Version 5.

00 CAESAR II
Applications Guide

Copyright © 1985-2005 COADE, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1
Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Program Support / User Assistance .......................................................................................................... 1-3
COADE Technical Support ...................................................................................................................... 1-4
Chapter 2 Bends 2-1
Bend Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 2-2
Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends ............................................................................. 2-4
180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends .......................................................................... 2-5
Mitered Bends........................................................................................................................................... 2-6
Closely Spaced Mitered Bend................................................................................................................... 2-7
Widely Spaced Mitered Bend ................................................................................................................... 2-9
Elbows - Different Wall Thickness......................................................................................................... 2-13
Bend Flexibility Factor ........................................................................................................................... 2-15
Chapter 3 Restraints 3-1
Anchors..................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
Anchors with Displacements .................................................................................................................... 3-3
Flexible Anchors....................................................................................................................................... 3-4
Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements .................................................................................... 3-5
Flexible Nozzle - WRC Bulletin 297........................................................................................................ 3-6
Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements ........................................................................... 3-7
Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model .............................................................................. 3-8
Double-Acting Restraints ....................................................................................................................... 3-13
Double-Acting Restraints - Translational .................................................................................... 3-13
Double-Acting Restraints - Rotational ........................................................................................ 3-13
Single-Directional Restraints .................................................................................................................. 3-15
Guides..................................................................................................................................................... 3-16
Limit Stops.............................................................................................................................................. 3-18
Windows ................................................................................................................................................. 3-20
Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps........................................................................................... 3-21
Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement .................................................................. 3-22
Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap and Predefined Displacement................................... 3-23
Restraint Settlement ................................................................................................................................ 3-24
Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap............................................................................................ 3-25
Skewed Single-Directional Restraint ...................................................................................................... 3-27
Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes......................................................................................... 3-28
Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models............................................................................................ 3-29
Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees ........................................................................................................ 3-30
Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees............................................................................................. 3-31
Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends .............................................................................................................. 3-32
Near/Far Point Method ................................................................................................................ 3-32
On Curvature Method.................................................................................................................. 3-32
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Vertical Leg Attachment Angle.............................................................................................................. 3-35
Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends .......................................................................................................... 3-36
Large Rotation Rods - Basic Model........................................................................................................ 3-38
Large Rotation Rods - Chain Supports ................................................................................................... 3-40
Bi-Linear Restraints................................................................................................................................ 3-41
Static Snubbers ....................................................................................................................................... 3-43
Plastic Hinges ......................................................................................................................................... 3-44
Sway Brace Assemblies.......................................................................................................................... 3-45
Chapter 4 Hangers 4-1
General Information.................................................................................................................................. 4-2
Simple Hanger Design.............................................................................................................................. 4-3
Single Can Design .................................................................................................................................... 4-4
Constant Effort Support Design................................................................................................................ 4-5
Constant Effort Supports - No Design...................................................................................................... 4-6
Existing Springs - No Design ................................................................................................................... 4-7
Multiple Can Design................................................................................................................................. 4-8
Old Spring Redesign................................................................................................................................. 4-9
Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel ............................................................................................... 4-10
Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement .................................................................................. 4-11
Hanger Between Two Pipes.................................................................................................................... 4-12
Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity.......................................................................................... 4-13
Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load ............................................................................. 4-15
Simple Bottomed Out Spring.................................................................................................................. 4-16
Lift Off Spring Can................................................................................................................................. 4-17
Bottom Out Spring Can Capability......................................................................................................... 4-18
Modeling Spring Cans with Friction....................................................................................................... 4-19
Chapter 5 Expansion Joints 5-1
Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust ....................................................................................................... 5-2
Tied Bellows - Simple vs. Complex Model .............................................................................................. 5-4
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Simple Model......................................................................................... 5-5
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Complex Model ..................................................................................... 5-7
Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models ........................................................................................... 5-9
Universal Joint - Comprehensive Tie Rod.............................................................................................. 5-14
Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops - Comprehensive Tie Rod Model ...................................... 5-15
Hinged Joint............................................................................................................................................ 5-16
Slotted Hinge Joint - Simple Model........................................................................................................ 5-18
Slotted Hinge Joint - Comprehensive Model .......................................................................................... 5-20
Slip Joint ................................................................................................................................................. 5-21
Gimbal Joints .......................................................................................................................................... 5-23
Dual Gimbal............................................................................................................................................ 5-25
Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows....................................................................................................... 5-27
Chapter 6 Miscellaneous Models 6-1
Reducers ................................................................................................................................................... 6-2
Ball Joints ................................................................................................................................................. 6-4
Jacketed Pipe ............................................................................................................................................ 6-5
Cold Spring............................................................................................................................................... 6-7
Connecting Equipment ............................................................................................................................. 6-8
Vertical Vessels ............................................................................................................................. 6-8
Introduction 3
Horizontal Vessels....................................................................................................................... 6-11
Chapter 7 Examples 7-1
Example 1 - Harmonic Analysis - TABLE............................................................................................... 7-2
Harmonic Analysis of This System............................................................................................... 7-4
Example 2 - Relief Valve Loads - RELIEF.............................................................................................. 7-7
CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations ................................................................................... 7-9
Relief Valve Example Problem Setup ......................................................................................... 7-10
Example 3 - Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER) ................................................ 7-19
Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads ................................................................................ 7-27
Water Hammer Loading - Output Discussion ............................................................................. 7-29
Problem Solution......................................................................................................................... 7-31
Example 4 - Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM)................. 7-32
Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example......................................................................................... 7-32
Discussion of Results................................................................................................................... 7-45
Example 5 - Structural Analysis - FRAME ............................................................................................ 7-47
Example 6 - Dynamic Analysis - NUREG9 ........................................................................................... 7-57
NRC Example NUREG 9............................................................................................................ 7-57
Example 7 - Omega Loop Modeling - OMEGA..................................................................................... 7-64
Example 8 - Jacketed Piping - JACKET................................................................................................. 7-69
Step 1 - Create Modeling Plan..................................................................................................... 7-70
Step 2 - Node Layout................................................................................................................... 7-70
Step 3 - Core Piping Input ........................................................................................................... 7-72
Step 4 - Jacket Input - 1st Half .................................................................................................... 7-73
Step 5 - Jacket Input - 2nd Half ................................................................................................... 7-77
Example 9 - WRC 107............................................................................................................................ 7-79
Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107 Local Axes .................. 7-81
Example 10 - NEMA SM23 ................................................................................................................... 7-91
NEMA Example PT69M............................................................................................................. 7-91
Nozzle Results for PT69M.......................................................................................................... 7-93
Nozzle Load Summation Report ................................................................................................. 7-95
Chapter 8 Tutorial A 8-1
System Overview...................................................................................................................................... 8-2
Preparing the Drawing................................................................................................................... 8-3
Generating CAESAR II Input........................................................................................................ 8-5
Input Review ............................................................................................................................... 8-18
Ending the Input Session ............................................................................................................. 8-22
Performing the Static Analysis .................................................................................................... 8-22
Reviewing the Static Results .................................................................................................................. 8-25
Static Analysis Output Listing..................................................................................................... 8-29
Conclusions............................................................................................................................................. 8-38
Chapter 9 Tutorial B 9-1
Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads........................................................................................................... 9-2
Creating Accurate Models ...................................................................................................................... 9-11
WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking.......................................................... 9-15
Checking Nozzle Loads .......................................................................................................................... 9-20
System Redesign..................................................................................................................................... 9-24
Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................. 9-34
This chapter discusses the organization of the manual and important information regarding user assistance.
In This Chapter
Overview .................................................................................... 1-2
Program Support / User Assistance ............................................ 1-3
COADE Technical Support ........................................................ 1-4

C H A P T E R 1
Chapter 1 Introduction
1-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Overview
The CAESAR II Applications Guide is intended to serve as an example guide, showing the application of CAESAR II. Users
should refer to this manual for examples of specific piping components, as well as complete example jobs.
Chapters 2 through 6 of this manual illustrate the techniques and methods used to model individual piping components,
restraints, and attached equipment. These chapters should be referenced often when modeling seldom-used components or
unusual geometries. Users should recognize that the numeric data used in these examples is not necessarily applicable in all
cases. In general, the numeric values used in these examples are fictitious quantities, unless otherwise noted.
Chapter 7 is a chapter of worked examples, illustrating the application of CAESAR II to various piping problems. These
examples illustrate modeling, problem solving, and program operation.
Chapters 8 and 9 contain a tutorial that walks users through the modeling and analysis of a complete system.
Users are encouraged to work through these chapters, especially if a particular analysis has not been previously attempted.
The component modeling examples in Chapters 2 through 6 are especially useful, for both modeling techniques and general
program understanding. The examples in Chapter 7 also provide engineering guidelines and indicate where assumptions
must be made in attempting to solve real-world problems.

Introduction 1-3
Program Support / User Assistance
COADE’s staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also, at times, an elaborate process—one
that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our documentation is intended to address questions regarding piping
analysis, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all the answers can be quickly found in these volumes.
COADE understands the engineer’s need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To that end, COADE has
a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II and piping issues raised by users. CAESAR II support is
available by telephone, e-mail, fax, and the Internet; literally hundreds of support calls are answered every week. COADE
provides this service at no additional charge to the user. It is expected, however, that questions focus on the current version
of the program.
Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. COADE schedules regular training
classes in Houston and provides in-house and open attendance training around the world. These courses focus on the
expertise available at COADE —modeling, analysis, and design.

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COADE Technical Support
Phone: 281-890-4566 E-mail: techsupport@coade.com
Fax: 281-890-3301 WEB: www.coade.com
This chapter illustrates the modeling techniques for various bend techniques in CAESAR II.
In This Chapter
Bend Definition .......................................................................... 2-2
Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends ............... 2-4
180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends ............ 2-5
Mitered Bends............................................................................. 2-6
Closely Spaced Mitered Bend..................................................... 2-7
Widely Spaced Mitered Bend..................................................... 2-9
Elbows - Different Wall Thickness ............................................ 2-13
Bend Flexibility Factor ............................................................... 2-15

C H A P T E R 2
Chapter 2 Bends
2-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Bend Definition
Bends are defined by the element entering the bend and the element leaving the bend. The actual bend curvature is always
physically at the TO end of the element entering the bend.
The input for the element leaving the bend must follow the element entering the bend. The bend angle is defined by these
two elements.
Bend radius defaults to 1 1/2 times the pipe nominal diameter (long radius), but may be changed to any other value.
Specifying a bend automatically generates two additional intermediate nodes, at the 0-degree location and at the bend mid-
point (M).
For stress and displacement output the TO node of the element entering the bend is located geometrically at the far-point on
the bend. The far-point is at the weldline of the bend, and adjacent to the straight element leaving the bend.
The 0-degree point on the bend is at the weldline of the bend, and adjacent to the straight element entering the bend.
The FROM point on the element is located at the 0-degree point of the bend (and no 0-degree node point will be generated)
if the total length of the element as specified in the DX, DY, and DZ fields is equal to:
R tan (| / 2)
where | is the bend angle, and R is the bend radius of curvature to the bend centerline.
Nodes defined in the Angle and Node fields are placed at the given angle on the bend curvature. The angle starts with zero
degrees at the near-point on the bend and goes to | degrees at the far-point of the bend.
Angles are always entered in degrees. Entering the letter M as the angle designates the bend midpoints.
Nodes on the bend curvature cannot be placed closer together than specified by the Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend
parameter in the Configure-Setup—Geometry section. This includes the spacing between the nodes on the bend curvature
and the near and far-points of the bend.
The minimum and maximum total bend angle is specified by the Minimum Bend Angle and Maximum Bend Angle
parameters in the Configure Setup—Geometry section.
Bends 2-3
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Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends
Single and double flanged bend specifications only effect the stress intensification and flexibility of the bend. There is no
automatic rigid element (or change in weight) generated for the end of the bend.
Single and double-flanged bends are indicated by entering 1 or 2 (respectively) for the Type in the bend auxiliary input.
Rigid elements defined before or after the bend will not alter the bend's stiffness or stress intensification factors.
When specifying single flanged bends it does not matter which end of the bend the flange is on.
If the user wishes to include the weight of the rigid flange(s) at the bend ends, then he/she should put rigid elements (whose
total length is the length of a flange pair) at the bend ends where the flange pairs exist.
As a guideline, British Standard 806 recommends stiffening the bends whenever a component that significantly stiffens the
pipe cross section is found within two diameters of either bend end.
The flanges in the figures below are modeled only to the extent that they affect the stiffness and the stress intensification for
the bends.
Flanged Bends
Bends 2-5
180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends
Two 90-degree bends should be separated by twice the bend radius.
The far-point of the first bend is the same as the near-point of the second (following) the bend.
The user is recommended to put nodes at the mid point of each bend comprising the 180 degree return. (See the example
below.)
180 Degree Bend
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Mitered Bends
Evenly spaced mitered bends, whether closely or widely spaced, are uniquely defined by two parameters:
Number of cuts (changes in direction)
Equivalent radius <or> miter spacing.
For closely spaced miters the equivalent radius is equal to the code defined “R1” for B31.3 and “R” for B31.1. The equation
relating the equivalent radius to the spacing for evenly spaced miters is:
Req = S / [ 2 tan(u) ]
Where:
Req - equivalent miter bend radius
S - spacing of the miter cuts along the centerline
u - code defined half-angle between adjacent miter cuts:
u = o / 2N
Where:
o - total bend angle
N - number of cuts
An additional parameter B (length of miter segment at crotch) is checked for closely spaced miters when using B31.1. B
may be found for evenly spaced miters from:
B = S [ 1 - ro / Req ]
Where:
ro - outside radius of pipe cross-section.

Bends 2-7
Closely Spaced Mitered Bend
Miter bends are closely spaced if:
S < r [ 1 + tan (u) ]
Where:
S - miter spacing
r - average pipe cross section radius: (ri+ro)/2
u - one-half the angle between adjacent miter cuts.
B31.1 has the additional requirements that:
B > 6 tn
u s 22.5 deg.
B - length of the miter segment at the crotch.
tn - nominal wall thickness of pipe.
Closely spaced miters regardless of the number of miter cuts may be entered as a single bend. CAESAR II will always
calculate the spacing from the bend radius. If the user has the miter spacing and not the bend radius, the radius must be
calculated as shown below.
The mitered bend shown below has 4 cuts through 90 degrees and a spacing of 15.913 in.
Req = S / [ 2 tan (u) ]
u = o / 2N
= 90 / [2(4)]
= 11.25 deg.
Req = 15.913 / [2 tan (11.25 deg.)]
= 40
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Closely Spaced Miter Bend
Bends 2-9
Widely Spaced Mitered Bend
Mitered bends are widely spaced if:
S > r * [1 + tan (u)]
S - spacing between miter points along the miter segment centerline.
r - average cross section radius (ri+ro)/2
u - one-half angle between adjacent miter cuts.
B31.1 has the additional requirement that:
u s 22.5 deg.
In CAESAR II, widely spaced miters must be entered as individual, single cut miters, each having a bend radius equal to:
R = r [1 + cot (u)] / 2
R - reduced bend radius for widely spaced miters.
During error checking, CAESAR II will produce a warning message for each mitered component, which does not pass the test
for a closely spaced miter. These components should be re-entered as a group of single cut joints
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Widely Spaced Miter
Pipe O. D.
Pipe Thk.
Bend Angle
Cuts
Req
= 10.375 in.
= 0.500 in.
= 90 degrees
= 2
= 45 in.
Assuming closely spaced:
u = /2N =90/(2-2) =22.5 oc¸.
Find that 37.279 >6.9826 (Check the Closely Spaced Miter Requirements). The bend is widely spaced. The
reduced miter bend radius is needed to define widely spaced beds in CAESAR II.
Bends 2-11
Widely Spaced Miter
Calculate the A coordinates to get from the tangent intersecting point of the single cut miter bend at node 10 to
the single cut miter bend at node 15.
Note: The straight pipe section coming into and going out of the bend must be > Reqsin ( u ).
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Widely Spaced Miters ... Continued
Input widely spaced miters as individual straight pipe elements, with bends specified, having one miter cut.
Input for element from Node 5 to Node 10.
Input for element from Node 10 to Node 15.
Input for element from Node 15 to Node 20.
Bends 2-13
Elbows - Different Wall Thickness
When the fitting thickness in the bend auxiliary field is entered, CAESAR II changes the thickness of the curved portion of
the bend element only. The thickness of any preceding or following straight pipe is unaffected.
The specified fitting thickness applies for the current elbow only and is not carried on to any subsequent elbows in the job.
Stresses at the elbow are calculated based on the section modulus of the matching pipe as specified in the B31 codes.
However, stress intensification factors and flexibility factors for the bend are based on the elbow wall thickness.
The elbow at 10 has a thickness larger than the matching pipe wall. The matching pipe has a thickness of 0.5.
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Thick Elbow
Bends 2-15
Bend Flexibility Factor
Normally bend flexibility factors are calculated according to code requirements. However, the user may override the code
calculation by entering a value in the K-factor field. For example, if the user enters 1.5 in this field, the bend will be 1.5
times as flexible as a straight pipe of the same length.

This chapter details the modeling of various restraint types in CAESAR II.
In This Chapter
Anchors....................................................................................... 3-2
Anchors with Displacements ...................................................... 3-3
Flexible Anchors......................................................................... 3-4
Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements ...................... 3-5
Flexible Nozzle - WRC Bulletin 297.......................................... 3-6
Double-Acting Restraints ........................................................... 3-13
Single-Directional Restraints...................................................... 3-15
Guides......................................................................................... 3-16
Limit Stops ................................................................................. 3-18
Windows..................................................................................... 3-20
Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps............................... 3-21
Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement ...... 3-22
Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap and Predefined Displacement 3-23
Restraint Settlement.................................................................... 3-24
Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap................................ 3-25
Skewed Single-Directional Restraint .......................................... 3-27
Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes............................. 3-28
Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models................................ 3-29
Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees ............................................ 3-30
Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees................................. 3-31
Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends .................................................. 3-32
Vertical Leg Attachment Angle.................................................. 3-35
Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends .............................................. 3-36
Large Rotation Rods - Basic Model ........................................... 3-38
Large Rotation Rods - Chain Supports ....................................... 3-40
Bi-Linear Restraints.................................................................... 3-41
Static Snubbers ........................................................................... 3-43
Plastic Hinges ............................................................................. 3-44
Sway Brace Assemblies.............................................................. 3-45

C H A P T E R 3
Chapter 3 Restraints
3-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Anchors
The following are general guidelines and information concerning anchors:
The anchor default stiffness for translational and rotational degrees of freedom is defined in the Configuration file.
Connecting nodes can be used with anchors to rigidly fix one point in the piping system to any other point in the piping
system.
Entries in the Stif field apply to all 6 anchor degrees of freedom.
Displacements should not be specified at an anchor. If the displacements of a particular point are known, they should be
input directly without any additional restraints or anchors.
Accurate input of the piping boundary conditions (i.e. restraints) is probably the single most important part of system
modeling, requiring experience both with piping fabrication and erection, and with CAESAR II.
The first group of examples illustrates a large number of boundary condition applications and their proper modeling using
CAESAR II.
Rigid Anchor at Node 5
Nozzle Connection Modeled As Anchor
Rigid Anchor Input
Restraints 3-3
Anchors with Displacements
Follow these general guidelines to model anchors with displacements:
Enter only displacements for the node.
Do not specify restraints or anchors at the node to be displaced.
For anchors with displacements, make sure all 6 degrees of freedom at the node are defined.
Note: Degrees of freedom not defined (left blank) in any displacement vector are assumed to be free in all load cases.
Up to 9 different displacement vectors (i.e., D1...D9) may be defined.
Non-zero displacements are usually part of the thermal expansion effects and, if so, should normally be added into any
analysis case containing the corresponding thermal, i.e. W+P1+T1+D1. The CAESAR II recommended load cases do this
automatically.
The translations and/or rotations for any nodal degree of freedom having displacements specified in any displacement
vector will be zero for load cases not containing that vector as part of the load case identification, and the specified non-zero
value for load cases containing the vector as part of the load case identification. For instance, defined displacements are
used if the load case is W+P1+T1+D1 (OPE) and those displacements are held to zero if the load case is W+P1 (SUS).
Once a degree of freedom has been fixed in one displacement vector, it cannot be free in another displacement vector at the
same node (leaving a displacement field blank will default to zero in this case).
Anchors with Predefined Displacements
Predefined Displacements on an Anchor
Anchor Displacement
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Flexible Anchors
Follow these guidelines to model flexible anchors:
Use six flexible restraints.
Put four restraints on one spreadsheet and the last two restraints on the next element spreadsheet.
See the following flexible nozzle examples to improve modeling methods for intersections of this type.

Flexible Restraints for Nozzle and Shell
Restraints 3-5
Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements
To model flexible anchors with predefined displacements, implement the following requirements:
Use six flexible restraints.
Put four restraints on one spreadsheet and the last two restraints on the next element spreadsheet.
Define a unique connecting node (CNode), at each of the six restraints. All six restraints should have the same
connecting node.
Specify the displacements at the connecting node.
Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements
The connecting node here is 1005. Connecting node numbers may be selected at the user's
convenience, but must be unique.
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Flexible Nozzle - WRC Bulletin 297
Adhere to these requirements when modeling flexible nozzles:
Frame only one pipe element into the nozzle node.
Do not place restraints at the nozzle node.
Do not place anchors at the nozzle node.
Do not specify displacements for the nozzle node. (See the following example for displacements at flexible nozzles.)
CAESAR II automatically performs the following functions:
Calculates nozzle flexibilities for the nozzle/vessel data entered by the user
Calculates and inserts restraints to simulate nozzle flexibilities
Calculates flexibilities for the axial translations, circumferential, and longitudinal bending
Users must perform the error check process to view these calculated values.
CAESAR II uses the following criteria for its calculations:
Shear and torsional stiffnesses are assumed rigid.
Nozzle configurations outside of the WRC 297 curve limits are considered rigid. It is not unusual for one stiffness value
to be rigid because of curve limits, and the others to be suitably flexible.
The Vessel Temperature and Material fields on the WRC 297 auxiliary data area may be used to optionally compute
a reduced modulus of elasticity for the local stiffness calculations.
Restraints 3-7
Schematic of Nozzle and Vessel to be Modeled Using WRC 297
WRC 297 Input Example
WRC 297 Output Example
Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements
Follow these guidelines to model flexible nozzles with predefined displacements (WRC 297):
3-8 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Define a unique vessel node on the Nozzle spreadsheet.
Apply the predefined displacements to the vessel node.
Note: These displacements can be given on any element spreadsheet (the displacement node does not need to be on an
element that defines it).
The CAESAR II generated nozzle/vessel flexibilities will be inserted in restraints that act between the nozzle node and the
vessel node.
Flexible Nozzle With Predefined Displacements
Displacements Defined on Vessel Node
Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model
Follow these guidelines for modeling a flexible nozzle that includes a complete vessel:
Define a unique vessel node on the Nozzle Spreadsheet.
Run a rigid element between the vessel node defined on the Nozzle Spreadsheet and the centerline of the vessel. The
outside diameter of the rigid element should be approximately equal to the outside diameter of the vessel. The weight of
the rigid element should be zero.
Model the actual vessel length using pipe elements. The vessel diameter and wall thicknesses should be modeled as
accurately as possible
Use an anchor to model the vessel anchorage point.
The CAESAR II generated nozzle/vessel flexibilities will be inserted between the nozzle node and the vessel node.
Restraints 3-9
Full WRC 297 Model Schematic
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Full WRC 297 and Vessel Model
Pipe Entering Nozzle WRC 297 Auxiliary Input
Restraints 3-11
Full WRC 297 and Vessel Model Continued ...
Rigid Element Specifications For
Vessel Radius. Rigid Weight is Blank ( 0.0)
Vessel Element
Vessel Skirt Element
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WRC 297 Results Found At End Of Error Checking
Restraints 3-13
Double-Acting Restraints
Double-acting restraints are those that act in both directions along the line of action. Most commonly used restraints are
double-acting.
A CNode is the connecting node. If left blank then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to a rigid point
in space. If the CNode is entered then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to the connecting node.
If a gap is specified, it is the amount of free movement along the positive or negative line of action of the restraint before
resistance to movement occurs. A gap is a length, and so is always positive.

Double-Acting Restraints - Translational
Restraint acts along both the positive and negative directions. Friction at double-acting restraints acts orthogonally to the
line of action of the restraint.
Double - Acting Restraint at Node 55 in the Z Direction
Schematic Input
Double-Acting Restraints - Rotational
The behavior of these restraints is similar to double-acting translational restraints.
Friction is not defined for rotational restraints.
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Hinged-End Rod Free to Rotate About the Z-Axis
Four restraints on element spreadsheet containing node
105 and remaining restraint on next spreadsheet.
Restraints 3-15
Single-Directional Restraints
The following are some important facts pertaining to single-directional restraints:
The sign on the single-directional restraint gives the direction of “free” movement; that is, a +Y restraint may move
freely in the positive Y direction and will be restrained against movement in the negative Y direction.
Single-directional restraints may define restraint along positive, negative, or skewed axes.
Any number of single-directional restraints may act along the same line of action. (If more than one single directional
restraint acts along the same line of action, then there are usually two in opposite directions and they are used to model
unequal leg gaps.)
A CNode is the connecting node. If left blank then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to a rigid
point in space. If the CNode is entered then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to the connecting
node.
Friction and gaps may be specified with single-directional restraints.

Rigid Single - Directional Restraint in Y at Node 20
The sign on the restraint gives the direction of free
movement. Since the stiffness is omitted, the
restraint will be rigid.
3-16 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Guides
The following are some important facts pertaining to Guides in CAESAR II.
Guides are double-acting restraints with or without a specified gap.
Connecting Nodes (CNodes) can be used with guides.
Guides may be defined using the global system coordinates or with the restraint type GUI.
A guided pipe in the horizontal or skewed direction will have a single restraint, acting in the horizontal plane,
orthogonal to the axis of the pipe.
A guided vertical pipe will have both X and Z direction supports.
CAESAR II computes direction cosines for guides. Guide direction cosines entered by the user are ignored.

Guide on Horizontal Pipe with Single Directional Restraint
Node 25 is guided in Z with a gap of 2.5 in. A single
directional restraint in the Y direction also exists.
Both restraints are rigid.
Note: Replacing the guide restraint type is the same
thing as replacing the Z restraint type.
Restraints 3-17
Guided Pipe in Both Horizontal and Vertical Directions
3-18 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Limit Stops
The following are important facts pertaining to Limit Stops:
Limit stops are single- or double-acting restraint whose line of action is along the axis of the pipe.
The sign on the single-directional restraint gives the direction of unlimited free movement.
Limit Stops/Single Directional Restraints can have gaps. The gap is the distance of permitted free movement along the
restraining line of action.
A gap is a length, and is always positive. Orientation of the gap along the line of action of the restraint is accomplished
via the sign on the restraint.
Connecting Nodes (CNode) may be used with any Limit Stop model.
Limit Stops may be defined using the restraint type LIM.
Limit Stops provide double or single-acting support parallel to the pipe axis. Limit Stops may have gaps and friction.
The positive line of action of the Limit Stop is defined by the FROM and TO node on the element.
CAESAR II computes direction cosines for orthogonal or skewed limit stops. Limit Stop direction cosines entered by the
user are ignored.

Directional Limit Stop with a Gap
Restraints 3-19
Two Limit Stops Acting in Opposite Directions
The stop at 45 permits unlimited free movement in the plus X direction, and 1.0 in. of free
movement in the minus X direction before the Limit Stop becomes active.
The stop at 195 permits unlimited free movement un the minus X direction, and 1.0 in. of free
movement in the plus X direction
3-20 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Windows
Keep in mind the following facts when modeling Windows in CAESAR II.
Equal leg windows are modeled using two double-acting restraints with gaps orthogonal to the pipe axis.
Unequal leg windows are modeled using four single-acting restraints with gaps orthogonal to the pipe axis. (See the
following example.)
The gap is always positive. The sign on the restraint determines the direction of movement before the gap closes. If
there is no sign, then the restraint is double-acting and the gap exists on both sides of the line of action of the restraint.
If there is a sign on the restraint then the gap exists on the “restrained” line of action of the restraint, i.e. a +Y restraint is
restrained against movement in the -Y direction, and any gap associated with a +Y restraint is the free movement in the
-Y direction before the restraint begins acting.

Window Modeled with Four Single Directional Restraints with Gaps
Restraints 3-21
Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps
These restraints can be considered specialty items and are typically only used in sophisticated expansion joint or hinge
models.
Bi-Directional Rotational Restraint with Gap
Allowable rotation of 5 degree in either
direction about the X-axis before resistance to
rotation is encountered.
Hinge Assembly with Directional Rotational
Restraint
Hinge Assembly at node 50 can rotate relative
to assembly at node 55 only in the positive
direction about the X-axis.
3-22 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement
Define the one-directional restraint as usual, and enter a unique node number in the CNode field. Specify the predefined
displacements for the CNode.
Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement
Piping at node 55 rests on top of the restraint that is displaced in the
Y-direction node 1055.
Restraints 3-23
Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap and Predefined
Displacement
Define the single-directional restraint and guide as usual. Put a unique node number in the CNode field for the single-
directional restraint and the guide. The same unique node number should be entered in both CNode fields. Specify the
predefined displacements for the CNode.
Guide Plus Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement
Guided piping at node 70 rests on a
structural member node 1070. The
structure undergoes a predefined
displacement.
3-24 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Restraint Settlement
Keep in mind the following facts when modeling restraint settlements:
Model using a single-directional restraint with predefined displacements. The magnitude of the predefined
displacement is the amount of anticipated settlement in the minus Y direction.
The Displacement Load Case is used to include the effect of the settlement (non thermal).
The settlement displacements are prescribed for the connecting node at the single directional restraint. For more
information, refer to Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement.
Restraint Settlement
The weight of this pipe data at
node 95 exerts a sufficient load on
the foundation node 1095 to cause
a calculated .325 in. settlement.
Restraints 3-25
Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap
The following are some important considerations for modeling skewed restraints:
Direction vectors or direction cosines can be used to define the line of action of the restraint. If direction vectors are
used, CAESAR II will immediately convert them to direction cosines.
Direction cosines may be quickly checked in the graphics processor.
Any translational axis can be used in the restraint description. The “redefinition” of the axis does not affect any other
restraint description for the element.
Particular attention should be paid to skewed direction input data. A common mistake is to specify an axial instead of
transverse restraint when modeling a skewed guide. Plotted section views of the restrained nodes can be an extremely
useful check of the skewed direction specification.
The sense of the direction or cosine unit vector is unimportant. In the definition of double-acting restraints, the direction
vector and cosines are only used to define the restraint line of action and are not concerned with a direction along that
line.
A simple rule can be used for finding perpendicular, skewed, direction vectors. The restraint is to be perpendicular to
the pipe. If the pipe has skewed delta dimensions DX and DZ, the perpendicular restraint directions vector will be (-DZ,
0, DX).

Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap
Double Acting Restraint Y, Guided @ 45 Deg. Gap = 1/8"
3-26 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap Continued ...
Input Using Unit Direction Vectors
Input Using Direction Cosines
Input Using Perpendicular Vector
Input Using Guide Restraint Type
Restraints 3-27
Skewed Single-Directional Restraint
The following are some important considerations regarding skewed single-directional restraints:
Skewed restraints may be nonlinear.
Direction vectors or direction cosines may be used to define the line of action of the restraint. If direction vectors are
used CAESAR II will immediately convert them to direction cosines.
The direction of the cosines or the direction vector is along the positive line of action of the (+) restraint. (See the figure
for clarification.)
Direction cosines may be quickly checked in the graphics processor.
Connecting nodes (CNode) can be used with any skewed single-directional restraint.

Skewed Single-Directional Restraint
3-28 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes
Note For these two examples, the directive Connect Geometry Through CNodes must be disabled to avoid plotting and
geometry errors.
Nonlinear or linear restraints can act between two different pipe nodes. The Cnode effectively represents what the "other
end of the restraint" is attached to.
Nonlinear Restraint Between Two Pipes
Restraints 3-29
Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models
The following are some important facts that pertain to restraints’ acting between vessel and pipe:
Use a restraint with connecting node to link the pipe to the rigid element extending from the vessel shell.
Any number of restraints may be specified between the restrained node and the connecting node.
Restraints may be linear or nonlinear with gaps and/or friction.

Restraint Between Vessel and Piping
3-30 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees
Linear and/or non-linear restraints can act at any point on the bend curvature. Points on the bend curvature are like any other
point in the piping system.
The following figure shows a bend supported vertically by a rigid rod. The rod will be allowed to take tensile loads only and
so will be modeled as a single directional restraint that can move freely in the +Y direction. (See the Chapter on "Bends" if
the actual positions of the nodes 19 and 20 are not clear.)
The line of action of the rod is really shifted away from the node 19. Note that a downward force at node 15 will produce a
positive Z moment about 20 in the system as modeled, and a negative Z moment about the point 20 in real life.
The magnitude of this moment is a function of the load and the moment area (the amount of the shift). If this is considered
significant, then a rigid element with zero weight could be placed between node 19 and the actual point of rod attachment.
The restraint would then be placed at the actual point of rod attachment.
90 Degree Bend Restrained at Midpoint
Restraints 3-31
Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees
Up to three (3) nodes can be defined at any angle on the bend curvature so long as the points are more than five degrees
apart. Restraints may be modeled on any of these nodes; if necessary one of these points can be at the zero degree point on
the bend. The zero degree point on a bend is the bend “near” point.
The To node of the bend is placed at the tangent intersection point for geometric construction but is placed at the bend "far"
point for analysis purposes. Therefore, specifying a node at the bend far-weld point will generate an error.
Nodes and angles on the bend curvature can be specified in any order.
Restraints on Intermediate Points Along a Bend
3-32 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends
Dummy legs on bends can be modeled several ways. The three most common methods used to model dummy legs are
outlined below:

Near/Far Point Method
Easy input
Dummy leg acts along centerline of vertical run
Dummy leg does not act at the proper place on the bend curvature
On Curvature Method
Easy input
Dummy leg acts at the proper place on the bend curvature
Dummy leg does not act along the centerline of the vertical run
Difficult input
Dummy leg acts at the proper place on the bend curvature
Dummy leg acts along centerline of vertical run
The element immediately after the bend must define the downstream side of the bend. Do not define dummy legs on the
element spreadsheet immediately following the bend specification spreadsheet.
Dummy legs and/or any other elements attached to the bend curvature should be coded to the bend tangent intersection
point. The length of the dummy leg will be taken directly from the DX, DY, and DZ fields on the dummy leg’s pipe
spreadsheet. There will be no automatic alteration of the dummy leg length due to the difference between the bend tangent
intersection point and the actual point on the bend curvature where the dummy leg acts. The true length of the dummy leg
should be input in the DX, DY, and DZ fields on the dummy leg element spreadsheet.
Input and output plots of the dummy leg always show it going to the bend tangent intersection point.
For each dummy leg/bend model a warning message is generated during error checking. The user should verify that the
warning message description of the bend is accurate.
Restraints 3-33
Vertical Dummy Leg on Bend
The bend shown is entered from the top left
corner of the control station nodes 80 to 85,
and exits horizontally to the right nodes 80 to
85. The dummy leg is attached at the 45-
degree point on the bend, and the centerline
of the dummy leg should line up with the
centerline of the vertical run of pipe entering
the bend node 80 to 85.
3-34 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Dummy Leg on Bend Continued ...
Near Point Method
On Curvature Method
Offset Element Method
Restraints 3-35
Vertical Leg Attachment Angle
Dummy Leg Attachment Angle Calculation
3-36 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends
The element leaving the bend must define the downstream side of the bend. Do not define dummy legs on the element
spreadsheet immediately following the bend specification spreadsheet.
The true length of the dummy leg should be input in the DX, DY, and DZ fields on the dummy leg pipe spreadsheet.
Input and output plots of the dummy leg always show the dummy leg going to the bend tangent intersection point.
For each dummy leg/bend model a warning message is generated during error checking. The user should make sure that the
warning message description of the dummy leg is accurate.
Horizontal Dummy Leg on Midpoint of Bend
Dummy leg is defined as a
zero weight rigid supported on
one end by a spring can.
Restraints 3-37
Node Position Definition for Points on the Bend Curvature
3-38 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Large Rotation Rods - Basic Model
Large rotation rods are used to model relatively short rods, where large orthogonal movement of the pipe causes shortening
of the restraint along the original line of action.
Large rotation rods can be entered in any direction. The user picks the XROD, YROD, or ZROD from the type list. When
CAESAR II detects that a rod is being input, the restraint field is changed: Gap is changed to Len and Mu is changed to Fi.
Len is the length of large rotation swing. Fi is the initial load on the restraint if used to model a variable support spring
hanger. (See some of the later rod examples.) The user can imagine the large rotation rod as providing a “bowl” in which
the pipe node is free to move.
Large rotation rods should only be entered where needed. Repeated use where not necessary may cause the system to
become unstable during the nonlinear iteration. The system should first be analyzed without the large rotation rods and then
large rotation rods added where horizontal movement at support points is greatest. Usually only one rod should be added in
an area at a time.
The rod angle tolerance is currently set at 1.0 degree.
Large rotation is generally considered to become significant when the angle of swing becomes greater than 5 degrees.
Connecting nodes may be used for large rotation rods just like for any other support. Graphically, the connecting nodes and
the restraint node do not have to be at the same point in space. There is no plot connectivity forced between large rotation
rod nodes and connecting nodes.
The signs on the large rotation rod are significant and determine the orientation of the swing axis. A +YROD is equivalent
to an YROD and indicates that the concave side of the curvature is in the positive Y direction.
In the example below, the rod pivots about the structural steel support. There is a very short swing arm, and so even a small
amount of horizontal movement will produce a relatively large swing. In the output report for this restraint, the user will see
X and Y direction loads.
Restraints 3-39
Large Rotation Rods
3-40 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Large Rotation Rods - Chain Supports
In the model below, the user wants the large rotation swing only in the plane of the chin support (the X-Y plane). The two
pipes should move freely relative to each other in the axial direction (the X-Y plane). Three restraints with connecting
nodes are used. The first is the large rotation rod with its connecting nodes, which in turn is connected to the second and
third linear restraints that allow only Y-Z interaction between the large rotation rod connecting node and the top pipe node.
Chain Supports
Restraints 3-41
Bi-Linear Restraints
Bi-linear restraints have the digit 2 following the direction in the restraint TYPE field.
When a bi-linear spring is entered the restraint fields change as follows: Stif changes to K1, which is the Initial Stiffness,
Gap changes to K2, which is the Yield Stiffness, and Mu changes to Fy, which is the Yield Load.
Bi-linear restraints are used most often to model soil support where some soil ultimate load bearing capacity can be
calculated.
Both the yield stiffness (K2) and the yield load (Fy) are required entries. The initial stiffness (K1) may be left blank, and a
rigid initial stiffness assumed. The yield stiffness may be negative if necessary. Some subsea pipeline resistance tests have
shown that load carrying capacity drops after the “ultimate” load is reached, and displacement continues.
More detailed use of the spring types used to model underground piping systems is illustrated in the CAESAR II User Guide -
Underground Pipe Modeler.
Characteristics of Bi-Linear Supports
3-42 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Pipe in a Trench Bi-Linear Restraint Modeling
Restraints 3-43
Static Snubbers
Static snubbers are translational restraints that provide resistance to displacement in static analysis of occasional loads only.
It is assumed that this occasional loading is dynamic in nature, such as a static seismic, or static wind loading. SNUBBERS
ARE INACTIVE FOR ALL EXPANSION, SUSTAINED, AND OPERATING STATIC CASES, AND ARE ACTIVE
FOR ALL TYPES OF TRUE DYNAMIC ANALYSES, i.e. HARMONIC, MODAL, OR SPECTRAL. These restraints are
active in all static load cases defined as OCCASIONAL in the load case list.
Static snubbers (or static analysis snubbers) have SNB following a translational direction in the restraint Type field.
When a snubber is entered, the restraint fields change as follows: Gap and Mu are disabled.
Static snubbers may be directional, i.e. may be preceded by a plus or minus sign. To model static snubbers follow the steps
below.
Modeling Static Snubbers
1 Run the OPErating case without defining a snubber.
2 Note the displacement locations in all six degrees of freedom to determine where to add the snubbers.
3 From INPUT/PIPING add each snubber with a distinct CNode.
4 Place displacements on all CNodes.
5 Modify the load cases by including D1 everywhere T1 displays.

3-44 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Plastic Hinges
The steps in setting up a plastic hinge are illustrated below. The leg from A to B is overheated, causing bending of the B-D
support leg. This example models the plastic deformation at cross-section E-E. The plastic hinge is formed between the
nodes 10 and 15. The expansion joint is used to provide translational and torsional rigidity at the plastic hinge junction. Two
bi-linear supports are used to model rigid resistance to bending until a breakaway force (yield force) is exceeded at which
point bending is essentially free.
Plastic Hinge in a Support Leg*
The Yield Force is determined from
Fy = SyZ(SF)
Where,
Sy is the yield stress
Z is the section modulus
SF is the safety factor
* The plastic hinge is modeled as a zero length expansion joint with
rotational bi-linear restraints.
Restraints 3-45
Sway Brace Assemblies
The sway brace is commonly used to allow unrestrained thermal movements while “tuning” the system dynamically to
eliminate vibration. In this respect sway brace resembles a spring: it may be pre-loaded in the cold (installed) position, so
that after thermal pipe growth it reaches the neutral position and the load on the system in the operating condition is zero or
negligible.
The sway brace is composed of a single compression spring enclosed between two movable plates. The spring is pre-
compressed a full inch providing an initial force that instantaneously opposes vibration. Any movement from the sway
brace neutral position is opposed by a load equal to the pre-load plus travel from neutral position times the sway brace
spring constant. Once maximum allowed travel (usually 3-in. in either direction) is reached the sway brace locks preventing
additional movement.
Manufacturers typically recommend a specific size sway brace for a given pipe nominal diameter.
A more specific sway brace selection is possible when the exact restraining force required to control the piping vibration is
known. The energy necessary to control the piping is proportional to the mass, amplitude of movement, and the force
causing the vibration. From this relation the exact restraining force required to control the piping vibration may be
calculated and an appropriate sway brace size selected.
Once selected, the sway brace may be modeled in CAESAR II using a combination of a bi-linear restraint and a translational
restraint:
In the event that the sway brace is to be installed in the operating condition (or the neutral position is to be adjusted in the
operating position), the modeling is CAESAR II is a little more complex. In this case, before modeling the sway brace, you
must analyze the piping system without the sway brace to obtain displacements from the cold to neutral operating position:
Run analysis on the system without the sway brace to obtain the displacements from cold to operating condition. For the
sake of this example, let’s assume the CAESAR II calculated displacement from cold to operating position is 0.5 in.
In the SUS case the displacement D2 (vector 2) represents the pre-load in cold position. Under shutdown conditions, the
pipe returns to its cold position and the brace exerts a force as previously described.
Sustained case restraint loads on sway brace = Pre-Load + Hot Deflection * Spring Rate
In OPE the displacement allows thermal expansion and the sway assumes neutral position exerting zero or negligible load
on the pipe.
Operating case restraint loads on sway brace =~ 0.0 (does not restrain thermal expansion)
3-46 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Sway Brace Installed in Operating Condition
Sway brace opposing compression force (movement occurs after pre-load is overcome).
Spring Rate: 150 lb./in.
Initial Loading: 150 lb.
Allowed Movement: 3 in.
Calculated Displacement: .5 in.
Note: Be sure to include D2 in the
sustained and operating cases.
This chapter demonstrates methods for incorporating spring hanger design into CAESAR II models.
In This Chapter
General Information.................................................................... 4-2
Simple Hanger Design................................................................ 4-3
Single Can Design ...................................................................... 4-4
Constant Effort Support Design.................................................. 4-5
Constant Effort Supports - No Design........................................ 4-6
Existing Springs - No Design ..................................................... 4-7
Multiple Can Design................................................................... 4-8
Old Spring Redesign................................................................... 4-9
Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel ................................... 4-10
Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement ...................... 4-11
Hanger Between Two Pipes........................................................ 4-12
Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity.............................. 4-13
Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load ................. 4-15
Simple Bottomed Out Spring...................................................... 4-16
Lift Off Spring Can..................................................................... 4-17
Bottom Out Spring Can Capability............................................. 4-18
Modeling Spring Cans with Friction .......................................... 4-19

C H A P T E R 4
Chapter 4 Hangers
4-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
General Information
Select MODEL—HANGER DESIGN CONTROL DATA from the menu on the Input Spreadsheet to enter parameters affecting hanger
design throughout the model. The hanger control spreadsheet items, with default values, are shown below. Complete
descriptions of each item can be found in the Technical Reference Manual. These items can greatly affect the hangers
designed and should be reviewed carefully at least one time so that the user is aware of the capability available.
Whenever CAESAR II designs a “zero load constant effort support,” a proposed spring location is found to be holding the
pipe down at that point. In this case, that hanger location is removed from the analysis, and the restrained weight case is
rerun to redistribute the weight loads.
There are instances where the stiffness of the adjacent piping and the hanger location restraints in the restrained weight case
unfavorably interact, producing an undesirable distribution of loads. Often reducing the stiffness used to compute the hanger
loads in the restrained weight run can eliminate these load distribution problems. The default for this stiffness is 1.0E12.
Values on the order of 50,000 or 75,000 have been used successfully to relax the system somewhat and redistribute these
piping loads. This stiffness can be changed through the Computation Control tab of the Configuration/Setup item of the
Main Menu.
The operating case for hanger travel (free thermal case) can be analyzed either with no spring stiffness at the hanger
locations, or with the stiffness of the selected springs inserted at those locations (in the latter case, the springs are selected
through an iterative process). This is controlled via the Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases option of
the Configuration/Setup item of the Main Menu. Inserting the actual hanger stiffness into the Operating Case for
Hanger Travel may give a technically more accurate result, but may introduce convergence problems as well. Also, please
note that in the latter case, it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case (in the physical system) be adjusted to
match the reported hanger Cold Load.

Hangers 4-3
Simple Hanger Design
Double-click the Hanger check box on the pipe spreadsheet to enter the spring hanger data for a particular node.
For a simple hanger no additional input is required. Note that a number of the parameters from the hanger control sheet also
display on the individual hanger auxiliary data fields. These items may be set globally (in hanger control) for all springs, or
overridden locally (on each hanger auxiliary data area).
Simple Hanger Design
4-4 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Single Can Design
Entering a negative number in the Available Space field on the hanger spreadsheet indicates that the pipe is supported from
below. The magnitude of the number in the Available Space field represents the distance between the pipe support and the
concrete foundation, or baseplate. See the Technical Reference Manual for each of the manufacturer's definitions of available
space. If the available space is not really a criteria in the hanger design, then input a large negative value (i.e -1000).
CAESAR II input plots will use a different symbol for these base supports.
Design of Single Can at One Node
Hangers 4-5
Constant Effort Support Design
Design a constant effort support by specifying a very small allowable travel. A typical value to use is (0.001 in.).
Design of Constant Effort Support Design
4-6 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Constant Effort Supports - No Design
Entering Constant Effort Support Data:
1 Enter the constant effort support load (per hanger) in the Predefined Hanger Data field.
2 Enter the number of constant support hangers at the location.
Tip: Do not enter the spring rate or theoretical cold load.
The hanger design algorithm will not design hangers that are completely predefined.
Multiple Predefined Constant Effort Supports
Note: Any other data entered on this Hanger spreadsheet will be ignored.
Hangers 4-7
Existing Springs - No Design
Entering Existing Spring Data:
1 Enter the Spring Rate and the Theoretical Cold Load (installation load, on a per hanger basis) in the Predefined
Hanger Data fields.
2 Enter the number of Variable Support Hangers at the location.
The hanger design algorithm will not design hangers that are completely predefined. Any other data can exist for the spring
location but this data is not used. Entered spring rates and theoretical cold loads will be multiplied by the number of hangers
at this location. CAESAR II requires the Theoretical Cold (Installation) Load to pre-define the spring. Theoretical Cold Load
= Hot Load + Travel * Spring Rate, where upward travel is positive.
Predefined Spring Hanger
The two constant effort supports at node 377
should carry 10484 lbs. each.
4-8 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Multiple Can Design
1 Enter the number of hangers or cans as a positive number in the No. of Hangers at Location field.
Tip: Placing a negative number in that field allows CAESAR II to design up to that number of hangers at the location.
All other hanger design parameters are still active.
Trapeze Hanger Assembly
Power Piping Springs
Allowable Load Variation:15%
Rigid Support Displacement Criteria: 0.05 in.
Note: The program designs up to 3 cans at the support if the
load is too high for a single or double can configuration.
Hangers 4-9
Old Spring Redesign
This option is used to determine if the old spring can still be used. If the old spring can be used then the new preset (initial
cold load) is determined. If the old spring cannot be used then a new spring design is recommended. The old spring is
always left in the problem for subsequent load case analysis. The old hanger information needed for the re-design is
The hanger table
The number of springs at the location
The old spring rate
The old spring rate is entered in the Spring Rate field under Predefined Hanger Data. The Theoretical Cold Load must
not be specified.
Old Spring Design
3 springs at node 97 and each
have a spring rate of 1105 lb./in.
4-10 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel
Connecting nodes associated with hangers and cans function just like connecting nodes with restraints. Connecting node
displacements are incorporated in the hanger design algorithm.
Pipe Supported by Hanger From Vessel
Spring Hanger is supported form the vessel at node 135.
The hanger supports the pipe at node 550. Bergen-
Paterson springs.

Hangers 4-11
Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement
Unique connecting node numbers that do not exist on any pipe element are input on the hanger spreadsheet in the Hanger
Connecting Node field. The hanger is designed to act with one end at the Hanger Node and with one end at the Hanger
Connecting Node.
Thermal growth of the hanger-connecting node can be specified on any pipe element spreadsheet.
The hanger at node 9 is supported from a structural steel extension off of a large vertical vessel. The vessel at the point
where the hanger is attached grows thermally in the plus Y direction approximately 3.5 in.
Hanger with Support Thermal Movement
The vessel and the structural support are
not modeled.
4-12 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Hanger Between Two Pipes
A pipe crossing overhead supports part of the weight of the lower pipe. The node on the pipe passing overhead is entered
into the hanger spreadsheet as the CNode.
When using hangers with connecting nodes to design springs, users should be particularly careful that CAESAR II’s design
hot load is accurate. To find the hot load, CAESAR II puts a rigid element between the pipe node and the support node (which
may be another pipe node as in the example below), and runs a weight case. If in the weight run both nodes are expected to
deflect, then the hanger weight loads will be distributed to other parts of the piping system, and not to the hanger. In this
case it might be necessary for the user to estimate the loads on the hanger in an independent run, and then enter by hand the
operating load on the particular spring hanger spreadsheet with the connecting node.
If zero load constant effort supports are designed for a spring location with a connecting node, the user is recommended to
switch the hanger node and the connecting node. In this situation, in the weight run the pipe node tends to deflect downward
less than the connecting node. To CAESAR II this looks like the connecting node is pushing down on the hanger node, thus
“holding the pipe down.” Switching the hanger node and the hanger-connecting node eliminates this problem.
Note The directive Connect Geometry through CNodes must be disabled in Configuration Setup to avoid plot and
geometry errors.
Hanger Between Two Pipes
The pipe at 65 is supported via a spring hanger by the pipe at 470.
Hangers 4-13
Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity
Hangers are designed to support a given weight load through a specified travel with a minimum of load variation. Most
often the weight load is that of the pipe between an anchor and the hanger.
The travel is the displacement of the hanger node as it thermally expands away from the anchor. When weight sensitive
anchors (e.g. equipment nozzles) are relatively close to the hangers (less than 4 or 5 pipe diameters in the horizontal plane),
the anchors should probably be freed during the hanger restrained weight run. When the anchors are freed, the weight of the
pipe between the anchor and the hanger should fall almost in its entirety on the hanger.
Anchor nodes to be released are entered on the specific hanger design spreadsheet. The anchor degrees of freedom are
released according to the specified Free Code. Anchor degrees of freedom are released for the hanger design Restrained
Weight run only. If the Free Code is not specified for an anchor or restraint to be freed, all degrees of freedom associated
with the anchor or restraint will be released for the restrained weight solution.
Only linear restraints as well as anchors can be freed to cause additional weight to be carried by the hanger.
4-14 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Hanger Design in the Vicinity at Equipment or Vessel Nozzle
The anchor at 5 is freed in the Y-direction, the anchor at 105 is freed in all directions
Hangers 4-15
Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load
In certain situations around equipment nozzles, and usually where the piping leaving the nozzle is very complex or very
rigid, the hanger design algorithm will select operating loads that are too small. In these cases the user can override
CAESAR II’s calculated operating (hot) loads. The design algorithm will proceed normally, except that the user’s entered hot
load will be substituted for CAESAR II’s calculated value for both the hanger design and all post hanger design analysis load
cases.
Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load
In this configuration, freeing the anchors at 5
and 60 didn't help the thermal case nozzle
loads. It was postulated that, due to the
stiffness of the overhead branches, the hanger
calculated hot load was not sufficient. The
calculated hot load was 2376 lb. A new hot
load if 4500 lb. is tried here.
4-16 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Simple Bottomed Out Spring
Spring supports that may bottom out have SPR following a translational direction in the restraint Type field. (For example,
YSPR for a vertical “bottomed-out” spring.)
When a bottom out spring is entered, the restraint auxiliary screen changes as follows: The Gap field changes to x, the
permitted travel, and the Mu field changes to F, the initial spring load. The direction of permitted travel is assumed opposite
to the initial load on the pipe. These definitions were setup almost exclusively to handle vertical springs, and as such x and F
inputs are always entered as positive, as shown in the following example.
Used most often to conveniently enter predefined springs into the piping system model. These spring restraints provide a
bottoming out capability that occurs when the spring has exceeded its maximum travel limit.
Users should always enter the stiffness Stif, the allowed travel x, and the initial load on the spring F, to properly utilize the
bottomed out spring model. If the travel x is not entered it defaults to zero. If the initial load is not entered it also defaults to
zero, and its sign is taken as positive. Note that no hanger should be entered at the same position as a bottomed out spring.

Hangers 4-17
Lift Off Spring Can
To get from the installed condition to the initiate lift-off condition the can must displace in the positive Y direction.
Input for Lift Off Spring Can Model
Input for Bottom Out Spring Can Model
4-18 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Bottom Out Spring Can Capability
The spring can must be fully pre-defined to describe bottom-out, or lift-off attributes (i.e. the spring can stiffness and
theoretical cold load must be known.)
The spring can to be illustrated is an anvil, fig. B268, size 10.
Theoretical Cold Load 1023 lb.
Spring Rate From Spring Table 260 lb./in.
Largest Load in Spring Table 1690 lb.
To get from the installed condition to the bottom-out condition the can must be displaced in the minus Y direction.

Hangers 4-19
Modeling Spring Cans with Friction
In many systems, portions of the pipe are supported by spring cans. These spring cans perform the same function as spring
hangers, only they are below the pipe, pushing up. In some models, these spring cans are allowed to slide on their
foundation, subjecting the system to friction forces.
Basically, each support of this type needs the following:
A rigid element from the pipe center to the top of the can. Length equals pipe radius + insulation thickness + shoe
height + any trunnion height.
A CNode to connect to the spring. Except for the vertical spring stiffness, all other DOFs are rigidly connected.
A rigid element representing the spring can height.
These points are illustrated in the model below.
Model of Spring Can with Friction
Alternatively, element 15-20 may be omitted, with the +Y restraint (with friction) placed directly on node 15.
Tip: This modeling technique can also be applied to situations where the shoe or trunnion slides on top of a bolted spring
can.

This chapter explains how CAESAR II models various expansion joints.
In This Chapter
Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust ......................................... 5-2
Tied Bellows - Simple vs. Complex Model................................ 5-4
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Simple Model .......................... 5-5
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Complex Model ....................... 5-7
Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models ............................. 5-9
Universal Joint - Comprehensive Tie Rod.................................. 5-14
Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops - Comprehensive Tie Rod Model 5-15
Hinged Joint................................................................................ 5-16
Slotted Hinge Joint - Simple Model ........................................... 5-18
Slotted Hinge Joint - Comprehensive Model.............................. 5-20
Slip Joint ..................................................................................... 5-21
Gimbal Joints.............................................................................. 5-23
Dual Gimbal ............................................................................... 5-25
Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows .......................................... 5-27

C H A P T E R 5
Chapter 5 Expansion Joints
5-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust
Bellows expansion joints can be modeled with either a zero or a finite length. When finite length bellows are used, either the
bending or the transverse stiffness must be left blank. CAESAR II will calculate the exact stiffness coefficient for the term left
blank. For finite length expansion joints, the user is recommended to leave the Bending Stiffness field blank, and to enter
the lateral stiffness given by the manufacturer into the Transverse Stiffness field on the expansion joint spreadsheet. The
lateral stiffness may be computed from the axial stiffness (if not provided) from the equation:
KTR = (3/2) (KAX) (D/L)
2
If the bending stiffness is given, its value should be approximately (within 1%) equal to:
KBEND =(1/2) (KAX) (D
2
) (t/180)
KAX - is the axial stiffness of the expansion joint
D - is the effective diameter of the expansion joint
L - is the flexible length of the joint.
For zero length expansion joints:
KBEND = (1/8) (KAX) (D
2
) (t/180)
When a zero length expansion joint is used, CAESAR II will use either the preceding or the following element to determine
the axial direction of the bellows stiffnesses. The preceding element is checked first.
Bellows are very fragile under torsional loading. It is recommended that accurate torsional stiffnesses and allowable
torsional rotations be obtained from the vendor.
Systems using untied bellows should either be of very low pressure or adequately anchored to withstand the possibly large
thrust loads developed due to the unrestrained bellows.
Bellows and any other miscellaneous weights should be added to flanges on either side of the bellows (or can be added as
concentrated forces). This is particularly true when the bellow is part of a hanger sizing weight calculation.
A zero or blank Bellows ID results in a zero pressure thrust.
The Bellows ID is the diameter used to find the area for pressure thrust calculations. The total thrust load is applied at the
From and To ends of the bellows, and is used to open the bellows (providing the pressure is positive). The magnitude of the
thrust load is P * A, where P is the pressure in the pipe above atmospheric, and A is the area, found from
A = t/4 * (Bellows ID) 2
Many manufacturers specify the effective area of the bellows. The Bellows ID for CAESAR II input may be calculated by
using the following equation:
Expansion Joints 5-3
Bellows ID =
4
EffectiveArea
t
| |
|
\ .

In the system shown below, the untied bellows runs between the nodes 8 and 9. The elbow at 11 is anchored to take the
thrust load developed in the bellows. The manufacturer's specification for the joint's axial stiffness is 6530 lb./in. with a
transverse stiffness of 3250 lb./in. The bending stiffness is left blank, and will be calculated by CAESAR II since the bellows
has a finite length. The pump and the baseplate at 5 must be able to withstand the large axial force that may develop due to
pressure thrust in the bellows.
Bellows with Pressure Thrust
Aeff= 67.5 in
2
P= 175 psi
Thrust = 67.5(175)=11812 lb. (will be automatically applied by
CAESAR II)
Bellows ID = = 9.28 in.

5-4 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Tied Bellows - Simple vs. Complex Model
Complex models of expansion joints are much more difficult to build than simple models. Unfortunately there are no hard
and fast rules for when to use simple models and when to use complex models. The following guidelines are presented to
aid the engineer in making this decision.
Complex models are used whenever a failure is being investigated.
Complex models are normally used when the pipe diameter and number of convolutions become large.
Complex models are used when nuts are only on the outside of the flange, allowing the tie bars to only carry tension.
Complex models give good values for the load distribution in the tie bars. Simple models give no indication of the load
distribution. In some cases, where the tie bars combine to resist relative bending of the joint ends, one pair of tie-bars
can be in compression while the other pair is in tension. This effective redistribution of load in the tie bars will never be
observed in a simple model. When this does occur, and if the tie bars are very long, buckling of the rods in the complex
model should be investigated (evaluate whether the rods can withstand the compressive forces reported in the output
report).
The single tied bellows is designed to absorb movement by lateral deflection only. There is no axial deflection or relative
bending rotations at the joint ends.
Simple models should only be used where the tie bars are either guaranteed to be carrying tension, or have nuts on either
side of the flange and so will carry compression if needed.
Be sure to enter the lateral instead of the bending spring rate from the manufacturer’s catalog. See the previous discussion
for a simple bellows for more information about bellows stiffnesses.
The weights of the bellows and associated hardware should be added to the flange weights on either side of the bellows.
This is particularly true if the expansion joint is between a hanger to be sized and an anchor.
The expansion joint user should be sure to check the displacement limits for the expansion joint once the protected
equipment loads are within the allowables. CAESAR II has a processor called EJMA Expansion Joint Rating accessible
through the Analysis option of the Main Menu, which helps the user to compute relative bellows movements for evaluating
the bellows distortion.
Simple models of single tied bellows are built by entering a large axial stiffness. This axial stiffness simulates the tie bars,
preventing relative axial movement of the bellows. Tie rods may also be modeled with a single rigid element along the
centerline of the bellows, with zero weight and rotational restraints, prevents the ends of the joint from rotating relative to
one another. In reality the tie bars being offset from the centerline prevent this rotation.
The complex models are built by running pipe elements whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the tie-bars, and whose
wall thickness is equal to half of the tie-bar diameter, between rigid elements that extend normal to the pipe axis and from
the centerline and to their intersection with the tie-bar centerline (See the following illustration).
Some manufacturers feel that friction at the tie bar ends, plus other effects serve to limit the overall lateral flexibility of this
joint. For lack of a better value, a 30% increase in lateral stiffness is sometimes used to compensate for these frictional
effects. Field situations such as loose nuts on tie-bars, etc. can be modeled using the complex expansion joint model.

Expansion Joints 5-5
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Simple Model
Compute the lateral stiffness for the bellows. The flexible length of the bellows is not listed in most expansion joint
catalogs. The listed lengths include the rigid end pieces such as flanges or pipe ends. Since the transverse stiffness is based
on the flexible length, the flexible length must be known. A very simple way of pulling this value from the catalog is to
examine the incremental increase in overall length of the joint as additional convolutions are added. With all convolutions
the same length, this incremental length can be used to calculate the total flexible length. In this example the total length of
a 4 convolution joint is 8 in. and the total length of an 8 convolution joint is 12 in. This means that the extra four
convolutions add 4 in., so the length of all twelve convolutions is 12 in. (This also indicates that the rigid end pieces on this
joint of 4, 8, or 12 convolutions is 4 in.)
Deff= (4Aeff/t )
1/2
= 10.0 in.
KTR = (3/2) (KAX) (Deff/L)
2
L = Flexible Convolution Length = 12 in.
KTR = (3/2) (850) (10.0/12.0)
2
= 885.4 lb./in.
Tied Bellows - Simple Model
Zero-weight rigid
element (tie rod)
Axial Stiffness: 848 lb./in.
No. Convolutions: 12
Leff: 12 in.
Aeff: 78.4 in
2
Build the CAESAR II model of the flexible portion of the expansion joint. Note how the rotational restraints between nodes
29 and 30 keep the two flanges parallel. In the field, the tie bars at four points around the expansion joint will keep the
flanges parallel. (The flanges and the tie bars form a parallelogram upon lateral deflection.)

5-6 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Tied Bellows - Simple Model Continued ...
Expansion Joints 5-7
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Complex Model
In the system shown below the flexible joint is between the nodes 30 and 35. The flanged ends of the joint are modeled as
the rigid elements 20 to 30 and 35 to 45. Additional rigid elements, perpendicular to the pipe axis, extend from each flange.
The tie bars are 1-in. in diameter. The following nodal layout and input is used to build a comprehensive model of the tied
bellows.
Tied Bellows Complex Model
5-8 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Tied Bellows Complex Model-Continued
Weightless rigid elements extend from the
flange centerline to the outside edge of the
flanges where the tie rods are attached. Only 2
of eight element inputs shown.
Expansion Joints 5-9
Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models
Please refer to the previous models of bellows expansion joints for specific notes relating to individual bellows designs, and
to some comparisons of simple and complex expansion joint input.
The tied universal bellows is designed to absorb movement by lateral deflection only. There is no axial deflection or relative
bending rotations at the joint ends.
Lateral instead of the bending spring rates from the manufacturer’s catalog should be entered. See the discussion for a
“simple bellows” for more information about bellows stiffnesses.
Manufacturers publish a wide variety of data for universal expansion joints. In most cases the published spring rates are for
the universal joint as a whole assembly. When the lateral stiffness is given for the whole assembly the simple or complex
models of single bellows can be used. In this case the manufacturer must also provide a cumulative assembly displacement
limit so that the piping designer can make sure that neither of the bellows are over-extended.
Many universal expansion joint assemblies have stops along the tie-bars that are connected to the center spool-piece. These
stops are designed to prevent over-extension of the bellows and can be modeled in the complex universal joint model. For
the simple universal joint model, the user must check the results to make sure that the stops are not engaged. Stops should
typically be considered a safety feature, and should not be included as a working part of the design, unless particular
attention is paid to the design surrounding the stop components.
The expansion joint user should be sure to check the displacement limits for each of the expansion joints once the protected
equipment loads are within the allowables. CAESAR II has a program called EJMA Expansion Joint Rating, which helps the
user to compute relative bellows movements for evaluating the convolution’s strength. This program only works on single
bellows, however, and so the user would need to model and then check each bellows in the universal assembly.
Some manufacturers feel that friction at the tie bar ends, plus other effects serve to limit the overall lateral flexibility of this
joint. For lack of a better value, a 10% increase in overall lateral stiffness is sometimes used to compensate for these
frictional effects.
The complex models are built by running pipe elements, whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the tie-bars, and whose
wall thickness is equal to half of the tie-bar diameter, between rigid elements that extend normal to the pipe axis and from
the centerline and to their intersection with the tie-bar centerline. See the next example.
The weights of the bellows and associated hardware should be added to the flange weights on either side of the bellows.
This is particularly true if the expansion joint is between a hanger to be sized and an anchor.
In-situ field effects like loose nuts on tie-bars, etc., can be modeled using the complex expansion joint model.
Descriptions of some various universal models are shown in the following figures. The two models shown have example
input given on the following pages. Simple models should only be used when the user knows that both ends of the tie-bars
will be fixed to the flanges, i.e. when there are nuts on both sides of the flange. (The top drawing shows nuts on only one
side of the flange at the left end. This configuration should be modeled with a complex joint model unless the user is sure
that all tie-bars will remain in tension.)
5-10 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The top model is used when the analyst is provided with global assembly data for the universal, i.e. the assembly lateral
stiffness.
The second model is used when the analyst is given angular spring rates for each of the two bellows used in the model.
When provided individual bellows angular stiffness:
Expansion Joints 5-11
Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models
5-12 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models
Note: This model does not show the addition
of any extra hardware or bellows weights
which could affect load distribution and
spring hanger design in the area.
When provided individual bellows angular stiffness:
Expansion Joints 5-13
Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models Individual Bellows
Note: The rigid tie bar(s) should be modeled at the
ambient temperature.
Note: This model does not show the addition of
any extra hardware or bellows weights, which
could affect weight load distribution and spring
hanger design in the area.
5-14 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Universal Joint - Comprehensive Tie Rod
The comprehensive universal joint model involves defining, as accurately as possible, all tie rods and connections between
tie rods and end plates.
The following groups illustrate the method used in constructing the universal expansion joint model shown above.
—Rigid Elements (Flanges) —
15-17 / 31-33
—Rigid Elements normal to the pipe axis, and between the pipe and tie bar
centerlines.
At the end where there are nuts on either side of the flange, fixing the tie-bar to the flange.
33-1033 / 33-2033 / 33-3033
—Rigid Elements normal to the pipe axis, and between the pipe and tie-bar
centerlines.
At the end where there are nuts only on the backside of the flange.
15-1015 / 15-2015 / 15-3015
——Intermediate lateral tee supports (Rigid) —
23-1023 / 23-2023 / 23-3023
25-1025 / 25-2025 / 25-3025
——Tie-bars —
1033-1034-1035-1036
2033-2034-2035-2036
3033-3034-3035-3036
— Restraints with connecting nodes at the tension-only flange end.——
RESTR NODE = 1036 CNODE = 1015 TYPE = -X , Y , Z
RESTR NODE = 2036 CNODE = 2015 TYPE = -X , Y , Z
RESTR NODE = 3036 CNODE = 3015 TYPE = -X , Y , Z
— Restraints with connecting nodes at the intermediate support points.
RESTR NODE = 1035 CNODE = 1023 TYPE = Y , Z
RESTR NODE = 2035 CNODE = 2023 TYPE = Y , Z
RESTR NODE = 3035 CNODE = 3023 TYPE = Y , Z
RESTR NODE = 1034 CNODE = 1025 TYPE = Y , Z
RESTR NODE = 2034 CNODE = 2025 TYPE = Y , Z
RESTR NODE = 3034 CNODE = 3025 TYPE = Y , Z
Expansion Joints 5-15
Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops - Comprehensive Tie
Rod Model
Double-acting restraints with connecting nodes and gaps are used to model stop gaps along the tie bars.
Stops along the tie-bars are installed to restrict lateral motion at each end of the universal joint.
The following groups illustrate the method used in constructing the universal joint with lateral stops shown above. Only the
right side tie rod elements are shown below.
— Standard pipe elements —
34-36 / 36-38
— Rigid flange elements —
30-32 / 40-42
— Bellows elements —
32-34 / 38-40
— Rigid elements from the pipe to the tie-bar centerline —
(Normal to the pipe axis)
30-1030 / 36-1036 / 42-1042
— Tie-bar elements —
1003-1002 / 1002-1001
— Restraints with connecting nodes —
RESTR NODE=1001 CNODE = 1042 TYPE = +Y , X , Z
RESTR NODE=1002 CNODE = 1036 TYPE = Y w/gap=1.5 , X , Z
5-16 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Hinged Joint
The relationship between the rotational bellows stiffness used in the model and the axial bellows stiffness should be
approximately:
Kbend = (1/8) (Kax) (D
2
)(t/180)
This is typically the value given in expansion joint manufacturers’ catalogs. This equation and the bending stiffness value
from most manufacturers’ catalogs should only be used with a zero length expansion joint.
The hinged joint is defined using a zero length expansion joint with axial, transverse, and torsional stiffnesses rigid. The
bending stiffness is set equal to the bending stiffness of the hinge.
Hinge directions are defined using restraints and connecting nodes. The restraint line of action is always normal to the hinge
axis.
Hinged joints are designed to take pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that the joint manufacturer is aware of the
design loads in the hinges.
Some expansion joint manufacturers believe that the hinge friction can provide considerable additional resistance to
bending. Certainly as the axial load the hinge is to carry becomes large, this “hinge friction” effect will increase.
Approximations to this increase in bending stiffness can be made by increasing the stiffness of the bellows in proportion to
the axial load on the hinge. The expansion joint manufacturer can hopefully provide assistance here.
Several typical geometries for hinged expansion joints are shown in the figures below:
In the example that follows, the hinged joint is zero length and is defined between nodes 45 and 46. “X” is the hinge axis,
i.e. all relative rotations are permitted between 45 and 46 about the X axis. 45 and 46 are fixed rotationally relative to each
other in the “Y” axis. (See the second note above.)
Expansion Joints 5-17
The following figures display the coding of the hinged joint for the model shown on the bottom of the previous page.
5-18 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Slotted Hinge Joint - Simple Model
The hinged joint is defined using a zero length expansion joint and rigid elements with zero weight to define the interaction
of the hinge geometry.
Hinge directions are defined using restraints with connecting nodes. The restraint line of action is always normal to the
hinge axis.
Slotted Hinged Joint - Simple Model
Elements from 10 to 15 and from 16 to 20 are weightless 9 in. long rigids.
Expansion Joints 5-19
Note: In this model, the relative rotation at the hinge about the “Y” axis is assumed to be zero. The slots on either side
will provide some limit to this Y rotation. In most applications of this type, the relative Y rotation is zero because the
problem is kept planar using guides. A good first pass can be made using the model shown, then if the analysis shows that
the RY restraint between nodes 15 and 16 is supporting load, a further refinement to the model can be made.
5-20 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Slotted Hinge Joint - Comprehensive Model
This model is somewhat different from the previous model because of the need to provide for the non-hinge axis rotation
due to the slots on either side of the joint. The schematic below illustrates the extra input required to incorporate this effect.
Slotted Hinge Joint - Comprehensive
Zero weight rigid elements defining the hinge assembly are listed below:
10 - 15 Normal to pipe axis to centerline of hinge assy.
10 - 35 "
55 - 30 "
55 - 50 "
15 - 20 Parallel to pipe axis to centerline of hinge axis.
35 - 40 "
50 - 45 "
30 - 25 "
The finite length bellows must be defined accurately between nodes 10 and 55. This typically means entering the correct
flexible length and using the manufacturer’s axial and lateral spring rates. Remember that manufacturer’s angular spring
rates should not be used in finite length expansion joint models.
Expansion Joints 5-21
Slip Joint
Large slip joints are usually difficult to install and difficult to accurately model.
Smaller diameter slip joints are telescoping, axial displacement devices that permit considerable axial displacement of the
slip joint ends and moderately rigid resistance to pipe bending.
Smaller slip joints are usually categorized by having two annular packing glands separated axially along the joint by a dead
air space, or by a small bellows sleeve.
The following figure shows the cross-section of a typical large slip joint. The stiffnesses between nodes 15 and 25 are a
function of the packing stiffness for transverse and rotational relative deformation and of packing stiffness and tightening
for axial relative deformation.
Slip Joint
5-22 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Slip Joint Continued …
Note 1: Typical delta dimensions are:
5 - 10 The distance from the closest guide or support to the end of the joint. (The same values
would also be used for 25 - 30.)
10 - 15 The effective length of the joint if known, or the travel expected plus 4", or a 12"
estimate if nothing else is known.
Note 2: K1 is the spring stiffness for forces below the yield force, FY.
Note 3: K2 is the spring stiffness (for joint compression) for forces greater than FY. The best
estimate for this resistance is cumulative friction effects of guides and supports, given by the
vendor.
Where (N) is the nominal pipe diameter in inches, and (a) is the thermal expansion at the operating
temperature in inches per 100 ft.
Note 4: Fy is the joint friction thrust from the vendor catalog. Typical values are given as 400 lbs
times the nominal pipe size.

Expansion Joints 5-23
Gimbal Joints
Gimballed joints are designed to resist pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that the joint manufacturer is aware of
the design loads on the gimbals.
The angular-only gimbal can be input as a zero length expansion joint with rigid axial, transverse, and torsional stiffnesses.
The bending stiffness is set equal to the rotational stiffness specified in the manufacturer's catalog.
Angular and Offset gimbals should probably be thoroughly modeled as shown in the following figures. Angular and Offset
gimballed joints are usually installed in large diameter lines where lumped property assumptions for the bellows may not be
within reasonable engineering accuracy.
Angular Only
5-24 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Angular - Only Gimballed Joint
Rigid elements between nodes 105
and 110 and nodes 111 and 115 each
contain half the weight of the hinge
mechanism.
Expansion Joints 5-25
Dual Gimbal
Dual gimbal joints are two, usually angular-only, gimballed joints in series in the pipeline. Putting two (or even three)
angular-only gimballed joints together provides for an ability to absorb lateral and possibly axial deformation.
A Pipe Flexibility program will never be able to model the axial-only component of the possible deformation because it
requires large rotation of the expansion joint components—something not considered in such programs.
The single “angular deformation only” gimbal should always be used in series with at least one other gimballed joint. It is
only in series that the “angular deformation only” gimbal provides for any lateral movement.
Gimballed joints are designed to take pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that the joint manufacturer is aware of
the design loads on the gimbals.
Each individual angular-only gimbal joint should be modeled as a zero length expansion joint with rigid axial, transverse,
and torsional stiffnesses. The bending stiffness should be equal to the manufacturer's published rotational stiffness term.
The minimum required distance “L” between adjacent single gimballed joints (shown as 8-7 in the following example), is
principally a function of the angular and rotational deformation to be absorbed, the diameter, and the number of
convolutions per joint.
The following figure shows a dual gimbal comprised of two angular-only gimbals. The bending stiffness for each gimballed
joint is 490.0 in. lb./deg.

Dual Gimbal Angular - Only
5-26 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Dual Gimbal Angular - Only
Expansion Joints 5-27
Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows
Pressure balanced tees and elbows are used primarily to absorb axial displacements at a change in direction, without any
associated pressure thrust. Pressure balanced tees can also be used in universal type configurations to absorb axial and
lateral movement.
The example below shows briefly the coding of a pressure-balanced tee in a turbine exhaust line. The bottom side of the tee
is blanked off. The tee is a standard unreinforced fabricated tee. The tie bars will only act in tension.
This chapter discusses modeling techniques for the components not explicitly covered in earlier chapters.
In This Chapter
Reducers ..................................................................................... 6-2
Ball Joints ................................................................................... 6-4
Jacketed Pipe .............................................................................. 6-5
Cold Spring................................................................................. 6-7
Connecting Equipment ............................................................... 6-8

C H A P T E R 6
Chapter 6 Miscellaneous Models
6-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Reducers
To model reducers use the procedure listed below.
Modeling Reducers Using CAESAR II
1 Define the length of the reducer just like any other pipe element.
Tip: For eccentric reducers be sure to skew the element such that the TO node matches the position of the centerline of the
following pipe elements.
2 Double click the Reducer check box on the input spreadsheet.
Tip: If the element preceding and following the reducer are already defined (such as inserting this element) then CAESAR II
will automatically calculate all the reducer input data and the user can leave this field blank.
3 Enter the diameter and wall thickness of the pipe that will follow the reducer.
Tip: Nominal diameter and wall thickness can be entered here and CAESAR II will convert these to actual diameter and wall
thickness if this portion is activated in the units file (in the Diameter and Wt/Sch fields on the spreadsheet convert nominal
to actual then so will the Reducer dialog).
Tip: Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an estimated slope equal
to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the entered reducer length.
Note: IGE /TD -12 requires entry of the reducer alpha a swell as R1 and R2, which are the reducer transition radii of the
large end and small end respectively. For more information see the diagrams below.
Miscellaneous Models 6-3
6-4 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Ball Joints
Ball joints can be modeled with zero length expansion joints, or with restraints and connecting nodes. When using
expansion joints, each ball and socket is defined with one zero length expansion joint having rigid axial and transverse
stiffnesses, and essentially zero bending and torsional stiffnesses.
When bending and torsional stiffnesses should be small, use a value of 1.0.
Tip: Results are invalid for large rotations.
Two Methods of Ball Joint Modeling
Modeling a ball joint between nodes 20 and 21
using a zero length expansion joint
Modeling a ball joint between nodes 20 and 21
using axial, translational and torsional restraints
with C-nodes.
Miscellaneous Models 6-5
Jacketed Pipe
Jacketed piping systems are input by running the jacket elements directly on top of the core elements where the two are
concentric.
A very simple way to generate a jacketed pipe model is to run through the entire core and then duplicate the core piping
using a proper node increment (such as 1000). This will produce a second run of pipe, which will be modified to build the
jacket model. For the jacket, change the pipe size, temperature, bend radii, etc., to finish the model. Then attach the jacket
and core by changing the node numbers and adding restraints.
Typically, the end caps connecting the core to the jacket pipe are much stiffer than either the core or the jacket. For this
reason node pairs like (10 and 1010), (25 and 1025), (35 and 1035), and (40 and 1040) are often joined by using the same
node for each, i.e. the displacements and rotations at the end of the core pipe are assumed to be the same as the
displacements and rotations at the end of the jacket pipe.
Internal spiders offer negligible resistance to bending and axial relative deformation. Node 15 might be connected to node
1015 via a restraint with connecting node. For an X run of pipe, rigid restraints would exist between the two nodes for the Y
and Z degrees of freedom.
The +Y support acting on the jacket at node 1020 does not cause any stiffnesses to be inserted between 20 and 1020. Node
20 is included in the model so that outside diameter interference can be checked at the 20-1020 cross section. Should there
be any concern about interference, or interference-related stresses at the 20-1020 nodes, then restraints with connecting
nodes and gaps can be used to approximate the pipe-inside-a-pipe with clearance geometry.
Since CAESAR II constructs the jacketed piping model by associating nodal DOFs, the program really does not know one
pipe is inside of another. Therefore the following items should be considered.
If both the jacket and the core are fluid-filled, the fluid density of the jacket must be reduced, to avoid excess (incorrect)
weight.
If wind loads are specified, the wind or wave loading must be deactivated for the core, or else the core will pick up wind
load.
The core pipe should probably have its insulation thickness set to zero.
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Miscellaneous Models 6-7
Cold Spring
See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion of the method for analyzing Cold Springs.
Cut Short
Material 18 is used for Cut Short
6-8 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Connecting Equipment
Vertical Vessels
Vertical Vessel models are built using combinations of straight pipe and nozzle flexibility simulations (WRC 297). The
following figure illustrates the most accurate way to define vertical vessel flexibility.
Average diameter of the skirt=102+78 / 2 = 90 inches
Average temperature of the skirt=87 º. F
Temperature of the vessel=325 º. F

Nozzle N1:
OD=10.750
Wall=0.5
Length of flange=4.0 inches
Weight of single flange=112

Nozzle N2:
OD = 16.0
Wall = 0.5
Length of flange=5.25
Weight of single flange=275
Notes:
1. Element 20 to 125 should be rigid, the associated diameter and wall thickness should be that of
the vessel. The element from 20 to 125 should be stiff relative to the vessel. This applies similarly
for the element from 15 to 215.
2. The rigid element from 135 to 140 models the flange at the end of the nozzle and should be rigid
relative to the nozzle diameter.
Miscellaneous Models 6-9
3. The rigid element from 225 to 230 models the flange at the end of the nozzle and should be rigid
relative to the nozzle diameter.
4. Local shell flexibilities are defined between 130 and 135 and 220 and 215.
5. The above model considers the cantilever bending and shear in the vessel from the skirt, and also
the local flexibility of the vessel shell in the vicinity of the nozzle.
The partial spreadsheets below illustrate input for the flexible vessel/nozzle model.
FROM 5RESTRAINT(Y/N) “Y” NODE 5 CNODE
TO10 TYPE A [ANCHOR]
DY 15-0 STIF
DIA 90.0 TEMP #187.0 GAP
WT 0.375 MU

FROM 10
TO 15
DY 20-3 TEMP #1325.0
DIA 78.0
WT 0.75

FROM 15
TO 20
DY 10-7

FROM 20
TO 25
DY 6-9

FROM 15
TO 215 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank>
DZ 39.0
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

FROM 20
TO 125 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank>
DX 39.0
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

FROM 220
TO 225
DZ 13.75
DIA 16.0
WT 0.5
FROM 225
TO 230
DZ 5.25 RIGID WEIGHT 275.0
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”
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FROM 130
TO 135
DX 13.75
DIA 10.750
WT 0.5

FROM 135
TO 140 RIGID WEIGHT 112.0
DX 4.0
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

NOZZLE NOZZLE
“N1” “N2”

Nozzle Node Number 130220
Vessel Node Number 125215
Nozzle Outside Diameter 10.75 16.0
Nozzle Wall Thickness 0.5 0.5
Vessel Outside Diameter 78.0 78.0
Vessel Wall Thickness 0.75 0.75
Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness
Dist. to stiffeners or head 6-917-4
Dist. to opposite side stiffeners 30-10 20-3
Vessel centerline Direction Vector X
Vessel centerline Direction Vector Y 1.0 1.0
Vessel centerline Direction Vector Z
Miscellaneous Models 6-11
Horizontal Vessels
Horizontal Vessel models are built using combinations of straight pipe and nozzle flexibility simulations (WRC 297). The
following figure illustrates the most accurate way to define horizontal vessel flexibility.
NOZZLE N3:
OD = 12.750
Wall = 0.687
Flange length =5.0 inches
Flange weight = 250 lb.
Notes:
1. Elements 5 to 6, 6 to 10, 15 to 16, 16 to 20, and 20 to 22 should be rigid and the associated
diameter and wall thickness should be that of the vessel. (These rigid elements should be stiff
relative to the vessel.)
2. The rigid element from 26 to 30 models the flange at the end of the nozzle and should be rigid
relative to the nozzle diameter.
3. Local shell flexibilities are defined between the nodes 22 and 24.
4. The above model considers the flexibility of the horizontal vessel section, the free translation
horizontal restraint at 125, and the local flexibility of the vessel shell in the vicinity of the
nozzle.
The following partial spreadsheets illustrate the modeling techniques used to define the horizontal vessel.
6-12 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
FROM 5 RESTRAINT (Y/N) “Y” NODE 5
CNODE
TO 6 TYPE A
DY 2-7
DIA 8-0 TEMP #1 100.0
WT 0.875 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank>
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

FROM 6
TO 10
DY 4-0 TEMP #1 350.0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank>
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

FROM 10
TO 20
DX 27-6

FROM 20
TO 16
DY - 4-0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank>
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

FROM 16 RESTRAINT (Y/N) “Y” NODE 15
CNODE
TO 15
TYPE Y
DY -2-7 TEMP #1 100.0
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

FROM 20
TO 22
DY 4-0 TEMP #1 350.0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank>
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”

FROM 24
TO 26
DY 14.0
DIA 12.75
WT 0.687

FROM 26
TO 30
DY 5.0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank>
RIGID(Y/N) “Y”
Miscellaneous Models 6-13
Data entered in the nozzle spreadsheet for the horizontal vessel model is shown
below:
Nozzle Node Number 24
Vessel Node Number 22
Nozzle Outside Diameter 12.75
Nozzle Wall Thickness 0.867
Vessel Outside Diameter 8-0
Vessel Wall Thickness 0.875
Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness
Dist. to stiffeners or head 7-3
Dist. to opposite side stiffeners or head 27-6
Vessel Centerline Direction Vector X 1
Vessel Centerline Direction Vector Y
Vessel Centerline Direction Vector Z

Axial Stiffness (lb./in.) 445613 CAESAR II
Longitudinal Bending Stiff (ft.lb./deg.) 139355 computed values
Circumferential Bending Stiff(ft.lb./deg.) 34644 displayed during
error checking

This chapter provides examples for a variety of design challenges faced by piping engineers.
In This Chapter
Example 1 - Harmonic Analysis - TABLE................................. 7-2
Example 2 - Relief Valve Loads - RELIEF................................ 7-7
Example 3 - Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER) 7-19
Example 4 - Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation
(CRYISM) .................................................................................. 7-32
Example 5 - Structural Analysis - FRAME................................ 7-47
Example 6 - Dynamic Analysis - NUREG9 ............................... 7-57
Example 7 - Omega Loop Modeling - OMEGA......................... 7-64
Example 8 - Jacketed Piping - JACKET..................................... 7-69
Example 9 - WRC 107................................................................ 7-79
Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107
Local Axes.................................................................................. 7-81
Example 10 - NEMA SM23 ....................................................... 7-91

C H A P T E R 7
Chapter 7 Examples
7-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Example 1 - Harmonic Analysis - TABLE
This problem is taken from the following source:
I. S. Tuba and W. B. Wright, “Pressure Vessel and Piping 1972 Computer Programs Verification An Aid To Developers and
Users.” The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York, 1972. Problems 6 and 2.
It is assumed that the user reviewing this example is familiar with the basic CAESAR II input. Only the input germane to the
dynamic analysis is discussed.
The following model is to be analyzed first for natural frequencies and second for harmonic loads imposed on the top of the
structure at nodes 8 and 13.
Enter the model as shown and set the material density on the pipe spreadsheet to be zero. (All weights are input as
concentrated masses.) Do not enter bends, but rather only straight elements.
Member Properties
Pipe Outside Diameter 2.375 in.
Pipe Wall Thickness 0.154 in.
Elastic Modulus 27.9E+06 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.3
Run the static case and then access the Dynamic Input.
Examples 7-3
First, additional masses may be added, or degrees of freedom deleted. In the eigensolution of larger systems the deletion of
un-needed degrees of freedom may be a very important factor in keeping the run times reasonable. In most normal cases,
however, masses must neither be added nor deleted. The mass of the piping, fluid, and insulation is automatically calculated
and included by CAESAR II. For the current example the weight of the pipe is zero and all masses are concentrated and
prespecified as lumped masses.
Next, modify the Control Parameters as shown below:
Turning off the Frequency Cutoff and setting the value of the maximum number of Eigenvalues guarantee us to acquire the
first five natural frequencies in our results.
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When the eigensolution is completed, the calculated natural frequencies are printed on the screen below:
Choose OUTPUT-VIEW ANIMATION from the Main Menu to view the animations of the 5 modes of vibration. The first mode is
back and forth along the x-axis, the second mode is transverse along the z-axis and the third mode is a twisting about the y-
axis. The next two modes are combinations of the previous three.

Harmonic Analysis of This System
Assume a 120 Hz electric motor sits on the piping structure and acts:
FX @ 8 = ( -95 cos et ) lb.
FX @ 13 = ( 95 cos et ) lb.
What is the largest stress in the small piping structure subject to these dynamic loads?
Examples 7-5
Note The 120 Hz vibration falls between the structural resonant frequencies 115 Hz and 137 Hz. The torsional mode will
most likely be excited because the sign difference on the forces promotes a twisting of the structure. The model has already
been built and so dynamic input is simply modified. There is only a single harmonic frequency of excitation to be
investigated.
Harmonic loads are input next. The user is first asked for harmonic forces, and then harmonic displacements. Harmonic
forces act at points (8) and (13) on the example piping system. The forces act in the “X” direction, with an opposite sign,
and with a magnitude of 95 lb. The force acting at point (8) can be plotted as a function of time as shown in the following
figure:
For the example problem there are 120 cycles per second.
Harmonic force data input is shown as follows. Harmonic displacements may exist in the same problem with harmonic
forces if necessary. The example problem has harmonic forces only.
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Note: The same force effect could have been achieved by entering +95.0 lb at each node, and entering a phase angle of
180.0 degrees at node 13.
Calculations for the example problem take less than 30 seconds to complete. The user may view the structure in animated
motion or view standard displaced shape plots from the Dynamic Output using the Display Graphical Results option
(shown below). Additionally, for harmonic results, restraint loads, forces, and stresses can accurately be calculated for the
maximum displacements due to the harmonic loads.
Examples 7-7
Example 2 - Relief Valve Loads - RELIEF
PROBLEM: Analyze the two relief valve systems, shown as follows, subject to the simultaneous firing of both valves.
Process steam conditions:450 psi, @ 650°F
Relief Valve Orifice: JOHNSON #34A-06 2.141 in. ID.
Valve Opening Time: 8.0 milliseconds
Valve Closing Time: 8.0 milliseconds
Relief Duration: 1.0 sec.
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Examples 7-9
CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations
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Relief Valve Example Problem Setup
REQUIRED:
Compute the support loads, forces, and stresses in the vent piping system when the relief valves fire simultaneously.
GIVEN:
Venting steam stagnation properties are given. The CAESAR II Relief Load Synthesis option is run to compute the
maximum thrust load magnitude at the vent pipe exit. This dynamic load will act downward at the vent elbow nodes 65 and
100. Venting will last for approximately one second, and the opening and closing time for the relief valve (as provided by
the manufacturer) is 8.0 milliseconds. A static load case is run first to perform spring hanger sizing at nodes 20 and 22. The
static load case #3 is the operating case, and will be used to set the nonlinear restraints for the dynamic analysis.
SOLUTION:
The spectrum table name is arbitrarily selected as “Relief” and is defined as having a Frequency range and a Force ordinate.
(A # sign precedes the name in the spectrum definition because the shock table is to be read from an ASCII file on the hard
disk.) The spectrum definition follows:
The DLF Spectrum Generator builds the ASCII file “Relief” that contains the relief valve spectrum table. Input to the DLF
Spectrum Generator is the filename, maximum table frequency, number of points, and the time-history waveform. For this
example a maximum frequency of 33 Hz and 20 data points are used to generate the table. The points in the time history
waveform are entered as shown as follows. These points represent the valve’s opening, its one-second vent time, and it's
closing.
Examples 7-11
The resulting DLF Spectrum is shown below. The Frequency vs. Dynamic Load Factors are written to the file "Relief."
7-12 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The thrust loads act at points 65 and 100. These loads are defined as Force Sets and are entered as shown as follows:
There is only a single Spectrum Load Case defined as follows:
There is one static/dynamic combination case of interest and that is the combination of the sustained static load case with
our one dynamic load case. This is defined as follows:
Examples 7-13
Only one item needs to be set on the Control Parameter spreadsheet. It defines the static load case to be used for setting the
nonlinear restraints, (3). Alternatively, the modal combination method could have been set to ABS instead of SRSS to
produce unquestionably conservative results.
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Relief Valve Loading - Output Discussion
There are four key reports for a relief valve analysis:
The Mass Participation Report illustrates how sensitive each of the piping system’s modes is to the relief valve firing.
High modal participation factors indicate that the mode is easily excited by the applied dynamic forces. If subsequent
displacement, restraint, or stress reports indicate excessive dynamic responses, then the modes having high participation
must be dampened or eliminated. Once a particular mode is targeted as being a problem, it may be viewed in tabular form
via the mode shape report, or graphically via the animated mode shape plots.
The Displacement Report gives the maximum possible positive or negative displacement that may occur at some time
during the relief valve’s firing. Values in this report are always positive.
Examples 7-15
The Restraint Report gives the maximum dynamic load the support should be designed for. The top value is the maximum
support reaction. The second value is the largest support reaction due to any one mode. The last number on the left tells
which mode.
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The Stress Report gives the maximum dynamic stress due to the relief valve firing. Stresses from a dynamic shock load
case should be combined with the sustained stresses from a static analysis and the result compared with the code defined
occasional stress for the material.
The Participation Factor Report shows which modes tend to be excited by the applied dynamic load.
The Displacement Report shows the maximum displacements that occur due to the relief loads. These displacements may
actually be positive or negative. Their true sign is indeterminate and always shown positive in the displacement report.
The following Stress Report shows element stresses due to the dynamic relief loads. The top value is the maximum stress
due to the interaction of all the system modes. The second value is the largest stress due to any one mode. The bottom
number on the left tells which mode.
Examples 7-17
For example:
The maximum stress at node 5 is 1481 psi. The stress at node 5 due only to mode #1 was 1280 psi.
The maximum stress at node 40 on the 40-50 element is 6430 psi. The stress at node 40 due to mode #4 was 3982 psi. Mode
#4 was the largest contributor to the stress at node 40.
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Support reactions due to the combination of the static sustained and the dynamic solutions.
Stresses due to the combination of the static sustained and the dynamic solutions. This stress combination can be compared
to the B31 code allowables for occasional stresses.
Examples 7-19
Example 3 - Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads
(HAMMER)
PROBLEM:
The cooling water supply line shown as follows suffers a pressure surge when the turbine driven pump drops offline due to
a bearing temperature problem. The elbow at node 45 is observed to “jump” 6 to 8 in. in the “X” direction when the turbine
trip occurs.
Design an alternative support scheme to eliminate the large field displacements associated with the turbine trip.
Fluid Properties: 250 psi @ 140°F
Flow Velocity: 6 fps
Water Bulk Modulus: 313000 psi

SOLUTION:
The magnitude of the pump supply side pressure wave, which emanates from the pump discharge at node 5, can be
estimated from
dp = p c dv
Where:
dp - the pressure rise due to the pump’s “instantaneous” stopping
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p - the fluid density
c - the speed of sound in the fluid
dv - the change in velocity of the fluid
The speed of sound in the fluid can be estimated from
c = [Ef / (p + p(Ef / E) (d/t) )]
0.5

Where:
Ef - is the bulk modulus of the fluid (313000 psi)
E - is the modulus of elasticity of the pipe (30E6 psi)
d - is the pipe mean diameter
t - is the pipe wall thickness
p - is the fluid density (62.4 lbm/ft
3
)
p + p(Ef / E)(d/t) = 62.4 lbm/ft
3
[1 + (313000/30E6) (8.625 -0.322)/0.322 ] = 79.1875 lbm/ft
3
c = (313000 lbf/ in
2
) (ft
3
/79.1875 lbm) (32.2 lbm ft/lbf sec
2
) (144in
2
/ft
2
)
1/2
= 4281 ft/sec
Note See the PIPING HANDBOOK, Crocker & King, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill pages 3-189 through 3-191 for a more
detailed discussion and evaluation of the speed of sound.
Apply the equation above for the magnitude of the water hammer pressure wave.
dp = p c dv = (62.4 lbm/ft
3
) (4281 ft/sec) (6.0 ft/sec)
= (62.4 lbm/ ft
3
) (4281 ft/sec) (6.0 ft/sec) (lbf sec
2
/32.2 lbm ft) ( ft
2
/144 in
2
)
= 345.6 psi
There are two distinct pressure pulses generated when a flowing fluid is brought to a stop. One pulse originates at the supply
side of the pump, and the other pulse originates at the discharge side of the pump. This example only deals with the supply
side water hammer effect, but the magnitude and impact of the discharge side water hammer load should likewise be
investigated when in a design mode.
The time history waveform for both types of water hammer pulses is shown as follows:
Examples 7-21
Pod - Discharge pressure
Ps - Source (tank or static) pressure
Pos - Suction pressure (while running)
dp - Pressure fluctuation due to the instantaneous stoppage of flow through the pump
Pv - Liquid vapor pressure at flow temperature
There will be an unbalanced load on the piping system due to the time it takes the pressure wave to pass successive elbow-
elbow pairs. The magnitude of this unbalanced load can be computed from:
F unbalanced = dp * Area
The duration of the load is found from t = L/c, where L is the length of pipe between adjacent elbow-elbow pairs. For this
problem the elbow-elbow pairs most likely to cause the large deflections at node 45 are 45-75 and 90-110.
The rise time for the unbalanced dynamic loading should be obtained from the pump manufacturer or from testing and can
be determined from graphs such as those shown above. For this problem a rise time of 5 milliseconds is assumed.
CALCULATIONS:
L 45-75 = 7 + 4(20) + 4 = 90 ft.
L 90-110 = 3(20) + 15 = 75 ft.
Area = t/4 di
2
; di = 8.625 - (2) (0.322) = 7.981 in.
Area = t/4 (7.981)
2
= 50.0 in
2
F unbalanced = dp * Area = (345.6) (50.0) = 17289 lbf
t duration = L/c
= (90) / (4281) = 21 milliseconds, on leg from 45 to 75
= (75) / (4281) = 17.5 milliseconds, on leg from 90 to 110
t rise = 5.0 milliseconds
Because the piping in this example is ductile low carbon steel, the major design variable will be the large displacement; i.e.
the problem will be assumed to be solved when the restraint system is redesigned to limit the large displacements due to
water hammer without causing any subsequent thermal problem due to over-restraint.
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First we generate the DLF Spectrum Files as follows.
Examples 7-23
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Next we define the Spectrum:
Then we define the force sets as follows:
Three Spectrum load cases are of interest here: Each spectrum separately and the two of them in combination as follows:
Examples 7-25
The sustained static load case is now combined with each dynamic load case for code stress checks. Note that for operating
restraint loads the static operating case would be combined with each dynamic load case as well. That is left for the user to
investigate.
7-26 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The Control Parameters should be set as follows:
Examples 7-27
Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads
On the pump or valve supply side the magnitude of the pressure wave is calculated as shown in this example using: dp = p c
dv.
On the pump or valve discharge side the maximum magnitude of the pressure wave is the difference between the fluid vapor
pressure and the line pressure.
On the supply side a positive pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. The magnitude
of the pressure wave is equal to the sum of the suction side pressure and dp.
On the discharge side a negative pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. The
maximum magnitude of this negative pressure wave is the difference between the pump discharge pressure and the fluid
vapor pressure. Once the pump shuts down, the pressure at the discharge begins to drop. The momentum of the fluid in the
downstream piping draws the discharge pressure down. If the fluid reaches its vapor pressure the fluid adjacent to the pump
flashes. As the negative pressure wave moves away from the pump these vapor bubbles collapse instantly. This local vapor
implosion can cause extremely high pressure pulses. In addition, there may be a fluid backflow created due to the rapid drop
in pressure. In this case the backflow slap at the idle pump can be accentuated by the collapse of created vapor bubbles,
resulting in an extremely large downstream water hammer loading.
Water hammer loadings will cycle to some extent. The pressure wave passes through the system once at full strength.
Reflections of the wave may then cause secondary pressure transients. Without a transient fluid simulation or field data the
usual procedure is to assume one or two significant passes of the pressure wave.
Where critical piping is concerned or where the maximum loads on snubbers and restraints is to be computed, the
independent effect of a single pass of the pressure wave should be analyzed for each elbow-elbow pair in the model. A
separate force spectrum load set is defined for the elbow with the highest pressure as the wave passes between the elbow-
elbow pair. The direction of the applied force is away from the elbow-elbow pair. An individual dynamic load case is run
for each separate force set, combinations of different force sets are usually not run. This approach has proved
satisfactory when applied to large, hot steam piping systems that have very few fixed restraints, and a high number of low
modes of vibration. Extrapolation to other types of piping systems should be made at the designer's discretion.
CAESAR II does not check the integrity of the piping system due to the local increase in hoop stress that occurs as the fluid
pressure wave passes each pipe cross-section. Slowing the mechanism that tends to reduce the flowrate can reduce the
magnitude of the water hammer loads. the case of valve closing, this means slowly closing the valve. In the case of a pump
going off line, this means slowly removing power from the pump. Slowly in each of these instances can be estimated from:
T = 2L/c
Where
T = time of one wave cycle sec.
L = Characteristic length of the piping system. Usually taken as the length between the
pump or valve and the source or sink.
c = Speed of sound in the fluid.
If the pump or valve stops in a time shorter than T then the water hammer should be analyzed as shown in this example for
instantaneous closure. Calculations for this problem are given as follows:
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Of primary interest is the largest time that must be used to close a valve, or bring a pump flowrate to a halt such that water
hammer type pressure pulses are not generated. Calculations using the lengths of several reflecting systems will be made to
get a “feel” for the variation of the computed T’s. The longest time will be for the wave to leave the supply side at node 5
and move to the tank connection at node 125. This represents a total “L” of about 270 ft.
T = (2) (270) ft./(4281)ft/sec = 126 milliseconds
The length through which the wave passes that causes the most trouble is the length between nodes 45 and 75:
T = (2) (90)/(4281) = 42 milliseconds
So, if the pump or valve can slow down in greater than 126 milliseconds, the tendency for water hammer in the piping
system will probably be abated. If the pump or valve can slow down in greater than 42 milliseconds then the tendency for
water hammer in the 45-75 length will be abated.
Water hammer excitation initially produces axial acoustic waves in the steel pipe wall that can induce locally very high,
very short duration forces and stresses. These short duration loads are usually not a design problem in ductile steel piping
systems. Where crack propagation in welds and material due to water hammer loads is a concern the following rules should
be followed:
A very high number of natural frequencies must usually be included in the analysis. Cutoff frequencies of 300 Hz are
not unusual. These are the axial natural modes of the pipe between the excited elbow-elbow pairs. Higher modes must
be computed until the inclusion of extra modes does not produce an appreciable change in the force/stress response. The
maximum frequency cutoff can be estimated from SQRT (E/p)/L where: E = Pipe material modulus of elasticity, p =
Pipe material density, L = Length of a single pipe element in the primary run that is to have accurate stresses computed
due to the passing of the water hammer originated acoustic stress wave. Calculation of the maximum cutoff frequency
for the 45-75 elbow-elbow pair for the 20 ft pipe lengths is given as follows:
f cutoff = SQRT (E/p)/L
= SQRT ((30E6)(32.2)(12)/(0.283))/20
= (202388 in./sec) / (20 ft. 12 in/ft)
= (843.3 rad./sec) / (2 p rad./cycles)
= 134.2 Hz.
Alternatively, including the Missing Mass Correction will approximate the contribution from the omitted modes.
The length of any element in the primary axial runs should not be greater than about ct/4, where c equals the speed of
sound in the pipe and "t" equals the duration of the water hammer load. Calculation of the greatest element length for
the 45-75 elbow-elbow pair is given as follows:
Lmax = ct/4
= (4281) ft/sec (0.021) sec/(4)
= 22.5 ft.
and so, to get an accurate estimate of the stresses due to the passing of the stress wave in the pipe, individual element
lengths should be smaller than about 20 ft. Shorter duration loads require shorter elements to monitor the passing of the
stress wave.
The inclusion of the response due to the higher modes will not affect the displacement results (only the force and stress
results). Displacement results, such as the 6 to 8 in. in the example can usually be computed accurately after the
inclusion of the low frequency modes with participation factors greater than about 0.01.
Examples 7-29
Water Hammer Loading - Output Discussion
Mass Participation Report
This report illustrates how sensitive each of the piping system’s modes are to the water hammer dynamic loading. High
modal participation factors indicate that the mode is easily excited by the applied dynamic forces. If subsequent
displacement reports indicate high dynamic responses then the modes having high participation must be dampened or
eliminated. Once a particular mode is targeted as being a problem, it may be viewed tabularly via the mode shape report, or
graphically via the animated mode shape plots.
7-30 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Displacement Report
This report gives the maximum possible positive or negative displacement that may occur at some time during the event.
Values in this report are always positive.
Examples 7-31
Restraint/Force/Stress Reports
If high modes are included, as discussed in the notes in this section, then these reports give the maximum values of the
forces and stresses in the system due to gross deformation and the propagation of an acoustic stress wave in the pipe. If the
high modes are not included, then these reports give the maximum values of forces and stresses in the system due to gross
deformation alone.

Combination Cases
The force spectrum approach to the water hammer problem does not include consideration of the time relationship between
modal or directional maximums. Completely conservative results can be guaranteed by taking the absolute summation of
both the modal and directional response properties. Running one load case for each main piping run, and a final load case
including all of the individual load cases typically gives the analyst a “good feel” for where problems exist.
In this example the main piping run between nodes 45 and 75 added the major contribution to the system dynamic
responses. The combination load case including the 45-75 and 90-110 contributions together yielded little extra information.

Problem Solution
A guide and axial limit stop at nodes 45 and 105 produces little increase in thermal stresses (which were low to begin with),
and serves to attenuate the large axial displacements in the line due to the water hammer load. Loads on this support due to
the low mode displacements are seen to be small. Local, very short duration loads may not be so small. The restraint should
be designed with this in mind. A few simple design rules are usually sufficient:
Flexible is better. The restraint should only be stiff enough to sufficiently attenuate the low frequency gross
deformation.
Areas of local discontinuities, such as the weld of the support to the pipe, should have extra weld or support plate area
(Discontinuities at other restraints in a problem area should probably also be “beefed up” to withstand the local passing
of the impact stress wave.)
7-32 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Example 4 - Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support
Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM)
PROBLEM:
The cryogenic piping system shown on the following page is to be designed in accordance with B31.3 using the ground,
building, and envelope spectra shown. Two analyses are to be run:
Assume the pipe (structural steel) supports are rigid.
Include the flexibility of the structural steel supports by including the steel frames in the analysis.
Finally, compare the results from the two analyses.
Design parameters are:
Ambient Temperature: 100°F
Operating Temperature: -59°F
Pipe: 8-in. Sch 10S
Insulation: 4-in. 22.3 lb/cu ft
Fluid: 0.232 SG
Columns: W14x82
Beams: W10x12

Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example
The isometric of the complete model is shown in the following figure. This drawing shows the piping, pipe supports, and
the structural steel frames.
Examples 7-33
7-34 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The excitation spectra to be applied to this model are:
Ground Response Spectra
Ground Response
Building Response Spectra
Building Response
Envelope Response Spectra
Envelope Response
T sec V in/sec T sec V in/sec T sec V in/sec
0.05 0.787 0.05 0.787 0.05 0.787
0.2 7.874 0.2 1.3 0.2 7.874
0.5 21.653 0.5 3.4 0.5 21.653
1 39.37 1 27.3 1 39.37
2 18.89 2 30.4 2 30.4
3.5 43.7 3.5 21.12 3.5 43.7
5 11.8 5 21.3 5 21.3
10 5.9 10 5.359 10 5.9
The necessity for the various spectra can be best understood by investigating the difference between independent support
excitation and uniform support excitation. These excitation methods are shown in the following figures.
Examples 7-35
For the analysis with steel supports, the structural steel must be included as part of the piping model. This can be
accomplished by using the INCLUDE STRUCTURAL INPUT FILES option from the KAUX feature of the CAESAR II spreadsheets.
The structural steel model for this problem can be generated by invoking the structural input from the Main Menu. The
input listing from the structural input session is shown as follows:
SECID=1, W14 X 82; COLUMN CROSS SECTION
SECID=2, W10 X 12; BEAM CROSS SECTION
MATID=1, YM=29E6 POIS=0.3 G=11E6 DENS=0.283
DEFAULT SECID=1
ANGLE=90
EDIM 1038 1039 DY=15-0; DEFINE ALL COLUMNS
EDIM 1043 1044 DY=15-0
EDIM 1048 1049 DY=15-0
EDIM 1053 1054 DY=15-0
DEFAULT SECID=2
ANGLE=0
EDIM 1039 1040 DZ=-2-0;DEFINE ALL BEAMS
EDIM 1044 1045 DZ=-2-0
EDIM 1054 1055 DZ=-2-0
FIX 1038 ALL
FIX 1043 ALL
FIX 1048 ALL
FIX 1053 ALL
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The dynamics input for this problem is summarized in the figure that follows. Details of the dynamics input are contained
on the following pages.
Examples 7-37
7-38 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Examples 7-39
To keep the documentation for this example brief, the only results presented are those for the “uniform support excitation”
case. Using this load case, the model with and without structural steel supports will be compared. The results from these two
models are shown in the tables that follow:
With Structure
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Without Structure
Examples 7-41
With Structure
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Without Structure
Examples 7-43
With Structure
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Without Structure
Examples 7-45
Discussion of Results
These comparison tables illustrate the differences that can exist when the structural steel models are not included in the
analysis. In some cases, the results with the structural steel included are many times higher than the results computed
without the structural steel. The steel models add flexibility to the piping system. More flexibility means lower natural
frequencies and more modes to be excited by the shock. A comparison of the natural frequencies of the two models is given
as follows:
With Structure
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Without Structure
In the above table, there are only five extra mode shapes for the system, which includes the structure.
The restraint moment at node 55 in the Z direction is much larger without the steel model than it is with the steel model.
Even though the piping is tied to the steel, the steel frame will not support much moment in the Z direction. The steel
frame bends slightly about the Z axis, and the moment is carried through from the pipe. In the "piping only" model, the
rigid anchor at node 55 will not rotate about the Z axis (or any other axis) and so ends up carrying the entire moment load.

Examples 7-47
Example 5 - Structural Analysis - FRAME
PROBLEM
Analyze the braced frame shown below subjected to the given uniform load and self weight.
Column section data area = 15 in
2
inertias = 250 in.
4
Beam section data area = 10 in
2
inertias = 500 in.
4
Brace section data area = 5 in
2
inertias = 1 in.
4
Material Density: 490 pcf
Beam Loading: 200 lb/in.
This example shows how to model a structure using the CAESAR II structural preprocessor. The figure below shows a
single bay, braced space frame. All beam and column lengths are 50 in. as shown. This frame is subjected to its own weight
load as well as a uniform load of 200 pounds per inch on all of the top-level beams. We wish to know the displacements,
reactions, and element forces for three load cases: self weight, uniform load, and self weight plus uniform load.
This example will illustrate how to use most of the keyword directives in the structural preprocessor. A standard finite
element modeling approach will be followed, where the system nodes are defined, then materials and section properties,
then elements, and finally the loading.
7-48 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
To process the input file Frame.str start the structural preprocessor by selecting option File-Open from the Main Menu
then select the type of file as Structure and select the examples directory to find the file.
Next, select INPUT-STRUCTURAL STEEL from the Main Menu to enter the input window shown (only the input portion of the
window shown here). Click Save or choose FILE-SAVE from the structural processor to error check and save the model.
Examples 7-49
After the input has been saved and error checked exit the structural steel input processor to go back to the Main Menu. The
analysis can be started immediately by selecting option ANALYSIS-STATICS. At this point CAESAR II will read the binary files
created by the structural preprocessor and recommend load cases. Note, in all probability you will not want to analyze the
structure with the recommended load cases. CAESAR II recommends load cases to satisfy piping code compliance. Therefore
occasional loads (like the current uniform load) will not be used. Edit the load cases as shown below. Note that load case 2
consists of only U1 and that it is designated as an operating case. It is purely a construction case and is segregated here only
because it may be interesting to see the loads produced by the Uniform Load solely.
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The results for this analysis are shown in the following nine figures:
Examples 7-51
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Examples 7-53
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Examples 7-55
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Examples 7-57
Example 6 - Dynamic Analysis - NUREG9
PROBLEM:
Analyze the piping system shown on the following page subjected to a series of shock spectra.
This problem is one of the NRC benchmark problems run to verify the dynamic capabilities of CAESAR II. The detailed
input will not be shown or discussed in this example. Users will find the necessary input files in the Examples folder in the
C2 executable directory. For those users interested, this problem was taken from: NUREG/CR -1677, BNL-NUREG-51267,
VOL II, August 1985.

NRC Example NUREG 9
This problem is a three-branch system, composed of 20 pipe elements and 14 support elements. The support elements are
divided into four groups corresponding to four distinct input excitation spectra sets. This problem demonstrates the
independent support motion feature of CAESAR II. In modeling this problem, the 14 support elements were input as
restraints with stiffnesses. All bend elements include a node at the “near” point to insure mass and stiffness computations
consistent with the NRC example. Users should note that in addition to the pipe density, there is a single lumped mass
applied at node 18. For this example, the contributions from the pseudo-static anchor point displacements are not included.
The three solutions presented represent the following:
Envelope spectrum; spatial then modal combinations
ISM (independent support motion); directional, spatial, then modal combinations using SRSS
ISM directional, spatial, then modal combinations using ABS
7-58 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
NRC Example Problem 2A
NATURAL FREQUENCY REPORT (Hz)
MODE NRC CAESAR II
1 9.360 9.362
2 12.71 12.708
3 15.38 15.379
4 17.80 17.800
5 21.60 21.606
6 25.10 25.102
7 32.03 32.039
8 38.07 38.075
9 40.29 40.299
10 48.90 48.905
11 57.51 57.524
12 61.50 61.510
13 62.54 62.550
14 69.35 69.359
15 77.44 77.456
16 78.88 78.893
17 101.7 101.731
18 103.6 103.598
19 108.0 107.983
20 115.1 115.116
21 135.2 135.265
22 155.2 155.244
23 160.6 160.626
24 203.8 203.820
25 209.9 209.957
NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

Examples 7-59
TRANSLATIONS (in)
DX DY DZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
2 .0105 .0105 .0 .0 .0250 .0250
4 .0431 .0431 .0049 .0049 .0907 .0907
6 .0475 .0475 .0253 .0252 .0327 .0327
8 .0280 .0280 .0379 .0379 .0491 .0491
10 .0108 .0107 .0249 .0249 .0631 .0631
12 .0285 .0285 .0186 .0186 .0633 .0633
14 0849 0849 0085 0085 0635 0635
16 .0476 .0476 .0001 .0001 .0402 .0401
18 .0286 .0286 .0318 .0318 .0421 .0421
20 .0131 .0131 .0095 .0095 .0001 .0001
Problem 2A NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

ROTATIONS (deg)
RX RY RZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
2 .0457 .0457 .0260 .0260 .0190 .0190
4 .0515 .0515 .0688 .0688 .0269 .0268
6 .0389 .0389 .1012 .1012 .0268 .0267
8 .0309 .0309 .0950 .0949 .0217 .0217
10 .0201 .0201 .0289 .0289 .0203 .0203
12 .0105 .0105 .0328 .0328 .0224 .0224
14 .0102 .0102 .0514 .0511 .0299 .0299
16 .0359 .0359 .0496 .0496 .0476 .0476
18 .0105 .0105 .0343 .0343 .0128 .0127
20 .0215 .0214 .0273 .0273 .0090 .0090
Problem 2A NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

7-60 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
SUPPORT FORCES (lb)
FX FY FZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
1 90 90 65 64 177 177
7 0 0 0 0 708 707
9 446 445 0 0 0 0
11 0 0 206 206 0 0
13 0 0 164 164 0 0
15 188 187 188 187 263 262
17 58 58 198 197 103 103
21 378 377 192 191 245 245
Problem 2A NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

NRC Example Problem 2B
TRANSLATIONS (in)
DX DY DZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
2 .0064 .0064 .0002 .0 0158 0158
4 .0267 .0267 .0031 .0031 .0574 .0574
6 .0295 .0295 .0162 .0162 .0207 .0207
8 .0170 .0170 .0242 .0242 .0311 .0311
10 .0029 .0029 .0152 .0152 .0399 .0399
12 .0103 .0103 .0110 .0110 .0400 .0400
14 .0530 .0530 .0053 .0053 .0401 .0401
16 .0301 .0301 .0001 .0001 .0255 .0255
18 .0103 .0103 .0187 .0187 .0267 .0267
20 .0033 .0033 .0057 .0057 .0 .0
Problem 2B NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

Examples 7-61
ROTATIONS (deg)
RX RY RZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
2 .0289 .0289 .0165 .0165 .0116 .0116
4 .0326 .0326 .0435 .0435 .0172 .0171
6 .0247 .0247 .0641 .0640 .0171 .0171
8 .0199 .0199 .0599 .0598 .0132 .0132
10 .0134 .0134 .0075 .0075 .0120 .0120
12 .0071 .0071 .0204 .0204 .0134 .0134
14 .0062 .0062 .0307 .0307 .0184 .0184
16 .0228 .0228 .0276 .0276 .0301 .0301
18 .0070 .0070 .0208 .0208 .0079 .0079
20 .0128 .0128 .0074 .0074 .0053 .0053
Problem 2B NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

SUPPORT FORCES (lb)
FX FY FZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
1 53 53 46 46 113 112
7 0 0 0 0 441 440
9 257 256 0 0 0 0
11 0 0 123 123 0 0
13 0 0 98 98 0 0
15 111 111 111 111 156 155
17 32 32 124 123 66 66
21 103 103 114 113 116 115
Problem 2B NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

7-62 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
NRC Example Problem 2C
NRC BENCHMARK SERIES
NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.
NRC PROBLEM 2C CAESAR II JOB NUREG9

TRANSLATIONS (in)
DX DY DZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
2 .0090 .0090 .0 .0 .0220 .0220
4 .0373 .0372 .0044 .0044 .0800 .0800
6 .0411 .0411 .0235 .0235 .0289 .0288
8 .0237 .0237 .0355 .0355 .0434 .0434
10 .0043 .0043 .0227 .0227 .0556 .0556
12 .0148 .0148 .0164 .0164 .0558 .0558
14 .0741 .0740 .0074 .0074 .0560 .0560
16 .0420 .0420 .0001 .0001 .0355 .0355
18 .0148 .0148 .0281 .0372 .0372 .0372
20 .0049 .0049 .0085 .0085 .0001 .0001
Problem 2C NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

ROTATIONS (deg)
RX RY RZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
2 .0402 .0402 .0229 .0229 .0163 .0163
4 .0456 .0455 .0606 .0605 .0244 .0244
6 .0347 .0346 .0894 .0893 .0252 .0252
8 .0282 .0282 .0835 .0835 .0196 .0196
10 .0197 .0197 .0112 .0112 .0179 .0179
12 .0104 .0104 .0285 .0285 .0199 .0199
14 .0092 .0092 .0429 .0429 .0260 .0260
16 .0318 .0317 .0387 .0387 .0421 .0420
18 .0104 .0104 .0291 .0291 .0116 .0116
20 .0191 .0191 .0110 .0110 .0079 .0079
Problem 2C NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

Examples 7-63
SUPPORT FORCES (lb)
FX FY FZ
NODE NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II NRC CAESAR II
1 76 76 70 69 156 155
7 0 0 0 0 607 607
9 350 350 0 0 0 0
11 0 0 184 184 0 0
13 0 0 146 146 0 0
15 151 151 151 151 212 211
17 45 45 169 168 91 90
21 152 151 170 169 158 157
Problem 2C NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

7-64 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Example 7 - Omega Loop Modeling - OMEGA
PROBLEM:
The Omega expansion loop consists of a series of back to back 135 degree bends. Generate a piping model of an Omega
loop according to the following sketches.
Pipe: 3-in., standard wall
Bend Radius: 24 in.
Material: Low carbon steel
Temperature: 200°F, 300°F, 400°F

The objective of this example is to illustrate the techniques necessary to code a series of back -to-back bends. For this
example, we will use an Omega loop as shown below.
The given dimensions are the 6-ft 10-in. height, the 2-ft bend radius, and the bend angles of 135 degrees and 270 degrees.
From this information the other dimensions shown in the figure can be derived.
Figure 1
Examples 7-65
When coding a series of back-to-back bends it is important to remember that the delta dimensions should be measured from
the tangent intersection point (TIP) to the tangent intersection point. (See Chapter 2 of the Applications Guide for additional
information on the proper coding of bends.)
Figure 2 shows the node points, which will be coded on the spreadsheets to model the Omega loop. (The model will be
anchored at nodes 1 and 35.) The first bend (lower left bend) will span between nodes 5 and 10. Note that the TIP 10, is to
the far right of the bend. For analysis and output, the actual location of node 10 is at the far weld line, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 2
The second bend (upper left bend) will span between nodes 10 and 15. Recall that we code TIP to TIP. Therefore the delta
coordinates entered on the spreadsheet are the X and Y distances between nodes 10 and 15 on Figure 2. The actual location
of node 15 is at the far weld line, shown on Figure 3. Node 15 is the TIP for this bend, and lies to the left of the pipe.
The third bend (upper right bend) spans between nodes 15 and 20, where node 20 is the TIP. In coding from TIP to TIP,
only a delta x is required. Figure 3 shows the actual location of node 20 on the pipe.
The fourth and final bend (lower right bend) spans between nodes 20 and 25. In this case, a delta X and a delta Y are
required. The actual location of node 25 is shown on Figure 3. The element from 25 to 30 is a straight element necessary to
finish off the bend. (Recall a bend in CAESAR II requires an element beyond the far weld line to determine its orientation.)
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Figure 3
Below is an input listing for the model. The delta dimensions shown were obtained from Figure 1. Note that 3 additional,
equally spaced points are located on each bend.
Note This example requires a change in Configuration/Setup to allow the error checker to accept large angle (> 95 deg.)
bends.
Examples 7-67
7-68 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Examples 7-69
Example 8 - Jacketed Piping - JACKET
This example is intended to serve as a guide for modeling techniques used in the analysis of jacketed piping systems. Where
applicable, various alternatives are discussed that may be benefit specific systems or problems.
The piping system to be analyzed is shown in the following figure. The piping system consists of an 8-in., schedule-40
crude oil line and a 12-in., schedule-40 steam jacket. The section of piping from the pump to the valve is completely
jacketed, while the section from the valve to the vessel has only the straight sections jacketed. (This variation in the jacket is
used to illustrate the two common types of jacketed systems.) The core pipe is supported in the jacket through the use of
spiders. These spiders provide translational restraints in two directions, normal to the axis of the pipe. For this system, the
spiders are located at each elbow weld line, and in the straight runs such that the spider spacing does not exceed 6 ft. For
this system, both the jacket and the core are low carbon steel.
Note: In some systems, the jacket and the core consist of different materials. This condition must be modeled very
carefully, since the thermal growth in the core will be different from the thermal growth of the jacket. Improper axial
restraints in such a system can cause extremely large loads in the pipe.
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Step 1 - Create Modeling Plan
The first step in modeling any system is to consider the most efficient way to create the input and more importantly how to
best review the results. By deciding how to best review the results, the input node numbering scheme can be setup. From
the node numbering scheme, one can decide how to generate the model to take advantage of the various rotate, duplicate,
and include options.
For this example system, the core piping will be modeled using node numbers from 1000 to 1999, and the jacket will be
modeled using node numbers starting at 2000. Additionally, similar locations on the two systems will have the same base
node number, i.e. 1110 and 2110 describe the same point on both the core and the jacket. Setting up the node numbers in
this manner enables one of the systems to be generated from the other, using either the duplicate or the include options of
the input preprocessor. The system can also be viewed individually in the plot by using the Range command and breaking
the model at 1999. The other advantage to this scheme is that when reviewing output can tell immediately form the node
number whether the point in question belongs to the core or the jacket.
Although not necessary for a small system such as this, additional node number ranges can be employed to differentiate
parts of the model. To illustrate this concept, the following additional constraints will be placed on the node numbers. The
ground level piping will have nodes in the 100-400 series, while the second level piping will have nodes in the 500-900
series. For example, node 1110 will be a core node at ground, level and node 2250 will be a jacket node on the second level.
To indicate locations where external supports are applied to the system, node numbers will end in 5; all other points will be
multiples of 10. Similar node numbering schemes can be used to differentiate branches from headers, pipe from structural
steel, and various line sizes. A little thought and planning at the start of a model can ease both input verification and output
review. For example, consider reviewing the in out for this system and finding a spring hanger at node 1530. This should
quickly be recognized as an error since the 1000 series nodes make up the core piping, and can't utilize spring hangers.
Additionally, a support node should end with a 5.

Step 2 - Node Layout
The system as defined in the preceding figure consists of nine segments of piping. Each segment is shown in the following
figure with the node numbers assigned to the various points for the core piping. Each segment is discussed in the following
paragraphs.
Please note the term segments is used solely to assist in discussing this example.
CAESAR II does not require the segregation of a piping system into segments. There are no such input requirements or
restrictions in CAESAR II.
Examples 7-71
Core Pipe Layout
Segment A
This segment runs from the pump to the first elbow. Since this section is at ground level the 100 series nodes will be used.
Since the pump acts as an anchor, the start node of this segment will end in 5, thus the pump is assigned node 1105. The
length of the segment requires an intermediate node point for a spider, thus node 1110 is assigned 5 ft from the pump.
Nodes 1120 and 1115 are assigned to the elbow. Note that the +Y support is not at node 1115, since 1115 is part of the core
piping. The +Y will be applied at node 2115 (the jacket), and therefore we assign the “5” to this node point.
Segment B
This segment is the six-foot vertical section, beginning with the elbow at 1120. This section can be simply modeled by
coding to the top elbow and assigning nodes 1500 and 1510. Note that we are using the 500 series nodes here, because we
are now modeling the 2nd level piping.
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Segment C
The first horizontal run in the 2nd level requires a node at mid-span to accommodate a spring hanger (on the jacket). This
mid-span node will divide the segment into two 9 ft lengths, which exceed the maximum spider spacing of 6 ft. Therefore,
the eighteen-foot span will be divided into four elements, each 4 ft 6 in. The nodes assigned are 1520, 1525 (for the hanger
location), and 1530. The segment is finished off with the elbow modeled by nodes 1540 and 1550.
Segment D
This horizontal segment in the 2nd level is modeled using nodes 1560, 1570, and nodes 1575 and 1580 at the elbow. The
nodes 1560 and 1570 are for spiders while 1575 is a hanger location
Segment E
This horizontal segment contains the valve. Nodes for this segment are: 1590, 1600, 1610, and 1615. Note that node 1615
terminates the elbow and is also a hanger location. The element from 1590 to 1600 should be declared rigid with a weight of
452 lb. Note also that starting with the elbow 1610-1615, all of the elbows will be modeled as individual elements. This will
ease the coding of the jacket later on. The elbows in this part of the model will consist of two straight pieces of pipe, equal
in length to the radius of the elbow.
Segment F
The third horizontal leg of the expansion loop, modeled using nodes 1620, 1630, 1640, and 1650.
Segment G
The last horizontal run of the 2nd level is modeled using nodes 1655, 1660, and 1670. Note that 1655 is a hanger location.
Segment H
The second vertical section of piping returns the system to ground level. The only additional nodes required for this section
are for the elbow, at 1130 and 1135. The node 1135 is a +Y location on the jacket.
Segment I
This is the last segment that terminates at the vessel nozzle. The nodes used to model this segment are: 1140, 1150, and
1155.

Step 3 - Core Piping Input
During the input of the above sections, frequent use of the CAESAR II plot facility should be made. This will insure that the
system is being modeled correctly and that any input errors are detected as soon as possible. The following figure shows a
volume plot of the completed core piping, with node numbers and anchors.
Examples 7-73
Completed Core Piping
At this phase of the input, it would be prudent to save the input file and invoke the CAESAR II error checker. Running the
error checker at this time is a wise idea, because we intend to use the core piping model to generate the jacket piping model.
Any errors that exist in the core will be duplicated in the jacket, thus doubling our correction efforts.
The additional data required to finish the model (allowable stresses, temperatures, pressures, etc.) are contained in the
CAESAR II input file, which accompanies the software. This data is found in the file Jacket._a in the Examples subdirectory
of the CAESAR II installation directory.

Step 4 - Jacket Input - 1st Half
At this point there are several ways to obtain the jacket model. The first and obvious method is to continue with the
spreadsheet input and simply build the jacket. The second method is to duplicate the core pipe input file, and then use the
“include” feature to combine the two models. The third method is to use the “List” processor and duplicate the necessary
elements from within the preprocessor. The later method is the one we will use for this example.
7-74 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Modeling of the jacket will begin by launching the List processor from the CAESAR II spreadsheet by choosing the Edit-List
menu option. The list options are available by choosing the appropriate tab at the bottom of the window. We want to choose
the Elements tab, which is the default. The resulting list of elements contains their associated delta coordinates. This screen
is shown as follows:
Core Pipe Input Listing
For the first half of the jacket, we will duplicate the core piping. The duplicated region will start at the pump and terminate
at the valve. The duplication can be accomplished by performing the following steps:
Examples 7-75
1 Click the mouse cursor to the row number for the element from 1105 to 1110.
2 Click the mouse cursor, while pressing the Shift key down, to the row number for the element from 1580 to 1590,
which is the element just before the valve. All rows between our two selections should now be highlighted.
3 Next, select BLOCK - DUPLICATE to generate the Block Duplicate dialog. Click the Identical radio button. Click the At
End of Input radio button to place the duplicate block.
4 Specify 1000 for the node increment. Click OK to close this dialog and again to close the Duplication Status window.
CAESAR II will duplicate the block and increment all of the node numbers by 1000. This will result in a section of pipe
identical to the pipe from 1105 to 1590 with node numbers from 2105 to 2590.
Three changes must be made to the new section of pipe to obtain the jacket piping. First the diameter and wall thickness
must be changed to 12 in., schedule 40. This is easily accomplished in the List Editor by finding the element from 2105 to
2110, and simply typing over the current values. The following values should also be specified here: jacket temperature,
jacket pressure, jacket insulation, and jacket fluid weight. The final modification requires changing all of the jacket bend
radii from long to short. The best way to accomplish this change is to enter the Bend list by clicking on the Bend tab on the
bottom of the list window. Then, starting at the bend at node 2120, change the radius from Long to 12.0 in. This change
must be made to all of the following bends.
Once the above changes have been made, the 1st half of the jacket is finished. A volume plot of the system will now show
the core piping overlaid by the jacket piping.
7-76 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Note: Even though the two models are correctly positioned with respect to each other, they are not connected. All we
have done so far is duplicate several pipes. The fact that the graphics shows them positioned properly is merely coincidence.
As far as CAESAR II is concerned, we have two discontinuous systems in the same input file. The graphics module plots
discontiguous systems such that they all start from the same point, which is why the jacket and core line up properly in this
case.
The next step is to correctly connect the jacket to the core, and apply any external restraints. The connection between the
jacket and the core piping will model the spiders that align the two in the real system. These connections can be modeled in
CAESAR II by using restraints with connecting nodes (CNodes).
Note: A CNode associates degrees of freedom. Simply stated, if a CNode connects two nodes in the Y-direction, they will
experience identical displacements in the Y-direction. Use CNodes to restrain two nodes to each other without restraining
them to the "outside world."
The modeling of the connection between the jacket and the core will start at the pump. On the very first spreadsheet of the
model, the restraint field should be entered. Then add a restraint at node 1105 with a CNode at 2105 of type "anchor." This
will associate all six degrees of freedom between nodes 1105 and 2105.
On the same spreadsheet, add two restraints at node 1110. Both of these restraints have a CNode at 2110, one in the Y-
direction, and one in the Z-direction. These two restraints model the spider between the core and the jacket.
Note: The spider was not modeled using gaps. The actual clearance between the spider and the pipes is very small, and
attempting to numerically model this clearance using restraints with gaps causes the job to be highly non-linear. Models
with gaps at each spider will have convergence problems and in all probability never reach a solution.
The next spreadsheet from 1110 to 1120 defines the first elbow. A total of four restraints should be added to this
spreadsheet: at 1115, put a CNode of 2115 with Y and Z-direction restraints, at 1120, put a CNode of 2120 with X and Z-
direction restraints. Note that these restraints are perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Also recall that at 2115 we have an
external restraint, a +Y. This support should be added to the system on the spreadsheet containing the node 2115.
In similar fashion, the remaining spiders should be added to the model (see the example job “JACKET” found in the
Examples directory to review these restraints). When node 1590 is reached, the CNode at 2590 is connected with an
Anchor. The spring hangers at nodes 2525 and 2575 should also be added.
Aside from the two anchors at the pump and the valve, all of the spider connections between the jacket and the core are
modeled using two perpendicular restraints, with connecting nodes. How are the other four degrees of freedom restrained?
What keeps this model from undergoing rigid body motion? These questions can be resolved by considering two points.
First, the jacket is continuous over the core from the pump to the valve. At both of these points we have connected all six
degrees of freedom. Second, the translational restraints obviously prevent motion in the three translational directions.
Additionally, these restraints also prevent rotation, because the jacket is continuous.
Note: Whenever a model is constructed, you must insure that the model, or parts of the model, cannot undergo rigid body
motion. Such a model produces a singular stiffness matrix, and the solution cannot be attained. An example of such a poor
model is a cantilever beam with a hinge at mid span.
At this point in the input session, the user should invoke the error checker (click the single running man button). The input
will be saved and any errors reported should be corrected at this time.

Examples 7-77
Step 5 - Jacket Input - 2nd Half
The input of the 2nd half of the jacket is more complex than the 1st half, since the jacket only covers the straight runs of
piping. For this reason, the jacket elements will be coded manually, as opposed to any form of duplication. Duplicating
portions of the model would work, however the extra time involved in deleting the jacket from the elbows is greater than the
time required to input only the straight sections. By modeling the jacket directly, the restraints for the spiders can be input as
we encounter them.
To start the input session, enter Piping-Input and press [Control-End] to go to the last spreadsheet in the model. At this
point, press the continue button and change the node numbers to 2600 and 2610, with a DX of 5 ft. Where is the element
from 2600 to 2610? Return to the spreadsheet and temporarily change the diameter of 2600-2610 to 24 in., and try the
volume plot. The element 2600-2610 has been positioned at the plot origin, because at this time the element is not
connected to anything. Return to the spreadsheet and correct the diameter, back to 12-in. nominal.
To properly connect the jacket to the core, restraints must be added at 2600 and at 2610. At 2610 a CNode of 1610 will be
added with restraints in the Y and Z-directions. At 2600, we need a CNode of 1600. Avoid the temptation to associate these
two nodes (2600 and 1600) in the Y and Z-directions as this is incorrect and will produce an unstable model. The reason is
that doing so allows the jacket to move freely in the X-direction and to spin about the X-axis, hence we have a mechanism.
Note that we did not have this problem in the first half of the model since the jacket was continuous over the elbows and the
model was three dimensional in nature. We must ensure that in this half of the model the appropriate axial and torsional
restraints are applied to the jacket. At node 2600, we will model an Anchor to 1600. (This is simpler than modeling separate
X, Y, Z, and RX restraints.) This causes the 8-in.line to be physically connected to the 12-in.line in all 6 degrees of freedom.
The next jacket element covers the core from 1616, the end of the elbow, to 1640. The node 2615 is anchored to 1616 via a
CNode.
The next two elements 2620-2630 and 2630-2640 are standard pipe element with a DZ of -4.333 ft. Each To- node is
connected to the corresponding core node with a CNode associating the X and Y-directions.
The remaining three sections of jacket are modeled in exactly the same manner. The final step in the modeling is to add the
spring hangers at nodes 2615 and 2655, and the +Y restraint at 2135. The completed model is shown below in the following
figure.
7-78 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Completed Jacketed Piping System
The completed input file can be found as part of the “examples” set, under the job name JACKET. Once the input task has
been completed, the job must be error checked and then analyzed for the specified loading conditions. The resulting output
should be checked to ensure that the system was modeled correctly. These checks should include the following:
Verification of the weight of the core system, the jacket system, and the combined system. The “Sustained-Restraint”
report can be used for this check. Be sure that the jacket pipe fluid density accounts for the volume lost due to the core.
CAESAR II does not do this automatically; users must reduce the density of the jacket fluid accordingly.
Verify that the piping system does not develop large axial loads in the core, the jacket, or the equipment anchors. This
can be caused by improperly over restraining the pipe in the axial direction, or the effects of thermal growth on
dissimilar metals.
Check the displacements at the elbows in the operating case and make sure that the core pipe does not tend to move
through the jacket. It is important to note that CAESAR II does not perform interference checking.
Check the displacements at the spiders, where the jacket and the core are connected. In the direction of the spiders the
displacements should be the same for both the jacket and the core.
If wind or wave loads are specified, they should be disabled on the core piping.
The core pipe should probably have its insulation thickness set to zero.
Examples 7-79
Example 9 - WRC 107
The example problem, which follows, discusses a comprehensive local stress analysis of a vessel/nozzle using WRC 107
and ASME Section VIII, Division 2 criteria.
To determine whether the WRC 107 Bulletin is appropriate for the computation of the local stress state in the vessel due to
external loading, geometry guidelines should first be reviewed:
D = 120.0 in., T = 0.625 in., d = 12.75 in., t = 0.375 in.
d / D = 0.10625 < 0.33
Dm/ T = (D-T) /T = 191 > 50
7-80 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
In the present case, both conditions are satisfied. The actual preparation of the WRC 107 calculation input can now begin.
One of the most important steps in the WRC 107 procedure is to identify the correlation between the CAESAR II global
coordinates and the WRC 107 local axes. CAESAR II performs this conversion automatically. The user will, however, have
to identify the vectors defining the vessel as well as the nozzle centerline. The following figure is provided to illustrate the
definition of the direction vectors of the vessel and the nozzle.
Examples 7-81
Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to
WRC 107 Local Axes
Notice that in order to define a vessel direction vector, the user first needs to designate the output data points (A-D) as
defined by the WRC 107 Bulletin. Note that the line between data points B and A defines the vessel centerline (except for
nozzles on heads, where the vessel centerline will have to be defined along a direction which is perpendicular to that of the
nozzle). Since, in the vessel/nozzle configuration shown, point A is assigned to the bottom of the nozzle, the vessel direction
vector can be written as (0.0, -1.0, 0.0), while the nozzle direction vector is (1.0, 0.0, 0.0).
Note: The nozzle direction vector is always defined as the vector pointing from the vessel nozzle connection to the
centerline of vessel.
In the figure, the user may also notice that there are two nodes occupying the same space at the nozzle/vessel surface
junction: nodes 55 and 56. An anchor at 55 with a connecting node at 56 could be used to model the local vessel flexibility
as rigid. Users not familiar with this modeling approach, refer to Chapter 3 of the Technical Reference Manual for more
details. The anchor could then be replaced with a WRC 297 local vessel flexibility model, and the job rerun to get a good
idea of the range of loads and displacements that exist in the system around the vessel nozzle. In either case, the restraint
loads forces and moments can be obtained from the CAESAR II Restraint report. These loads reflect the action of the
piping on the vessel. The restraint report of the rigid anchor model display below.
7-82 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The total sustained axial load on the nozzle may not be reflected in the restraint report. A pressure thrust load will contribute
an additional axial load to the nozzle. The pressure thrust force always tends to push the nozzle away from the vessel. For
example, with a pressure of 275 psi over the inside area of the 12-in. pipe, the total P load becomes:
P = -26 - P(A)
= -26 - 275p (12
2
) / 4
= -31,128
The P load may be adjusted automatically for the input by CAESAR II’s WRC 107 module, if the user requests.
Start The WRC 107 module by clicking ANALYSIS-WRC-107/297 from the CAESAR II Main Menu. The program first prompts
the user for the analysis type then for the entries of geometric data describing both the vessel and nozzle, followed by a
spreadsheet for loadings. The values of the geometric entries in this example are shown in the following printouts from the
program.
Examples 7-83
7-84 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Users may enter up to three sets of loadings representing Sustained (SUS), Expansion (EXP), and Occasional (OCC) load
cases. The program automatically performs the stress calculation of each of the load cases consecutively and then performs
the WRC 107 stress summation routine to compare the computed stress intensities against the stress allowables as required
in Appendix 4 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2. In the present case, we only have to be concerned about the sustained and
thermal expansion cases. The loads are shown in the following screen. The user can elect to leave any input cells blank if
they are found not applicable. If a static analysis has been performed on the system to be analyzed with WRC-107 then
CAESAR II can import the loads directly from the output file. This is accomplished using the Get From Output button on
the bottom of the dialog for each load case. CAESAR II will then read in the loads for the nozzle node number that was
specified under the Nozzle Data tab.
Examples 7-85
To run the analysis the user selects ANALYSIS-WRC-107/297 from the menu or clicks the Local Stress Analysis button. An
Output screen will be generated. The output may also be generated to MS Word by clicking the Wbutton on the toolbar.
After the input echo, the parameters extracted from the WRC 107 figures are printed to this report. This step is similar to
collecting the data by hand. These non-dimensional values are combined with the nozzle loads to calculate the two normal
and one shear stress. The stresses will be reported on the outer and inner vessel surfaces of the four points A, B, C & D
located around the nozzle. The program provides the normal and shear stresses and translates them into stress intensities,
which can be used for comparisons against material allowables.
The outputs of the stress computations are shown on the following pages. As the output shows, the largest expansion stress
intensity (117485 psi) occurs at the outer surface of point B (Bu).
7-86 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Licensed To: COADE, INC. ID: 10001
Job: C:\work_450\wrc107\AG-EX9.W07
CAESAR II ANALYSIS REPORT: WRC 107
INPUT ECHO
----------
Description:
This is input title page for CAESAR II
Application Guide, Example No.9

Vessel Type: Cylindrical
Vessel Node Number: 60
Vessel Diameter: OD 120.000 in.
Vessel Wall Thickness: 0.625 in.
Vessel Corrosion Allowance: 0.000 in.

Vessel Material Name: SA-516 70
Vessel Working Temperature: 500.000 F
Vessel Cold Allowable Stress: Smc 20000.000 lb./sq.in.
Vessel Hot Allowable Stress: Smh 20000.000 lb./sq.in.

Attachment Type: Round Hollow
Attachment Node Number: 55
Nozzle Diameter: OD 12.750 in.
Attachment Wall Thickness: 0.375 in.
Attachment Corrosion Allowance: 0.000 in.

Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VX 0.000
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VY -1.000
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosine VZ 0.000
Nozzle Centerline Direction Cosine NX 1.000
Nozzle Centerline Direction Cosine NY 0.000
Nozzle Centerline Direction Cosine NZ 0.000
Z-axis UP? No

Global Force (SUS): FX -26.000 lb.
Global Force (SUS): FY -1389.000 lb.
Global Force (SUS): FZ 32.000 lb.
Global Moment (SUS): MX -65.000 ft.lb.
Global Moment (SUS): MY 127.000 ft.lb.
Global Moment (SUS): MZ 4235.000 ft.lb.
Internal Pressure (SUS): P 275.000 lb./sq.in.
Include Pressure Thrust: Yes

Global Force (EXP): FX 8573.000 lb.
Global Force (EXP): FY 23715.000 lb.
Global Force (EXP): FZ -5866.000 lb.
Global Moment (EXP): MX 31659.000 ft.lb.
Global Moment (EXP): MY -5414.000 ft.lb.
Global Moment (EXP): MZ -52583.000 ft.lb.

WRC107 Version/Year March 1979 Use B1&B2
Use Interactive Control No
Include Pressure Stress Indices per Div.2 No

Calculate Hoop Stress based on (from config): ID Diameter
Calculate Longitudinal Stress based on (from config): Lame Equation
*********************************************************************
Examples 7-87
WRC 107 Stress Calculation for SUStained Loads:
Radial Load P -31127.77 lb
Circumferential Shear VC 32.00 lb
Longitudinal Shear VL 1389.00 lb
Circumferential Moment MC 127.00 ft.lb
Longitudinal Moment ML 4235.00 ft.lb
Torsional Moment MT 65.00 ft.lb

Dimensionless Parameters used : Gamma = 95.50
Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Curves read for 1979 B1/B2 Beta Figure Value Location
-------------------------------------------------------------------
N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 4C 14.994 (A,B)
N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 3C 12.082 (C,D)
M(PHI) / ( P ) 0.093 2C1 0.059 (A,B)
M(PHI) / ( P ) 0.093 1C 0.094 (C,D)
N(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 3A 3.449 (A,B,C,D)
M(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 1A 0.085 (A,B,C,D)
N(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 3B 10.793 (A,B,C,D)
M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 1B1 0.035 (A,B,C,D)

N(x) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 3C 12.082 (A,B)
N(x) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 4C 14.994 (C,D)
M(x) / ( P ) 0.093 1C1 0.097 (A,B)
M(x) / ( P ) 0.093 2C 0.060 (C,D)
N(x) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 4A 5.631 (A,B,C,D)
M(x) / ( MC/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 2A 0.045 (A,B,C,D)
N(x) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 4B 3.511 (A,B,C,D)
M(x) / ( ML/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 2B1 0.052 (A,B,C,D)

Stress Concentration Factors Kn = 1.00, Kb = 1.00
Stresses in the Vessel at the Attachment Junction

------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Stress Values at
Type of | (lb./sq.in )
---------------|--------------------------------------------------------
Stress Load| Au Al Bu Bl Cu Cl Du Dl
---------------|--------------------------------------------------------
Circ. Memb. P | 12510 12510 12510 12510 10081 10081 10081 10081
Circ. Bend. P | 28242 -28242 28242 -28242 44865 -44865 44865 -44865
Circ. Memb. MC | 0 0 0 0 -25 -25 25 25
Circ. Bend. MC | 0 0 0 0 -358 358 358 -358
Circ. Memb. ML | -2635 -2635 2635 2635 0 0 0 0
Circ. Bend. ML | -4964 4964 4964 -4964 0 0 0 0|
Tot. Circ. Str.| 33153 -13403 48353 -18060 54563 -34450 55330 -35116
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Long. Memb. P | 10081 10081 10081 10081 12510 12510 12510 12510
Long. Bend. P | 46473 -46473 46473 -46473 28748 -28748 28748 -28748
Long. Memb. MC | 0 0 0 0 -41 -41 41 41
Long. Bend. MC | 0 0 0 0 -190 190 190 -190
Long. Memb. ML | -857 -857 857 857 0 0 0 0
Long. Bend. ML | -7325 7325 7325 -7325 0 0 0 0|
Tot. Long. Str.| 48372 -29923 64738 -42859 41027 -16088 41491 -16386
7-88 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shear VC | 2 2 -2 -2 0 0 0 0
Shear VL | 0 0 0 0 -110 -110 110 110
Shear MT | 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Tot. Shear| 7 7 2 2 -106 -106 115 115
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Str. Int. | 48372 29923 64738 42859 54564 34451 55331 35117
------------------------------------------------------------------------

WRC 107 Stress Calculation for EXPansion Loads:
Radial Load P 8573.00 lb
Circumferential Shear VC -5866.00 lb
Longitudinal Shear VL -23715.00 lb
Circumferential Moment MC -5414.00 ft.lb
Longitudinal Moment ML -52583.00 ft.lb
Torsional Moment MT -31659.00 ft.lb

Dimensionless Parameters used : Gamma = 95.50
Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Curves read for 1979 B1/B2 Beta Figure Value Location
-------------------------------------------------------------------
N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 4C 14.994 (A,B)
N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 3C 12.082 (C,D)
M(PHI) / ( P ) 0.093 2C1 0.059 (A,B)
M(PHI) / ( P ) 0.093 1C 0.094 (C,D)
N(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 3A 3.449 (A,B,C,D)
M(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 1A 0.085 (A,B,C,D)
N(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 3B 10.793 (A,B,C,D)
M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 1B1 0.035 (A,B,C,D)

N(x) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 3C 12.082 (A,B)
N(x) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 4C 14.994 (C,D)
M(x) / ( P ) 0.093 1C1 0.097 (A,B)
M(x) / ( P ) 0.093 2C 0.060 (C,D)
N(x) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 4A 5.631 (A,B,C,D)
M(x) / ( MC/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 2A 0.045 (A,B,C,D)
N(x) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.093 4B 3.511 (A,B,C,D)
M(x) / ( ML/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.093 2B1 0.052 (A,B,C,D)

Stress Concentration Factors Kn = 1.00, Kb = 1.00
Stresses in the Vessel at the Attachment Junction
------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Stress Values at
Type of | (lb./sq.in )
---------------|--------------------------------------------------------
Stress Load| Au Al Bu Bl Cu Cl Du Dl
---------------|--------------------------------------------------------
Circ. Memb. P | -3445 -3445 -3445 -3445 -2776 -2776 -2776 -2776
Circ. Bend. P | -7778 7778 -7778 7778 -12356 12356 -12356 12356
Circ. Memb. MC | 0 0 0 0 1076 1076 -1076 -1076
Circ. Bend. MC | 0 0 0 0 15282 -15282 -15282 15282
Circ. Memb. ML | 32728 32728 -32728 -32728 0 0 0 0
Circ. Bend. ML | 61638 -61638 -61638 61638 0 0 0 0
|
Examples 7-89
Tot. Circ. Str.| 83143 -24576-105591 33242 1225 -4625 -31492 23785
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Long. Memb. P | -2776 -2776 -2776 -2776 -3445 -3445 -3445 -3445
Long. Bend. P | -12799 12799 -12799 12799 -7917 7917 -7917 7917
Long. Memb. MC | 0 0 0 0 1758 1758 -1758 -1758
Long. Bend. MC | 0 0 0 0 8120 -8120 -8120 8120
Long. Memb. ML | 10647 10647 -10647 -10647 0 0 0 0
Long. Bend. ML | 90954 -90954 -90954 90954 0 0 0 0
|
Tot. Long. Str.| 86026 -70284-117178 90329 -1484 -1890 -21242 10834
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shear VC | -468 -468 468 468 0 0 0 0
Shear VL | 0 0 0 0 1894 1894 -1894 -1894
Shear MT | -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380
|
Tot. Shear| -2849 -2849 -1911 -1911 -485 -485 -4275 -4275
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Str. Int. | 87777 70461 117485 90393 2879 4709 33041 25069
------------------------------------------------------------------------

WRC 107 Stress Summations:
Vessel Stress Summation at Nozzle Junction
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Type of | Stress Values at
Stress Int. | (lb./sq.in )
---------------|--------------------------------------------------------
Location | Au Al Bu Bl Cu Cl Du Dl
---------------|--------------------------------------------------------
Circ. Pm (SUS) | 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125
Circ. Pl (SUS) | 9875 9875 15146 15146 10056 10056 10106 10106
Circ. Q (SUS) | 23278 -23278 33207 -33207 44506 -44506 45223 -45223
Circ. Q (EXP) | 83143 -24576-105591 33242 1225 -4625 -31492 23785
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Long. Pm (SUS) | 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994
Long. Pl (SUS) | 9224 9224 10939 10939 12469 12469 12552 12552
Long. Q (SUS) | 39148 -39148 53799 -53799 28558 -28558 28939 -28939
Long. Q (EXP) | 86026 -70284-117178 90329 -1484 -1890 -21242 10834
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shear Pm (SUS) | 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shear Pl (SUS) | 2 2 -2 -2 -110 -110 110 110
Shear Q (SUS) | 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Shear Q (EXP) | -2849 -2849 -1911 -1911 -485 -485 -4275 -4275
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm (SUS) | 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm+Pl (SUS) | 36000 36000 41271 41271 36182 36182 36233 36233
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm+Pl+Q (Total)| 148682 87321 39862 60652 81926 12994 50941 16668
------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Type of | Max. S.I. S.I. Allowable | Result
Stress Int. | (lb./sq.in ) |
---------------|--------------------------------------------------------
Pm (SUS) | 26125 20000 | Failed
Pm+Pl (SUS) | 41271 30000 | Failed
Pm+Pl+Q (TOTAL)| 148682 60000 | Failed
------------------------------------------------------------------------
7-90 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Failed items display in red.
Since the present nozzle loading will cause stress intensities that are not acceptable to the ASME Section VIII, Division 2
criteria, it will have to be corrected. One way of dealing with this type of situation is to adjust the nozzle loading form its
source, while the other option might be to reinforce the nozzle connection on the vessel side either by increasing the vessel
thickness or by adding a reinforcing pad. The same analysis procedure can be repeated until the final results become
acceptable.
Note: Once a reinforcing pad is selected, the program will automatically compute the stress at the edge of the pad as well.
Examples 7-91
Example 10 - NEMA SM23
This section illustrates the use of the NEMA SM-23 computations of the CAESAR II Equipment module. Two examples are
presented. The first example can be found in the NEMA SM-23 Standard, 7th edition as Example 8A, beginning on page
47. The second example illustrates the use of metric units and the correct implementation of paragraph 8.4.6.2.
Enter a NEMA SM23 problem by choosing the Analysis - NEMA SM23 option from the CAESAR II Main Menu.
NEMA Example PT69M
This example illustrates the computations for Dc and De, the use of metric units, and the correct computation of the total
moment loads resolved about the discharge nozzle. The input is shown in the following figures.
7-92 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Examples 7-93
The results for this analysis and discussion follow.
Nozzle Results for PT69M
The first item of interest in this output report is the variation in the units systems used. The input values are reflected in the
User set of units, in this case millimeters, newtons, and newton-meters. The computed values are reported in inches, pounds,
and foot-pounds. This is necessary due to the equations used to determine code compliance. These equations combine,
directly, forces and moments, and then compare the sum to a dimension. In essence, pounds plus foot-pounds must be less
than inches. The results can be interpreted correctly only if presented in English units.
For the exhaust nozzle, the input value of 254 millimeters converts to a 10-in. nominal pipe. Since this is larger than 8 in.,
De is equal to (16 + 10 ) divided by 3, or 8.667 in. This yields an allowable of 500 times 8.667 or 4333.
7-94 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Then, the square root of the sum of the squares of the forces acting on the exhaust nozzle yields 7922 nektons, which
converts to 1781 pounds. Similarly, the square root of the sum of the squares of the moments acting on the exhaust nozzle
yields 3000 Newton-meters, which converts to 2213 foot-pounds. Applying the 3F + M equation yields 7556. Since 7566 is
larger than 4333, this nozzle fails the requirements of the SM-23 Standard.
The same computations must also be performed on the inlet nozzle. The output displayed above shows that this nozzle also
fails the SM-23 Standard requirements. Also shown for the inlet nozzle are the moments about the discharge nozzle caused
by the inlet nozzle forces. Applying the standard right hand rule sign convention, a positive “Y” force offset a positive “Z”
distance, causes a negative “X” moment. Similarly, a positive “Z” force offset a positive “Y” distance, causes a positive “X”
moment. Therefore, the inlet nozzle forces cause an “MX” moment about the exhaust nozzle of: -(3296*.6) + (3999*0)
which yields -1978 meters-meters. The “MY” and “MZ” moments caused by the suction nozzle forces about the exhaust
nozzle can be computed in a similar fashion. These moments are needed to correctly comply with Section 8.4.6.2.
The above report is repeated for each extraction nozzle specified. This particular example did not contain extraction nozzles,
so these reports are not produced. Following the individual nozzle reports is the summation of forces and moments about
the exhaust nozzle. This report is shown in the figure below.
Examples 7-95
Nozzle Load Summation Report
This report shows the force summations in the three global directions as well as the resultant force, computed by the SRSS
method discussed above. These forces are shown in the user’s set of units on the left, followed by the forces in pounds. The
next column shows the allowable for each force, as a function of Dc, which is defined above.
Following the force summation is the moment summation. This summary reports the total moment about the three global
directions and the resultant moment, computed by the SRSS method. It is important to note that the total moment is the sum
of the individual moments plus the contribution from the forces multiplied by their distances from the discharge nozzle.
Consider for example the MX moment of 721 meters-meters. This value was obtained from: 1200 + 1499 + -1978.
The final line of this report combines the resultant force and resultant moment and compares the result to its allowable.

This chapter provides: a step-by step tutorial describing the piping system input: a look at various output reports.
In This Chapter
System Overview........................................................................ 8-2
Reviewing the Static Results ...................................................... 8-25
Conclusions ................................................................................ 8-38

C H A P T E R 8
Chapter 8 Tutorial A
8-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
System Overview
This tutorial presents the flexibility and stress analysis of a piping system using CAESAR II. This process includes the
creation and entry of the pipe stress model, the analysis and evaluation of the results, and a re-design of the system. The
system chosen for this purpose, though small, exercises common modeling situations, as illustrated in the following figure.
As noted on the drawing, this system moves crude tower bottoms from the bottoms pump to a steam stripper unit, which is
utilized in a refining process. The end suction, top discharge pump has a 10-in. suction nozzle and an 8-in. discharge nozzle.
The 8-in. line runs through a check valve with a 6-in. bypass, up to a spring hanger support and over a hard support before
entering the vertical vessel.
The Tutor Piping System Layout
The boundaries of this system are the pump discharge nozzle and the vessel nozzle. Other acceptable choices could have
been the pump support (or base) point and the vessel foundation. The pump nozzle is a satisfactory boundary because the
movement of that point (as the pump heats up in operation) is rather certain and easily calculated from the thermal strain
between the pump nozzle and the base point. The vessel nozzle is an adequate boundary because of the known thermal
growth of the vessel and the greater stiffness of the vessel with respect to the 8-in. pipe. An opposite approach may be taken
by running the model all the way to an immovable point - the vessel foundation.
Tutorial A 8-3
The check valve sits right on top of the welding tee for the 6-in. bypass piping. The 6-in. line runs through a gate valve
before re-entering the 8-in. line through a second welding tee above the check valve. The total weight and length of this
valving is unknown at this time, therefore the valve lengths and weights were pulled in from the CAESAR II generic
database. Note that the spring hanger above this valving will be quite sensitive to the weights used here. The difference
between the actual installed valve weights and modeled weights should be used to adjust the spring pre-load. It is best to
make sure that the hot load on the spring is toward the center of the manufacturers recommended spring working range to
allow errors in load estimation. If there is any appreciable change in these weights perhaps the system should be re-
analyzed.
The hanger is included at the top of the vertical run to carry the deadweight and absorb its thermal growth. The hanger is
attached to the elbow and in line with the vertical pipe at the “near” end of the elbow. (Near is a term associated with the
path used to define the elbow. Here, by coding up the vertical leg and then the horizontal leg, the weld point on the vertical
run of the elbow is the near end and the horizontal run weld point is the far end.) The other end of the hanger is attached to
some available structure above this point. Because of the vertical thermal growth of the hanger attachment point a simple
rod hanger is not acceptable here. The analysis will be set to force CAESAR II to select a variable or constant support hanger
at this point. The program will probably select a variable, spring support and for that reason the Anvil table is specified for
its selection.
The horizontal piping rests on an unspecified support at the far end of the next elbow. This support, modeled as a rigid,
nonlinear restraint acting on the pipe centerline, allows the piping to grow upward but prevents downward motion. In some
cases a more accurate model for supporting structures may be required, in which case the structural steel may be included in
the model and analysis.

Preparing the Drawing
The following figure shows the worked up drawing used to construct the model. Immediately apparent are the node
numbers. These labels are assigned where anywhere we have a change in geometry (pipe diameter, wall thickness, change
in direction), a change in materials, operating conditions (temperature or pressure), or the application of boundary
conditions (restraints, point loads, displacements, etc.). Additional node numbers should be assigned at any other location
for which output is desired. For this tutorial the progression is by 5’s starting with node 5 at the pump nozzle. These nodes
are the basis through which the piping stress isometric is tabulated for the analysis. The bypass piping also has the 5’s
progression but they are incremented by 600. In reviewing the results the 600 series will indicate 6-in. pipe.
8-4 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Tutor Example with Node Numbers and Other Technical Information
Note how in the plot the elbows are shown squared with the node assigned to the intersection. The elbows will be defined so
that output is available for the near, mid, and far points of the bend (at 0, 45, and 90 degrees). The hanger will be sized at
the first elbow’s near point (node 28).
Other information required for the model is collected on this drawing before the program is started. Most of the data should
be readily available but some research may be required. Items such as pump nozzle deflections and valve data details can
slow down the input session if not noted on the drawing. The next figure shows the dimensions for this system.

Tutorial A 8-5
Tutor Example with Dimensions
Generating CAESAR II Input
Before beginning the input session it will be useful for this tutorial to set the numeric increment between nodes. In previous
discussion it was stated that node numbers would use an increment of 5 for this model. The default nodal increment is 10 so
this must be changed. From the Main Menu select TOOLS-CONFIGURE SETUP and the window shown below will appear. Next
choose the Geometry Directives tab. Select the number 5 from the drop list in the Auto Node Number Increment item as
shown in the following figure. Next click Exit w/ Save to save this change and return to the Main Menu.
8-6 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Changing the Auto Node Number Increment in Configuration Setup

Click the CAESAR II icon to start the program, CAESAR II will confirm the External Software Lock (ESL) connection.
Next, Go to FILE-NEW menu selection and enter a new filename of Tutor in the resulting dialog. Be sure to note the data
directory path that you will create and store the file in. You may want to use the Browse button to choose another directory
for storage of your CAESAR II data files.
New Job Name Specification Dialog
Tutorial A 8-7
Start the input session by selecting INPUT-PIPING from the Main Menu. If the job is new, CAESAR II will present the list of
input units that will be used. Otherwise, if a job by the name Tutor already exists on the machine, the first piping element
spreadsheet will appear. If this is the case, exit out of this input by clicking the X in the top-right of the window or by
selecting FILE-EXIT from the menu. Return to the Main Menu to repeat the above process to pick an unused jobname. The
following window will be displayed if the file is new.
Tip: The Review Current Units window displays only if the file is new and did not previously exist in the data directory.
If the Units File Label field (bottom left of the Review Current Units dialog) does not show English Units then click
Cancel. Select TOOLS-CONFIGURE SETUP, click the Database Directives tab and select English in the units drop list there.
If the English units are shown, click OK to continue with the input. An empty piping element input spreadsheet will appear
as shown in the following figure.
8-8 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Blank Input Spreadsheet
All the input spreadsheets for this tutorial are provided on the following pages. Individual spreadsheets may be repeated if
more than one auxiliary field or command is used. Text will appear with the spreadsheets where explanations are required.
Use the Tab key, the arrow keys, or the mouse to navigate the input spreadsheet. Also, liberally use the Plot command to
review the work completed. To fix any errors made navigate to the appropriate spreadsheet [PgUp] and change the entry.
CAESAR II automatically generates the From and To Nodes when you start a new spreadsheet. The cursor is initially
positioned in the From field. The From Node/field should read 5 (assuming the node increment is set to 5 in
CONFIGURE/SETUP -- if not, it can be reset using Edit-Insert), but if not, simply select the node number in the white input box
and type 5 over it. Now use the Tab, Enter or Down Arrow key to move to the next input (the To Node in this case). Enter
a 10 in the To field if one is not already there. All the remaining data entered on this screen will now be associated with the
first element from node 5 to node 10 or these two end points.

Tutorial A 8-9
Geometry and Operating Conditions for
First Tutor Element
Move down to the DY cell and enter the element length of 2 ft by entering 2-, the
“-” indicates feet. Node 10 marks the centerline intersection of the 8-in. main line
with the 6-in. by-pass. In the next block enter the nominal pipe size of 8 in. Note
that upon leaving this cell the actual OD replaces this nominal. Also with the
standard wall thickness, the entered S is replaced by the actual wall thickness. The
insulation thickness and corrosion allowance are entered next. Note that fractions
are allowed in these cells as well.
Next enter the Operating Conditions of Temperature (600°F) and Pressure (30
psi). We omit the units in our entries as CAESAR II already has our units'
information. The completed first column of data is given in the figure to the left.
At the top of the second column of this first spreadsheet double click the
Displacements check box to activate the Displacements Auxiliary Data area to
the right where we will enter our displacement information. For node 5 enter the Y
and Z anchor displacements of 0.077 in. and 0.046 in. respectively. These two
numbers are calculated as the thermal growth of the pump discharge nozzle from
the base support point. Note that the other four degrees of freedom must be
entered as 0 - without the entry of zero (or any other definition of these
boundaries), node 5 would be free to move in these four directions. The figure
below shows the displacements entered properly.

Displacement Boundary Condition at Node 5 of Tutor Model
Next we enter the pipe material by clicking the drop list to the right of the Material label and choose number 1 Low Carbon
Steel. Material properties will now be read in automatically from CAESAR II's material database. Ambient Elastic
Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and Pipe Density will be filled in. The material number will also be referenced to pick up the
coefficient of expansion for the specified temperatures.
8-10 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Now double click the Allowable Stress check box to activate the Allowable Stress Auxiliary data area to the right. The
first 21 materials are Generic and do not have Allowable Stress values associated with them in the database. However the
other materials in the list will also fill in the Allowable Stress values as found in the database. The cold and hot allowable
stresses (Sc and Sh) as defined by the piping code are entered for the type of piping material to be analyzed. Here the cold
allowable stress of 20,000 psi (don’t use commas) and the hot allowable stress of 17,300 psi are not extracted from the
database so you must type these values. Exponential format may be used in these fields to simplify data entry and reduce
mistakes. Click the drop list and select B31.3 if it is not already there by default (The default code is defined in the
Configure/Setup). The material property and allowable stress entries are shown in the following figure.
Tutorial A 8-11
Node 10 is the intersection of the 8-in. and 6-in.
lines. This intersection is constructed using an
8x6 welding tee. Piping codes recognize the
reduced strength of this piping component by
increasing the calculated stress at this point in
the system. For CAESAR II to include this stress
intensification factor in the stress calculation,
the node must be identified as a welding tee.
First double click the SIFs and Tees check
box to activate the SIFs and Tees Auxiliary
data area. Specify node 10 as our intersection
node and select Welding Tee from the Type
drop list. CAESAR II will calculate the SIFs at
this intersection according to the piping code
selected (B31.3 in this case) so no more input is
needed here.
With an insulation thickness specified,
CAESAR II will assume a density for calcium
silicate. For the purposes of this illustration this
value is entered manually as 11.5 lbf/ft3. The
input is accepted as lbf/in3 (use the F1 function
key to confirm) so the entered value is divided
by 1728 in3/ft3 to make this conversion. To
clarify: type 11.5/1728 in the Insulation
Density field and CAESAR II will convert it.
Another conversion capability is shown with
the Fluid Density cell - the commodity is
specified as 80% the deadweight of water so
we enter 0.8SG in the field and CAESAR II will
convert it to the proper units.

To move on to define the next piece of pipe, press ALT-C, select EDIT-CONTINUE, or click the Continue button on the far
right hand side of the Toolbar.
Note on this new spreadsheet that the To Node of the previous spreadsheet now appears as the From Node. Also, all the
distributed data values (the information that carries on from one pipe to the next) remain on this new screen. The user only
needs to add element length and any new boundary conditions or changes from the previous element. The distributed data
need only be re-entered when they change value. Allowable Stress data carries forward even though the check box on
subsequent spreadsheets is unchecked. Do not enable this box unless you have a change in material, code, or temperature.
Uniform Loads and Wind also carry forward without enabling the check box. None of the other check boxes in the input
carry forward.
This second element runs from the intersection point to the beginning of the check valve. This short run finishes out the
welding tee and is bounded by nodes 10 and 15 as entered by CAESAR II. The length of this element is 7 in. in the Y
direction so 7 is entered in the DY field. This data finishes the description of the second element. The entire Spreadsheet for
this second element follows.
8-12 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Second Element Spreadsheet for Tutor
The next element (15-20) is the flanged check valve. This CAESAR II element would include the flanged valve and the
mating flanges as these piping components are much more stiff than the attached pipe. If the length and weight of this
“rigid” element were known, this data could be entered directly by entering the length in the DY field, enabling the Rigid
box and then entering the Rigid Weight in the Auxiliary Data area. Here, for lack of better data and for convenience, the
CAESAR II CADWorx Valve/Flange database will be accessed to generate this input automatically. This data is made
available through the Model-Valve menu option or by clicking the Valve/Flange Database button on the toolbar. This
command will bring up the window shown below. If the following window does not appear, refer to Chapter 2 of the
CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual (Configuration and Environment).
Valve/Flange Database Selection Window
Tutorial A 8-13
To select the valve type and class use the mouse to highlight the Check Valve selection as shown above (instead of the
default of Gate). A 150 psi class flanged check valve will be entered between nodes 15 and 20 when the OK button is
clicked or the Enter key is pressed. CAESAR II will make three entries on the input spreadsheet: The element length, the
Rigid check box is activated, and the weight is input into the Rigid Auxiliary Data area. Here the rigid element runs 2 ft.
3.75 in. in the +Y direction and weighs 470 pounds. When FLG End Type is selected, this rigid element includes the added
length and weight of the mating flanges.
The bypass piping rejoins the main line through a second welding tee sitting on top of the check valve. The run of pipe to
the intersection of the main line and bypass centerlines is 7 in. (half of the total length of the 8 x 6 welding tee). The next
figure shows the definition of this element 20 - 25 and the specification of the welding tee at 25.
Tee Specification on Fourth Element of Tutor
The next node entered is located at the intersection of the vertical pipe centerline and the horizontal pipe centerline above it.
This “construction point” at node 30 is not actually a node on the piping system. Any additional input specified at 30 and all
output for node 30 will be located at the far weld point of the elbow which connects the vertical and horizontal runs. The
dimension of 10 ft. 2 in. runs from node 25 to node 30. Enabling the Bend check box specifies the elbow. The Bend
specification automatically generates additional nodes around this elbow locating the near weld point and the bend midpoint
(designated by the letter M). Node 28 is listed in the auxiliary data field at angle 0 and the elbow midpoint is listed as node
29. These added nodes will appear as output points and they may also be used to locate restraints. By default a long radius
elbow (1.5 nominal pipe size) will be added at the change in pipe direction. Users may also change the bend radius .
Bend Specification at End of Element From 25 to 30 in Tutor
The hanger to be sized at this elbow is placed at node 28 in line with the vertical run of pipe. To enter the hanger sizing
information, double-click the Hanger check box. The Hanger Auxiliary Data area like that shown in the next figure
should be filled out as follows: node 28 is entered as the Hanger Node. For this first pass through the analysis, the default
settings will be used with no additional hanger design data specified. Press F1 on any of these input cells for more
information. Here, the hanger will be chosen from Table 1 – the Anvil hanger catalog. Additionally, a short-range spring
will not be permitted at this point as the mid range spring will probably be cheaper.
8-14 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Hanger Auxiliary Data Specification in Tutor
The piping system continues on to the elbow at node 35. Again, the distance entered as CAESAR II input is the distance
between the intersections of the pipe centerlines; not the physical length of the straight piece of pipe between the elbows.
Here, -12 ft in the X direction. This X run of pipe will finish off the elbow at 30 by creating a 90-degree turn. Double click
the Bend check box to generate the long radius elbow at 35 with the two extra nodes. There is also a support at the far weld
point of this bend. This far end of the bend is node 35 in the model so the restraint is specified at node 35. This support will
not allow the pipe to move downward but it cannot prevent the pipe from moving upward. This non-linear restraint (a
restraint whose stiffness, rather than remaining constant, is a function of load or displacement) is entered as a +Y type. The
+Y indicated that the restraint supplies a positive Y (upward) load to the pipe; most users interpret the +Y as indicating the
pipe is free to move in the +Y direction. With no stiffness entered with this restraint, CAESAR II will set this to a very stiff
(rigid) restraint; meaning that under any practical load, the pipe will not “push” the restraint down. Note that up to four
restraints may be specified in this auxiliary data field. Except for the anchor designation, a restraint is a vector. If there was
a guide restraining lateral motion of node 35, an X restraint would also be defined here as the second restraint. Press F1 for
more information about these restraint parameters.
Tutorial A 8-15
Bend Specification and Restraint Specification on Element from 30 to 35 in Tutor
From the second elbow, the pipe runs in the Z direction for 18 ft where it terminates at the intersection with the vessel wall.
As with the pump connection at node 5, node 40 is a satisfactory boundary for this model. The thermal growth of the vessel
at this point is calculated and entered as displacements of node 40.
Displacement Boundary Conditions Simulating Vessel Thermal Growth at Node 40 in Tutor.

The model now returns to the 6-in. by-pass piping around the 8-in. check valve above the pump. The welding tee nodes of
10 and 25 will be completely defined as reducing tees when these 6-in. piping elements are modeled. The figure below
shows the changes required to start the 6-in. line, which are explained here.
The input processor automatically shifts the previous To Node to the current From Node. Since the model is no longer
continuing from node 40, the From Node must be changed here to 10 and the To Node is set to 605 as the 600 series of
node numbers will indicate 6-in. pipe. The X length of -2 ft is measured from the 8-in. centerline to the centerline of the
vertical 6-in. line. Diameter is entered as 6 and Wt/Sch is entered as S. An elbow is specified at node 605 by double-
clicking the Bend check box. Note that CAESAR II automatically generates a long radius elbow for this 6-in. line. This elbow
is flanged on one end. This flange acts like a stiffening ring, which reduces the bending flexibility of the elbow. This
characteristic of flanged elbows is addressed by the piping codes through a modification of the flexibility factor and stress
intensification for the elbow. To include this effect, select Single Flange from the Type drop list in the Bend Auxiliary
data area. As simple by-pass piping, the inclusion of flange stiffening is probably insignificant and can be ignored.
8-16 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Bypass Inputs in Tutor
The 6-in. piping continues up to node 610, which marks the
beginning of the gate valve. The distance between the horizontal
centerline (nodes 30 to 605) and the bottom of the valve is 9 in.
in the Y direction. This 9-in. specification puts node 610 at the
far end of the bend defined on the previous screen. The input
locations of nodes 605 and 610 then are coincident which would
produce a zero length element. CAESAR II inserts a length for
this element 605-610 equal to 5% of the bend radius - here 0.45-
in. This 5% default value, which can be changed in the
CAESAR II configuration, prevents the generation of a zero
length element.

The next element is the 6-in. 150-psi class, flanged
gate valve running from 610 to 615. Use the
Valve/Flange database (with the command Valve)
for this rigid element. Select the 150 psi flanged
gate valve (default) and click OK. CAESAR II will
return from the database with rigid Y run, 17.625 in.
long, weighing 225 pounds. As with the 8-in. check
valve, the deadweight and length of the attached
flanges should be included in this analysis. (Use the
NOFLG End Type if you do not want these
included.)
150 Flanged Gate Valve Selected from the CADWorx Valve/Flange Database

Tutorial A 8-17
Resulting CAESAR II Element Definition for the 150# Flanged Gate Valve
The element from 615 to 620 is the length required to bring the pipe up level with the intersection at node 25. This distance
is easy to find by choosing the Distance command from the toolbar or from the menu with EDIT - DISTANCE. The Y-distance
in this case between 615 and 25 is 15 in., so we input this distance as DY on the spreadsheet for 615 to 620. Also a bend
must be specified here since the next element will connect the current element to the intersection at node 25.
The Y value of the distance between nodes 615 and 25 gives us the dimension for the element from 615 to 620.
For the element running from 620 to 25 we know from the previous Distance command that it is 2 ft in the x-direction. But
imagine for a moment that we did not have this information. In this case we can use the Close Loop command EDIT - CLOSE
LOOP and CAESAR II will calculate this dimension and enter it into the appropriate DX, DY, and DZ fields. First create the
spreadsheet and enter 25 for the To Node. Then perform the Close Loop command. DX will now have a value of 2 ft.
8-18 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Close Loop on element 620 to 25 will fill in the distances for DX, DY, and DZ fields.

Input Review
Two commands are available on any input screen to review the data – Plot and List. While the input can be checked by
paging through each input screen, these commands are useful in confirming and/or editing the entire model. The use of
these commands will be demonstrated in this section.
By default a plot of the model is displayed to the right of the piping input spreadsheet. The plot area can be increased if the
piping input pane is closed. To close the piping input click the button in the upper right corner of the spreadsheet. To
display the Classic Piping Input spreadsheet and the model side by side click the Classic Piping Input tab that display in
the upper left corner of the spreadsheet and then click the button twice. The volume plot of the current piping system
is shown; available toolbar buttons and menu commands can be used to perform various functions. To display the node
numbers press the letter N on the keyboard or click the button on the toolbar. The following figure shows the tutor
model with the node numbers displayed.
Tutorial A 8-19
A few notes about the commands may be useful here:
Use the arrow keys to rotate the plot. Users may also use the arrow keys to pan the plot after it is selected from the
Operators menu. Scrolling the mouse will zoom the model and pressing the center mouse button will pan the plot.
Clicking the right mouse button on the display and clicking OPERATORS-PAN from the pop-up menu provides an alternative
method of panning the plot. The model will then follow the mouse cursor within the display. The plus sign (+) zooms in
and the minus sign (-) zooms out. There are toolbar buttons and menu items to alter the pan view and to display element and
restraint information on the plot. Users are encouraged to use these different items to become familiar with them. To reset
the plot to the default use the button or VIEW/RESET.
To print a copy of the display choose FILE-PRINT or click the Print button.

8-20 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Node Numbers Displayed on the Plot in Tutor
The V key toggles different views. The Volume Plot shown below is especially useful for larger models as it uses less of the
computer's resources .
Volume Plot Showing Spring Hanger and Support Locations in Tutor

Tutorial A 8-21
The illustration below shows a view down the Z axis with a zoom and pan to show the pipe valving. This volume plot
shows the nodes and identifies the tees.

Volume Plot View Along Z-Axis Showing Nodes, Tees, and Displacements in Tutor
The button or EDIT-LIST is used to quickly review and edit different categories of data in the job. Clicking on the
row number to the left of a line of data will highlight the entire row. Holding the Shift key down while clicking on a second
row of data will highlight all rows in between these two. Different types of data sets are available by choosing the
appropriate tab along the bottom of the spreadsheet. Use the scroll bar along the bottom of the list to view more element
data such as temperatures and pressures. The Element list displayed as default is shown in the following figure.
8-22 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Element Data in the List Editor
Ending the Input Session
If the input session is interrupted before all the data is collected save the model input before exiting the input processor. To
save the current input use the FILE-SAVE from any element input spreadsheet. CAESAR II will interrupt the input session and
prompt for this update 30 minutes after the last save. Input data can also be saved through the input exit processor, which is
accessed through the FILE- QUIT command. The input processor can be re-entered later to continue the model creation.
After exiting and saving the input or running the Error Checker CAESAR II will first save binary data for this model
under the filename Tutor._a. (All input files are composed of the jobname with the suffix “_a” added.) CAESAR II then
checks the job for errors and lists a variety of notes and warnings. This tutorial should generate 2 notes during the error
checking. Both notices from the error check are notes to the user regarding the hanger in the model – the program must size
one hanger and certain analyses are required to perform this hanger sizing. All the error, warning, and notes are presented to
users in a grid format. The analysis may proceed with notes and warnings but fatal errors must be corrected before
continuing. If no fatal errors are found, CAESAR II will build the intermediate (scratch) files for the static analysis. With the
scratch files created, the input process is complete and control is returned to the CAESAR II Piping Input .

Performing the Static Analysis
After error checking the model, review the load cases. From the File menu highlight Batch Run or click . to enter the
Load Case Editor. CAESAR II will begin with a standard set of load cases based upon the piping code selected and the loads
defined in input. For the job Tutor the hanger must be sized before the standard structural and stress analyses are
performed. This hanger sizing algorithm requires two analyses before the standard three cases are analyzed. The five
recommended load cases are shown below. From the menu that appears in the following figure select the option that
recommends the load cases.
Tutorial A 8-23
Load Case Editor with Two Hanger Design Cases and the Standard Three Load Cases for Tutor

The standard three cases could use a little explanation here. CAESAR II creates load sets to analyze the operating conditions
of the piping system and the installed conditions of the piping system. The operating condition for this analysis consists of
the deadweight of the pipe, its contents and insulation, the design temperature and pressure, and the pre-load on the just-
selected hanger at node 28. The installed condition includes the deadweight and hanger pre-load. In addition to these
structural analyses, certain stress conditions must be addressed. For the piping code used here, the sustained and expansion
stresses must be calculated. Sustained stresses include deadweight, pre-loads and pressure. Sustained stresses can be taken
from the installed condition analysis if the pressure loads are included. CAESAR II will include the pressure term in the
installed case since pressure, in most cases, has no impact on the structural loads on the piping. With the installed case
structural analysis also serving as the sustained case stress analysis, no additional load case must be added to calculate the
sustained stresses. Expansion stresses reflect the change in system position from its installed position to its operating
position. Because of system non-linearity this change in position cannot be determined by analyzing thermal loads alone. By
default CAESAR II will construct a third load case to calculate the expansion stress (range). This case is not, strictly
speaking, a third, complete analysis of the system but instead a product of the operating and installed structural analyses
already performed. The difference in system displacements between these two cases is the displacement stress range from
which the expansion stresses are calculated. The third class of stress in piping – occasional stresses (as opposed to
expansion and sustained) – is not included in the recommended analyses and must be specified by the user. Likewise,
FATigue stress cases are provided only when specifically required by the active piping code (TD/12, for example).
For most systems, the recommended load cases are exactly what the user wishes to analyze. Here, Case #1 calculates the
deadweight carried by the proposed spring at node 28. Case #2 also calculates only one number – the vertical travel of the
proposed spring. All the load categories, which compose the operating load case are used for this analysis - deadweight,
displacements, thermal set 1, and pressure set 1. With these two numbers - the load carried by the hanger and the amount of
travel it must accommodate - CAESAR II will enter the Anvil catalog and select the appropriate spring. This spring and its
proper pre-load are installed in the model for the remaining analyses.
8-24 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Case #3 is the operating Hanger Load case. It is identical to case #2 but has the sized hanger pre-load included in the
category (H). This analysis will produce the operating forces and moments on the supports and the deflections of all points
in the system. Case #3 is a structural analysis case and not a B31.3 stress analysis case. The refining piping code does not
recognize pipe stress in the operating condition as a test for system failure and does not establish a limit for this state of
stress. Case #4 is both a structural and stress case. By eliminating the (assumed) thermal effects (D1+T1), the analysis is of
the cold system. By including pressure (P1), this case also has the necessary components to be used to report the system’s
sustained stresses. Case #5 (L3-L4) is an algebraic combination of two basic load cases. The displacements of case #4 are
subtracted from the displacements of case #3 to produce these results. This case develops the displacement range of the
system in its growth from the installed position to the operating position. This displacement range is used for the calculation
of the system’s expansion stresses.
With the selection of the recommended load cases CAESAR II will proceed with the static analysis. The program continues
with the data processing by building, sorting, and storing the equation (matrix) data for the system and the basic load cases.
This process may be terminated at any time by clicking Cancel. Once this is done the CAESAR II Solution Module is
entered briefly.
CAESAR II will analyze the four basic loads (hanger design, operating, and installed) before leaving this screen. At this point
the solution screen is replaced with messages concerning the post processing of this data. The displacement results of cases
3 and 4 are used with the element stiffness matrices to calculate the forces, moments, and stresses throughout the system.
The difference between these two sets of displacements is used to establish the displacement range of the piping system as
defined in load case #5. This new displacement set is similarly used to calculate forces, moments, and stresses. At the
completion of this step, all the results are loaded into the binary data file Tutor._p and the CAESAR II output processor
window is displayed so that output for this job may be reviewed. The “._p” file can only be examined through the output
processor. The analysis need not be rerun to review these results at a later time, instead, the option OUTPUT-STATICS from the
Main Menu may be used to bring up the output from the TUTOR._P file.

Tutorial A 8-25
Reviewing the Static Results
Whether entering the output processor directly from the static analysis or through the Main Menu, the Output Window
will appear.
Static Output Processor

Usually the first look at output is to verify that the piping model is responding as expected. Checking deflections and
restraint loads in the operating and installed cases should quickly uncover any major problems with the system layout or
input. If there are unusual results, the input should be re-examined for correctness. If the output verifies the model, the
results can be used to collect pipe stresses, support and equipment loads, and any other useful data found in the output. This
information is useful in documenting a good piping design or troubleshooting an inadequate one.
A good view of the operating displacements of this piping system is available through Display Graphical Results button or
through OPTIONS-GRAPHICAL OUTPUT. Be sure to select a load case (not a hanger case) prior to issuing the command. The image
shown in the following figure will appear on the screen.

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Tutor Output Plot
As in other CAESAR II windows both the toolbar buttons and menu items may be used to select display options. From the
menu select SHOW-DISPLACEMENT-DEFLECTED SHAPE. The plot will show the centerline plot along with a normalized deflected
shape of the system in the operating condition. This screen is shown in the next figure.

Tutorial A 8-27
Displaced Shape Plot
When finished viewing the plotted output for the operating case, change the case to Sustained in the drop list on the left of
the second toolbar. Select SHOW-STRESS-OVERSTRESS and note that there is no over-stressed points exist in the system. Reset
the plot and select SHOW-STRESS-SYMBOL-CODE to display the code defined stresses throughout the system. The stress symbols
will appear on the screen and locate the highest stress points in the system. Now select SHOW-STRESS-MAXIMUM to list the
stress values on the plot; use the Enter key to list the stresses one at a time starting with the highest. The node number is
shown in parenthesis following the stress value placed on the screen and the element containing this node is highlighted.
Here, the highest (first) sustained stress listed is at node 40 (nozzle to vessel connection) with a value of 160859 psi. For a
quick review of the stresses as well as the displacements and restraint loads the Element Viewer can be enabled by clicking
the button on the toolbar. This information displays in the next figure. Return to the output processor menu by
clicking Exit or FILE-EXIT.
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Output Plot with Maximum Stress Point Revealed
For a quick look at the selected hanger data select Hanger Table with Text from the General Computed Results Column
in the main Output Processor. The program reports the Anvil Fig. B-268 Size 10 spring selected at node 28. This selection
is based on the values found in the first two analyses (both, of which, provide no load case reports in the output processor) –
the expected hot load for the proposed support at node 28 and the thermal growth of node 28 (1220 lb. and 0.750 in.,
respectively). Return to the Output Menu and select only the operating load case and Displacements and Restraint
Summary. The restraint loads at nodes 5 and 60 will be compared to the pump and vessel load limits. Return to the Output
Menu and now select the installed case (turn off 3 and turn on 4) to examine the installed condition of the piping system.
(Both the operating and installed cases could be reviewed together by having both 3 and 4 highlighted at the same time.)
Now highlight the sustained and expansion cases (4 and 5) and Stresses. Each stress report will begin with a summary
stating that the code stresses are below their allowable stress. In the table that follows the summary, the stresses will be for
each node in the system. These nodes will be listed in pairs with their associated element. Note the last column lists the ratio
of actual stress to allowable stress in terms of percentage.
These results can be dumped to the printer or to a file rather than sent to the screen. Before creating the report, a title line for
the hardcopy may be generated through OPTIONS-TITLE LINES on the Output Menu. Enter the following two lines for the
report header:
CAESAR II TUTORIAL
BOTTOMS PUMP TO STEAM STRIPPER
Tutorial A 8-29
To send the output to the printer, select FILE-PRINT or click Print. It is recommended to use the output wizard to create a
book of reports in specific order and then send them to an output device. Click the [ More>>] button in the lower right
corner of the Static Output processor to access the wizard. Start the report with the hanger table by selecting it and
clicking [Add]. For the next selection turn off the hanger request (click on it while holding the control key down) and select
the operating and sustained load cases and Displacements and Restraint Summary reports, then click [Add] again.
Finally add the sustained and expansion stress reports by having only load cases 4, 5, and Stresses highlighted; again
clicking [Add] to service this request. This completes a typical output report after reviewing the reports order, select the
output device, click Generate TOC if desired, and then click [Finish]. Segments of the output reports are included at the
end of this section.
Note that an input echo is available through the output processor. A complete input listing can start the printed report or
output file created by this processor.
To archive the static analysis electronically, the report may be sent to a data file rather than to the printer. Use the above
instructions substituting the Save button for the Print button or use the appropriate output choice on the wizard screen. The
first time you click Save it will prompt you for a filename. The resulting data file, Tutor.out, may be copied with the
CAESAR II input and output files (Tutor._a and Tutor._p) to a floppy diskette. These files along with the configuration file
Caesar.cfg and the Time Sequencing File (Tutor.otl) present a complete record of the analysis and should be stored with the
drawing and any listings.

Static Analysis Output Listing
The following is a CAESAR II tutorial output report:
Hanger Report
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Note - The output listed in the example includes significant output only.
- Notes, which discuss the results are included with each report.
- The reports included in this output are Complete Hanger Report, Operating Case Displacement Report, Installed
(Sustained) Case Displacement Report, Operating & Installed Restraint Summary, Sustained Stress Summary and Stress
Report, and the Expansion Stress Summary and Stress Report. (Stresses in the operating condition are not used in B31.3
analyses)
The hot load of 1222 lbf. was calculated in the initial weight run (load case #1) with a rigid Y restraint installed at node 28.
The load on the restraint was 1222 lbf.
A 1222 lbf. +Y load replaced the rigid Y restraint at 28 and then an operating case was analyzed (load case #2). Node 28
moved 0.750 in. in the +Y direction in this analysis.
CAESAR II entered the Anvil hanger table with these two values and selected an appropriate mid-range spring. The size 10
spring has the hot load of 1222 lbf. in its working range. This mid-range spring (short range springs were excluded) has a
spring rate of 260 lbf./in. Assuming that node 28 moves 0.750 in. between the cold to hot position this increases the spring
load by (.750)(260) or 195 lbf. The cold load on the size 10 spring is 1222+195 or 1417 lbf. This cold load is also within the
working range of the size 10 spring so CAESAR II selects it.
Operating Case Displacement Report
Tutorial A 8-31
Note: The deflections of nodes 5 and 40 - these were entered as input.
Note: Node 28 again moves up 0.750 in. in the Y direction with the spring installed.
Sustained Displacements
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Note: The zero position of nodes 5 and 40. When the imposed displacements are not included in the analysis, the node is
fixed with zero movement in each of the defined directions.
Restraint Summary for the Operating and Sustained Cases
This restraint report lists the piping forces and moments on the restraint; not the restraint loads on the piping. The loads at
node 5 are the nozzle loads and can be used without sign change to check the API 610 allowable loads. Loads for node 40
may be used to check the vessel stresses due to the nozzle loads.
The loads at 28 shows the operating load and the actual installation load (with contents) for the selected spring. Note how
the spring carries the designed load of 1222 pounds in the operation condition.
The +Y restraint at node 35 shows its nonlinear nature. In the cold condition, the restraint is active. As the piping moves to
the hot position it disengages from the support. Refer back to the displacement reports to confirm that the Y displacement is
0.0 in the installed (sustained) condition and +Y in the operating condition.
Tutorial A 8-33
Sustained Case Stress Report - Summary Information
The summary shows that the sustained stresses throughout the system are below their allowable values. The sustained stress
closest to its allowable limit is at the vessel node, 40.
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Tutorial A 8-35
For the stress detail report previous: Note the application of the tee and bend stress intensification factors. The tee at 25 has
SIFs other than 1.00 for all three listings: 25 to 28, 20 to 25, and 25 to 620. Bend SIFs are applied only on the bend side of
the node - compare node 28 on 25-28 and 28-29.
No stresses are listed for rigid elements as no valid moment of inertia is provided for these elements.
Expansion Case Stress Summary
The summary shows that the expansion stresses throughout the system are below their allowable values. The expansion
stress closest to its allowable limit occurs along the header at the node 10 tee.
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Tutorial A 8-37
For the stress detail report previous: Compare the bend side of 30 with the straight side of 30; the SIF doubles the calculated
stress. Also note the changing allowable stress. This is the result of applying an allowable stress, which takes credit for
“unused” stress in the sustained case.

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Conclusions
The review of piping stresses show that the piping has adequate wall thickness and support to keep within the sustained
allowable stress and also enough flexibility to remain below the expansion allowable stress limit. A quick review of the
system displacements does not reveal any interference problems from pipe expansion. Equipment loads must still be
checked to ensure a safe and effective design. The pump loads at node 5 may be compared to the API (American Petroleum
Institute) Standard 610 (Seventh Edition, February 1989) - Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service. The nozzle
loads, too, can be compared to allowed maximum limits. The nozzle loads can be translated into local stresses using
Welding Research Council Bulletins 107 or 297 - Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings on Nozzles
(WRC 107) or its Supplement (WRC 297). These local stresses can then be compared to allowable stress values established
in ASME Section VIII Division 2 Appendix 4 - Mandatory Design Based on Stress Analysis. Since the loads on these
boundary conditions are related to the piping system layout, the piping system cannot be properly approved until these load
limit are also verified. These verifications will be done in the following chapter.

This chapter continues the tutorial by guiding users through equipment checks and a system redesign that was analyzed
previously.
In This Chapter
Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads............................................. 9-2
Creating Accurate Models .......................................................... 9-11
WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking 9-15
Checking Nozzle Loads.............................................................. 9-20
System Redesign......................................................................... 9-24
Conclusion.................................................................................. 9-34

C H A P T E R 9
Chapter 9 Tutorial B
9-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads
Collecting pump and load information is the first step in reviewing the pump loads. API 610 (8th Edition) examines pump
loads at two levels—first the individual nozzle loads and then combined nozzle loads on the pump housing. The suction and
discharge nozzles have a set of allowable load limits based on nozzle orientation and nozzle size; both the individual X, Y,
and Z components and the resultant forces and moments are checked. Additionally, to assure maintenance of proper pump /
motor alignment, all loads on the pump are resolved about a base point and also compared to their allowable values. The
CAESAR II API 610 processor requires the suction and discharge size, position, and orientation and the loads on these
nozzles. The processor provides the load limits. For this evaluation only the discharge nozzle loads have been calculated,
therefore, only the discharge nozzle will be checked and neither the suction limits nor the resolution to the base point will be
evaluated.
Even though all the loads are not known, the entire description of the pump will be collected for the API 610 processor in
CAESAR II. The dimensioned isometric shown in the next figure defines the orientation of this pump with its end suction
nozzle and top discharge nozzle. Both nozzles are dimensioned back to the base point—the intersection of the shaft axis and
the support line for the pump. This pump’s drive shaft is along the X-axis.
The discharge nozzle loads are found in the static analysis output that has just been run. Since the discharge nozzle served
as a boundary condition for this analysis, the nozzle loads are conveniently listed in the restraint reports. These forces and
moments on the restraint at node 5 are the piping loads acting on the discharge nozzle. No sign change is required. The
operating loads and installation loads must both fall below the defined limits. Examination of the restraint summary for the
operating and sustained (installed) cases reveals the operating loads as the controlling case. The terminal output showing
these numbers is found in the following figure. The operating case loads will be used for the discharge nozzle analysis.
Tutorial B 9-3
The API 610 processor is entered through the CAESAR II Main Menu selection Analysis-API 610.
After clicking Open you will be prompted: "The file specified does not exist, do you want to create one?"
Click Yes and the new file named Tutopump will be created. The API 610 window displays as shown in the next figure.
Enter the comments and notes related to the analysis here.
9-4 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Select the Input Data tab and enter the information as described below. Arbitrary node numbers are assigned for the pump
base point and for the pump suction nozzle (1 & 105 respectively).
Use the data shown in the figure below to enter the remaining data. It is best to enter as much data as is currently available
so that when the remaining (suction) data is determined, recollection of data will be minimal. The factors for the Table 2
load multipliers are left blank. CAESAR II will use the default values established in API 610. If the pump manufacturer
defines pump load limits that are different from those defined in API 650, enter the modified limit here (This value must be
between 1.0 and 2.0).
Tutorial B 9-5
Define the pump shaft centerline direction, the nozzle types, node numbers, and nominal diameters under the Input Data
tab.
Next select the Suction Nozzle tab and enter the known data. The distance for the base point to the suction nozzle (not from
the nozzle to the base point) and the nozzle loads. Since the nozzle loads are unknown at this time, no forces and moments
are entered.
9-6 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Discharge nozzle data is next.
Tutorial B 9-7
The next figure shows the Discharge Nozzle tab with the Nozzle orientation. The nozzle orientation is taken from the
piping isometric.
Next, click Get Loads From Output File. From the pop up dialog navigate to and choose the name of the output file that
contains the restraint loads for this pump (in this case we select Tutor._P from the list).
9-8 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The next dialog allows you to choose the appropriate load case for inclusion in the API-610 analysis. For this tutorial we
will select the operating case and click OK. Now the loads from the restraint report at node 5 are read in automatically. This
is the end of the input for the API Standard 610 pump load evaluation.
Tutorial B 9-9
Select the Analyze menu item or the EQP toolbar to perform the API-610 equipment check. The results will become
available under the Equipment Report tab.
With no suction nozzle data entered, the suction nozzle cannot be evaluated. But this report has some value in that the
individual load component limits for the suction nozzle are listed. The discharge nozzle report is complete in its comparison
of the operating loads on the nozzle and the defined limits. If the nozzle load components are less than the Table 2 limits, no
additional checks must be made. If the nozzle load components are greater than the Table 2 values but less than two times
the Table 2 values, the pump may still pass if other checks are within their allowable values. The CAESAR II report first
compares these loads to the Table 2 limits. If the ratios in the report (see the following figure) are all less than 1.0 the pump
is Ok; if all the ratios are less that 2.0, the pump must pass additional checks. The moments about the X and Z-axes are
greater than two times the API 610 standards therefore additional checks are not valid. The moment about the X-axis is
10,175 ft-lbf and the (conditional) limit is 5200 ft-lbf. The moment about the Z-axis is 5866 ft-lbf and the limit is 2600 ft-
lbf. The discharge nozzle loads must be reduced.
9-10 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
If the discharge nozzle loads were less than two times the Table 2 values, checks shown in the next part of the report would
be used to qualify the pump loads. Here, the resultant of the applied nozzle forces and moments on each nozzle are
compared to their related Table 2 limits (Condition F.1.2.2). Both the suction and discharge loads are also resolved to the
pump base point and again compared to a Table 2 limit (Condition F.1.2.3). For this analysis, these data have no
significance as the components of the discharge loads are greater than two times the Table 2 values.
Once the output has been reviewed, the user may review the reports again or send the report to a file or to the system printer
(FILE-PRINT). For this tutorial, the limits on the discharge nozzle will be noted for quick checks on future, re-design analysis.
Once this piping system is redesigned so that the discharge nozzle is not overloaded, the existing data in the equipment file
TUTOR can be updated for the final pump verification report. This ends the rotating equipment tutorial.

Tutorial B 9-11
Creating Accurate Models
The operating moments (X and Z) on the pump nozzle are too large. The system appears to be modeled correctly so it must
be modified to reduce these loads. To make the most effective change to the system, the cause(s) of these large loads must
first be determined. Returning to the static output for the operating load case, there are two major clues as to the cause of
these excessive loads:
1 Compare the operating loads on the pump to the installed loads on the pump — if they are vastly different, the thermal
effects are the cause of the overload; if they are similar, the sustained effects cause the high loads. In this case, only the
operating loads are high, therefore this system has a thermal expansion problem. For a given amount of thermal growth,
thermal forces and moments will be reduced by adding flexibility to the system (F = KX; for a given X - thermal growth
between the end points - F or M can be reduced by reducing K). If the system would be overloading the pump due to
sustained effects, the system pressure or deadweight is causing the problem. Systems with pressure problems usually
include untied expansion joints; deadweight problems can be traced back to improper system support — either spring
pre-loads or support locations.
2 Go back to the displaced shapes plot of the operating load case to examine the source of the high moments. Most
engineers / analysts find it easier to understand system response to loads in terms of system displacements rather than
internal forces and moments. The displacement plot is useful in identifying which runs of pipe are generating the
thermal strain and which runs of pipe are turning that thermal strain into the large forces and/or moments on the pump.
The next figure makes it clear that the large moment about the Z-axis at the pump is caused by the thermal growth of “B”
working against the stiffness of legs “A” and “C.” The large moment about the X-axis is due to the thermal growth of “A”
working against the stiffness of legs “B” and “C.” (The thermal growth of the vessel connection also may contribute to these
high loads.)
9-12 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
How can these excessive loads be reduced? Or, more to the point, how can additional flexibility be added to the system so
that these loads drop? Two possible solutions are the addition of an expansion loop to the piping and the installation of an
expansion joint. Before either of these choices is made a much simpler and cheaper solution will be examined—improving
the model to incorporate the inherent flexibilities found in the vessel/nozzle intersection. Certainly the pump loads due to
expansion would drop if the thermal growth of the three legs A, B & C could deflect the vessel nozzle. Such nozzle
flexibilities are defined in Welding Research Council (WRC) Bulletin 297 - Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to
External Loadings on Nozzles—A Supplement to WRC Bulletin No. 107. WRC 297 supplies curves by which the OD’s and
thicknesses of the vessel and nozzle are used to define local nozzle flexibilities. These curves are limited to certain ratios of
nozzle and vessel terms, such as the following:
d/D < 0.5
d/t > 20
20 < D/T > 2500
d/T > 5
Where:
d = nozzle OD (= 8.625 in.)
t = nozzle thickness (= 0.322 in.)
D = vessel OD (= 60 in.)
T = vessel thickness (= 7/16 in.)
In this system where the vessel is vertical and the nozzle is in the Z direction, flexibilities are defined at node 40 for
translation in the Z direction and rotation about the X and Y-axis. The other three degrees of freedom (the three local shear
terms) remain rigid as in the original model where this nozzle was modeled as a rigid connection with its thermal
deflections. Note that the vessel wall thickness is 3/16 in. but the nozzle has a 1/4 in. pad reinforcing the connection; this
produces an effective vessel wall of 7/16 in.

Tutorial B 9-13
So before any costly system modification is made, the model will be refined to incorporate these WRC 297 nozzle
flexibilities. It is possible that a more thorough and accurate model of the system will show that re-design is not needed. To
assist in this model update, CAESAR II provides a processor, which will calculate and insert these flexibilities into the
system. This change will constitute the second analysis of this layout.
Return to the input processor for the job Tutor. Go to the spreadsheet that contains the nozzle node (40) and double click the
Nozzle check box. Enter the correct data in the Auxiliary Data Area as illustrated in the figures on the next page.
The nozzle pipe size is imported from the spreadsheet. If this nozzle connection had no associated thermal growth, the
vessel node number need not be entered. Since this vessel has thermal growth, the vessel node number must be identified
and the thermal displacements previously assigned to node 40 must be re-assigned to this new node number. Enter the
vessel node number as node 6000. The calculated nozzle flexibilities will be applied between nodes 40 and 6000. The vessel
dimensions are entered here in terms of OD, wall thickness, and reinforcing pad thickness. WRC 297 flexibilities are also
sensitive to the proximity of stiffeners to the nozzle. Here, a tray in the vessel is closest to the nozzle and is 4 ft above the
nozzle. On the other side of the nozzle, the bottom head tangent and skirt connection is 6 ft below. The vessel orientation,
based on a direction vector, is entered next. Enter 1 in the Y direction to indicate a vertical vessel. This Z nozzle and Y
vessel will define the orientation of the local stiffnesses assigned through WRC 297. This completes the definition of the
nozzle. There will be no piping element defined between nodes 40 and 6000. Now the displacements provided at node 40
must be moved to node 6000. Simply click on displacements and change node 40 to 6000.

9-14 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
WRC 297 Input
Displacement on Vessel Node

Tutorial B 9-15
WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking
With the nozzle specification and the node number change for the vessel deflections, the job is ready for analysis. Click start
run to launch the error checker. The error checker again produces the two notes regarding the hanger sizing. Additionally
there is a warning generated regarding the specification of a vessel node number in the WRC 297 input when this node
number is not included on any piping element. This warning message (75) is shown in the following figure. There is no
trouble with this job since the displacements of the vessel node (node 6000) are defined.
The following report reviews the nozzle flexibility calculations performed by the CAESAR II error processor.
The previous report lists the flexibilities extracted from WRC 297 — an axial stiffness of 318,640 lb./ in., a longitudinal
bending stiffness of 290,366 in.lb./deg, and a circumferential bending stiffness of 58,498 in.lb./deg. These three numbers
are certainly much less than the magnitude of the default rigid stiffness, which is 10E12. The local coordinate system is
defined by the nozzle/vessel orientation. With the nozzle in the Z direction and the vessel in the Y direction, this new axial
stiffness is in the global Z direction (the nozzle centerline), longitudinal bending is about the global X axis (bending into the
vessel centerline or long axis), and circumferential bending is about the global Y axis (about the vessel centerline).
9-16 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
After the display of the WRC 297 calculations CAESAR II shows the error processor is completed by summarizing the type
and number of messages. With no fatal errors encountered, click OK to build the new set of execution files and return to the
program’s Main Menu. The model is now ready for a second static analysis; select ANALYSIS-STATICS to proceed. There will
again be five analyses - two for the hanger sizing followed by the operating case, the installed or sustained case, and the
expansion case.
Once the analyses are completed, the Output Processor is presented for output review.
With only a minor change to the input, a rigorous, error-checking review of the results should not be necessary. Instead,
check the sustained and expansion stresses to confirm they are still below their allowable limits, check the hanger selection,
and then the operating and sustained (installed) restraint summary will be displayed to check the loads on the pump nozzle
node 5.
Tutorial B 9-17
The highest sustained and expansion stresses are 986 psi and 14,096 psi, respectively; well below the allowable limits. The
program selected a lighter spring for installation at node 28. Previously a size 10 spring was selected, now a size 9 is
recommended. In the first analysis the spring carried 1222 lb. in the hot position, now it carries only 914 lb. The system
should still weigh the same so why is the spring load smaller? The reduced longitudinal bending stiffness at the nozzle may
explain this change. Finally, to further investigate the effect of the nozzle flexibilities, show the displaced position of the
piping system in its operating condition.
9-18 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Something can be said about each of these restraints. The pump discharge nozzle loads at node 5 reveal the impact of the
change in flexibility at node 40. The operating moment about the Z-axis shows the greatest change dropping to 748 ft.lb.
from 5866 ft.lb. The shear force in the X direction has also been reduced by 50%. The axial force in the Y direction,
however, has risen from 1562 lb. to 1815 lb. This higher pump load is tied directly to the hanger selection, which was also
affected by the WRC 297 nozzle flexibilities. The spring support at node 28 is shown next. While the previous analysis had
the spring carrying 1222 lb. in the operating position, now it carries only 914 lb. This 300 lb. reduction in the spring load
returns as an additional 300 lb. load on the pump nozzle. With the spring installed directly above the pump nozzle, simply
increasing the load carried by the spring will reduce the load on the nozzle. If another analysis is required, the hanger sizing
procedure will be adjusted so that the hanger carries more load so that the pump load drops. Looking at the +Y support at
node 35 reveals why the hanger load has changed so much. In the first analysis, the support at node 35 was not active in the
operating case; the pipe rested on the support in its installed position but lifted off the support as it went into operation. The
hanger sizing algorithm readjusted the spring load so that it would carry its portion of the system no longer resting at 35. In
this second analysis, the restraint at 35 remains active in the operating position, therefore the hanger at 28 does not carry any
additional load from 35. The added longitudinal bending flexibility at node 40 is what allows the pipe to rest at node 35.
The support definition at node 40 shows the changes inherent in the WRC 297 nozzle flexibility calculations. Flexibilities
are added in the axial and bending directions (Z, RX, and RY) while the shear terms remain rigid (X, Y and RZ). This added
flexibility greatly reduces the bending moments about the X and Y-axes at node 40. Again, these reduced loads are not a
result of design modifications but modeling refinements. If the vessel nozzle connection meets the requirements of Welding
Research Council Bulletin 297, there is much to gain in nozzle flexibility.
Tutorial B 9-19
The final report from this analysis shows the displacements of node 40. The imposed thermal growth of the nozzle were
removed from node 40 and redefined at node 6000. This output would show the operating position of node 6000 as (0, 0.28,
-0.10; 0, 0, 0) [defined as (X, Y, Z; RX, RY, RZ)]. Comparing these numbers with node 40 above, one can again see the
impact of the nozzle flexibilities. The biggest difference is due to the circumferential bending flexibility (RY) but the
longitudinal bending flexibility (RX) plays a large role in the weight distribution of the system.
Do the new pump loads meet the allowable limits defined in API 610?

9-20 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Checking Nozzle Loads
The operating moments (X and Z) on the pump nozzle were too large in the initial model. A quick run through the API 610
processor will quickly evaluate the refined model. Now in the TUTOR input only the discharge loads need be changed so
click on the Discharge Nozzle tab and then click Get Loads From Output File as before to obtain the new loads.
API 610 Discharge Nozzle Input
Tutorial B 9-21
Accept the processor’s warnings and continue with the analysis. The API 610 report follows.
9-22 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Continued...
Tutorial B 9-23
The situation is better but not good enough. The Z moment on the discharge nozzle is well below the limit. The X moment,
however, remains more than twice the allowable load. Exceeding twice the allowable load would be fine if Condition
F.1.2.2 is satisfied but it is not. Condition F.1.2.2 states that even though the individual load components may be more than
twice their individual limit, the loads are satisfactory if the resolved forces divided by their resolved limits plus the resolved
moments divided by their resolved limits is less than 2. The sum of the ratios for the discharge nozzle is 2.822 so the pump
loads are still too high. There is a quick “what if” check that may prove the pump loads may be brought within their
allowable values. The discussion of the restraint loads mentioned that the set load directly controls the vertical load on the
discharge nozzle on the spring at node 28. This spring pre-load could be ideally set so that when the pump is in operation,
there is no pump load in the Y direction. At this point the hanger carries 914 lb. in the operating position while the pump
carries 1815 lb. If the spring load carried 2729 lb. it stands to reason that the load on the pump would be zero in Y. Would
that satisfy Condition F.1.2.2? Rerunning the API 610 processor with the Y load set to zero will show the Condition F.1.2.2
reduced to 2.313, which still remains above the limit. Spring load adjustment is useful but system redesign is indicated.

9-24 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
System Redesign
The probable causes of the large X moment at node 5 were developed earlier. This excessive load is caused by the thermal
expansion of the leg from node 35 to 40 (the “A” leg) working against the stiffness of the remainder of the system (legs “B”
and “C”). Assuming the thermal strain of leg “A” is fixed, only the system stiffness may be changed to reduce the operating
load at 5. This reduced stiffness may be realized by the addition of an expansion loop or the addition of an expansion joint.
For this system an expansion loop is chosen.
Where should the expansion loop be added? As a rule of thumb, the best location for an expansion loop is determined by the
orientation of the leg, which produces the thermal strain causing the problem. Here leg “A” sets the orientation of the loop.
The added piping to generate the expansion loop will lie perpendicular to leg “A” that runs in the Z direction. This means
that for this system pipe may be added in either the X or Y direction. This added pipe effectively increases the cantilever
length, which is displaced by leg “A”. By increasing cantilever length, stiffness is reduced and load(s) will drop. It will be
sensible, therefore, to add a loop on the “A” run of pipe (35 - 40) by adding pipe in the X direction.
How long should the loop legs be? There are several conditions, which would set the loop size: available support location,
maximum distance between supports, cost of pipe, and space available to name a few. For this system an eight-foot by 8-ft
loop will be used. For systems that are not analyzed, the recommended maximum spacing between supports for 8-in. water-
filled pipe is 19-ft (see ASME B31.1 121.5 or MSS SP-69). The 8-ft loop run will lengthen the 30 - 35 pipe from 12-ft to
20-ft, which is close to this recommended spacing.
Tutorial B 9-25
Return now to the CAESAR II Main Menu and re-enter the input processor with TUTOR as the current jobname. When testing
layout modifications, which may not prove successful, it is wise to create a new input set with the proposed changes and
leave the original model intact. If the proposed changes do not produce the desired results, the original model is still
available for the next attempt; the proposed changes need not be de-constructed from the model. The easiest way to do this
is to choose FILE-SAVE AS from the menu and give the model a new name. The current model will now be the new one.
Changes can be made to this new model and the original is intact with the original name. Let's call this new model Tutor2.
There are several ways to add the loop to Tutor2. For this tutorial try following these steps:
Change the length of 30 - 35 from 12 ft to 20 ft
[PgDn] through the element input screens to display the element From 30 To 35. Move the cursor over the DX field and re-
specify the twenty-foot length by highlighting the current value and then entering -20-
Move the +Y support from 35 to 33
The recommended maximum spacing between supports for this size pipe is 19 ft *. Leaving the support at 35 would place
the support 21-feet from the hanger at 28 so the support is moved closer - to node 33. Move the cursor to the Restraints
field. Once the cursor is in the restraints field the Auxiliary Data Area will display the current +Y restraint at node 35. Move
the cursor over the 35 and enter 33.
“Break” 30 - 35 by adding 32 at the midpoint
Node 32 is added as an output point to check mid-span sag. Still on element 30 35 select MODEL-BREAK to call up the Break
command. Answer the questions so that node 32 is added to this line 10 ft from node 30 with no restraints at node 32. The
dialog box for this line break is shown in the next figure.
9-26 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The maximum distance between supports as specified in ASME B31.1 and MSS SP-69 ensures a very low sustained
stress in the line. Since CAESAR II calculates these sustained stresses, the output would confirm that much greater
distances between supports are safe. The recommended spacing also limits the pipe sag between supports to 0.1 inch.
The recommended spacing is conservative but it serves as a useful guideline here.
Break 35 - 40 8 ft down the line by adding 135.
[PgDn] to the element 35 - 40. Break this element and add the new node 135, 8 ft (8-) from node 35. Double-click the Bend
check box to add the bend specification at node 135.
Insert an 8-ft element after 35 - 135.
While still on the (new) element 35 - 135 press I to invoke the Insert command. Select the After button to place this new
element after the element 35 - 135. CAESAR II then displays a new input screen for the new element. Enter the To Node as
235, specify the length in the DX field as 8 ft (8-) and double click the Bend check box to add the bend at node 235. [PgDn]
to the next element (135 - 40) and change the From Node (135) to the new node 235. This change will “button up” the
system to finish the entry of the new element. One final step is required for this element - the specification of the bend at
node 135. [PgUp] two elements to display element 35 - 135 and double click the Bend check box.
Tutorial B 9-27
Add a support to the new run 135 - 235.
As mentioned earlier both ASME B31.1 and MSS SP-69 provide limits to spacing between supports. These guidelines were
used to set the size of this expansion loop (maximum support spacing for 8-in. carbon steel water line is 19 ft). These
guidelines also state that the maximum run of pipe where bends are included is 3/4 of the straight run limit. Here, that limit
is about 15 ft. There are over 26 ft of pipe between 35 and 40 so a new support should be added. The support will be added
about halfway between 35 and 40 - 13 ft from the nozzle at 40 or 3 ft back from 235. [PgDn] to the element 135 - 235 and
issue the Break command. Define a single node 140, 5 ft (5-) from node 135. Enter 33 in the Get support condition from?
field. This will cause CAESAR II to duplicate the +Y support entered at node 33 at this new node 140.
One final modification is suggested for this analysis. A large vertical load remained on the pump nozzle after the hanger at
node 28 was sized and installed by CAESAR II. The spring selected from the Anvil Hanger Table should carry more of the
deadweight of the pipe and valving. The sizing algorithm may be adjusted so that the pump nozzle carries no load when the
program calculates the load to be carried by the spring. This change will greatly reduce the final nozzle load by sizing a
larger spring at 28. To make this change, enter the Hanger Input auxiliary data area. Type in a 5 in the Free Anchor at
Node field; Then move down to Free Code field and select Y from the drop list. With this change, CAESAR II will
disconnect the Y restraint at node 5 while it calculates the deadweight load carried by the proposed spring at 28.
9-28 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
To launch the error checker select either FILE-START RUN or select the Start Run toolbar. This data should now process
without error. If any errors do occur, carefully read the error messages and return to the input processor to correct them. If
everything looks correct, allow CAESAR II to create the execution files and return to the Main Menu.
The job is again ready for static analysis. Enter ANALYSIS-STATICS from the Main Menu and run Tutor2 with the same load
cases that where created for Tutor. Do this by accepting the default setting on the Load Case Editor. The Output Processor
will be presented once the analysis is complete.
As previously recommended, the sustained and expansion stresses are first checked to confirm that they remain below their
allowable limits. The hanger selection and the operating and sustained (installed) restraint summary will be displayed to
examine the impact of this model modification on the pump nozzle loads at node 5. The highest sustained and expansion
stresses are 1708 psi and 5415 psi, respectively; well below the allowable limits. The sustained stresses increased a small
amount due to the longer spans between supports while the expansion stresses show a significant reduction. The added
system flexibility caused this reduction in expansion stress; a good indication that the nozzle loads has dropped as well.
Now select the Hanger Table with Text from under the General Computed Results column. The program selected a
heavier spring for installation at node 28. In the last analysis a size 9 spring was selected, now a size 12 is recommended.
The spring now carries 2221 lb. in its hot position. This greater load is the result of the modification to the spring hanger
selection criteria where the pump is “disconnected” when the spring’s hot load is calculated. Hopefully, the added load-
carrying capability of the spring will reduce the vertical load on the pump nozzle. Be aware that the spring loads can be
further manipulated if the nozzle load needs additional adjustment. Select Operating and Sustained load cases and Restraint
Summary to display the restraint summary report. Finally, to quickly check the effect of the loop on the overall
displacement, show the displaced shape of the piping system in its operating condition. The following figures show the
various reports referred to above.
Tutorial B 9-29
9-30 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Tutorial B 9-31
9-32 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
The pump discharge nozzle loads at node 5 look much better; revealing the impact of the change in flexibility at node 40.
The loop adds flexibility in the Z direction. The Z force on the pump fell from 750 lb. to 235 lb. The large operating
moment about the X-axis and the target of this re-design dropped from almost 10,000 lb. to 2753 lb. Another interesting
effect of this added flexibility is the increase in the Z moment from -300 ft.lb. to +1541 ft.lb. The pump load in the Y
direction exhibits the adjustment to the hanger selection. The hot load on the pump is -204 lb. and the cold load on the pump
is +332 lb. The absolute magnitude of the pump load could not be much smaller. If necessary, the hanger load could be
adjusted to bring the pump installation load to zero or the pump operating load to zero. The spring support at node 28 now
shows a hot and cold load of 2221 lb. and 2558 lb., respectively. By releasing the anchor in the initial weight analysis the
spring carries the riser load. This load was only 913 lb. in the previous analysis. The extra flexibility has also changed the
support load at node 33. Previously the support load dropped as the pipe became hot; now the load increases as the pipe
heats up. The vessel nozzle loads at node 40 shows a similar pattern of change as the pump nozzle. Most loads drop but
there is one moment (here it’s X) that increases.
Are the nozzle loads OK?
The API 610 processor need not be used to confirm that the discharge nozzle loads are below their maximum allowed
values. Refer back to either of the previous analyses to quickly locate the individual limits and compare them to the new
operating loads on node 5:
Tutorial B 9-33
Direction API Limit Model Results
X (lb.) 1700 136.
Y (lb.) 2200 -204.
Z (lb.) 1400 -236.
RX (ft.lb.) 5200 -2709.
RY (ft.lb.) 3800 -1547.
RZ (ft.lb.) 2600 1543.
Since all six components of the discharge nozzle loads are below their limits, no additional checks (conditions F.1.2.2. &
F.1.2.3.) need be made. The discharge nozzle is no longer overloaded. The final pump evaluation cannot be made until the
suction nozzle loads are compared with their API 610 limits.

9-34 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Conclusion
The pump discharge loads are now within their allowable limits. The vessel loads from the nozzle at node 40 should also be
checked to ensure they are not too high. These loads cannot be compared to a fixed load limit as with the pump. Instead,
these loads must be converted to local stresses on the vessel and these stresses compared to their limits as defined by ASME
Section VIII, Division 2. As a very rough guide for evaluating local vessel stresses, one can check the code defined stress on
the pipe connected to the vessel. If those stresses are below about 6000 psi, the vessel stresses should be ok. Looking at the
operating, sustained, and expansion stresses at node 40, the maximum stress is less than 2500 psi. The vessel loads seem
fine. If the stresses are to be checked, the Welding Research Council Bulletin 107 (WRC 107) can be used to convert the
applied forces and moments to the appropriate local stresses. CAESAR II provides a processor to convert these loads into
WRC 107 stresses and a second processor to combine the different stress categories (general or local primary membrane
stress intensity, primary membrane plus primary bending stress intensity, and primary plus secondary stress intensity) for
comparison with their design limits.
Final reports should now be made to document this design change. As shown earlier in this tutorial, the input listing could
be generated from the Input Processor or from the Output Processor. It would be wise to include the current status of the
program’s default settings in this input echo. A hard copy of a few input plots would also help in defining this model and
analysis. Structural and stress results from the Output Processor will substantiate the current design. Structural output
includes the system displacements and restraint loads for both the operating and installed cases. The code-defined pipe
stresses are generated for the sustained and expansion cases. The hanger report should also be generated from the Output
Menu. The data files for and from this analysis may also be archived with the hard copy reports. Copy the files Tutor2._a,
Tutor2._J, and Tutor._P and Caesar.cfg to a CD to archive a copy of the CAESAR II input, load case definition, CAESAR II
output, and program default settings. Also save the Tutor2.otl file to enable full access to these CAESAR II files without the
need to re-run the analysis. Note that often upon release of a new version of CAESAR II that archived files will have to be
converted to the new version and subsequently re-analyzed. This is primarily due to frequent format changes within
CAESAR II as new features are added. To avoid this, limited-run users are encouraged to keep the old version of the software
available to them and use newest version for new jobs. The other files generated for this analysis (Tutor._b, Tutor._n, etc.)
can be deleted from the hard disk without losing any information. These “scratch files” are produced by the input processor
for use in the analysis and can always be regenerated. The CAESAR II Main Menu selection FILE-CLEANUP/DELETE FILES can be
used to copy and delete the files generated by CAESAR II.
Any questions or comments about this tutorial may be directed to the COADE support staff. We may be reached in Houston,
Texas at (281)890-4566. Our fax number is (281)890-3301. We can also be reached via E-mail at techsupport@coade.com.

Index
1
180 degree return (fitting-to-fitting 90 deg. bends)
• 2-5
180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree
Bends • 2-5
A
Acoustic waves • 7-27
Analysis-statics • 7-47, 9-24
Analyzing Water Hammer Loads • 7-27
Anchors • 3-2
Anchors with displacements • 3-3
Anchors with Displacements • 3-3
Anchors, flexible • 3-4
Angle field • 2-2
Angle to adjacent bend • 2-2
Angular gimbal • 5-23
Archive • 8-25
Axial deflection • 5-4
B
Ball joints • 6-4
Ball Joints • 6-4
Bellows angular stiffness • 5-9
Bellows ID • 5-2
Bellows, Simple • 5-2
Bellows, Tied • 5-4, 5-7
Bend • 2-2, 2-7, 2-9, 2-13, 2-15
Angle • 2-2
Auxiliary input • 2-4
Definition • 2-2
Radius • 2-2
Bend Definition • 2-2
Bend Flexibility Factor • 2-15
Bends • 2-1
Bends, double • 2-4
Bends, single-flanged • 2-4
Bends, stiffened • 2-4
Bi-Linear Restraints • 3-41
Bottom Out Spring Can Capability • 4-18
Bottom-out • 4-18
Bottom-out spring • 4-16
Break command • 9-24
Button
Get loads from output file • 7-81
C
CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations • 7-9
Can design • 4-8
Can design, Multiple • 4-8
Can design, Single • 4-4
Checking Nozzle Loads • 9-20
Closely spaced mitered bend • 2-7
Closely Spaced Mitered Bend • 2-7
CNodes • 3-5, 3-28
COADE Technical Support • 1-4
Cold spring • 6-7
Cold Spring • 6-7
Combination cases • 7-31
Combination Cases • 7-31
Computation Control tab • 4-2
Conclusion • 9-34
Conclusions • 8-38
Configuration/setup • 7-64
Configure-setup-geometry • 2-2
Connect geometry through CNodes • 4-12
Connecting Equipment • 6-8
Connecting node displacements • 4-10
Connecting nodes • 4-10, 7-73
Constant effort support design • 4-5
Constant Effort Support Design • 4-5
Constant effort supports • 4-6
Constant Effort Supports - No Design • 4-6
Control stops, Lateral • 5-15
Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II
Global Coordinates to WRC 107 Local Axes •
7-81
Core piping • 6-5, 7-72
Core piping, Input • 7-72
Creating Accurate Models • 9-11
Cryogenic piping dynamics example • 7-32
Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example • 7-32
D
Deformation • 6-5
Discharge nozzle • 9-2, 9-20
Discontiguous systems • 7-73
Discussion of Results • 7-45
Displacement
Report • 7-14, 7-30
Stress range • 8-22
Vector • 3-3
Displacement Report • 7-30
Displacements, Non-zero • 3-3
DLF spectrum • 7-10
DLF spectrum files • 7-19
Double-acting restraint (rotational) • 3-13
Double-acting restraints • 3-13
Double-Acting Restraints • 3-13
Double-Acting Restraints - Rotational • 3-13
2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Double-Acting Restraints - Translational • 3-13
Double-acting restraints (translational) • 3-13
Dual gimbal • 5-25
Dual Gimbal • 5-25
Dummy leg on bends, Horizontal • 3-36
Dummy leg, Vertical • 3-32
Dynamic analysis • 7-57
Dynamic analysis of independent support
earthquake excitation • 7-32
Dynamic analysis of water hammer loads • 7-19
E
Earthquake excitation, Independent support • 7-32
Eigensolution • 7-2
Elbows - different wall thickness • 2-13
Elbows - Different Wall Thickness • 2-13
Elbows, pressure-balanced • 5-27
Ending the Input Session • 8-22
EQP toolbar • 9-2
Equipment report • 9-2
Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads • 9-2
Example
Dynamic analysis • 7-57
Dynamic analysis (nureg9) • 7-57
Dynamic analysis of independent support
earthquake exc • 7-32
Dynamic analysis of water hammer loads • 7-
19
Dynamic analysis of water hammer loads
(hammer) • 7-19
Harmonic analysis • 7-2
Harmonic analysis (table) • 7-2
Jacketed piping • 7-69
Jacketed piping (jacket) • 7-69
Natural frequency analysis • 7-2
NEMA SM23 • 7-91
Omega loop modeling • 7-64
Omega loop modeling (omega) • 7-64
Relief valve loads • 7-7
Relief valve loads (relief) • 7-7
Structural analysis • 7-47
Structural analysis (frame) • 7-47
WRC 107 • 7-79
Example 1 - Harmonic Analysis - TABLE • 7-2
Example 10 - NEMA SM23 • 7-91
Example 2 - Relief Valve Loads - RELIEF • 7-7
Example 3 - Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer
Loads (HAMMER) • 7-19
Example 4 - Dynamic Analysis of Independent
Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) • 7-
32
Example 5 - Structural Analysis - FRAME • 7-47
Example 6 - Dynamic Analysis - NUREG9 • 7-57
Example 7 - Omega Loop Modeling - OMEGA •
7-64
Example 8 - Jacketed Piping - JACKET • 7-69
Example 9 - WRC 107 • 7-79
Examples • 7-1
Existing Springs - No Design • 4-7
Expansion joint rating • 5-4, 5-9
Expansion joints • 5-2, 5-5, 5-7, 5-9
Expansion Joints • 5-1
Expansion load case • 7-81
Expansion stresses • 8-22
External software lock • 8-5
F
File-Cleanup/Delete Files • 9-34
Flexible anchors • 3-4
Flexible Anchors • 3-4
Flexible anchors with predefined displacements •
3-5
Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements •
3-5
Flexible Nozzle - WRC Bulletin 297 • 3-6
Flexible nozzle (WRC bulletin 297) • 3-6
Flexible nozzle w/ complete vessel model • 3-8
Flexible nozzle w/ predefined displacements • 3-7
Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model • 3-
8
Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements •
3-7
Force sets • 7-10
Forces/moments, Conversion to WRC 107 local
axes • 7-81
Free code option • 4-13
Frequency cutoff • 7-2
G
Gas thrust load calculations • 7-9
General Information • 4-2
Generating CAESAR II Input • 8-5
Generating input, Tutorial • 8-5
Get loads from output
Button • 9-2, 9-20
Gimbal joint • 5-21
Gimbal Joints • 5-23
Guides • 3-16
H
Hanger
Index 3
Between two pipes • 4-12
Data • 4-3
Design • 4-2, 4-11
Design with anchors • 4-13
Design with anchors in the vicinity • 4-13
Design with support thermal movement • 4-11
Design with user-specified operating load • 4-
15
Sizing algorithm • 8-22
Supported from vessel • 4-10
Hanger Between Two Pipes • 4-12
Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity • 4-
13
Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement •
4-11
Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating
Load • 4-15
Hanger design, Simple • 4-3
Hanger table with text • 9-24
Hangers • 4-1
Harmonic
Analysis • 7-2, 7-4
Force data • 7-4
Loads • 7-2
Harmonic Analysis of This System • 7-4
Hinge joint, Slotted • 5-18, 5-20
Hinged joint • 5-16
Hinged Joint • 5-16
Hinges, plastic • 3-44
Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends • 3-36
Horizontal Vessels • 6-11
I
Input
Constant effort supports • 4-6
Data • 9-2
Review • 8-18
Session • 8-22
Structural steel • 7-47
Input Review • 8-18
Introduction • 1-1
J
Jacket, Input • 7-73, 7-77
Jacketed pipe • 6-5
Jacketed Pipe • 6-5
Jacketed piping • 7-69
Jacketed piping systems • 7-69
K
K-factor • 2-15
L
Large Rotation Rods - Basic Model • 3-38
Large Rotation Rods - Chain Supports • 3-40
Lateral deflection • 5-4
Lift Off Spring Can • 4-17
Lift-off • 4-18
Limit Stops • 3-18
Loads, Large • 7-69
M
Mass participation report • 7-14, 7-29
Mass Participation Report • 7-29
Methods for modeling dummy legs on bends • 3-
32
Miscellaneous Models • 6-1
Missing mass correction • 7-27
Mitered bend, evenly spaced • 2-6
Mitered bend, widely spaced • 2-9
Mitered bends • 2-6
Mitered Bends • 2-6
Miters, closely spaced • 2-6
Model-break • 9-24
Modeling dummy legs on bends • 3-32
Modeling Spring Cans with Friction • 4-19
Modeling, Guidelines • 9-11
Models, Complex • 5-4
Models, Simple • 5-4
Multiple Can Design • 4-8
N
NATURAL FREQUENCY REPORT (Hz) • 7-58
Near/Far Point Method • 3-32
NEMA • 7-91
NEMA Example PT69M • 7-91
Nodal degree of freedom • 3-3
Node fields • 2-2
Non-zero displacements • 3-3
Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads • 7-27
Nozzle load summation report • 7-95
Nozzle Load Summation Report • 7-95
Nozzle loads • 9-20
Nozzle results for pt69m • 7-93
Nozzle Results for PT69M • 7-93
Nozzle spreadsheet • 3-8
NRC
4 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Benchmark problems • 7-57
Spectrum example • 7-57
NRC Example NUREG 9 • 7-57
NRC Example Problem 2A • 7-58
NRC Example Problem 2B • 7-60
NRC Example Problem 2C • 7-62
O
Occasional load case • 7-81
Offset element method • 3-32
Offset gimbal • 5-23
Old spring • 4-9
Old spring redesign • 4-9
Old Spring Redesign • 4-9
Omega loop • 7-64
Omega loop modeling • 7-64
On Curvature Method • 3-32
Operating load, User-specified • 4-15
Output-view animation • 7-2
Overview • 1-2
P
Performing the Static Analysis • 8-22
Pipe and hanger support • 4-10
Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel • 4-10
Pipe nominal diameter • 2-2
Pipe supported from vessel • 4-10
Plastic hinges • 3-44
Plastic Hinges • 3-44
Predefined displacements • 3-5
Preparing the drawing • 8-3
Preparing the Drawing • 8-3
Pressure
Pulses • 7-19
Thrust • 5-2
Wave • 7-27
Pressure-balanced tees and elbows • 5-27
Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows • 5-27
Problem Solution • 7-31
Program Support / User Assistance • 1-3
Pump discharge loads • 9-2
R
Reducers • 6-2
Relief
Valve loads • 7-7
Valves • 7-10
Relief valve example problem setup • 7-10
Relief Valve Example Problem Setup • 7-10
Relief valve loading - output discussion • 7-14
Relief Valve Loading - Output Discussion • 7-14
Report
Displacement • 7-14, 7-30
Equipment • 9-2
Force • 7-31
Mass Participation • 7-14, 7-29
Restraint • 7-31
Stress • 7-31
Restrained weight run • 4-13
Restraint
Report • 7-14, 8-29
Settlement • 3-24
Restraint and guide, Single-directional • 3-23
Restraint between two pipes • 3-28
Restraint between two pipes (use of CNodes) • 3-
28
Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes • 3-
28
Restraint between vessel and pipe models • 3-29
Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models • 3-29
Restraint Settlement • 3-24
Restraint, Single-dimensional • 3-22
Restraint, Single-directional • 3-15
Restraint, Skewed double-acting • 3-25
Restraint, Skewed single-directional • 3-27
Restraint/force/stress reports • 7-31
Restraint/Force/Stress Reports • 7-31
Restraints • 3-1
Restraints on a bend at 30 and 60 degrees • 3-31
Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees • 3-31
Restraints on a bend at 45 degrees • 3-30
Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees • 3-30
Restraints, Rotational directional • 3-21
Results • 7-45
Reviewing the Static Results • 8-25
Rigid
Body motion • 7-73
Rotation rods (basic model), Large • 3-38
Rotation rods, large • 3-38
Rotational directional restraints with gaps • 3-21
Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps • 3-21
ROTATIONS (deg) • 7-59, 7-61, 7-62
S
Shock spectra • 7-57
Simple • 4-16
Simple bellows • 5-2
Simple bellows with pressure thrust • 5-2
Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust • 5-2
Simple Bottomed Out Spring • 4-16
Simple hanger design • 4-3
Index 5
Simple Hanger Design • 4-3
Single and double flanged bends • 2-4
Single and double flanged bends or stiffened
bends • 2-4
Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened
Bends • 2-4
Single Can Design • 4-4
Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap
and Predefined Displacement • 3-23
Single-directional restraint with predefined
displacement • 3-22
Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined
Displacement • 3-22, 3-24
Single-directional restraints • 3-15
Single-Directional Restraints • 3-15
Singular stiffness matrix • 7-73
Skewed double-acting restraint • 3-25
Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap • 3-25
Skewed single-directional restraint • 3-27
Skewed Single-Directional Restraint • 3-27
Slip joint • 5-21, 5-27
Slip Joint • 5-21
Slotted hinge joint • 5-18, 5-20
Slotted Hinge Joint - Comprehensive Model • 5-20
Slotted Hinge Joint - Simple Model • 5-18
Slotted hinge joint (comprehensive) • 5-20
Slotted hinge joint (simple) • 5-18
Snubbers, static • 3-43
Speed of sound • 7-19
Spring can models • 4-18
Spring can models with • 4-18
Spring cans w/ friction, Modeling • 4-19
Spring cans with friction • 4-19
Spring hangers, Existing • 4-7
Spring hangers, Existing (no design) • 4-7
Spring Rate field • 4-9
Spring, Bottomed-out • 4-16
Static analysis • 8-22
Static analysis output listing • 8-29
Static Analysis Output Listing • 8-29
Static results • 8-25
Static snubbers • 3-43
Static Snubbers • 3-43
Step 1 - Create Modeling Plan • 7-70
Step 2 - Node Layout • 7-70
Step 3 - Core Piping Input • 7-72
Step 4 - Jacket Input - 1st Half • 7-73
Step 5 - Jacket Input - 2nd Half • 7-77
Stiffness characteristics • 4-18
Stress report • 7-14
Structural analysis • 7-47
Structural input files • 7-32
Structural preprocessor • 7-47
Structural steel • 7-32
Suction nozzle • 9-2
SUPPORT FORCES (lb) • 7-60, 7-61, 7-63
Sustained load case • 7-81
Sustained stresses • 8-22
Sway Brace Assemblies • 3-45
System overview • 8-2
System Overview • 8-2
System redesign • 9-24
System Redesign • 9-24
T
Tangent intersection point • 7-64
Tees, pressure-balanced • 5-27
Thermal support movement • 4-11
Tie bar • 5-4
Tie rod model, Comprehensive • 5-15
Tied Bellows - Simple vs. Complex Model • 5-4
Tied bellows (simple vs. complex model) • 5-4
Tied bellows expansion joint • 5-5, 5-7
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Complex Model •
5-7
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Simple Model • 5-
5
Tied bellows expansion joint (complex model) • 5-
7
Tied bellows expansion joint (simple model) • 5-5
TRANSLATIONS (in) • 7-59, 7-60, 7-62
Turbine trip • 7-19
Tutorial A • 8-1
Tutorial B • 9-1
Tutorial, Generating input • 8-5
U
Universal expansion joints • 5-9
Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models • 5-9
Universal expansion joints (simple models) • 5-9
Universal Joint - Comprehensive Tie Rod • 5-14
Universal joint (comprehensive tie rod model) • 5-
14
Universal joint with lateral control stops • 5-15
Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops -
Comprehensive Tie Rod Model • 5-15
Universal joint with lateral control stops
(comprehensive tie r • 5-15
V
Vertical dummy leg on bends • 3-32
6 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide
Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends • 3-32
Vertical leg attachment angle • 3-35
Vertical Leg Attachment Angle • 3-35
Vertical Vessels • 6-8
Vessel, Pipe and hanger supported from • 4-10
W
Water hammer • 7-19
Water hammer loading - output discussion • 7-29
Water Hammer Loading - Output Discussion • 7-
29
Water hammer loads • 7-27
Widely spaced mitered bend • 2-9
Widely Spaced Mitered Bend • 2-9
Windows • 3-20
WRC 107 • 7-79
WRC 297 • 3-6
WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of
Error Checking • 9-15
Y
Yield force • 3-44
Z
Zero length expansion joint • 5-16, 5-18, 5-23
Zero weight • 5-18

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 1-2 Program Support / User Assistance .......................................................................................................... 1-3 COADE Technical Support ...................................................................................................................... 1-4

Chapter 2

Bends

2-1

Bend Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 2-2 Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends ............................................................................. 2-4 180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends .......................................................................... 2-5 Mitered Bends........................................................................................................................................... 2-6 Closely Spaced Mitered Bend................................................................................................................... 2-7 Widely Spaced Mitered Bend ................................................................................................................... 2-9 Elbows - Different Wall Thickness......................................................................................................... 2-13 Bend Flexibility Factor ........................................................................................................................... 2-15

Chapter 3

Restraints

3-1

Anchors..................................................................................................................................................... 3-2 Anchors with Displacements .................................................................................................................... 3-3 Flexible Anchors....................................................................................................................................... 3-4 Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements .................................................................................... 3-5 Flexible Nozzle - WRC Bulletin 297........................................................................................................ 3-6 Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements ........................................................................... 3-7 Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model .............................................................................. 3-8 Double-Acting Restraints ....................................................................................................................... 3-13 Double-Acting Restraints - Translational .................................................................................... 3-13 Double-Acting Restraints - Rotational ........................................................................................ 3-13 Single-Directional Restraints .................................................................................................................. 3-15 Guides ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-16 Limit Stops.............................................................................................................................................. 3-18 Windows ................................................................................................................................................. 3-20 Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps........................................................................................... 3-21 Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement .................................................................. 3-22 Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap and Predefined Displacement................................... 3-23 Restraint Settlement................................................................................................................................ 3-24 Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap............................................................................................ 3-25 Skewed Single-Directional Restraint ...................................................................................................... 3-27 Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes......................................................................................... 3-28 Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models............................................................................................ 3-29 Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees ........................................................................................................ 3-30 Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees............................................................................................. 3-31 Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends .............................................................................................................. 3-32 Near/Far Point Method ................................................................................................................ 3-32 On Curvature Method.................................................................................................................. 3-32

2

Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Vertical Leg Attachment Angle .............................................................................................................. 3-35 Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends .......................................................................................................... 3-36 Large Rotation Rods - Basic Model........................................................................................................ 3-38 Large Rotation Rods - Chain Supports ................................................................................................... 3-40 Bi-Linear Restraints................................................................................................................................ 3-41 Static Snubbers ....................................................................................................................................... 3-43 Plastic Hinges ......................................................................................................................................... 3-44 Sway Brace Assemblies.......................................................................................................................... 3-45

Chapter 4

Hangers

4-1

General Information.................................................................................................................................. 4-2 Simple Hanger Design .............................................................................................................................. 4-3 Single Can Design .................................................................................................................................... 4-4 Constant Effort Support Design................................................................................................................ 4-5 Constant Effort Supports - No Design ...................................................................................................... 4-6 Existing Springs - No Design ................................................................................................................... 4-7 Multiple Can Design................................................................................................................................. 4-8 Old Spring Redesign................................................................................................................................. 4-9 Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel ............................................................................................... 4-10 Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement .................................................................................. 4-11 Hanger Between Two Pipes.................................................................................................................... 4-12 Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity.......................................................................................... 4-13 Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load ............................................................................. 4-15 Simple Bottomed Out Spring.................................................................................................................. 4-16 Lift Off Spring Can................................................................................................................................. 4-17 Bottom Out Spring Can Capability......................................................................................................... 4-18 Modeling Spring Cans with Friction....................................................................................................... 4-19

Chapter 5

Expansion Joints

5-1

Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust ....................................................................................................... 5-2 Tied Bellows - Simple vs. Complex Model .............................................................................................. 5-4 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Simple Model......................................................................................... 5-5 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint - Complex Model ..................................................................................... 5-7 Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models ........................................................................................... 5-9 Universal Joint - Comprehensive Tie Rod.............................................................................................. 5-14 Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops - Comprehensive Tie Rod Model ...................................... 5-15 Hinged Joint............................................................................................................................................ 5-16 Slotted Hinge Joint - Simple Model........................................................................................................ 5-18 Slotted Hinge Joint - Comprehensive Model .......................................................................................... 5-20 Slip Joint ................................................................................................................................................. 5-21 Gimbal Joints .......................................................................................................................................... 5-23 Dual Gimbal............................................................................................................................................ 5-25 Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows....................................................................................................... 5-27

Chapter 6

Miscellaneous Models

6-1

Reducers ................................................................................................................................................... 6-2 Ball Joints ................................................................................................................................................. 6-4 Jacketed Pipe ............................................................................................................................................ 6-5 Cold Spring............................................................................................................................................... 6-7 Connecting Equipment ............................................................................................................................. 6-8 Vertical Vessels ............................................................................................................................. 6-8

Introduction

3

Horizontal Vessels....................................................................................................................... 6-11

Chapter 7

Examples

7-1

Example 1 - Harmonic Analysis - TABLE ............................................................................................... 7-2 Harmonic Analysis of This System ............................................................................................... 7-4 Example 2 - Relief Valve Loads - RELIEF .............................................................................................. 7-7 CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations ................................................................................... 7-9 Relief Valve Example Problem Setup ......................................................................................... 7-10 Example 3 - Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER) ................................................ 7-19 Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads ................................................................................ 7-27 Water Hammer Loading - Output Discussion ............................................................................. 7-29 Problem Solution ......................................................................................................................... 7-31 Example 4 - Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM)................. 7-32 Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example......................................................................................... 7-32 Discussion of Results................................................................................................................... 7-45 Example 5 - Structural Analysis - FRAME ............................................................................................ 7-47 Example 6 - Dynamic Analysis - NUREG9 ........................................................................................... 7-57 NRC Example NUREG 9 ............................................................................................................ 7-57 Example 7 - Omega Loop Modeling - OMEGA..................................................................................... 7-64 Example 8 - Jacketed Piping - JACKET................................................................................................. 7-69 Step 1 - Create Modeling Plan..................................................................................................... 7-70 Step 2 - Node Layout................................................................................................................... 7-70 Step 3 - Core Piping Input ........................................................................................................... 7-72 Step 4 - Jacket Input - 1st Half .................................................................................................... 7-73 Step 5 - Jacket Input - 2nd Half ................................................................................................... 7-77 Example 9 - WRC 107............................................................................................................................ 7-79 Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107 Local Axes .................. 7-81 Example 10 - NEMA SM23 ................................................................................................................... 7-91 NEMA Example PT69M ............................................................................................................. 7-91 Nozzle Results for PT69M .......................................................................................................... 7-93 Nozzle Load Summation Report ................................................................................................. 7-95

Chapter 8

Tutorial A

8-1

System Overview...................................................................................................................................... 8-2 Preparing the Drawing................................................................................................................... 8-3 Generating CAESAR II Input........................................................................................................ 8-5 Input Review ............................................................................................................................... 8-18 Ending the Input Session ............................................................................................................. 8-22 Performing the Static Analysis .................................................................................................... 8-22 Reviewing the Static Results .................................................................................................................. 8-25 Static Analysis Output Listing..................................................................................................... 8-29 Conclusions............................................................................................................................................. 8-38

Chapter 9

Tutorial B

9-1

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads........................................................................................................... 9-2 Creating Accurate Models ...................................................................................................................... 9-11 WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking .......................................................... 9-15 Checking Nozzle Loads .......................................................................................................................... 9-20 System Redesign..................................................................................................................................... 9-24 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................. 9-34

......................................................... 1-2 Program Support / User Assistance ............... 1-3 COADE Technical Support ..................... 1-4 ................................................ In This Chapter Overview ................CH AP TER 1 Chapter 1 Introduction This chapter discusses the organization of the manual and important information regarding user assistance.............................

The examples in Chapter 7 also provide engineering guidelines and indicate where assumptions must be made in attempting to solve real-world problems.1-2 Version 5. problem solving. illustrating the application of CAESAR II to various piping problems. unless otherwise noted. Users should recognize that the numeric data used in these examples is not necessarily applicable in all cases. Chapters 2 through 6 of this manual illustrate the techniques and methods used to model individual piping components. restraints. Users should refer to this manual for examples of specific piping components. and program operation. especially if a particular analysis has not been previously attempted. for both modeling techniques and general program understanding. These chapters should be referenced often when modeling seldom-used components or unusual geometries. The component modeling examples in Chapters 2 through 6 are especially useful. These examples illustrate modeling. Users are encouraged to work through these chapters. as well as complete example jobs. Chapters 8 and 9 contain a tutorial that walks users through the modeling and analysis of a complete system. In general.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Overview The CAESAR II Applications Guide is intended to serve as an example guide. the numeric values used in these examples are fictitious quantities. showing the application of CAESAR II. Chapter 7 is a chapter of worked examples. and attached equipment. .

While our documentation is intended to address questions regarding piping analysis. COADE provides this service at no additional charge to the user. and design. system modeling. at times. It is expected. analysis. fax. an elaborate process—one that may not be obvious to the casual user. e-mail. Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. COADE schedules regular training classes in Houston and provides in-house and open attendance training around the world. To that end. COADE has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II and piping issues raised by users. These courses focus on the expertise available at COADE — modeling. that questions focus on the current version of the program. and the Internet. economical. and expeditious designs. . literally hundreds of support calls are answered every week. COADE understands the engineer’s need to produce efficient. and results interpretation. not all the answers can be quickly found in these volumes.Introduction 1-3 Program Support / User Assistance COADE’s staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also. CAESAR II support is available by telephone. however.

1-4 Version 5.com .com WEB: www.coade.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide COADE Technical Support Phone: Fax: 281-890-4566 281-890-3301 E-mail: techsupport@coade.

.... 2-7 Widely Spaced Mitered Bend .............................. 2-4 180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends ...... 2-6 Closely Spaced Mitered Bend..CH AP TER 2 Chapter 2 Bends This chapter illustrates the modeling techniques for various bend techniques in CAESAR II...... 2-5 Mitered Bends......... In This Chapter Bend Definition .................................................... 2-13 Bend Flexibility Factor .......................................................................................................................................... 2-15 ........................................ 2-9 Elbows ..Different Wall Thickness .................................................................................. 2-2 Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends .......................

at the 0-degree location and at the bend midpoint (M). The far-point is at the weldline of the bend.2-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Bend Definition Bends are defined by the element entering the bend and the element leaving the bend. This includes the spacing between the nodes on the bend curvature and the near and far-points of the bend. and adjacent to the straight element leaving the bend. For stress and displacement output the TO node of the element entering the bend is located geometrically at the far-point on the bend. DY. and DZ fields is equal to: R tan ( / 2) where is the bend angle. and R is the bend radius of curvature to the bend centerline. Entering the letter M as the angle designates the bend midpoints. The bend angle is defined by these two elements. Nodes defined in the Angle and Node fields are placed at the given angle on the bend curvature. Nodes on the bend curvature cannot be placed closer together than specified by the Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend parameter in the Configure-Setup—Geometry section. The FROM point on the element is located at the 0-degree point of the bend (and no 0-degree node point will be generated) if the total length of the element as specified in the DX. but may be changed to any other value. The 0-degree point on the bend is at the weldline of the bend. The input for the element leaving the bend must follow the element entering the bend. Bend radius defaults to 1 1/2 times the pipe nominal diameter (long radius). Specifying a bend automatically generates two additional intermediate nodes. The angle starts with zero degrees at the near-point on the bend and goes to degrees at the far-point of the bend. . and adjacent to the straight element entering the bend. Angles are always entered in degrees. The minimum and maximum total bend angle is specified by the Minimum Bend Angle and Maximum Bend Angle parameters in the Configure Setup—Geometry section. The actual bend curvature is always physically at the TO end of the element entering the bend.

Bends 2-3 .

then he/she should put rigid elements (whose total length is the length of a flange pair) at the bend ends where the flange pairs exist. There is no automatic rigid element (or change in weight) generated for the end of the bend. Flanged Bends .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends Single and double flanged bend specifications only effect the stress intensification and flexibility of the bend. When specifying single flanged bends it does not matter which end of the bend the flange is on. As a guideline. Single and double-flanged bends are indicated by entering 1 or 2 (respectively) for the Type in the bend auxiliary input. If the user wishes to include the weight of the rigid flange(s) at the bend ends. British Standard 806 recommends stiffening the bends whenever a component that significantly stiffens the pipe cross section is found within two diameters of either bend end. The flanges in the figures below are modeled only to the extent that they affect the stiffness and the stress intensification for the bends.2-4 Version 5. Rigid elements defined before or after the bend will not alter the bend's stiffness or stress intensification factors.

) 180 Degree Bend .Bends 2-5 180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends Two 90-degree bends should be separated by twice the bend radius. The user is recommended to put nodes at the mid point of each bend comprising the 180 degree return. The far-point of the first bend is the same as the near-point of the second (following) the bend. (See the example below.

2-6 Version 5. are uniquely defined by two parameters: Number of cuts (changes in direction) Equivalent radius <or> miter spacing. B may be found for evenly spaced miters from: B = S [ 1 .1.equivalent miter bend radius S . For closely spaced miters the equivalent radius is equal to the code defined “R1” for B31. The equation relating the equivalent radius to the spacing for evenly spaced miters is: Req = S / [ 2 tan( ) ] Where: Req .3 and “R” for B31.outside radius of pipe cross-section.code defined half-angle between adjacent miter cuts: = Where: .1.ro / Req ] Where: ro .spacing of the miter cuts along the centerline .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Mitered Bends Evenly spaced mitered bends. whether closely or widely spaced. / 2N .number of cuts An additional parameter B (length of miter segment at crotch) is checked for closely spaced miters when using B31.total bend angle N .

25 deg.nominal wall thickness of pipe. B31.25 deg.length of the miter segment at the crotch. If the user has the miter spacing and not the bend radius.)] . B . CAESAR II will always calculate the spacing from the bend radius.913 / [2 tan (11. 40 Req = 15. The mitered bend shown below has 4 cuts through 90 degrees and a spacing of 15. Req = = S / [ 2 tan ( ) ] / 2N = = = 90 / [2(4)] 11.Bends 2-7 Closely Spaced Mitered Bend Miter bends are closely spaced if: S < r [ 1 + tan ( ) ] Where: S .one-half the angle between adjacent miter cuts. tn .1 has the additional requirements that: B > 6 tn 22.5 deg.average pipe cross section radius: (ri+ro)/2 .miter spacing r .913 in. the radius must be calculated as shown below. Closely spaced miters regardless of the number of miter cuts may be entered as a single bend.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Closely Spaced Miter Bend .2-8 Version 5.

one-half angle between adjacent miter cuts. each having a bend radius equal to: R = r [1 + cot ( )] / 2 R . In CAESAR II. These components should be re-entered as a group of single cut joints . During error checking.5 deg. single cut miters. CAESAR II will produce a warning message for each mitered component.reduced bend radius for widely spaced miters.1 has the additional requirement that: 22.Bends 2-9 Widely Spaced Mitered Bend Mitered bends are widely spaced if: S r * [1 + tan ( )] S . which does not pass the test for a closely spaced miter.average cross section radius (ri+ro)/2 .spacing between miter points along the miter segment centerline. widely spaced miters must be entered as individual. B31. r .

= 90 degrees =2 = 45 in. The bend is widely spaced.500 in.5 .279 >6.2-10 Version 5. D. Find that 37. The reduced miter bend radius is needed to define widely spaced beds in CAESAR II.9826 (Check the Closely Spaced Miter Requirements). Bend Angle Cuts Req = 10. Assuming closely spaced: = /2 =90/(2 2) =22. Pipe Thk. = 0.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Widely Spaced Miter Pipe O. .375 in.

Bends 2-11 Widely Spaced Miter Calculate the coordinates to get from the tangent intersecting point of the single cut miter bend at node 10 to the single cut miter bend at node 15. Note: The straight pipe section coming into and going out of the bend must be Reqsin ( ). .

. Input for element from Node 15 to Node 20.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Widely Spaced Miters .2-12 Version 5. having one miter cut. Input for element from Node 10 to Node 15. with bends specified... Continued Input widely spaced miters as individual straight pipe elements. Input for element from Node 5 to Node 10.

The specified fitting thickness applies for the current elbow only and is not carried on to any subsequent elbows in the job. The thickness of any preceding or following straight pipe is unaffected.Bends 2-13 Elbows . The matching pipe has a thickness of 0. CAESAR II changes the thickness of the curved portion of the bend element only. . stress intensification factors and flexibility factors for the bend are based on the elbow wall thickness.Different Wall Thickness When the fitting thickness in the bend auxiliary field is entered. Stresses at the elbow are calculated based on the section modulus of the matching pipe as specified in the B31 codes. However. The elbow at 10 has a thickness larger than the matching pipe wall.5.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Thick Elbow .2-14 Version 5.

5 in this field.5 times as flexible as a straight pipe of the same length. the bend will be 1. However. . For example.Bends 2-15 Bend Flexibility Factor Normally bend flexibility factors are calculated according to code requirements. the user may override the code calculation by entering a value in the K-factor field. if the user enters 1.

.

.... 3-22 Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap and Predefined Displacement 3-23 Restraint Settlement......................... 3-30 Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees..... 3-5 Flexible Nozzle ............................................................................................................ 3-27 Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes................................................................. 3-36 Large Rotation Rods ............................ 3-3 Flexible Anchors...............................Basic Model ........................................................ 3-40 Bi-Linear Restraints..... 3-25 Skewed Single-Directional Restraint......................CH AP TER 3 Chapter 3 Restraints This chapter details the modeling of various restraint types in CAESAR II........................................................ 3-31 Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends .............................. 3-35 Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends .............. 3-4 Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements .WRC Bulletin 297................ 3-32 Vertical Leg Attachment Angle................................................................................. 3-16 Limit Stops .............. 3-6 Double-Acting Restraints ............................. 3-41 Static Snubbers ............................. 3-21 Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement ........... 3-44 Sway Brace Assemblies.................................................... 3-28 Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models............... 3-24 Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap.................................................................. 3-29 Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees .......................... 3-43 Plastic Hinges .................. 3-13 Single-Directional Restraints.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-45 ............................................................................. 3-18 Windows....................... 3-15 Guides......................................... In This Chapter Anchors........................ 3-2 Anchors with Displacements ............................................................................Chain Supports .................................................................................................. 3-38 Large Rotation Rods ............................................ 3-20 Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps..............................................................

Accurate input of the piping boundary conditions (i. requiring experience both with piping fabrication and erection. Displacements should not be specified at an anchor. Rigid Anchor at Node 5 Nozzle Connection Modeled As Anchor Rigid Anchor Input . If the displacements of a particular point are known. restraints) is probably the single most important part of system modeling. and with CAESAR II. Entries in the Stif field apply to all 6 anchor degrees of freedom. The first group of examples illustrates a large number of boundary condition applications and their proper modeling using CAESAR II.3-2 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Anchors The following are general guidelines and information concerning anchors: The anchor default stiffness for translational and rotational degrees of freedom is defined in the Configuration file. Connecting nodes can be used with anchors to rigidly fix one point in the piping system to any other point in the piping system. they should be input directly without any additional restraints or anchors.e.

Restraints 3-3 Anchors with Displacements Follow these general guidelines to model anchors with displacements: Enter only displacements for the node. and the specified non-zero value for load cases containing the vector as part of the load case identification. it cannot be free in another displacement vector at the same node (leaving a displacement field blank will default to zero in this case). defined displacements are used if the load case is W+P1+T1+D1 (OPE) and those displacements are held to zero if the load case is W+P1 (SUS). Note: Degrees of freedom not defined (left blank) in any displacement vector are assumed to be free in all load cases. Non-zero displacements are usually part of the thermal expansion effects and.e. if so. make sure all 6 degrees of freedom at the node are defined. Do not specify restraints or anchors at the node to be displaced. D1.D9) may be defined. Up to 9 different displacement vectors (i.. The CAESAR II recommended load cases do this automatically.. Anchors with Predefined Displacements Predefined Displacements on an Anchor Anchor Displacement . i. For instance.e. Once a degree of freedom has been fixed in one displacement vector. should normally be added into any analysis case containing the corresponding thermal.. W+P1+T1+D1. The translations and/or rotations for any nodal degree of freedom having displacements specified in any displacement vector will be zero for load cases not containing that vector as part of the load case identification. For anchors with displacements.

Flexible Restraints for Nozzle and Shell .3-4 Version 5. Put four restraints on one spreadsheet and the last two restraints on the next element spreadsheet. See the following flexible nozzle examples to improve modeling methods for intersections of this type.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Flexible Anchors Follow these guidelines to model flexible anchors: Use six flexible restraints.

Restraints

3-5

Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements
To model flexible anchors with predefined displacements, implement the following requirements: Use six flexible restraints. Put four restraints on one spreadsheet and the last two restraints on the next element spreadsheet. Define a unique connecting node (CNode), at each of the six restraints. All six restraints should have the same connecting node. Specify the displacements at the connecting node.

Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements
The connecting node here is 1005. Connecting node numbers may be selected at the user's convenience, but must be unique.

3-6

Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Flexible Nozzle - WRC Bulletin 297
Adhere to these requirements when modeling flexible nozzles: Frame only one pipe element into the nozzle node. Do not place restraints at the nozzle node. Do not place anchors at the nozzle node. Do not specify displacements for the nozzle node. (See the following example for displacements at flexible nozzles.) CAESAR II automatically performs the following functions: Calculates nozzle flexibilities for the nozzle/vessel data entered by the user Calculates and inserts restraints to simulate nozzle flexibilities Calculates flexibilities for the axial translations, circumferential, and longitudinal bending Users must perform the error check process to view these calculated values. CAESAR II uses the following criteria for its calculations: Shear and torsional stiffnesses are assumed rigid. Nozzle configurations outside of the WRC 297 curve limits are considered rigid. It is not unusual for one stiffness value to be rigid because of curve limits, and the others to be suitably flexible. The Vessel Temperature and Material fields on the WRC 297 auxiliary data area may be used to optionally compute a reduced modulus of elasticity for the local stiffness calculations.

Restraints

3-7

Schematic of Nozzle and Vessel to be Modeled Using WRC 297

WRC 297 Input Example

WRC 297 Output Example

Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements
Follow these guidelines to model flexible nozzles with predefined displacements (WRC 297):

3-8 Define a unique vessel node on the Nozzle spreadsheet. Apply the predefined displacements to the vessel node.

Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Note: These displacements can be given on any element spreadsheet (the displacement node does not need to be on an element that defines it). The CAESAR II generated nozzle/vessel flexibilities will be inserted in restraints that act between the nozzle node and the vessel node.

Flexible Nozzle With Predefined Displacements

Displacements Defined on Vessel Node

Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model
Follow these guidelines for modeling a flexible nozzle that includes a complete vessel: Define a unique vessel node on the Nozzle Spreadsheet. Run a rigid element between the vessel node defined on the Nozzle Spreadsheet and the centerline of the vessel. The outside diameter of the rigid element should be approximately equal to the outside diameter of the vessel. The weight of the rigid element should be zero. Model the actual vessel length using pipe elements. The vessel diameter and wall thicknesses should be modeled as accurately as possible Use an anchor to model the vessel anchorage point. The CAESAR II generated nozzle/vessel flexibilities will be inserted between the nozzle node and the vessel node.

Restraints

3-9

Full WRC 297 Model Schematic

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Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Full WRC 297 and Vessel Model

Pipe Entering Nozzle

WRC 297 Auxiliary Input

Rigid Weight is Blank ( 0. Rigid Element Specifications For Vessel Radius...0) Vessel Skirt Element Vessel Element .Restraints 3-11 Full WRC 297 and Vessel Model Continued .

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide WRC 297 Results Found At End Of Error Checking .3-12 Version 5.

Friction at double-acting restraints acts orthogonally to the line of action of the restraint.Rotational The behavior of these restraints is similar to double-acting translational restraints.Restraints 3-13 Double-Acting Restraints Double-acting restraints are those that act in both directions along the line of action. A CNode is the connecting node. . A gap is a length. If left blank then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to a rigid point in space. If the CNode is entered then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to the connecting node. If a gap is specified.Acting Restraint at Node 55 in the Z Direction Schematic Input Double-Acting Restraints . it is the amount of free movement along the positive or negative line of action of the restraint before resistance to movement occurs. and so is always positive. Double-Acting Restraints . Double . Friction is not defined for rotational restraints.Translational Restraint acts along both the positive and negative directions. Most commonly used restraints are double-acting.

3-14 Version 5. .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Hinged-End Rod Free to Rotate About the Z-Axis Four restraints on element spreadsheet containing node 105 and remaining restraint on next spreadsheet.

Any number of single-directional restraints may act along the same line of action. a +Y restraint may move freely in the positive Y direction and will be restrained against movement in the negative Y direction. If left blank then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to a rigid point in space. Rigid Single . or skewed axes. then there are usually two in opposite directions and they are used to model unequal leg gaps. Since the stiffness is omitted.Directional Restraint in Y at Node 20 The sign on the restraint gives the direction of free movement. that is. Single-directional restraints may define restraint along positive. . If the CNode is entered then the restrained node is connected via the restraint stiffness to the connecting node. Friction and gaps may be specified with single-directional restraints.) A CNode is the connecting node. negative. (If more than one single directional restraint acts along the same line of action. the restraint will be rigid.Restraints 3-15 Single-Directional Restraints The following are some important facts pertaining to single-directional restraints: The sign on the single-directional restraint gives the direction of “free” movement.

A single directional restraint in the Y direction also exists. CAESAR II computes direction cosines for guides. Note: Replacing the guide restraint type is the same thing as replacing the Z restraint type.3-16 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Guides The following are some important facts pertaining to Guides in CAESAR II. Connecting Nodes (CNodes) can be used with guides. Guide direction cosines entered by the user are ignored. orthogonal to the axis of the pipe. Guide on Horizontal Pipe with Single Directional Restraint Node 25 is guided in Z with a gap of 2.5 in. A guided pipe in the horizontal or skewed direction will have a single restraint. Guides may be defined using the global system coordinates or with the restraint type GUI. . Guides are double-acting restraints with or without a specified gap. Both restraints are rigid. acting in the horizontal plane. A guided vertical pipe will have both X and Z direction supports.

Restraints 3-17 Guided Pipe in Both Horizontal and Vertical Directions .

The positive line of action of the Limit Stop is defined by the FROM and TO node on the element.or double-acting restraint whose line of action is along the axis of the pipe. Limit Stops may be defined using the restraint type LIM.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Limit Stops The following are important facts pertaining to Limit Stops: Limit stops are single.3-18 Version 5. and is always positive. Limit Stops/Single Directional Restraints can have gaps. Limit Stops may have gaps and friction. The sign on the single-directional restraint gives the direction of unlimited free movement. A gap is a length. Directional Limit Stop with a Gap . Connecting Nodes (CNode) may be used with any Limit Stop model. Limit Stop direction cosines entered by the user are ignored. Limit Stops provide double or single-acting support parallel to the pipe axis. Orientation of the gap along the line of action of the restraint is accomplished via the sign on the restraint. CAESAR II computes direction cosines for orthogonal or skewed limit stops. The gap is the distance of permitted free movement along the restraining line of action.

and 1.Restraints 3-19 Two Limit Stops Acting in Opposite Directions The stop at 45 permits unlimited free movement in the plus X direction. of free movement in the minus X direction before the Limit Stop becomes active.0 in. and 1. The stop at 195 permits unlimited free movement un the minus X direction. of free movement in the plus X direction .0 in.

Equal leg windows are modeled using two double-acting restraints with gaps orthogonal to the pipe axis. a +Y restraint is restrained against movement in the -Y direction. i. and any gap associated with a +Y restraint is the free movement in the -Y direction before the restraint begins acting. Unequal leg windows are modeled using four single-acting restraints with gaps orthogonal to the pipe axis.3-20 Version 5. If there is a sign on the restraint then the gap exists on the “restrained” line of action of the restraint. The sign on the restraint determines the direction of movement before the gap closes. If there is no sign.) The gap is always positive.e.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Windows Keep in mind the following facts when modeling Windows in CAESAR II. then the restraint is double-acting and the gap exists on both sides of the line of action of the restraint. Window Modeled with Four Single Directional Restraints with Gaps . (See the following example.

Restraints

3-21

Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps
These restraints can be considered specialty items and are typically only used in sophisticated expansion joint or hinge models.

Allowable rotation of 5 degree in either direction about the X-axis before resistance to rotation is encountered.
Bi-Directional Rotational Restraint with Gap

Hinge Assembly at node 50 can rotate relative to assembly at node 55 only in the positive direction about the X-axis.

Hinge Assembly with Directional Rotational Restraint

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Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement
Define the one-directional restraint as usual, and enter a unique node number in the CNode field. Specify the predefined displacements for the CNode.

Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement

Piping at node 55 rests on top of the restraint that is displaced in the Y-direction node 1055.

Restraints

3-23

Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap and Predefined Displacement
Define the single-directional restraint and guide as usual. Put a unique node number in the CNode field for the singledirectional restraint and the guide. The same unique node number should be entered in both CNode fields. Specify the predefined displacements for the CNode.

Guide Plus Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement

Guided piping at node 70 rests on a structural member node 1070. The structure undergoes a predefined displacement.

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Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Restraint Settlement
Keep in mind the following facts when modeling restraint settlements: Model using a single-directional restraint with predefined displacements. The magnitude of the predefined displacement is the amount of anticipated settlement in the minus Y direction. The Displacement Load Case is used to include the effect of the settlement (non thermal). The settlement displacements are prescribed for the connecting node at the single directional restraint. For more information, refer to Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement.

Restraint Settlement
The weight of this pipe data at node 95 exerts a sufficient load on the foundation node 1095 to cause a calculated .325 in. settlement.

Restraints

3-25

Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap
The following are some important considerations for modeling skewed restraints: Direction vectors or direction cosines can be used to define the line of action of the restraint. If direction vectors are used, CAESAR II will immediately convert them to direction cosines. Direction cosines may be quickly checked in the graphics processor. Any translational axis can be used in the restraint description. The “redefinition” of the axis does not affect any other restraint description for the element. Particular attention should be paid to skewed direction input data. A common mistake is to specify an axial instead of transverse restraint when modeling a skewed guide. Plotted section views of the restrained nodes can be an extremely useful check of the skewed direction specification. The sense of the direction or cosine unit vector is unimportant. In the definition of double-acting restraints, the direction vector and cosines are only used to define the restraint line of action and are not concerned with a direction along that line. A simple rule can be used for finding perpendicular, skewed, direction vectors. The restraint is to be perpendicular to the pipe. If the pipe has skewed delta dimensions DX and DZ, the perpendicular restraint directions vector will be (-DZ, 0, DX).

Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap

Double Acting Restraint Y, Guided @ 45 Deg. Gap = 1/8"

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Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap Continued ...

Input Using Unit Direction Vectors

Input Using Direction Cosines

Input Using Perpendicular Vector

Input Using Guide Restraint Type

If direction vectors are used CAESAR II will immediately convert them to direction cosines.) Direction cosines may be quickly checked in the graphics processor. Connecting nodes (CNode) can be used with any skewed single-directional restraint. Skewed Single-Directional Restraint . (See the figure for clarification. Direction vectors or direction cosines may be used to define the line of action of the restraint.Restraints 3-27 Skewed Single-Directional Restraint The following are some important considerations regarding skewed single-directional restraints: Skewed restraints may be nonlinear. The direction of the cosines or the direction vector is along the positive line of action of the (+) restraint.

3-28 Version 5. The Cnode effectively represents what the "other end of the restraint" is attached to.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes Note For these two examples. Nonlinear or linear restraints can act between two different pipe nodes. the directive Connect Geometry Through CNodes must be disabled to avoid plotting and geometry errors. Nonlinear Restraint Between Two Pipes .

Restraints 3-29 Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models The following are some important facts that pertain to restraints’ acting between vessel and pipe: Use a restraint with connecting node to link the pipe to the rigid element extending from the vessel shell. Restraints may be linear or nonlinear with gaps and/or friction. Any number of restraints may be specified between the restrained node and the connecting node. Restraint Between Vessel and Piping .

3-30 Version 5. Points on the bend curvature are like any other point in the piping system. (See the Chapter on "Bends" if the actual positions of the nodes 19 and 20 are not clear. The restraint would then be placed at the actual point of rod attachment.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees Linear and/or non-linear restraints can act at any point on the bend curvature. If this is considered significant. The magnitude of this moment is a function of the load and the moment area (the amount of the shift). then a rigid element with zero weight could be placed between node 19 and the actual point of rod attachment. and a negative Z moment about the point 20 in real life.) The line of action of the rod is really shifted away from the node 19. 90 Degree Bend Restrained at Midpoint . The following figure shows a bend supported vertically by a rigid rod. Note that a downward force at node 15 will produce a positive Z moment about 20 in the system as modeled. The rod will be allowed to take tensile loads only and so will be modeled as a single directional restraint that can move freely in the +Y direction.

if necessary one of these points can be at the zero degree point on the bend. specifying a node at the bend far-weld point will generate an error.Restraints 3-31 Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees Up to three (3) nodes can be defined at any angle on the bend curvature so long as the points are more than five degrees apart. The To node of the bend is placed at the tangent intersection point for geometric construction but is placed at the bend "far" point for analysis purposes. Therefore. Nodes and angles on the bend curvature can be specified in any order. The zero degree point on a bend is the bend “near” point. Restraints on Intermediate Points Along a Bend . Restraints may be modeled on any of these nodes.

The user should verify that the warning message description of the bend is accurate. and DZ fields on the dummy leg’s pipe spreadsheet. DY. The length of the dummy leg will be taken directly from the DX. The true length of the dummy leg should be input in the DX. and DZ fields on the dummy leg element spreadsheet. . For each dummy leg/bend model a warning message is generated during error checking. There will be no automatic alteration of the dummy leg length due to the difference between the bend tangent intersection point and the actual point on the bend curvature where the dummy leg acts. The three most common methods used to model dummy legs are outlined below: Near/Far Point Method Easy input Dummy leg acts along centerline of vertical run Dummy leg does not act at the proper place on the bend curvature On Curvature Method Easy input Dummy leg acts at the proper place on the bend curvature Dummy leg does not act along the centerline of the vertical run Difficult input Dummy leg acts at the proper place on the bend curvature Dummy leg acts along centerline of vertical run The element immediately after the bend must define the downstream side of the bend.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends Dummy legs on bends can be modeled several ways.3-32 Version 5. Dummy legs and/or any other elements attached to the bend curvature should be coded to the bend tangent intersection point. Do not define dummy legs on the element spreadsheet immediately following the bend specification spreadsheet. Input and output plots of the dummy leg always show it going to the bend tangent intersection point. DY.

Restraints 3-33 Vertical Dummy Leg on Bend The bend shown is entered from the top left corner of the control station nodes 80 to 85. . The dummy leg is attached at the 45degree point on the bend. and exits horizontally to the right nodes 80 to 85. and the centerline of the dummy leg should line up with the centerline of the vertical run of pipe entering the bend node 80 to 85.

Near Point Method On Curvature Method Offset Element Method ..3-34 Version 5..00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Dummy Leg on Bend Continued .

Restraints 3-35 Vertical Leg Attachment Angle Dummy Leg Attachment Angle Calculation .

. The user should make sure that the warning message description of the dummy leg is accurate.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends The element leaving the bend must define the downstream side of the bend. and DZ fields on the dummy leg pipe spreadsheet. For each dummy leg/bend model a warning message is generated during error checking. DY.3-36 Version 5. Horizontal Dummy Leg on Midpoint of Bend Dummy leg is defined as a zero weight rigid supported on one end by a spring can. Do not define dummy legs on the element spreadsheet immediately following the bend specification spreadsheet. The true length of the dummy leg should be input in the DX. Input and output plots of the dummy leg always show the dummy leg going to the bend tangent intersection point.

Restraints 3-37 Node Position Definition for Points on the Bend Curvature .

Basic Model Large rotation rods are used to model relatively short rods. the restraint field is changed: Gap is changed to Len and Mu is changed to Fi. A +YROD is equivalent to an YROD and indicates that the concave side of the curvature is in the positive Y direction. Large rotation is generally considered to become significant when the angle of swing becomes greater than 5 degrees. Large rotation rods should only be entered where needed. and so even a small amount of horizontal movement will produce a relatively large swing. The system should first be analyzed without the large rotation rods and then large rotation rods added where horizontal movement at support points is greatest. the rod pivots about the structural steel support. the connecting nodes and the restraint node do not have to be at the same point in space.0 degree. Repeated use where not necessary may cause the system to become unstable during the nonlinear iteration. In the example below. Large rotation rods can be entered in any direction. YROD. When CAESAR II detects that a rod is being input. There is a very short swing arm. In the output report for this restraint.3-38 Version 5. The rod angle tolerance is currently set at 1. where large orthogonal movement of the pipe causes shortening of the restraint along the original line of action. There is no plot connectivity forced between large rotation rod nodes and connecting nodes. (See some of the later rod examples. . The user picks the XROD. Fi is the initial load on the restraint if used to model a variable support spring hanger. Usually only one rod should be added in an area at a time. or ZROD from the type list.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Large Rotation Rods . Connecting nodes may be used for large rotation rods just like for any other support. the user will see X and Y direction loads. Graphically. Len is the length of large rotation swing. The signs on the large rotation rod are significant and determine the orientation of the swing axis.) The user can imagine the large rotation rod as providing a “bowl” in which the pipe node is free to move.

Restraints 3-39 Large Rotation Rods .

which in turn is connected to the second and third linear restraints that allow only Y-Z interaction between the large rotation rod connecting node and the top pipe node. the user wants the large rotation swing only in the plane of the chin support (the X-Y plane).3-40 Version 5. The two pipes should move freely relative to each other in the axial direction (the X-Y plane). Chain Supports . Three restraints with connecting nodes are used. The first is the large rotation rod with its connecting nodes.Chain Supports In the model below.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Large Rotation Rods .

The yield stiffness may be negative if necessary. Some subsea pipeline resistance tests have shown that load carrying capacity drops after the “ultimate” load is reached. which is the Initial Stiffness.Restraints 3-41 Bi-Linear Restraints Bi-linear restraints have the digit 2 following the direction in the restraint TYPE field. Both the yield stiffness (K2) and the yield load (Fy) are required entries. Bi-linear restraints are used most often to model soil support where some soil ultimate load bearing capacity can be calculated. When a bi-linear spring is entered the restraint fields change as follows: Stif changes to K1. Characteristics of Bi-Linear Supports . and displacement continues. More detailed use of the spring types used to model underground piping systems is illustrated in the CAESAR II User Guide Underground Pipe Modeler. The initial stiffness (K1) may be left blank. Gap changes to K2. which is the Yield Stiffness. and a rigid initial stiffness assumed. and Mu changes to Fy. which is the Yield Load.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Pipe in a Trench Bi-Linear Restraint Modeling .3-42 Version 5.

i. SNUBBERS ARE INACTIVE FOR ALL EXPANSION. AND ARE ACTIVE FOR ALL TYPES OF TRUE DYNAMIC ANALYSES. HARMONIC. may be preceded by a plus or minus sign. Note the displacement locations in all six degrees of freedom to determine where to add the snubbers. the restraint fields change as follows: Gap and Mu are disabled. Modeling Static Snubbers 1 2 3 4 5 Run the OPErating case without defining a snubber. AND OPERATING STATIC CASES.e. . These restraints are active in all static load cases defined as OCCASIONAL in the load case list.e. To model static snubbers follow the steps below. Modify the load cases by including D1 everywhere T1 displays. When a snubber is entered. Static snubbers (or static analysis snubbers) have SNB following a translational direction in the restraint Type field. Place displacements on all CNodes. MODAL. i. Static snubbers may be directional.Restraints 3-43 Static Snubbers Static snubbers are translational restraints that provide resistance to displacement in static analysis of occasional loads only. or static wind loading. It is assumed that this occasional loading is dynamic in nature. From INPUT/PIPING add each snubber with a distinct CNode. OR SPECTRAL. such as a static seismic. SUSTAINED.

This example models the plastic deformation at cross-section E-E. Sy is the yield stress Z is the section modulus SF is the safety factor * The plastic hinge is modeled as a zero length expansion joint with rotational bi-linear restraints.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Plastic Hinges The steps in setting up a plastic hinge are illustrated below. causing bending of the B-D support leg. The plastic hinge is formed between the nodes 10 and 15. The expansion joint is used to provide translational and torsional rigidity at the plastic hinge junction. . The leg from A to B is overheated. Two bi-linear supports are used to model rigid resistance to bending until a breakaway force (yield force) is exceeded at which point bending is essentially free.3-44 Version 5. Plastic Hinge in a Support Leg* The Yield Force is determined from Fy = SyZ(SF) Where.

Restraints 3-45 Sway Brace Assemblies The sway brace is commonly used to allow unrestrained thermal movements while “tuning” the system dynamically to eliminate vibration. In the SUS case the displacement D2 (vector 2) represents the pre-load in cold position. In this case. in either direction) is reached the sway brace locks preventing additional movement. Manufacturers typically recommend a specific size sway brace for a given pipe nominal diameter. The spring is precompressed a full inch providing an initial force that instantaneously opposes vibration.0 (does not restrain thermal expansion) . The sway brace is composed of a single compression spring enclosed between two movable plates. Sustained case restraint loads on sway brace = Pre-Load + Hot Deflection * Spring Rate In OPE the displacement allows thermal expansion and the sway assumes neutral position exerting zero or negligible load on the pipe. A more specific sway brace selection is possible when the exact restraining force required to control the piping vibration is known.5 in. the modeling is CAESAR II is a little more complex. you must analyze the piping system without the sway brace to obtain displacements from the cold to neutral operating position: Run analysis on the system without the sway brace to obtain the displacements from cold to operating condition. and the force causing the vibration. Once selected. Under shutdown conditions. Any movement from the sway brace neutral position is opposed by a load equal to the pre-load plus travel from neutral position times the sway brace spring constant. before modeling the sway brace. Once maximum allowed travel (usually 3-in. From this relation the exact restraining force required to control the piping vibration may be calculated and an appropriate sway brace size selected. The energy necessary to control the piping is proportional to the mass. Operating case restraint loads on sway brace =~ 0. For the sake of this example. so that after thermal pipe growth it reaches the neutral position and the load on the system in the operating condition is zero or negligible. let’s assume the CAESAR II calculated displacement from cold to operating position is 0. the pipe returns to its cold position and the brace exerts a force as previously described. amplitude of movement. In this respect sway brace resembles a spring: it may be pre-loaded in the cold (installed) position. the sway brace may be modeled in CAESAR II using a combination of a bi-linear restraint and a translational restraint: In the event that the sway brace is to be installed in the operating condition (or the neutral position is to be adjusted in the operating position).

Note: Be sure to include D2 in the sustained and operating cases.5 in.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Sway Brace Installed in Operating Condition Sway brace opposing compression force (movement occurs after pre-load is overcome)./in. . Spring Rate: 150 lb.3-46 Version 5. Allowed Movement: 3 in. Calculated Displacement: . Initial Loading: 150 lb.

.................................. 4-13 Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load ............ 4-15 Simple Bottomed Out Spring..................................CH AP TER 4 Chapter 4 Hangers This chapter demonstrates methods for incorporating spring hanger design into CAESAR II models............... 4-17 Bottom Out Spring Can Capability...............................No Design ...... 4-18 Modeling Spring Cans with Friction ......................................................... 4-4 Constant Effort Support Design.......................................... 4-12 Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity.............. 4-16 Lift Off Spring Can.................. 4-5 Constant Effort Supports ...............................................No Design ........... 4-11 Hanger Between Two Pipes...................... 4-3 Single Can Design ......... 4-10 Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement ........ 4-19 .......................................... 4-9 Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel .................................. 4-7 Multiple Can Design....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-8 Old Spring Redesign.................... 4-6 Existing Springs ............................................................................... 4-2 Simple Hanger Design ............................................................................................................................... In This Chapter General Information........

In this case. Values on the order of 50. Also.4-2 Version 5. Inserting the actual hanger stiffness into the Operating Case for Hanger Travel may give a technically more accurate result. it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case (in the physical system) be adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold Load. Complete descriptions of each item can be found in the Technical Reference Manual. are shown below. There are instances where the stiffness of the adjacent piping and the hanger location restraints in the restrained weight case unfavorably interact. This is controlled via the Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases option of the Configuration/Setup item of the Main Menu. with default values.” a proposed spring location is found to be holding the pipe down at that point.000 have been used successfully to relax the system somewhat and redistribute these piping loads. or with the stiffness of the selected springs inserted at those locations (in the latter case. Whenever CAESAR II designs a “zero load constant effort support. but may introduce convergence problems as well. Often reducing the stiffness used to compute the hanger loads in the restrained weight run can eliminate these load distribution problems.0E12. and the restrained weight case is rerun to redistribute the weight loads. The hanger control spreadsheet items.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide General Information Select MODEL—HANGER DESIGN CONTROL DATA from the menu on the Input Spreadsheet to enter parameters affecting hanger design throughout the model. please note that in the latter case. the springs are selected through an iterative process). These items can greatly affect the hangers designed and should be reviewed carefully at least one time so that the user is aware of the capability available. The default for this stiffness is 1.000 or 75. This stiffness can be changed through the Computation Control tab of the Configuration/Setup item of the Main Menu. . The operating case for hanger travel (free thermal case) can be analyzed either with no spring stiffness at the hanger locations. that hanger location is removed from the analysis. producing an undesirable distribution of loads.

Note that a number of the parameters from the hanger control sheet also display on the individual hanger auxiliary data fields. or overridden locally (on each hanger auxiliary data area).Hangers 4-3 Simple Hanger Design Double-click the Hanger check box on the pipe spreadsheet to enter the spring hanger data for a particular node. These items may be set globally (in hanger control) for all springs. Simple Hanger Design . For a simple hanger no additional input is required.

then input a large negative value (i. CAESAR II input plots will use a different symbol for these base supports.e -1000). See the Technical Reference Manual for each of the manufacturer's definitions of available space. or baseplate. If the available space is not really a criteria in the hanger design. Design of Single Can at One Node .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Single Can Design Entering a negative number in the Available Space field on the hanger spreadsheet indicates that the pipe is supported from below.4-4 Version 5. The magnitude of the number in the Available Space field represents the distance between the pipe support and the concrete foundation.

Hangers 4-5 Constant Effort Support Design Design a constant effort support by specifying a very small allowable travel.001 in. A typical value to use is (0.). Design of Constant Effort Support Design .

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Constant Effort Supports . The hanger design algorithm will not design hangers that are completely predefined. Tip: Do not enter the spring rate or theoretical cold load. Multiple Predefined Constant Effort Supports Note: Any other data entered on this Hanger spreadsheet will be ignored.4-6 Version 5.No Design Entering Constant Effort Support Data: 1 2 Enter the constant effort support load (per hanger) in the Predefined Hanger Data field. Enter the number of constant support hangers at the location. .

on a per hanger basis) in the Predefined Hanger Data fields. each. Predefined Spring Hanger The two constant effort supports at node 377 should carry 10484 lbs. Any other data can exist for the spring location but this data is not used. Entered spring rates and theoretical cold loads will be multiplied by the number of hangers at this location. Enter the number of Variable Support Hangers at the location. where upward travel is positive. CAESAR II requires the Theoretical Cold (Installation) Load to pre-define the spring.No Design Entering Existing Spring Data: 1 2 Enter the Spring Rate and the Theoretical Cold Load (installation load. . The hanger design algorithm will not design hangers that are completely predefined.Hangers 4-7 Existing Springs . Theoretical Cold Load = Hot Load + Travel * Spring Rate.

All other hanger design parameters are still active. Note: The program designs up to 3 cans at the support if the load is too high for a single or double can configuration. Tip: Placing a negative number in that field allows CAESAR II to design up to that number of hangers at the location.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Multiple Can Design 1 Enter the number of hangers or cans as a positive number in the No.05 in. Trapeze Hanger Assembly Power Piping Springs Allowable Load Variation:15% Rigid Support Displacement Criteria: 0. . of Hangers at Location field.4-8 Version 5.

If the old spring cannot be used then a new spring design is recommended./in. . The old spring is always left in the problem for subsequent load case analysis. Old Spring Design 3 springs at node 97 and each have a spring rate of 1105 lb. The old hanger information needed for the re-design is The hanger table The number of springs at the location The old spring rate The old spring rate is entered in the Spring Rate field under Predefined Hanger Data.Hangers 4-9 Old Spring Redesign This option is used to determine if the old spring can still be used. If the old spring can be used then the new preset (initial cold load) is determined. The Theoretical Cold Load must not be specified.

4-10 Version 5. . BergenPaterson springs. The hanger supports the pipe at node 550.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel Connecting nodes associated with hangers and cans function just like connecting nodes with restraints. Connecting node displacements are incorporated in the hanger design algorithm. Pipe Supported by Hanger From Vessel Spring Hanger is supported form the vessel at node 135.

The hanger at node 9 is supported from a structural steel extension off of a large vertical vessel. The vessel at the point where the hanger is attached grows thermally in the plus Y direction approximately 3. Thermal growth of the hanger-connecting node can be specified on any pipe element spreadsheet. The hanger is designed to act with one end at the Hanger Node and with one end at the Hanger Connecting Node.Hangers 4-11 Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement Unique connecting node numbers that do not exist on any pipe element are input on the hanger spreadsheet in the Hanger Connecting Node field. . Hanger with Support Thermal Movement The vessel and the structural support are not modeled.5 in.

and not to the hanger. In this case it might be necessary for the user to estimate the loads on the hanger in an independent run. CAESAR II puts a rigid element between the pipe node and the support node (which may be another pipe node as in the example below). and runs a weight case. Note The directive Connect Geometry through CNodes must be disabled in Configuration Setup to avoid plot and geometry errors. in the weight run the pipe node tends to deflect downward less than the connecting node. thus “holding the pipe down. To find the hot load. then the hanger weight loads will be distributed to other parts of the piping system. If in the weight run both nodes are expected to deflect. If zero load constant effort supports are designed for a spring location with a connecting node. Hanger Between Two Pipes The pipe at 65 is supported via a spring hanger by the pipe at 470. and then enter by hand the operating load on the particular spring hanger spreadsheet with the connecting node. To CAESAR II this looks like the connecting node is pushing down on the hanger node.4-12 Version 5. The node on the pipe passing overhead is entered into the hanger spreadsheet as the CNode. When using hangers with connecting nodes to design springs.” Switching the hanger node and the hanger-connecting node eliminates this problem. In this situation. users should be particularly careful that CAESAR II’s design hot load is accurate.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Hanger Between Two Pipes A pipe crossing overhead supports part of the weight of the lower pipe. the user is recommended to switch the hanger node and the connecting node. .

. The travel is the displacement of the hanger node as it thermally expands away from the anchor. Most often the weight load is that of the pipe between an anchor and the hanger. the anchors should probably be freed during the hanger restrained weight run. equipment nozzles) are relatively close to the hangers (less than 4 or 5 pipe diameters in the horizontal plane). Anchor degrees of freedom are released for the hanger design Restrained Weight run only. Anchor nodes to be released are entered on the specific hanger design spreadsheet. all degrees of freedom associated with the anchor or restraint will be released for the restrained weight solution. When weight sensitive anchors (e.g. When the anchors are freed. the weight of the pipe between the anchor and the hanger should fall almost in its entirety on the hanger.Hangers 4-13 Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity Hangers are designed to support a given weight load through a specified travel with a minimum of load variation. The anchor degrees of freedom are released according to the specified Free Code. If the Free Code is not specified for an anchor or restraint to be freed. Only linear restraints as well as anchors can be freed to cause additional weight to be carried by the hanger.

the anchor at 105 is freed in all directions .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Hanger Design in the Vicinity at Equipment or Vessel Nozzle The anchor at 5 is freed in the Y-direction.4-14 Version 5.

The design algorithm will proceed normally. In these cases the user can override CAESAR II’s calculated operating (hot) loads. the hanger design algorithm will select operating loads that are too small.Hangers 4-15 Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load In certain situations around equipment nozzles. except that the user’s entered hot load will be substituted for CAESAR II’s calculated value for both the hanger design and all post hanger design analysis load cases. Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load In this configuration. and usually where the piping leaving the nozzle is very complex or very rigid. . due to the stiffness of the overhead branches. is tried here. A new hot load if 4500 lb. It was postulated that. freeing the anchors at 5 and 60 didn't help the thermal case nozzle loads. the hanger calculated hot load was not sufficient. The calculated hot load was 2376 lb.

(For example. If the travel x is not entered it defaults to zero.) When a bottom out spring is entered. and as such x and F inputs are always entered as positive. YSPR for a vertical “bottomed-out” spring. the allowed travel x. The direction of permitted travel is assumed opposite to the initial load on the pipe. the initial spring load. Used most often to conveniently enter predefined springs into the piping system model. These definitions were setup almost exclusively to handle vertical springs. and the Mu field changes to F. . and the initial load on the spring F.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Simple Bottomed Out Spring Spring supports that may bottom out have SPR following a translational direction in the restraint Type field. Users should always enter the stiffness Stif.4-16 Version 5. Note that no hanger should be entered at the same position as a bottomed out spring. as shown in the following example. the permitted travel. the restraint auxiliary screen changes as follows: The Gap field changes to x. and its sign is taken as positive. to properly utilize the bottomed out spring model. If the initial load is not entered it also defaults to zero. These spring restraints provide a bottoming out capability that occurs when the spring has exceeded its maximum travel limit.

Input for Lift Off Spring Can Model Input for Bottom Out Spring Can Model .Hangers 4-17 Lift Off Spring Can To get from the installed condition to the initiate lift-off condition the can must displace in the positive Y direction.

To get from the installed condition to the bottom-out condition the can must be displaced in the minus Y direction.e.) The spring can to be illustrated is an anvil. size 10. . B268. Theoretical Cold Load Spring Rate From Spring Table Largest Load in Spring Table 1023 lb. 1690 lb.4-18 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Bottom Out Spring Can Capability The spring can must be fully pre-defined to describe bottom-out./in. 260 lb. the spring can stiffness and theoretical cold load must be known. fig. or lift-off attributes (i.

each support of this type needs the following: A rigid element from the pipe center to the top of the can. element 15-20 may be omitted. A rigid element representing the spring can height. subjecting the system to friction forces. Tip: This modeling technique can also be applied to situations where the shoe or trunnion slides on top of a bolted spring can. Model of Spring Can with Friction Alternatively. These points are illustrated in the model below. with the +Y restraint (with friction) placed directly on node 15. . A CNode to connect to the spring. these spring cans are allowed to slide on their foundation. pushing up. Except for the vertical spring stiffness. Basically. These spring cans perform the same function as spring hangers. only they are below the pipe. Length equals pipe radius + insulation thickness + shoe height + any trunnion height. portions of the pipe are supported by spring cans. In some models.Hangers 4-19 Modeling Spring Cans with Friction In many systems. all other DOFs are rigidly connected.

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................................................ 5-14 Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops ............... 5-20 Slip Joint .......... 5-23 Dual Gimbal .....................................................................Simple Model ............ Complex Model...............................................................CH AP TER 5 Chapter 5 Expansion Joints This chapter explains how CAESAR II models various expansion joints........ 5-21 Gimbal Joints ...............................Simple Models ..... 5-27 5-15 ..........................Comprehensive Tie Rod....... 5-2 Tied Bellows .........Comprehensive Model..... 5-16 Slotted Hinge Joint ... 5-4 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint ..... 5-25 Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows .................................Simple Model ....Simple vs..........................Complex Model ................................. 5-9 Universal Joint .... 5-18 Slotted Hinge Joint ............................................................................... 5-5 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint ......Comprehensive Tie Rod Model Hinged Joint............................................................... 5-7 Universal Expansion Joints ............................................................. In This Chapter Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust ........

The preceding element is checked first. The magnitude of the thrust load is P * A. For finite length expansion joints. Bellows and any other miscellaneous weights should be added to flanges on either side of the bellows (or can be added as concentrated forces). When finite length bellows are used.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust Bellows expansion joints can be modeled with either a zero or a finite length.is the effective diameter of the expansion joint L . CAESAR II will calculate the exact stiffness coefficient for the term left blank. the user is recommended to leave the Bending Stiffness field blank. This is particularly true when the bellow is part of a hanger sizing weight calculation. its value should be approximately (within 1%) equal to: KBEND =(1/2) (KAX) (D2) ( /180) KAX . and is used to open the bellows (providing the pressure is positive). where P is the pressure in the pipe above atmospheric. The Bellows ID for CAESAR II input may be calculated by using the following equation: . either the bending or the transverse stiffness must be left blank. found from A = /4 * (Bellows ID) 2 Many manufacturers specify the effective area of the bellows. For zero length expansion joints: KBEND = (1/8) (KAX) (D2) ( /180) When a zero length expansion joint is used. A zero or blank Bellows ID results in a zero pressure thrust. and A is the area. Systems using untied bellows should either be of very low pressure or adequately anchored to withstand the possibly large thrust loads developed due to the unrestrained bellows. and to enter the lateral stiffness given by the manufacturer into the Transverse Stiffness field on the expansion joint spreadsheet. CAESAR II will use either the preceding or the following element to determine the axial direction of the bellows stiffnesses. The Bellows ID is the diameter used to find the area for pressure thrust calculations.is the axial stiffness of the expansion joint D . It is recommended that accurate torsional stiffnesses and allowable torsional rotations be obtained from the vendor.is the flexible length of the joint. The lateral stiffness may be computed from the axial stiffness (if not provided) from the equation: KTR = (3/2) (KAX) (D/L) 2 If the bending stiffness is given. The total thrust load is applied at the From and To ends of the bellows.5-2 Version 5. Bellows are very fragile under torsional loading.

The elbow at 11 is anchored to take the thrust load developed in the bellows. Bellows with Pressure Thrust Aeff= 67. The pump and the baseplate at 5 must be able to withstand the large axial force that may develop due to pressure thrust in the bellows.Expansion Joints 5-3 4 Bellows ID = EffectiveArea In the system shown below. (will be automatically applied by CAESAR II) Bellows ID = = 9. with a transverse stiffness of 3250 lb.28 in.5(175)=11812 lb. and will be calculated by CAESAR II since the bellows has a finite length./in./in. .5 in2 P= 175 psi Thrust = 67. The manufacturer's specification for the joint's axial stiffness is 6530 lb. the untied bellows runs between the nodes 8 and 9. The bending stiffness is left blank.

This is particularly true if the expansion joint is between a hanger to be sized and an anchor. The following guidelines are presented to aid the engineer in making this decision. This effective redistribution of load in the tie bars will never be observed in a simple model. Complex models are used when nuts are only on the outside of the flange. Complex Model Complex models of expansion joints are much more difficult to build than simple models. prevents the ends of the joint from rotating relative to one another. which helps the user to compute relative bellows movements for evaluating the bellows distortion. or have nuts on either side of the flange and so will carry compression if needed. When this does occur. where the tie bars combine to resist relative bending of the joint ends. allowing the tie bars to only carry tension.Simple vs. The single tied bellows is designed to absorb movement by lateral deflection only. one pair of tie-bars can be in compression while the other pair is in tension. See the previous discussion for a simple bellows for more information about bellows stiffnesses. The weights of the bellows and associated hardware should be added to the flange weights on either side of the bellows. buckling of the rods in the complex model should be investigated (evaluate whether the rods can withstand the compressive forces reported in the output report). Simple models of single tied bellows are built by entering a large axial stiffness. Complex models are normally used when the pipe diameter and number of convolutions become large.5-4 Version 5. Be sure to enter the lateral instead of the bending spring rate from the manufacturer’s catalog. plus other effects serve to limit the overall lateral flexibility of this joint. etc. Complex models give good values for the load distribution in the tie bars. In reality the tie bars being offset from the centerline prevent this rotation. The expansion joint user should be sure to check the displacement limits for the expansion joint once the protected equipment loads are within the allowables. In some cases. between rigid elements that extend normal to the pipe axis and from the centerline and to their intersection with the tie-bar centerline (See the following illustration). Field situations such as loose nuts on tie-bars. Complex models are used whenever a failure is being investigated. For lack of a better value.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Tied Bellows . Simple models give no indication of the load distribution. . a 30% increase in lateral stiffness is sometimes used to compensate for these frictional effects. can be modeled using the complex expansion joint model. and if the tie bars are very long. Some manufacturers feel that friction at the tie bar ends. The complex models are built by running pipe elements whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the tie-bars. with zero weight and rotational restraints. This axial stiffness simulates the tie bars. and whose wall thickness is equal to half of the tie-bar diameter. Unfortunately there are no hard and fast rules for when to use simple models and when to use complex models. CAESAR II has a processor called EJMA Expansion Joint Rating accessible through the Analysis option of the Main Menu. preventing relative axial movement of the bellows. Simple models should only be used where the tie bars are either guaranteed to be carrying tension. Tie rods may also be modeled with a single rigid element along the centerline of the bellows. There is no axial deflection or relative bending rotations at the joint ends.

No. With all convolutions the same length. the tie bars at four points around the expansion joint will keep the flanges parallel. or 12 convolutions is 4 in. Tied Bellows .0)2 885. and the total length of an 8 convolution joint is 12 in. This means that the extra four convolutions add 4 in. so the length of all twelve convolutions is 12 in./in. Note how the rotational restraints between nodes 29 and 30 keep the two flanges parallel.Expansion Joints 5-5 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint . (The flanges and the tie bars form a parallelogram upon lateral deflection. 8.4 in2 Build the CAESAR II model of the flexible portion of the expansion joint. (This also indicates that the rigid end pieces on this joint of 4. Convolutions: 12 Leff: 12 in.) Deff= KTR = L = = KTR = (4Aeff/ )1/2 = 10. the flexible length must be known./in. In the field. this incremental length can be used to calculate the total flexible length.) .0/12. The listed lengths include the rigid end pieces such as flanges or pipe ends. Since the transverse stiffness is based on the flexible length.Simple Model Compute the lateral stiffness for the bellows. In this example the total length of a 4 convolution joint is 8 in. (3/2) (KAX) (Deff/L)2 Flexible Convolution Length = 12 in. (3/2) (850) (10. Aeff: 78..Simple Model Zero-weight rigid element (tie rod) Axial Stiffness: 848 lb. The flexible length of the bellows is not listed in most expansion joint catalogs.0 in.4 lb. A very simple way of pulling this value from the catalog is to examine the incremental increase in overall length of the joint as additional convolutions are added.

Simple Model Continued .5-6 Version 5...00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Tied Bellows . .

The tie bars are 1-in. The flanged ends of the joint are modeled as the rigid elements 20 to 30 and 35 to 45. extend from each flange. in diameter. The following nodal layout and input is used to build a comprehensive model of the tied bellows. Tied Bellows Complex Model . Additional rigid elements.Complex Model In the system shown below the flexible joint is between the nodes 30 and 35. perpendicular to the pipe axis.Expansion Joints 5-7 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint .

.5-8 Version 5. Only 2 of eight element inputs shown.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Tied Bellows Complex Model-Continued Weightless rigid elements extend from the flange centerline to the outside edge of the flanges where the tie rods are attached.

The two models shown have example input given on the following pages. When the lateral stiffness is given for the whole assembly the simple or complex models of single bellows can be used. whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the tie-bars. Some manufacturers feel that friction at the tie bar ends. See the next example. and whose wall thickness is equal to half of the tie-bar diameter. Manufacturers publish a wide variety of data for universal expansion joints. For lack of a better value. In-situ field effects like loose nuts on tie-bars. The tied universal bellows is designed to absorb movement by lateral deflection only. and so the user would need to model and then check each bellows in the universal assembly. i. In this case the manufacturer must also provide a cumulative assembly displacement limit so that the piping designer can make sure that neither of the bellows are over-extended. when there are nuts on both sides of the flange. Stops should typically be considered a safety feature. See the discussion for a “simple bellows” for more information about bellows stiffnesses. The expansion joint user should be sure to check the displacement limits for each of the expansion joints once the protected equipment loads are within the allowables. CAESAR II has a program called EJMA Expansion Joint Rating.e. Many universal expansion joint assemblies have stops along the tie-bars that are connected to the center spool-piece. etc. which helps the user to compute relative bellows movements for evaluating the convolution’s strength. the user must check the results to make sure that the stops are not engaged. unless particular attention is paid to the design surrounding the stop components. however. a 10% increase in overall lateral stiffness is sometimes used to compensate for these frictional effects. These stops are designed to prevent over-extension of the bellows and can be modeled in the complex universal joint model. (The top drawing shows nuts on only one side of the flange at the left end.Expansion Joints 5-9 Universal Expansion Joints . This configuration should be modeled with a complex joint model unless the user is sure that all tie-bars will remain in tension.) . Simple models should only be used when the user knows that both ends of the tie-bars will be fixed to the flanges.. For the simple universal joint model. Descriptions of some various universal models are shown in the following figures.Simple Models Please refer to the previous models of bellows expansion joints for specific notes relating to individual bellows designs. The weights of the bellows and associated hardware should be added to the flange weights on either side of the bellows. In most cases the published spring rates are for the universal joint as a whole assembly. Lateral instead of the bending spring rates from the manufacturer’s catalog should be entered. There is no axial deflection or relative bending rotations at the joint ends. This is particularly true if the expansion joint is between a hanger to be sized and an anchor. and to some comparisons of simple and complex expansion joint input. can be modeled using the complex expansion joint model. plus other effects serve to limit the overall lateral flexibility of this joint. The complex models are built by running pipe elements. and should not be included as a working part of the design. between rigid elements that extend normal to the pipe axis and from the centerline and to their intersection with the tie-bar centerline. This program only works on single bellows.

5-10

Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

The top model is used when the analyst is provided with global assembly data for the universal, i.e. the assembly lateral stiffness. The second model is used when the analyst is given angular spring rates for each of the two bellows used in the model.

When provided individual bellows angular stiffness:

Expansion Joints

5-11

Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models

5-12

Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models
Note: This model does not show the addition of any extra hardware or bellows weights which could affect load distribution and spring hanger design in the area.

When provided individual bellows angular stiffness:

Expansion Joints

5-13

Universal Expansion Joints - Simple Models Individual Bellows

Note: The rigid tie bar(s) should be modeled at the ambient temperature.

Note: This model does not show the addition of any extra hardware or bellows weights, which could affect weight load distribution and spring hanger design in the area.

5-14

Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide

Universal Joint - Comprehensive Tie Rod
The comprehensive universal joint model involves defining, as accurately as possible, all tie rods and connections between tie rods and end plates.

The following groups illustrate the method used in constructing the universal expansion joint model shown above. —Rigid Elements (Flanges) — 15-17 / 31-33 —Rigid Elements normal to the pipe axis, and between the pipe and tie bar centerlines. At the end where there are nuts on either side of the flange, fixing the tie-bar to the flange. 33-1033 / 33-2033 / 33-3033 —Rigid Elements normal to the pipe axis, and between the pipe and tie-bar centerlines. At the end where there are nuts only on the backside of the flange. 15-1015 / 15-2015 / 15-3015 ——Intermediate lateral tee supports (Rigid) — 23-1023 / 23-2023 / 23-3023 25-1025 / 25-2025 / 25-3025 ——Tie-bars — 1033-1034-1035-1036 2033-2034-2035-2036 3033-3034-3035-3036 — Restraints with connecting nodes at the tension-only flange end.—— RESTR NODE = 1036 CNODE = 1015 TYPE = -X , Y , Z RESTR NODE = 2036 CNODE = 2015 TYPE = -X , Y , Z RESTR NODE = 3036 CNODE = 3015 TYPE = -X , Y , Z — Restraints with connecting nodes at the intermediate support points. RESTR NODE = 1035 CNODE = 1023 TYPE = Y , Z RESTR NODE = 2035 CNODE = 2023 TYPE = Y , Z RESTR NODE = 3035 CNODE = 3023 TYPE = Y , Z RESTR NODE = 1034 CNODE = 1025 TYPE = Y , Z RESTR NODE = 2034 CNODE = 2025 TYPE = Y , Z RESTR NODE = 3034 CNODE = 3025 TYPE = Y , Z

Expansion Joints

5-15

Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops - Comprehensive Tie Rod Model
Double-acting restraints with connecting nodes and gaps are used to model stop gaps along the tie bars. Stops along the tie-bars are installed to restrict lateral motion at each end of the universal joint.

The following groups illustrate the method used in constructing the universal joint with lateral stops shown above. Only the right side tie rod elements are shown below. — Standard pipe elements — 34-36 / 36-38 — Rigid flange elements — 30-32 / 40-42 — Bellows elements — 32-34 / 38-40 — Rigid elements from the pipe to the tie-bar centerline — (Normal to the pipe axis) 30-1030 / 36-1036 / 42-1042 — Tie-bar elements — 1003-1002 / 1002-1001 — Restraints with connecting nodes — RESTR NODE=1001 CNODE = 1042 TYPE = +Y , X , Z RESTR NODE=1002 CNODE = 1036 TYPE = Y w/gap=1.5 , X , Z

Some expansion joint manufacturers believe that the hinge friction can provide considerable additional resistance to bending. and torsional stiffnesses rigid. Hinge directions are defined using restraints and connecting nodes. Approximations to this increase in bending stiffness can be made by increasing the stiffness of the bellows in proportion to the axial load on the hinge. (See the second note above. The hinged joint is defined using a zero length expansion joint with axial.5-16 Version 5. 45 and 46 are fixed rotationally relative to each other in the “Y” axis.) . The restraint line of action is always normal to the hinge axis. The bending stiffness is set equal to the bending stiffness of the hinge. Certainly as the axial load the hinge is to carry becomes large. i. This equation and the bending stiffness value from most manufacturers’ catalogs should only be used with a zero length expansion joint. Hinged joints are designed to take pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that the joint manufacturer is aware of the design loads in the hinges.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Hinged Joint The relationship between the rotational bellows stiffness used in the model and the axial bellows stiffness should be approximately: Kbend = (1/8) (Kax) (D2)( /180) This is typically the value given in expansion joint manufacturers’ catalogs. the hinged joint is zero length and is defined between nodes 45 and 46. “X” is the hinge axis. Several typical geometries for hinged expansion joints are shown in the figures below: In the example that follows. The expansion joint manufacturer can hopefully provide assistance here. transverse. all relative rotations are permitted between 45 and 46 about the X axis. this “hinge friction” effect will increase.e.

Expansion Joints 5-17 The following figures display the coding of the hinged joint for the model shown on the bottom of the previous page. .

5-18 Version 5.Simple Model Elements from 10 to 15 and from 16 to 20 are weightless 9 in. long rigids. . The restraint line of action is always normal to the hinge axis. Slotted Hinged Joint .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Slotted Hinge Joint .Simple Model The hinged joint is defined using a zero length expansion joint and rigid elements with zero weight to define the interaction of the hinge geometry. Hinge directions are defined using restraints with connecting nodes.

In most applications of this type. the relative Y rotation is zero because the problem is kept planar using guides. . a further refinement to the model can be made. then if the analysis shows that the RY restraint between nodes 15 and 16 is supporting load. The slots on either side will provide some limit to this Y rotation. A good first pass can be made using the model shown. the relative rotation at the hinge about the “Y” axis is assumed to be zero.Expansion Joints 5-19 Note: In this model.

" " " Parallel to pipe axis to centerline of hinge axis. Remember that manufacturer’s angular spring rates should not be used in finite length expansion joint models.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Slotted Hinge Joint . Slotted Hinge Joint . This typically means entering the correct flexible length and using the manufacturer’s axial and lateral spring rates. The schematic below illustrates the extra input required to incorporate this effect.5-20 Version 5. .Comprehensive Zero weight rigid elements defining the hinge assembly are listed below: 10 10 55 55 15 35 50 30 15 35 30 50 20 40 45 25 Normal to pipe axis to centerline of hinge assy. " " " The finite length bellows must be defined accurately between nodes 10 and 55.Comprehensive Model This model is somewhat different from the previous model because of the need to provide for the non-hinge axis rotation due to the slots on either side of the joint.

axial displacement devices that permit considerable axial displacement of the slip joint ends and moderately rigid resistance to pipe bending. The following figure shows the cross-section of a typical large slip joint.Expansion Joints 5-21 Slip Joint Large slip joints are usually difficult to install and difficult to accurately model. or by a small bellows sleeve. Slip Joint . Smaller slip joints are usually categorized by having two annular packing glands separated axially along the joint by a dead air space. Smaller diameter slip joints are telescoping. The stiffnesses between nodes 15 and 25 are a function of the packing stiffness for transverse and rotational relative deformation and of packing stiffness and tightening for axial relative deformation.

Note 2: K1 is the spring stiffness for forces below the yield force. temperature in inches per 100 ft.) 10 . Typical values are given as 400 lbs times the nominal pipe size. Note 3: K2 is the spring stiffness (for joint compression) for forces greater than FY.10 The distance from the closest guide or support to the end of the joint. or the travel expected plus 4". . and (a) is the thermal expansion at the operating Note 4: Fy is the joint friction thrust from the vendor catalog.30. given by the vendor.15 The effective length of the joint if known. (The same values would also be used for 25 . Where (N) is the nominal pipe diameter in inches.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Slip Joint Continued … Note 1: Typical delta dimensions are: 5 .5-22 Version 5. or a 12" estimate if nothing else is known. The best estimate for this resistance is cumulative friction effects of guides and supports. FY.

Angular and Offset gimbals should probably be thoroughly modeled as shown in the following figures. The angular-only gimbal can be input as a zero length expansion joint with rigid axial.Expansion Joints 5-23 Gimbal Joints Gimballed joints are designed to resist pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that the joint manufacturer is aware of the design loads on the gimbals. Angular Only . transverse. The bending stiffness is set equal to the rotational stiffness specified in the manufacturer's catalog. and torsional stiffnesses. Angular and Offset gimballed joints are usually installed in large diameter lines where lumped property assumptions for the bellows may not be within reasonable engineering accuracy.

.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Angular .Only Gimballed Joint Rigid elements between nodes 105 and 110 and nodes 111 and 115 each contain half the weight of the hinge mechanism.5-24 Version 5.

It is only in series that the “angular deformation only” gimbal provides for any lateral movement. usually angular-only. Gimballed joints are designed to take pressure thrust. The bending stiffness for each gimballed joint is 490. Putting two (or even three) angular-only gimballed joints together provides for an ability to absorb lateral and possibly axial deformation. The minimum required distance “L” between adjacent single gimballed joints (shown as 8-7 in the following example). Each individual angular-only gimbal joint should be modeled as a zero length expansion joint with rigid axial. gimballed joints in series in the pipeline. the diameter. The analyst should make sure that the joint manufacturer is aware of the design loads on the gimbals. lb. The following figure shows a dual gimbal comprised of two angular-only gimbals. The bending stiffness should be equal to the manufacturer's published rotational stiffness term. transverse. is principally a function of the angular and rotational deformation to be absorbed. and the number of convolutions per joint. Dual Gimbal Angular . and torsional stiffnesses.Only ./deg. A Pipe Flexibility program will never be able to model the axial-only component of the possible deformation because it requires large rotation of the expansion joint components—something not considered in such programs.Expansion Joints 5-25 Dual Gimbal Dual gimbal joints are two.0 in. The single “angular deformation only” gimbal should always be used in series with at least one other gimballed joint.

5-26 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Dual Gimbal Angular .Only .

without any associated pressure thrust. Pressure balanced tees can also be used in universal type configurations to absorb axial and lateral movement. . The example below shows briefly the coding of a pressure-balanced tee in a turbine exhaust line.Expansion Joints 5-27 Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows Pressure balanced tees and elbows are used primarily to absorb axial displacements at a change in direction. The bottom side of the tee is blanked off. The tee is a standard unreinforced fabricated tee. The tie bars will only act in tension.

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........................................................................................................... 6-5 Cold Spring............................................................. 6-4 Jacketed Pipe ..... 6-2 Ball Joints ................................................. 6-7 Connecting Equipment ........... In This Chapter Reducers .................................................................................................................................CH AP TER 6 Chapter 6 Miscellaneous Models This chapter discusses modeling techniques for the components not explicitly covered in earlier chapters.. 6-8 ............................

Tip: Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. Tip: If the element preceding and following the reducer are already defined (such as inserting this element) then CAESAR II will automatically calculate all the reducer input data and the user can leave this field blank. Tip: Nominal diameter and wall thickness can be entered here and CAESAR II will convert these to actual diameter and wall thickness if this portion is activated in the units file (in the Diameter and Wt/Sch fields on the spreadsheet convert nominal to actual then so will the Reducer dialog). the value will be set from an estimated slope equal to the arc tangent times 1/2 the change in diameters times sixty percent of the entered reducer length. 2 Double click the Reducer check box on the input spreadsheet. . Note: IGE /TD -12 requires entry of the reducer alpha a swell as R1 and R2. which are the reducer transition radii of the large end and small end respectively.6-2 Version 5. For more information see the diagrams below.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Reducers To model reducers use the procedure listed below. Tip: For eccentric reducers be sure to skew the element such that the TO node matches the position of the centerline of the following pipe elements. 3 Enter the diameter and wall thickness of the pipe that will follow the reducer. If left blank. Modeling Reducers Using CAESAR II 1 Define the length of the reducer just like any other pipe element.

Miscellaneous Models 6-3 .

6-4 Version 5. Tip: Results are invalid for large rotations. use a value of 1.0. or with restraints and connecting nodes. each ball and socket is defined with one zero length expansion joint having rigid axial and transverse stiffnesses. When using expansion joints. and essentially zero bending and torsional stiffnesses. Two Methods of Ball Joint Modeling Modeling a ball joint between nodes 20 and 21 using a zero length expansion joint Modeling a ball joint between nodes 20 and 21 using axial. . When bending and torsional stiffnesses should be small. translational and torsional restraints with C-nodes.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Ball Joints Ball joints can be modeled with zero length expansion joints.

Since CAESAR II constructs the jacketed piping model by associating nodal DOFs. and (40 and 1040) are often joined by using the same node for each. Internal spiders offer negligible resistance to bending and axial relative deformation. A very simple way to generate a jacketed pipe model is to run through the entire core and then duplicate the core piping using a proper node increment (such as 1000). If both the jacket and the core are fluid-filled. then restraints with connecting nodes and gaps can be used to approximate the pipe-inside-a-pipe with clearance geometry. Node 15 might be connected to node 1015 via a restraint with connecting node. to avoid excess (incorrect) weight. to finish the model.e. Should there be any concern about interference. . If wind loads are specified. i.Miscellaneous Models 6-5 Jacketed Pipe Jacketed piping systems are input by running the jacket elements directly on top of the core elements where the two are concentric. For an X run of pipe. or else the core will pick up wind load. This will produce a second run of pipe. (25 and 1025).. For the jacket. Then attach the jacket and core by changing the node numbers and adding restraints. the wind or wave loading must be deactivated for the core. the fluid density of the jacket must be reduced. the program really does not know one pipe is inside of another. (35 and 1035). The +Y support acting on the jacket at node 1020 does not cause any stiffnesses to be inserted between 20 and 1020. Therefore the following items should be considered. The core pipe should probably have its insulation thickness set to zero. which will be modified to build the jacket model. change the pipe size. the displacements and rotations at the end of the core pipe are assumed to be the same as the displacements and rotations at the end of the jacket pipe. or interference-related stresses at the 20-1020 nodes. rigid restraints would exist between the two nodes for the Y and Z degrees of freedom. the end caps connecting the core to the jacket pipe are much stiffer than either the core or the jacket. Typically. bend radii. temperature. For this reason node pairs like (10 and 1010). etc. Node 20 is included in the model so that outside diameter interference can be checked at the 20-1020 cross section.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .6-6 Version 5.

Cut Short Material 18 is used for Cut Short .Miscellaneous Models 6-7 Cold Spring See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion of the method for analyzing Cold Springs.

the associated diameter and wall thickness should be that of the vessel. F Temperature of the vessel=325 º.5 Length of flange=5.0 inches Weight of single flange=112 Nozzle N2: OD = 16. F Nozzle N1: OD=10. Average diameter of the skirt=102+78 / 2 = 90 inches Average temperature of the skirt=87 º. 2.5 Length of flange=4.6-8 Version 5. . Element 20 to 125 should be rigid.0 Wall = 0. The following figure illustrates the most accurate way to define vertical vessel flexibility. The element from 20 to 125 should be stiff relative to the vessel.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Connecting Equipment Vertical Vessels Vertical Vessel models are built using combinations of straight pipe and nozzle flexibility simulations (WRC 297). This applies similarly for the element from 15 to 215.25 Weight of single flange=275 Notes: 1. The rigid element from 135 to 140 models the flange at the end of the nozzle and should be rigid relative to the nozzle diameter.750 Wall=0.

0 GAP WT 0.0 TEMP #187.0 DIA 78.75 DIA 16.0 WT 0. 4.0 RIGID(Y/N) “Y” FROM 220 TO 225 DZ 13. and also the local flexibility of the vessel shell in the vicinity of the nozzle. 5.0 RIGID(Y/N) “Y” FROM 20 TO 125 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank> DX 39. FROM 5RESTRAINT(Y/N) “Y” NODE 5 CNODE TO10 TYPE A [ANCHOR] DY 15-0 STIF DIA 90.375 MU FROM 10 TO 15 DY 20-3 TEMP #1325.75 FROM 15 TO 20 DY 10-7 FROM 20 TO 25 DY 6-9 FROM 15 TO 215 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank> DZ 39.Miscellaneous Models 6-9 3.25 RIGID WEIGHT 275. Local shell flexibilities are defined between 130 and 135 and 220 and 215. The rigid element from 225 to 230 models the flange at the end of the nozzle and should be rigid relative to the nozzle diameter.0 WT 0.0 RIGID(Y/N) “Y” . The partial spreadsheets below illustrate input for the flexible vessel/nozzle model.5 FROM 225 TO 230 DZ 5. The above model considers the cantilever bending and shear in the vessel from the skirt.

to stiffeners or head Dist.75 6-917-4 30-10 1.750 WT 0.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide FROM 130 TO 135 DX 13.0 0.0 0.75 DIA 10.75 0.0 0. to opposite side stiffeners Vessel centerline Direction Vector X Vessel centerline Direction Vector Y Vessel centerline Direction Vector Z 130220 125215 10.0 .6-10 Version 5.5 78.5 FROM 135 TO 140 RIGID WEIGHT 112.0 DX 4.0 RIGID(Y/N) “Y” NOZZLE NOZZLE “N1” Nozzle Node Number Vessel Node Number Nozzle Outside Diameter Nozzle Wall Thickness Vessel Outside Diameter Vessel Wall Thickness Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness Dist.0 “N2” 16.75 20-3 1.5 78.

687 Flange length =5. The following figure illustrates the most accurate way to define horizontal vessel flexibility. 16 to 20. the free translation horizontal restraint at 125.) 2.Miscellaneous Models 6-11 Horizontal Vessels Horizontal Vessel models are built using combinations of straight pipe and nozzle flexibility simulations (WRC 297). 3. 4. Elements 5 to 6. 15 to 16. and 20 to 22 should be rigid and the associated diameter and wall thickness should be that of the vessel. (These rigid elements should be stiff relative to the vessel.0 inches Flange weight = 250 lb. 6 to 10. Notes: 1. NOZZLE N3: OD = 12. Local shell flexibilities are defined between the nodes 22 and 24. . and the local flexibility of the vessel shell in the vicinity of the nozzle.750 Wall = 0. The above model considers the flexibility of the horizontal vessel section. The following partial spreadsheets illustrate the modeling techniques used to define the horizontal vessel. The rigid element from 26 to 30 models the flange at the end of the nozzle and should be rigid relative to the nozzle diameter.

875 RESTRAINT Version 5.0 20 22 4-0 TEMP #1 350.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide (Y/N) “Y” NODE 5 TYPE A TEMP #1 100.687 26 30 5.0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank> .0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank> 24 26 14.0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank> 10 20 27-6 20 16 4-0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank> 16 15 RESTRAINT (Y/N) “Y” NODE 15 TEMP #1 100.6-12 FROM CNODE TO DY DIA WT RIGID(Y/N) “Y” FROM TO DY RIGID(Y/N) “Y” FROM TO DX FROM TO DY RIGID(Y/N) “Y” FROM CNODE TO TYPE Y DY -2-7 RIGID(Y/N) “Y” FROM TO DY RIGID(Y/N) “Y” FROM TO DY DIA WT FROM TO DY RIGID(Y/N) “Y” 5 6 2-7 8-0 0.75 0.0 RIGID WEIGHT <leave blank> 6 10 4-0 TEMP #1 350.0 12.

) Longitudinal Bending Stiff (ft.) error checking 445613 139355 34644 CAESAR II computed values displayed during . to opposite side stiffeners or head 27-6 Vessel Centerline Direction Vector X 1 Vessel Centerline Direction Vector Y Vessel Centerline Direction Vector Z Axial Stiffness (lb.Miscellaneous Models 6-13 Data entered in the nozzle spreadsheet for the horizontal vessel model is shown below: Nozzle Node Number 24 Vessel Node Number 22 Nozzle Outside Diameter 12./in.867 Vessel Outside Diameter 8-0 Vessel Wall Thickness 0./deg.875 Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness Dist./deg.lb.) Circumferential Bending Stiff(ft.75 Nozzle Wall Thickness 0. to stiffeners or head 7-3 Dist.lb.

.

....................... 7-79 Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107 Local Axes..........Jacketed Piping .........................WRC 107.....NUREG9 ............... 7-81 Example 10 ..Harmonic Analysis ............Dynamic Analysis ................OMEGA.........JACKET.......................TABLE......... 7-2 Example 2 .......................Relief Valve Loads .................Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER) 7-19 Example 4 ......................................................Structural Analysis ...Omega Loop Modeling ..................................... 7-64 Example 8 ...............FRAME .............. In This Chapter Example 1 ......NEMA SM23 ................ 7-47 Example 6 ............................................................ 7-32 Example 5 ..................RELIEF ....CH AP TER 7 Chapter 7 Examples This chapter provides examples for a variety of design challenges faced by piping engineers... 7-69 Example 9 ............................... 7-7 Example 3 .................Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) .............. 7-57 Example 7 ....... 7-91 ...

“Pressure Vessel and Piping 1972 Computer Programs Verification An Aid To Developers and Users. 27.7-2 Version 5.3 Run the static case and then access the Dynamic Input.154 in.TABLE This problem is taken from the following source: I.9E+06 psi 0. Tuba and W.Harmonic Analysis . 1972. Wright. but rather only straight elements.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Example 1 .375 in.) Do not enter bends. Enter the model as shown and set the material density on the pipe spreadsheet to be zero. . The following model is to be analyzed first for natural frequencies and second for harmonic loads imposed on the top of the structure at nodes 8 and 13. Only the input germane to the dynamic analysis is discussed. S. B.” The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Member Properties Pipe Outside Diameter Pipe Wall Thickness Elastic Modulus Poisson's Ratio 2. It is assumed that the user reviewing this example is familiar with the basic CAESAR II input. Problems 6 and 2. New York. (All weights are input as concentrated masses. 0.

The mass of the piping. . In the eigensolution of larger systems the deletion of un-needed degrees of freedom may be a very important factor in keeping the run times reasonable. modify the Control Parameters as shown below: Turning off the Frequency Cutoff and setting the value of the maximum number of Eigenvalues guarantee us to acquire the first five natural frequencies in our results. Next. fluid. additional masses may be added. and insulation is automatically calculated and included by CAESAR II. however. In most normal cases. For the current example the weight of the pipe is zero and all masses are concentrated and prespecified as lumped masses. masses must neither be added nor deleted.Examples 7-3 First. or degrees of freedom deleted.

7-4 Version 5. the calculated natural frequencies are printed on the screen below: Choose OUTPUT-VIEW ANIMATION from the Main Menu to view the animations of the 5 modes of vibration. Harmonic Analysis of This System Assume a 120 Hz electric motor sits on the piping structure and acts: FX @ 8 = ( -95 cos FX @ 13 = ( 95 cos t ) lb. What is the largest stress in the small piping structure subject to these dynamic loads? . t ) lb. The first mode is back and forth along the x-axis. The next two modes are combinations of the previous three.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide When the eigensolution is completed. the second mode is transverse along the z-axis and the third mode is a twisting about the yaxis.

The user is first asked for harmonic forces. The model has already been built and so dynamic input is simply modified. The forces act in the “X” direction. There is only a single harmonic frequency of excitation to be investigated. and then harmonic displacements. The example problem has harmonic forces only.Examples 7-5 Note The 120 Hz vibration falls between the structural resonant frequencies 115 Hz and 137 Hz. The force acting at point (8) can be plotted as a function of time as shown in the following figure: For the example problem there are 120 cycles per second. and with a magnitude of 95 lb. Harmonic displacements may exist in the same problem with harmonic forces if necessary. Harmonic force data input is shown as follows. Harmonic forces act at points (8) and (13) on the example piping system. The torsional mode will most likely be excited because the sign difference on the forces promotes a twisting of the structure. . Harmonic loads are input next. with an opposite sign.

Additionally. Calculations for the example problem take less than 30 seconds to complete. The user may view the structure in animated motion or view standard displaced shape plots from the Dynamic Output using the Display Graphical Results option (shown below).0 degrees at node 13.7-6 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Note: The same force effect could have been achieved by entering +95.0 lb at each node. . for harmonic results. restraint loads. forces. and stresses can accurately be calculated for the maximum displacements due to the harmonic loads. and entering a phase angle of 180.

subject to the simultaneous firing of both valves.Examples 7-7 Example 2 . Process steam conditions:450 psi.RELIEF PROBLEM: Analyze the two relief valve systems. ID. shown as follows.141 in.0 sec. @ 650°F Relief Valve Orifice: JOHNSON #34A-06 Valve Opening Time: 8. 2.Relief Valve Loads .0 milliseconds Valve Closing Time: 8.0 milliseconds Relief Duration: 1. .

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .7-8 Version 5.

Examples 7-9 CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations .

forces. number of points. and the opening and closing time for the relief valve (as provided by the manufacturer) is 8.7-10 Version 5. The static load case #3 is the operating case. A static load case is run first to perform spring hanger sizing at nodes 20 and 22. SOLUTION: The spectrum table name is arbitrarily selected as “Relief” and is defined as having a Frequency range and a Force ordinate. and stresses in the vent piping system when the relief valves fire simultaneously.0 milliseconds. The points in the time history waveform are entered as shown as follows. This dynamic load will act downward at the vent elbow nodes 65 and 100. .) The spectrum definition follows: The DLF Spectrum Generator builds the ASCII file “Relief” that contains the relief valve spectrum table. These points represent the valve’s opening. For this example a maximum frequency of 33 Hz and 20 data points are used to generate the table. The CAESAR II Relief Load Synthesis option is run to compute the maximum thrust load magnitude at the vent pipe exit. (A # sign precedes the name in the spectrum definition because the shock table is to be read from an ASCII file on the hard disk. and will be used to set the nonlinear restraints for the dynamic analysis. and the time-history waveform. Input to the DLF Spectrum Generator is the filename. Venting will last for approximately one second. and it's closing. its one-second vent time. maximum table frequency. GIVEN: Venting steam stagnation properties are given.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Relief Valve Example Problem Setup REQUIRED: Compute the support loads.

" . Dynamic Load Factors are written to the file "Relief. The Frequency vs.Examples 7-11 The resulting DLF Spectrum is shown below.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The thrust loads act at points 65 and 100.7-12 Version 5. This is defined as follows: . These loads are defined as Force Sets and are entered as shown as follows: There is only a single Spectrum Load Case defined as follows: There is one static/dynamic combination case of interest and that is the combination of the sustained static load case with our one dynamic load case.

Examples 7-13 Only one item needs to be set on the Control Parameter spreadsheet. (3). . the modal combination method could have been set to ABS instead of SRSS to produce unquestionably conservative results. It defines the static load case to be used for setting the nonlinear restraints. Alternatively.

7-14 Version 5. . then the modes having high participation must be dampened or eliminated. The Displacement Report gives the maximum possible positive or negative displacement that may occur at some time during the relief valve’s firing. Values in this report are always positive.Output Discussion There are four key reports for a relief valve analysis: The Mass Participation Report illustrates how sensitive each of the piping system’s modes is to the relief valve firing. or graphically via the animated mode shape plots. High modal participation factors indicate that the mode is easily excited by the applied dynamic forces.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Relief Valve Loading . restraint. or stress reports indicate excessive dynamic responses. Once a particular mode is targeted as being a problem. it may be viewed in tabular form via the mode shape report. If subsequent displacement.

The second value is the largest support reaction due to any one mode.Examples 7-15 The Restraint Report gives the maximum dynamic load the support should be designed for. The last number on the left tells which mode. . The top value is the maximum support reaction.

These displacements may actually be positive or negative. Their true sign is indeterminate and always shown positive in the displacement report. The following Stress Report shows element stresses due to the dynamic relief loads. The top value is the maximum stress due to the interaction of all the system modes. The second value is the largest stress due to any one mode. The Displacement Report shows the maximum displacements that occur due to the relief loads. Stresses from a dynamic shock load case should be combined with the sustained stresses from a static analysis and the result compared with the code defined occasional stress for the material.7-16 Version 5. The bottom number on the left tells which mode.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The Stress Report gives the maximum dynamic stress due to the relief valve firing. The Participation Factor Report shows which modes tend to be excited by the applied dynamic load. .

. The stress at node 40 due to mode #4 was 3982 psi. The stress at node 5 due only to mode #1 was 1280 psi.Examples 7-17 For example: The maximum stress at node 5 is 1481 psi. The maximum stress at node 40 on the 40-50 element is 6430 psi. Mode #4 was the largest contributor to the stress at node 40.

7-18 Version 5. This stress combination can be compared to the B31 code allowables for occasional stresses.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Support reactions due to the combination of the static sustained and the dynamic solutions. . Stresses due to the combination of the static sustained and the dynamic solutions.

Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER) PROBLEM: The cooling water supply line shown as follows suffers a pressure surge when the turbine driven pump drops offline due to a bearing temperature problem. The elbow at node 45 is observed to “jump” 6 to 8 in. which emanates from the pump discharge at node 5. in the “X” direction when the turbine trip occurs. can be estimated from dp = Where: dp . Design an alternative support scheme to eliminate the large field displacements associated with the turbine trip.Examples 7-19 Example 3 .the pressure rise due to the pump’s “instantaneous” stopping c dv . Fluid Properties: Flow Velocity: Water Bulk Modulus: 250 psi @ 140°F 6 fps 313000 psi SOLUTION: The magnitude of the pump supply side pressure wave.

One pulse originates at the supply side of the pump.4 lbm/ft3) (4281 ft/sec) (6.0 ft/sec) = (62. Apply the equation above for the magnitude of the water hammer pressure wave.322 ] = 79. but the magnitude and impact of the discharge side water hammer load should likewise be investigated when in a design mode.the fluid density c .6 psi There are two distinct pressure pulses generated when a flowing fluid is brought to a stop.1875 lbm) (32.the change in velocity of the fluid The speed of sound in the fluid can be estimated from c = [Ef / ( + (Ef / E) (d/t) )] 0.the speed of sound in the fluid dv . Crocker & King.4 lbm/ft3) + (Ef / E)(d/t) = 62.322)/0. McGraw-Hill pages 3-189 through 3-191 for a more detailed discussion and evaluation of the speed of sound.4 lbm/ft3 [1 + (313000/30E6) (8.2 lbm ft) ( ft2/144 in2) = 345.4 lbm/ ft3) (4281 ft/sec) (6. dp = c dv = (62.7-20 Version 5.2 lbm ft/lbf sec2) (144in2 /ft2)1/2 = 4281 ft/sec Note See the PIPING HANDBOOK. The time history waveform for both types of water hammer pulses is shown as follows: . Fifth Edition.1875 lbm/ft3 c = (313000 lbf/ in2) (ft3/79. and the other pulse originates at the discharge side of the pump.0 ft/sec) (lbf sec2/32. This example only deals with the supply side water hammer effect.625 -0.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .5 Where: Ef E d t is the bulk modulus of the fluid (313000 psi) is the modulus of elasticity of the pipe (30E6 psi) is the pipe mean diameter is the pipe wall thickness is the fluid density (62.

The magnitude of this unbalanced load can be computed from: F unbalanced = dp * Area The duration of the load is found from t = L/c. i.981 in.0 in2 F unbalanced = dp * Area = (345. For this problem the elbow-elbow pairs most likely to cause the large deflections at node 45 are 45-75 and 90-110. For this problem a rise time of 5 milliseconds is assumed. CALCULATIONS: L 45-75 = 7 + 4(20) + 4 = 90 ft.Examples 7-21 Pod Ps Pos dp Pv - Discharge pressure Source (tank or static) pressure Suction pressure (while running) Pressure fluctuation due to the instantaneous stoppage of flow through the pump Liquid vapor pressure at flow temperature There will be an unbalanced load on the piping system due to the time it takes the pressure wave to pass successive elbowelbow pairs. di = 8. . where L is the length of pipe between adjacent elbow-elbow pairs.322) = 7.625 .0) = 17289 lbf t duration = L/c = = (90) / (4281) (75) / (4281) t rise = = = 21 milliseconds. the problem will be assumed to be solved when the restraint system is redesigned to limit the large displacements due to water hammer without causing any subsequent thermal problem due to over-restraint.(2) (0. L 90-110 = 3(20) + 15 = 75 ft. Area = /4 (7.6) (50. The rise time for the unbalanced dynamic loading should be obtained from the pump manufacturer or from testing and can be determined from graphs such as those shown above. on leg from 90 to 110 5.981)2 = 50.0 milliseconds Because the piping in this example is ductile low carbon steel. Area = /4 di2. on leg from 45 to 75 17. the major design variable will be the large displacement.5 milliseconds.e.

.7-22 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide First we generate the DLF Spectrum Files as follows.

Examples 7-23 .

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Next we define the Spectrum: Then we define the force sets as follows: Three Spectrum load cases are of interest here: Each spectrum separately and the two of them in combination as follows: .7-24 Version 5.

That is left for the user to investigate. .Examples 7-25 The sustained static load case is now combined with each dynamic load case for code stress checks. Note that for operating restraint loads the static operating case would be combined with each dynamic load case as well.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The Control Parameters should be set as follows: .7-26 Version 5.

On the supply side a positive pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. If the pump or valve stops in a time shorter than T then the water hammer should be analyzed as shown in this example for instantaneous closure. Without a transient fluid simulation or field data the usual procedure is to assume one or two significant passes of the pressure wave. The magnitude of the pressure wave is equal to the sum of the suction side pressure and dp. this means slowly closing the valve. = 2L/c = Characteristic length of the piping system. and a high number of low modes of vibration. As the negative pressure wave moves away from the pump these vapor bubbles collapse instantly. resulting in an extremely large downstream water hammer loading. The maximum magnitude of this negative pressure wave is the difference between the pump discharge pressure and the fluid vapor pressure. Reflections of the wave may then cause secondary pressure transients. Calculations for this problem are given as follows: . If the fluid reaches its vapor pressure the fluid adjacent to the pump flashes. Where critical piping is concerned or where the maximum loads on snubbers and restraints is to be computed. Usually taken as the length between the pump or valve and the source or sink. there may be a fluid backflow created due to the rapid drop in pressure. the case of valve closing. This local vapor implosion can cause extremely high pressure pulses. Slowing the mechanism that tends to reduce the flowrate can reduce the magnitude of the water hammer loads. Once the pump shuts down. CAESAR II does not check the integrity of the piping system due to the local increase in hoop stress that occurs as the fluid pressure wave passes each pipe cross-section. c On the pump or valve discharge side the maximum magnitude of the pressure wave is the difference between the fluid vapor pressure and the line pressure. Water hammer loadings will cycle to some extent. combinations of different force sets are usually not run. An individual dynamic load case is run for each separate force set. In the case of a pump going off line. the independent effect of a single pass of the pressure wave should be analyzed for each elbow-elbow pair in the model. this means slowly removing power from the pump. A separate force spectrum load set is defined for the elbow with the highest pressure as the wave passes between the elbowelbow pair. In this case the backflow slap at the idle pump can be accentuated by the collapse of created vapor bubbles. The direction of the applied force is away from the elbow-elbow pair. hot steam piping systems that have very few fixed restraints. On the discharge side a negative pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. Slowly in each of these instances can be estimated from: T Where T L c = time of one wave cycle sec. In addition. This approach has proved satisfactory when applied to large. = Speed of sound in the fluid. Extrapolation to other types of piping systems should be made at the designer's discretion. the pressure at the discharge begins to drop. The momentum of the fluid in the downstream piping draws the discharge pressure down.Examples 7-27 Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads On the pump or valve supply side the magnitude of the pressure wave is calculated as shown in this example using: dp = dv. The pressure wave passes through the system once at full strength.

3 rad. Higher modes must be computed until the inclusion of extra modes does not produce an appreciable change in the force/stress response. in the example can usually be computed accurately after the inclusion of the low frequency modes with participation factors greater than about 0. the tendency for water hammer in the piping system will probably be abated. .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Of primary interest is the largest time that must be used to close a valve. Where crack propagation in welds and material due to water hammer loads is a concern the following rules should be followed: A very high number of natural frequencies must usually be included in the analysis. = Pipe material density.2)(12)/(0. and so. These short duration loads are usually not a design problem in ductile steel piping systems. T = (2) (270) ft.283))/20 (202388 in. Calculations using the lengths of several reflecting systems will be made to get a “feel” for the variation of the computed T’s. where c equals the speed of sound in the pipe and "t" equals the duration of the water hammer load. Cutoff frequencies of 300 Hz are not unusual. Calculation of the greatest element length for the 45-75 elbow-elbow pair is given as follows: Lmax = = = ct/4 (4281) ft/sec (0. Shorter duration loads require shorter elements to monitor the passing of the stress wave./cycles) 134. very short duration forces and stresses.01. These are the axial natural modes of the pipe between the excited elbow-elbow pairs. The maximum frequency cutoff can be estimated from SQRT (E/ )/L where: E = Pipe material modulus of elasticity./(4281)ft/sec = 126 milliseconds The length through which the wave passes that causes the most trouble is the length between nodes 45 and 75: T = (2) (90)/(4281) = 42 milliseconds So. Calculation of the maximum cutoff frequency for the 45-75 elbow-elbow pair for the 20 ft pipe lengths is given as follows: f cutoff = = = = = SQRT (E/ )/L SQRT ((30E6)(32. individual element lengths should be smaller than about 20 ft. or bring a pump flowrate to a halt such that water hammer type pressure pulses are not generated. if the pump or valve can slow down in greater than 126 milliseconds. The length of any element in the primary axial runs should not be greater than about ct/4. to get an accurate estimate of the stresses due to the passing of the stress wave in the pipe. L = Length of a single pipe element in the primary run that is to have accurate stresses computed due to the passing of the water hammer originated acoustic stress wave. including the Missing Mass Correction will approximate the contribution from the omitted modes. Displacement results./sec) / (2 p rad.021) sec/(4) 22. such as the 6 to 8 in.5 ft. Alternatively./sec) / (20 ft. Water hammer excitation initially produces axial acoustic waves in the steel pipe wall that can induce locally very high. 12 in/ft) (843. This represents a total “L” of about 270 ft. The longest time will be for the wave to leave the supply side at node 5 and move to the tank connection at node 125. The inclusion of the response due to the higher modes will not affect the displacement results (only the force and stress results). If the pump or valve can slow down in greater than 42 milliseconds then the tendency for water hammer in the 45-75 length will be abated.7-28 Version 5.2 Hz.

. it may be viewed tabularly via the mode shape report. or graphically via the animated mode shape plots. High modal participation factors indicate that the mode is easily excited by the applied dynamic forces.Examples 7-29 Water Hammer Loading . If subsequent displacement reports indicate high dynamic responses then the modes having high participation must be dampened or eliminated. Once a particular mode is targeted as being a problem.Output Discussion Mass Participation Report This report illustrates how sensitive each of the piping system’s modes are to the water hammer dynamic loading.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Displacement Report This report gives the maximum possible positive or negative displacement that may occur at some time during the event. . Values in this report are always positive.7-30 Version 5.

should have extra weld or support plate area (Discontinuities at other restraints in a problem area should probably also be “beefed up” to withstand the local passing of the impact stress wave. Loads on this support due to the low mode displacements are seen to be small. Areas of local discontinuities.Examples 7-31 Restraint/Force/Stress Reports If high modes are included. Combination Cases The force spectrum approach to the water hammer problem does not include consideration of the time relationship between modal or directional maximums. A few simple design rules are usually sufficient: Flexible is better. then these reports give the maximum values of forces and stresses in the system due to gross deformation alone. Running one load case for each main piping run. The restraint should be designed with this in mind. Completely conservative results can be guaranteed by taking the absolute summation of both the modal and directional response properties. Problem Solution A guide and axial limit stop at nodes 45 and 105 produces little increase in thermal stresses (which were low to begin with). The combination load case including the 45-75 and 90-110 contributions together yielded little extra information. very short duration loads may not be so small. In this example the main piping run between nodes 45 and 75 added the major contribution to the system dynamic responses. as discussed in the notes in this section.) . The restraint should only be stiff enough to sufficiently attenuate the low frequency gross deformation. such as the weld of the support to the pipe. Local. If the high modes are not included. then these reports give the maximum values of the forces and stresses in the system due to gross deformation and the propagation of an acoustic stress wave in the pipe. and a final load case including all of the individual load cases typically gives the analyst a “good feel” for where problems exist. and serves to attenuate the large axial displacements in the line due to the water hammer load.

This drawing shows the piping.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Example 4 . pipe supports.3 using the ground. and envelope spectra shown. compare the results from the two analyses. Sch 10S 4-in. 22. Finally.7-32 Version 5. and the structural steel frames.Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) PROBLEM: The cryogenic piping system shown on the following page is to be designed in accordance with B31.3 lb/cu ft 0. building. . Include the flexibility of the structural steel supports by including the steel frames in the analysis. Design parameters are: Ambient Temperature: Operating Temperature: Pipe: Insulation: Fluid: Columns: Beams: 100°F -59°F 8-in.232 SG W14x82 W10x12 Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example The isometric of the complete model is shown in the following figure. Two analyses are to be run: Assume the pipe (structural steel) supports are rigid.

Examples 7-33 .

5 1 2 3.7 11.653 39.37 30.4 21.4 43.2 0.5 5 10 V in/sec 0.787 1.787 7.05 0. .4 27.2 0.12 21.05 0.3 3.05 0.874 21.7 21.359 V in/sec 0.5 5 10 Envelope Response Spectra Envelope Response T sec 0.5 5 10 Building Response Spectra Building Response T sec 0.5 1 2 3.89 43.653 39.5 1 2 3.8 5. These excitation methods are shown in the following figures.9 V in/sec 0.3 5.3 5.787 7.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The excitation spectra to be applied to this model are: Ground Response Spectra Ground Response T sec 0.2 0.874 21.3 30.9 The necessity for the various spectra can be best understood by investigating the difference between independent support excitation and uniform support excitation.7-34 Version 5.37 18.

BEAM CROSS SECTION MATID=1. DEFINE ALL COLUMNS EDIM 1043 1044 DY=15-0 EDIM 1048 1049 DY=15-0 EDIM 1053 1054 DY=15-0 DEFAULT SECID=2 ANGLE=0 EDIM 1039 1040 DZ=-2-0. W14 X 82. The structural steel model for this problem can be generated by invoking the structural input from the Main Menu. W10 X 12.Examples 7-35 For the analysis with steel supports.283 DEFAULT SECID=1 ANGLE=90 EDIM 1038 1039 DY=15-0. This can be accomplished by using the INCLUDE STRUCTURAL INPUT FILES option from the KAUX feature of the CAESAR II spreadsheets. the structural steel must be included as part of the piping model.3 G=11E6 DENS=0. YM=29E6 POIS=0. The input listing from the structural input session is shown as follows: SECID=1.DEFINE ALL BEAMS EDIM 1044 1045 DZ=-2-0 EDIM 1054 1055 DZ=-2-0 FIX 1038 ALL FIX 1043 ALL FIX 1048 ALL FIX 1053 ALL . COLUMN CROSS SECTION SECID=2.

.7-36 Version 5. Details of the dynamics input are contained on the following pages.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The dynamics input for this problem is summarized in the figure that follows.

Examples 7-37 .

7-38 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .

Examples 7-39 To keep the documentation for this example brief. the model with and without structural steel supports will be compared. the only results presented are those for the “uniform support excitation” case. Using this load case. The results from these two models are shown in the tables that follow: With Structure .

7-40 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Without Structure .

Examples 7-41 With Structure .

7-42 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Without Structure .

Examples 7-43 With Structure .

7-44 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Without Structure .

the results with the structural steel included are many times higher than the results computed without the structural steel. More flexibility means lower natural frequencies and more modes to be excited by the shock. In some cases. The steel models add flexibility to the piping system. A comparison of the natural frequencies of the two models is given as follows: With Structure .Examples 7-45 Discussion of Results These comparison tables illustrate the differences that can exist when the structural steel models are not included in the analysis.

The restraint moment at node 55 in the Z direction is much larger without the steel model than it is with the steel model. which includes the structure. the steel frame will not support much moment in the Z direction.7-46 Version 5. Even though the piping is tied to the steel. . there are only five extra mode shapes for the system. and the moment is carried through from the pipe. the rigid anchor at node 55 will not rotate about the Z axis (or any other axis) and so ends up carrying the entire moment load.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Without Structure In the above table. In the "piping only" model. The steel frame bends slightly about the Z axis.

braced space frame. uniform load. This frame is subjected to its own weight load as well as a uniform load of 200 pounds per inch on all of the top-level beams. A standard finite element modeling approach will be followed. and finally the loading. then elements. as shown. The figure below shows a single bay.4 = 1 in. All beam and column lengths are 50 in. and element forces for three load cases: self weight. where the system nodes are defined. then materials and section properties.4 This example shows how to model a structure using the CAESAR II structural preprocessor. = 250 in. This example will illustrate how to use most of the keyword directives in the structural preprocessor.4 = 500 in.FRAME PROBLEM Analyze the braced frame shown below subjected to the given uniform load and self weight. . and self weight plus uniform load.Structural Analysis .Examples 7-47 Example 5 . Column section data area Beam section data area Brace section data area Material Density: Beam Loading: = 15 in2 inertias = 10 in2 inertias = 5 in2 inertias 490 pcf 200 lb/in. reactions. We wish to know the displacements.

select INPUT-STRUCTURAL STEEL from the Main Menu to enter the input window shown (only the input portion of the window shown here).str start the structural preprocessor by selecting option File-Open from the Main Menu then select the type of file as Structure and select the examples directory to find the file.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide To process the input file Frame. . Next. Click Save or choose FILE-SAVE from the structural processor to error check and save the model.7-48 Version 5.

Note that load case 2 consists of only U1 and that it is designated as an operating case. CAESAR II recommends load cases to satisfy piping code compliance.Examples 7-49 After the input has been saved and error checked exit the structural steel input processor to go back to the Main Menu. Note. The analysis can be started immediately by selecting option ANALYSIS-STATICS. It is purely a construction case and is segregated here only because it may be interesting to see the loads produced by the Uniform Load solely. in all probability you will not want to analyze the structure with the recommended load cases. Therefore occasional loads (like the current uniform load) will not be used. Edit the load cases as shown below. At this point CAESAR II will read the binary files created by the structural preprocessor and recommend load cases. .

7-50 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The results for this analysis are shown in the following nine figures: .

Examples 7-51 .

7-52 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .

Examples 7-53 .

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .7-54 Version 5.

Examples 7-55 .

7-56 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .

composed of 20 pipe elements and 14 support elements. The three solutions presented represent the following: Envelope spectrum.NUREG9 PROBLEM: Analyze the piping system shown on the following page subjected to a series of shock spectra. then modal combinations using SRSS ISM directional.Examples 7-57 Example 6 . directional.Dynamic Analysis . This problem is one of the NRC benchmark problems run to verify the dynamic capabilities of CAESAR II. this problem was taken from: NUREG/CR -1677. the contributions from the pseudo-static anchor point displacements are not included. For those users interested. VOL II. For this example. then modal combinations using ABS . there is a single lumped mass applied at node 18. All bend elements include a node at the “near” point to insure mass and stiffness computations consistent with the NRC example. spatial. the 14 support elements were input as restraints with stiffnesses. This problem demonstrates the independent support motion feature of CAESAR II. The detailed input will not be shown or discussed in this example. spatial. Users should note that in addition to the pipe density. spatial then modal combinations ISM (independent support motion). In modeling this problem. The support elements are divided into four groups corresponding to four distinct input excitation spectra sets. BNL-NUREG-51267. August 1985. NRC Example NUREG 9 This problem is a three-branch system. Users will find the necessary input files in the Examples folder in the C2 executable directory.

598 107.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide NRC Example Problem 2A NATURAL FREQUENCY REPORT (Hz) MODE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 NRC 9.550 69.456 78.116 135.820 209.905 57.6 203. .362 12.29 48.893 101.60 25.88 101.606 25.7 103.0 115.51 61.80 21.7-58 Version 5.800 21.8 209.626 203.510 62.03 38.44 78.265 155.731 103.50 62.10 32.359 77.299 48.524 61.38 17.708 15.957 NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.379 17.2 160.71 15.07 40.075 40.II 1980.360 12.244 160.90 57.35 77.2 155.54 69.6 108.102 32.039 38.983 115.9 CAESAR II 9.1 135.

0379 .0285 0849 .0105 .0250 .0127 .0949 .0001 .0511 .0421 .0224 .0476 .0515 .0431 .0289 .0201 .0379 .0049 .0633 0635 .0286 .0252 .0476 .0214 NRC .0224 .0105 .0268 .0343 .0631 .0131 NRC .0476 .0280 .0203 .0190 .0128 .0215 CAESAR II .0001 DZ CAESAR II .0318 .0309 .0131 CAESAR II .0049 .0475 .0253 .0431 .0186 0085 .0343 .0268 .0476 .0359 .0269 .0688 .0491 .0260 .0359 .0201 .0389 .0907 .0095 7-59 DY CAESAR II .0318 .0105 .0001 .0299 .Examples TRANSLATIONS (in) DX NODE 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 NRC .0515 .0 .1012 .0249 .0249 .0273 NRC .0217 .0273 RY CAESAR II .0328 .0105 .0217 .0095 NRC .0267 .0 .0907 .0299 .0105 .0631 .0633 0635 .0514 .0107 .0402 .0475 .0401 .0328 .0496 .0250 .0457 .0090 Problem 2A NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0203 .0289 .0001 Problem 2A NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0260 .0286 .0327 .0496 .0190 .II 1980.0309 .0491 .1012 .0108 .II 1980. .0421 .0688 .0102 .0280 .0105 .0950 .0327 . ROTATIONS (deg) RX NODE 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 NRC .0186 0085 .0457 .0389 .0285 0849 .0090 RZ CAESAR II .0102 .

0103 .0574 .0001 .0400 .0110 .0242 .II 1980. . NRC Example Problem 2B TRANSLATIONS (in) DX NODE 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 NRC .7-60 SUPPORT FORCES (lb) FX NODE 1 7 9 11 13 15 17 21 NRC 90 0 446 0 0 188 58 378 CAESAR II 90 0 445 0 0 187 58 377 NRC 65 0 0 206 164 188 198 192 Version 5.0002 .0033 CAESAR II .0401 .0152 .0031 .0255 .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide FY CAESAR II 64 0 0 206 164 187 197 191 NRC 177 708 0 0 0 263 103 245 FZ CAESAR II 177 707 0 0 0 262 103 245 Problem 2A NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0311 .0152 .0 DZ CAESAR II 0158 .0187 .0267 .0103 .0064 .0311 .0400 .II 1980.0103 .0401 .0295 .0162 .0053 .0057 NRC 0158 .0267 .0029 .0207 .0242 .0103 .0301 .0170 .0162 .0267 .0267 .0053 .0574 .0110 .0029 .0530 .0207 .0187 .0399 .0301 .0033 NRC .0064 .0 Problem 2B NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0031 .0295 .0 .0255 .0001 .0530 .0057 DY CAESAR II .0399 .0170 .

0165 .0171 .0289 .0134 .0228 .0435 .0128 CAESAR II .0640 .0070 .0204 .0128 NRC .0307 .0641 .0204 .II 1980.0120 .0070 .0079 .0326 .0184 .0071 .0171 .0435 .0053 RZ CAESAR II . .0199 .0598 .0079 .0171 .0062 .0208 .Examples ROTATIONS (deg) RX NODE 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 NRC .0289 .0134 .0075 .0132 .0132 .0075 .0301 .0184 .0208 .0276 .0134 .0247 .0074 NRC . SUPPORT FORCES (lb) FX NODE 1 7 9 11 13 15 17 21 NRC 53 0 257 0 0 111 32 103 CAESAR II 53 0 256 0 0 111 32 103 NRC 46 0 0 123 98 111 124 114 FY CAESAR II 46 0 0 123 98 111 123 113 NRC 113 441 0 0 0 156 66 116 FZ CAESAR II 112 440 0 0 0 155 66 115 Problem 2B NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0599 .0172 .0326 .0116 .0199 .0301 .0120 .0053 Problem 2B NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0165 .0247 .0062 .0228 .0307 .0134 .0116 .0071 .0074 7-61 RY CAESAR II .II 1980.0276 .

0196 .0164 .0289 .0116 .0049 NRC .0085 NRC .0740 .II 1980.0163 .0199 .0164 .0001 .0355 .0 .0148 .0355 .0421 .0556 .0237 .0291 .0227 .0237 .0191 NRC .0104 .0049 CAESAR II .0317 .0260 .0252 .II 1980.0387 .0044 .0090 .0235 .0179 .0043 . .0800 .0235 .0372 .0800 .0104 .0197 .0434 .0318 .0163 .0281 .0893 .0346 .0092 .0191 CAESAR II .0043 .0104 .0402 .0372 .0285 .0894 .0835 .0104 . NRC PROBLEM 2C TRANSLATIONS (in) DX NODE 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 NRC .0229 .0355 .0092 .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide NRC Example Problem 2C NRC BENCHMARK SERIES NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0429 .0285 .0372 .0116 .0229 .0252 .0110 NRC .0199 .0148 .0420 .0373 . ROTATIONS (deg) RX NODE 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 NRC .0001 .0179 .0282 .0402 .0606 .0355 .0220 .0434 .0429 .0291 .0079 RZ CAESAR II .0148 .0605 .0456 .0074 .0001 Problem 2C NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.0288 .0411 .0347 .0197 .0220 .0372 .0411 .0558 .0 .0560 .0420 .0244 .0148 .0558 .0112 .0085 CAESAR II JOB NUREG9 DY CAESAR II .0079 Problem 2C NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.0282 .0196 .0420 .0556 .0074 .0044 .0260 .0741 .0835 .0001 DZ CAESAR II .0110 RY CAESAR II .0387 .0560 .7-62 Version 5.0112 .0455 .0090 .0244 .0227 .

.II 1980.Examples SUPPORT FORCES (lb) FX NODE 1 7 9 11 13 15 17 21 NRC 76 0 350 0 0 151 45 152 CAESAR II 76 0 350 0 0 151 45 151 NRC 70 0 0 184 146 151 169 170 7-63 FY CAESAR II 69 0 0 184 146 151 168 169 NRC 156 607 0 0 0 212 91 158 FZ CAESAR II 155 607 0 0 0 211 90 157 Problem 2C NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.

Generate a piping model of an Omega loop according to the following sketches. Low carbon steel 200°F.OMEGA PROBLEM: The Omega expansion loop consists of a series of back to back 135 degree bends. 300°F. For this example.Omega Loop Modeling .7-64 Version 5. The given dimensions are the 6-ft 10-in. we will use an Omega loop as shown below. and the bend angles of 135 degrees and 270 degrees. From this information the other dimensions shown in the figure can be derived. 400°F The objective of this example is to illustrate the techniques necessary to code a series of back -to-back bends. Pipe: Bend Radius: Material: Temperature: 3-in. height. standard wall 24 in..00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Example 7 . the 2-ft bend radius. Figure 1 .

Figure 3 shows the actual location of node 20 on the pipe. (See Chapter 2 of the Applications Guide for additional information on the proper coding of bends. The third bend (upper right bend) spans between nodes 15 and 20. Figure 2 The second bend (upper left bend) will span between nodes 10 and 15. where node 20 is the TIP.) Figure 2 shows the node points.Examples 7-65 When coding a series of back-to-back bends it is important to remember that the delta dimensions should be measured from the tangent intersection point (TIP) to the tangent intersection point. the actual location of node 10 is at the far weld line. Note that the TIP 10. In coding from TIP to TIP. The element from 25 to 30 is a straight element necessary to finish off the bend.) The first bend (lower left bend) will span between nodes 5 and 10.) . shown on Figure 3. and lies to the left of the pipe. Recall that we code TIP to TIP. which will be coded on the spreadsheets to model the Omega loop. Therefore the delta coordinates entered on the spreadsheet are the X and Y distances between nodes 10 and 15 on Figure 2. (Recall a bend in CAESAR II requires an element beyond the far weld line to determine its orientation. For analysis and output. The fourth and final bend (lower right bend) spans between nodes 20 and 25. The actual location of node 25 is shown on Figure 3. The actual location of node 15 is at the far weld line. a delta X and a delta Y are required. is to the far right of the bend. only a delta x is required. In this case. Node 15 is the TIP for this bend. as shown in Figure 3. (The model will be anchored at nodes 1 and 35.

Note that 3 additional.) bends. . equally spaced points are located on each bend.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Figure 3 Below is an input listing for the model. The delta dimensions shown were obtained from Figure 1. Note This example requires a change in Configuration/Setup to allow the error checker to accept large angle (> 95 deg.7-66 Version 5.

Examples 7-67 .

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .7-68 Version 5.

The piping system to be analyzed is shown in the following figure. . the spiders are located at each elbow weld line. various alternatives are discussed that may be benefit specific systems or problems.JACKET This example is intended to serve as a guide for modeling techniques used in the analysis of jacketed piping systems. both the jacket and the core are low carbon steel. Where applicable. since the thermal growth in the core will be different from the thermal growth of the jacket. schedule-40 steam jacket. The piping system consists of an 8-in. and in the straight runs such that the spider spacing does not exceed 6 ft.. schedule-40 crude oil line and a 12-in. These spiders provide translational restraints in two directions. The section of piping from the pump to the valve is completely jacketed. (This variation in the jacket is used to illustrate the two common types of jacketed systems. For this system. while the section from the valve to the vessel has only the straight sections jacketed.) The core pipe is supported in the jacket through the use of spiders.Jacketed Piping . This condition must be modeled very carefully. Note: In some systems. normal to the axis of the pipe. Improper axial restraints in such a system can cause extremely large loads in the pipe.Examples 7-69 Example 8 .. For this system. the jacket and the core consist of different materials.

a support node should end with a 5. Each segment is shown in the following figure with the node numbers assigned to the various points for the core piping. and include options. For example. Similar node numbering schemes can be used to differentiate branches from headers. To indicate locations where external supports are applied to the system. To illustrate this concept.Create Modeling Plan The first step in modeling any system is to consider the most efficient way to create the input and more importantly how to best review the results. . node numbers will end in 5. pipe from structural steel.Node Layout The system as defined in the preceding figure consists of nine segments of piping. The system can also be viewed individually in the plot by using the Range command and breaking the model at 1999. node 1110 will be a core node at ground. while the second level piping will have nodes in the 500-900 series. the core piping will be modeled using node numbers from 1000 to 1999.7-70 Version 5. Setting up the node numbers in this manner enables one of the systems to be generated from the other. duplicate. Additionally.e. Additionally. and various line sizes. similar locations on the two systems will have the same base node number. For example. 1110 and 2110 describe the same point on both the core and the jacket. the input node numbering scheme can be setup. CAESAR II does not require the segregation of a piping system into segments. For this example system. consider reviewing the in out for this system and finding a spring hanger at node 1530. additional node number ranges can be employed to differentiate parts of the model. using either the duplicate or the include options of the input preprocessor. Step 2 . one can decide how to generate the model to take advantage of the various rotate. By deciding how to best review the results. A little thought and planning at the start of a model can ease both input verification and output review. There are no such input requirements or restrictions in CAESAR II. The other advantage to this scheme is that when reviewing output can tell immediately form the node number whether the point in question belongs to the core or the jacket. the following additional constraints will be placed on the node numbers. and the jacket will be modeled using node numbers starting at 2000. Although not necessary for a small system such as this. From the node numbering scheme. Each segment is discussed in the following paragraphs. This should quickly be recognized as an error since the 1000 series nodes make up the core piping.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Step 1 . all other points will be multiples of 10. The ground level piping will have nodes in the 100-400 series. Please note the term segments is used solely to assist in discussing this example. and can't utilize spring hangers. level and node 2250 will be a jacket node on the second level. i.

beginning with the elbow at 1120. This section can be simply modeled by coding to the top elbow and assigning nodes 1500 and 1510. because we are now modeling the 2nd level piping. Since this section is at ground level the 100 series nodes will be used. The length of the segment requires an intermediate node point for a spider. .Examples 7-71 Core Pipe Layout Segment A This segment runs from the pump to the first elbow. Segment B This segment is the six-foot vertical section. The +Y will be applied at node 2115 (the jacket). thus the pump is assigned node 1105. thus node 1110 is assigned 5 ft from the pump. the start node of this segment will end in 5. and therefore we assign the “5” to this node point. since 1115 is part of the core piping. Nodes 1120 and 1115 are assigned to the elbow. Note that the +Y support is not at node 1115. Note that we are using the 500 series nodes here. Since the pump acts as an anchor.

7-72 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Segment C The first horizontal run in the 2nd level requires a node at mid-span to accommodate a spring hanger (on the jacket). This mid-span node will divide the segment into two 9 ft lengths. The nodes assigned are 1520. The elbows in this part of the model will consist of two straight pieces of pipe. 1610. Segment F The third horizontal leg of the expansion loop. The nodes used to model this segment are: 1140. Therefore. The following figure shows a volume plot of the completed core piping. The node 1135 is a +Y location on the jacket. and 1615. 1525 (for the hanger location). and 1650. 1660. This will insure that the system is being modeled correctly and that any input errors are detected as soon as possible. 1570. modeled using nodes 1620. 1640. 1600. Nodes for this segment are: 1590. equal in length to the radius of the elbow. and 1155. and nodes 1575 and 1580 at the elbow. 1150. Note that node 1615 terminates the elbow and is also a hanger location. Note that 1655 is a hanger location. Segment H The second vertical section of piping returns the system to ground level. . which exceed the maximum spider spacing of 6 ft. Step 3 . The segment is finished off with the elbow modeled by nodes 1540 and 1550. The only additional nodes required for this section are for the elbow. The element from 1590 to 1600 should be declared rigid with a weight of 452 lb. and 1670. Note also that starting with the elbow 1610-1615. and 1530. Segment D This horizontal segment in the 2nd level is modeled using nodes 1560. This will ease the coding of the jacket later on. the eighteen-foot span will be divided into four elements. 1630. all of the elbows will be modeled as individual elements. Segment G The last horizontal run of the 2nd level is modeled using nodes 1655. each 4 ft 6 in. with node numbers and anchors. frequent use of the CAESAR II plot facility should be made. at 1130 and 1135.Core Piping Input During the input of the above sections. The nodes 1560 and 1570 are for spiders while 1575 is a hanger location Segment E This horizontal segment contains the valve. Segment I This is the last segment that terminates at the vessel nozzle.

thus doubling our correction efforts.) are contained in the CAESAR II input file. Running the error checker at this time is a wise idea. The additional data required to finish the model (allowable stresses. Step 4 .1st Half At this point there are several ways to obtain the jacket model. and then use the “include” feature to combine the two models. The second method is to duplicate the core pipe input file. . which accompanies the software.Examples 7-73 Completed Core Piping At this phase of the input. it would be prudent to save the input file and invoke the CAESAR II error checker. Any errors that exist in the core will be duplicated in the jacket.Jacket Input . etc._a in the Examples subdirectory of the CAESAR II installation directory. because we intend to use the core piping model to generate the jacket piping model. temperatures. The later method is the one we will use for this example. The third method is to use the “List” processor and duplicate the necessary elements from within the preprocessor. pressures. This data is found in the file Jacket. The first and obvious method is to continue with the spreadsheet input and simply build the jacket.

This screen is shown as follows: Core Pipe Input Listing For the first half of the jacket. The duplicated region will start at the pump and terminate at the valve. which is the default. The duplication can be accomplished by performing the following steps: .7-74 Version 5. The resulting list of elements contains their associated delta coordinates. We want to choose the Elements tab.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Modeling of the jacket will begin by launching the List processor from the CAESAR II spreadsheet by choosing the Edit-List menu option. The list options are available by choosing the appropriate tab at the bottom of the window. we will duplicate the core piping.

the 1st half of the jacket is finished. Once the above changes have been made. to the row number for the element from 1580 to 1590. select BLOCK . Click the At End of Input radio button to place the duplicate block. A volume plot of the system will now show the core piping overlaid by the jacket piping. The following values should also be specified here: jacket temperature. while pressing the Shift key down. Specify 1000 for the node increment. jacket pressure. Click the Identical radio button. This is easily accomplished in the List Editor by finding the element from 2105 to 2110. Next. change the radius from Long to 12.. Three changes must be made to the new section of pipe to obtain the jacket piping.0 in. The best way to accomplish this change is to enter the Bend list by clicking on the Bend tab on the bottom of the list window. jacket insulation. and jacket fluid weight. . First the diameter and wall thickness must be changed to 12 in. which is the element just before the valve. Then.Examples 7-75 1 2 3 4 Click the mouse cursor to the row number for the element from 1105 to 1110.DUPLICATE to generate the Block Duplicate dialog. and simply typing over the current values. This will result in a section of pipe identical to the pipe from 1105 to 1590 with node numbers from 2105 to 2590. This change must be made to all of the following bends. Click the mouse cursor. starting at the bend at node 2120. The final modification requires changing all of the jacket bend radii from long to short. Click OK to close this dialog and again to close the Duplication Status window. schedule 40. CAESAR II will duplicate the block and increment all of the node numbers by 1000. All rows between our two selections should now be highlighted.

Aside from the two anchors at the pump and the valve. which is why the jacket and core line up properly in this case. the restraint field should be entered. put a CNode of 2115 with Y and Z-direction restraints. if a CNode connects two nodes in the Y-direction. First. All we have done so far is duplicate several pipes. The actual clearance between the spider and the pipes is very small. This support should be added to the system on the spreadsheet containing the node 2115. In similar fashion.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Note: Even though the two models are correctly positioned with respect to each other. The graphics module plots discontiguous systems such that they all start from the same point. Then add a restraint at node 1105 with a CNode at 2105 of type "anchor. add two restraints at node 1110." This will associate all six degrees of freedom between nodes 1105 and 2105. all of the spider connections between the jacket and the core are modeled using two perpendicular restraints. The fact that the graphics shows them positioned properly is merely coincidence. At this point in the input session. On the same spreadsheet. these restraints also prevent rotation. Additionally. Simply stated. At both of these points we have connected all six degrees of freedom. the remaining spiders should be added to the model (see the example job “JACKET” found in the Examples directory to review these restraints). Use CNodes to restrain two nodes to each other without restraining them to the "outside world. because the jacket is continuous. with connecting nodes. or parts of the model. and one in the Z-direction. a +Y. Both of these restraints have a CNode at 2110. On the very first spreadsheet of the model. cannot undergo rigid body motion. The next spreadsheet from 1110 to 1120 defines the first elbow. we have two discontinuous systems in the same input file. one in the Ydirection. How are the other four degrees of freedom restrained? What keeps this model from undergoing rigid body motion? These questions can be resolved by considering two points. The input will be saved and any errors reported should be corrected at this time. and the solution cannot be attained. and attempting to numerically model this clearance using restraints with gaps causes the job to be highly non-linear. Also recall that at 2115 we have an external restraint. the user should invoke the error checker (click the single running man button). Note that these restraints are perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Note: Whenever a model is constructed. These two restraints model the spider between the core and the jacket. you must insure that the model. the jacket is continuous over the core from the pump to the valve. When node 1590 is reached. they are not connected.7-76 Version 5. Such a model produces a singular stiffness matrix. As far as CAESAR II is concerned. Note: The spider was not modeled using gaps. The next step is to correctly connect the jacket to the core. and apply any external restraints. A total of four restraints should be added to this spreadsheet: at 1115. An example of such a poor model is a cantilever beam with a hinge at mid span. Models with gaps at each spider will have convergence problems and in all probability never reach a solution. Second. The spring hangers at nodes 2525 and 2575 should also be added. Note: A CNode associates degrees of freedom. ." The modeling of the connection between the jacket and the core will start at the pump. These connections can be modeled in CAESAR II by using restraints with connecting nodes (CNodes). put a CNode of 2120 with X and Zdirection restraints. the CNode at 2590 is connected with an Anchor. the translational restraints obviously prevent motion in the three translational directions. they will experience identical displacements in the Y-direction. The connection between the jacket and the core piping will model the spiders that align the two in the real system. at 1120.

. to 1640. however the extra time involved in deleting the jacket from the elbows is greater than the time required to input only the straight sections. Z. The completed model is shown below in the following figure. Avoid the temptation to associate these two nodes (2600 and 1600) in the Y and Z-directions as this is incorrect and will produce an unstable model. The next jacket element covers the core from 1616. Note that we did not have this problem in the first half of the model since the jacket was continuous over the elbows and the model was three dimensional in nature.) This causes the 8-in. The next two elements 2620-2630 and 2630-2640 are standard pipe element with a DZ of -4. To properly connect the jacket to the core. Where is the element from 2600 to 2610? Return to the spreadsheet and temporarily change the diameter of 2600-2610 to 24 in. We must ensure that in this half of the model the appropriate axial and torsional restraints are applied to the jacket.line to be physically connected to the 12-in. hence we have a mechanism. At 2610 a CNode of 1610 will be added with restraints in the Y and Z-directions.node is connected to the corresponding core node with a CNode associating the X and Y-directions. Y. the end of the elbow. The node 2615 is anchored to 1616 via a CNode. the restraints for the spiders can be input as we encounter them. restraints must be added at 2600 and at 2610. with a DX of 5 ft. The element 2600-2610 has been positioned at the plot origin.Jacket Input .line in all 6 degrees of freedom. At node 2600. The remaining three sections of jacket are modeled in exactly the same manner. Each To. we will model an Anchor to 1600. nominal. At 2600. back to 12-in. since the jacket only covers the straight runs of piping.Examples 7-77 Step 5 . the jacket elements will be coded manually. To start the input session. we need a CNode of 1600. Duplicating portions of the model would work. enter Piping-Input and press [Control-End] to go to the last spreadsheet in the model. . By modeling the jacket directly. and the +Y restraint at 2135. The final step in the modeling is to add the spring hangers at nodes 2615 and 2655. Return to the spreadsheet and correct the diameter. press the continue button and change the node numbers to 2600 and 2610. For this reason. and RX restraints. The reason is that doing so allows the jacket to move freely in the X-direction and to spin about the X-axis. and try the volume plot.2nd Half The input of the 2nd half of the jacket is more complex than the 1st half. (This is simpler than modeling separate X. as opposed to any form of duplication.333 ft. At this point. because at this time the element is not connected to anything.

the job must be error checked and then analyzed for the specified loading conditions. . and the combined system.7-78 Version 5. The resulting output should be checked to ensure that the system was modeled correctly. If wind or wave loads are specified. under the job name JACKET. The core pipe should probably have its insulation thickness set to zero. These checks should include the following: Verification of the weight of the core system. In the direction of the spiders the displacements should be the same for both the jacket and the core. Once the input task has been completed. This can be caused by improperly over restraining the pipe in the axial direction. or the effects of thermal growth on dissimilar metals. the jacket system. CAESAR II does not do this automatically. It is important to note that CAESAR II does not perform interference checking. or the equipment anchors. Check the displacements at the elbows in the operating case and make sure that the core pipe does not tend to move through the jacket. Be sure that the jacket pipe fluid density accounts for the volume lost due to the core. Verify that the piping system does not develop large axial loads in the core. The “Sustained-Restraint” report can be used for this check. users must reduce the density of the jacket fluid accordingly.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Completed Jacketed Piping System The completed input file can be found as part of the “examples” set. they should be disabled on the core piping. where the jacket and the core are connected. Check the displacements at the spiders. the jacket.

75 in.Examples 7-79 Example 9 .. T = 0. discusses a comprehensive local stress analysis of a vessel/nozzle using WRC 107 and ASME Section VIII.. To determine whether the WRC 107 Bulletin is appropriate for the computation of the local stress state in the vessel due to external loading. d = 12. Division 2 criteria.625 in. t = 0.33 Dm/ T = (D-T) /T = 191 > 50 . d / D = 0. geometry guidelines should first be reviewed: D = 120. which follows.0 in.WRC 107 The example problem.10625 < 0..375 in.

One of the most important steps in the WRC 107 procedure is to identify the correlation between the CAESAR II global coordinates and the WRC 107 local axes. . have to identify the vectors defining the vessel as well as the nozzle centerline. CAESAR II performs this conversion automatically.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide In the present case.7-80 Version 5. both conditions are satisfied. The user will. however. The actual preparation of the WRC 107 calculation input can now begin. The following figure is provided to illustrate the definition of the direction vectors of the vessel and the nozzle.

0. 0. Since. 0.0.0). Users not familiar with this modeling approach. the vessel direction vector can be written as (0. the restraint loads forces and moments can be obtained from the CAESAR II Restraint report.0. Note: The nozzle direction vector is always defined as the vector pointing from the vessel nozzle connection to the centerline of vessel. -1.Examples 7-81 Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107 Local Axes Notice that in order to define a vessel direction vector. 0. The restraint report of the rigid anchor model display below. An anchor at 55 with a connecting node at 56 could be used to model the local vessel flexibility as rigid.0. These loads reflect the action of the piping on the vessel. and the job rerun to get a good idea of the range of loads and displacements that exist in the system around the vessel nozzle. The anchor could then be replaced with a WRC 297 local vessel flexibility model. In the figure. point A is assigned to the bottom of the nozzle. Note that the line between data points B and A defines the vessel centerline (except for nozzles on heads. the user may also notice that there are two nodes occupying the same space at the nozzle/vessel surface junction: nodes 55 and 56. refer to Chapter 3 of the Technical Reference Manual for more details. in the vessel/nozzle configuration shown. In either case. the user first needs to designate the output data points (A-D) as defined by the WRC 107 Bulletin. while the nozzle direction vector is (1.0). where the vessel centerline will have to be defined along a direction which is perpendicular to that of the nozzle). .

if the user requests.7-82 Version 5.P(A) -26 . The pressure thrust force always tends to push the nozzle away from the vessel. with a pressure of 275 psi over the inside area of the 12-in. A pressure thrust load will contribute an additional axial load to the nozzle.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The total sustained axial load on the nozzle may not be reflected in the restraint report. the total P load becomes: P = = = -26 . followed by a spreadsheet for loadings. . pipe. Start The WRC 107 module by clicking ANALYSIS-WRC-107/297 from the CAESAR II Main Menu. For example. The program first prompts the user for the analysis type then for the entries of geometric data describing both the vessel and nozzle. The values of the geometric entries in this example are shown in the following printouts from the program.275p (122) / 4 -31.128 The P load may be adjusted automatically for the input by CAESAR II’s WRC 107 module.

Examples 7-83 .

Expansion (EXP).00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Users may enter up to three sets of loadings representing Sustained (SUS). The loads are shown in the following screen. If a static analysis has been performed on the system to be analyzed with WRC-107 then CAESAR II can import the loads directly from the output file. In the present case. and Occasional (OCC) load cases. This is accomplished using the Get From Output button on the bottom of the dialog for each load case. The user can elect to leave any input cells blank if they are found not applicable. The program automatically performs the stress calculation of each of the load cases consecutively and then performs the WRC 107 stress summation routine to compare the computed stress intensities against the stress allowables as required in Appendix 4 of ASME Section VIII. Division 2.7-84 Version 5. CAESAR II will then read in the loads for the nozzle node number that was specified under the Nozzle Data tab. we only have to be concerned about the sustained and thermal expansion cases. .

The output may also be generated to MS Word by clicking the W button on the toolbar. C & D located around the nozzle. An Output screen will be generated. which can be used for comparisons against material allowables. the parameters extracted from the WRC 107 figures are printed to this report. The program provides the normal and shear stresses and translates them into stress intensities. B. . The stresses will be reported on the outer and inner vessel surfaces of the four points A. The outputs of the stress computations are shown on the following pages. As the output shows. the largest expansion stress intensity (117485 psi) occurs at the outer surface of point B (Bu). This step is similar to collecting the data by hand. After the input echo.Examples 7-85 To run the analysis the user selects ANALYSIS-WRC-107/297 from the menu or clicks the Local Stress Analysis button. These non-dimensional values are combined with the nozzle loads to calculate the two normal and one shear stress.

lb. Smc Smh Attachment Type: Attachment Node Number: Nozzle Diameter: Attachment Wall Thickness: Attachment Corrosion Allowance: Vessel Vessel Vessel Nozzle Nozzle Nozzle Z-axis Centerline Centerline Centerline Centerline Centerline Centerline UP? Direction Direction Direction Direction Direction Direction Cosine Cosine Cosine Cosine Cosine Cosine OD VX VY VZ NX NY NZ FX FY FZ MX MY MZ P FX FY FZ MX MY MZ Global Force (SUS): Global Force (SUS): Global Force (SUS): Global Moment (SUS): Global Moment (SUS): Global Moment (SUS): Internal Pressure (SUS): Include Pressure Thrust: Global Global Global Global Global Global Force Force Force Moment Moment Moment (EXP): (EXP): (EXP): (EXP): (EXP): (EXP): WRC107 Version/Year Use Interactive Control Include Pressure Stress Indices per Div.000 -5866.000 lb. ft.000 F 20000.000 4235.000 1.000 in.000 in.000 in. lb.000 23715.000 127. 0. Job: C:\work_450\wrc107\AG-EX9. lb. Example No.lb. 20000./sq. SA-516 70 500. 0.in.750 in.lb.in. Round Hollow 55 12.lb.000 -52583.9 Vessel Vessel Vessel Vessel Vessel Vessel Vessel Vessel Vessel Type: Node Number: Diameter: Wall Thickness: Corrosion Allowance: Material Name: Working Temperature: Cold Allowable Stress: Hot Allowable Stress: Version 5./sq.000 0.000 0.000 275. 0.000 lb. 0. 0.7-86 Licensed To: COADE. INC.lb. ft. ft.lb.000 lb.000 0.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide ID: 10001 OD Cylindrical 60 120.000 31659.lb. ft.000 -1389.000 32.in.000 No -26./sq. lb.000 -65. lb.375 in.625 in.000 Yes 8573. lb.2 March 1979 Use B1&B2 No No Calculate Hoop Stress based on (from config): ID Diameter Calculate Longitudinal Stress based on (from config): Lame Equation ********************************************************************* .W07 CAESAR II ANALYSIS REPORT: WRC 107 INPUT ECHO ---------Description: This is input title page for CAESAR II Application Guide. ft.000 -1.000 -5414. ft.

lb ft./sq.093 3A 3.D) M(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.D) N(x) N(x) M(x) M(x) N(x) M(x) N(x) M(x) / / / / / / / / ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( P/Rm ) P/Rm ) P ) P ) MC/(Rm**2 MC/(Rm ML/(Rm**2 ML/(Rm 0.093 4C 14. Bend.035 (A.B.B) N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0.093 0. Memb. MC | 0 0 0 0 -25 -25 25 25 Circ.093 3C 12. MC | 0 0 0 0 -358 358 358 -358 Circ.C.B.77 32. Bend.094 (C. P | 46473 -46473 46473 -46473 28748 -28748 28748 -28748 Long. ML | -4964 4964 4964 -4964 0 0 0 0| Tot. Bend.C.093 1B1 0.C.059 (A.994 (A.B.C.D) (A.097 0.082 (C.511 0. Str. ML | -857 -857 857 857 0 0 0 0 Long.C.060 5.093 0.093 0.093 0.C. Bend.Examples 7-87 WRC 107 Stress Calculation for SUStained Loads: Radial Load Circumferential Shear Longitudinal Shear Circumferential Moment Longitudinal Moment Torsional Moment P VC VL MC ML MT -31127.631 0.093 0.00 1389.D) (A.C.00 Stresses in the Vessel at the Attachment Junction -----------------------------------------------------------------------| Stress Values at Type of | (lb.D) N(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.994 0.093 3C 4C 1C1 2C 4A 2A 4B 2B1 12.in ) ---------------|-------------------------------------------------------Stress Load| Au Al Bu Bl Cu Cl Du Dl ---------------|-------------------------------------------------------Circ. P | 28242 -28242 28242 -28242 44865 -44865 44865 -44865 Circ. Memb.lb ft. Bend.449 (A. MC | 0 0 0 0 -41 -41 41 41 Long. Bend.052 (A.D) M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm * Beta) ) 0. Long.D) (A.B.093 1A 0. Circ.lb Dimensionless Parameters used : Gamma = 95.00.00 lb lb lb ft.D) M(PHI) / ( P ) 0.082 14.045 3.093 1C 0.C.| 48372 -29923 64738 -42859 41027 -16088 41491 -16386 .B.093 0.B.D) N(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0. Kb = 1.093 2C1 0.085 (A.B) M(PHI) / ( P ) 0. P | 10081 10081 10081 10081 12510 12510 12510 12510 Long.| 33153 -13403 48353 -18060 54563 -34450 55330 -35116 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Long. MC | 0 0 0 0 -190 190 190 -190 Long.B.793 (A. Memb.D) (A. Memb. ML | -7325 7325 7325 -7325 0 0 0 0| Tot.D) (A. Memb.00 65.093 0.D) * * * * Beta) Beta) Beta) Beta) ) ) ) ) Stress Concentration Factors Kn = 1.50 Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells ------------------------------------------------------------------Curves read for 1979 B1/B2 Beta Figure Value Location ------------------------------------------------------------------N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0. Str. P | 12510 12510 12510 12510 10081 10081 10081 10081 Circ. ML | -2635 -2635 2635 2635 0 0 0 0 Circ.B) (C.00 4235.093 3B 10.B. Memb.00 127.B) (C.

C.D) * * * * Beta) Beta) Beta) Beta) ) ) ) ) Stress Concentration Factors Kn = 1.lb Dimensionless Parameters used : Gamma = 95. Bend.059 (A.093 0.C.994 (A. Memb.093 0.B.00 -31659.B. Bend.00 lb lb lb ft.00 -5414. Kb = 1.082 (C.D) M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.094 (C. Memb.511 0. Bend.00 -23715.093 0.D) (A.D) (A.093 2C1 0.093 1A 0.093 0. ML | 32728 32728 -32728 -32728 0 0 0 0 Circ.449 (A.7-88 Version 5.B.B) (C.093 4C 14.093 3C 4C 1C1 2C 4A 2A 4B 2B1 12.C./sq.C.B) M(PHI) / ( P ) 0.093 3C 12.lb ft. Shear| 7 7 2 2 -106 -106 115 115 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Str.lb ft.D) (A.D) N(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.B) N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0. P | -3445 -3445 -3445 -3445 -2776 -2776 -2776 -2776 Circ.B) (C. MC | 0 0 0 0 15282 -15282 -15282 15282 Circ.093 0. MC | 0 0 0 0 1076 1076 -1076 -1076 Circ.097 0.D) (A.D) N(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) ) 0.082 14.D) N(x) N(x) M(x) M(x) N(x) M(x) N(x) M(x) / / / / / / / / ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( P/Rm ) P/Rm ) P ) P ) MC/(Rm**2 MC/(Rm ML/(Rm**2 ML/(Rm 0.093 3B 10. ML | 61638 -61638 -61638 61638 0 0 0 0 | .035 (A.045 3.631 0.B.B. Int.060 5.00 -52583.085 (A.994 0.093 0.00.50 Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells ------------------------------------------------------------------Curves read for 1979 B1/B2 Beta Figure Value Location ------------------------------------------------------------------N(PHI) / ( P/Rm ) 0.D) (A.D) M(PHI) / ( P ) 0.in ) ---------------|-------------------------------------------------------Stress Load| Au Al Bu Bl Cu Cl Du Dl ---------------|-------------------------------------------------------Circ.C.093 1B1 0.00 -5866.B.C.093 3A 3. | 48372 29923 64738 42859 54564 34451 55331 35117 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ WRC 107 Stress Calculation for EXPansion Loads: Radial Load Circumferential Shear Longitudinal Shear Circumferential Moment Longitudinal Moment Torsional Moment P VC VL MC ML MT 8573.C.00 Stresses in the Vessel at the Attachment Junction -----------------------------------------------------------------------| Stress Values at Type of | (lb.B.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide -----------------------------------------------------------------------Shear VC | 2 2 -2 -2 0 0 0 0 Shear VL | 0 0 0 0 -110 -110 110 110 Shear MT | 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Tot.B. P | -7778 7778 -7778 7778 -12356 12356 -12356 12356 Circ.D) M(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm * Beta) ) 0.052 (A.093 1C 0.093 0.793 (A.C. Memb.

MC | 0 0 0 0 1758 1758 -1758 -1758 Long. ML | 90954 -90954 -90954 90954 0 0 0 0 | Tot.Examples 7-89 Tot. Pm (SUS) | 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994 12994 Long. Shear| -2849 -2849 -1911 -1911 -485 -485 -4275 -4275 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Str. Allowable | Result Stress Int. P | -12799 12799 -12799 12799 -7917 7917 -7917 7917 Long. S./sq. Pl (SUS) | 9224 9224 10939 10939 12469 12469 12552 12552 Long. Q (EXP) | 83143 -24576-105591 33242 1225 -4625 -31492 23785 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Long. | (lb. Q (SUS) | 23278 -23278 33207 -33207 44506 -44506 45223 -45223 Circ.I. | (lb. Q (SUS) | 39148 -39148 53799 -53799 28558 -28558 28939 -28939 Long. Bend. MC | 0 0 0 0 8120 -8120 -8120 8120 Long./sq. Memb. Circ. Int. | 87777 70461 117485 90393 2879 4709 33041 25069 -----------------------------------------------------------------------WRC 107 Stress Summations: Vessel Stress Summation at Nozzle Junction -----------------------------------------------------------------------Type of | Stress Values at Stress Int. Str. S. Memb. ML | 10647 10647 -10647 -10647 0 0 0 0 Long. Bend. Long.I. Q (EXP) | 86026 -70284-117178 90329 -1484 -1890 -21242 10834 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Shear Pm (SUS) | 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Shear Pl (SUS) | 2 2 -2 -2 -110 -110 110 110 Shear Q (SUS) | 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Shear Q (EXP) | -2849 -2849 -1911 -1911 -485 -485 -4275 -4275 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Pm (SUS) | 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Pm+Pl (SUS) | 36000 36000 41271 41271 36182 36182 36233 36233 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Pm+Pl+Q (Total)| 148682 87321 39862 60652 81926 12994 50941 16668 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Type of | Max.in ) ---------------|-------------------------------------------------------Location | Au Al Bu Bl Cu Cl Du Dl ---------------|-------------------------------------------------------Circ. Pl (SUS) | 9875 9875 15146 15146 10056 10056 10106 10106 Circ. Pm (SUS) | 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 26125 Circ.| 86026 -70284-117178 90329 -1484 -1890 -21242 10834 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Shear VC | -468 -468 468 468 0 0 0 0 Shear VL | 0 0 0 0 1894 1894 -1894 -1894 Shear MT | -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 -2380 | Tot. P | -2776 -2776 -2776 -2776 -3445 -3445 -3445 -3445 Long.in ) | ---------------|-------------------------------------------------------Pm (SUS) | 26125 20000 | Failed Pm+Pl (SUS) | 41271 30000 | Failed Pm+Pl+Q (TOTAL)| 148682 60000 | Failed ------------------------------------------------------------------------ .| 83143 -24576-105591 33242 1225 -4625 -31492 23785 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Long. Bend. Str. Memb.

Since the present nozzle loading will cause stress intensities that are not acceptable to the ASME Section VIII. Division 2 criteria. while the other option might be to reinforce the nozzle connection on the vessel side either by increasing the vessel thickness or by adding a reinforcing pad. The same analysis procedure can be repeated until the final results become acceptable.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Failed items display in red. it will have to be corrected. Note: Once a reinforcing pad is selected.7-90 Version 5. . One way of dealing with this type of situation is to adjust the nozzle loading form its source. the program will automatically compute the stress at the edge of the pad as well.

Enter a NEMA SM23 problem by choosing the Analysis . . The first example can be found in the NEMA SM-23 Standard. and the correct computation of the total moment loads resolved about the discharge nozzle. The second example illustrates the use of metric units and the correct implementation of paragraph 8. 7th edition as Example 8A.NEMA SM23 This section illustrates the use of the NEMA SM-23 computations of the CAESAR II Equipment module. The input is shown in the following figures.2.4. NEMA Example PT69M This example illustrates the computations for Dc and De. the use of metric units. beginning on page 47.Examples 7-91 Example 10 .NEMA SM23 option from the CAESAR II Main Menu.6. Two examples are presented.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .7-92 Version 5.

. and newton-meters. For the exhaust nozzle. and then compare the sum to a dimension. in this case millimeters.667 or 4333. the input value of 254 millimeters converts to a 10-in. directly..Examples 7-93 The results for this analysis and discussion follow. Since this is larger than 8 in. De is equal to (16 + 10 ) divided by 3. pounds plus foot-pounds must be less than inches. and foot-pounds. newtons. nominal pipe. In essence. This is necessary due to the equations used to determine code compliance. Nozzle Results for PT69M The first item of interest in this output report is the variation in the units systems used.667 in. or 8. The computed values are reported in inches. forces and moments. The results can be interpreted correctly only if presented in English units. The input values are reflected in the User set of units. pounds. These equations combine. This yields an allowable of 500 times 8.

This particular example did not contain extraction nozzles. so these reports are not produced. Applying the standard right hand rule sign convention. Following the individual nozzle reports is the summation of forces and moments about the exhaust nozzle. Therefore.6. The above report is repeated for each extraction nozzle specified. . The “MY” and “MZ” moments caused by the suction nozzle forces about the exhaust nozzle can be computed in a similar fashion. causes a positive “X” moment.4.6) + (3999*0) which yields -1978 meters-meters. which converts to 1781 pounds. Similarly. this nozzle fails the requirements of the SM-23 Standard. The output displayed above shows that this nozzle also fails the SM-23 Standard requirements. The same computations must also be performed on the inlet nozzle. Applying the 3F + M equation yields 7556. These moments are needed to correctly comply with Section 8. which converts to 2213 foot-pounds. Also shown for the inlet nozzle are the moments about the discharge nozzle caused by the inlet nozzle forces. a positive “Y” force offset a positive “Z” distance. Similarly.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Then. Since 7566 is larger than 4333. the inlet nozzle forces cause an “MX” moment about the exhaust nozzle of: -(3296*.2. This report is shown in the figure below. a positive “Z” force offset a positive “Y” distance.7-94 Version 5. the square root of the sum of the squares of the forces acting on the exhaust nozzle yields 7922 nektons. the square root of the sum of the squares of the moments acting on the exhaust nozzle yields 3000 Newton-meters. causes a negative “X” moment.

Examples 7-95 Nozzle Load Summation Report This report shows the force summations in the three global directions as well as the resultant force. This value was obtained from: 1200 + 1499 + -1978. . followed by the forces in pounds. Following the force summation is the moment summation. Consider for example the MX moment of 721 meters-meters. The next column shows the allowable for each force. It is important to note that the total moment is the sum of the individual moments plus the contribution from the forces multiplied by their distances from the discharge nozzle. computed by the SRSS method discussed above. which is defined above. as a function of Dc. computed by the SRSS method. These forces are shown in the user’s set of units on the left. This summary reports the total moment about the three global directions and the resultant moment. The final line of this report combines the resultant force and resultant moment and compares the result to its allowable.

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... In This Chapter System Overview........................ 8-25 Conclusions ......................................................................CH AP TER 8 Chapter 8 Tutorial A This chapter provides: a step-by step tutorial describing the piping system input: a look at various output reports........................................ 8-38 ........................................................... 8-2 Reviewing the Static Results ............

An opposite approach may be taken by running the model all the way to an immovable point . line runs through a check valve with a 6-in. the analysis and evaluation of the results.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide System Overview This tutorial presents the flexibility and stress analysis of a piping system using CAESAR II. pipe. The pump nozzle is a satisfactory boundary because the movement of that point (as the pump heats up in operation) is rather certain and easily calculated from the thermal strain between the pump nozzle and the base point. discharge nozzle. The vessel nozzle is an adequate boundary because of the known thermal growth of the vessel and the greater stiffness of the vessel with respect to the 8-in. and a re-design of the system.the vessel foundation. This process includes the creation and entry of the pipe stress model. As noted on the drawing. The 8-in. exercises common modeling situations. up to a spring hanger support and over a hard support before entering the vertical vessel. though small. The Tutor Piping System Layout The boundaries of this system are the pump discharge nozzle and the vessel nozzle. top discharge pump has a 10-in. Other acceptable choices could have been the pump support (or base) point and the vessel foundation. as illustrated in the following figure. . The end suction. which is utilized in a refining process. The system chosen for this purpose. this system moves crude tower bottoms from the bottoms pump to a steam stripper unit. suction nozzle and an 8-in. bypass.8-2 Version 5.

These labels are assigned where anywhere we have a change in geometry (pipe diameter. In some cases a more accurate model for supporting structures may be required. (Near is a term associated with the path used to define the elbow. . line through a second welding tee above the check valve. Preparing the Drawing The following figure shows the worked up drawing used to construct the model. The difference between the actual installed valve weights and modeled weights should be used to adjust the spring pre-load. Note that the spring hanger above this valving will be quite sensitive to the weights used here. displacements. The analysis will be set to force CAESAR II to select a variable or constant support hanger at this point. therefore the valve lengths and weights were pulled in from the CAESAR II generic database. Here. a change in materials. The horizontal piping rests on an unspecified support at the far end of the next elbow. The total weight and length of this valving is unknown at this time. The hanger is included at the top of the vertical run to carry the deadweight and absorb its thermal growth. If there is any appreciable change in these weights perhaps the system should be reanalyzed. modeled as a rigid. wall thickness. line runs through a gate valve before re-entering the 8-in. spring support and for that reason the Anvil table is specified for its selection. bypass piping.) The other end of the hanger is attached to some available structure above this point.). or the application of boundary conditions (restraints. Additional node numbers should be assigned at any other location for which output is desired. pipe. in which case the structural steel may be included in the model and analysis. by coding up the vertical leg and then the horizontal leg. change in direction). These nodes are the basis through which the piping stress isometric is tabulated for the analysis. In reviewing the results the 600 series will indicate 6-in. The hanger is attached to the elbow and in line with the vertical pipe at the “near” end of the elbow. The 6-in. point loads. etc. This support. nonlinear restraint acting on the pipe centerline. The bypass piping also has the 5’s progression but they are incremented by 600. For this tutorial the progression is by 5’s starting with node 5 at the pump nozzle. Immediately apparent are the node numbers. Because of the vertical thermal growth of the hanger attachment point a simple rod hanger is not acceptable here. allows the piping to grow upward but prevents downward motion. It is best to make sure that the hot load on the spring is toward the center of the manufacturers recommended spring working range to allow errors in load estimation. The program will probably select a variable. operating conditions (temperature or pressure).Tutorial A 8-3 The check valve sits right on top of the welding tee for the 6-in. the weld point on the vertical run of the elbow is the near end and the horizontal run weld point is the far end.

The next figure shows the dimensions for this system. Most of the data should be readily available but some research may be required.8-4 Version 5. The elbows will be defined so that output is available for the near. mid. The hanger will be sized at the first elbow’s near point (node 28). Other information required for the model is collected on this drawing before the program is started. . and 90 degrees). Items such as pump nozzle deflections and valve data details can slow down the input session if not noted on the drawing. 45.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Tutor Example with Node Numbers and Other Technical Information Note how in the plot the elbows are shown squared with the node assigned to the intersection. and far points of the bend (at 0.

From the Main Menu select TOOLS-CONFIGURE SETUP and the window shown below will appear. Next click Exit w/ Save to save this change and return to the Main Menu. In previous discussion it was stated that node numbers would use an increment of 5 for this model. Next choose the Geometry Directives tab. The default nodal increment is 10 so this must be changed.Tutorial A 8-5 Tutor Example with Dimensions Generating CAESAR II Input Before beginning the input session it will be useful for this tutorial to set the numeric increment between nodes. . Select the number 5 from the drop list in the Auto Node Number Increment item as shown in the following figure.

CAESAR II will confirm the External Software Lock (ESL) connection.8-6 Version 5. You may want to use the Browse button to choose another directory for storage of your CAESAR II data files. Be sure to note the data directory path that you will create and store the file in. New Job Name Specification Dialog . Next.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Changing the Auto Node Number Increment in Configuration Setup Click the CAESAR II icon to start the program. Go to FILE-NEW menu selection and enter a new filename of Tutor in the resulting dialog.

Return to the Main Menu to repeat the above process to pick an unused jobname. . An empty piping element input spreadsheet will appear as shown in the following figure. exit out of this input by clicking the X in the top-right of the window or by selecting FILE-EXIT from the menu. Select TOOLS-CONFIGURE SETUP. the first piping element spreadsheet will appear. click OK to continue with the input. click the Database Directives tab and select English in the units drop list there. Otherwise. CAESAR II will present the list of input units that will be used. if a job by the name Tutor already exists on the machine. Tip: The Review Current Units window displays only if the file is new and did not previously exist in the data directory. The following window will be displayed if the file is new. If this is the case.Tutorial A 8-7 Start the input session by selecting INPUT-PIPING from the Main Menu. If the English units are shown. If the job is new. If the Units File Label field (bottom left of the Review Current Units dialog) does not show English Units then click Cancel.

8-8 Version 5. CAESAR II automatically generates the From and To Nodes when you start a new spreadsheet. . it can be reset using Edit-Insert). the arrow keys. liberally use the Plot command to review the work completed. To fix any errors made navigate to the appropriate spreadsheet [PgUp] and change the entry. Also. All the remaining data entered on this screen will now be associated with the first element from node 5 to node 10 or these two end points.if not. Text will appear with the spreadsheets where explanations are required. Enter or Down Arrow key to move to the next input (the To Node in this case). The From Node/field should read 5 (assuming the node increment is set to 5 in CONFIGURE/SETUP -. Use the Tab key. Enter a 10 in the To field if one is not already there. or the mouse to navigate the input spreadsheet. Individual spreadsheets may be repeated if more than one auxiliary field or command is used.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Blank Input Spreadsheet All the input spreadsheets for this tutorial are provided on the following pages. but if not. Now use the Tab. simply select the node number in the white input box and type 5 over it. The cursor is initially positioned in the From field.

Also with the standard wall thickness. the “-” indicates feet.Tutorial A 8-9 Move down to the DY cell and enter the element length of 2 ft by entering 2-. Note that the other four degrees of freedom must be entered as 0 . and 0. Ambient Elastic Modulus. Material properties will now be read in automatically from CAESAR II's material database.without the entry of zero (or any other definition of these boundaries). The insulation thickness and corrosion allowance are entered next. The figure below shows the displacements entered properly. the entered S is replaced by the actual wall thickness. These two numbers are calculated as the thermal growth of the pump discharge nozzle from the base support point. At the top of the second column of this first spreadsheet double click the Displacements check box to activate the Displacements Auxiliary Data area to the right where we will enter our displacement information.046 in. respectively. node 5 would be free to move in these four directions. Note that upon leaving this cell the actual OD replaces this nominal. The material number will also be referenced to pick up the coefficient of expansion for the specified temperatures. Node 10 marks the centerline intersection of the 8-in. Geometry and Operating Conditions for First Tutor Element Displacement Boundary Condition at Node 5 of Tutor Model Next we enter the pipe material by clicking the drop list to the right of the Material label and choose number 1 Low Carbon Steel. by-pass. For node 5 enter the Y and Z anchor displacements of 0. Note that fractions are allowed in these cells as well. In the next block enter the nominal pipe size of 8 in. main line with the 6-in. . Next enter the Operating Conditions of Temperature (600°F) and Pressure (30 psi). The completed first column of data is given in the figure to the left. Poisson’s Ratio.077 in. and Pipe Density will be filled in. We omit the units in our entries as CAESAR II already has our units' information.

Exponential format may be used in these fields to simplify data entry and reduce mistakes.000 psi (don’t use commas) and the hot allowable stress of 17. The material property and allowable stress entries are shown in the following figure. The cold and hot allowable stresses (Sc and Sh) as defined by the piping code are entered for the type of piping material to be analyzed.300 psi are not extracted from the database so you must type these values. . The first 21 materials are Generic and do not have Allowable Stress values associated with them in the database.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Now double click the Allowable Stress check box to activate the Allowable Stress Auxiliary data area to the right.3 if it is not already there by default (The default code is defined in the Configure/Setup).8-10 Version 5. Here the cold allowable stress of 20. Click the drop list and select B31. However the other materials in the list will also fill in the Allowable Stress values as found in the database.

the node must be identified as a welding tee. press ALT-C. code.Tutorial A 8-11 Node 10 is the intersection of the 8-in. The distributed data need only be re-entered when they change value. Uniform Loads and Wind also carry forward without enabling the check box.5 lbf/ft3. Allowable Stress data carries forward even though the check box on subsequent spreadsheets is unchecked. all the distributed data values (the information that carries on from one pipe to the next) remain on this new screen. or click the Continue button on the far right hand side of the Toolbar. lines.8SG in the field and CAESAR II will convert it to the proper units. First double click the SIFs and Tees check box to activate the SIFs and Tees Auxiliary data area. Piping codes recognize the reduced strength of this piping component by increasing the calculated stress at this point in the system. Also. For CAESAR II to include this stress intensification factor in the stress calculation.the commodity is specified as 80% the deadweight of water so we enter 0. and 6-in. None of the other check boxes in the input carry forward. The length of this element is 7 in. or temperature. The entire Spreadsheet for this second element follows. To move on to define the next piece of pipe. The input is accepted as lbf/in3 (use the F1 function key to confirm) so the entered value is divided by 1728 in3/ft3 to make this conversion. The user only needs to add element length and any new boundary conditions or changes from the previous element. For the purposes of this illustration this value is entered manually as 11. With an insulation thickness specified. Do not enable this box unless you have a change in material. This data finishes the description of the second element. in the Y direction so 7 is entered in the DY field.5/1728 in the Insulation Density field and CAESAR II will convert it.3 in this case) so no more input is needed here. CAESAR II will assume a density for calcium silicate. CAESAR II will calculate the SIFs at this intersection according to the piping code selected (B31. Note on this new spreadsheet that the To Node of the previous spreadsheet now appears as the From Node. Specify node 10 as our intersection node and select Welding Tee from the Type drop list. Another conversion capability is shown with the Fluid Density cell . . This intersection is constructed using an 8x6 welding tee. This short run finishes out the welding tee and is bounded by nodes 10 and 15 as entered by CAESAR II. select EDIT-CONTINUE. To clarify: type 11. This second element runs from the intersection point to the beginning of the check valve.

If the following window does not appear. enabling the Rigid box and then entering the Rigid Weight in the Auxiliary Data area. If the length and weight of this “rigid” element were known. the CAESAR II CADWorx Valve/Flange database will be accessed to generate this input automatically. This data is made available through the Model-Valve menu option or by clicking the Valve/Flange Database button on the toolbar. this data could be entered directly by entering the length in the DY field. for lack of better data and for convenience.8-12 Version 5. This CAESAR II element would include the flanged valve and the mating flanges as these piping components are much more stiff than the attached pipe. Valve/Flange Database Selection Window . This command will bring up the window shown below.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Second Element Spreadsheet for Tutor The next element (15-20) is the flanged check valve. refer to Chapter 2 of the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual (Configuration and Environment). Here.

Users may also change the bend radius . Additionally. The bypass piping rejoins the main line through a second welding tee sitting on top of the check valve.5 nominal pipe size) will be added at the change in pipe direction. The run of pipe to the intersection of the main line and bypass centerlines is 7 in.Tutorial A 8-13 To select the valve type and class use the mouse to highlight the Check Valve selection as shown above (instead of the default of Gate). This “construction point” at node 30 is not actually a node on the piping system. 3. 2 in. Here. Press F1 on any of these input cells for more information. Node 28 is listed in the auxiliary data field at angle 0 and the elbow midpoint is listed as node 29. the Rigid check box is activated. double-click the Hanger check box. the default settings will be used with no additional hanger design data specified. These added nodes will appear as output points and they may also be used to locate restraints. Enabling the Bend check box specifies the elbow. The next figure shows the definition of this element 20 . By default a long radius elbow (1. the hanger will be chosen from Table 1 – the Anvil hanger catalog. CAESAR II will make three entries on the input spreadsheet: The element length. The Bend specification automatically generates additional nodes around this elbow locating the near weld point and the bend midpoint (designated by the letter M). Here the rigid element runs 2 ft. A 150 psi class flanged check valve will be entered between nodes 15 and 20 when the OK button is clicked or the Enter key is pressed. For this first pass through the analysis. The dimension of 10 ft. Bend Specification at End of Element From 25 to 30 in Tutor The hanger to be sized at this elbow is placed at node 28 in line with the vertical run of pipe. Tee Specification on Fourth Element of Tutor The next node entered is located at the intersection of the vertical pipe centerline and the horizontal pipe centerline above it. Any additional input specified at 30 and all output for node 30 will be located at the far weld point of the elbow which connects the vertical and horizontal runs.75 in. a short-range spring will not be permitted at this point as the mid range spring will probably be cheaper. . When FLG End Type is selected. in the +Y direction and weighs 470 pounds. runs from node 25 to node 30.25 and the specification of the welding tee at 25. this rigid element includes the added length and weight of the mating flanges. To enter the hanger sizing information. and the weight is input into the Rigid Auxiliary Data area. The Hanger Auxiliary Data area like that shown in the next figure should be filled out as follows: node 28 is entered as the Hanger Node. (half of the total length of the 8 x 6 welding tee).

-12 ft in the X direction. This support will not allow the pipe to move downward but it cannot prevent the pipe from moving upward. Here. This X run of pipe will finish off the elbow at 30 by creating a 90-degree turn. a restraint is a vector. is a function of load or displacement) is entered as a +Y type.8-14 Version 5. most users interpret the +Y as indicating the pipe is free to move in the +Y direction. The +Y indicated that the restraint supplies a positive Y (upward) load to the pipe. CAESAR II will set this to a very stiff (rigid) restraint. There is also a support at the far weld point of this bend. not the physical length of the straight piece of pipe between the elbows. Note that up to four restraints may be specified in this auxiliary data field. the pipe will not “push” the restraint down. an X restraint would also be defined here as the second restraint. meaning that under any practical load. . Except for the anchor designation. Double click the Bend check box to generate the long radius elbow at 35 with the two extra nodes. Press F1 for more information about these restraint parameters.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Hanger Auxiliary Data Specification in Tutor The piping system continues on to the elbow at node 35. Again. the distance entered as CAESAR II input is the distance between the intersections of the pipe centerlines. This non-linear restraint (a restraint whose stiffness. This far end of the bend is node 35 in the model so the restraint is specified at node 35. With no stiffness entered with this restraint. If there was a guide restraining lateral motion of node 35. rather than remaining constant.

pipe. the inclusion of flange stiffening is probably insignificant and can be ignored. line. select Single Flange from the Type drop list in the Bend Auxiliary data area. check valve above the pump. Note that CAESAR II automatically generates a long radius elbow for this 6-in. the pipe runs in the Z direction for 18 ft where it terminates at the intersection with the vessel wall. piping elements are modeled. The welding tee nodes of 10 and 25 will be completely defined as reducing tees when these 6-in. As simple by-pass piping. This characteristic of flanged elbows is addressed by the piping codes through a modification of the flexibility factor and stress intensification for the elbow. line. the From Node must be changed here to 10 and the To Node is set to 605 as the 600 series of node numbers will indicate 6-in. which reduces the bending flexibility of the elbow. which are explained here. This flange acts like a stiffening ring. centerline to the centerline of the vertical 6-in. Diameter is entered as 6 and Wt/Sch is entered as S. The input processor automatically shifts the previous To Node to the current From Node. As with the pump connection at node 5. Since the model is no longer continuing from node 40. This elbow is flanged on one end. The figure below shows the changes required to start the 6-in. node 40 is a satisfactory boundary for this model. line. The X length of -2 ft is measured from the 8-in. An elbow is specified at node 605 by doubleclicking the Bend check box.Tutorial A 8-15 Bend Specification and Restraint Specification on Element from 30 to 35 in Tutor From the second elbow. Displacement Boundary Conditions Simulating Vessel Thermal Growth at Node 40 in Tutor. by-pass piping around the 8-in. The thermal growth of the vessel at this point is calculated and entered as displacements of node 40. The model now returns to the 6-in. To include this effect. .

here 0. the deadweight and length of the attached flanges should be included in this analysis. 17. check valve. This 9-in. The next element is the 6-in.8-16 Version 5. (Use the NOFLG End Type if you do not want these included. in the Y direction. Use the Valve/Flange database (with the command Valve) for this rigid element. which marks the beginning of the gate valve. CAESAR II will return from the database with rigid Y run.) 150 Flanged Gate Valve Selected from the CADWorx Valve/Flange Database . flanged gate valve running from 610 to 615. As with the 8-in. prevents the generation of a zero length element.625 in. The input locations of nodes 605 and 610 then are coincident which would produce a zero length element. CAESAR II inserts a length for this element 605-610 equal to 5% of the bend radius . 150-psi class. which can be changed in the CAESAR II configuration. specification puts node 610 at the far end of the bend defined on the previous screen.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Bypass Inputs in Tutor The 6-in. long. This 5% default value. piping continues up to node 610. Select the 150 psi flanged gate valve (default) and click OK. The distance between the horizontal centerline (nodes 30 to 605) and the bottom of the valve is 9 in. weighing 225 pounds.45in.

CLOSE LOOP and CAESAR II will calculate this dimension and enter it into the appropriate DX. First create the spreadsheet and enter 25 for the To Node. Also a bend must be specified here since the next element will connect the current element to the intersection at node 25. In this case we can use the Close Loop command EDIT . and DZ fields. Then perform the Close Loop command.. But imagine for a moment that we did not have this information. so we input this distance as DY on the spreadsheet for 615 to 620. The Y-distance in this case between 615 and 25 is 15 in. .DISTANCE. DX will now have a value of 2 ft. This distance is easy to find by choosing the Distance command from the toolbar or from the menu with EDIT .Tutorial A 8-17 Resulting CAESAR II Element Definition for the 150# Flanged Gate Valve The element from 615 to 620 is the length required to bring the pipe up level with the intersection at node 25. The Y value of the distance between nodes 615 and 25 gives us the dimension for the element from 615 to 620. For the element running from 620 to 25 we know from the previous Distance command that it is 2 ft in the x-direction. DY.

While the input can be checked by paging through each input screen.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Close Loop on element 620 to 25 will fill in the distances for DX. The volume plot of the current piping system is shown. To display the node numbers press the letter N on the keyboard or click the model with the node numbers displayed. available toolbar buttons and menu commands can be used to perform various functions. button on the toolbar. By default a plot of the model is displayed to the right of the piping input spreadsheet. Input Review Two commands are available on any input screen to review the data – Plot and List. To piping input pane is closed. The use of these commands will be demonstrated in this section. DY. The following figure shows the tutor . To close the piping input click the display the Classic Piping Input spreadsheet and the model side by side click the Classic Piping Input tab that display in the upper left corner of the spreadsheet and then click the button twice. The plot area can be increased if the button in the upper right corner of the spreadsheet.8-18 Version 5. and DZ fields. these commands are useful in confirming and/or editing the entire model.

Users are encouraged to use these different items to become familiar with them. To print a copy of the display choose FILE-PRINT or click the Print button. To reset the plot to the default use the button or VIEW/RESET. .Tutorial A 8-19 A few notes about the commands may be useful here: Use the arrow keys to rotate the plot. Scrolling the mouse will zoom the model and pressing the center mouse button will pan the plot. There are toolbar buttons and menu items to alter the pan view and to display element and restraint information on the plot. The model will then follow the mouse cursor within the display. The plus sign (+) zooms in and the minus sign (-) zooms out. Clicking the right mouse button on the display and clicking OPERATORS-PAN from the pop-up menu provides an alternative method of panning the plot. Users may also use the arrow keys to pan the plot after it is selected from the Operators menu.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Node Numbers Displayed on the Plot in Tutor The V key toggles different views.8-20 Version 5. The Volume Plot shown below is especially useful for larger models as it uses less of the computer's resources . Volume Plot Showing Spring Hanger and Support Locations in Tutor .

Tutorial A 8-21 The illustration below shows a view down the Z axis with a zoom and pan to show the pipe valving. This volume plot shows the nodes and identifies the tees. Tees. . Volume Plot View Along Z-Axis Showing Nodes. The Element list displayed as default is shown in the following figure. and Displacements in Tutor The button or EDIT-LIST is used to quickly review and edit different categories of data in the job. Use the scroll bar along the bottom of the list to view more element data such as temperatures and pressures. Holding the Shift key down while clicking on a second row of data will highlight all rows in between these two. Different types of data sets are available by choosing the appropriate tab along the bottom of the spreadsheet. Clicking on the row number to the left of a line of data will highlight the entire row.

This hanger sizing algorithm requires two analyses before the standard three cases are analyzed. (All input files are composed of the jobname with the suffix “_a” added. If no fatal errors are found. With the scratch files created. The analysis may proceed with notes and warnings but fatal errors must be corrected before continuing. . To save the current input use the FILE-SAVE from any element input spreadsheet. and notes are presented to users in a grid format. For the job Tutor the hanger must be sized before the standard structural and stress analyses are performed. to enter the Load Case Editor.QUIT command. The input processor can be re-entered later to continue the model creation. CAESAR II will begin with a standard set of load cases based upon the piping code selected and the loads defined in input. From the menu that appears in the following figure select the option that recommends the load cases. This tutorial should generate 2 notes during the error checking. CAESAR II will build the intermediate (scratch) files for the static analysis. the input process is complete and control is returned to the CAESAR II Piping Input . warning. CAESAR II will interrupt the input session and prompt for this update 30 minutes after the last save. All the error. CAESAR II will first save binary data for this model After exiting and saving the input or running the Error Checker under the filename Tutor.) CAESAR II then checks the job for errors and lists a variety of notes and warnings. The five recommended load cases are shown below.8-22 Version 5. Both notices from the error check are notes to the user regarding the hanger in the model – the program must size one hanger and certain analyses are required to perform this hanger sizing. Input data can also be saved through the input exit processor. From the File menu highlight Batch Run or click . Performing the Static Analysis After error checking the model. review the load cases._a.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Element Data in the List Editor Ending the Input Session If the input session is interrupted before all the data is collected save the model input before exiting the input processor. which is accessed through the FILE.

In addition to these structural analyses. . Because of system non-linearity this change in position cannot be determined by analyzing thermal loads alone. certain stress conditions must be addressed. With these two numbers .CAESAR II will enter the Anvil catalog and select the appropriate spring. displacements. in most cases. FATigue stress cases are provided only when specifically required by the active piping code (TD/12. CAESAR II will include the pressure term in the installed case since pressure. Sustained stresses can be taken from the installed condition analysis if the pressure loads are included. For most systems. CAESAR II creates load sets to analyze the operating conditions of the piping system and the installed conditions of the piping system. its contents and insulation. Case #2 also calculates only one number – the vertical travel of the proposed spring. This case is not. the recommended load cases are exactly what the user wishes to analyze. By default CAESAR II will construct a third load case to calculate the expansion stress (range).Tutorial A 8-23 Load Case Editor with Two Hanger Design Cases and the Standard Three Load Cases for Tutor The standard three cases could use a little explanation here. Case #1 calculates the deadweight carried by the proposed spring at node 28. complete analysis of the system but instead a product of the operating and installed structural analyses already performed. the design temperature and pressure. and pressure set 1. Here. For the piping code used here. for example). The operating condition for this analysis consists of the deadweight of the pipe. the sustained and expansion stresses must be calculated. Sustained stresses include deadweight. With the installed case structural analysis also serving as the sustained case stress analysis. The installed condition includes the deadweight and hanger pre-load. and the pre-load on the justselected hanger at node 28. which compose the operating load case are used for this analysis . has no impact on the structural loads on the piping. The difference in system displacements between these two cases is the displacement stress range from which the expansion stresses are calculated. strictly speaking. All the load categories. thermal set 1. Likewise.deadweight. The third class of stress in piping – occasional stresses (as opposed to expansion and sustained) – is not included in the recommended analyses and must be specified by the user. Expansion stresses reflect the change in system position from its installed position to its operating position. This spring and its proper pre-load are installed in the model for the remaining analyses.the load carried by the hanger and the amount of travel it must accommodate . a third. pre-loads and pressure. no additional load case must be added to calculate the sustained stresses.

The program continues with the data processing by building. the analysis is of the cold system. By eliminating the (assumed) thermal effects (D1+T1). This new displacement set is similarly used to calculate forces. Case #5 (L3-L4) is an algebraic combination of two basic load cases. By including pressure (P1)._P file. This process may be terminated at any time by clicking Cancel. operating. all the results are loaded into the binary data file Tutor._p and the CAESAR II output processor window is displayed so that output for this job may be reviewed.3 stress analysis case. The analysis need not be rerun to review these results at a later time. The difference between these two sets of displacements is used to establish the displacement range of the piping system as defined in load case #5. The refining piping code does not recognize pipe stress in the operating condition as a test for system failure and does not establish a limit for this state of stress._p” file can only be examined through the output processor. This analysis will produce the operating forces and moments on the supports and the deflections of all points in the system.8-24 Version 5. sorting. moments. The displacements of case #4 are subtracted from the displacements of case #3 to produce these results. Once this is done the CAESAR II Solution Module is entered briefly. With the selection of the recommended load cases CAESAR II will proceed with the static analysis.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Case #3 is the operating Hanger Load case. moments. instead. At this point the solution screen is replaced with messages concerning the post processing of this data. and stresses throughout the system. the option OUTPUT-STATICS from the Main Menu may be used to bring up the output from the TUTOR. Case #4 is both a structural and stress case. This case develops the displacement range of the system in its growth from the installed position to the operating position. At the completion of this step. this case also has the necessary components to be used to report the system’s sustained stresses. and stresses. CAESAR II will analyze the four basic loads (hanger design. and storing the equation (matrix) data for the system and the basic load cases. This displacement range is used for the calculation of the system’s expansion stresses. The “. The displacement results of cases 3 and 4 are used with the element stiffness matrices to calculate the forces. . and installed) before leaving this screen. Case #3 is a structural analysis case and not a B31. It is identical to case #2 but has the sized hanger pre-load included in the category (H).

If there are unusual results. Be sure to select a load case (not a hanger case) prior to issuing the command. Checking deflections and restraint loads in the operating and installed cases should quickly uncover any major problems with the system layout or input. support and equipment loads.Tutorial A 8-25 Reviewing the Static Results Whether entering the output processor directly from the static analysis or through the Main Menu. This information is useful in documenting a good piping design or troubleshooting an inadequate one. . the results can be used to collect pipe stresses. and any other useful data found in the output. the Output Window will appear. The image shown in the following figure will appear on the screen. Static Output Processor Usually the first look at output is to verify that the piping model is responding as expected. If the output verifies the model. A good view of the operating displacements of this piping system is available through Display Graphical Results button or through OPTIONS-GRAPHICAL OUTPUT. the input should be re-examined for correctness.

.8-26 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Tutor Output Plot As in other CAESAR II windows both the toolbar buttons and menu items may be used to select display options. The plot will show the centerline plot along with a normalized deflected shape of the system in the operating condition. This screen is shown in the next figure. From the menu select SHOW-DISPLACEMENT-DEFLECTED SHAPE.

Tutorial A 8-27 Displaced Shape Plot When finished viewing the plotted output for the operating case. use the Enter key to list the stresses one at a time starting with the highest. Now select SHOW-STRESS-MAXIMUM to list the stress values on the plot. This information displays in the next figure. The node number is shown in parenthesis following the stress value placed on the screen and the element containing this node is highlighted. Here. For a quick review of the stresses as well as the displacements and restraint loads the Element Viewer can be enabled by clicking button on the toolbar. Select SHOW-STRESS-OVERSTRESS and note that there is no over-stressed points exist in the system. change the case to Sustained in the drop list on the left of the second toolbar. . Return to the output processor menu by the clicking Exit or FILE-EXIT. The stress symbols will appear on the screen and locate the highest stress points in the system. Reset the plot and select SHOW-STRESS-SYMBOL-CODE to display the code defined stresses throughout the system. the highest (first) sustained stress listed is at node 40 (nozzle to vessel connection) with a value of 160859 psi.

and 0. Return to the Output Menu and now select the installed case (turn off 3 and turn on 4) to examine the installed condition of the piping system. the stresses will be for each node in the system.8-28 Version 5. Before creating the report. In the table that follows the summary. This selection is based on the values found in the first two analyses (both. Enter the following two lines for the report header: CAESAR II TUTORIAL BOTTOMS PUMP TO STEAM STRIPPER .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Output Plot with Maximum Stress Point Revealed For a quick look at the selected hanger data select Hanger Table with Text from the General Computed Results Column in the main Output Processor.) Now highlight the sustained and expansion cases (4 and 5) and Stresses. of which. The restraint loads at nodes 5 and 60 will be compared to the pump and vessel load limits. Note the last column lists the ratio of actual stress to allowable stress in terms of percentage. provide no load case reports in the output processor) – the expected hot load for the proposed support at node 28 and the thermal growth of node 28 (1220 lb. (Both the operating and installed cases could be reviewed together by having both 3 and 4 highlighted at the same time. These results can be dumped to the printer or to a file rather than sent to the screen. Return to the Output Menu and select only the operating load case and Displacements and Restraint Summary.750 in. These nodes will be listed in pairs with their associated element. Each stress report will begin with a summary stating that the code stresses are below their allowable stress. respectively). The program reports the Anvil Fig. B-268 Size 10 spring selected at node 28. a title line for the hardcopy may be generated through OPTIONS-TITLE LINES on the Output Menu..

For the next selection turn off the hanger request (click on it while holding the control key down) and select the operating and sustained load cases and Displacements and Restraint Summary reports. Use the above instructions substituting the Save button for the Print button or use the appropriate output choice on the wizard screen. then click [Add] again. Finally add the sustained and expansion stress reports by having only load cases 4.out. and then click [Finish]. select FILE-PRINT or click Print. It is recommended to use the output wizard to create a book of reports in specific order and then send them to an output device. To archive the static analysis electronically. may be copied with the CAESAR II input and output files (Tutor. The resulting data file.cfg and the Time Sequencing File (Tutor. These files along with the configuration file Caesar. Static Analysis Output Listing The following is a CAESAR II tutorial output report: Hanger Report . the report may be sent to a data file rather than to the printer.Tutorial A 8-29 To send the output to the printer. and Stresses highlighted. Segments of the output reports are included at the end of this section. click Generate TOC if desired. The first time you click Save it will prompt you for a filename. Note that an input echo is available through the output processor. Tutor. 5.otl) present a complete record of the analysis and should be stored with the drawing and any listings. select the output device. This completes a typical output report after reviewing the reports order._p) to a floppy diskette. again clicking [Add] to service this request. A complete input listing can start the printed report or output file created by this processor. Start the report with the hanger table by selecting it and clicking [Add]. Click the [ More>>] button in the lower right corner of the Static Output processor to access the wizard._a and Tutor.

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- The output listed in the example includes significant output only. - Notes, which discuss the results are included with each report. - The reports included in this output are Complete Hanger Report, Operating Case Displacement Report, Installed (Sustained) Case Displacement Report, Operating & Installed Restraint Summary, Sustained Stress Summary and Stress Report, and the Expansion Stress Summary and Stress Report. (Stresses in the operating condition are not used in B31.3 analyses) The hot load of 1222 lbf. was calculated in the initial weight run (load case #1) with a rigid Y restraint installed at node 28. The load on the restraint was 1222 lbf. A 1222 lbf. +Y load replaced the rigid Y restraint at 28 and then an operating case was analyzed (load case #2). Node 28 moved 0.750 in. in the +Y direction in this analysis. CAESAR II entered the Anvil hanger table with these two values and selected an appropriate mid-range spring. The size 10 spring has the hot load of 1222 lbf. in its working range. This mid-range spring (short range springs were excluded) has a spring rate of 260 lbf./in. Assuming that node 28 moves 0.750 in. between the cold to hot position this increases the spring load by (.750)(260) or 195 lbf. The cold load on the size 10 spring is 1222+195 or 1417 lbf. This cold load is also within the working range of the size 10 spring so CAESAR II selects it.

Note

Operating Case Displacement Report

Tutorial A

8-31

Note:

The deflections of nodes 5 and 40 - these were entered as input.

Note: Node 28 again moves up 0.750 in. in the Y direction with the spring installed.

Sustained Displacements

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Note: The zero position of nodes 5 and 40. When the imposed displacements are not included in the analysis, the node is fixed with zero movement in each of the defined directions.

Restraint Summary for the Operating and Sustained Cases

This restraint report lists the piping forces and moments on the restraint; not the restraint loads on the piping. The loads at node 5 are the nozzle loads and can be used without sign change to check the API 610 allowable loads. Loads for node 40 may be used to check the vessel stresses due to the nozzle loads. The loads at 28 shows the operating load and the actual installation load (with contents) for the selected spring. Note how the spring carries the designed load of 1222 pounds in the operation condition. The +Y restraint at node 35 shows its nonlinear nature. In the cold condition, the restraint is active. As the piping moves to the hot position it disengages from the support. Refer back to the displacement reports to confirm that the Y displacement is 0.0 in the installed (sustained) condition and +Y in the operating condition.

Tutorial A

8-33

Sustained Case Stress Report - Summary Information

The summary shows that the sustained stresses throughout the system are below their allowable values. The sustained stress closest to its allowable limit is at the vessel node, 40.

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Tutorial A

8-35

For the stress detail report previous: Note the application of the tee and bend stress intensification factors. The tee at 25 has SIFs other than 1.00 for all three listings: 25 to 28, 20 to 25, and 25 to 620. Bend SIFs are applied only on the bend side of the node - compare node 28 on 25-28 and 28-29. No stresses are listed for rigid elements as no valid moment of inertia is provided for these elements.

Expansion Case Stress Summary

The summary shows that the expansion stresses throughout the system are below their allowable values. The expansion stress closest to its allowable limit occurs along the header at the node 10 tee.

8-36 Version 5.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .

Also note the changing allowable stress. the SIF doubles the calculated stress.Tutorial A 8-37 For the stress detail report previous: Compare the bend side of 30 with the straight side of 30. which takes credit for “unused” stress in the sustained case. . This is the result of applying an allowable stress.

The pump loads at node 5 may be compared to the API (American Petroleum Institute) Standard 610 (Seventh Edition. The nozzle loads. . The nozzle loads can be translated into local stresses using Welding Research Council Bulletins 107 or 297 . These verifications will be done in the following chapter. the piping system cannot be properly approved until these load limit are also verified. too. can be compared to allowed maximum limits. A quick review of the system displacements does not reveal any interference problems from pipe expansion. Since the loads on these boundary conditions are related to the piping system layout.8-38 Version 5.Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service.Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings on Nozzles (WRC 107) or its Supplement (WRC 297).Mandatory Design Based on Stress Analysis. Equipment loads must still be checked to ensure a safe and effective design. February 1989) .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Conclusions The review of piping stresses show that the piping has adequate wall thickness and support to keep within the sustained allowable stress and also enough flexibility to remain below the expansion allowable stress limit. These local stresses can then be compared to allowable stress values established in ASME Section VIII Division 2 Appendix 4 .

..............................CH AP TER 9 Chapter 9 Tutorial B This chapter continues the tutorial by guiding users through equipment checks and a system redesign that was analyzed previously........................................................................................................................................... 9-20 System Redesign. 9-34 9-15 .......... 9-11 WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking Checking Nozzle Loads .... 9-24 Conclusion ............................................................................. 9-2 Creating Accurate Models ... In This Chapter Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads..........................................................

Both nozzles are dimensioned back to the base point—the intersection of the shaft axis and the support line for the pump. . Examination of the restraint summary for the operating and sustained (installed) cases reveals the operating loads as the controlling case. Since the discharge nozzle served as a boundary condition for this analysis. The terminal output showing these numbers is found in the following figure. These forces and moments on the restraint at node 5 are the piping loads acting on the discharge nozzle. all loads on the pump are resolved about a base point and also compared to their allowable values. The processor provides the load limits. the nozzle loads are conveniently listed in the restraint reports. The dimensioned isometric shown in the next figure defines the orientation of this pump with its end suction nozzle and top discharge nozzle. therefore.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads Collecting pump and load information is the first step in reviewing the pump loads. Y.9-2 Version 5. The operating loads and installation loads must both fall below the defined limits. API 610 (8th Edition) examines pump loads at two levels—first the individual nozzle loads and then combined nozzle loads on the pump housing. Additionally. position. The discharge nozzle loads are found in the static analysis output that has just been run. the entire description of the pump will be collected for the API 610 processor in CAESAR II. both the individual X. and Z components and the resultant forces and moments are checked. to assure maintenance of proper pump / motor alignment. The suction and discharge nozzles have a set of allowable load limits based on nozzle orientation and nozzle size. only the discharge nozzle will be checked and neither the suction limits nor the resolution to the base point will be evaluated. and orientation and the loads on these nozzles. No sign change is required. For this evaluation only the discharge nozzle loads have been calculated. This pump’s drive shaft is along the X-axis. The operating case loads will be used for the discharge nozzle analysis. Even though all the loads are not known. The CAESAR II API 610 processor requires the suction and discharge size.

. The API 610 window displays as shown in the next figure. After clicking Open you will be prompted: "The file specified does not exist.Tutorial B 9-3 The API 610 processor is entered through the CAESAR II Main Menu selection Analysis-API 610. Enter the comments and notes related to the analysis here. do you want to create one?" Click Yes and the new file named Tutopump will be created.

The factors for the Table 2 load multipliers are left blank. Use the data shown in the figure below to enter the remaining data. CAESAR II will use the default values established in API 610. . enter the modified limit here (This value must be between 1. recollection of data will be minimal. If the pump manufacturer defines pump load limits that are different from those defined in API 650.0 and 2.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Select the Input Data tab and enter the information as described below. It is best to enter as much data as is currently available so that when the remaining (suction) data is determined.9-4 Version 5.0). Arbitrary node numbers are assigned for the pump base point and for the pump suction nozzle (1 & 105 respectively).

Since the nozzle loads are unknown at this time. The distance for the base point to the suction nozzle (not from the nozzle to the base point) and the nozzle loads. node numbers. and nominal diameters under the Input Data tab.Tutorial B 9-5 Define the pump shaft centerline direction. . the nozzle types. no forces and moments are entered. Next select the Suction Nozzle tab and enter the known data.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Discharge nozzle data is next.9-6 Version 5. .

The nozzle orientation is taken from the piping isometric. click Get Loads From Output File.Tutorial B 9-7 The next figure shows the Discharge Nozzle tab with the Nozzle orientation. . From the pop up dialog navigate to and choose the name of the output file that contains the restraint loads for this pump (in this case we select Tutor. Next._P from the list).

Now the loads from the restraint report at node 5 are read in automatically.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The next dialog allows you to choose the appropriate load case for inclusion in the API-610 analysis. This is the end of the input for the API Standard 610 pump load evaluation. For this tutorial we will select the operating case and click OK. .9-8 Version 5.

But this report has some value in that the individual load component limits for the suction nozzle are listed. If the nozzle load components are greater than the Table 2 values but less than two times the Table 2 values.Tutorial B 9-9 Select the Analyze menu item or the EQP toolbar to perform the API-610 equipment check. the suction nozzle cannot be evaluated. The CAESAR II report first compares these loads to the Table 2 limits. With no suction nozzle data entered. If the ratios in the report (see the following figure) are all less than 1. the pump must pass additional checks. The discharge nozzle loads must be reduced. the pump may still pass if other checks are within their allowable values. The moments about the X and Z-axes are greater than two times the API 610 standards therefore additional checks are not valid. The moment about the Z-axis is 5866 ft-lbf and the limit is 2600 ftlbf.0 the pump is Ok.175 ft-lbf and the (conditional) limit is 5200 ft-lbf. If the nozzle load components are less than the Table 2 limits. The results will become available under the Equipment Report tab. no additional checks must be made. The discharge nozzle report is complete in its comparison of the operating loads on the nozzle and the defined limits.0. . if all the ratios are less that 2. The moment about the X-axis is 10.

Once this piping system is redesigned so that the discharge nozzle is not overloaded.2. Here.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide If the discharge nozzle loads were less than two times the Table 2 values. re-design analysis. Both the suction and discharge loads are also resolved to the pump base point and again compared to a Table 2 limit (Condition F. . the existing data in the equipment file TUTOR can be updated for the final pump verification report. Once the output has been reviewed.2. This ends the rotating equipment tutorial. the user may review the reports again or send the report to a file or to the system printer (FILE-PRINT). For this analysis.3).2). the resultant of the applied nozzle forces and moments on each nozzle are compared to their related Table 2 limits (Condition F. these data have no significance as the components of the discharge loads are greater than two times the Table 2 values.1.1. the limits on the discharge nozzle will be noted for quick checks on future. For this tutorial. checks shown in the next part of the report would be used to qualify the pump loads.9-10 Version 5.

Returning to the static output for the operating load case.” The large moment about the X-axis is due to the thermal growth of “A” working against the stiffness of legs “B” and “C. Go back to the displaced shapes plot of the operating load case to examine the source of the high moments.” (The thermal growth of the vessel connection also may contribute to these high loads. the system pressure or deadweight is causing the problem. Systems with pressure problems usually include untied expansion joints.thermal growth between the end points . deadweight problems can be traced back to improper system support — either spring pre-loads or support locations. there are two major clues as to the cause of these excessive loads: 1 Compare the operating loads on the pump to the installed loads on the pump — if they are vastly different. for a given X . To make the most effective change to the system. The displacement plot is useful in identifying which runs of pipe are generating the thermal strain and which runs of pipe are turning that thermal strain into the large forces and/or moments on the pump. Most engineers / analysts find it easier to understand system response to loads in terms of system displacements rather than internal forces and moments. If the system would be overloading the pump due to sustained effects. For a given amount of thermal growth. therefore this system has a thermal expansion problem.Tutorial B 9-11 Creating Accurate Models The operating moments (X and Z) on the pump nozzle are too large. 2 The next figure makes it clear that the large moment about the Z-axis at the pump is caused by the thermal growth of “B” working against the stiffness of legs “A” and “C. the sustained effects cause the high loads. thermal forces and moments will be reduced by adding flexibility to the system (F = KX. if they are similar.F or M can be reduced by reducing K). the thermal effects are the cause of the overload. In this case. the cause(s) of these large loads must first be determined. The system appears to be modeled correctly so it must be modified to reduce these loads.) . only the operating loads are high.

322 in.Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings on Nozzles—A Supplement to WRC Bulletin No. Before either of these choices is made a much simpler and cheaper solution will be examined—improving the model to incorporate the inherent flexibilities found in the vessel/nozzle intersection. Certainly the pump loads due to expansion would drop if the thermal growth of the three legs A. 107. B & C could deflect the vessel nozzle.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide How can these excessive loads be reduced? Or. pad reinforcing the connection.) T = vessel thickness (= 7/16 in.) D = vessel OD (= 60 in. flexibilities are defined at node 40 for translation in the Z direction and rotation about the X and Y-axis. Note that the vessel wall thickness is 3/16 in.) In this system where the vessel is vertical and the nozzle is in the Z direction. The other three degrees of freedom (the three local shear terms) remain rigid as in the original model where this nozzle was modeled as a rigid connection with its thermal deflections. . such as the following: d/D < 0. how can additional flexibility be added to the system so that these loads drop? Two possible solutions are the addition of an expansion loop to the piping and the installation of an expansion joint.5 d/t > 20 20 < D/T > 2500 d/T > 5 Where: d = nozzle OD (= 8. WRC 297 supplies curves by which the OD’s and thicknesses of the vessel and nozzle are used to define local nozzle flexibilities. Such nozzle flexibilities are defined in Welding Research Council (WRC) Bulletin 297 .) t = nozzle thickness (= 0. more to the point.625 in. but the nozzle has a 1/4 in. These curves are limited to certain ratios of nozzle and vessel terms. this produces an effective vessel wall of 7/16 in.9-12 Version 5.

. Since this vessel has thermal growth. The calculated nozzle flexibilities will be applied between nodes 40 and 6000. wall thickness. and reinforcing pad thickness. Here. which will calculate and insert these flexibilities into the system. If this nozzle connection had no associated thermal growth. This completes the definition of the nozzle. CAESAR II provides a processor.Tutorial B 9-13 So before any costly system modification is made. the vessel node number need not be entered. Simply click on displacements and change node 40 to 6000. Go to the spreadsheet that contains the nozzle node (40) and double click the Nozzle check box. The vessel dimensions are entered here in terms of OD. Now the displacements provided at node 40 must be moved to node 6000. The vessel orientation. This Z nozzle and Y vessel will define the orientation of the local stiffnesses assigned through WRC 297. On the other side of the nozzle. a tray in the vessel is closest to the nozzle and is 4 ft above the nozzle. the bottom head tangent and skirt connection is 6 ft below. The nozzle pipe size is imported from the spreadsheet. is entered next. This change will constitute the second analysis of this layout. Return to the input processor for the job Tutor. the vessel node number must be identified and the thermal displacements previously assigned to node 40 must be re-assigned to this new node number. There will be no piping element defined between nodes 40 and 6000. It is possible that a more thorough and accurate model of the system will show that re-design is not needed. Enter 1 in the Y direction to indicate a vertical vessel. Enter the correct data in the Auxiliary Data Area as illustrated in the figures on the next page. WRC 297 flexibilities are also sensitive to the proximity of stiffeners to the nozzle. based on a direction vector. the model will be refined to incorporate these WRC 297 nozzle flexibilities. To assist in this model update. Enter the vessel node number as node 6000.

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Displacement on Vessel Node WRC 297 Input .9-14 Version 5.

lb./deg.498 in. and circumferential bending is about the global Y axis (about the vessel centerline). The local coordinate system is defined by the nozzle/vessel orientation.lb. which is 10E12. There is no trouble with this job since the displacements of the vessel node (node 6000) are defined. This warning message (75) is shown in the following figure. The previous report lists the flexibilities extracted from WRC 297 — an axial stiffness of 318. With the nozzle in the Z direction and the vessel in the Y direction. These three numbers are certainly much less than the magnitude of the default rigid stiffness. and a circumferential bending stiffness of 58.640 lb. ./deg.Tutorial B 9-15 WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking With the nozzle specification and the node number change for the vessel deflections. Click start run to launch the error checker. The error checker again produces the two notes regarding the hanger sizing. longitudinal bending is about the global X axis (bending into the vessel centerline or long axis). the job is ready for analysis. The following report reviews the nozzle flexibility calculations performed by the CAESAR II error processor. this new axial stiffness is in the global Z direction (the nozzle centerline). Additionally there is a warning generated regarding the specification of a vessel node number in the WRC 297 input when this node number is not included on any piping element.366 in. a longitudinal bending stiffness of 290./ in..

the installed or sustained case. click OK to build the new set of execution files and return to the program’s Main Menu. check the sustained and expansion stresses to confirm they are still below their allowable limits. check the hanger selection. There will again be five analyses . error-checking review of the results should not be necessary. select ANALYSIS-STATICS to proceed.9-16 Version 5. With no fatal errors encountered.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide After the display of the WRC 297 calculations CAESAR II shows the error processor is completed by summarizing the type and number of messages. and then the operating and sustained (installed) restraint summary will be displayed to check the loads on the pump nozzle node 5. the Output Processor is presented for output review. . and the expansion case. Once the analyses are completed.two for the hanger sizing followed by the operating case. The model is now ready for a second static analysis. a rigorous. With only a minor change to the input. Instead.

well below the allowable limits. show the displaced position of the piping system in its operating condition. The system should still weigh the same so why is the spring load smaller? The reduced longitudinal bending stiffness at the nozzle may explain this change.096 psi. to further investigate the effect of the nozzle flexibilities. .Tutorial B 9-17 The highest sustained and expansion stresses are 986 psi and 14. now it carries only 914 lb. Finally. respectively. now a size 9 is recommended. The program selected a lighter spring for installation at node 28. Previously a size 10 spring was selected. in the hot position. In the first analysis the spring carried 1222 lb.

. RX.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Something can be said about each of these restraints. therefore the hanger at 28 does not carry any additional load from 35. from 5866 ft. the pipe rested on the support in its installed position but lifted off the support as it went into operation.lb. If another analysis is required. reduction in the spring load returns as an additional 300 lb.9-18 Version 5. which was also affected by the WRC 297 nozzle flexibilities. This higher pump load is tied directly to the hanger selection. and RY) while the shear terms remain rigid (X. The operating moment about the Z-axis shows the greatest change dropping to 748 ft. The hanger sizing algorithm readjusted the spring load so that it would carry its portion of the system no longer resting at 35. simply increasing the load carried by the spring will reduce the load on the nozzle. The shear force in the X direction has also been reduced by 50%. Flexibilities are added in the axial and bending directions (Z. to 1815 lb. in the operating position. the support at node 35 was not active in the operating case. however. the restraint at 35 remains active in the operating position. The axial force in the Y direction. In this second analysis. Looking at the +Y support at node 35 reveals why the hanger load has changed so much. there is much to gain in nozzle flexibility. The support definition at node 40 shows the changes inherent in the WRC 297 nozzle flexibility calculations. load on the pump nozzle. With the spring installed directly above the pump nozzle. the hanger sizing procedure will be adjusted so that the hanger carries more load so that the pump load drops. Y and RZ). The pump discharge nozzle loads at node 5 reveal the impact of the change in flexibility at node 40. This 300 lb. In the first analysis. now it carries only 914 lb. has risen from 1562 lb. While the previous analysis had the spring carrying 1222 lb. these reduced loads are not a result of design modifications but modeling refinements. The spring support at node 28 is shown next.lb. If the vessel nozzle connection meets the requirements of Welding Research Council Bulletin 297. This added flexibility greatly reduces the bending moments about the X and Y-axes at node 40. Again. The added longitudinal bending flexibility at node 40 is what allows the pipe to rest at node 35.

RX. RY. Comparing these numbers with node 40 above. RZ)]. one can again see the impact of the nozzle flexibilities. Y. This output would show the operating position of node 6000 as (0. Do the new pump loads meet the allowable limits defined in API 610? . 0.10. The biggest difference is due to the circumferential bending flexibility (RY) but the longitudinal bending flexibility (RX) plays a large role in the weight distribution of the system.28. -0.Tutorial B 9-19 The final report from this analysis shows the displacements of node 40. The imposed thermal growth of the nozzle were removed from node 40 and redefined at node 6000. 0. 0) [defined as (X. Z. 0.

Now in the TUTOR input only the discharge loads need be changed so click on the Discharge Nozzle tab and then click Get Loads From Output File as before to obtain the new loads.9-20 Version 5. A quick run through the API 610 processor will quickly evaluate the refined model. API 610 Discharge Nozzle Input .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Checking Nozzle Loads The operating moments (X and Z) on the pump nozzle were too large in the initial model.

The API 610 report follows. .Tutorial B 9-21 Accept the processor’s warnings and continue with the analysis.

9-22 Version 5..00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Continued. ..

Exceeding twice the allowable load would be fine if Condition F. Condition F.2 is satisfied but it is not.1. There is a quick “what if” check that may prove the pump loads may be brought within their allowable values. which still remains above the limit.Tutorial B 9-23 The situation is better but not good enough. Spring load adjustment is useful but system redesign is indicated. At this point the hanger carries 914 lb. The Z moment on the discharge nozzle is well below the limit. The sum of the ratios for the discharge nozzle is 2.1. there is no pump load in the Y direction.2? Rerunning the API 610 processor with the Y load set to zero will show the Condition F. in the operating position while the pump carries 1815 lb.2.2 states that even though the individual load components may be more than twice their individual limit.2 reduced to 2. remains more than twice the allowable load.1. it stands to reason that the load on the pump would be zero in Y. however.313.822 so the pump loads are still too high. .1.2.2. the loads are satisfactory if the resolved forces divided by their resolved limits plus the resolved moments divided by their resolved limits is less than 2. Would that satisfy Condition F. If the spring load carried 2729 lb. The X moment.2. The discussion of the restraint loads mentioned that the set load directly controls the vertical load on the discharge nozzle on the spring at node 28. This spring pre-load could be ideally set so that when the pump is in operation.

This excessive load is caused by the thermal expansion of the leg from node 35 to 40 (the “A” leg) working against the stiffness of the remainder of the system (legs “B” and “C”). which would set the loop size: available support location. therefore.1 121. and space available to name a few.40) by adding pipe in the X direction. For systems that are not analyzed. This means that for this system pipe may be added in either the X or Y direction.35 pipe from 12-ft to 20-ft. cost of pipe. For this system an eight-foot by 8-ft loop will be used. The 8-ft loop run will lengthen the 30 . It will be sensible. stiffness is reduced and load(s) will drop. waterfilled pipe is 19-ft (see ASME B31. The added piping to generate the expansion loop will lie perpendicular to leg “A” that runs in the Z direction. Assuming the thermal strain of leg “A” is fixed. Where should the expansion loop be added? As a rule of thumb.9-24 Version 5. which produces the thermal strain causing the problem. the recommended maximum spacing between supports for 8-in.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide System Redesign The probable causes of the large X moment at node 5 were developed earlier. Here leg “A” sets the orientation of the loop. This reduced stiffness may be realized by the addition of an expansion loop or the addition of an expansion joint. This added pipe effectively increases the cantilever length. which is close to this recommended spacing. maximum distance between supports. . the best location for an expansion loop is determined by the orientation of the leg. By increasing cantilever length. which is displaced by leg “A”. For this system an expansion loop is chosen. only the system stiffness may be changed to reduce the operating load at 5. to add a loop on the “A” run of pipe (35 .5 or MSS SP-69). How long should the loop legs be? There are several conditions.

Move the cursor over the 35 and enter 33. Answer the questions so that node 32 is added to this line 10 ft from node 30 with no restraints at node 32.35 by adding 32 at the midpoint Node 32 is added as an output point to check mid-span sag. Leaving the support at 35 would place the support 21-feet from the hanger at 28 so the support is moved closer . “Break” 30 . The current model will now be the new one. When testing layout modifications. For this tutorial try following these steps: Change the length of 30 .to node 33. Let's call this new model Tutor2. Changes can be made to this new model and the original is intact with the original name.35 from 12 ft to 20 ft [PgDn] through the element input screens to display the element From 30 To 35. If the proposed changes do not produce the desired results. the proposed changes need not be de-constructed from the model. Still on element 30 35 select MODEL-BREAK to call up the Break command. it is wise to create a new input set with the proposed changes and leave the original model intact. . Once the cursor is in the restraints field the Auxiliary Data Area will display the current +Y restraint at node 35. There are several ways to add the loop to Tutor2. The easiest way to do this is to choose FILE-SAVE AS from the menu and give the model a new name. The dialog box for this line break is shown in the next figure. which may not prove successful. Move the cursor to the Restraints field.Tutorial B 9-25 Return now to the CAESAR II Main Menu and re-enter the input processor with TUTOR as the current jobname. the original model is still available for the next attempt. Move the cursor over the DX field and respecify the twenty-foot length by highlighting the current value and then entering -20Move the +Y support from 35 to 33 The recommended maximum spacing between supports for this size pipe is 19 ft *.

8 ft (8-) from node 35.1 inch.135. While still on the (new) element 35 . .40) and change the From Node (135) to the new node 235.the specification of the bend at node 135. [PgDn] to the element 35 . Break this element and add the new node 135. The recommended spacing also limits the pipe sag between supports to 0. Break 35 . [PgUp] two elements to display element 35 .1 and MSS SP-69 ensures a very low sustained stress in the line. CAESAR II then displays a new input screen for the new element.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The maximum distance between supports as specified in ASME B31. This change will “button up” the system to finish the entry of the new element.9-26 Version 5. Double-click the Bend check box to add the bend specification at node 135. Since CAESAR II calculates these sustained stresses. [PgDn] to the next element (135 .135 press I to invoke the Insert command. The recommended spacing is conservative but it serves as a useful guideline here.135. Select the After button to place this new element after the element 35 . Insert an 8-ft element after 35 . Enter the To Node as 235.40 8 ft down the line by adding 135. specify the length in the DX field as 8 ft (8-) and double click the Bend check box to add the bend at node 235. One final step is required for this element . the output would confirm that much greater distances between supports are safe.135 and double click the Bend check box.40.

The sizing algorithm may be adjusted so that the pump nozzle carries no load when the program calculates the load to be carried by the spring. These guidelines also state that the maximum run of pipe where bends are included is 3/4 of the straight run limit. CAESAR II will disconnect the Y restraint at node 5 while it calculates the deadweight load carried by the proposed spring at 28. Enter 33 in the Get support condition from? field. 5 ft (5-) from node 135. These guidelines were used to set the size of this expansion loop (maximum support spacing for 8-in.235. The support will be added about halfway between 35 and 40 .235 and issue the Break command. One final modification is suggested for this analysis. enter the Hanger Input auxiliary data area. This will cause CAESAR II to duplicate the +Y support entered at node 33 at this new node 140. This change will greatly reduce the final nozzle load by sizing a larger spring at 28. [PgDn] to the element 135 . The spring selected from the Anvil Hanger Table should carry more of the deadweight of the pipe and valving. that limit is about 15 ft. There are over 26 ft of pipe between 35 and 40 so a new support should be added. With this change. . Here.13 ft from the nozzle at 40 or 3 ft back from 235.Tutorial B Add a support to the new run 135 . To make this change. 9-27 As mentioned earlier both ASME B31. Then move down to Free Code field and select Y from the drop list. Define a single node 140. A large vertical load remained on the pump nozzle after the hanger at node 28 was sized and installed by CAESAR II.1 and MSS SP-69 provide limits to spacing between supports. carbon steel water line is 19 ft). Type in a 5 in the Free Anchor at Node field.

the added loadcarrying capability of the spring will reduce the vertical load on the pump nozzle. Select Operating and Sustained load cases and Restraint Summary to display the restraint summary report. The job is again ready for static analysis. This greater load is the result of the modification to the spring hanger selection criteria where the pump is “disconnected” when the spring’s hot load is calculated. As previously recommended. The Output Processor will be presented once the analysis is complete. the sustained and expansion stresses are first checked to confirm that they remain below their allowable limits. in its hot position. The sustained stresses increased a small amount due to the longer spans between supports while the expansion stresses show a significant reduction. Enter ANALYSIS-STATICS from the Main Menu and run Tutor2 with the same load cases that where created for Tutor. Now select the Hanger Table with Text from under the General Computed Results column. a good indication that the nozzle loads has dropped as well. The following figures show the various reports referred to above. show the displaced shape of the piping system in its operating condition.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide To launch the error checker select either FILE-START RUN or select the Start Run toolbar. If any errors do occur. carefully read the error messages and return to the input processor to correct them. now a size 12 is recommended. The spring now carries 2221 lb. Finally. well below the allowable limits. If everything looks correct. The highest sustained and expansion stresses are 1708 psi and 5415 psi. The added system flexibility caused this reduction in expansion stress. Hopefully. . The program selected a heavier spring for installation at node 28. allow CAESAR II to create the execution files and return to the Main Menu. to quickly check the effect of the loop on the overall displacement. Do this by accepting the default setting on the Load Case Editor. Be aware that the spring loads can be further manipulated if the nozzle load needs additional adjustment. The hanger selection and the operating and sustained (installed) restraint summary will be displayed to examine the impact of this model modification on the pump nozzle loads at node 5. This data should now process without error. respectively. In the last analysis a size 9 spring was selected.9-28 Version 5.

Tutorial B 9-29 .

00 CAESAR II Applications Guide .9-30 Version 5.

Tutorial B 9-31 .

000 lb. in the previous analysis. Refer back to either of the previous analyses to quickly locate the individual limits and compare them to the new operating loads on node 5: .lb. The large operating moment about the X-axis and the target of this re-design dropped from almost 10. The extra flexibility has also changed the support load at node 33. and 2558 lb. The hot load on the pump is -204 lb.lb. The spring support at node 28 now shows a hot and cold load of 2221 lb. now the load increases as the pipe heats up. to 2753 lb. Most loads drop but there is one moment (here it’s X) that increases. By releasing the anchor in the initial weight analysis the spring carries the riser load. Previously the support load dropped as the pipe became hot. Another interesting effect of this added flexibility is the increase in the Z moment from -300 ft. The vessel nozzle loads at node 40 shows a similar pattern of change as the pump nozzle. to 235 lb. respectively. The absolute magnitude of the pump load could not be much smaller. This load was only 913 lb.9-32 Version 5. The pump load in the Y direction exhibits the adjustment to the hanger selection. the hanger load could be adjusted to bring the pump installation load to zero or the pump operating load to zero. The loop adds flexibility in the Z direction. and the cold load on the pump is +332 lb..00 CAESAR II Applications Guide The pump discharge nozzle loads at node 5 look much better. The Z force on the pump fell from 750 lb. Are the nozzle loads OK? The API 610 processor need not be used to confirm that the discharge nozzle loads are below their maximum allowed values. to +1541 ft. If necessary. revealing the impact of the change in flexibility at node 40.

no additional checks (conditions F.lb.Tutorial B 9-33 Direction X (lb. -204.2.) RZ (ft. Since all six components of the discharge nozzle loads are below their limits. 1543. The discharge nozzle is no longer overloaded.lb. .1. The final pump evaluation cannot be made until the suction nozzle loads are compared with their API 610 limits.) API Limit 1700 2200 1400 5200 3800 2600 Model Results 136.) RY (ft.lb.) need be made. -236.3.2.2.) Y (lb.1. -2709.) RX (ft.) Z (lb. -1547. & F.

These loads cannot be compared to a fixed load limit as with the pump. Texas at (281)890-4566._n.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Conclusion The pump discharge loads are now within their allowable limits. primary membrane plus primary bending stress intensity. and expansion stresses at node 40. Instead. Note that often upon release of a new version of CAESAR II that archived files will have to be converted to the new version and subsequently re-analyzed. It would be wise to include the current status of the program’s default settings in this input echo. Final reports should now be made to document this design change. the Welding Research Council Bulletin 107 (WRC 107) can be used to convert the applied forces and moments to the appropriate local stresses. The code-defined pipe stresses are generated for the sustained and expansion cases. We may be reached in Houston._P and Caesar. CAESAR II provides a processor to convert these loads into WRC 107 stresses and a second processor to combine the different stress categories (general or local primary membrane stress intensity. These “scratch files” are produced by the input processor for use in the analysis and can always be regenerated. CAESAR II output. Tutor. Copy the files Tutor2. The vessel loads from the nozzle at node 40 should also be checked to ensure they are not too high. these loads must be converted to local stresses on the vessel and these stresses compared to their limits as defined by ASME Section VIII. and Tutor. and program default settings. the maximum stress is less than 2500 psi. Looking at the operating. one can check the code defined stress on the pipe connected to the vessel. Structural output includes the system displacements and restraint loads for both the operating and installed cases._J. etc. If the stresses are to be checked. To avoid this. As a very rough guide for evaluating local vessel stresses. the vessel stresses should be ok. The vessel loads seem fine. .9-34 Version 5. Division 2. Structural and stress results from the Output Processor will substantiate the current design. and primary plus secondary stress intensity) for comparison with their design limits. The hanger report should also be generated from the Output Menu.com. The other files generated for this analysis (Tutor.cfg to a CD to archive a copy of the CAESAR II input. A hard copy of a few input plots would also help in defining this model and analysis. sustained.) can be deleted from the hard disk without losing any information. Our fax number is (281)890-3301. load case definition. Also save the Tutor2. limited-run users are encouraged to keep the old version of the software available to them and use newest version for new jobs. the input listing could be generated from the Input Processor or from the Output Processor._a. The CAESAR II Main Menu selection FILE-CLEANUP/DELETE FILES can be used to copy and delete the files generated by CAESAR II. As shown earlier in this tutorial.otl file to enable full access to these CAESAR II files without the need to re-run the analysis._b. We can also be reached via E-mail at techsupport@coade. Tutor2. The data files for and from this analysis may also be archived with the hard copy reports. This is primarily due to frequent format changes within CAESAR II as new features are added. If those stresses are below about 6000 psi. Any questions or comments about this tutorial may be directed to the COADE support staff.

2-13.Index 1 180 degree return (fitting-to-fitting 90 deg. 7-72 Core piping. 7-30 Stress range • 8-22 Vector • 3-3 Displacement Report • 7-30 Displacements. Lateral • 5-15 Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107 Local Axes • 7-81 Core piping • 6-5. single-flanged • 2-4 Bends.Rotational • 3-13 C CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations • 7-9 . 2-9. 2-15 Angle • 2-2 Auxiliary input • 2-4 Definition • 2-2 Radius • 2-2 Bend Definition • 2-2 Bend Flexibility Factor • 2-15 Bends • 2-1 Bends. 9-24 Analyzing Water Hammer Loads • 7-27 Anchors • 3-2 Anchors with displacements • 3-3 Anchors with Displacements • 3-3 Anchors. 7-73 Constant effort support design • 4-5 Constant Effort Support Design • 4-5 Constant effort supports • 4-6 Constant Effort Supports . 2-7. 9-20 Discontiguous systems • 7-73 Discussion of Results • 7-45 Displacement Report • 7-14.No Design • 4-6 Control stops. Tied • 5-4. 3-28 COADE Technical Support • 1-4 Cold spring • 6-7 Cold Spring • 6-7 Combination cases • 7-31 Combination Cases • 7-31 Computation Control tab • 4-2 Conclusion • 9-34 Conclusions • 8-38 Configuration/setup • 7-64 Configure-setup-geometry • 2-2 Connect geometry through CNodes • 4-12 Connecting Equipment • 6-8 Connecting node displacements • 4-10 Connecting nodes • 4-10. Simple • 5-2 Bellows. Input • 7-72 Creating Accurate Models • 9-11 Cryogenic piping dynamics example • 7-32 Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example • 7-32 D Deformation • 6-5 Discharge nozzle • 9-2. Non-zero • 3-3 DLF spectrum • 7-10 DLF spectrum files • 7-19 Double-acting restraint (rotational) • 3-13 Double-acting restraints • 3-13 Double-Acting Restraints • 3-13 Double-Acting Restraints . Single • 4-4 Checking Nozzle Loads • 9-20 Closely spaced mitered bend • 2-7 Closely Spaced Mitered Bend • 2-7 CNodes • 3-5. Multiple • 4-8 Can design. flexible • 3-4 Angle field • 2-2 Angle to adjacent bend • 2-2 Angular gimbal • 5-23 Archive • 8-25 Axial deflection • 5-4 B Ball joints • 6-4 Ball Joints • 6-4 Bellows angular stiffness • 5-9 Bellows ID • 5-2 Bellows. stiffened • 2-4 Bi-Linear Restraints • 3-41 Bottom Out Spring Can Capability • 4-18 Bottom-out • 4-18 Bottom-out spring • 4-16 Break command • 9-24 Button Get loads from output file • 7-81 Can design • 4-8 Can design. 5-7 Bend • 2-2. double • 2-4 Bends. bends) • 2-5 180 Degree Return Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Degree Bends • 2-5 A Acoustic waves • 7-27 Analysis-statics • 7-47.

Dynamic Analysis . Horizontal • 3-36 Dummy leg.RELIEF • 7-7 Example 3 . pressure-balanced • 5-27 Ending the Input Session • 8-22 EQP toolbar • 9-2 Equipment report • 9-2 Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads • 9-2 Example Dynamic analysis • 7-57 Dynamic analysis (nureg9) • 7-57 Dynamic analysis of independent support earthquake exc • 7-32 Dynamic analysis of water hammer loads • 719 Dynamic analysis of water hammer loads (hammer) • 7-19 Harmonic analysis • 7-2 Harmonic analysis (table) • 7-2 Jacketed piping • 7-69 Jacketed piping (jacket) • 7-69 Natural frequency analysis • 7-2 NEMA SM23 • 7-91 Omega loop modeling • 7-64 Omega loop modeling (omega) • 7-64 Relief valve loads • 7-7 Relief valve loads (relief) • 7-7 Structural analysis • 7-47 Structural analysis (frame) • 7-47 WRC 107 • 7-79 Example 1 .Omega Loop Modeling .WRC Bulletin 297 • 3-6 Flexible nozzle (WRC bulletin 297) • 3-6 Flexible nozzle w/ complete vessel model • 3-8 Flexible nozzle w/ predefined displacements • 3-7 Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model • 38 Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements • 3-7 Force sets • 7-10 Forces/moments.OMEGA • 7-64 Example 8 .WRC 107 • 7-79 Examples • 7-1 Existing Springs . 9-20 Gimbal joint • 5-21 Gimbal Joints • 5-23 Guides • 3-16 H Hanger .TABLE • 7-2 Example 10 . 5-5.JACKET • 7-69 Example 9 .Relief Valve Loads . 5-7. Conversion to WRC 107 local axes • 7-81 Free code option • 4-13 Frequency cutoff • 7-2 G Gas thrust load calculations • 7-9 General Information • 4-2 Generating CAESAR II Input • 8-5 Generating input. Tutorial • 8-5 Get loads from output Button • 9-2.NUREG9 • 7-57 Example 7 .Structural Analysis .Translational • 3-13 Double-acting restraints (translational) • 3-13 Dual gimbal • 5-25 Dual Gimbal • 5-25 Dummy leg on bends.Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER) • 7-19 Example 4 .No Design • 4-7 Expansion joint rating • 5-4.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Double-Acting Restraints .FRAME • 7-47 Example 6 . Vertical • 3-32 Dynamic analysis • 7-57 Dynamic analysis of independent support earthquake excitation • 7-32 Dynamic analysis of water hammer loads • 7-19 E Earthquake excitation. 5-9 Expansion Joints • 5-1 Expansion load case • 7-81 Expansion stresses • 8-22 External software lock • 8-5 F File-Cleanup/Delete Files • 9-34 Flexible anchors • 3-4 Flexible Anchors • 3-4 Flexible anchors with predefined displacements • 3-5 Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements • 3-5 Flexible Nozzle .different wall thickness • 2-13 Elbows .Harmonic Analysis .2 Version 5. Independent support • 7-32 Eigensolution • 7-2 Elbows . 5-9 Expansion joints • 5-2.Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) • 732 Example 5 .Different Wall Thickness • 2-13 Elbows.Jacketed Piping .NEMA SM23 • 7-91 Example 2 .

5-20 Hinged joint • 5-16 Hinged Joint • 5-16 Hinges. evenly spaced • 2-6 Mitered bend.Chain Supports • 3-40 Lateral deflection • 5-4 Lift Off Spring Can • 4-17 Lift-off • 4-18 Limit Stops • 3-18 Loads. 7-77 Jacketed pipe • 6-5 Jacketed Pipe • 6-5 Jacketed piping • 7-69 Jacketed piping systems • 7-69 . Simple • 5-4 Multiple Can Design • 4-8 I Input Constant effort supports • 4-6 Data • 9-2 Review • 8-18 Session • 8-22 Structural steel • 7-47 Input Review • 8-18 Introduction • 1-1 N NATURAL FREQUENCY REPORT (Hz) • 7-58 Near/Far Point Method • 3-32 NEMA • 7-91 NEMA Example PT69M • 7-91 Nodal degree of freedom • 3-3 Node fields • 2-2 Non-zero displacements • 3-3 Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads • 7-27 Nozzle load summation report • 7-95 Nozzle Load Summation Report • 7-95 Nozzle loads • 9-20 Nozzle results for pt69m • 7-93 Nozzle Results for PT69M • 7-93 Nozzle spreadsheet • 3-8 NRC J Jacket. Guidelines • 9-11 Models. 4-11 Design with anchors • 4-13 Design with anchors in the vicinity • 4-13 Design with support thermal movement • 4-11 Design with user-specified operating load • 415 Sizing algorithm • 8-22 Supported from vessel • 4-10 Hanger Between Two Pipes • 4-12 Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity • 413 Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement • 4-11 Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load • 4-15 Hanger design. Simple • 4-3 Hanger table with text • 9-24 Hangers • 4-1 Harmonic Analysis • 7-2.Index 3 Between two pipes • 4-12 Data • 4-3 Design • 4-2. Input • 7-73. Complex • 5-4 Models. widely spaced • 2-9 Mitered bends • 2-6 Mitered Bends • 2-6 Miters.Basic Model • 3-38 Large Rotation Rods . Large • 7-69 M Mass participation report • 7-14. closely spaced • 2-6 Model-break • 9-24 Modeling dummy legs on bends • 3-32 Modeling Spring Cans with Friction • 4-19 Modeling. 7-29 Mass Participation Report • 7-29 Methods for modeling dummy legs on bends • 332 Miscellaneous Models • 6-1 Missing mass correction • 7-27 Mitered bend. plastic • 3-44 Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends • 3-36 Horizontal Vessels • 6-11 K K-factor • 2-15 L Large Rotation Rods . Slotted • 5-18. 7-4 Force data • 7-4 Loads • 7-2 Harmonic Analysis of This System • 7-4 Hinge joint.

Skewed single-directional • 3-27 Restraint/force/stress reports • 7-31 Restraint/Force/Stress Reports • 7-31 Restraints • 3-1 Restraints on a bend at 30 and 60 degrees • 3-31 Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees • 3-31 Restraints on a bend at 45 degrees • 3-30 Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees • 3-30 Restraints. 7-62 S Shock spectra • 7-57 Simple • 4-16 Simple bellows • 5-2 Simple bellows with pressure thrust • 5-2 Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust • 5-2 Simple Bottomed Out Spring • 4-16 Simple hanger design • 4-3 . 7-30 Equipment • 9-2 Force • 7-31 Mass Participation • 7-14. 7-61. 7-29 Restraint • 7-31 Stress • 7-31 Restrained weight run • 4-13 Restraint Report • 7-14.output discussion • 7-14 Relief Valve Loading . Large • 3-38 Rotation rods. Single-directional • 3-15 Restraint.4 Version 5. Single-dimensional • 3-22 Restraint.00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Benchmark problems • 7-57 Spectrum example • 7-57 NRC Example NUREG 9 • 7-57 NRC Example Problem 2A • 7-58 NRC Example Problem 2B • 7-60 NRC Example Problem 2C • 7-62 O Occasional load case • 7-81 Offset element method • 3-32 Offset gimbal • 5-23 Old spring • 4-9 Old spring redesign • 4-9 Old Spring Redesign • 4-9 Omega loop • 7-64 Omega loop modeling • 7-64 On Curvature Method • 3-32 Operating load. large • 3-38 Rotational directional restraints with gaps • 3-21 Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps • 3-21 ROTATIONS (deg) • 7-59. 8-29 Settlement • 3-24 Restraint and guide. Rotational directional • 3-21 Results • 7-45 Reviewing the Static Results • 8-25 Rigid Body motion • 7-73 Rotation rods (basic model). User-specified • 4-15 Output-view animation • 7-2 Overview • 1-2 P Performing the Static Analysis • 8-22 Pipe and hanger support • 4-10 Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel • 4-10 Pipe nominal diameter • 2-2 Pipe supported from vessel • 4-10 Plastic hinges • 3-44 Plastic Hinges • 3-44 Predefined displacements • 3-5 Preparing the drawing • 8-3 Preparing the Drawing • 8-3 Pressure Pulses • 7-19 Thrust • 5-2 Wave • 7-27 Pressure-balanced tees and elbows • 5-27 Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows • 5-27 Problem Solution • 7-31 Program Support / User Assistance • 1-3 Pump discharge loads • 9-2 R Reducers • 6-2 Relief Valve loads • 7-7 Valves • 7-10 Relief valve example problem setup • 7-10 Relief Valve Example Problem Setup • 7-10 Relief valve loading .Output Discussion • 7-14 Report Displacement • 7-14. Skewed double-acting • 3-25 Restraint. Single-directional • 3-23 Restraint between two pipes • 3-28 Restraint between two pipes (use of CNodes) • 328 Restraint Between Two Pipes Using CNodes • 328 Restraint between vessel and pipe models • 3-29 Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models • 3-29 Restraint Settlement • 3-24 Restraint.

7-63 Sustained load case • 7-81 Sustained stresses • 8-22 Sway Brace Assemblies • 3-45 System overview • 8-2 System Overview • 8-2 System redesign • 9-24 System Redesign • 9-24 T Tangent intersection point • 7-64 Tees. 7-61. Existing (no design) • 4-7 Spring Rate field • 4-9 Spring. pressure-balanced • 5-27 Thermal support movement • 4-11 Tie bar • 5-4 Tie rod model.Core Piping Input • 7-72 Step 4 .Simple Models • 5-9 Universal expansion joints (simple models) • 5-9 Universal Joint . complex model) • 5-4 Tied bellows expansion joint • 5-5.2nd Half • 7-77 Stiffness characteristics • 4-18 Stress report • 7-14 Structural analysis • 7-47 Structural input files • 7-32 Structural preprocessor • 7-47 Structural steel • 7-32 Suction nozzle • 9-2 SUPPORT FORCES (lb) • 7-60. static • 3-43 Speed of sound • 7-19 Spring can models • 4-18 Spring can models with • 4-18 Spring cans w/ friction.Simple Model • 5-18 Slotted hinge joint (comprehensive) • 5-20 Slotted hinge joint (simple) • 5-18 Snubbers. Existing • 4-7 Spring hangers.Create Modeling Plan • 7-70 Step 2 . 5-7 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint . Bottomed-out • 4-16 Static analysis • 8-22 Static analysis output listing • 8-29 Static Analysis Output Listing • 8-29 Static results • 8-25 Static snubbers • 3-43 Static Snubbers • 3-43 Step 1 . Generating input • 8-5 U Universal expansion joints • 5-9 Universal Expansion Joints . 3-24 Single-directional restraints • 3-15 Single-Directional Restraints • 3-15 Singular stiffness matrix • 7-73 Skewed double-acting restraint • 3-25 Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap • 3-25 Skewed single-directional restraint • 3-27 Skewed Single-Directional Restraint • 3-27 Slip joint • 5-21. 7-60. Modeling • 4-19 Spring cans with friction • 4-19 Spring hangers.Jacket Input .Simple Model • 55 Tied bellows expansion joint (complex model) • 57 Tied bellows expansion joint (simple model) • 5-5 TRANSLATIONS (in) • 7-59. Complex Model • 5-4 Tied bellows (simple vs. Comprehensive • 5-15 Tied Bellows .Simple vs.Node Layout • 7-70 Step 3 .Comprehensive Model • 5-20 Slotted Hinge Joint .Jacket Input .Index 5 Simple Hanger Design • 4-3 Single and double flanged bends • 2-4 Single and double flanged bends or stiffened bends • 2-4 Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends • 2-4 Single Can Design • 4-4 Single-Directional Restraint and Guide with Gap and Predefined Displacement • 3-23 Single-directional restraint with predefined displacement • 3-22 Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement • 3-22. 5-27 Slip Joint • 5-21 Slotted hinge joint • 5-18. 7-62 Turbine trip • 7-19 Tutorial A • 8-1 Tutorial B • 9-1 Tutorial. 5-20 Slotted Hinge Joint .1st Half • 7-73 Step 5 .Comprehensive Tie Rod • 5-14 Universal joint (comprehensive tie rod model) • 514 Universal joint with lateral control stops • 5-15 Universal Joint With Lateral Control Stops Comprehensive Tie Rod Model • 5-15 Universal joint with lateral control stops (comprehensive tie r • 5-15 V Vertical dummy leg on bends • 3-32 .Complex Model • 5-7 Tied Bellows Expansion Joint .

Pipe and hanger supported from • 4-10 W Water hammer • 7-19 Water hammer loading .00 CAESAR II Applications Guide Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends • 3-32 Vertical leg attachment angle • 3-35 Vertical Leg Attachment Angle • 3-35 Vertical Vessels • 6-8 Vessel.Output Discussion • 729 Water hammer loads • 7-27 Widely spaced mitered bend • 2-9 Widely Spaced Mitered Bend • 2-9 Windows • 3-20 WRC 107 • 7-79 WRC 297 • 3-6 WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking • 9-15 Y Yield force • 3-44 Z Zero length expansion joint • 5-16.6 Version 5. 5-23 Zero weight • 5-18 . 5-18.output discussion • 7-29 Water Hammer Loading .

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