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1. Theme: Belief Systems
Christianity: • Christianity is monotheistic and teaches the belief in one God. • They believe that Jesus Christ was the son of God and that he is the Messiah • They believe that anyone who believes and follows Jesus will have salvation and eternal life. • Christians believe that God gave the Ten Commandments through Moses. • A practice of Christianity is baptism and it is a ritual that is performed by a member of the clergy in a church. Baptism is the way that a person becomes a member of the church. • Another practice of Christianity is the Eucharist, and it is meant to give thanks. This is the replication of the Last Supper, is the final meal that Jesus Christ ate with his disciples before his crucifixion. • An influence that Christianity gives to its followers is that it gives them comfort. Poor, suffering, and oppressed people found much comfort in Jesus’s message of peace and love. • Another influence is that there has been many fights over different interpretations of the Bible. One dispute is the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses, which were arguments against indulgences. During the Protestant Reformation, Europe broke away from the Catholic Church and formed new Christian churches. Islam: • Islam is monotheistic and believe in Allah. • The founder of this religion is the prophet Muhammad, who spread the message of Islam. • The sacred scriptures of Islam are in the Koran. • Muslims believe that during the end of the world, every human will be resurrected from the grave. This day is known as the Day of Judgment. Good souls will go to Heaven and bad souls will go to hell. • Muslims follow the Five Pillars. • One belief from the Five Pillars is that they are to believe Muhammad is the most important prophet. • They are also suppose to pray five times a day. • They are to give money to the poor • Another belief they have is they are supposed to fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan • The last of the Five Pillars is to visit Mecca at least once. • An influence that it Islam has had is that since trade was seem to be a good job for Muslims, Muslims built large trading empires and made trading networks with Africa, China, and India.
Muslim laws. • In 1990. • It was an important for transportation and irrigation of crops. • Middle Eastern countries have went to war and fought over control of oil-rich lands. civilization flourished. • Oil is the most important energy resource and is an important part of the global economy. This shows us how important the oil from the Middle East is. It brings unity because the Koran is said to that it is best to read it in one language. • The Nile River was very important in that it served as a highway for travel. Arab countries put an embargo against the U.• Another influence is that Islam brings comfort and unity to its people. which Arabic. the Sharia has united Muslims of different backgrounds. Theme: Human and Physical Geography (Geographic Impact on Societies) Nile River in Egypt: • Since much of Egypt is a desert. 3.S. • Since the Nile River was so important it was well respected and led to polytheistic beliefs • The Nile River led to civilization and technology. such as the pyramids. . • Oil has increased the standards of living and benefited many parts of the Middle East. people lived along the Nile River. Their goal is to control the oil undustry by setting production levels and prices. in which the means of production of goods shifted from hand tools to complex machines and from human and animal power to steam power. • This was a period that became around 1750. • The Nile River provides water for drinking and food. • The Nile River allowed for a source of trade and allowed them to connect with others cultures. • In 1973. Iraq invaded Kuwait because of oil which resulted in the Persian Gulf War. Because of the Nile River. Since Egypt and Israel were at war. • Technology developed rapidly and production increased. the OPEC stopped exporting oil to certain countries. and any other country that supported Israel. such as fish. Oil in the Middle East: • The discovery of oil brought power to Middle Eastern nations. • We see global economic interdependence from the problems that have developed over oil. • Floods from the Nile River left the land with rich deposits of silt that kept the area fertile for farming. 2. • Some Middle Eastern countries are members of the OPEC. Theme: Non-Political Revolutions Industrial Revolution: • The Industrial Revolution changed the way people lived because cities became modernized. which stands for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
4. Theme: Turning Points Neolithic Revolution: • This Revolution changed the way of previous lifestyles. the American Revolution. • Believed that logical thought can lead to truth is called rationalism. The upper class was made up of very wealthy industrial and business families. • The ideas made by Enlightenment thinkers had a great impact all over Europe. He said that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others. He proposed that a government should be formed to protect people’s natural rights and that if a government does not protect these natural rights that it should be overthrown. which would help protect the people's liberty and prevent any branch from becoming too powerful. the French Revolution and the Latin American Revolutions. there was an upper growing middle class. They established permanent settlements. His ideas are seen in the government of the United States. many countries were controlled by Europe to provide raw materials and new markets for industrialized goods. people were nomadic hunters and did not settle down. • Another Enlightenment French thinker called Voltaire believed in freedom of speech. conditions were very poor. People moved to towns and cities to be closer to factories.• The Industrial Revolution led to a new class structure. An increasing number of people began to question traditional beliefs and customs. This affected leaders and the development of nations. and in the bottom of the class structure were factory workers and peasants. which are the rights to life. • Transporation was improved. creating different branches. . a belief in personal freedom. Imperialism had a negative effect on most of these countries and only benefited Europe. and property. because people settled down and stayed in one place. Before 10. Enlightenment: • The Enlightenment was a period in the 1700s in which people rejected traditional ideas and supported a belief in human reason. with no sewage services. • Another Enlightenment thinker. • An Enlightenment French thinker called Baron de Montesquieu says that government should divide itself according to its powers.C. and a sense of the basic equality of human beings. and new inventions were built. liberty. Revolutions such as the Glorious Revolution.000 B. John Locke believed that all people have natural rights. • Because of Enlightenment ideas of individualism and belief in equal rights many revolutions occurred. During the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. He criticize the Catholic Church and the French government because they did not permit tolerance or intellectual freedom. • The standard of living was increased. Roads and were built. railroads grew. • Inspired a sense of individualism. which resulted in widespread disease • The Industrial Revolution led to imperialism. • The Industrial Revolution led to urbanization. Factory workers lived in over crowded buildings.
sculptures. literacy increased. was the way to win rights. Because of these factors.• Instead of hunting and moving from on place to another. • This was a golden age in the arts. Since people had time to do other things and didn’t need to worry about finding their next meal. which were some of the greatest in the world. farming techniques made it possible to feed people throughout the whole year. • Led to the establishment of social distinctions since people began to have different jobs and roles in their society. He supported equal rights for everyone and rejected the caste system. Renaissance: • The Renaissance was period from the 1300s to the 1500s that happened in Europe. Theme: Change Mohandas Gandhi: • Gandhi led the Indian nationalist movement. It was a period of creativity and change. • A new way of thinking was developed called humanism. etc… • Since people established permanent settlements. ance sciences. the human population greatly increase and villages. towns. • Towns and villages were developed since they no longer needed to travel to place to place for survival. 5. . • Humanism ideas was written about in the literature of the Renaissance. more books became available. They examined many topics that the Greeks and Romans had studied. • He believed in western ideas of democracy and nationalism. women now were able to have more children. during this Revolution farming techniques emerged and crops were harvested. Scientists used the Scientific Method. • Animal became domesticated for to help with farming and for food. He wanted the British to stop controlling them and wanted to be self-governed. such as the writings of William Shakespeare. Now. • People had to learn many different skills other than finding and collecting food. and architecture were made. • During the Renaissance. tool-making. The Scientific Method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on how things work. • With the development of farming trade increased greatly. and ideas spread rapidly. Now societies had a greater capacity to produce important products to others. Renaissance humanists were interested with life in the present. and cities were eventually built. Much of the literature written in the Renaissance is still enjoyed today. • The Scientific Revolution develops as a result of the Renaissance. which is the refusal to obey unjust laws rather than use violence. • He believed in nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience. scientists question traditional beliefs that blindly believed. Also. • Humanism put an emphasis on the achievements of the individual. new skilled professions emerge such as pottery. carpentry. printing technology became available to Europe. • During the Renaissance beautiful paintings. literature. Now.
• John Locke proposed that governments gain their authority from their people. • He also believed that people should have equal rights regardless of sex. The book shows that throughout history there was always a struggle between people who were rich and had wealth and the people who did not. age.” Even though the quote changed slighty. a government should be limited and should not have absolute authority. Theme: Political Systems Communism in the USSR: • In 1848. and property. he still had a great influence on it. The Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 overthrew the government and became communist. The “Salt March” set off the wider Civil Disobedience Movement. • He believes that people form governments to protect their rights. These rights are the rights to life.” This was a campaign of nonviolent protest against the British salt tax in colonial India. He believed a government is not legitimate if the people do not give their consent. He greatly inspired Martin Luther King Junior. Many of Locke’s ideas are used in the American government. • According to John Locke. which was an important part of the Indian independence movement. race. • Communism believe in atheism and want to do away with religion. Lenin became the ruler and was successful in his plans. 6. • Gandhi has influenced many people with his tactics and beliefs. The British attacked the protestors and ended up looking like the bad guys. etc… Everyone should have the same rights. He died in 1924. They argued that that capitalism took advantage of the working class and should be abolished. • He believed that humans had unalienable rights like freedom of speech. • Gandhi went on a 21 day fast to protest against the war between the Muslims and the Hindus.• He tactics included boycotting British goods and having peaceful demonstrations • One peaceful demonstration was known as the “Salt March. democratic country. John Locke: • He was an English thinker who believed all people had natural rights. • Due to Gandhi. India became an independent. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto to explain and show their ideas. and the pursuit of happiness. If a government does not protect these natural rights. it should be overthrown. It successfully achieved its independence. Gandhi shows people that you can win something through peace and without bloodshed. . • Communism has had a huge effect on Russia. liberty. liberty. • John Locke’s ideas has had a great influence on many people and government. His ideas of natural rights can be seen today in the American Bill of Rights • John Locke’s idea of natural rights can be seen in the Declaration of Indepedence as “Life.
The government took the land of whoever resisted and sent them to prison labor camps where many died. which includes air. • Stalin wanted to industrialize the USSR and make it more modern. • It is extremely nationalistic and is also imperialistic. • Human wastes. Stalin became paranoid that other Communists were plotting against and launced the Great Purge in which thousands of people were executed. Soviet production in oil. These can cause respiratory disease. starvation resulted. This could lead to cancer and death. This was a totalitarian state. • Adolf Hitler rose into power in Germany.• A new Communist leader emerged. People found Hitler promising and thought he would be able to make Germany powerful again. and soil. • Air pollution is caused by the factories and automobiles releasing gases and soot into the air. Millions of people died in the Soviet Union because of that. • Hitler became a dictator and called Germany the Third Reich. businesses. The Weimar Republic was a weak government with many economic issues. He ended civil rights. and farms. • Stalin set up a totalitarian state in which both the public and private lives of people are controlled by the government. • Hitler used propaganda to push his policies. but still most Russians remained poor and lived a low standard of living. • Fascist governments use violence and terror to rule. • A fascist government censors and controls the news. His plan for the collectives was to grow grain for the workers in the cities and produce surplus grain to sell. • Pollution is harmful to living things and the environment. This plan failed because many peasants resised. He was Anti-Semitism and gave the Jews decreasing rights. Joseph Staln. • The state has control of the economy. and put businesses under government control. and toxic chemicals pollute the water. pesticides. coal. or sent to prison camps. 7. he said them to concentration camps and six million Jews ended up dying. Theme: Global Problems Environmental pollution: • Pollution is the contamination of the environment. • Since so many peasants resisted and didn’t grow enough grain. water. Fascism in Germany: • A fascist state puts emphasis on having a powerful military and is ruled by a single dictator. He ruled through fear and violence. Hitler said he was going to provide new jobs and that Germany was going to regain its pride. Eventually. fertilizers. steel. He launched the five-year plans to build industry and increase farm output. • Stalin forced peasants to live on collectives. used violent force and propaganda. . • Stalin established a command economy and the government controlled all factories. exiled. and other things was increased.
• The environment is negatively effected. • Another cause is cultural factors. Forests are being torn down as more wood and land is needed to support our increasing population of people. • Due to overpopulation and overcrowding. many people are not knowledgable of reproduction and birth control. This has harmful effects on our health and is causing global warming. there has been a strain on clean water. . some cultures believe that having a large family is necessary to carry on the family name and provide for their parents. Overpopulation: • One cause for overpopulation are religious beliefs. • Another effect is the standard of living is decreased. Jews were his main target. • Due to pollution and the burning of fossil fuels there is a rise in global temperature. • Another cause is economic factors. The cause for this is the greenhouse effect. but he also want to kill or enslave Slavs. • Hitler had a goal of creating “living space” for Germans. there is a depletion of natural resources. which tell you that it is necessary to bring children into the world. pollution. and the mentally or physically disabled. China made a law in which married couples could only have one child. many people believe that having many children is necessary to support the family econmically. • Overpopulation leads to pollution. lakes. which means that warm air becomes trapped in the lower atmosphere. He believed that German “Aryan” race were racially superior. 8. There is less valued place on a human life. Theme: Justice and Human Rights Jews in Nazi Germany: • “Human rights” can be defined as your life. • Because of factors such as population. Because of this. and property. Every human deserves to be treated right and with respect. and climate change. and land. the more factories and vehicles there will be. Gypsies. • Due to the use of CFCs and other polluntants. The more people there are. • To accomplish this he planned to kill all the people he found inferior. One billion people are not able to get and use clean water. • One last cause is lack of knowledge and ignorance. Depletion of the ozone layer could expose people to increase radiation and skin cancer. the depletion of the ozone layer is occurring. and there is hunger and malnutrition. Acid rain damages and harms forests. people could develop diseases. liberty. Factories and vehicles are releasing out toxic gases.• Acid rain is rain that falls through air that is polluted by the burning of fossil fuels.
More restrictive laws against Jews and Jewish businesses began. Jews suffered and their human rights were being violated. Families were destroyed. and property. Every human deserves to be treated right and with respect • Cambodia served as a supply route for the Vietcong and North Vietnamese forces during the Vietnam war.S. which is a separation of the races. liberty. West Germany has admitted that all the atrocities they committed were wrong. schools. • Pol Pot. shot. the leader of Khmer Rouge began a reign of terror to take away all western influence from Cambodia. businesses. over 6 million Jews had died in the Holocaust. • Eventually. He was to start from the beginning. Many Jews were starved. On 11/8/1938. Similar to the “brain drain” in the USSR. • Overall. His idea was that all culture and traditions from society must be destroyed and a new revolutionary culture must replace it. the U. violence against the Jews began called Kristallnacht. • After the Americans left. The Killing Fields of Cambodia: • “Human rights” can be defined as your life. Even though South Africa won its independence from the British in 1910. The next day 30. To destroy this route.” • The effect of the people of Cambodian is that 25% of the whole population were killed. 1953. • People were tortured and executed as if they had no value. They did this for they could have the ability to control the nation’s government and economy. Anyone intelligent or skilled was killed. the Khmer Rouge (Cambodian communist guerrillas) took control of the government. • Pol Pot had the idea of bringing everything back to Year Zero. Teachers and intellectuals were executed as part of Year Zero. • About one to two million Cambodians were killed in the “Killing Fields. the white citizens were the only ones able to get political power. Theme: Conflict Apartheid in South Africa: • Europeans ruled South Africa for nearly 350 years. • In March 27. or gassed to dead. Jews were forced to live in separate areas and then concentration camps were formed. and other buildings were destroyed and ruined. .• Hitler began limiting the rights and encouraged harm to the Jews. 9. • The Vietnamese invaded Cambodia and took over the country. • In 1948 whites made a system of apartheid. • In these concentration camps. bombed and invaded it. Thousands of Jewish synagogues. and to even out the Jewish property that was taken by the Nazis.000 Jews were arrested just for being Jewish. so that obviously had a negative effected on the country. The German government has made a system of reparations to pay Israel for the labor and persecution of Jews during the Holocaust.
The nobility were in the Second Estate. This period is known as the Great Fear.5% and owned 20% of the land. . and rural peasants. and political factors led to the French Revolution. The working-class people rioted and stormed a prison called the Bastille. This part used violence. they were 0. de Klerk became president of South Africa. so he legalized the ANC. boycotts. they disliked all the taxes they were getting and have few rights they had. It limited the power of the government and it set up a representative assembly. the ANC was outlawed. when peasants fought with nobles and destroyed their property. It stated that people have natural rights and the government should protect those rights. was sentenced to life in prison. • In 1964. F. and felt that it was not fair that the First and Second Estates had more rights. they used segregated public transportation. Social. city workers. • The National Assembly took away the special rights of the First and Second Estates and then adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. and civil disobedience to go against apartheid. People started to pursue liberty. • As conditions grew worse. Black Africans and nonwhites now had more rights and were treated more equally. Mandela was elected president. people began to have even stronger feelings for reforms. • A politcal party called the African National Congress (ANC) was made in South Africa. These two classes were very wealthy. Nelson Mandela. and release Mandela from jail. He knew reform was necessary.and working together for a common cause. anyone who is nonwhite were made to live in certain zones. and got special rights. did not pay taxes. took away the segregation laws. This brought tension. These were the workers. the National Assembly wrote a constitution. economic. an important ANC leader. Fighting broke out throughout France. The Third Estate is 98% of the population and owned 70% of the land. The Third Estate were unhappy with its situation. equality.5% of the population. • Other factor is social inequality. The clergy were in the First Estate.W. • During a demonstration in which many people were killed and wounded by police. • One of the factors was that France was an Absolute Monarchy in which they were denied of basic rights and had no say in government. but owned 10% of the land. they were 1. • In 1791. and you could not have interracial marriage. the bourgeoisie. • Another thing that led up to this is the Enlightenment. It contained many Enlightenment ideas. Many of the Enlightenment thinkers disagreed with France’s absolute monarchy and wanted democratic reforms. He was the symbol of the struggle for freedom. It also put the Church under state control to prevent it from getting too much power. • In 1989. • The French Revolution’s democratic ideals eventually spread throughout Europe through Napoleon Bonaparte. • South Africa held an election that all people could vote in 1994. The French Revolution: • There were many injustices that existed in France. The French began to question traditional ideas.• Under the system of apartheid.
People argue that the different. Power was limited and people had more of a say. there has been fewer tariffs in Europe. Oil became the most important energy resource after World War II. In 2008 the EU had 27 member states. • The euro. • In 1973. • OPEC’s goal is to control the industry by setting production levels and prices. • As a result of the French Revolution. • The French Revolution inspired Latin American Independence Movements. • Due to the European Union. This was meant to expand free trade by ending tariffs and allow labor to move across the borders. • Egypt and Israel were at war and Arab countries started an embargo against the United States and any country that supported Israel. Theme: Movement of People and Goods: Trade The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): • The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed in 1960 and currently has 12 members. was introduced in 1999. Iraq invaded Kuwait. • The embargo made prices greatly decrease and it slowed western economies. six European nations formed the European Community. • Due to oil. For example. People felt national pride and a sense of national identity. resulting in the Persian Gulf War. • The EU is suppose to unify Europe’s economy • The EU has made trade easier and more efficient in Europe by making it easier to travel through different countries due ti EU passports. • Although there are many positive aspects to the EU. • The EC was expanded and became the European Union. The OPEC’s decisions affect the rest of the world. people have achieved more rights and have made things more reasonable for everyone. . as well as its political and economic power in the world. there have been many conflicts and problems. unique cultures would vanish by turning into one European culture. 10. • There is a global economic interdependence. • The aim of the EU is increase Europe’s trade position. there is also some negative aspects.• The French Revolution gave its people nationalism. a new currency. European Union (EU): • In 1957. OPEC stop exporting oil to certain countries. • The distribution of the oil is that it provides people a necessity in their life and it also provides profit for those who control the oil.
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