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CONSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
Department of Architecture National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G)
Guided Submitted by: Ar. VANDANA DEEPAK BALWANI semester
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
B.A RCH N.I.T, Raipur.
I hereby declare that these Thesis Report Titled “Recreation Club; considering user movement ” submitted by me in partial fulfillment for the tenth semester of Bachelor of Architecture course of National Institute Of Technology, Raipur. India is a record of my own work. The matter embodied in this report has not been submitted for the award of any other degree or diploma.
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
(Name of the student) Deepak Balwani
This is to certify that Shri Deepak Balwani has been allotted the Thesis topic “Recreation Club; considering User movement” for his thesis project as partial fulfillment of tenth semester examination for Bachelor of Architecture course of National Institute Of Technology, Raipur. This is further certified that he has completed this project work in one semester under my guidance and supervision. Ar. Vandana Agrawal ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
directly or indirectly helped in this report. knowingly or unknowingly. Any academic assignment or venture cannot be accomplished without the able guidance of the teachers. Abir Bandyophadyay Head Department of Architecture ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Before I begin I would like to express my gratitude for all those who. without their physical or moral support this report would not have been a success story. I am grateful to my guide Ar. Vandana Agrawal for her help and precious advice from time to time. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . I want to thank my parents and family members who devoted so much of their time and energy to me.--------------------------This DOT report has been accepted External Examiner – 1 External Examiner – 2 --------------------------------- Dr. I would like to thank all friends. for the sprit and commitment with which they helped with me on this report RECREATION CLUB.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .‘Me’ Deepak Balwani DEDICATION This Thesis report is dedicated to my loving “FAMILY” RECREATION CLUB.
TABLE OF CONENTS CHAPTER PAGE NO 1. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .Whose blessing and prayers strengthen up. Preface 08 Introduction 2. to do my project successfully. 09 10 Aims & objectives Scope & limitations 10 Statement of problem 10 3. RECREATION CLUB.
4. Zoning Concept 27 10. Analysis of behavior 25 9. 13 Theme 17 Data collection 18 Pattern of movement Various aspects of movement study Advantages Space relationship Classification of activities Standard data 8. Planning concept 27 11. Data from literatureData from user’s survey6. Methodology 11 Data Presentation 12 5. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Case Studies RECREATION CLUB. 7.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .C. Pune 32 45 b) P. Pune 56 12 Analysis of case study 55 Merits Demerits Comparison between case studies 66 13 67 14 Site analysis Site Selection 69 Area chart 15 Theme 72 16 74 Recommendation 71 68 Inference RECREATION CLUB. Pune c) Wonder Funkey .a) Deccan Gymkhana Club.Y. Hindu gymkhana .
produced insomnia and nervousness . Yet relaxation as a regulated right of human labour in the Western world emerged only in the nineteenth century. complex economic and social trends have reversed the historical trend toward increased leisure time. Overwork reduced longevity. Since the 1970s. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Work scientists like Angelo Mosso believed that output could be optimized if exhaustion was avoided. Increased speed of communications and transport along with the rise of RECREATION CLUB. and ever since has been repeatedly checked by anxieties about mass leisure and by the dynamics of economic growth. Scientists began to understand the working body as a ‘motor’ with a measurable capacity for work and the need for regularly spaced rest. stunted the growth of youth.17 Advanced studies Landscape Interior design 18 Conclusion 19 References 82 79 81 PREFACE The release of the body from the tension and strain of work may be understood as a natural physical response to fatigue. and encouraged alcoholism and torpor. decreased fertility. Efficiency in the human motor required daily and weekly rest breaks and even regularly spaced rests within the workday.
with it. This has meant a saturation of free time with leisure goods and their maintenance. Most people enjoy socializing with friends for dinner or a drink after a hard day at work. having a regular night out a week is a normal part of their free time. A time in which individuals are not compelled to do anything. INTRODUCTION Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's body or mind. playing video games or dancing at a club. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .global competition has created the 24-hour economy and. whether it is joining friends for a drink in a pub. dining out in a restaurant. For many young people. including relief from the demands and restrictions of work. While leisure is more likely a form of entertainment or sleep. Economic maximizing and consumerism have induced workers not only to opt for overtime but to choose timesaving devices to aid in their leisure. Types of leisure RECREATION CLUB. and are free to choose to relax or to take part in a leisure activity. recreation is active for the participant but in a refreshing and diverting manner. Leisure has important social functions. work at all hours. watching a film.
Low-impact physical activities include walking and yoga. To identify the appropriate environment for individual activities. To chalk out requirements considering the behavioral aspects along with functional aspects. Some active leisure activities involve almost no physical activity. passive leisure activities are a good way of relaxing for many people. watching television. such as going to the cinema. SCOPE RECREATION CLUB. Some leisure experts discourage these types of leisure activity. AIMS & OBJECTIVES To understand the behavior pattern of users.• Active leisure activities involve the exertion of physical or mental energy. High-impact activities such as kickboxing and football consume much energy and are competitive. acting in a community drama (an active leisure activity) could build a person's skills or self-confidence. such as playing chess or painting a picture. or gambling on slot machines. To design a recreational club having all necessary requirements and to create an appropriate user movement. Nevertheless. Active leisure and recreation overlap significantly. which expend little energy and have little contact or competition. but do require a substantial mental effort. To find out the aspiration and desires of users. For example. on the grounds that they do not provide the benefits offered by active leisure activities. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • Passive leisure activities are those in which a person does not exert any significant physical or mental energy.
a neighborhood focus and urban excitement.chess gathering space. The catchment area of complex will include all coherence and harmony in overall development exists. meaningful spaces.tennis. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . developed with a commitment to fun and fitness for the entire family and offers an immense range of activities. Therefore there should be a provision of activities for all different age group people like swimming. Recreation club is a club.auditorium fpr all age group.more congested apartments. The art and craft emporium with exhibition and workshops will be the one of the major attractions of the club.to get rid off from tension there should be some provision of recreation where people of all the age groups come and enjoy the life in different ways and feel relaxed for sometime. RECREATION CLUB.aquarium. concentrates activities.The project is to be developed as a fun club comprising recreational along with the leisure facilities. for children. But we find that in bigger cities amenities are is inversely proportional to the true happiness of people.population.cards.noise etc.billiards. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Every city has the power to generate a surplus of amenities. Under these circumstances . LIMITATIONS Inferences are taken considering the behaviour pattern of the majority of people.see-saw etc. community need.sand mountain. It can also be further explained as: A centre as a social expression. The lifestyle is forcely surrounded by in the form of congested trafficway.gymnasium and sauna-bath for youngsters. Interior of only selected spaces will be dealt with.slipping slides.
Climatological data were gathered and analysed DATA PRESENTATION RECREATION CLUB. relaxation and amusement. METHODOLOGY 1. 3. Case studies were analysed in the light of behavioural ‘aspects’. It offers a junction for tourism. 2. Such inferences were used to chalk-out ‘requirements’ which incorporated behavioural aspects along with functional aspects. First – Data from literature regarding behavioural aspect of the buildings was collected. Vsrious techniques were explored from literature for producing the desired psychology effect in a space. The club provides a platform for interaction. by means of observation and users survey. Inferences were drawn from the case-studies about behavioural pattern of users and their expactations from the space were analysed. This data was synthesized to select the aspects which could govern inter-relationship of various activities in a club building. 4. 5. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . sports and cultural development.
TABLE TENNIS - Table tennis is 0. Ceiling height is 4.minimum unobstructed area on all sides.5sqm. • Size and dimension : Size of playing space 7.6m. DATA FROM LITERATURE 1. for storage. • Size and dimension : Singles court is 13. equally divided between right and left service courts. wide and preferably white or in color minimum distance between sides of parallel courts to be 1. • Orientation : Preferred orientation is for the long axis to be north-south 2.4 x 6. When in use each table requires individual lighting. Minimum to edge of pavement. All courts marking to be 40mm.1m.4 x 1.2m. BADMINTON COURT- All requirements for court marking are to the outside of lines except for those involving the centre service line which is .6 x 4.5m. With a 1. high and normally requires a space 1. minimum RECREATION CLUB.76m.5mm.5m. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • Recomended area : Ground space is 150.6*0.
The present table specified over the frame remain acceptable. LAWN TENNIS – • Recommended area : Ground space is 643 sqm (minimum) To edge of pavement. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • Size and dimension : Court size is 10. 4. standard table.8m.Clear height below light is 2. RECREATION CLUB. BILLIARDS – The billiards control council has introduced with world wise agreement. Clearance on shorter side to 3. Height of court for recreational purpose is 0. • Orientation : Preferred orientation is for long axis to be North-south. For singles table and for doubles .66m. 3. on longer side of court.7m. • Size and dimension : Size of playing space 5. which specify for the first time the actual playing area with in the cushion face.3*7.7m.5*8.50*1.table hall size is 7.77m with to 6.97*23.4m.75m.3.1m.
/person)In table service dinning room has been estimated as 20% of total capacity.Table service club restaurant (15 to 18 sq.General thumb rule for deciding the area of restaurant per seat in sq. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . RESTAURANT – Restaurant should be planned so that variety of seating arrangements can be achieved.Table size will influenced by patron comfort and efficient utilization of space. feet. 5. analysis of which is provided below- Preferences for games – RECREATION CLUB.The present standard height of table is mostly about 760mm with chair seat height of 455 to 460mm. 6. DATA FROM USER’S SURVEY Questionaries as shown in the appendices were circulated among clubmembers.when in use each table requires individual Lighting.ft.cafetarias from 12 to 18%.
Gymnasium(for men and women) Nature-care centre. Bowling. V. VI. IV. Table tennis. Billiards. IX. III.I. Going to the restaurant watching tv. RECREATION CLUB. beauty health clinic Aerobics and yoga-hall. Strolling in the garden. VIII. Badminton. Reading books and magazines. Preferences for recreational activities – I. Lawn tennis. Watching movies. II. Video game. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . III. X. II. Watching dance and music recital. Cards. VII. Disco theque. XI. V. VI. Chess. IV.
stream-bath I. Watching theatrical performances and listening music. Preferences in seating arrangement Semi covered space or besides the pool. II. Indoor. Preferences in seating arrangement while eating – I. Lawn. Swimming Jogging. III. Sauna-bath. RECREATION CLUB. Restaurant. II. III.VII. IV. Preferences for individual activities – I. Garden. Near the play area. Lounge. II. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . III.
to achieve minimum movement. THEMEUSER MOVEMENT Act or process of moving from one place to another It can be directional. irregular or multidirectional. RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . The various spaces interlinked within the building are approached through this movement Movement is related to energy. so to conserve energy there must be deliberate effort to arrange the various interlinking spaces. Need and availability at different levels is the main cause of movement.
Evaluation . This makes it critical that the participants in these methods accurately reflect the profile of your actual users. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . It does this by talking directly to the user at key points in the project to make sure the site will deliver upon their requirements. "The chief difference from other interface design philosophies is that user-centered design tries to structure a user interface around how people naturally work. The stages are carried out in an iterative fashion. The designing depends on behavior pattern.Producing designs and prototypes. DATA COLLECTION PATTERNS OF MOVEMENT Defined movement Random movement Mixed movement Stable movement RECREATION CLUB.Understanding and specifying the context of use.Specifying the user and organizational requirements." The designing of recreation club is not merely a combination of spaces on the basis of function. It is much more than that.Carrying out user-based assessment of the site. how they visualize things. psychological aspects as to how people move.The essential activities in a user-centered design project: • • • • Requirements gathering . Requirements specification . rather than requiring users to learn how the interface works. the degree of privacy they require and much more. with the cycle being repeated until the project's usability objectives have been attained.User-centered design is a project approach that puts the intended users of a site at the centre of its design and development. Design .
3. It may or may not have any purpose.Random movement This is the movement with no direction. but every approach is purposeful. b) Movement without a purpose: It is also known as leisure movement.1.activity movement : Movement has various directions. b) Mono. This is further divided into : a) Multi. RECREATION CLUB. movement is defined with a direction but after fulfilling its purpose. but still it has a well defined purpose. 2.Defined movement This is the movement with a direction and a defined purpose.activity movement : It restricts to only one activity and a particular direction. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . This is further divided into: a) Random followed by defined movement : At first. This is further divided into: a) Movement with a purpose : Movement has no fixed direction.Mixed movement This movement is the mixture of above two movements. it becomes random. It has no direction and no purpose.
2. the user requires. Landscape and landmarks in case of exterior and lights and textures in case of interior.b) Defined followed by random movement: At first.Pedestrian movement Outside the building . It plays its role both in interiors as well as exterior designing. RECREATION CLUB.Both Pedestrian and vehicular movement VARIOUS ASPECTS FOR MOVEMENT STUDY: 1. 3.Physical Aspects A designer controls the movement of the users.Visual Aspects Visibility is an important measure for a person while moving. 2. keeping in mind the physical aspects. 3. Psychological Aspects Visual Aspects Physical Aspects 1. Further categorization: a) b) Within the building . Also focuses on the degree of privacy.Stable movement The person remains stable with occasional movement to / from its destination. A designer controls the movement of a person in a building by effectively studying the psychology of human being. it becomes defined.Psychological Aspects Psychology of human being affects the movement. 4. the movement is random and without direction but after finding it’s destination. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
4. 2. lawn. gardens. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Functional Space – Activity and administrative areas. Well organized spaces. Put off overcrowding. ADVANTAGES Some of the advantages of Movement oriented design are : Free flow functioning of all activities. Proper arrangement of spaces for different activities. Service Space – Horizontal and vertical ducts RECREATION CLUB. Landscape Spaces – Sit outs. Orderly parking SPACE RELATIONSHIP: 1. Energy saving. 3. Circulation Space – Lobbies and corridors.
external. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . who is again parted as the activities for males and activities for females. CLASSIFICATION The classification of activities is done with respect to the activities held inside the main building i. This classification is also same for the external activities. The further classification of internal activities is done as the activities performed by and activities performed by the young / adult people. internal and the activities to be held outside the main building i. FLOOR WISE DISTRIBUTION OF SPACES RECREATION CLUB.e..e. which is fractioned among kids and young people and is further parted between males and females..
etc. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . The placement of general activities.Lodging Facility . This can be done as providing noisy and dynamic activities at a single floor suppose ground floor.General Activities (Mixed) . Ground Floor First Floor First & Second Floor Second Floor Third Floor . keeping it away from the silence zone such as library and conference room. STANDARD DIMENSIONS OF COURTS RECREATION CLUB.Noisy & Dynamic Activities .Silent Activities .Banquet Hall The floor wise distribution of spaces can also be done in order to achieve proper zoning. lodging facilities and banquet can be also done in accordance with zoning concept.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .Tennis court Basket ball court RECREATION CLUB.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .Volley ball court Two lane bowling alley RECREATION CLUB.
STANDARD DIMENSIONS FOR SEATING IN RESTAURANT RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .DIFFERENT SEATING ARRANGEMENT IN RESTAURANT RECREATION CLUB.
• Totlot:Aspiration- Children don’t want their parent’s company. So. Open playing area with various playing equipment. Analysis- Child supervision should be provided. a person feels secure on the left side of the road. so they not need to walk much. parking shall be at a certain distance. for waiting and for general discussions. while 35% visitors wants brightly illuminated informal seating arrangement. waiting and gossiping. the parking should be at the left side of the building and at a certain distance in order to avoid traffic congestion near the entrance lobby. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Analysis.Is used as a meeting point. but they should be in their vision. • Lawn: - This seems to be a favourite place of all age groups for relaxation. • Entrance lobby :. Aspiration65% of the visitors wants quite sober informal seating arrangement. RECREATION CLUB. ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOUR • Parking: AspirationFor both visitors as well as staff.informal yet glamorous environment is desired. Analysis- as per left rule.
80 % swimmers desire outdoor pool. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Spectator’s response encourages player’s participation. and the viewers don’t want the vision disrupted. Analysis- To avoid the vision obstrustructions of viewers and to avoid the traffic congestion near the billiard tables.Aspiration- 60 % visitors desires lawn should be surrounded through hedges. • Billiard room:Aspiration- This seems to be a favorite place for all age group males above 16 years. while 40% desires personalized corners.Used by female of the age between 12-20 years and male of the group between 15-45 years. Children of age group (7-10) years desire segregation in pool. Aspiration - 75 % (max female). some options for seating arrangements shall be provided. ZONING CONCEPT RECREATION CLUB. Lawn space should preferably not be open to clear vision from the site entrance. • Swimming pool:Aspiration - The pool area is used by all age group people. desire indoor court. A pool for children should be provided. 25 % desire outdoor court. Analysis• Badminton Hall :. Analysis- Pool should not be the focal point between the activity areas. Players don’t want the viewers to create any disturbance. Analysis- Badminton court preferably should not be outdoor. Pool should be in a remote counter.
one between ladies activity zone and other activity zones. PLANNING CONCEPT Planning: The planning should be the combination of both compactness and openness. The open air theatre zone and multipurpose hall zone are kept as far as possible to avoid noise intermixing and disturbances. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . restaurant. Public yet private: waiting lounge. The multipurpose hall is kept apart from the rest of the activity zones to allow free circulation on special occasions. Lawn area is provided near the children’s play area for child safety and supervision. lawn are the places where many groups are formed. The swimming pool zone is given a slight secluded corner to ensure privacy. at easy distance from all activity areas. RECREATION CLUB. people want a personal space in which they can accommodate themselves. The main zone houses all the activities with the restaurant. In these groups some people desire segregation from other groups. In other words. without disturbing the rest of the movement. so the visitors have to move less after parking their vehicles. It is divided into small lots. It can begin with an appropriate location of parking. an inviting zone.Zoning depends upon the use of the particular area in a building. A proper zoning can lead to disperse the crowd at the initial and also plays an important role in avoiding overcrowding at certain areas in a building. These groups are formed of two or more than two people.
gossiping and coolness these areas play a major role. relaxation to the eye. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . REQUIREMENTS Main Building 1) Entrance Hall Waiting Area Reception 2) Manager’s Room Waiting Area 3) Administration Office Store/ Record Room Guard room First Aid Room 4) Pantry 5) Restaurant Indoor Dinning Fast Food & Snacks Counter Kitchen & Wash 6) Bar & Pub Wash Room RECREATION CLUB. The planning has to extend to the whole site area. fitness and well being.Circulation routes: a recreation club brings a sense of joy. For breaking the visual fatigue.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .7) Disco 8) Sports a) Squash b) Carom Room c) Billiard Room d) Video Games e) Table Tennis f) Ladies Gym g) Gents Gym h) Bowling Alley i) Badminton j) Children Play Room 9) Learning Activities a) Library/ Reading Room b) Exhibition Hall c) Workshop d) Art Gallery 10) Community Activities a) Get Together Spaces b) Conference Hall c) Auditorium d) Multipurpose Hall f) Ladies Activity Room 11) Lodging RECREATION CLUB.
Visitors Room Guest Room 12) Banquet Hall CASE STUDIES 1.Pyc Gymkhana Club .Deccan Gymkhana Club.Wonder Funkey . Pune RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Pune 2. Pune 3.
Case Study 1 Deccan Gymkhana Club. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Pune RECREATION CLUB.
(MH).General details : Name of Owner . .Deccan Gymkhana Trust .Ar. Ashish sandu .6000 young and old members . Dilip Mangalwedekar -1906 -35 acres.Mr. Pune.Talim Pavilion.70 members Chairman-Governing Body Architect Established in the year Extends across an area Membership Staff RECREATION CLUB.Mr.Adv. Uday Punde . 759/2 Deccan Gymkhana. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Abhay apte . Address Chief Trustee Hon. General Secretary .
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . LOCATION MAP • SITE • ZONING Entrance Indoor sports Parking RECREATION CLUB.
Outdoor sports Gym & canteen Cricket ground Administration • INDOOR BLOCK Ground Floor – Reception. • Accomodating 9 tables in a hall for playing cards. • First Floor – Conference Hall. Bar RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Billiard Room. kitchen. Restaurant. Card Room. Sit out is also provided for playing cards Spacious air-conditioned billiards hall accommodates three tables with adequate playing space.
one for entry and the other for exit. Table Tennis Hall. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . RECREATION CLUB.24 Conference hall accommodates population of about 70 person and comprises two doors. Capacity Restaurant Bar – 70 . • Second Floor.4 Rooms for players.Restaurant & bar are parted with a glass partition wall.
This is available to any guests of members as well as members of outstation affiliate Table Tennis unit houses 5 tables in a spacious layout. kitchen RECREATION CLUB. • Third/ terrace – Banquet Hall. Special flooring helps budding players to enjoy a comfortable game of TT. Each room has twin beds. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .Players Rooms: Four Players rooms are situated on the second floor. is air-conditioned and has an attached bath & toilet. and another 8 rooms will be added soon.
RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Banquet is having capacity of 300 person Front elevation of indoor block South west view of indoor block • FOODING BLOCK This zone comprises gymnasium and canteen.
Canteen facility is situated adjacent to the Gymnasium and caters tasty snacks and beverages all day long. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • ADMINISTRATION BLOCK This block comprises of cricket pavillion and governing office The cricket pavilion is having rooms for home and guest team and also an umpire’s room.A professionally managed health centre with modern equipments and apparatus provide an excellent opportunity to tone your body with regular weight loss programmes and personal trainers on request. RECREATION CLUB. Canteen . from 7 am to 9 pm. Gymnasium.
• UNDER CONSTRUCTION BLOCK The building block is under-construction This is the concept elevation drawing of the new building project Work is now in progress at a hectic pace. RECREATION CLUB. namely Gymnasium. Table Tennis and Billiards with Card section Present Scenario of the building. Some other facilities like store n changing rooms are also provided Office is located at the first floor of the building. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . it is the oldest structure of the complex. The New building will house three of the existing departments.
• PROPOSED BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION Offer 11 tennis courts out of which 7 are asphalt base . RECREATION CLUB. Floodlight arrangements for 3 synthetic courts is an exclusive facility at DG.synthetic surface courts and the remaining 4 are sand courts. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
Deccan Gymkhana is a recognized venue for tournaments conducted by the International Tennis Federation.
Offer four asphalt base - synthetic surface basketball courts (outdoor) Floodlight facility is available for three courts.
Lush green playfield is the pride of Deccan Gymkhana, suitable for playing First Class cricket matches.
A regularly maintained ground with more than 12 sporting pitches help us offer good playing conditions for cricket lovers.
A pop-up sprinkler system, movable sight screens and other facilities make the participants feel comfortable.
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
A specially designed and landscaped Jogging and Walking track of 450 meters on the periphery of the cricket ground has be created for all members to enjoy any time during the day. It has been fitted with flood lights to enable use up to 9 pm. Volley Ball Offers two clay courts (outdoor) with floodlight facility for volleyball aspirants.
Swimming pool The Deccan Gymkhana swimming complex, popularly known as Tilak Tank Three separate pools offer an excellent opportunity for a dip
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
The main pool (50 M X 21 M) conforms to the norms laid for conducting National tournaments and is equipped with a modern filtration plant to make sure crystal clear water is made available to swimmers. Arrangements to retain the underlying streams for those who love to swim in natural water. Aquaaerobics and Water polo are other activities which are regularly conducted at our pool.
ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY
Peak time – 4.00 pm to 9.00 pm Peak Days – Thursday, Saturday, Sunday including holidays Population (General)- 400 Population (Maximum) - 2500
A good variety of indoor and outdoor games are available. A variety of tennis court is available, a player can chose as per his liking. Extra sit-out is provided by the side of card room, so that the player can enjoy playing in natural environment.
1.5 m wide jogging path is provided around the boundary of the cricket ground. The old structures of the complex are still maintained and seen as the heritage of the gymkhana.
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
There was no seating arrangement for the spectators in the billiard room. Insufficient rooms are available for lodging. RECREATION CLUB. Insufficient parking facility Bar and restaurant are provided at the same place and are having glass partition in between them. The swimming pool of the gymkhana is located at some other place from this site. Standard size pools are provided which makes them to organize national level competition. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • Demerits Administration block is situated at quite a distance from the entrance gate to the complex.
PUNE RECREATION CLUB.CASE STUDY 2 PYC HINDU GYMKHANA. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .K. Vishwas Lele Established in the year -1906 Extends across an area -25 acres. Abhay apte .Adv.80 members RECREATION CLUB. 766.PYC Hindu Gymkhana Trust . S. Pune . Membership Staff . Secretary Hon. Shashi Vaidya . P. Treasurer Architect . F. Lohda .Mr. No.Ar. (MH) Name of Owner Address President Hon.Mr.4500 young and old members .244 Bhandarkar Road.• GENERAL DETAILS .CTS No.
• LOCATION MAP • SITE RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .• ZONING Entrance Main indoor block/ Basement parking Cricket ground Ladies act centre Gym old • • MAIN INDOOR BLOCK Basement – for parking 2 wheelers and 4 wheelers. accommodate approx 70 cars RECREATION CLUB.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Moving further is the canteen along with the seating of about 100 persons. there is an atrium having waiting. First Floor RECREATION CLUB. A community hall is located at the far end of the floor having accapacity of 300 person. It is made double heighted.wheelers is from the rear of the building to the basement and the exit is from the front. The entrance for the 4. Ground Floor – reception and At the entrance of the building.
• MAIN INDOOR BLOCK Second Floor – Badminton hall It is a double heighted hall having 4 Courts. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Bar . Clear vision to the canteen from bar and restaurant. The locker and changing rooms are also provided. Card room. Restaurant and administration wing. There was glass partition between bar and restaurant. RECREATION CLUB. having 10 number of 6-seater round tables.
Billiard-cum-Snooker hall having facilities for three tables and the carpet on the floor along with the spectator seating. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Steam bath and changing rooms along with the lockers are provided The vast open space on the terrace used to organise parties RECREATION CLUB. the tennis and the basketball Terrace Half Olympic size swimming pool and a Baby pool. spacious well lit lounge with a cafeteria overlooking the cricket ground. Large. Party Hall with the accommodation capacity of 50 person to organize small parties Third and fourth Floor - 32 well appointed AC rooms on the third and fourth floors.
built in 1900.D. The evolution of PYC started from this building. RECREATION CLUB.• GYMNASIUM BLOCK This block is located near the rear entrance to the complex It is the common gym for males and females It is an old structure which was built for some other purpose but now it is used as fitness centre. • OLD BLOCK It is the oldest structure of PYC Gymkhana. A. It has managed with all the modern equipments. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
which includes its own library and offices apart from halls for the Ladies Club sports and cultural activities. It provides a level of comfort to ladies to have a get together and social meetings among themselves. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . basket ball and lawn tennis from their place Lawn Tennis – The Lawn Tennis court is also located at the rear of the ladies block. There are three tennis courts with sand finish. without the interference of gents member of the gymkhana They can enjoy the view of cricket. RECREATION CLUB. It has earmarked separate areas for the Ladies. It has now been conserved by the PYC Hindu Gynkhana Trust • Ladies Block The Gymkhana had boast of a separate Ladies' Wing.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Jogging path is also provided around the boundary of the ground. OUTDOOR SPORTS Cricket Ground The cricket ground will be redone with standard Green Top draining and irrigation facilities with a separate pavilion and dressing rooms for both the teams along with a viewing gallery. Basket Ball- RECREATION CLUB.
RECREATION CLUB.300 approx Population (Maximum) – 2000-2200 • Merits A good variety of indoor and outdoor games are available.00 pm Peak Days – Thursday. Two basket ball courts are provided. Basket ball court is located at the rear of the ladies block. with the seating arrangement for the spectators. Saturday. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY Peak time – 4. Floodlight facility is also available to use the court in the night hours also.00 pm to 9. Sunday including holidays Population (General).
seating arrangement for the spectators is also provided. RECREATION CLUB.5 m wide jogging path is provided around the boundary of the cricket ground. so that the player can enjoy playing in natural environment. Lack of maintenance of the courts of outdoor sports. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . 1. One can enjoy the view of cricket sitting inside the building. Insufficient parking facility Bar and restaurant are provided at the same place and are having glass partition in between them. • Demerits Administration block is situated at quite a distance from the entrance gate to the complex. Good underground parking facility is available In the billiard room. Glazing is done at the atrium and canteen zone of the building. Extra sit-out is provided by the side of card room. Separate block is provided for ladies. Ladies activity block is located at far distance from the entrance gate of the complex. The party hall is having only a single entrance and also there is lack of source of ventilation.
RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
CASE STUDY 3 WONDER FUNKEY. PUNE • GENERAL DETAILS .Wonder Group Managing Director . near Chandani Chowk.Mr. Pune (MH) Name of Owner Address Funding Agency . Ashish Mittal RECREATION CLUB.Wonder futura. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Pune-Bangalore highway.WONDER LEISURE & ENTERTAINMENT PVT LTD .
80 approx • LOCATION MAP SITE RECREATION CLUB. Nitin Waghmare Established in the year -2006 Extends across an area Staff -6500 sq ft (builtup) . Architect . COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .Ar.
Recreation centre Wonder Futura – Residential Entrance to the site is from South east Parking 2 wheeler & 4 wheeler is in front of the building. relax and break free from routines. This creative ensemble RECREATION CLUB.Wonder Funkey. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • BUILDING BLOCK Wonder funkey is the one of its kind recreational avenue in the city where the urban crowds can unwind.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .sure is a delightful one with fun. food and music blended with games. music and shopping put together. BASEMENT RECREATION CLUB.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .Lane bowling alley • GROUND FLOOR RECREATION CLUB. Disco Theque Deck Restaurant Net Cricket 4.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Dungeon Billiard Table Seating Chaupati RECREATION CLUB.
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . FIRST FLOOR VIDEO GAME ZONE RECREATION CLUB.
RECREATION CLUB. SECOND FLOOR Restaurant with Jungle theme. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
Banquet Hall- There are two banquet hall available at the second floor in the centre. Funky Club having a capacity of 30-50 persons Rio having capacity of 120- 150 persons. Kitchen and wash is provided along the restaurant at the second floor . Magic show Mehendi Tatoo Astrology Sketching are all provided at ground floor. Store room, Staff room, House keeping room, Changing room, Inspection room are all provided at the first floor. Aministrative zone is provided at the second floor
ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY
Peak time Population (General time) Population (Peak time) Peak Days Staff works in shifts. – 5:00 pm to 9.00 pm - 125 - 1800 -2000 - Thursday, Saturday, Sunday.
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
Residential flats have been added on the above two floors of the centre. Planning is being made to extent the centre to some extent
ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY Merits
A good variety of indoor games are available. The indoor block consists of the paintings on wall and lavish interiors. Natural Lighting is also almost at all the places. Bowling and disco acting point of attraction in the recreation club. Every floor is designed on a different theme. Emphasis is given on the interior work of the club. Placement of Banquet hall and restaurant was done in such a way, to link them at time of rush. Disco theque and restaurant at the basement is designed to accommodate visitors at time of rush.
Parking facility is not proper in the club. Only Indoor gaming facilities are available, planning is being made to propose for outdoor games
and theatre also. Lots of gaming machines been junked and large area is required to store these machines.
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
S.no. 01 02 03 04
COMPARISION BETWEEN CASE STUDIES
Activities Reception ,lounge & counter Parking 2-wheelers 4-wheelers Administration (office/ manager/secretary) Indoor Sports Badminton Table Tennis Card Billiard Gymnasium Outdoor Sports Lawn tennis Basket ball Volley ball Cricket ground + pavilion Fooding Restaurant Canteen Banquet Hall Bar Kitchen & Wash Swimming Pool Changing room Conference Hall Multipurpose Hall Toilet Store Lodging D.G (Capcity) 15 250 50 1 6 tables 12 tables 3 tables common 7 courts 3 courts 2 courts 1 PYC (Capcity) 20 200 70 1 Inference (capcity) 25 250 100 1
4 courts 5 tables 10 tables 3 tables common 3 courts 2 courts 1
4 courts 4 tables 10 tables 3 tables separate 6 courts 3 courts 2 courts 1
70 30 300 24 3 6-6 70 50 12 2 4
60 70 175 30 1 2-2 300 60 36 3 32
100 50 500 120 (including pub) 3 6-6 80 200 APD APD APD
07 08 09 10 11
RECREATION CLUB; COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT
Flexibility of spaces – a big auditorium is parted using partition wall to make separate halls. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .• • • INFERENCE All the above requirement will be taken into consideration. The different blocks within the complex will be so placed. Separate block will be provided for ladies. • • RECREATION CLUB. so that the visitor have to cover the minimum distance. the spaces are linked and can be used together as a whole. Lodging facility will be provided as per the design. • • All the sport courts will be made in accordance with the standard dimensions. • The spaces within the building will be arranged in a way so at multitude.
SITE ANALYSIS RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .• SITE SELECTION – RECREATION CLUB.
north-east to south-west(post monsoon) Location Map RECREATION CLUB. and the southern side has dense forests. As in this zone. sometimes referred as the "rice bowl of India". this is also very advantageous for the site. On the south of Raipur lies the Baster Plateau. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . where hundreds of varieties of rice are grown.G) The situation shows the position of the site in relation to it’s surroundings. • Climate :- The new city of Raipur is located near the centre of a large plain. Raipur (C. The road approaching the site is a national highway. Raipur falls under hot dry March-june July-september December-february Rain fall – sub humid climate – hot season – rainy season – cold season – 1400 mm(anually) Wind direction:. which extends north-east across Jharkhand state. The Maikal Hills rise on the north-west of Raipur.south-west to north-east(monsoon). on the north. The Mahanadi River flows to the east of the city of Raipur. The advantages of site lies at it is at the centre of Raipur city and new Raipur. the network of transportation and communication is very developed. considering the future scope. the land rises and merges with the Chota Nagpur Plateau.• Location :• Situation :- The site is located on VIP state.
6 Sq M • Permissible F.50 m .A.4.58 Acres 46862. • Address • Area GENERAL DETAILS .75 . Raipur (C. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .R • Permissible Ground Coverage • Permissible Set Backs .G) .50 m Area Chart RECREATION CLUB.VIP Estate.35% • Front • Back • Right • Left -6m -3m .3.11.1.
8 18.2 1.15 37.2 3 m wide 1.4 54 1.63 44.4 200 1976.5 12.8 07 78 08 09 468 1560 468 10 11 1.no.64 60 62. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Of person (Sqm) 12 2.16 0.6 62.8 1.8 108 90 56. 01 02 Requirements Guard Room Parking 2-wheelers 4-wheelers Area / person No.8 73.5 3 600 600 3 1 2 2 50 3 tables 1 table 100 70 4 100 1 3 courts 2 pitch 200 1000 200 - Gross Area (Sqm) 36 1500 7500 59 36 16 278.63 150 100 176.4 658.4 146.2 1.8 - 46.4 360 1200 360 150 100 49 Add 30% (Sqm) 1950 9750 03 04 05 06 Administration (office/ manager/secretary) Reception & Waiting Snacks Counter Indoor Sports Badminton Table Tennis Card Pool Billiard Gymnasium ( M) (F) Bowling Child Play Area Squash Video Games Hall Outdoor Sports Lawn tennis Cricket pitch Jogging Track Food Restaurant Banquet Hall Bar Disco Swimming Pool Kids Changing room Steam Bath Auditorium Multipurpose Hall 139.75 37.S.2 500 500 600 600 780 780 Theme application: RECREATION CLUB.
This partition of groups is done according .Though the club is introduced as a centre in which mass gathering takes place. Private zone: The zone which is parted for a particular group of members . COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . sex. age. but it also subdivided as private and public zone. etc RECREATION CLUB. Public zone: The zone for all the members of the club.
RECREATION CLUB. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .
Approach behind a recreational club is well connected with the area which it wants to serve and is easily approachable. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . RECOMMENDATION:Functional and aestheticdesign consideration have to respect well motivated requirement of production. Functional & psychological aspects:• Entrance- RECREATION CLUB. Thus an aesthetically designed building with neat and pollution free atmosphere and well connected site with sufficient capacity are of the important factor which enter into the archietect’s concept of recreational club. The site should be free from noise so that person feel relax.
with a space atleast 5ft. • Table tennis roomTables for T. • Reading roomThe reading room is large with capacity of 50-55 persons. Book stand and newspaper stands are arranged on one wall side and chair placed perpendicular to it in a row arranged back to back.between tables side by side and 10ft. by 5ft. Special care should be taken to provide adequate lighting both for day and night play.The entrance lobby is quit spacious and serves its purpose very effectively staircase and seating area in lobby is in such a way that are of circulation is not disturded. A person when enters into the RECREATION CLUB. • Billiards hallBilliards hall creats good environment for billiards playing members.T very considerably in size but plan allow for full size tables 9ft. On one wall score board is hung and on its opposite side all along the wall spectators stands are arranged. These spaces may be increased considerably for matches play. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . between two ends. area and seats should be raised on a dais. Three billiards tables are placed in the middle in a row and on other side spectators stands are arranged outside 6ft.
between courts need orientation to avoid the sun shine in player’s eyes. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . for high diving a depth atleast 14 preferably 15ft. except for special courts. each end and 12ft. with 6ft. It is generally allowed 120ft. to 12ft. The arrangement for bathrooms should RECREATION CLUB.above the water level. The edge of the both or take off should not be more than 18 in. children’s comics etc. fashion magazines . asphalts or patent hard material are suitable. political magazines.reading room is well lighted/illuminated by florescent tube-lights and reader does not face any problem in searching book from stand or selves. as room-bacle. • Lawn tennisVarious services such as grass.at sides. horizontally from a point immediately below the end of the highest board. Thus reading room is serving both functional and psychological purpose effectively.wide to which must be added. are available for readers. The highest diving stage should not exceed twice the depth of water. north-east to south-west for the main axis is the best aspects for general purposes.reading room must get a quite and reading atmosphere on his mind. Courts should be enclosed with galvlnise wire fencing 10 ft. is necessary over the whole of an area extending 25ft. long by 36ft. Here all types of books and newspapers like current affair magazine. • Swimming pollFor general public use the minimum lengthof swimming pool should be 60ft. The surrounding are often reduced. length. atleast 21ft. The dimension of 4ft. The standard side of the court is 78ft. The flat generally considered the minimum water depth in which races can take place. where two courts are placed together in public recreation grounds. to 10ft. sports magazines.given should be considered as the greatest permissible for shallow ends.
• DiscothequesThe commercial aim of disco is to increase the interaction of the revenue earning function and to provide a socializing ambiance in which visitors can relax and indulge in group identification. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Now a days discotheques are operated in conjunction with a bar. and the space necessary for their accommodation in the ceiling or against a wall should be identified. RECREATION CLUB. For the young in decades. space for strong disc. The sound system may consist of two disc tables. The location of sitting should allow easy access.and where there is vibration or movement these may be preferred. The lighting-sports. Clear visibility for the front of the house and avoidance of conflict with adjoining premises. a control panel.also be considered. The order of stereophone speakers. The quality of cassettes and compact disc is improving. The scale of permiss range from the adapted small hall or pub to the popular with space for small 1000 people.the full view of the dance floor should be available to the disc jockey. five bathrooms are there separately for men and women along with changing room.the recreation to orthodox ballroom dancing identified in the discotheque venues. colour filtered etc. The location of the console in relation to dance floor is important. light becomes the analogue of the music to give an audio-visual experience. restaurant or cabaret and have live music as part of the evening. can be synchronised with the sound so that by frequency banding. flood. With in dance area the cont of lighting and sound which combine to create mood will be carried cut by the disc jockey. became a powerful source. The technical equipment for lighting and sounding are continuously being improved lighting of discos is characterized by the rotating mirrored spheres and pulsating strobe lighting.
An undulating metal wall lies just outside the entrance to the bowling alley. A wooden bench is provide to allow bowling members to sit comfortably and change their shoes and is hidden from direct view. but also the self expression of free from dancing. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . RECREATION CLUB. Bottom lighting helps todefine the bowling lanes and add brilliance to the room. A mirror next to the entrance create a ripple –like effect of metal. • Bowling alleyThe four lane bowling alley is bordered by white niches in a blue wall.But the dance pattern suggest that outside the ballroom contemporary social dancing is not only an opportunity for individual display to the partner or the group. Lighting below helps to bring out colourful effects.
CONCLUSION / PLANNING OBJECTIVES 1. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Long travel distance for recreation can exhaust the visitors. Staff members will be for long time so separate staff parking shall be provided in the basement. Separate entry for service staff and visitors shall be provided. To control and restrict the undesireable leisure movement. atrium etc. Separate entry for pedestrians. No. 1. of visitors coming will be more. some pause points are created in the form of snack counter. 2. 3. To break the monotony of movement by creating some pause points. RECREATION CLUB. To get proper vehicular movement by segregation of traffic types. To provide measures for unobstructed pedestrian movement for visitors. so open parking is provided for the visitors for 2 wheelers & 4 wheelers. So. After certain area the vehicular movement is restricted for proper pedestrian movement. Atrium and lobby are the areas for leisure movement. Within the building. the users are properly channelized to their destination to restrict the undesireable leisure movement.
4. Separate fire escape routers are provided to have easy and fast evacuation. Further Indian climate is suitable for outdoor planning. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . What it offers instead is a sense of joy fitness and well being. To have easy and fast evacuation in case of calamities. While planning the user psychological state. • Landscape A club building is very different from other buildings in the sense that it does not offer any functional service in the prevalent sense of the word. for it consists only a part of the whole experience of the user. The planning has then to be extended to the whole site area. One cannot stop with a small area called the built mass that is the building. ADVANCED STUDIESRELEVANCE OF ELECTIVES Land and interior design were the two areas of advanced studies chosen by the author. One has to plan experience and expections while planning a club building. The club has more attendance during evenings and members have a tendancy to enjoy outdoor RECREATION CLUB.
RECREATION CLUB. Every table gives a close view of either dancing flour or outside surroundings. • Interior design The reason for choosing interior design as a topic of advanced studies arise from the same philosophy that only provision of any facility is not sufficient while planning a club building. What is more important instead of what type of atmosphere that activity and the area assigned to it produces. OVERALL FINDING AND PROPOSALS • Interior of Restaurant The following guideline are followed to make environment of restaurant make delightful and purposeful: I. That is why has given specific stress in landscape detailing and tried to integrate it with the built mass as far as possible. French window increases the visual area and brings nature more closer. aesthetical considerations were sole deciding factors sometimes. Though the placement of various areas had already explorer this aspect of visual connection between two areas nevertheless while designing the interior. II. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .surroundings.
Encourage each child to be creative and have play experience which are meaningful to him. Lighting. coordination. The food served should look delectable. compete. Smooth texture is used by large size of glazed opening and plain plastering with combination of cool and hot colours. Contrast colour is used insight the restaurant to create dramatic effect. RECREATION CLUB. VIII. playing equipment shouldI. so that he learns to coordinate. Stimulate the child to learn social skills of sharing and playing with others and to compete in a spirit of fair play. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . • Landscaping of children’s playground All equipment should contribute to the healthy growth and recreational enjoyment of the child. Artificial and natural plants are given in the restaurant to create the inter-penetration of nature inside the hall.there are dim light in the restaurant living area to reduce the harshness of features and it should be orange brown tone. create.III. To create a royal impression of restaurant by providing innovative artistic features. Develop strength ability. IV. cooperate. colour. enjoy and acquire confidence. II. VI. IV. VII. balance and courage. texture and lighting. fortunately most food item fall in orange brown category and so look fine under the dim brown lights meant for people. V. III. Assist the child in making the transition from playsuit to playground.
The use of colour has been carefully modulated internally as well as externally throughout it should have sober and peaceful touch of feeling. selection of the appropriate site the project involved working out the challenges and problems to be dealt with in a logical manner. Great attention has been paid to the needs of those who will come to the club as well as those who will work in it terms of their physical and psychological well being. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:Beginning with the selection of the subject and theme and later. the major challenge was to work out the modalities of the club with its essential amenities. Greatcare should be taken regarding each and every aspects. Looking back this thesis project involved lot of energy and time. Recreational club proposed is supposed to be a tool to entertain the members and visitors. their functional and location significance after conducting the relevant literature and case studies and late to integrate the project development with the essence of the theme to make the club a dynamic platform for wholesome social activity without tempering with the traditional purpose of the club. RECREATION CLUB. At times it appeared quite grueling. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 . Also the choice of material used for both external and internal finishers has been carefully controlled. In this project. The building is designed on the theme of openness. but on the whole it has been a wonderful experience. Recreational club is meant for public enjoyment and relaxation.
WWW. third edition Comfort and design. principles and good practices by Peter Vink An approach to user’s movement oriented design on commercial plaza at bhilai by Ar. COSIDERING USER MOVEMENT 7 6 .REFERENCES Neufert by Ernst and Peter Neufert.Wikipedia.com RECREATION CLUB.Abhishek Trivedi.
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