ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKING SYSTEM

A Seminar Report Submitted By

Name Class Branch Section

: : : :

Shashank Gupta Seventh Sem Mechanical Engineering C

Electromagnetic Braking System

Roll Number

: 145

Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.

Electromagnetic Braking System

CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION CONSTRUCTION FEATURES CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES REFERENCES

Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.

Electromagnetic Braking System

1. INTRODUCTION

Electromagnetic brakes have been used as supplementary retardation equipment in addition to the regular friction brakes on heavy vehicles. Electromagnetic brakes operate electrically, but transmit torque mechanically. This is why they used to be referred to as electro-mechanical brakes. Over the years, EM brakes became known as electromagnetic, referring to their Actuation method. Since the brakes started becoming popular over sixty years ago, the variety of applications and brake designs has increased dramatically, but the basic operation remains the same.

A non-contact brake design actuated when an electric current charges a coil that acts as an electromagnet. Electromagnetic brakes are widely used in automated machinery and provide a high cycling rate. On trams and trains, an electromagnetic brake is a track brake where the braking element is pressed by magnetic force to the rail, i.e. the braking is by friction, not the magnetic effect directly. This is different from an Eddy current brake where there is no mechanical contact between the braking element on the moving
Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.

These eddy currents generate an opposing magnetic field.Electromagnetic Braking System vehicle and the rail. control of the braking action is made possible by varying the strength of the magnetic field. and a magnetic field between the rotor and the coil creates a resistance used to generate electricity or heat. Electromagnetic brakes are similar to electrical motors. nonferromagnetic metal discs (rotors) are connected to a rotating coil. The net result is to convert the motion of the rotors into heat in the rotors. eddy current brakes slow an object by creating eddy currents through electromagnetic induction which create resistance. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION There are three parts to an electromagnetic brake: field. armature. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. which then resists the rotation of the discs. A braking force is possible when electric current is passed through the electromagnets. and hub (which is the input on a brake). 2. The movement of the metal through the magnetic field of the electromagnets creates eddy currents in the discs. Usually the magnetic field is bolted to the machine frame (or uses a torque arm that can handle the torque of the brake). . like a conventional friction brake. is responsible for slowing an object. When electromagnets are used. Unlike friction brakes. such as a train or a roller coaster. providing braking force. So when the armature is attracted to the field the stopping torque is Dept. An eddy current brake. and in turn either heat or electricity. which apply pressure on two separate objects.

of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. and thus no wear and tear of it. This can happen very fast (. A spring(s) hold the armature away from its corresponding contact surface at a predetermined air gap. unusable at low speeds. and that causes eddy currents. Once the field starts to degrade flux falls rapidly and the armature separates. The regular magnetic brake which is in wide use in railways. which also creates heat. and creates no noise or odor. The braking energy of the vehicle is converted in eddy current losses which lead to a warming of the rail. These disturb the magnetic field in such a way that the magnetic force F. which then generates electrical tension (Faraday's induction law). When the magnet is moved along the rail. The eddy current brake is. it generates in non- stationary magnetic field in the head of the rail. exerts its braking force by friction with the rail. is diverted to the opposite of the direction of the movement. but can be used at high speeds both for emergency braking as well as regular and regulated braking. which works against the movement of the magnet. mentioned above.1-3sec). The eddy current brake does not have any mechanical contact with the rail. .Electromagnetic Braking System transferred into the field housing and into the machine frame decelerating the load. Dept. Disengagement is very simple. as should be clear from the above explanation. thus creating a parallelogram of forces consisting of the remaining vertical force FV and the horizontal force FH.

from the current. around the nail and then connected to a battery. A constant current power supply is ideal for accurate and maximum torque from a brake. The fields of EM brakes can be made to operate at almost any DC voltage and the torque produced by the brake will be the same as long as the correct operating voltage and current is used with the correct brake. The magnetic field that is generated in the wire. it would create an electro magnet. If a 90 volt brake had 48 volts applied to it. this would get about half of the correct torque output of that brake. is known as the “right hand thumb rule”. If a non regulated power supply is used the magnetic flux will degrade as Dept. This is because voltage/current is almost linear to torque in DC electromagnetic brakes.1 Voltage/Current and The Magnetic Field V-1 Right hand thumb rule If a piece of copper wire was wound. EM clutches are similar. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. (V-1) The strength of the magnetic field can be changed by changing both wire size and the amount of wire (turns). they use a copper wire coil (sometimes aluminum) to create a magnetic field.Electromagnetic Braking System 2. .

2 Torque Burnishing can affect initial torque of a brake but there are also factors that affect the torque performance of a brake in an application. So. However. by slightly over sizing the brake can compensate for degradation. the question of using dynamic or static torque for the application is key? For example. 2. when running a machine at 3. This will allow the use of a rectified power supply. . If the temperature is fairly constant. when trying to determine a specific response rate for a particular brake.000rpm and applying the brake at its catalog torque. the dynamic torque rating is needed. Dept. and there is a question of enough service factor in the design for minor temperature fluctuation. the hotter the coil gets the lower the torque will be produced by about an average of 8% for every 20°C. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. When considering torque. Basically. The main one is voltage/current. It can be less than half of the static torque rating. Most manufacturers publish torque curves showing the relationship between dynamic and static torque for a given series of brake. Almost all manufacturers put the static rated torque for their brakes in their catalog.Electromagnetic Braking System the resistance of the coil goes up. In many cases this can be significantly lower. In the voltage/current section we showed why a constant current supply is important to get full torque out of the brake. which is far less expensive than a constant current supply. at that rpm. if running a machine at relatively low rpm (5 – 50 depending upon size) there is minimal concern with dynamic torque since the static torque rating of the brake will come closest to where it is running. is misleading.

To be effective.Electromagnetic Braking System Over-excitation is used to achieve a faster response time. but not to the point of diminishing Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. the over-excitation voltage must be significantly. . It is when a coil momentarily receives a higher voltage than its nominal rating.

Most brakes are flanged mounted and have bearings but some brakes are bearing mounted and like the coils. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. . Once the over-excitation is no longer required. they tend to have a long life and they are usually the second item to wear out. higher than the normal coil voltage. Although it would depend upon the size of the coil. high cycle rates. With over-excitation.4 Backlash Some applications require very tight precision between all components. the power supply to the brake would return to its normal operating voltage.3 Wear It is very rare that a coil would just stop working in an electromagnetic brake. That heat can be caused by high ambient temperature. 2.Electromagnetic Braking System returns. the actual time is usually only a few milliseconds. The theory is. the in-rush voltage is momentary. Fifteen times the normal coil voltage will produce a 3 times faster response time. In these applications even a degree of movement between the input and the output when Dept. unless bearings are stressed beyond their physical limitations or become contaminated. This process can be repeated a number of times as long as the high voltage does not stay in the coil long enough to cause the coil wire to overheat. for the coil to generate as much of a magnetic field as quickly as possible to attract the armature and start the process of deceleration. Three times the voltage typically gives around 1/3 faster response. 2. slipping or applying too high of a voltage. Typically if a coil fails it is usually due to heat which has caused the insulation of the coil wire to break down.

Electromagnetic Braking System a brake is engaged can be a problem.CONSTRUCTION The construction of the electromagnetic brake motor is shown below. the armature is retracted to the spring. This creates an air gap between the armature and brake lining. The motor shaft is then released from braking to run freely. The electromagnetic brake is off. Sometimes the design engineers will order brakes with zero backlash but then key them to the shafts so although the brake will have zero backlash there is still minimal movement occurring between the hub or rotor in the shaft. When voltage is applied to the coil. This is true in many robotic applications. the armature is pressed against the brake lining by the spring force to stop the motor shaft. . 3.FEATURES Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. When the voltage to the coil is shut off (the power is turned off). 4.

The construction of the electromagnetic brake motor is shown below. the armature is pressed against the brake lining by the spring force to stop the motor shaft. The motor shaft is then released from braking to run freely. (Secure 3 seconds or longer for a pause.and at least three times the braking power of an exhaust brake (Reverdin1974). the armature is retracted to the spring. it will be activated and hold the load securely.Electromagnetic Braking System • It is suitable for holding the load. load holding for a long period of time and the prevention of free-run of the machine. • The brake can be used as an excellent safety brake. • A quick-reversal run can be frequently. • The brake will be activated instantly. Among the examples are emergency braking at the time of power failure. This creates an air gap between the armature and brake lining. The overrun is only 2 to 4 revolutions when the motor is used alone. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. 5. -When voltage is applied to the coil. it can use the same .AC power supply as the motor. Because the electromagnetic brake is off.) • Common power for both motor and brake can be used. Because the electromagnetic brake section contains a rectifier circuit. Up to 6 cycles of start/stop can be performed through simple switching. The electromagnetic brake is off. CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES It was found that electromagnetic brakes can develop a negative power which represents nearly twice the maximum power output of a typical engine. when the power is turned off. -When the voltage to the coil is shut off (the power is turned off). . These performance of electromagnetic brakes make them much more competitive Dept.

and Therefore practically never reach high temperatures. By using the electromagnetic brake as supplementary retardation equipment. The characteristics of the electromagnetic motor depend on the following three elements. 6. stop time. the friction brakes can be used less frequently. etc. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE Dept. overrun. and the potentially “brake fade” problem could be avoided. The characterstics of the electromagnetic motor include responses regarding a start time. the start time and stop time will be determined. And these are all affected by the load inertia.Electromagnetic Braking System candidate for alternative retardation equipments compared with other retarders. . It is necessary to give sufficient attention to the load inertia in particular because it varies depending on the equipment used together with the motor. 1) Average acceleration torque of the motor 2) Average value of brake torque 3) Load torque and inertia When these elements are identified. The brake linings would last considerably longer before requiring maintenance.

Typical applications include robotics. There are 2 main types of holding brakes. Introduction .Power off brakes stop or hold a load when electrical power is either accidentally lost or intentionally disconnected. These brakes are typically used on or near an electric motor.Electromagnetic Braking System 6. The first is spring applied brakes. without increasing brake diameter. holding brakes for Z axis ball screws and servo motor brakes. . In the past.1 Electromagnetic Power Off Brake. How It Works Dept. some companies have referred to these as "fail safe" brakes. The second is permanent magnet brakes. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. Multiple disks can also be used to increase brake torque. Brakes are available in multiple voltages and can have either standard backlash or zero backlash hubs.

power is applied to the coil which sets up an alternate magnetic field that cancels out the magnetic flux of the permanent magnets. a spring pushes against a pressure plate. Instead of squeezing a friction disk.A permanent magnet holding brake looks very similar to a standard power applied electromagnetic brake. . of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. Dept. Both power off brakes are considered to be engaged when no power is applied to them. When the brake is engaged. but also require a constant current control to offset the permanent magnetic field. which can turn attract the armature to the brake housing. To disengage the brake. they can use a simple rectifier. Spring applied brakes do not require a constant current control. via springs. squeezing the friction disk between the inner pressure plate and the outer cover plate.When no electricity is applied to the brake. This frictional clamping force is transferred to the hub. which is mounted to a shaft. Permanent magnet brakes have a very high torque for their size. but are larger in diameter or would need stacked friction disks to increase the torque. They are typically required to hold or to stop alone in the event of a loss of power or when power is not available in a machine circuit. the permanent magnets create magnetic lines of flux. it uses permanent magnets to attract a single face armature. Permanent Magnet Type .Electromagnetic Braking System Spring Type .

they can also be used in high cycle applications. such as wire winding.Electromagnetic Braking System 6.Magnetic particle brakes are unique in their design from other electro-mechanical brakes because of the wide operating torque range available. torque can be controlled very accurately (within the operating RPM range of the unit). How It Works . torque to voltage is almost linear. As the electric current is increased. sorting machines and labeling equipment. such as magnetic card readers. the binding of the particles becomes stronger. Because of their fast response. Like an electro-mechanical brake. film. The Dept. and tape tension control.2 Electromagnetic Particle Brake Introduction . When electricity is applied to the coil. .Magnetic particles (very similar to iron filings) are located in the powder cavity. almost like a magnetic particle slush. the resulting magnetic flux tries to bind the particles together. foil. This makes these units ideally suited for tension control applications. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. however. in a magnetic particle brake.

the input is free to turn with the shaft. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. all magnetic particle units have some type of minimum drag associated with them. 6. . a resistant force is created on the rotor. The output of the housing is rigidly attached to some portion of the machine. When electricity is removed from the brake.Electrical hysteresis units have an extremely wide torque range. Since these units can be controlled remotely. Dept.Electromagnetic Braking System brake rotor passes through these bound particles. slowing. As the particles start to bind together. these units offer the widest available torque range of any of the hysteresis products. Since magnetic particle powder is in the cavity. they are ideal for test stand applications where varying torque is required. and eventually stopping the output shaft. Most applications involving powered hysteresis units are in test stand requirements. Since drag torque is minimal.3 Electromagnetic Hysteresis Power Brake Introduction .

it creates an internal magnetic flux.Electromagnetic Braking System How It Works . The hysteresis disk is attached to the brake shaft. Dept. the only torque seen between the input and the output is bearing drag. A magnetic drag on the hysteresis disk allows for a constant drag. Therefore. and no relative force is transmitted between either member. These brakes can be used either wet or dry. or in off road equipment.When electricity is applied to the field. . the hysteresis disk is free to turn.4 Multiple Disk Brakes Introduction . machine tool applications. That flux is then transferred into a hysteresis disk passing through the field. or eventual stoppage of the output shaft. 6. When electricity is removed from the brake. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.Multiple disk brakes are used to deliver extremely high torque within a small space. which makes them ideal to run in multi speed gear box applications.

stopping and holding the shaft. This makes it ideal Dept. . Since torque is produced without physical contact of parts Electromagnetic devices are not subject to wear.Electro-mechanical disk brakes operate via electrical actuation. it squeezes the inner and outer friction disks together.Electromagnetic Braking System How It Works . As the disks are squeezed. Since their working members have no physical contact they do not depend on mechanical friction. torque is transmitted from the hub into the machine frame. Electromagnetic brakes are also the most repeatable braking devices known. but transmit torque mechanically. whenever operating factors are repeated. This feature makes them distinctly superior to mechanicalfriction brakes in life expectancy. servicing requirements and consistency of performance. As it does so. an indefinite number of times. When electricity is applied to the coil of an electromagnet. The brake housing is mounted solidly to the machine frame. 7. They will repeat their performance precisely. the magnetic flux attracts the armature to the face of the brake. Therefore. Torque is reasonably independent of slip speed and is also directly proportional to coil current. They have an extremely wide torque range. When electricity is removed from the brake. the armature is free to turn with the shaft. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. There is no contact between breaking surfaces and minimal drag. hysteresis units are absolutely and constantly smooth at any slip ratio. making response time extremely quick. Springs keep the friction disk and armature away from each other. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Electromagnetic brakes rely purely on magnetic action working through an air gap to develop torque. The hub is normally mounted on the shaft that is rotating.

Sometimes paper dust or other contamination can fall in between the contact surfaces. environmental stability. These devices have a number of advantages over magnetic particle brakes. Obviously oil or grease should be kept away from the contact surface because they would significantly reduce the coefficient of friction which could drastically decrease the torque potentially causing failure. They also have the widest speed range of all electronically torque-control devices. 7. They can tolerate extreme temperatures and have high heat-dissipation capability. . Oil midst or lubricated particles can also cause surface contamination. These advantages include long life.1 Environment / Contamination As brakes wear they create wear particles. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.Electromagnetic Braking System for many precision tension control and testing applications. But a more likely scenario is that the brake has a better chance of getting contaminated from its environment. If a known source of contamination is going to be present many Dept. The transmitted torque remains constant and smooth as the hysteresis element is forced to rotate within the air gap and will respond to increases and decreases in coil current with corresponding increases and decreases in torque. Hysteresis units will outlast any other type of electromechanical unit. This can also result in a lost of torque. In some applications such as clean rooms or food handling this dust could be a contamination problem so in these applications the brake should be enclosed to prevent the particles from contaminating other surfaces around it. precise repeatability and consistency of performance and extremely low power consumption. in particular eliminating the problem of confining the magnetic particles inside the gap.

. http://www.pdf Dept.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_brake 2.vt.magtorx. But in general this is normally not a major concern since the rust is worn off within a few cycles and there is no lasting impact on the torque. and steering By Tim GilleS 3.REFERENCE 1.pdf 5.com/ww/i_e/25000/fa_pro_sgeard_shing1_e/fa_ pro_sgeard_shing1_e/ctlg_geared_e_14. http://en.Electromagnetic Braking System clutch manufactures offer contamination shields that prevent material from falling in between the contact surfaces. http://industrial._Why_we_using_Current_Regulated_ Power_Supply_for_electromagnetic_brakes_and_clutches_ 4.panasonic.com/faq.edu/theses/available/etd5440202339731121/unrestricted/CHAP2_DOC. http://scholar.lib. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.htm#6. suspension. In brakes that have not been used in a while rust can develop on the surfaces.wikipedia. 8. Automotive chassis: brakes.

of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. .Electromagnetic Braking System Dept.

Electromagnetic Braking System Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. .

of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. .Electromagnetic Braking System Dept.

Electromagnetic Braking System CONTENTS 9. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. 12. 14. 15. 11. INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION CONSTRUCTION FEATURES CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES REFERENCES Dept. 13. 16. 10. .

A non-contact brake design actuated when an electric current charges a coil that acts as an electromagnet. Over the years. but ransmit torque mechanically. an electromagnetic brake is a track brake where the braking element is pressed by magnetic force to the rail. INTRODUCTION Electromagnetic brakes have been used as supplementary retardation equipment in addition to the regular friction brakes on heavy vehicles. On trams and trains. not the magnetic effect directly.Electromagnetic Braking System 1. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. Electromagnetic brakes operate electrically. the braking is by friction. This is different from an Eddy current brake where there is no mechanical contact between the braking element on the moving Dept. i. Since the brakes started becoming popular over sixty years ago. Electromagnetic brakes are widely used in automated machinery and provide a high cycling rate.e. This is why they used to be referred to as electro-mechanical brakes. the variety of applications and brake designs has increased dramatically. . but the basic operation remains the same. referring to their Actuation method. EM brakes became known as electromagnetic.

Electromagnetic Braking System vehicle and the rail. is responsible for slowing an object. like a conventional friction brake. which then resists the rotation of the discs. Usually the magnetic field is bolted to the machine frame (or uses a torque arm that can handle the torque of the brake). such as a train or a roller coaster. and in turn either heat or electricity. The movement of the metal through the magnetic field of the electromagnets creates eddy currents in the discs. eddy current brakes slow an object by creating eddy currents through electromagnetic induction which create resistance. Unlike friction brakes. nonferromagnetic metal discs (rotors) are connected to a rotating coil. These eddy currents generate an opposing magnetic field. control of the braking action is made possible by varying the strength of the magnetic field. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. and a magnetic field between the rotor and the coil creates a resistance used to generate electricity or heat. A braking force is possible when electric current is passed through the electromagnets. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION There are three parts to an electromagnetic brake: field. . Electromagnetic brakes are similar to electrical motors. The net result is to convert the motion of the rotors into heat in the rotors. which apply pressure on two separate objects. When electromagnets are used. armature. An eddy current brake. and hub (which is the input on a brake). providing braking force. So when the armature is attracted to the field the stopping torque is Dept.

Electromagnetic Braking System transferred into the field housing and into the machine frame decelerating the load. exerts its braking force by friction with the rail. and creates no noise or odor. A spring(s) hold the armature away from its corresponding contact surface at a predetermined air gap. .1-3sec). which then generates electrical tension (Faraday's induction law). This can happen very fast (. Disengagement is very simple. is diverted to the opposite of the direction of the movement. it generates in non- stationary magnetic field in the head of the rail. unusable at low speeds. but can be used at high speeds both for emergency braking as well as regular and regulated braking. which works against the movement of the magnet. and thus no wear and tear of it. and that causes eddy currents. Once the field starts to degrade flux falls rapidly and the armature separates. mentioned above. as should be clear from the above explanation. The eddy current brake does not have any mechanical contact with the rail. These disturb the magnetic field in such a way that the magnetic force F. When the magnet is moved along the rail.The regular magnetic brake which is in wide use in railways. Dept. which also creates heat. The eddy current brake is. thus creating a parallelogram of forces consisting of the remaining vertical force FV and the horizontal force FH. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. The braking energy of the vehicle is converted in eddy current losses which lead to a warming of the rail.

This is because voltage/current is almost linear to torque in DC electromagnetic brakes.Electromagnetic Braking System 2.1 Voltage/Current and The Magnetic Field V-1 Right hand thumb rule If a piece of copper wire was wound. from the current. around the nail and then connected to a battery. EM clutches are similar. . is known as the “right hand thumb rule”. The magnetic field that is generated in the wire. If a non regulated power supply is used the magnetic flux will degrade as Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. A constant current power supply is ideal for accurate and maximum torque from a brake. this would get about half of the correct torque output of that brake. (V-1) The strength of the magnetic field can be changed by changing both wire size and the amount of wire (turns). If a 90 volt brake had 48 volts applied to it. it would create an electro magnet. they use a copper wire coil (sometimes aluminum) to create a magnetic field. The fields of EM brakes can be made to operate at almost any DC voltage and the torque produced by the brake will be the same as long as the correct operating voltage and current is used with the correct brake.

of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. is misleading. the question of using dynamic or static torque for the application is key? For example. if running a machine at relatively low rpm (5 – 50 depending upon size) there is minimal concern with dynamic torque since the static torque rating of the brake will come closest to where it is running.Electromagnetic Braking System the resistance of the coil goes up. In the voltage/current section we showed why a constant current supply is important to get full torque out of the brake. at that rpm. If the temperature is fairly constant. . It can be less than half of the static torque rating. So. the hotter the coil gets the lower the torque will be produced by about an average of 8% for every 20°C.2 Torque Burnishing can affect initial torque of a brake but there are also factors that affect the torque performance of a brake in an application. When considering torque. In many cases this can be significantly lower. the dynamic torque rating is needed. and there is a question of enough service factor in the design for minor temperature fluctuation. The main one is voltage/current. 2. Basically. which is far less expensive than a constant current supply. by slightly over sizing the brake can compensate for degradation. Almost all manufacturers put the static rated torque for their brakes in their catalog. Most manufacturers publish torque curves showing the relationship between dynamic and static torque for a given series of brake. However. when trying to determine a specific response rate for a particular brake. This will allow the use of a rectified power supply. Dept.000rpm and applying the brake at its catalog torque. when running a machine at 3.

It is when a coil momentarily receives a higher voltage than its nominal rating. To be effective. the over-excitation voltage must be significantly. .Electromagnetic Braking System Over-excitation is used to achieve a faster response time. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. but not to the point of diminishing Dept.

higher than the normal coil voltage. Fifteen times the normal coil voltage will produce a 3 times faster response time. 2. Three times the voltage typically gives around 1/3 faster response. for the coil to generate as much of a magnetic field as quickly as possible to attract the armature and start the process of deceleration. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. Once the over-excitation is no longer required. slipping or applying too high of a voltage.3 Wear It is very rare that a coil would just stop working in an electromagnetic brake. the in-rush voltage is momentary. With over-excitation. Although it would depend upon the size of the coil. they tend to have a long life and they are usually the second item to wear out. the power supply to the brake would return to its normal operating voltage. the actual time is usually only a few milliseconds. high cycle rates. That heat can be caused by high ambient temperature. In these applications even a degree of movement between the input and the output when Dept. . This process can be repeated a number of times as long as the high voltage does not stay in the coil long enough to cause the coil wire to overheat. The theory is. unless bearings are stressed beyond their physical limitations or become contaminated.4 Backlash Some applications require very tight precision between all components. Typically if a coil fails it is usually due to heat which has caused the insulation of the coil wire to break down. Most brakes are flanged mounted and have bearings but some brakes are bearing mounted and like the coils.Electromagnetic Braking System returns. 2.

4. The motor shaft is then released from braking to run freely. When voltage is applied to the coil. .FEATURES Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. When the voltage to the coil is shut off (the power is turned off). the armature is retracted to the spring. Sometimes the design engineers will order brakes with zero backlash but then key them to the shafts so although the brake will have zero backlash there is still minimal movement occurring between the hub or rotor in the shaft. This is true in many robotic applications.Electromagnetic Braking System a brake is engaged can be a problem.CONSTRUCTION The construction of the electromagnetic brake motor is shown below. The electromagnetic brake is off. the armature is pressed against the brake lining by the spring force to stop the motor shaft. This creates an air gap between the armature and brake lining. 3.

5. it can use the same . Among the examples are emergency braking at the time of power failure. • A quick-reversal run can be frequently. it will be activated and hold the load securely. -When voltage is applied to the coil. the armature is pressed against the brake lining by the spring force to stop the motor shaft. Because the electromagnetic brake is off. These performance of electromagnetic brakes make them much more competitive Dept. • The brake can be used as an excellent safety brake. load holding for a long period of time and the prevention of free-run of the machine.AC power supply as the motor. Up to 6 cycles of start/stop can be performed through simple switching. Because the electromagnetic brake section contains a rectifier circuit. -When the voltage to the coil is shut off (the power is turned off). The motor shaft is then released from braking to run freely.Electromagnetic Braking System • It is suitable for holding the load.) • Common power for both motor and brake can be used. This creates an air gap between the armature and brake lining.and at least three times the braking power of an exhaust brake (Reverdin1974). (Secure 3 seconds or longer for a pause. • The brake will be activated instantly. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. The electromagnetic brake is off. . when the power is turned off. The overrun is only 2 to 4 revolutions when the motor is used alone. CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES It was found that electromagnetic brakes can develop a negative power which represents nearly twice the maximum power output of a typical engine. the armature is retracted to the spring. The construction of the electromagnetic brake motor is shown below.

TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE Dept. The characteristics of the electromagnetic motor depend on the following three elements. stop time. etc. And these are all affected by the load inertia. 6. 1) Average acceleration torque of the motor 2) Average value of brake torque 3) Load torque and inertia When these elements are identified. It is necessary to give sufficient attention to the load inertia in particular because it varies depending on the equipment used together with the motor. the friction brakes can be used less frequently.Electromagnetic Braking System candidate for alternative retardation equipments compared with other retarders. and Therefore practically never reach high temperatures. The brake linings would last considerably longer before requiring maintenance. By using the electromagnetic brake as supplementary retardation equipment. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. The characterstics of the electromagnetic motor include responses regarding a start time. the start time and stop time will be determined. . and the potentially “brake fade” problem could be avoided. overrun.

Electromagnetic Braking System 6. The first is spring applied brakes.1 Electromagnetic Power Off Brake. without increasing brake diameter. Brakes are available in multiple voltages and can have either standard backlash or zero backlash hubs. These brakes are typically used on or near an electric motor. Introduction . In the past.Power off brakes stop or hold a load when electrical power is either accidentally lost or intentionally disconnected. Typical applications include robotics. The second is permanent magnet brakes. holding brakes for Z axis ball screws and servo motor brakes. some companies have referred to these as "fail safe" brakes. Multiple disks can also be used to increase brake torque. How It Works Dept. . There are 2 main types of holding brakes. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.

it uses permanent magnets to attract a single face armature. Instead of squeezing a friction disk.A permanent magnet holding brake looks very similar to a standard power applied electromagnetic brake. Dept. This frictional clamping force is transferred to the hub. When the brake is engaged. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. To disengage the brake. Both power off brakes are considered to be engaged when no power is applied to them. the permanent magnets create magnetic lines of flux. They are typically required to hold or to stop alone in the event of a loss of power or when power is not available in a machine circuit.Electromagnetic Braking System Spring Type . Permanent magnet brakes have a very high torque for their size. Spring applied brakes do not require a constant current control. . but are larger in diameter or would need stacked friction disks to increase the torque.When no electricity is applied to the brake. but also require a constant current control to offset the permanent magnetic field. via springs. which is mounted to a shaft. they can use a simple rectifier. a spring pushes against a pressure plate. power is applied to the coil which sets up an alternate magnetic field that cancels out the magnetic flux of the permanent magnets. Permanent Magnet Type . squeezing the friction disk between the inner pressure plate and the outer cover plate. which can turn attract the armature to the brake housing.

the binding of the particles becomes stronger. such as magnetic card readers. As the electric current is increased. torque to voltage is almost linear. almost like a magnetic particle slush. How It Works . When electricity is applied to the coil. they can also be used in high cycle applications. This makes these units ideally suited for tension control applications. film.Electromagnetic Braking System 6. torque can be controlled very accurately (within the operating RPM range of the unit). Because of their fast response.Magnetic particle brakes are unique in their design from other electro-mechanical brakes because of the wide operating torque range available. sorting machines and labeling equipment. and tape tension control. in a magnetic particle brake.Magnetic particles (very similar to iron filings) are located in the powder cavity. the resulting magnetic flux tries to bind the particles together. foil. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. such as wire winding. The Dept.2 Electromagnetic Particle Brake Introduction . however. . Like an electro-mechanical brake.

the input is free to turn with the shaft. a resistant force is created on the rotor. . Since these units can be controlled remotely. 6. all magnetic particle units have some type of minimum drag associated with them. Since magnetic particle powder is in the cavity. When electricity is removed from the brake. Dept.Electromagnetic Braking System brake rotor passes through these bound particles. they are ideal for test stand applications where varying torque is required. Most applications involving powered hysteresis units are in test stand requirements. As the particles start to bind together. Since drag torque is minimal. slowing. The output of the housing is rigidly attached to some portion of the machine.Electrical hysteresis units have an extremely wide torque range.3 Electromagnetic Hysteresis Power Brake Introduction . these units offer the widest available torque range of any of the hysteresis products. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. and eventually stopping the output shaft.

4 Multiple Disk Brakes Introduction . and no relative force is transmitted between either member. or eventual stoppage of the output shaft. The hysteresis disk is attached to the brake shaft. it creates an internal magnetic flux. Dept.Electromagnetic Braking System How It Works .When electricity is applied to the field. the hysteresis disk is free to turn. . Therefore. the only torque seen between the input and the output is bearing drag. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. 6. which makes them ideal to run in multi speed gear box applications. or in off road equipment.Multiple disk brakes are used to deliver extremely high torque within a small space. machine tool applications. That flux is then transferred into a hysteresis disk passing through the field. A magnetic drag on the hysteresis disk allows for a constant drag. These brakes can be used either wet or dry. When electricity is removed from the brake.

This feature makes them distinctly superior to mechanicalfriction brakes in life expectancy. but transmit torque mechanically. 7. They have an extremely wide torque range. This makes it ideal Dept. When electricity is removed from the brake. As the disks are squeezed. There is no contact between breaking surfaces and minimal drag. stopping and holding the shaft. Since their working members have no physical contact they do not depend on mechanical friction. hysteresis units are absolutely and constantly smooth at any slip ratio. When electricity is applied to the coil of an electromagnet. The hub is normally mounted on the shaft that is rotating. Since torque is produced without physical contact of parts Electromagnetic devices are not subject to wear. servicing requirements and consistency of performance. making response time extremely quick. Therefore. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. They will repeat their performance precisely. Electromagnetic brakes are also the most repeatable braking devices known. torque is transmitted from the hub into the machine frame.Electromagnetic Braking System How It Works . whenever operating factors are repeated. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Electromagnetic brakes rely purely on magnetic action working through an air gap to develop torque. As it does so. it squeezes the inner and outer friction disks together.Electro-mechanical disk brakes operate via electrical actuation. the magnetic flux attracts the armature to the face of the brake. Torque is reasonably independent of slip speed and is also directly proportional to coil current. The brake housing is mounted solidly to the machine frame. Springs keep the friction disk and armature away from each other. the armature is free to turn with the shaft. . an indefinite number of times.

precise repeatability and consistency of performance and extremely low power consumption. They can tolerate extreme temperatures and have high heat-dissipation capability.1 Environment / Contamination As brakes wear they create wear particles. Hysteresis units will outlast any other type of electromechanical unit. 7. Oil midst or lubricated particles can also cause surface contamination. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg. If a known source of contamination is going to be present many Dept. This can also result in a lost of torque. They also have the widest speed range of all electronically torque-control devices. In some applications such as clean rooms or food handling this dust could be a contamination problem so in these applications the brake should be enclosed to prevent the particles from contaminating other surfaces around it. Obviously oil or grease should be kept away from the contact surface because they would significantly reduce the coefficient of friction which could drastically decrease the torque potentially causing failure. These advantages include long life. But a more likely scenario is that the brake has a better chance of getting contaminated from its environment. These devices have a number of advantages over magnetic particle brakes. in particular eliminating the problem of confining the magnetic particles inside the gap. .Electromagnetic Braking System for many precision tension control and testing applications. environmental stability. Sometimes paper dust or other contamination can fall in between the contact surfaces. The transmitted torque remains constant and smooth as the hysteresis element is forced to rotate within the air gap and will respond to increases and decreases in coil current with corresponding increases and decreases in torque.

In brakes that have not been used in a while rust can develop on the surfaces.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_brake 7. 8. suspension.pdf 10. and steering By Tim GilleS 8. http://industrial. http://en.com/ww/i_e/25000/fa_pro_sgeard_shing1_e/fa_ pro_sgeard_shing1_e/ctlg_geared_e_14.pdf Dept.lib.vt. Automotive chassis: brakes.htm#6. . http://www. But in general this is normally not a major concern since the rust is worn off within a few cycles and there is no lasting impact on the torque.panasonic.Electromagnetic Braking System clutch manufactures offer contamination shields that prevent material from falling in between the contact surfaces. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.wikipedia._Why_we_using_Current_Regulated_ Power_Supply_for_electromagnetic_brakes_and_clutches_ 9.com/faq.edu/theses/available/etd5440202339731121/unrestricted/CHAP2_DOC.magtorx.REFERENCE 6. http://scholar.

.Electromagnetic Braking System Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.

.Electromagnetic Braking System Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.

.Electromagnetic Braking System Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engg.

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