TECHNICAL NOTES

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS.

No. 178

T RIP LAN E . T EST S.

By C. ~ieselsberger.

From Technische Berichte, Volume III, No.7.

February, 1924.

·. ".

NATIONAL ADVISORY 00MroITTEE FOR AERO NAU TI OS.

TECI~TIOAL KOT~ NO. 178.

T RIP ,L A N E

T EST S.*

By C. ~iese1sberger.

These experiments were ce.r r i ed out for the IIf.utomo1=>il und Aviatik A. G. II (Automobile and Aircraft Comperiy}, of Leipzig, ' in order to determine the aerodyn~ie characteristics of vari-

ous triplanes, which differed in the relative ~ositions o~ the wings and, more e~pecia11y, in the reletiYe incidence of the wings (deca1age), in the stagger, and in the shape of the wing

sections.

The tests were restricted to such dispositions as appeared constructively adapted to the plan form considered. Four different sets of wings were used in these tests, three of which

had the same cross-section but di~fered in aspect ratio and in. _

area. The tips of all the wings were shaped as shown in Fig. 1. __

-- -- ~

The mean span of the wings, whieh is always gf.ven in the pres-

ent article, is expressed as the quotie~t of the wing area divided by the chord.

The dimensions of the wings were;

Wing 1; mean span ~ = 106 em (41.73 in.),

chord = e = 18.4 em (7.24 in.) (wing-section 359);

..... ),

Wing 2: mean span S = 115 em (45.28 in.), ".

chord = c =e15.2 em (5.98 in.) (win3;-section 359).;

--------------------------------------------------=-------------~--- -

* From Teehnische Berichte, Volume III, No.7, pp. 302-308.

(22nd communication from the G8ttingen Aerodynamical Institute.),j><

. L

- 2

Wing 3: Dean span S = 99 em (38.98 in.), . e

chord = c = 1~.8 em (5.04 in.) (wing-sect jon 359);

C!

Wing 4: mean span ~ = 106 em (41. 73 in.) >

chord = c = 13.{ em (7.24 in.) (wing-section 368).

The two wing sections, 359 and 368, are shown in. Fig. 2.._ .~ In addition to the tests on the five triplancs) e comrarative

te8t was also made on a biplane having the same 6Ugerficla1

area and chord as the triplanes. ~ts Wi:1g di:ner..sions were: ~ing 5 - (upper wing): mean span £= 106 em (41.73 in.),. o

chord = c = 26.4 cm (10.39 in.) (wing-section 359);

Wing 6- (loT-er ~ng): mean span S = 98 cm (38.58 in.),

c

chord = c = 22 cm (8.66 in.) (wing-section 359).

The tests were made at an air velocity of about 30 m.p~s. (98.4 ftl aeo , ) in the large mnd tunnel. T"ne wings used for the triplane models were first tested as monoplanes, in order that the mutual influence of the wir.gs could be d.etermined, in

case of need, by comparison uitb. the t:riplane experiments-

The results of the tests (Tables I to IV) are plottsd as polar diagrams in Figs. 3 to 6. The triplane models were tested in five different arrangements: A, B1, B2) C, and C2) as shown in Figs. 13 to 17, while Fig. 18 shows the biplane used for comparison. The corresponding~ol~r diagrams ~nd curves of ~o-

mente (Te..bles V to X) are shovm in Figs. 7 to 12.

T11.e ang'l.e of

-=.- :.:.::::i:ii.

attack always refers to the chord of the upper ~r.g and the moment·to the forGmost point of the chord. In orQer ~o facili-

- 3 -

tate the consideration of the stability relations, the resultant air forces are plotted in Figd. 13 to 1a.

From an inspeotion o~ t~~ regults~ &rrangement B1 appears to be the best as regards lift and drag. Arrangement B2, whic~

is produced by altering the decalage, is inferior to arrangement _

B1 in efficiency, but, on the other h~n~, the line of action of the air forces varies less with the change of the angle of at-

tack. There is a similar difference between arrangements 01

and O2, and also between Bl and A.

By adopting a so-called "high-speed" wing section with the G arrangements, the most favorable aerodynamic range has been shifted toward small angles of attack. These arrangements are, therefore, suitable for a high-speed airplane, while A, B1 and ~ will find suitable application in an airplane which must, first of all, have good climbing ability.

The biplane with the same wing area and span as the trip1a~e

is, within the practical range, not so good aerodynamically as arrangement B1, pince it has a greater induced drag, on account of the unfavorable aspect ratio of the wings.

- 4 -

Table I - Hing 1.

Dynamic pressure

c = 56.9 kg/m2 (11.65 1b/sq.ft.) S = 1950 Cffi4 (302.2 sq.in.)

Angle Coef .o f Coef.of coe£.-6f1 Coef. of Oo ef'v o f
of Lift Drag lift drag . nol!l1laI.. tangen- moment
attack force tia1
L D CL CD force
g. g Cn Ct ,Cm
-8.9 -3388 1042 -30,6 9.39 -31.7 4.5 -8.3
-6.0 -1400 687 -12.6 6.21 -13~2 4.8 -0.7
·--4.5 -43 527 -3.9 4.76 -7.6 4.7 5.8
-3.0 1538 411 13.9 3.71 13.7 4.4 12.0
-1.4 3050 326 27.6 2.94 27.4 3.7- 16.9
-0.1 4156 279 37.6 2.53 37.6 2.5 20.5
1.3 5612 295 50.7 2.66 50.6 1.3 23.3 -
3.0 6814 350 61.6 3.17 61.6 0.0 26.4
4.3 7960 420 71.9 3.81 71.9 -1.9 28.8
5.7 9556 511 86.5 4.63 86.4 -4.4 31.0
8.6 11358 . 778 102.5 7.06 102.3 -9.2 38.0
11.6 13243 1084 119.5 9.87 118.8 -15.3 42.5
14.6 13806 1411 125.0 12.8 124.0 -20.0 42.7 .. -
17.6 13438 2027 121.2 18.3 121.3 -20.0 44.2 Dynamic pressure

Table II - Wing 2.

q ~ 56.7 kg/m2 (11.61 1b/sq.ft.) S = 1750 cm2 (271.25 sq.in.)

Angle Coef .of Coef .of Coef .o f Coef .of Coef -o f
of Lift Drag lift drag n<:>rma'l. tangen- momenf
attack L D force tial
force
g ~ _ CL_ CD Cn Ct Om
-8.9 -2628 975 -26.5 9.84 -27.7 5.6 -10.3
-5.9 -1698 690 -17.1 7.02 -17.5 .5.2 -3.3
-4.5 -489 538 -4.9 5.43 -5.3 5.0 . 3.4
-3 .. 0 1148 409 11.6 4.13 11.3 4.7 11.2
-1.6 2740 310 27.6 3.12 27 ... 5 3.8 17.5
-0.1 4068 250 41.0 _.2.52 41.0 2.5 21.2
1.3 5255 249 53.0 2.52 53.0 . 1.1 24.3
2 .. 8 6425 293 64.8 2.95 64.9 -0.4 27.6
4.3 7515 346 75.8 3.49 75.9 -2.5 30.6 ----
5.7 8595 437 86.6 4.40 86.6 -4.7 33.6
8 .. 6 10758 645 108.4 6 .. 50 108.0 -10 .. 5 39~7
11.6 12238 915 123.4 9.23 122.3 -15.6 43.2
14.6 12302 1368 124.0 13.8 123.2 -18.8 44.4
. - 5 -

Table III - Wing 3.

Dynami c pressu:re

q = 56 9 kg/m2(11.65 lb/sq.ft.) S = l3GO cm2 (195.3 sq.in.)

Angle (Joef.oI : Coef.of Cocf. ofl Coef.of Coef .o f
of Lift Drag lif'~ drag :.n.dr:a:al., tangen- rr.oment
at cac k L n' CL CD force tial -
force
g g Cn Ct Om
-8.9 -1927 726 -26.9 10.2 -28.0 5.8 -10.5
-6~0 -1350 512 -17.4 7.14 -18.1 5.3 -2.7
-4.5 -294 392 -4.1 5.47 -4.5 5.1" 4.4
-3.0 895 295 12.5 4.12 12.3 4.8 12~4
-1.4 2093 218 29.2 3.04 29.2 3.8 18.5
-0.1 3057 173 42.7 2.41 42.7 2.5 22.1 -
1.4 3898 187 54.5 2.60 54.5 1.3 25.1
2.8 4755 215 66.5 3.00 66.6 -0.5 28.8
4.3 5600 266 78.0 3.72 78.4 -2.4 31.7
5.8 6415 316 89.5 4.42 89.5 -5.1 34.5
8.7 8010 481 112.0 6.71 111.5 -10.8 40.7
11.7 8910 673 124.5 9.48 123.7 -16.6 43.6
14.7 8880 967 124.0 13.5 123.3 -19.1 44.4
- Table IV - ~ing 4.

Dynamic pressure

q = 56.9 kg/m2 (11.65 1b/sq.ft.) S = 1960 cm2 (303_8 sq.in.)

Angle Coef. of Coef.of Oo ef . of Coef.of Coef .o f
of Lift Drag lift drag nOT:eal tangen-:- moment
attack L D CL Cn force tial-
force
g g On Ct Om
-8.8 -5025 1079 -45.0 9.67 -45.9 2.6 -12.7
-5.9 -2838 482 -25.4 4.31 -25.6 1.6 0.4
-4.5 -417 196 I -3.7 1.76 -3.8 1.5 4.8
-3.0 838 14,5 7.5 1.31 7.4 1.7 7 .. 8
-1.4 2074 148 18.5 1.34 18.5 1.8 10.9
0 .. 0 3220 170 28.8 1.52 28.8 1.5 ""13.4
1.4 4357 214 39.0 1.93 39.0 0.9 16.3
2.8 5600 275 50wO 2.50 50.3 -0.2 19.2
4.4 6812 347 60.8 3.08 61.2 -1.7 22 .. 0
5.7 8015 443 71.7 3.37 71.9 -3.5 25.0
8.7 10158 695 90.9 6.23 90.3 -8.0 30.0
11.6 11608 1033 103.9 I 9.88 103.3 -12.6 33.8
14.6 I 11637 1694 104.4 15.2 104.3 -12.4 37.5
I Table V - Tripl2xle A-

Dynam i.c pr e s su re q = 56,8 kg/m2 (11~63 Ib/sq-ft.)

______ =rr: __ --. S_=~.1::..:...:l~C...:..O--.::.;C::1:::.., 2 (-_:_7S_8_'__.:.8~s-+q__:. 2=-:' n:.=....._!;)_--.- ·· -_--=--==_

--r- _ _ I

C(Jei'.of I G00f.of, d rag I r,o~':!l.al CD I force

en

An~]e I

.. J

<?I I .

ac tac k]

I i

Lift L

g

co e r . of lift CL

- 6 -

-8.8 I

-5.9

-4.5

-3.1

-1~7

-0.2

1.2 2.6 4.0 5.5 8.3

11.2 14.1 17.0 20.0

-5360

-18(5

355 2830 5175

I 7180 9835 12205

14160 16235 20Z22 24348 28015 30888 31370

?,'481 1681 I 1367

1098

950 855 866 958

1090 1315 1920 2555 3538 r 4589 I 5797 I

-19.0

-6.5

i.2 10.0 18.3 25.4 34.8 43.4 50.8 57.6 72.1 86.2 99.7

109.5 111.2

8.81 5.96 4.84 3.89 3.36 3.03 3.07 3.40 3.86 4.65 6.80 9.05

12.5

I 16.2 t 20.5

-20.1

-7.1

0.9 9.8 18.2 25.4 34.9 43.4 50.5 57.8 78.0 86.1 99.0

108.5 110.0 I

Coef .of tangential force

Ct !

Dynamic pressure q = 57.1 kg/rna (11.7 Ib/sq.ft.) S = 4960 cm2 (768.8 sc .in.)

Tp_ble VI - Triplane B

5.9 5.3 4.9 4-.3 3.7 2.8 1.8 0.8

-0.5

-1.9

-5.2'

-9.8

-14.5

-19.3

-21.6

co er .of mo~ent

Cm

-3.2 3~7 7.5

11.9 _

15.1 18~2 21.4 24.5 26.0 28.2 32.0 34.6 36.8 ,;38.0 37.4

Angle I

of I

attack I

I

Lift L

g

Drag D

Coef .sr l Coef .o f Coef .of Coef .o f

lift drag -,'!)PrmaI tangen-

CL CD force tiel

force Ct

g

Coef -o f moment

-8.8

-5.9

-4.5

-3.1

-1.7

-0.3

1.2 2.6 4.0 5.5 8.3

11.2 14.1 17.0 20.0

-5836'

-2210

198 2730 5396 7870

10193 12558 14650 16548 20880 24835 28238 30610

131080

2578 1859 1417 1137

985 872 j

JH I

1253 I 1858

2533 3302 4494 5736

-20.5

-7.8

0.7 9.6 19.0

27.6 ! 35.9 44.1 51.6 58.2 73.5 87.5 99.2

108.0 109.3

9.06 6.52 4.96 4.11 3.46 3.06 3.08 3.36 3.89

4.40 6.52 8.90

11.6 15.8 20.2

-22.1

-8.9

-0.1

8~9 18-~

87.4 35.6 44.1 51.5 58.4 73.8 87.9

~ 99.9 109.0 111.0

3.8 4.9 5.0 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.3 4~9 4.3 3.4 1 .. 4-

-1.8

-5.8

-9.0

-10.8

4.4 9.0 10.3 11.8 12.9 13.2 13.3 13.4 -

12.8 12.0 11.1

7.9 5yO 6.2 4.8

- 7 -

Table VII - Trinlane B

-
Angle Dz'ag I Co ef . of Coef.of . ! Coef.01
Coef ."Of , 0o ef . of
of Lift lift d:rag . .!loJ:'i:!1aI. tangen- lr.omeIlL_
attack L D CL CD force I ttal
I force
i g g Cn Ot' Om
--- i -4925
-8.9 2357 .1 --
-17.4 8.33 -18.8 4.2 3.3
-E.O -868 1690 -3.1 5.98 -4.1 5.4 6.3
-4.6 1615 1418 5.7 5.02 4.9 5.8 7.8
-3.1 4208 1204 14.9 4.25 14.3 6~0 8.8
-1.7 6700 10;]0 23.7 3.86 23.2 6.1 10.0
-0.3 9142 1053 2:2.3 3.73 32.1 6.0 10.4
1.2 10928 1047 38~6 3.71 38.5 5~4 10.9 -
2.6 13858 1066 49.1 3.78 49.0 4.6 9.3 -
4.0 15972 1305 56.5 4.62 56.5 4.1 9.7
5.4 17942 1520 63.5 5.39 , 63.6 3.2 8.9
8.3 22058 2128 73.1 7.55 7'8.5 0.7 7.6
11.2 25790 2896 91.1 10.2 91.8 -2.5 5.7
14.1 28460 3865 100.9 13 .. 7 101.9 -5.8 5.8
17.0 30915 5006 109.1 17.7 111.1 I -9.2 7 .. 0
20.1 29375 6625 103.8 23.5 106.1 I -9.0 7.7 Dynamic pres3uTe q = 57.6 kg/rn2 (11.8 1b/sq.ft.)

s = 4~ 60 cm2 ( 768 • 9 so. in. )

Table VIII - Trip1ane 0

Dynamic presgure

q = 56.7 kg/m2 (11.61 1b/sq.ft.) S = 4970 crr2 (770.3 sq.in.)

Coef -o f drag On

00 of ~of morr.ent

Ooef.of I Coef.of no t~l ~ I tang61lforce ,tj_21

I force

g On I Ct Om _._--

----_~-~g~-+_~~--+------~------~--~~. --~!--~--+----------

I 3

-8.8 -6925 2454 -24.6 8.70 -25-6'\ 5aO 4.

-5.9 -2528 1409 -9aO 5.00 -9.4 4.1 t 6.2

-4.5 -178 10'72 -0.6 3.,80 -0.9 3.9 7.0

-3.1 2060 915 7.3 3.24 7.2 3.6 8.8

-1.7 4642 801 16.5 2.84 16.4 3.1 9~9

-0.2 7180 776 25.5 2.75 25.5 2.5 10·8

1.2 9458 808 33.6 2.84 33.6 1.7 11.0

2.6 11665 890 41~4 3~16 41.7 0.6 ~1.0

4.0 13850 1031 49.2 3.62 49.3 -0.7 lO.2,

5.5 15798 1207 56.0 4.28 56.6 -2.1 9-~

8.4 19945 1743 70.8 6.19 70~9 -5.6 7°7

11.2 23860 2475 84.8 8.78 84.5 -9-7 ~'2

14.1 27045 3594 95~9 12.8 95.6 \-13.3 9-1

17.1 29000 5132 103.0 18.4 103.4 -145.29 9-8

~n, ?p~7n h~~a 100.7 23.6 102.3 -1. •

_\n.zle of attack

Lift L

Drag D

Oo ef -o f lift

°L

- 8 -

Table IX - Triplane a

Dynand c pressure q = 56.8 kg/rr.2 (11.63 Ib/ sq. ft. )

______ ~-----,----~----~g-=~4~~~~'iO co2 (7?0.3 so.in ) ~

cc er . of 0oef. of I C06f .o f I ;]0 cf .ot: I! Ooef. ot- --

Drag lift drag r..cl'Eal·. I tangeri- nomerrt

D 01 CD force; tj al_ ..

I force I ---:-_- -_::_

___ ~_g=--+- _g_.-+- --I- +--_C.::_n_~I. __ C~t --It----C-i1'l- __

-8.8 -6788 2411 -24.1 8.55 -25.3 3.6 3.4

-5.9 -2688 1433 -9.5 5.09 -10.2 3.6 i 4;2

-?5 I -598 1316 -2.1 4.32 -2~6 4.0 I 5~3

-3.1 \ 1800 1035 6.4 3.68 6.0 4.3 6.7

-!_.? 4527 923 16.1 3.27 15.8 4.4 8.3

7055 I 881 25.0 3,12 24.9 4.2 8.8

9405 l 908 33.4 3.22 33~3 3.8- 9.2

I 11788 I 942 I 41.8 3.34 38.3 3.0 ~S77

111358.79920 I 1055 49.2 3.74 49.2. 2.0 7~e

137~ I 55.4 4.70 56.G 1.4 7,6

20064 1847 f 71.0 6.54 71.3 I -1.6 5.4

23645 2562 83.9 9.00 84.0 -4.9 3.8

2E802 3672 95.0 13.0 95.6', -7.8 5.2

28832 5357 102.4 19.0 103.7 -10.8 8.6

28468 6635 101.0 23.5 : 103.2 1-11.5 7.1

A:.1g1e

'J:: 1ift

q, ij tao k L

-0.2 I 1.2 r 2.6 4.0 5.5 8.4

11.2 14.1 17.1 20.1

Table X - Biplane D.

Dynamic pressure

q = 57.0 kg/rna (11.67 Ib!sq.ft.) 8 - 4960 cm2 (7G8" 8 eli in )

I - .. . .
I .-
Angle Coef .of CoeLof Coef.of Coef.of Coef ·of ___
of Lift Drag lift drag !1a't·l,!a.l . tangen- rr.orr:ent
attack L D °1 CD force tial
I force
g g On Ct Cm
-8.8 -6625 2751 -83.3 9 .. 70 -26.£ 5.5 -2.7
-5.9 -3096 1904 -10.9 6.72 -11.6 6.0 3.4
-4.5 -970 1555 -3 .. 4 5.48 -3.9 5.2 6.0
-3.0 1605 1257 9 .. 1 4.43 6.0 4.8 9.7
-1.6 4590 1092 16.2 3~85 16.2 4.3 14.5
-0.2 6550 943 23 .. 1 3.33 23.2 3.4 14.4
1.2 8840 879 31 .. 2 3.11 32.4- 2.4- 15.9
2.6 11310 9113 :3?-.3 3.23 40.7 1.2 18.0
4.1 13330 1034- 47.0 3.65 43.4 \ 0.1 19.6
5.6 15400 '1250 54.3 4.42 55~2 -1.3 19.7
8,,4 I J.9FJCO 1793 69 .. 2 6.35 70~0 -4.6 21.7
14.1 I 2'7',.,00 341:5 90 .. 7 12.1 94.2 -13.5 23.5
17.0 I 30950 4316 109.0 15.2 109,0 -19.4 22.5
20.0 32750 5443 115.5 19.2 115.0 -23.6 21.8
I Figs. 1. & 2

l~o ~

a----------~ :

\ ' I

\[ :

, I

b

Fig. 1.

a=M.ean span _§_

9

b=lg~ mm(7.2~ in.) 0=132 11 (5.20" )

d= q.l.j. It (1. .73 If )

Wing 1.

Section 359

Section 368 Fig. 2

.. ---~ - . -- -

60 1--11---4 or

oW

401--1--+

100

. 10 CD

Fig. 3 Wing 1 Section 359 Om

1~O-10 0

o

100

120

C L 60 1--+--1-

40 I--li--+--I-<~

20~~-+-+-~~4-~1-4-+~ I

o 10 20

Cn

Fig. 4 Wing 2 Section 359

CL60~-+~~~~~~--+ 4-0 t--+-t-.....j-...I'-~

Figs. ~ & 6

m 20

-20~~~4-~~~=~~~~~

-~O~~~~~~~~~~~

10 CD

Fig. 5 Wing 3 Section 359 c

m

o

20

o 10 20 On

Fig. 6 Wing4 ~ection 368

12

o

o

0 10 20 30 0 so
I !'nT 1 r
14-0 ~ ~70200
LZ
~ ~
~3.3° ~
/. I
Jry5.5°~ I--
~2.6°1 ~
· [1'1
tr 1 -_ 20
1 If J
t3·~i
rI
,d \(1':5.90
lei ln~t·tOI
100

80

o 60 L

4-0

20

-20

-40

0 10 20
CD
Fig& 7 Trip1ane A
C
m
10 20

lOO

80 11~2°
8.30
60 5_5°1 ._4o~~~~~~~-L~

o

10 20

On

Triplane Bl

Fig. S

1200 10
100

80

60

C L 40
20 Fig. 9

100

C L40

-20

-40

o

Fig. 10

I

-r-

I !

_6.0°

~f--+-I--""'t -8 ~ SO~~_~-I--~

-40~~~~~~~~~~~

o

10 20

Cn

Trip1ane B2

C

m

6

so

10 20 30 0 SO 0
-r I' I
~ i7j.u :
.
iP ~ TO 20.1°
* ~Vll4.1 I
Tq if;;' 11.2° I
.4°
1 ~ 5.50
2 .. 60
1* ~-.20 -
i~ -3.1°
;~ I'~ ° I
-5.~9. I
r-, I 5 gO
1 to" j' f 60

20

o

10

20

Figs. 11 & 12 C

60

20

-40~~·~~~~~~~~~~

o

10

20

Fig. 11

CD Trip1ane C2

gO f-+-+C L 60 I--\--+-+~--'l---..H--t--! 40

C m

-40 L......I.---I.--J-.-J---L-....!...-..I....-~--L.--'-__,

o 10 20 CD

BiplE1n~ .. fcl:' compar i son

Fig.. 12

Fig. 13

d=lS4 mm(7.24 in.) e=152~m(5.98 in.)

i=135.5 mm{5.33 in.) j=128 « (5.0~» )

r= 64 mm(2.52 in.) s= 31 II (1.22 n )

Upper wing: Span 106 cm(41.73 in.) Chord 18.4 cm(7.2~ in~)

Middle n n 115 II (~5. 28 n ) " 15.2" (5.98 II )

Lower U II 99" (38.98 n ) II 12.8 u (5.04 n )

Total area 4960 om2(768.8 sq.in.)

Fig. 13

Triplane A

Fig~ :1.4

d=18~ mm(7.2~ in.) p=s4 mm(3.31 in.) e=152 mm(5.9S in.)

g=140 II (5.51" ) j=12S IT (5. bl+ 11 )

I .~ -s

Upper wing: Span 115 cm(45.2S in.) Chord 15.2 cm(5.9S in.)

Middle n If 106 It (41.73 II ) II lS.4 II (7.24 n- )

Lower IT II 99 II (38.98 n ) II 12.8 II (5.04 IT )

Total area 4960 cm2{768.S sq.in.)

Fig. 14

Trip1ane BJ.

Fig. 15

h

1.2° -~3°

). -1. 7 °

-3.1°

t=4~L~jfW'@2~~-4. 6°

d=lS4 mm(7.24 in.) q=31 mm(3.19 in.) g=140 II (5.51" )

j=12S II (5.04 IT )

e=152 mm(5.98 in.) h=137 II (5.39" ) k= S9 " (3.50 II )

Upper wing: Span 115 cm(45.2S in,) Chord 15.2 cm(5.98 in.)

Middle II n 105 II (41.73 II ) " lS.4- tr (7.24 II )

Lower" II 99 11 (38 .. 93 II ) IT 12~g" (5.04" )

Total area 4-960 c~2(768.3 sq. in. )

Fig. 15

Triplane B2

Fig. 16

, I

_13.13° VI' /

, ' ",

i J ' '

L~ _ _gOJ_OI~ ~_~===-

1<-- m - ·I~ ._ j - ---'

d=184 rnm(7.24 in.) n=86 mm(3.39 in.) f=141 " (5.55 tI )

j=128 " (5.0~" )

17.10

20.10 14.10

11.20 k--n --~ 'T" -, - - - -1'11f~~~~~~-

~ I

! I

f

e=152 mm{5.98 in.)

h=137 n (5.39 II )

m= 88 " (3.~6 II )

Upper wing: Span 115 cm(45.23 in.) Chord 15.2 cm(5.98 in¥)

Middle n II 1.06 [f (41.73 II ) fI 18.4" (7.24 II )

Lower II If 99 It (38.93 II ) It 12.8 n (5.ol+ II )

Total area 4970 cm2(770.3 sq.in.)

Fig. 16

Trip1ane C1

Fig. :1.7

.-_- :~

d=184 mre(7.24 in.) n=S6 mm(3.39 in.) g==140 n (5.51 II )

e=152 mm(5.98 in.) j=128 " (5.04 tT )

Upper \nng: Span 115 cre(45.2S in.) Chord 15.2 c~(5.98 in.)

Middle tt n 106 II (4-1.73 n I II 18 .. 4 II (7.24- II )

Lo~er" n 99 n (36.98 II ) " 12.8" (5.04 u )

Total area 4970 cm2(770.3 sq.in.)

Fig. 17

Triplane C2

Fig. 1.8

~~

I 1.7°

I 14.1.2°

I I

al

I I

. I

I I I I I I

°

-3.05

a=278 mm(10.S4 in.)c=220 mm(S.66 in.) b=264 mm(10.39 in.) upper wing: Span 106 cm(41.73 in.) Chord 26.4 cm(10.39 in.) Lower" n 98« (38.58« ) " 22.0 n ( 8.66 n )

Total area 4960 cm2(76S.8 sq.in.)

Fig. 18

Biplane D

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