How to Conduct 180 360 Degree Appraisals | Performance Appraisal | Questionnaire

‘How to Conduct 180˚ and 360˚ Appraisals’

Introduction Appraisals are now used, almost universally, as the main channel for providing feedback to individuals on how to develop their performance. Traditionally, feedback in appraisal follows top down from the line manager to the individual being appraised. Although this is valuable, there is an opportunity to broaden the appraisal to include: • Upward feedback from team members to their line manager • Feedback from colleagues, mentors or from contacts outside the organisation, such as clients or suppliers. This has obvious benefits: • The workplace is flatter and increasingly project focused with individuals working in matrix structures or remotely from home. Line managers typically have less contact with their direct reports and so need information from other sources if they are to provide valuable feedback. • Direct reports can use their own experience to give particularly valuable feedback to their line manager. Definitions 180˚ Appraisal extends the traditional appraisal process to make the feedback process two-way. Feedback from team members can be provided to their line manager on a one-to-one basis during the individual’s appraisal discussion, or it can be collated and presented as group feedback from all team members. 360˚ Appraisal involves capturing feedback about an individual from a range of people (respondents) including his or her line manager, colleagues and direct reports. The data is then compared with the individual’s own assessment of their performance. In some models, external contacts and partners may also be involved.

Traditional Appraisal

Line Manager

Line Manager

External Contact(s)

180 Apprais
Line Manager Individual Colleague(s) Direct Report(s)

3600 Appraisal

0

Direct Report

Direct Report(s)

Key points to consider as you design the process include: 1. What Data you should gather 2.What to consider 180˚ and 360˚ appraisal processes both need careful planning and management. Providing respondents with a questionnaire will help them to structure their feedback and encourage them to focus on the individual’s behaviour and performance rather than their personality. How to design the feedback questionnaire 3. How to give feedback .

Something they don’t currently do but would be helpful if they did • What would you like the person to STOP doing? . Stop/Start/Continue Questionnaire – This uses three basic questions: • What would you like the person to START doing? .Something they already do that you would like to reinforce ii. Deciding what data to gather Two commonly used formats for questionnaires are: i.Something they currently do but isn’t helpful • What would you like the person to CONTINUE doing? . Development Questionnaire This seeks feedback against a set of competences that are aligned with business need such as: • People Management • Problem Solving • Interpersonal Skills • Leadership.1. • People Management • Problem Solving • Interpersonal Skills • Leadership • Decision Taking .

Review success and make any improvements .try the questionnaire out with a small selection of staff. • Use quality and frequency scales . “Is the manager willing to listen and do they respond appropriately?” This forces people to give one response to two subjects.2.make sure these are clear and easily understood.g. • Avoid multiple questions e. or whether it will be collated with the feedback from other respondents to preserve their anonymity. emphasizing whether it will be provided directly to the individual.it is more likely to be completed if it is easy to fill in. • Pilot . but avoid giving people the option to select the ‘middle ground’.How good is it and how often do they do it? Very Good Good Average Fairly Poor Poor Frequency Quality Too Often Correct Not Often enough Excels Good Some improvement needed More improvement needed • Provide instructions for completing and returning the questionnaire . • Keep the questionnaire simple and short . Here are some tips: • Tell respondents what will happen to the feedback they provide.ensure enough scope for people to score their response. • Use appropriate scales . Designing the questionnaire The questionnaire should be easy to understand.

180˚ and 360˚ Appraisal and Investors in People The Investors in People indicators provide a clear framework for the development of an appraisal system. Completing an 180˚ appraisal is not an essential part of the Investors in People Standard. • The feedback is provided to the individual by his or her line manager or by an independent third party.  People can explain what their learning and development activities should achieve for them. the activities planned to meet them. it simply requires training and development needs to be reviewed. . how these link to achieving specific objectives and how the impact will be evaluated. The latter is preferable as it preserves the anonymity of the respondents. Some organisations see that the easiest next step for their appraisal process is to encourage upward as well as downward feedback during the appraisal discussion. is planned to achieve the organisation’s Evidence:  Top managers can explain the organisation’s learning and development needs.3. the plans and resources in place to meet them. (see ‘How to Prepare an Appraisal’.  People can describe how they are involved in identifying their learning and development needs and the activities planned to meet them. This works particularly well if the third party is skilled in giving feedback and can go on to act as a coach. • Direct reports should provide feedback to their line manager face-to-face. their team and the organisation. Main Indicator Indicator 2 Learning and development objectives. This can be a difficult option as without an open culture and a high level of interpersonal skills. As it says. individuals may find it difficult to provide honest feedback to their line manager.  Managers can explain team learning and development needs. how these link to achieving specific team objectives and how the impact will be evaluated. for a more detailed description of the appraisal discussion). Check the effectiveness of your system by working through the following indicators and associated evidence. You need to consider whether: • The individual should receive the completed feedback questionnaire(s) or a report that aggregates the feedback. Managing the feedback process The feedback process is the key to the success of 180˚ or 360˚ appraisal feedback.

managing and developing people.Additional Indicators Indicator 5 Managers are effective in leading. . where they exist. at a level that is appropriate to their role. both individually and through representative groups.  Managers can give examples of how they give people constructive feedback on their performance regularly and when appropriate. Indicator 7 People are encouraged to take ownership and responsibility by being involved in decision-making. managing and developing people. managing and developing them. Evidence:  Managers can describe how they promote a sense of ownership and responsibility by encouraging people to be involved in decision-making. Evidence:  Managers can explain how they are effective in leading. teams and the organisation.  People can describe how they are encouraged to take ownership and responsibility for decisions that affect the performance of individuals. teams and the organisation.  People can describe how they are encouraged to be involved in decisionmaking that affects the performance of individuals.  People can explain how their managers are effective in leading. at a level that is appropriate to their role.  People can give examples of how they receive constructive feedback on their performance regularly and when appropriate.

Advantages of 360 degree feedback * Combining opinions gives a well-rounded view which can be more accurate and objective than the perception of a single person. Disadvantages of 360-Degree Feedback According to McLean4 the disadvantages with 360-degree feedback include: • • • • How to interpret the findings when they differ from group to group As each rater sees a different behavior. * Results can be difficult to interpret and may be distorted by organisational politics or culture. Disadvantages of 360 degree feedback * Ttime consuming and costly. are best judged by subordinates. * Some skills. such as leadership. * Comments are difficult to ignore when expressed by a number of colleagues. * It can increase awareness of the impact people have on each other and lead to more open working relationships and better teamwork. * Unless managed openly it can generate an environment of suspicion Advantages of 360-Degree Feedback The acknowledged advantages of multiple feedback are: • • • • • • • Peers and direct reports have more regular contact than supervisors The self knows what others cannot know Self-ratings force employees to focus on what is expected in a job Self ratings are best accepted by employees Each person has a unique perspective Greater reliability in the feedback exists because of the increased number of ratings The feedback process opens communication within the system3. groups and organisations improve their performance. * It can be motivating for people who undervalue themselves. biased and inaccurate” . * It can be destructive unless handled carefully and sensitively. * It assumes employees are able and willing to provide accurate feedback. * It can help employees. the technique is often restricted to management levels. how do we know the basis upon which the ratings are observed? 360-degree feedback ignores the system in which the behavior occurs There may be the fear of retribution from the supervisor if the rating is unfavorable Further disadvantages have been cited by Hedge & Borman5 as follows: • Self ratings are “unreliable. peers and team members rather than superiors.

Time consuming and more complex on administration It is no doubt that include more people to do the evaluation can give a more comprehensive view of the result. About the staff. it will generate a worse atmosphere in the working environment. if they do not have a good result of the appraisal. From the management level. some information is very sensitive but the company discloses the information to others carelessly. that will affect the whole company . • • It is the biggest risk of the 360-degree appraisal because many company may outsource the 360-degree process to other company that can used to make the staff who are being evaluated feels more comfortable that the information they give and receive will in a confidential environment. May generate the environment of suspicion and cynicism • • This method can be threatening both the staff is being assessed and the people doing the evaluation. Risk of confidentiality. As the result.• • • • There is “no empirical research to support upward appraisal for any purpose” About the Disadvantages. there also have several points: 1. so the company cannot have the appraisal frequently on the same people. after that the company need to find more staff to help to find out the result. 3. they may suspicious that who give them some bad comments and may things that other staff will cynics them because they cannot get a good result. the manager may feel this method could undermine their authority and so they will not cooperate well when they do the appraisal. So it is very important that the 360-degree appraisal should conduct in an open and honest environment. 2. it will increase the complex on the administration. but it also very time consuming since everyone need to do the evaluation. It is very important to choose a right timing to conduct this method that can minimize the impact of the organization. However.

Performance Appraisal July 27. one is the employee himself and his immediate boss. and the boss gives the feedback of the skills and attitude the employee carry. 180 Degree is one of the method by which feedback of an employee can be judged and measured. 2010 Category : Academics 180 Degree – a method of measuring performance appraisal of an employee. This performance appraisal form is used in all big and small scale industries and organization. . Here two people are involved in the feedback process. it’s quite clear that it’s a method of measuring and giving feedback of any employee performance.180 degree . And then the data collected is matched with the competency norms of the organization and a feedback is prepared about that particular employee. The employee share his work experiences including good and bad with the hr people. As we have already discussed about “performance appraisal ‘in the previous blog. And with this feedback the management takes s further actions for better performance of that employee.

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