Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Solubility Data

Bulletin # 102B
Introduction DMSO, one of the strongest organic solvents, has been used commercially for over forty years. It is an effective solvent for a wide array of organic materials, including many polymers. DMSO also dissolves many inorganic salts, particularly transition metals nitrates, cyanides and dichromates. DMSO is miscible with water and most organic liquids. This bulletin summarizes solubility of the following materials in DMSO: Organics (pages 2-3) Active pharmaceutical Ingredients (pages 4-6) Resins and polymers (pages 8-10) Inorganics (pages 10-11) Gases (page 12) Pharmaceutical Excipient Solubility Data (pages 16-17)

Oct 2007
Gaylord Chemical Company, L.L.C. (GCC) is the world’s leading provider of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Beginning in the early 1960’s ,GCC has been dedicated to the development of new uses for DMSO. In order to meet customer-specific needs, GCC has pioneered the development of multiple grades of DMSO, including DMSO USP.

Gaylord Chemical’s solutionsbased approach has contributed to the development and growth of New! DMSO Gel Preparation Data (pages 18-19) industries including pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, electronics, polymers, coatings, Data related to the solvent properties of DMSO are given in tables on the following agricultural chemicals, and pages: industrial cleaners.
Relative Hansen Solubility Parameter Data (page 12) Gaylord Chemical’s headquarters Suggested DMSO Formulations for Industrial Solvent Replacement (page 14) are located in Slidell, Louisiana Hansen Solubility Parameter Data for Selected Polymers (page 14) with manufacturing, research, Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO / Tetralin mixtures (pages 14-15) and development facilities in Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO / MIBK mixtures (page 15) nearby Bogalusa, Louisiana. Appendix: Using Three Component Solubility Parameter Methodology in GCC remains the only producer Formulating Industrial Solvent Mixtures (Page 16)

of DMSO in the Western Hemisphere.

Gaylord Chemical Company, L.L.C.
Your Global Leader For DMSO Solutions!

P.O. Box 1209 Slidell, LA 70459-1209 USA 1.800.426.6620 Office 1.985.649.0068 Fax info@gaylordchemical.com

Table 1

Solubility of Organic Materials in DMSO
Solubility Grams/100 cc DMSO Solubility Grams/100 cc DMSO

Material Acetic acid Acetone Acrawax Acrawax B Aniline Anthracene Beeswax Benzene Benzidine Benzidine methane Sulfonate Bromoethane Butenes n-Butyl acetate Butly carbitol Calcium methyl sulfonate Camphor Candelilla wax Carbon Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbowax 600 Carbowax 6000 Carnauba wax Castor oil Ceresin wax Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Citric acid Coconut oil (Misc.@160°C) Cresylic acid Cumene Cyclohexane Cyclohexene Cyclohexylamine Decalin n-Decane Di-n-butylamine o-Dichlorobenzene

20-30°C Miscible Miscible <1 Insoluble Miscible 2 Miscible Soluble Insoluble Miscible 2.1 Miscible Miscible Soluble Soluble Insoluble 90 Miscible Miscible Insoluble Miscible

90-100°C >1 4 <1 -

Material p-Dichlorobenzene S-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Dicyandiamide Dicyclohexylamine Diethanolamine Diethylamine Diethyl ether bis-(2-ethylhexyl)amine Diethyl sulfide Di-isobutyl carbinol

20-30° C Very Soluble 4 40 4.5 Miscible Miscible Miscible 0.7 Miscible Miscible 3.3 11 4.4 Miscible Miscible 33.9 Miscible Very soluble 10 >100 0.38 3.5 Soluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Miscible Miscible Miscible Miscible Miscible Miscible Miscible Miscible 54 Miscible < 0.05 2.9 24

90-100°C 100

-

Di-isobutylene (0.6% DMSO is soluble in di-isobutylene) Disopropyl ether Dimethyl ether Dimethyl formamide Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl sulfone Dioxane Diphenyl Dipentene Dodecanol n-Dodecane Dodecylbenzene (Neolene 400)

Miscible

Soluble <1

8 <1 <1

Dye- Burnt Sugar Dye- FD&C Blue Dye- Pistachio Green B 1-Eicosanol Ethyl benzoate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl bromide

Miscible Reacts > 70 0.3 Miscible Miscible 4.67 Miscible Miscible 4.5 0.7 11 Miscible 1.3

Reacts

Ethyl ether Ethylene dichloride Formalin (37%) Formamide Formic acid Glucose Glycerine Glycine Hexane 4-Hydroxy benzoic Acid

0.1

2

130-180°C <1 Miscible 40 Insoluble Miscible Miscible Miscible Insoluble Succinic acid Sugar (sucrose) Sulfamic acid Sulfuric acid Tallow Tallow amide.3 Miscible Reacts Miscible > 180 Misc.5 10 Miscible 0.4 0.6 90-100°C 0. hydrous Lauryl amide (Armid 12) Lorol 5 Lubricating oil Methionine Methyl borate Methyl caprate Methyl iodide Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl laurate Methyl mercaptan N-methyl morpholine Methyl palmitate Methyl salicylate Methyl sulfonic acid Methylene chloride Microcrystalline wax Morpholine Naphthalene Neoprene Nitrobenzene Oleic acid Ouricuri wax Oxalic acid Palmitic acid Paraffin Paraformaldehyde Paradichlorobenzene Pentaerythritol n-Pentane Pentene 1 &2 Perchloric acid Petroleum ether (DMSO soluble 0.5 Miscible 60 0.35 7.3-0. Continued Solubility of Organic Materials in DMSO Solubility Grams/100 cc DMSO Solubility Grams/100 cc DMSO Material Hy-Wax 120 Imidazole Isophthalic acid Isoprene Kerosene Lanolin.9 > 40 33 85 1 38 100 Insoluble Insoluble Slightly soluble 56 5-10 30 0.1 Miscible Miscible Miscible 7 40 (Reacts) Miscible Immiscible Miscible Miscible Miscible 90-100°C <1 76 11 (gets cold) > 20 Material 20-30°C Phosphoric acid Miscible Phosphorus trichloride Reacts vigorously Phthalic acid 90 Picric acid Soluble Pyridine Miscible Pyrogallol 50 Rosin > 100 Rosin soap (Hercules Dresinate X) Slightly soluble Sevin 50 Silicon tetrachloride Sorbitan sesquioleate Sorbitan trioleate Sorbitol Soybean oil Reacts vigorously 2.9 0.9 Miscible Soluble Miscible 10 Soluble 10 40 100 1. hydrogenated (Armour Armide HT) Terephthalic acid Tetra hydrophthaIic anhydride Tetralin Tetrapropylene Thiourea Toluene Toluene di-isocyanate Tributylamine Tricresyl phosphate Triethanolamine laurylsulfate Triethanolamine Triethylamine Trinitrotoluene Turpentine Urea 30 30 40 Miscible Insoluble Insoluble 26 50 Miscible 1 40 Miscible Miscible 0.Table 1.1 Reacts violently 110 3 >100 Xylene Miscible 3 .5% in petroleum ether) Phenol 20-30°C 80 68 Miscible 0.

5 18.8 35.9 38.9 11.3 0.0 81.6 Acetominophen Acetyl-D-Glucosamine Acyclovir USP Albuterol Sulfate Aloe Vera Powder Freeze Dried 200:1 Aamitriptyline Hydrochloride USP Amphotericin B USP (Oral Grade) Androstendione Baclofen Beclomethasone Dipropionate USP Beta Glucan (1.1 0.0 89.3) FG Betamethasone Dipropionate USP Biotin (D) USP (Vitamin H) Budesonide Bupivacaine Hydrochloride USP Capsaicin Synthetic Capsicum Oleoresin USP (Liquid) Carbamazepine USP Cephalexin USP Chloroquine Diphosphate Chondroitin Sulfate Clindamycin phosphate Clobetasol Propionate USP Clonidine Hydrochloride USP Clotrimazole USP Colchicine USP Cyclobenzaprine USP Cyclosporin (A) USP Deoxy-D-Glucose (2) Dexamethasone USP 103-90-2 10036-64-3 59277-89-3 4 .7 28.4 49.3 12.1 4.6 23.0 4.5 0.4 45.0 22.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 8.0 4.5 37.6 14.4 0.0 5.6 10.2 0.6 N/A 549-18-8 1397-89-3 63-05-8 1134-47-0 1134-47-0 N/A 5593-20-4 58-85-5 51333-22-3 18010-40-7 2444-46-4 8023-77-6 298-46-4 15686-71-2 50-63-5 9007-28-7 24729-96-2 25122-46-7 20.6 10.3 Solubility g/100ml Solution@25oC 43.1 19.2 59865-13-3 154-17-6 50-02-2 46.0 0.6 23593-75-1 64-86-8 5.0 0.0 35.0 0.0 19.5 29.7 18.9 9.4 25.6 23.4 40.7 6.0 5.5 15.5 6.6 31.8 0.0 5.4 0.0 45.3 4.3 42.9 15.3 25.4 42.9 0.6 19.5 4.0 0.0 0.8 21.3 9.8 4.5 5.0 5.9 0.6 15.6 Solubility g/100g DMSO@25oC 77.3 0.6 23.Table 2 Solubilities of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in DMSO Pharmaceutical Nomenclature CAS Number Solubility g/100ml DMSO@25oC 84.4 55.5 14.0 0.0 60.0 27.0 17.6 17.0 17.0 4.8 0.0 26.0 17.0 0.0 38.5 0.

3 45.8 45.1 0.7 0.0 3.2 0.3 35.7 97.0 21.0 6.7 49.5 39.9 10.0 19.5 0.1 33.5 131.8 0.6 100.3 90.5 0.0 7.3) Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Edetate Disodium USP Ergoloid Mesylate USP Erythromycin USP Estradiol USP (E2) Estradiol Cypionate USP Estradiol Valerate USP Estriol USP (E3) Estrone USP (E1) Fluorouracil-(5 FU) USP Glucosamine Hydrochloride (D) Guaifenesin USP Haloperidol USP Hydrocortisone Acetate USP Ketamine Hydrocortisone USP Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate USP Ibuprofen USP Indomethacin USP Itraconazole HCl USP CIII Ketoconazole USP Ketoprofen Levamisole HCl USP (Vet Use) 53-43-0 83-73-8 4076-02-2 N/A 6381-92-6 8067-24-1 114-07-8 50-28-2 313-06-4 979-32-8 50-27-1 53-16-7 51-21-8 66-84-2 93-14-1 52-86-8 50-03-3 50-23-7 630-56-8 15687-27-1 53-86-1 84625-61-6 1867-66-9 65277-42-1 22071-15-4 16595-80-5 CAS Number Solubility g/100ml DMSO@25oC 70.8 9.8 0.0 7.2 108.9 54.3 47.7 Solubility g/100ml Solution@25oC 39.4 54.6 82.2 5.6 7.1 49.6 376.5 5 .1 119.2 0.0 52.3 0.7 119.8 0.7 91.8 88.0 0.0 16.9 17.8 45.6 79.5 3.5 47.7 8.0 54.3 9.0 84.5 83.8 8.7 61.9 55.0 3.1 4.9 92.0 18.6 412.Table 2.3 33.2 15.8 8.5 4.3 26.2 9.8 8.3 11.4 9.7 13.1 0.8 9.4 35.0 3.2 Solubility g/100g DMSO@25oC 64.0 4.6 3.0 24.6 91.0 22. Continued Solubilities of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in DMSO Pharmaceutical Nomenclature Dextromethorphin Dichlofenac Sodium Dihydroepiandrosterone Diiodohydroxyquin (Iodoquinol) USP Dimercatopropanesulfonic Acid Na Salt (2.

0 0.5 37.9 34.0 6.2 6493-05-6* 36.9 47.3 25.8 7.4 6.9 86.0 6.8 0. Continued Solubilities of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in DMSO Pharmaceutical Nomenclature CAS Number Solubility g/100ml DMSO@25oC 163.7 20.2 24.1 Solubility g/100ml Solution@25oC 59.4 Solubility g/100g DMSO@25oC 148.6 15.8 46.9 13.2 34.6 6.0 3.4 7.1 2.5 9.0 17.0 4.4 5.7 7.1 15.2 39.3 2.9 Lidocaine USP Lipoic Acid.Table 2.0 4.8 23.0 311.0 5.6 22916-47-8 22204-53-1 98-92-0 21829-25-4 1400-61-9 37.5 7.2 43.6 5.8 36322-90-4 50-24-8 53-03-2 145-13-1 5.0 85.4 7.1 9.8 2.2 10.4 2.5 25.8 284.2 42.7 6.6 6.5 28.6 57-83-0 4.1 2.6 7.7 2.5 18. DL-alpha (DL-Thiotic Acid) Loperamide Hydrochloride USP Lorazepam USP Civ NDC: 51927000502 Manganese Chloride Tetrahydrate USP Mebendazole USP Medroxypregesterone Acetate Megestrol Acetate USP Methimazole USP Methotrexate USP Metronidizole Miconazole Base USP Naproxen USP Niacinamide USP Nifedipine USP Nystatin USP Panthenol Pentoxifylline Phenytoin USP (Diphenyl Hydantoin) Piroxicam USP Prednisolone Prednisolone USP Pregnenolone Prochlorperazine dimaleate Progesterone USP 137-58-6 1077-28-7 34552-83-5 846-49-1 13446-34-9 31431-39-7 71-58-9 595-33-5 60-56-0 59-05-2 6 .8 46.3 21.9 32.2 4.1 94.3 93.2 7.9 0.2 8.2 6.8 74.8 7.5 3.5 12.0 5.7 30.

2 57-13-6 N/A 152-11-4 79-81-2 68-19-9 67-97-0 10191-41-0 65-19-0 13463-41-7 45.2 0.) 58-33-3 318-98-9 7491-74-9 7 .1 17.0 0.9 9.0 15.8 0.8 21.7 48.8 20.5 11.0 8.3 13.0 0.6 337.0 0.6 0.6 17.0 0.6 77.8 0.0 2.2 9.8 3.8 10.6 15.0 18.0 130-40-5 13292-46-1 22199-08-2 54965-24-1 70024-40-7 0.5 15.2 14.6 30.5 32.0 0. Dis.9 19.8 16.0 0.8 10. Continued Solubilities of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in DMSO Pharmaceutical Nomenclature CAS Number Solubility g/100ml DMSO@25oC 24.5 22.0 10.7 41.Table 2.9 2.9 53.5 17.2 11.0 0.000 U/mL) Vitamin B12 USP (Cyanocobalamin) Vitamin D3 (2400 U/mL) Vitamin E Yohimbine Hydrochloride Zinc Pyrithione (48% Min.8 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.2 94-24-6 60-54-8 148-79-8 552-22-7 53902-12-8 369.0 9.0 0.8 9.0 41.6 29.0 Promethazine Hydrochloride USP Propanolol Hydrochloride Pyracetam Riboflavin-5-Phosphate Sodium USP Riboflavin-5-Phosphate Sodium USP Rifampin USP Silver Sulfadiazine USP Tamoxifen Citrate USP Terazosin Hydrochloride Dihydrate Testosterone Tetracaine USP Tetracycline USP Thiabendazole USP Thymol Iodide Purified Tranilast Triamycynilone Urea USP Vancomycin Hydrochloride Verapamil Hydrochloride USP Vitamin A Palmitate (18.0 Solubility g/100g DMSO@25oC 22.5 19.0 0.2 10.6 27.0 Solubility g/100ml Solution@25oC 18.9 0.0 0.4 9.1 9.0 0. Aq.0 10.7 27.8 0.0 20.0 0.1 0.0 9.8 37.

) Cellulose Cellulose triacetate Viscose rayon Cellophane Carboxymethyl cellulose Nitrocellulose Chlorinated Resins Butaclor MC30 (Distugil) CM3630 (Bayer) Hypalon DH70 (DuPont) Epoxies Epikote 1004 (Shell) Epon 1001 (Shell) Epon 1004 (Shell) Epon 1007 (Shell) Swells Soluble 50 50 50 20-30°C Soluble Soluble >25 >5 5 Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Swells Soluble Insoluble Swells 10 Swells 20 <1 Insoluble Insoluble 10 25 at 130°C with some decomposition 25 at 130°C 40 at 130°C 25 at 150°C 40 at 150°C Soluble @ 140°C 20 Viscous soln.E. Grams/100cc DMSO 90-100°C Comments 8 . Solubility. Cyanamid) Polyamides Nylon 6 Nylon 6/6 Nylon 6/10 Nylon 11 Rilsan (Elf Ato) Nylon 12 Oryasol (Elf Ato) Polyimides Bismaleimide copolymers Kermid 353 (Rhone-Poulenc) Kermid 711 (Rhone-Poulenc) Polyamino bis maleimide Kermid 601(Rhone poulenc) I Polyamideimide Torlon 4203L (Amoco) Polyetherimide Ultem 100 (G.Table 3 Solubility of Resins and Polymers in DMSO Material Aminoplasts Melamine Formol Urea formol Polyacrylics Orlon (DuPont) Acrilan (Monsanto) Verel (Eastman) Creslan (Am.

Table 3. Dow Corning 805 soln. ppts at 130°C - Swells Soluble Soluble Soluble 100 9 . Grams/100cc DMSO 90-100°C Comments Swells Swells Swells Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble <1 <1 Soluble Soluble Soluble Miscible Miscible Miscible 70 >5 >1 7 50 Dissolves at 160°C. Continued Solubility of Resins and Polymers in DMSO Material Fluorinated Resins Polyvinylidene floride Foraflon (Atochem) Elastomers Viton DF801 (DuPont) Viton DF809 (DuPont) Kalrez 4079 (DuPont) Teflon (DuPont) Methacrylates Lucite 41. Dow Corning "Sylkyd 50" Dow Corning Z6018 (flake) Sulfur Resins Polyphenylene sulfide Ryton V107 (Philips) Polyethersulfone Victrex 660P (ICI) Ultrason E3000 (BASF) Udel (Amoco) Urethanes Vithane (Goodyear) 20-30°C Solubility. 45 (DuPont) Plexiglas (Rohm & Haas) Phenoplasts Modified Novalac R7522 (Ceca) R7550 (Ceca) Norsophen Resin PH 13 (CDF Chime) Polycarbonates Lexan (General Electric) Polyesters Dacron (DuPont) CX 1037 (Goodyear) Atlac (ICI-America) Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Poly(butylene terephthalate) Hytrel (DuPont) Silicones Dow Corning 803 soln.

cloudy and viscous Sol. Cyanamid) Neoprene Polyetherether ketone (PEEK) Polyethylene Polypropylene Polystyrene Rosin (Hercules) Penton chlorinated polyether (Hercules) Vinsol (Hercules) 20-30°C 30 2 5 >5 70 Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble >100 50 Table 4 90-100°C 20 42 90 15 30 >100 10 30 30 20 Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble 5 >100 25 at 130°C Very viscous Very viscous Viscous Viscous Viscous Comments Partially sol. Grams/100cc DMSO 90-100°C 25°C 80 30 1 10 1 45 Reacts 10 . Grams/100cc DMSO Material Vinyle-Polymers & Co-polymers Butvar B-76 (Monsanto) Formvar 7/70 E Monsanto) Elvanol 51-05 (DuPont) Elvanol 52-22 (DuPont) Elvanol 71-24 (DuPont) Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (GAF) Geon 101 (PVC Goodrich) Vinylite WHH (Union Carbide) Teslar (DuPont) Vinylidenes Darvan (Goodrich) Saran film (Dow) Geon 200 x 20 (Goodrich) DNA (Goodrich) Other Resinous Materials Melmac 405 (Am. at 150°C. Grams/100cc DMSO 25°C 90-100°C Material Insoluble Reacts 10 1 Insoluble 1 50 10 5 Ammonium nitrate Ammonium thiocyanate Barium nitrate Beryllium nitrate(4H2O) Bismuth trichloride Boric acida Bromine Solubility. at 160-170°C Soln. Continued Solubility of Resins and Polymers in DMSO Solubility. ppts at 130°C SOLUBILITY OF INORGANIC MATERIALS IN DMSO Material Aluminum sulfate (18H20) Aluminum chloride Ammonium borate (3H20) Ammonium carbonate(H20) Ammonium chloride Ammonium chromate Ammonium dichromatec Solubility.Table 3.

p.01 1 60 60 6.013 20 12 2 38 20 <0.5 90 90 Potassium chloride Potassium cyanide Potassium hydroxide Potassium iodide Potassium nitrate Potassium nitrite Misc.01 <1.4 10.01 10 1.0 0.035 30 20 20 24.Table 4.p.4 1 12 0.3° b) possible reaction c) not recommended due to safety considerations 11 . Continued SOLUBILITY OF INORGANIC MATERIALS IN DMSO Cadmium chlorideb Cadmium iodide Calcium chloride Calcium dichromate(3H2O)c Calcium nitrate(4H2O) Ceric ammonium nitrate Cobaltous chloride (6H2O) Cupric acetate(H2O) Cupric bromideb Cupric chloride(2H2O) Cupric sulfate(5H2) Cuprous iodide Ferric ammonium sulfate Ferric chloride(6H2O) Ferrous chloride(4H2) Gold chloride Iodine Lead chlorideb Lead nitrate Lithium bromide Lithium chloride Lithium dichromate(2H2O)c Lithium iodide Lithium nitrate Lithium perchloratec Magnesium chloride(6H2O) Magnesium nitrate (6H20) Manganous chloride (4H20) Mercuric acetate Mercuric bromide Mercuric iodide Mercuric sulfate Molybdenum bromide Nickel chloride(6H20) Nickel nitrate (6H20) Potassium bromide 20 30 Insoluble 50 30 1 30 Insoluble 1 Insoluble <0.01 130 <0.0 40 20 100 90 100 <0.2 1 0. m.6 180 50 20 2 60 a) @20.01 <0.2 10 41.5 1.01 1 at 30°C Insoluble 30 30 5 >100 10 20 31.1 10 31. Potassium perchloratec 6 27 Potassium thiocyanate Silver iodide Silver nitrate Sodium sulfate Misc.2 1 25 40 5 10 Reacts violently Reacts violently 5 30 1 >100 30 55 <0. m. Sodium azide Sodium chloride Sodium cyanide Sodium dichromate(2H2O)c Sodium hydroxide Sodium iodide Sodium nitrate Sodium nitrite Sodium perchloratec Sodium thiocyanate Stannic chloride Stannous chloride(2H2O) Strontium bromide(6H2O) Strontium chloride(2H2O) Sulfur dichloride Sulfur monochloride Tungsten hexachloride Uranyl nitrate (6H2O) Vanadium chloride Zinc acetate Zinc chlorideb Zinc nitrate(6H2O) Zinc sulfate 20 @150°C Silver chloride 0.

6 6.32 60.86 0.46 x 10-4 1.1/2.1 5.5 2.2 13.0 4.0 8.0 31.0 3.8 2.3 8.6 Table 6 Relative Hansen Solubility Parameter Data Solvent DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE (DMSO) Butyrolactone Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) Dimethylformamide (DMF) N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) Propylene Carbonate Sulfolane δd 9.0455.0 7.01 6.5 (reacts) 2.8 The units for solubility parameters in this table are (cal /cm 3).Solubility of Gases in DMSO (At Atmospheric Pressure.05 <0.0 12.2 8.1 12.5 8.8 58.1 11.99 x 10-3 Miscible (possible reaction) 6.5 3.N2O4) Oxygen Ozone Propane Propyne Sulfur dioxide 57. 20 oC) Grams Gas/ 100 Grams Solution Acetylene Ammonia Butadiene Butane Butylenes (mixed) Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Ethane Ethylene Ethylene oxide Freon 12 Helium Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide Isobutylene Methane Nitric oxide (NO) Nitrogen Nitrogen dioxide(NO2. SI units (J/ cm3)1/2 can be obtained by multiplying by 2.7 6.4 (reacts) 2.8 9.049 Gas Volume/ Volume of DMSO 28.3 δt 13.39 x 10-2 Table 5 0.95 x 104 0.05 .7 0.0 1.1 40.6 5.8 11.0 3.99 2.00 2.0 5.6 4. 12 .0 8.44 x 10-3 Reacts 1.8 7.35 2.8 9.0 5.56 2.0 δP 8.5-3.4 δh 5.2 0.3 12.8 1.85 x 10-2 .8 306.92 x 10-3 0.89 x 10-2 2.0 9.

8 8.9 7.6 8.1 3.0 3.6 6.1 6.2 8.0 5.8 8.6 3.0 δh 3.1 4.1 5.6 7.0 5.7 8.5 2.5 5.4 2.6 8.1 4.2 2.6 6.8 3.7 8.7 8.4 6.3 6.6 8.8 4.0 Butyrolactone Cellosolve Cyclohexanone Dimethyl acetamide Dimethyl formamide Ethyl amyl ketone Ethylene glycol butyl ether acetate Isophorone 9.9 4.5 2.8 5.1 4.5 3.7 2.6 8.5 2.8 8.0 13 .0 3.5 3.7 8.6 8.1 6.6 8.0 7.2 3.2 5.7 8.3 7.0 3.0 8.5 3.3 6.1 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.4 2.8 2.0 8.0 4.3 6.0 5.6 2.3 6.5 δh 3.6 8.1 8.9 9.8 δp 5.6 2.0 2.4 3.9 8.6 8.8 3.5 5.5 8.0 8.1 2.6 Methyl ethyl Ketone Methylene chloride Nitrobenzene 7.6 8.5 5.0 5.2 8.1 4.8 δp 5.9 2.5 5.8 8.0 2.9 8.1 8.5 2.4 5.5 2.0 9.7 2.5 2.0 Theoretical Replacement Mixture Weight % 65% DMSO 35% Aromatic 150 10% DMSO 30% Aromatic 150 60% Isopropyl alcohol 100% DMSO 33% DMSO 67% Butyl alcohol 40% DMSO 60% Aromatic 100 67% DMSO 33% Amyl acetate 80% DMSO 20% 2-methyl butanol 30% DMSO 70% Aromatic 100 20% DMSO 60% Butyl alcohol 20% Amyl acetate 50% DMSO 40% Aromatic 100 10% n-Butanol 20% DMSO 80% MIBK 67% DMSO 33% Amyl acetate 80% DMSO 20% 2-methyl butanol 30% DMSO 70% Aromatic 100 20% DMSO 60% Butyl alcohol 20% Amyl acetate 50% DMSO 40% Aromatic 100 10% n-Butanol 20% DMSO 80% MIBK 40% DMSO 60% Aromatic 150 45% DMSO 55% Toluene δd 8.0 Methyl ethyl ketone Dimethyl acetamide Dimethyl formamide Ethyl amyl ketone Ethylene glycol butyl ether acetate Isophorone 7.1 3.4 5.9 5.7 2.6 7.Table 7 Suggested DMSO Formulations for Industrial Solvent Replacement Solvents to Be Replaced δd Acetone Butyl cellosolve 7.0 2.9 7.5 8.5 2.

5 2. and show the composition of maximum solvency for each polymer and solvent pair.4 6.8 7.9 9.4 3.9 2.2 1.3 3.6 2.7 5.7 Tables 9 and 10 illustrate how the solvency of a mixture for selected polymers can be related to the composition of the mixture."Epicote" 1001 Shell Chemical Polystyrene BASF Polyvinyl acetate "Mowilith" 50 Farbwerke Hoechst Nitrocellulose 1/2 sec.7 5.Table 7. A solvency value of 100 was assigned to mixtures at the center of the HSP envelope and a value of 0 to mixtures at the envelope boundary.0 8.0 5.5 9.0 4.G.2 7.4 10.1 4. Continued Suggested DMSO Formulations for Industrial Solvent Replacement Solvents to be Replaced NMP Pentoxone (discontinued) Propylene carbonate Sulfolane 8.1 10.2 6.1 3.2 6.0 6.2 8.9 8. Hagedorn Cellulose acetate "Cellidora" A.7 8.3 9.2 6. Predicted solvencies of mixtures of DMSO and tetralin or DMSO and methyl isobutyl ketone for these eight polymers are tabulated.0 4.7 3."Epicote" 1001 Shell Chemical Polystyrene BASF Solvency(1) Versus Mixture Composition 100 0 42 77 ns 80 20 87 85 35 60 40 99 81 70 50 50 93 40 60 80 60 87 20 80 38 32 91 0 100 ns ns 84 14 .3 5.6 3. Bayer A.0 9.8 5.6 2.8 5.5 8. Polyvinyl chloride "Vipla"KR Montecatini 9.G. Polyester "Desmophen" 850 A. with ratio of the solvents selected.0 3.2 6.7 4. Bayer A.9 5.0 3.0 10. Table 9 Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO/Tetralin Mixtures Polymer DMSO % Tetralin% Polymethylmethacrylate Rohm & Haas Epoxy .8 9.8 8. H 23 A.6 Theoretical Replacement Mixture 70% DMSO 30% Aromatic 100 50% DMSO 50% Aromatic 100 100% DMSO 100% DMSO Table 8 8.1 10.0 5.1 5.5 7. These tables also show how solvency changes with the composition of the mixture.0 Hansen Solubility Parameter data for Selected Polymers Polymer dd dP dh Radius Polymethylmethacrylate Rohm & Haas Epoxy .2 7.8 2.9 8.1 4.

Bayer MaterialScience Polyvinyl chloride MIBK-methyl isobutyl ketone If Solvency <0.G. Farbwerke Hoechst Nitrocellulose 1/2 sec. H 23 Cellulose acetate Polyester. Shell Chemical Polystyrene Polyvinyl acetate Mowilith® 50. Bayer A. rating is “ns” indicating not soluble.Desmophen® 850. H 23 A.Epicote® 1001.G. Hagedorn Cellulose acetate "Cellidora A.Table 9. Polyvinyl chloride "Vipla" KR Montecatini If Solvency <0. Solvency(1) Versus Mixture Composition 100 0 73 67 74 85 ns 80 20 86 65 89 83 ns 60 40 89 65 61 74 ns 68 50 50 84 40 60 77 4 0 57 ns 20 80 57 ns ns 35 ns 0 100 28 ns ns 5 ns Table 10 Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO/MIBK Mixtures Polymer DMSO. % MIBK. Solvency(2) Versus Mixture Composition 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 42 77 ns 73 67 74 85 ns 77 73 15 72 83 81 74 ns 84 58 27 64 82 54 58 ns 67 38 30 43 69 0 39 ns 38 9 21 28 51 ns 16 ns 0 100 0 ns 12 6 27 ns ns ns 15 . Polyester "Desmophen" 850 A. rating is “ns” indicating not soluble. Bayer A. Continued Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO/Tetralin Mixtures Polymer DMSO % Tetralin% Polyvinyl acetate "Mowilith" 50 Farbwerke Hoechst Nitrocellulose 1/2 sec. % Polymethylmethacrylate Epoxy .

1 (Aldrich) Gelcarin® GP 911NF (FMC) Crodacol® C-95 NF (Croda) Ethanol (Aldrich) Ethocel® Standard 4 (Dow) Klucel® LF (Aqualon) Methocel® E3 Premium LV (Dow) .& D. refined (Alfa Aesar) Drakeol® 5 (Penreco) Mg Stearate (Ferro) Drakeol®19 (Penreco) Oleic acid (Aldrich) Carbowax® Sentry® 300 (Dow) Ritox® 53 (Rita) Carbowax® Sentry® 8000 (Dow) Lutrol® F127 NF (BASF) Resomer® L210 S (Boehringer Ingelheim) Resomer® RG502 H (Boehringer Ingelheim) Eudragit® E 100 (Rohm Pharma) 16 .Table 11 Pharmaceutical Excipient Solubility Data Excipient Brand Name (Supplier) Solubility Description practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble very soluble sparingly soluble sparingly soluble sparingly soluble freely soluble slightly soluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble very soluble very soluble very slightly soluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble freely soluble practically insoluble/insoluble Butyl and other patch adhesives Duro-TAK® (National Starch) Carnauba Wax Carrageenan NF Cetyl Alcohol NF Ethanol (absolute) Ethylcellulose NF Hydroxypropyl cellulose Hypromellose USP Lactose Lanolin Lecithin Light Mineral Oil NF MgStearate NF Mineral Oil USP Oleic Acid PEG 300 NF PEG 50 Stearate PEG 8000 NF Poloxamer NF Poly (L-lactide) Poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) Polymethacrylates Carnauba wax.Lactose Medilan® Ultra (Croda) Lecithin. No.

Table 11 (continued) Pharmaceutical Excipient Solubility Data Excipient Polyoxyl 35 Castor Oil NF Polysorbate 80 NF Polyvinyl Alcohol Povidone USP Propylene Glycol (USP) Sorbitan Monopalmitate Soybean Oil NF Starch Pregelatinized NF Stearic Acid Sucrose Water White Petrolatum USP Brand Name (Supplier) Cremophor® EL (BASF) Tween® 80 (Uniqema) PVA. 21oC) 17 . 9. Grade I (Aldrich) Sucrose (Domino) Water Super White PET USP (Penreco) Parts of Solvent Required for 1 Part of Solute Less than 1 From 1 to 10 From 10 to 30 From 30 to 100 From 100 to 1000 From 1000 to 10000 10. All measurements were performed at room temperature (ca.000 or over Solubility Description very soluble very soluble practically insoluble/insoluble freely soluble very soluble insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble practically insoluble/insoluble sparingly soluble freely soluble very soluble practically insoluble/insoluble Descriptive Term Very Soluble Freely Soluble Soluble Sparingly Soluble Slightly Soluble Very Slightly Soluble Practically Insoluble Or Insoluble Adapted from USP 28 / NF 23 (2005) p. fully hydrolyzed (JT Baker) Kollidon® 90 F and 17 PF (BASF) Propylene Glycol (Dow) Span® 40 (Uniqema) Super Refined® Soybean Oil NF (Croda) Starch 1500 (Colorcon) Stearic acid.

Instrument settings of 100.5. respectively. Methocel E5 LV. Methocel E4M: All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer. and 2.5. 1. Ethocel® Standard 4 NF and Ethocel Standard 10 18 . using spindle 61 for measurements at 0. using spindle 61. The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm.5. Gels were measured at 73○F (23○C).0. Other Dow rheology modifiers currently under evaluation include: Polyox® WSR N10 NF. respectively.Table 12 DMSO Gel Preparation Data Pharmaceutically acceptable gelling agents suitable for the formulation of topical / transdermal DMSO products were evaluated to understand the effect of polymer loading on formulation viscosity. 1. 30. 30. Instrument settings of 100. The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm. Gels were measured at 73○F (23○C). 12 and 5 RPM were used for samples containing 0. 6 and 100 RPM were used for samples containing 0.0 wt% triethanolamine. All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer. using spindle 61 at 100 rpm.0.5 % polymer. Spindle 63 was used for the 2. Methocel® is a trademark of the Dow Chemical Company. 1. 1.0 wt% polymer. 1.0 wt% polymer.5. Gels were measured at 73○F (23○C). The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm.0 and 1. Formulation included 1.5. Methocel A4M: All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer.0 % sample. and 2.

981 NF.5 % polymer. 1. The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm. and 2. 1. Carbopol 941 NF : All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer. The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm. 934 NF. Spindle 61 was used for the 0. and 2.0 wt% polymer. Other Hercules Aqualon rheology modifiers currently under evaluation include: Klucel GF.5. EF. it may be best to form a pregel in DMSO. 1.5. 974 NF.Table 12 (continued) DMSO Gel Preparation Data Pharmaceutically acceptable gelling agents suitable for the formulation of topical / transdermal DMSO products were evaluated to understand the effect of polymer loading on formulation viscosity. 980 NF.5.0 and 1. 1342 NF. followed by slow addition of the less polar cosolvent. The additive is sifted with stirring into DMSO and allowed to disperse over 30-60 minutes. HDPP. Instrument settings of 30.0. DMSO-based gels are prepared using methods similar to those described by manufacturers for water-based media. Warming the mixture at 50°C is helpful in dispersing the additive. respectively. Gels were measured at 73○F (23○C). 0.0. Klucel HF: All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer. LF. Recommended packaging materials for storage include HDPE.5. Other Noveon rheology modifiers currently under evaluation include: Carbopol 940 NF. or Teflon® PTFE.5 % and 2. 1. MF.0 % sample.3 RPM were used for samples containing 0. and pH adjustment using suitable bases is often useful.0 wt% polymer. using spindle 61 for measurements at 0. General procedure for preparing DMSO-based gel products. HFX.5.0% polymer. 971P NF 19 . 934 NF. JF. Klucel® is a trademark of Hercules Aqualon. 2.0.5 % sample and spindle 62 for the 1. Gels were measured at 73○F (23○C). 71G NF.5. Ultrez 10 NF.6 and 20 RPM were used for samples containing 0. Spindle 64 was used for the 2.0% sample. Instrument settings of 60. In the case that less polar cosolvents are included. 1. respectively. 1. Carbopol® is a treademark of Noveon Corporation. using spindle 64 for measurements at 1. 100 and 0.

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