Did you know that you are a living example of chemistry?

The average human body contains:
‡ Enough iron to make a 3-inch nail ‡ Sulfur to kill all fleas on an average-sized dog

‡ Carbon to make 900 pencils ‡ Potassium to fire a toy cannon ‡ Fat to make 7 bars of soap

‡ Phosphorus to make 2,200 match heads ‡ Water to fill a 10-gallon tank

‡Answer Activity Sheet #4

The Chemical Basis of Life

The Chemical Context of life

‡ Matter ±Anything that takes up space and has mass

ATOM

±The smallest stable particle of matter ±Composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons

‡All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.

‡

Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter, including life.

What is the relationship of the following?

Atoms Molecules Elements Compounds

Ions

an atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable
‡

Cation a positively charged ion formed when an atom loses electrons

Anion a negatively charged ion formed when an atom gains electrons

an electrically charged atom

Chemical Bonding

Ionic Bond

‡an attraction between a cation and an anion

Ionic Bond

‡ formed when

electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom

Covalent Bond

Formed when atoms share electrons

Covalent Bond

‡Hydrogen atoms form single bonds ( 2 electrons are shared by the atoms )

H

H

( Hardest to break )

‡Oxygen atoms form two bonds ( 4 electrons shared )

O=O

‡Nitrogen atoms form three bonds ( 6 electrons shared )

N

N

‡Easiest to break

‡Carbon atoms form four bonds ( 8 electrons shared)

O=C=O

MOLECULE formed when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds

Other Types of Atomic & Molecular Interactions

Polar Interactions
‡Attraction between partially charged (polar) molecules and other polar or charged molecules ‡Similar to ionic bonding

A water molecule is polar

‡ The OXYGEN atom on one end of the molecule is partially negative ‡ The HYDROGEN atom on the other end is partially positive

±Hydrogen bonding ‡Interaction between a hydrogen atom and two strong electronegative groups

Water has hydrogen bonds
‡ A single water molecule may be involved in as many as 4 hydrogen bonds at the same time.

Water is extremely cohesive:
there is an attraction between molecules of the same substance.

How is the insect able to rest on top of the water?

strong attraction between water molecules produces a force called surface tension

Why do you get the volume of water in the graduated cylinder using the lower meniscus?

‡ This is caused by ADHESION.

‡ Adhesion is the attraction between molecules of different substances

Why study chemistry in biology?

- body functions depend on cellular functions - cellular functions result from chemical changes

‡ - biochemistry helps to explain physiological processes, and develop new drugs and methods for treating diseases

‡ Justify your existence in this world! ‡ How can you show that you are living your life to the fullest?

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