line.4 Testing of Constructed Pipeline 7.) the pipes will deviate from the axis.2 Supporting and Fixing of Pipeline Not only the pipe ends but all vertical and horizontal bends and forks should be supported and fixed as needed before filling the pipeline with water. The supports and fixation masses must be calculated according to the test pressure to be applied. 7.4. Furthermore. 7. This way the movement of the pipeline and as a result the water leakage at the joints during the test and operation shall be prevented. The compression tension that will be applied to the ground should be taken into consideration here. Taking into consideration that particularly at the pipelines that cannot take axial force (inserted. 184 .7.4. etc.3 Filling of Pipeline The pipelines shall be filled in such way with water of suitable characteristics that there won’t be air in the pipeline.4. another manometer must be available as backup. The supports at the end of the line should not be removed before the pressure has been completely reduced.4.1 Length of Pipeline The length of the pipeline that will be subject to the pressure test should not be more than 500 m.4. Fixing of the pipes at the trench sides at appropriate intervals shall be useful at straight lines too. 7. the top of the pipes will be sufficiently filled in such way that the heads will be in open to ensure that they will not move under pressure. with spigot.4 Manometer Installation The manometer to be used for the pressure test must be adjustable and accurate.5 Preliminary Test A preliminary test shall be carried out as a preparation before the test pressure has been established. The preliminary test shall be carried out with static pressure and at least for a period of 2 hours.

7.4.6 Water Leakage In the case that water leakage (drops. 7.7 Main Test The main test shall be immediately started if the preliminary test is successful. special parts.3 times the static pressure if the test is to be carried out at the gravity water supply pipeline and 1. 7.9 Activation of Pipeline The pipeline shall be activated after the pressure tests have been carried out in accordance with the relevant specifications of the Employer and the subsequently the PVC pipelines laid in accordance with the project have been well washed and disinfected according to the relevant specification of the Employer.4.) is set out during the preliminary test.3 times the maximum working pressure if the test is to be carried out at the elevation line. 185 . At the end of the test: a ) If the pressure reduction is at the most 0. The test shall be repeated after the leakages have been eliminated.4. main test pressure). b ) If a movement in the pipeline is not detected at the end of the examination of the line as a result of the insufficiency of the support fixations and anchorages or no signs of movement that could lead to water leakages at a later time. the test shall be considered to have yielded positive results.4.8 Connection Places of Partial Pipelines The length shall be maximum 500 m and it must be specified that there is no leakage at the connection places of the pipelines that will be subject to the main pressure test under minimum static pressure (if possible. armatures and all kinds of connection places so that this test can be considered to be acceptable. etc. water leakage. the test shall be interrupted and the pipeline shall be slowly emptied until there is no water in the pipeline.There should be no water leakages in the pipes.25 kg/cm2. 7. The main pressure test shall be carried out for a period of two hours using a pressure that is 1.

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