SEDIMENTOLOGY 1. Write notes on any four of the following:1. fining upward sequence 2. upperflow regime 3. chemogenous sediments 4.

tectonic arkose 5. geochemical evironment 6. textural maturity 7. derived properties of sediments (1) Cementation patterns in sand stones. (2) Origin of chert. (3) Heavy minerals groups. (4) Mineral maturity. (5) Classification of lime stones. (6) Evaporates. 1. Evaporates. 2. Mineral and chemical composition of mud rocks. 3. Origin of chert. 4. Primary and secondary dolomites. 5. Fundamentals of fluid flow. 6. Heavy mineral groups. 1. Give a concise account of the biogenic sedimentary 2. Explain the mineral stability. 3. Write notes on the origin of Chert. 4. Enumerate the various sedimentary environments. 5. Describe the textures of the sedimentary rocks. 6. Write notes on the provenance. structures.

1. Describe the importance of the study of shape of fragments to decipher the history of deposit. 2. Explain the term "Mineral maturity". 3. Define lithification and Diagenesis. Briefly analyze their role in sedimentation. 4. Give an account of the fresh water carbonate deposits. 5. Briefly describe the mineralogy and origin of phosphates. 6. Give an account of the cementation patterns in sandstones. 1. What are evaporates ? State how they are formed. 2. What is meant by mineral stability ? Explain the mineral stability series. 3. Describe the biogenic sedimentary structures. 4. Give a brief account of the methods of separation of heavy minerals, bringing out their significance. 5. Define Porosity and Permeability. State their importance during sedimentation. 6. Give a brief account of the non-classic textures. 1. Define the terms "lithification and diagenesis". Explain briefly the diagenetic process in lime stones. 2. Give an account of sedimentary facies and environment. 3. Write a note on the origin of chert. 4. Describe the distinguish between Arkose and Graywacke. 5. Define the "mineralogical maturity". 6. Describe the mechanism of dolomitisation. Add a note on the detrital dolomite and dedolomitisation.

a. Sediment movement by fluid flow. b. Biogenic sedimentary structures. c. Heavy mineral groups. d. Cyclic sediments. e. Primary and secondary dolomites. f. Cementation patterns in sandstones. i) The origin of the Chert. (ii) Shape and roundness. (iii) Distinguish between cross bedding and graded bedding. (iv) Distinguish between suspension load and traction (v) Evaporates and their formation. (vi) Primary and secondary dolomite 10. Answer any five of the following a. Origin and uses of graded bedding b. Formation and Manganese nodules and their importance. c. Walther's law of succession of facies d. Flow regime concept. e. Bouma sequence. f. Stylolites. a. Biogenic sedimentary structures b. Diagenetic processes in limestones c. Compaction of mud rocks and porosity d. Skewness and kurtosis e. Fresh-water carbonates a. Intrastratl solution b. Heavy mineral separation c. Walther's law of succession of facies d. Cross stratification. e. Lebespuren f. Provenance. a. Pelagic deposits b. Primary dolomite c. Goldich's stability series d. ZTR index e. Intrastratal solution f. Shape of clastic grains a. Plaeocurrent analysis b. Biogenic sedimentary structures c. Permeability analysis d. Sorting coefficient e. Turbidity currents f. Lr. Flow regime 2. a. Diagenetic minerals b. Turbidites and Bouma sequence c. Grade scale d. Stokes law e. Mn- nodules

load.

f. Residual deposits g. Flow regime concept. f. Economic sedimentology a. Fining upward sequence b. Upper flow regime c. Chemogenous sediments d. Tectonic arkose e. Geochemical environment f. Textural maturity g. Derived properties of sediments f. Skewness a. What are evaporites? State how they are formed b. What is mineral stability? Explain the mineral stability series c. Describe biogenic sedimentary structures d. Methods of separation of heavy minerals e. Define Porosity and permeability. State their importance f. Give an account of non-clastic textures. a. What are evaporites ? State how they are formed. b. What is meant by mineral stability ? Explain the mineral c. Describe the biogenic sedimentary structures d. Give a brief account of the methods of separation of significance. e. Define porosity and permeability. State their importance f. Give a brief account of the non-clastic textures. Write explanatory notes on the following a. Wentworth Grade Scale b. Oolitic texture c. Size analysis and d. Intrastratal solution. a. Dune and antidune b. Mud rocks. c. Evaporite d. Chemical cement e. Environmental parameters. f. Orogenic sediments. g. Carbonaceous sediments. write notes on: a. Heavy mineral study. b. Size and shape of grains. c. Sedimentary facies. 11. Give an account of the sedimentary structures. Write an essay on the mechanical analysis of detrital Write an essay on sedimentary structures. Give the recent classification of limestones and add a note deposits. on fresh water carbonate sediments.

during sedimentation.

stability series. heavy minerals,bringing out their during sedimentation.

Write an essay on the classification of limestones. Define the terms Lithification and Diagenesis. Analyze their Give an account of the sedimentary structures. Write an essay on the sedimentary facies and environments. Describe the textures and impurities found in cherts. In the light of recent researches, give the classification Give the mechanical analysis of detrital sediments and represented. Give critical analysis of sedimentary structures. Define the terms Porosity and Permeability. How do these properties affect fluid migration in sandstone and limestones? Give a brief account of the classification of sandstones. Give an account of the sedimentary facies and environments. Give the recent classification of Limestones and add a note deposits. Give an essential depositional difference between a river set up. studies. Describe the characteristic of deposits made in a fluvial environment. on fresh - water carbonate Discuss their origin of sandstones. explain how they are graphically role in sedimentation.

meandering river set up and a braided

Enumerate the different directional sedimentary structures and their importance in palaeocurrent

Enumerate and describe the structures that throw light on the direction of sediment transport. Give an account of the classification of either India. Write an essay on the limestone diagenesis. Discuss the tectonic classification of sedimentary basins. Write an essay on the origin of evaporite sediments. Describe the architecture of the lithological facies of clastic environments. signature of the provenance like conglomerates or limestones. with suitable examples from

Describe the origin and occurrence of phosphatic sediments,

"The framework mineralogy of clastic rocks have an indelible relief, climate and source rocks. Write an essay on the Mud rocks Describe the various diagenetic processes in the making of

carbonate rocks from sediments.

Describe the various depositional framework, tectonic potential of continental sedimentary basins. What are the important evaporite minerals? Discuss their origin. Write an essay on the classification and origin of common clay minerals. Write an essay on the industrial and economic applications

evolution and economic

of study of sediments. deltaic deposit. of sediments.

Describe the depositional environment of a meandering river Discuss the statistical parameters as applied to the study Give an account of the widely used classification of

sandstones. basins.

Discuss the economic potentials of the marine sedimentary Describe the textures and impurities found in cherts. In the light of recent researches, give the classification

Discuss their origin. of sandstones.

Briefly describe the various sedimentary structures. Discuss their role in determining (a) the top and bottom in sedimentary sequence and (b) Paleo-current direction. Explain the term "Provenanace" in Sedimentology. State how determined. the maturity of sediments is

Classify and describe various types of limestones. Add a note on their diagenesis. Describe the mode of formation and characters of turbidites. Discuss the relation between sedimentary facies and examine the different views on the origin of phosphate environments. deposits.

Explain the concept of size in detrital rocks. Describe the grain size distribution with respect to grade scales and frequency distribution. Classify and describe Conglomerates, gravels and breccias. Conglomerates. Define Provenance. Describe mineral stability, mineralogical sediments. Add a note on heavy mineral groups. Give the classification of sandstone. Add a note on Give the diagenesis of maturity and source rocks of the

cementation pattern in ancient rocks.

Classify and describe various types of limestones. Add a note on their diagenesis. Give an account of structures in sedimentary rocks. -------------------

M.SC. PREVIOUS EXAMINATION Branch VII-Geology Paper II SEDIMENTOLOGY & PALEONTOLOGY Time: 3 hr. Section - A (Sedimentology) 1. Define the terms Lithification and Diagenesis. Analyze their role in sedimentation. OR Describe the textures and impurities found in cherts. 2. Writes notes on any four of the following. a. Dune and antidune b. Evaporite c. Chemical cement d. Environmental parameters. e. Orogenic sediments. Section - B (Paleontology) 3. Describe the classification, general history and application of conodonts. or Describe the evolutionary trends in reptiles. 4. Write notes on any five of the following:i . Use of foraminifera in petroleum industry ii . Irregular echinoids iii. Archaeopteryx iv . Evolution of glabella in trilobites v . Dentition in pelecypodes vi . major evolutionary trends in brachiopods ------------------(5x5) (10) (4x5) Discuss their origin. (10) Max. marks: 65

M.SC. PREVIOUS EXAMINATION Branch VII-Geology

Paper II SEDIMENTOLOGY & PALEONTOLOGY Time: 3 hr. Max. marks 65 Section - A (Sedimentology) 1. Discuss the statistical parameters as applied to the study of sediments. OR Give an account of the widely used classification of 2. Write notes on any four of the following a. Fining upward sequence b. Chemogenous sediments c. Tectonic arkose d. Geochemical environment f. Textural maturity Section - B (Paleontology) 3. Enumerate, giving examples, the evolutionary trends noticed in trilobites. OR Describe the evolutionary trends in reptiles. 4. Write notes on any five of the following:(5x5) (10) (4x5) sandstones. (10)

i . Morphology of conodonts ii . Suture patterns in ammonoids iii. External morphological features of foraminiferal iv . Dentition in pelecypodes v . Modes of preservation of fossils vi . Homoemorphy ----------------------

tests

M.SC. PREVIOUS EXAMINATION Branch VII-Geology Paper II SEDIMENTOLOGY & PALEONTOLOGY Time: 3 hr. Max. marks. 65 Section - A (Sedimentology)

1. groups.

Define Provenance. Describe mineral stability, (10) mineralogical maturity and source rocks of the sediments. OR Discuss the relation between sedimentary facies and

Add a note on

heavy mineral

environments.

2.

Write notes only any four of the following.

(4x5)

a. Grade scale b. Q-F-R diagram c. Mean size d. Climatic arkose e. Role of carbon dioxise in carbonate formation Section - B (Paleontology) 3. Describe the evolutionary trends noticed in ammonoidea. (10) OR Trace the evolution of horses with appropriate examples. 4. Write notes on any five of the following:i . Modes of preservation of fossils ii . Classification of spores and pollens iii. Palaeoecology of foraminifers iv . Lower cambrian trilobites v . Facial suture in trilobites vi . Patterns of evolution -----------------------(5x5)

M.SC. PREVIOUS EXAMINATION Branch VII-Geology Paper II SEDIMENTOLOGY & PALEONTOLOGY Time: 3 hr. 1. Max. marks 65. Section - A (Sedimentology)

Describe the characters and mode of formation (10) turbidites. OR

In the light of recent researches, give the classification 2. a. b. c. d. e. Write notes on any four of the following Aragonite in modern environments Manganese nodules Diagenetic texture of limestones Heavy mineral analysis Upper flow regime (4x5)

of sandstones.

Section - B (Paleontology) ------------------3. Describe the evolutionary trends noticed in brachiopoda. (10) OR Give an account of the Paleoecology of foraminifera. Discuss industry. 4. Write notes on any FIVE of the following:i . Evolution of horses ii . Middle cambrian trilobites iii. Devonian fishes iv . Morphology of spores and pollens v . Siwalik vertebrates vi . Morphology of conodonts -------------------(5x5) the use of foraminifers in petroleum

M.SC. PREVIOUS EXAMINATION Branch VII-Geology Paper II SEDIMENTOLOGY & PALEONTOLOGY Time: 3 hr. Section - A (Sedimentology) 1. Classify and describe various types of limestones. (10) Add a note on their diagenesis. OR Explain the concept of size in detrital rocks. Describe the grain size distribution with respect to grade scales and frequency distribution. Max. marks 65

2.

Write notes on any four of the following 1. Inrastatal solution 2. Mud rocks 3. Evaporeites 4. Chert 5. Protodolomite

(4x5)

Section - B (Paleontology) -------------------3. What are spores and pollens ? Give an account of the (10) OR Describe the evolutionary trends noticed in brachiopoda. 4. Write notes on any FIVE of the following:(5x5) morphology of spores and pollens.

i . Homeomorphy ii . Adaptive radiation iii. Mesozoic reptiles iv . Devonian fishes v . Distinguish between Nevadia and Paradoxides vi . Palaeoecology of foraminifera ----------------M.SC.(TECH) DEGREE THIRD SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOPHYSICS PAPER III MARINE GEOLOGY Time: 3 Hrs. Max. Marks: 60 Section A

1.

Answer all questions choosing the most appropriate answer from the list Extensive deposits of polymetallic nodules are found in : a. pacific ocean b. Atlantic ocean c. Indian ocean d. In all the three oceans A guyot is a morphological feature produced by: a. Wave action b. current action c. Volcanic action d. none of the above In coral reef development: a. Blue green algae play an important role b. Diatoms play an important role c. Algae and diatoms play important roles d. None of the above Rate of sedimentation a. is higher in the Arabian sea than bay of Bengal b. Is higher in bay of Bengal than in Arabian sea c. is equal in Arabian sea and bay of Bengal d. changes seasonally in both oceans, but always higher in

2.

3.

4.

bay of Bengal 5. Two main groups of pelagic sediments are: a. brown clay and silt b. clays and sand c. clays and oozes d. none of the above. ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN ONE OR TWO SENTENCES EACH 6. 8. 10. Submarine canyons Chemogenous sediments Sediment trap 7. 9. Tombolo Carlsberg ridge Section-B 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Offshore oil fields of India Continental margin Shoreline of west coast of India Beach profile Origin of sea water Bengal fan Phosphorites Oozes Section-C Give an account of methods of exploring the sea floor. OR Describe the ocean floor topography of Arabian sea Write an essay on the classification of marine sediments OR Write an essay on the distribution and genesis of polymetallic nodules. ----------------M.SC.(TECH) DEGREE THIRD SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOPHYSICS PAPER III MARINE GEOLOGY Time: 3 Hrs. Max. Marks: 60 Section A

20.

1.

Answer all questions choosing the most appropriate answer from the list (1x10=10) Rate of sedimentation in the ocean basins is a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

2.

The Aleutian arc is in the: a. north Atlantic c. norhtern Indian b. south Atlantic d. northern Pacific

3.

The Murray fracture zone lies off the coast of

a. Brazil c. New York 4.

b. Chile d. California

Iceland is very special for the occurrence of a. large sheep farms b. hot springs c. Mid atlantic ridge d. all of the above.

5.

Mindanao trench and Honshu ridge encloses the a. Philippine basin c. Java basin b. Japanese basin d. Arabian basin

6. The carlsberg ridge continues northward to a. Owen fracture zone b. Austral seamount chain c. Marutias ridge c. Java trench 7. Characteristic sediment of the narrow eastern shelf of the Indian Peninsula is: a. terrigenous sand with black sand concentrates turning into mud at 30 fathoms b. Ribbon of mud bordering below 5 fathom depth followed by siliciclastic sediment c. Cabonate-silici calstic sediments followed by mud in the deeper wters d. terrigenous mud with black sand concentrates. 8. Transform fault, a special category of fault was identified a. Tulso wilson c. K. Naha 9. b. W.D. West d. A. Holmes break, which occurs at: by:

The limit of the continental shelf is marked by the shelf a. a depth of 100 m. c. a depth of 100 fath. b. not at any fixed depth d. a depth of 50 fath.

10. The Glomar explorer is a research ship engaged in: a. Mapping the Mn nodule fields b. recovering the drowned submarines c. laying underwater pipe lines d. detecting underwater nuclear tests. Section B Answer any six questions; limit answer to 300 words each (5x6=30) 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Glacial eustasy Chemogeneous sediments Guyots Red clays 90 east ridge Pillow lava

17. 18.

Mn-nodules Mid-oceanic ridge Section C Answer any two; limit answer to 1200 words each (10x2=20)

19.

Write an essay on the methods of exploration of sea bed for OR Write an essay on the Bengal deep sea fan.

the Black mineral sand deposits.

20.

Critically examine the origin and distribution of Phosphatic nodules. OR Review the causes and implications of sea level changes in --------------------M.SC. DEGREE IV SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY the geologic past.

Time : 3 hours SECTION - A

Max. marks: 60

(Answer all questions choosing the most appropriate answer) (10) 1. Rate of sedimentation in the ocean basins is: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr 2. Micrite is a term applied to: a. clastic mud c. lunar mud 3. Marl is a sedimentary rock: a. forming below the peritidal limit b. accounts for the oil recovery potential of a producing formation c. composed of low rank graywacke and lime mud d. made of carbonate and clay minerals 4. Loess is a clastic rock: a. 60% of which is essentially made of material of 0.063 to 0.003 mm. size. b. that adds strength to the foundations in the filled up lagoons or lakes c. characterized by a high content of K2O (>20%). d. generally sought after by alluvial gold prospectors. b. carbonate mud d. altered volcanic ash b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

5.

Magnesian limestones have an MgO content of: a. 1.0 - 2.0 % c. 3.0 - 5.0 % b. 10.0 - 18.0 % d. 5.0 - 10.0 %

6.

Bioherms have been defined as: a. a dome like growth of clastic sediment in a strata of dissimilar composition. b. a mound or lens built mainly by sedentary organisms in a rock of dissimilar composition. c. an intrusion like growth of a salt bed into an adjacent strata of dissimilar composition. d. a replacement of a carbonate strata by another carbonate strata

7.

Novaculite is a sedimentary rock composed of: a. very dense, cryptocrystalline silicious, bedded rock b. high Mg-calcite in association with cold water fauna c. monocrystalline quartz, k-feldspar and rock fragments in equal proportions d. poly crystalline quartz, equal amounts of potash feldspar

plagioclase and rock fragments.

8.

Most rigorous weathering is characteristic of environment: a. distinguished by high temperature and high moisture b. the hallmark of which is average high temperatures c. where production of humic acid is very much scarce d. which is generally non-existent to day. content. through the year

9. A sandstone with a signature of high quartz to feldspar and product of: a. a region of low relief b. a region of low relief and warm humid climate c. a region of warm humid climate d. a region of low relief but moderately cooler 10. In the direction of transport, the clastic sedimentary

high alumina to soda ratios is the

temperatures. particles show:

a. a fall in grain size along with a decrease in sphericity b. a fall in grain size along with an increase in sphericity c. a fall in grain size along with a increase in silt content d. a fall in grain size only SECTION - B Answer any six question. Limit answers to 300 words each (30) 11. 12. 13. Cementation patterns in sand stones. Origin of chert. Heavy minerals.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Mineral maturity. Folk's Classification of lime stones. Evaporites. Stokes law Upper flow regime SECTION - C Answer all questions. Limit answers to 1200 words

19. Critically examine the origin and distribution of OR

Phosphatic nodules.

Explain the concept of size in detrital rocks. Describe the grain size distribution with respect to grade scales and frequency distribution. 20. Give an account of the classification of sandstones. OR Describe the various depositional framework, tectonic potential of continental sedimentary basins. --------------------evolution and economic

M.Sc. DEGREE THIRD SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY Time: 3 Hrs. STRATIGRAPHY Max. Marks: 60 Section A

1. Answer all questions choosing the most appropriate answer from the list. (1*10) a. The first International Geological Congress was held in: a. 1878, Paris c. 1925, Beijing b. b. 1875, Washington DC d. 1935, New Delhi.

A Zone is defined as the basic unit of: a. Lithostratigraphy c. Chronostratigraphy b. Biostratigraphy b. Pedostratigraphy Carboniferous is placed at:

c.

In stratigraphy, the boundary between Devonian and a. 300 ma. c. 350 ma. b. 360 ma. d. 280 ma.

d.

Although over 40 different strata have been identified by William Smith, it was: a. C.H. Holland c. W. Buckland who categorised the strata into a hierarchy. b. L.Dollo d. H.G.Schenk

e.

The important criterion for system boundaries is: a. faunal change c. diastrophism b. lithological boundaries d. all of the above.

f.

A geologic-climatic unit is used along with: a. classification of Quaternary b. categorization of the Pennsylvanian c. grouping of the Proterozoic d. organization of chronostratigraphic units

g.

The three principles of stratigraphy were devised by: a. Nicolaus Steno c. John Playfair b. William Smith c. W. Sedgwick

h.

The fundamental rock unit of stratigraphy is: a. formation c. facies b. series d. zone

i.

The term Jurassic, describing the strata of Jura mountains was coined by:

a. Von Humbolt c. C.Lyell j. FAD's and LAD's are used in: a. biostratigraphy c. correlation of strata

b. L. Agassiz d. R.I.Murchison

b. lithostratigraphy c. magnetostratigraphy Section B

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Answer any six; limit in about 300 words each (5*6) Thermoluminescence (TL) dating Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating Fission track dating Radiocarbon dating Aminoacid dating

7. Geologic history of Kerala 8. Indian shield: a crustal mosaic 9. Indian Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature (ICSN) Section C (10*2) Limit answers to 1200 words each 10. "The boundary between the Archaean and the Proterozoic is spectacular breaks in earth's history." Elucidate. one of the most profound and

OR Write an essay on the code of stratigraphic nomenclature adopted and used in India. 11. "The Himalayan saga is a unique event in the history of fold OR Dating of Deccan Traps calls for evidences of a varied ------------------mountains." Elaborate.

nature. Demonstrate.

M.SC. DEGREE IV SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY FEBRUARY 1996 SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY Time : 3 hours SECTION - A (Answer all questions choosing the most appropriate answer) 1. Reynolds number, a dimensionless parameter, is a. used to calculate the rate of diagenesis in limestones b. the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces c. applied in the classification of mud rocks d. the ratio of the inertial and gravitational forces Secchi disc is a device used: a. in the calibration of gravimeters b. to determine the depth of light penetration c. to estimate the depth of nepheloid layer d. to determine the depth of sediment water interface. Grade scale used by sedimentologists was proposed by: a. Udden b. Wentworth c. Bureau of Indian Standards d. American Society for Testing Materials Lithification of sediments involves processes like: a. compaction, solution & reprecipitation b. compaction, intrastratal solution & rheomorphism c. overgrowth, outgrowth and solution d. reprecipitation, neomorphism & stylolitisation As the depth of flow increases: a. straight crested ripples transform to linguoid ripples b. linguoid ripples transform to straight crested ripples c. linguoid ripples change to lunate ripples d. straight crested ripples change to dunes. X-radiography is used by sedimentologists for: a. imaging the dinasour eggs in sex determination b. imaging the porosity distribution of cores c. screening cores to identify bioturbation d. identification of glauconite content Most rigorous weathering is characteristic of environment: a. distinguished by high temperature and high moisture content. b. the hallmark of which is average high temperatures through the year c. where production of humic acid is very much scarce d. which is generally non-existent to day. Sand ribbons are those sandstone bodies with a length to width ratio of a. 3 or more b. 2 or less c. between 2.5 and 2.9 d. approximately 1. Novaculite is a sedimentary rock composed of: a. very dense, cryptocrystalline silicious, bedded rock Max. marks: 60

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

b. high Mg-calcite in association with cold water fauna c. monocrystalline quartz, k-feldspar and rock fragments in equal proportions d. poly crystalline quartz, equal amounts of potash feldspar 10. According to Middleton (1960) the different types of a. quartz arenite, graywacke, lithic arenite and arkose b. Graywacke, quartz arenite, graywacke and arkose c. lithic arenite, graywacke, arkose and quartz arenite d. arkose, quartz arenite and graywacke SECTION - B Answer any six questions in about 300 words each. (6x5) 11. Biogenic sedimentary structures. 12. Mineral stability. 13. Origin of Chert. 14. Deltaic environment. 15. Mean size. 16. Provenance. 17. Fundamental properties of sediments 18. Stokes law SECTION - C Answer following questions in about 1200 words each. (20) 19. What is permeability of sediment or rock? List the methods the methods used in determination of permeability. Or Most of the time the mineralogy of clastic sediments are a "chip of the source rocks". Elaborate.

plagioclase and rock fragments.

sandstones occur in the following order.

used in its determination. Describe one of

20. List the most important occurrence of Mn-nodules in the seabed. Critically examine the origin as well as their occurrences. Comment on India's place in the matter of this resource. Or Describe the Bouma sequence along with the hydrodynamic implications. Critically assess the important theories of Turbidite formation. ----------------

GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY SECOND TEST Time: 60 min. 1. Define Froude number. Comment on the limiting values characterizing the flow conditions under different Reynolds

2. Define Reynolds number. Describe the behavior of flow types numbers. 3. Define shear stress. Comment on the relation ship between and depth on the other. 4. Flow velocity is not a suitable parameter in the study of

shear stress one the one hand and slope sediment motion. Explain? transport. Identify the hierarchy of structures.

5. Briefly describe the concept of flow regime in sediment bedforms associated with the flow regimes. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Comment on the relations between the bedforms and current Derive the Stoke's law of settling velocity. How does it Describe hydraulic equivalence and its application to the Briefly describe the materials and facilities needed for Define the Chezy equation of river flow. Describe how it

differ from the Rubey's equation. task of environmental discrimination. sieve analysis. differs from the Manning formula.

Sketch the Bouma sequence and comment on the energy distribution.

12. Describe the parameters used in characterizing the shape of clastic grains. -----------------------------

GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY THIRD TEST (This MID-SEMESTER test (60%), preceedes a session of spoting (40%) of minerals and thin sections of clastic rocks under the microscope.) (ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS.) Time: 60 min. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sketch the triangular classification of sedimentary rocks proposed by Folk. List the important and well understood modern carbonate environments. List the chief aspects of the subtidal environmrnt. What are the important carbonate minerals. The carbonate rock record abounds in shallow water What are the chief roles of Thallasia grass in a modern carbonates. Explain. carbonate environment?

Describe the role of alga Chara in a carbonate environment. List the important types of allochemical constituents of a carbonate rock. Explain the mode of formation of each of these. carbonate mud.

9. Describe the mode/s formation of micrite or calcium

10. What is an alagal biscuit? Explain the "moral" of its mode of formation vis-a-vis the carbonate sediment. 11. 12. How would you estimate the depth to the photic zone? Describe the cardinal principles of Folk's classification of limestones. List the important categories. ------------------

Dec. 17, 1996 GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY Mid-term test. Time: 60 min. (60 marks) Answer any ten questions. Brevity will be appreciated 1. each. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. List the essential minerals of a rock of granitic Explain the geomorphic controls of lateritisation. Define the grain size parameters in the scheme of Folk. List the various types of detrital quartz. Comment on the Silt grade quartz is always angular. Explain? What is geologic cycle? why is it relevant to study of Comment on the roles of climate, relief and source rock on sedimentary rocks. the nature of primary detritus. relative importance of each in a special features of each. composition. Comment on the relative stability of

8. List the different categories of stream load. Comment on the tropical climate. 9. 10. Describe the Folk's classification of limestones. Describe the shape measures of clastic particles.

11. What are the factors that control the grain size. Comment on the modification of grain due to transport. 12. Classify the clastic rocks in the scheme of Dott Jr. ------------------

Dec.5, 1997 Time: 90 min

MID-TERM TEST GOL.534 Geochemistry Max. Marks 50 Part-A (Answer any six questions) 5x6

1. 2. 3. 4.

Define aerosols. What are commonest natuaral constituent of Define molarity, molality, activity, mole fraction and What are ideal soluitions? Briefly describe the basis of design of Periodic table.

aerosols and how is it derived?

partial pressure.

5. What are the major elements of the lithosphere? How do they differ from the minor elements. 6. 7. Why is it that element sulphur is considered very special Describe the Raleigh fractionation and its implication to by the geochemists? geochemistry. dependent on the CO2 content of the

8. Erosion and deposition of carbonate, among others, is solution. Part-B

8 9. Briefly decribe the cycle of carbon. What are the important isotopic standard of carbo. Or What is an isotopic standard? List the standards for the sulphur. Part-C 12 11. What are isotopes? Defend the application of isotope studies of geological materials. Or Enumerate the reasons in support of geochemical study of geological materials. -------------------stable isotopes of Oxygen, carbon and isotopes of carbon. Mention the

GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY SECOND REPEAT Time: 60 min. 1. Define Froude number. Comment on the limiting values characterizing the flow conditions under different Reynolds

2. Define Reynolds number. Describe the behavior of flow types numbers. 3. Define shear stress. Comment on the relation ship between and depth on the other. 4. Flow velocity is not a suitable parameter in the study of

shear stress one the one hand and slope sediment motion. Explain? transport. Identify the hierarchy of structures.

5. Briefly describe the concept of flow regime in sediment bedforms associated with the flow regimes. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Comment on the relations between the bedforms and current Derive the Stoke's law of settling velocity. How does it Describe hydraulic equivalence and its application to the Briefly describe the materials and facilities needed for Define the Chezy equation of river flow. Describe how it

differ from the Rubey's equation. task of environmental discrimination. sieve analysis. differs from the Manning formula.

Sketch the Bouma sequence and comment on the energy distribution. -----------------------------

Time: 3 Hr.

GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY FINAL TEST, Feb. 1998 Part-A Answer any 8 questions (Answers not to exceed 600 words) (8x10)

1 Biogenic sedimentary structures. 2. Reflux hypothesis. 3. Mean size. 4. Provenance. 5. Fundamental properties of sediments 6. Stoke's law 7. Cementation. 8. Chert. 9. Heavy minerals. 10. Mineral Maturity Part-B (Answers not to exceed 3000 words) 11. Briefly describe the materials and facilities needed for OR Desribe the weathering process and products of a rock of climate. -------------------------(20x1)

sieve analysis. granitic composition under a tropical

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/1997) Marks:100 Time: 3 Hr. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Answers not to exceed 600 words) (8x10) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Intrastratal solution Heavy minerals. Mineral maturity. Micrite. Skewness QFR diagram Upper flow regime bedforms Protodolomite Clay minerals Common Evaporite minerals Part-B (Answers not to exceed 3000 words) 11. List the different types of Deltas. Discuss the origin of OR Describe the Folk's classification of carbonate rocks. -------------------------(20x1)

the Mississippi delta.

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/1997) Marks:100 Time: 3 Hr. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Answers not to exceed 600 words) (8x10) 1. Q-F-R diagram. 2. Heavy liquid seperation 3. Mean size. 4. Provenance. 5. Microspar 6. Climbing ripples 7. Primary dolomite 8. Bioturbation 9. Kaolinite. 10. Fall velocity Part-B (Answers not to exceed 3000 words) 11. Discuss the processes of conversion of lime sediment into a sediment rock. OR Comment on the tropical weathering products of granitic rocks and the origin of arenites. (20x1)

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/1997) Marks:100 Time: 3 Hr. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Answers not to exceed 600 words) (8x10) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Heavy separation. Geological cycles. Textural maturity Particle shape Trace fossils Lower flow regime Intrastratal solution Bragg's equation and clays Lithofacies Aragonite. Part-B (Answers not to exceed 3000 words) 11. Write an essay on the Folk's classification of limestones. OR Comment on the tropical weathering products of granitic -------------------------rocks and the origin of arenites. (20x1)

GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY FINAL TEST Time: 3 Hr. (S1/1977) Part-A (Answer any 8 questions) (Answers not to exceed 600 words) (8x10) 1. Q-F-R diagram. 2. Gypsum 3. Mean size.

4. Provenance. 5. Manning equation 6. Stoke's law 7. Primary dolomite 8. Chert. 9. Heavy minerals. 10. Ortho-chemical constituents Part-B (Answers not to exceed 3000 words) 11. Write an essay on the Folk's classification of limestones. (20x1)

OR Comment on the tropical weathering products of granitic rocks and the origin of arenites. -------------------------GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY FINAL TEST Time: 3 Hr. Part-A Answer any 8 questions (Answers not to exceed 600 words) (8x10) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Heavy separation. Geological cycles. Textural maturity Particle shape Stokes law Lower flow regime Intrastratal solution Bragg's equation and clays Evaporite minerals Aragonite. Part-B (Answers not to exceed 3000 words) 11. Write an essay on Dunham's classification of limestones and difference with the Folk's scheme of classification. OR Flow regimes, bed forms and current structures. -------------------------(20x1) point out the cardinal points of

MID-TERM TEST GOL-513 General Sedimentology Dec.5, 1997 Duration 120 min. Marks: 50 (Neat sketches demonstrate your knowledgeability) Part-A (Answer any 8 questions) 5x8 1. Describe the Geologic cycle 2. Examine the roles of relief and climate in the chemical weathering process. 3. Describe the mineral stability series. 4. What are the fundamental properties of sediments? 5. What is the geological significance of average size? Describe the various measures used to estimate the average grain size. 6. What are the implications of standard deviation? Describe the derivation of this measure under Folk and Ward scheme. 7. What are heavy minerals? List the common heavy mineral species noticed in the beach placers of Kerala. 8. What is a heavy liquid and what is its use? Furnish the important properties you expect in a heavy liquid. 9. Describe the textural maturity. What are its hydrodynamic implications. 10. What is mineralogical maturity? Discuss the geological implications? 11. Examine how shape of clastic particles are assessed by the sedimentologist. Discuss the sedimentological significance of grain shape. 12. What is a hydrograph? Sketch a hydrograph and examine its implications. Part-B 10 13. Sediment load is a very important factor of a fluvial Or system. Elucidate.

Imagine, you took a hike from the city of Trivandrum eastward upto the Ibex Hill in Ponmudi, making notes on the type of soil, sediments and rocks under his feet. Now offer scientific explanation for the variety you came across. Illustrate the answer with sketches and cross-sections ----------------

10. 11. 12. 13.

Origin of Chert. Deltaic environment. Mean size. Provenance.

14. 8. 9. 10. 11. 112.

Fundamental properties of sediments Stokes law Cementation patterns in sand stones. Origin of chert. Heavy minerals.

Biogenic sedimentary structures. 2. Mineral stability. 3. Mean size. 4. Provenance. 5. Fundamental properties of sediments 6. Stoke's law 7. Cementation in sand stones. 8. Chert. 9. Heavy minerals. 10. Mineral Maturity 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 8. 9. 10. 11. 112. 13. 14. 15. 16. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. f. a. b. c. Origin of Chert. Deltaic environment. Mean size. Provenance. Fundamental properties of sediments Stokes law Cementation patterns in sand stones. Origin of chert. Heavy minerals. Mineral maturity. Folk's Classification of lime stones. Evaporites. Stokes law Upper flow regime Inrastatal solution Mud rocks Evaporeites Chert Protodolomite Grade scale Q-F-R diagram Mean size Climatic arkose Role of carbon dioxise in carbonate formation Aragonite in modern environments Manganese nodules Diagenetic texture of limestones Heavy mineral analysis Upper flow regime Fining upward sequence Chemogenous sediments Tectonic arkose Geochemical environment Textural maturity Intrastratl solution Heavy mineral separation Walther's law of succession of facies

d. e. f. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Cross stratification. Lebespuren Provenance. Describe hydraulic equivalence and its application to the Briefly describe the materials and facilities needed for Define the Chezy equation of river flow. Describe how it task of environmental discrimination. sieve analysis. differs from the Manning formula.

Sketch the Bouma sequence and comment on the energy distribution. Write an essay on the mechanical analysis of detrital Write an essay on sedimentary stuctures sediments.

Give the recent classification of limestones and add a note deposits. Write an essay on the classification of limestones. Give the mechanical analysis of detrital sediments and represented.

on fresh water carbonate

explain how they are graphically

1.

Extensive depositis of poly metallic nodules are found in: a. Pacfic ocean b. Atlantic ocean c. volcanic action d. None of the above A guyot is a morpholocgical feature produced by: a. wave action b. current action c. volcanic action d. none of the above In coral reef development: a. blue green algae play an important part b. Diatoms play an important role c. Algae and diatoms play major roles d. None of the above Rate of sedimentation is: a. higher in the arabian sea than the bay of bengal b. higher in the bay bay of bengal than the arabian sea c. is equal in the arabian sea and the bay of bengal d. changes seasonally in both the seas Two main groups of pelagic sediemnts are: a. brown clay and silt b. clays and sand c. clays and oozes d. none of the above

2.

3.

4.

5.

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE SECOND SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE BIOLOGY Time: 3 Hr. Max. Marks: 60 SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY Section A (Answer all questions) (All questions carry equal marks) (1x10) I Choose the most appropriate answer 1. The rate of sedimnetation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr 2. SECTION B (answer any six questions in about 300 words) (5x6) II. Heavy mineral analysis III. Upper flow regime IV. Fining upward sequence V. Chemogenous sediments VI. Tectonic arkose VII. Geochemical environment VIII. Textural maturity IX. Intra-stratal solution SECTION C (Answer all ques SECTION Btions in about 1200 words each) (All questions carry equal marks) (10x2 = 20) COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE SECOND SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE BIOLOGY MARCH, 1996 Time: 3 Hr. Max. Marks: 60 GEOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Section - A (Answer all questions. Choose the correct answer) 5x1 1. Charles Darwin was on board the research vessel: a. SV. ALVIN c. USS Roosevelt 2. b. H.M.S.Beagle c. SV Sagar Kanya b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

The first Indian Antartic expedition was led by: a. H.K.Gupta b. S.Z.Quasim b. C.Karunakaran d. La Fond

3.

The Mahadeva canyon is off:

a. Southern California c. the Malabar coast 4.

b. the east coast of Australia d. the east coast of Andhra

All actively swimming animals belong to: a. the Planktons b. the Nektons b. the Benthos d. the oozes

5.

The rate of sedimnetation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

2.

The Chagos Murray fracture zone lies off the coast of a. Brazil c. New York b. Chile d. California

3. The carlsberg ridge continues northward to a. Owen fracture zone b. Austral seamount chain c. Marutias ridge c. Java trench 4. Charles Darwin participated in a scientific expedition in the research ship called: a. HMS Challenger c. INS Virad 5. b. USS Magellan d. HMS Beagle

According to Darwin an Atoll originated by the following steps: a. Drowning of a volcanic cone, growth of fringing reefs and growth of barrier reefs b. Growth of barrier reefs, tectonic activity, growth of fringing reefs c. Growth of barrier reefs, volcanic subsidence, growth of barrier reefs d. volcanic cone formation, growth of barrier reefs and formation of atoll. (Answer all questions in 1 or 2 sentences each) 5x1

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Alvin Wave refraction Pelagic sediments Blue green algae Barrier reefs

(OVER) Section - B (Answer any six questions. Limit to 300 words each) 6x5 11. Density current 12. Classification of shorelines 13. Beach cycles

14. Sediment Texture 15. 16. Brown clays Sparker

17. Low tide terrace 18. SCUBA Section - C 2x10 19. Discuss the origin of phosphatic nodules OR Describe the important topographic aspects of the Northern Indian Ocean. 20. Review the origin of sea water OR Comment on the different types of marine sediments. -------------------

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE SECOND SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN OCEANOGRAPHY OCTOBER, 1996 Max. Marks: 60 GEOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Section - A (Answer all questions by choosing the correct answer) 10 marks 1. Charles Darwin was on board the research vessel: a. SV. ALVIN c. USS Roosevelt 2. b. H.M.S.Beagle c. SV Sagar Kanya

Time: 3 Hr.

The first Indian Antarctic expedition was led by: a. H.K.Gupta b. S.Z.Quasim b. C.Karunakaran d. La Fond

3.

The Mahadeva canyon is off: a. Southern California c. the Malabar coast b. the east coast of Australia d. the east coast of Andhra

4.

All actively swimming animals belong to: a. the Planktons b. the Nektons b. the Benthos d. the oozes

5.

The rate of sedimentation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

6. The Carlsberg ridge continues northward to a. Owen fracture zone b. Austral seamount chain c. Marutias ridge c. Java trench 7. In a carbonate forming environment, addition of carbon a. dissolution of already formed carbonate b. acceleration of photosynthesis c. precipitation of carbonate sediment d. asphyxiation of green alga 8. The salinity of coastal waters is largely controlled by: a. influx of fresh water input from adjacent land mass b. fresh water supplies from snow/ice melt from glaciers in the adjacent land mass dioxide to the sea water will lead to:

c. scarcity of terrestrial clastic sediment supply d. all of the above 9. Below the carbonate compensation depth in the oceans there is:

a. a sharp increase in the carbonate bio-clastics b. a marginal decline in the content of carbonate particles different types. c. a sharp rise in the carbonate ooze content d. a sharp fall in all sorts of carbonate particles 10. Transform faults are a type of: a. gravity faults b. reverse faults with large displacements c. strike slip faults with displacement but no movement along the fault plane d. none of the above. Section - B (Answer any six questions. Limit to 300 words each) 30 marks 11. Continental rise

12. Deep sea fan 13. Pipette analysis

14. Beach cycles 15. 16. Brown clays Free fall corer

17. Eustatic changes 18. SCUBA Section - C 20 marks 19. Write an essay on the distribution and origin of barrier reefs. OR Describe the important submarine topographic features of the Arabian sea. What are turbidity currents? Comment on their origin and their geological role. OR Comment on the different types of marine sediments. -------------------

20.

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE SECOND SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN OCEANOGRAPHY OCTOBER, 1996 Max. Marks: 60 GEOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Section - A (Answer all questions by choosing the correct answer) 10 marks 1. The first deep sea bathymetric chart was published by: a. Charles Darwin c. Haary Hess 2. b. M.F. Murray c. Sir John Murray

Time: 3 Hr.

The terrigenous sediments are derived from: a). Sea b). Land c). rivers d). estuary Shallow water benthonic microfossils are transported by: a. Turbidity currents b. Debris flows b. Grain flows d. Fluidized sediment flows dominated by:

3.

4. Sbmarine topography of central Indian ocean east of 70E is a). Bay of Bengal b). 90E ridge c).Laccadeive-Chagos ridge d0>Abysal plain 5.

The level at which carbonate disappears from surface sediments at depth is known as: a).Snow line b). Benthic zone b). Hemipelagic level d). critical depth All actively swimming animals belong to: a).Plankton c). Nektons b). Benthos d). the oozes

6.

7.

The aggregate of processes that turn sediments into rock is: a). authigenesis B). Digenesis c). sediment genesis d). lithogenesis The horizontal shifting of enormous masses of water is a. Currents b). tides c). waves d). convection Salinituy of sea towards the coast near the mouth of the a. higher than that of midocean b. No difference at all c. relati9vely lower d. equal to that of open ocean termed:

8.

9.

large rivers is:

10.

Trenches arew areas of of: a. convergence of two oceanic plates b. divergence of two plates c. transverse fractures d. sea floor spreading Section - B (Answer any six questions. Limit to 300 words each) 30 marks

11.

abyssal plain

12. Developments in marine geology in the last two decades 13. salinity of oceans

14. Biological aspects of marine pollution 15. 16. Beach ridges Eustatic changes in sealevel

17. Turbidity currents 18. Marine sampling devices Section - C 20 marks 19. Write an essay on the origin of attolls, showing the classic examples. OR Discuss the geomorphology of the ocean floor. 20. Describe briefly the main types of marine seiments and their OR Comment on the different types of coastal landforms with suitable sketches. ------------------locales of accumulation different types schematically. Cite some

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE 2ND SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY Time: 3 Hr. JANUARY, 1997 Max. Marks: 60 COASTAL PROCESSES, MARINE SEDIMENTATION AND MINERAL RESOURCES Section - A (Answer all questions by choosing the best answer) 1. The marine manganese nodules were discovered during the a. Challenger expedition b. Leg 212 of DSDP c. cruise 82/95 of R/V Sagar Kanya d. cruise 25/89 of Gaveshini 2. Extensive deposits of poly metallic nodules are found in: a. Pacific ocean c. volcanic action b. Atlantic ocean d. None of the above (10 )

3. In the down current side of a groin experiences a. erosion c. relatively stable 4. b. deposition d. none of the above

Micrite is a term applied to: a. clastic mud c. lunar mud b. carbonate mud d. altered volcanic ash

5.

Coastal lagoons are commonest along the coastal lands of continents as a result of: a. Holocene transgression b. early Holocene regression c. melting of continental ice sheets. d. the little ice age

6.

In the oceans CCD is a unique depth below which: a. carbonate oozes are abundant b. water has high redox potential c. only diagenetic glauconite occurs d. water is undersaturated with respect to carbonate

7.

The most continental shelves are covered with: a. manganese nodules c. coralgal reefs b. relict sediments d. barrier islands show:

8. In the direction of down drift, the beach sediments a. a fall in grain size along with a decrease in sphericity b. a fall in grain size along with an increase in sphericity

c. a fall in grain size along with a decrease in heavies d. a fall in grain size only 9. The pelagic sediments generally range in color from: a. white to dark reddish brown b. white to pale grayish to greenish c. dark brown to pale brown d. pale green to dark brownish green 10. More than 75% of the ocean floor is less than a. 5000 m. in depth c. 1500 m in depth b. 6000 m. in depth d. between 500-1500 m. in depth. Section-B (Answer any six questions, within 300 words each) 11. Classify the waves and comment on the characteristics of each type. of sediment. Point out the reasons for the (30)

12. Define longshore current. Discuss its role in the transport shift of directions. 13.

Briefly comment on the sources and types of beach sediments.

14. Origin of glauconite in marine sediments. 15. With the help neat diagrams describe the diurnal tides 16. Draw an appropriately labelled profile of beach and near 17. D.W. Johnson's Coastal classification 18. Estimation of rates of marine sedimentation. Section - C (Limit answers to 1200 words) 19. List the several causes of beach erosion. Examine the role of each in the erosion of Kerala beaches in order to electe the most important mechanism/s of erosion. Illustrate the erosion-repair cycle of the beach with neatly illustrated profiles. OR Examine the response of beaches to various beach protection structures like seawalls, groynes and breakwaters. Asses the efficacy of each to hydrography and wave climate. 20. Review the geologic history of the Bombay High Oil Field. OR It has been claimed that before long, the human kind may turn to the marine realm for its food needs. Discuss the scenario regarding the non-living resources of the ocean. -----------------------(20) shore zones.

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE 2ND SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY JANUARY, 1997 Max. Marks: 60 COASTAL PROCESSES, MARINE SEDIMENTATION AND MINERAL RESOURCES Section - A (Answer all questions by choosing the best answer) 1. Sediments are transported to the deep sea: a. by rip currents c. pelagic deposition 2. b. density currents d. storm waves (10 )

Time: 3 Hr.

Most continental shelves are covered by: a. coralgal reefs c. red clays b. relict sediments d. green clays

3.

Among the grain size parameters only: a. mean b. mean and kurtosis c. mean and standard deviation d. mean and skewness possess a unit.

4.

The marine manganese nodules were discovered during the a. Challenger expedition c. 82/95 of R/V Sagar Kanya d. 25/89 of Gaveshini b. Leg 212 of DSDP

5.

More than 75% of the ocean floor is less than a. 5000 m. in depth c. 1500 m in depth b. 6000 m. in depth d. between 500-1500 m. in depth.

6.

Calcareous oozes cover about: a. 128 million Km2 b. 12.8 million Km2 c. 1280 million Km2 d. 1.28 million Km2 of the modern ocean floor

7.

The marine maganese nodules form at the rate of: a. 0.1 mm/1000 yr. c. 1.0 cm/1000 yr. b. 1.0 mm/1000 yr d. 2.8 -3.7 mm/1000yr.

8. Trenches arew areas of: a. convergence of oceanic plates b. divergence of plates c. transverse fractures d. sea floor spreading

9. The Carlsberg ridge continues northward to a. Owen fracture zone b. Austral seamount chain c. Marutias ridge c. Java trench 10. Micrite is a term applied to: a. clastic mud c. lunar mud b. carbonate mud d. altered volcanic ash Section-B (Answer any six, limit answers to 300 words each) 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Bucket-ladder dredges Legal problems in ocean mining Indian ocean Manganese nodules Seawalls Wave refraction Deep sea wave Estimation of Sedimentation rate Glauconite Section - C (Limit answers to 1200 words) 19. What is beach nourishment? Examine the relative merit of others in protecting the beaches from wave erosion. OR Write a review on the placer mineral deposits of Kerala. mining in respect of beach erosion. Critically examine the role of placer marine phosphorite deposits by this mechanism vis-a-vis the (20) (30)

20. Examine the distribution, chemical composition and origin of taking a suitable example. OR What are the important locales of sediment accumulation in describe the sediment characteristics of any two of these. ------------------

the near shore region? Briefly

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. (TECH) III SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOPHYSICS Time: 3 Hr. AUGUST, 1997 Max. Marks: 60 MARINE GEOLOGY Section - A (Answer all questions by choosing the correct answer) 1x10 marks 1. Most continental shelves are covered by: a. coralgal reefs b. relict sediments c. red clays d. green clays The marine manganese nodules were discovered during the a. Challenger expedition b. Leg 212 of DSDP c. 82/95 of S/V Sagar Kanya d. 25/89 of S/V Sagar Sampada More than 75% of the ocean floor is less than a. 5000 m. in depth b. 6000 m. in depth c. 1500 m in depth d. between 500-1500 m. in depth. Calcareous oozes cover about: a. 128 million Km2 b. 12.8 million Km2 c. 1280 million Km2 d. 1.28 million Km2 of the modern ocean floor The marine maganese nodules form at the rate of: a. 0.1 mm/1000 yr. b. 1.0 mm/1000 yr c. 1.0 cm/1000 yr. d. 2.8 -3.7 mm/1000yr.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. Trenches are areas of: a. convergence of oceanic plates b. divergence of plates c. transverse fractures d. sea floor spreading 7. The first deep sea bathymetric chart was published by: a. Charles Darwin b. M.F. Murray c. Haary Hess c. Sir John Murray Charles Darwin participated in a scientific expedition in the research ship called: a. HMS Challenger b. USS Magellan c. INS Virad d. HMS Beagle The Mahadeva canyon is off: a. Southern California c. the Malabar coast 10. b. the east coast of Australia d. the east coast of Andhra

8.

9.

Rate of sedimentation in the ocean basins is: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr

c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr

d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr SECTION-B

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Answer any six with in 300 words each. Bengal Deep sea fan Eustatic changes Indian ocean Manganese noduels Biogenous sediments of ocean floor Piston corer Western continental shelf of India Back-arc basins Black sand placers SECTION-C

5x6

Answer any two within 1200 words each 19. Write an essay on the Turbidity currents in the sea. OR Examine in detail the bottom topography of the Atlantic differs from that of the Pacific ocean. 20. Discuss the sedimentation history and tectonic evolution of OR

10x2

Ocean. Point out the aspects by which it the Bobmay high oil field.

Review the mineralogy, occurrence, distribution and origin of the marine Phosphatic nodules. -------------------

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. (TECH) III SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOPHYSICS Time: 3 Hr. AUGUST, 1997 Max. Marks: 60 MARINE GEOLOGY Section - A (Answer all questions by choosing the correct answer) 1x10 marks 1. Most continental shelves are covered by: a. coralgal reefs b. relict sediments c. red clays d. green clays The submarine canyons of have beeen the result of: a. fluvial action b. Turbididty currents c. Oceanic currents d. contour currents. The concept of spreading sea floors has been attributed to: a. Dietz b. Harry Hess c. T.Wilson c. T.Atwater The marine manganese nodules were discovered during the a. Challenger expedition b. Leg 212 of DSDP c. 82/95 of S/V Sagar Kanya d. 25/89 of S/V Sagar Sampada More than 75% of the ocean floor is less than a. 5000 m. in depth b. 6000 m. in depth c. 1500 m in depth d. between 500-1500 m. in depth. Black smokers are the contributors for the formation of: a. Polymetallic nodules b. Massive sulphide deposits c. Phosphatic nodules d. Glauconite Calcareous oozes cover about: a. 128 million Km2 b. 12.8 million Km2 c. 1280 million Km2 d. 1.28 million Km2 of the modern ocean floor The marine maganese nodules form at the rate of: a. 0.1 mm/1000 yr. b. 1.0 mm/1000 yr c. 1.0 cm/1000 yr. d. 2.8 -3.7 mm/1000yr.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9. Trenches are areas of: a. convergence of oceanic plates b. divergence of plates c. transverse fractures d. sea floor spreading 10. The first deep sea bathymetric chart was published by: a. Charles Darwin b. M.F. Murray c. Haary Hess c. Sir John Murray

SECTION-B 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Answer any six with in 300 words each. The Indus fan Eustatic changes Red clays Biogenous sediments Phleger corer Eastern continental shelf of India Fore arc basin Atlantic Bottom water SECTION-C Answer any two within 1200 words each 19. Write an essay on the distribution and origin of Marine OR Examine in detail the bottom topography of the Pacific differs from that of the Northern Indian ocean. 20. Discuss the sedimentation history and tectonic evolution of OR Review the current status of ocean bed mining technology. ------------------Ocean. Point out the aspects by which it the Bobmay high oil field. Manganese nodules. 10x2 5x6

Time 3 hr.

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PH.D. QUALIFYING EXAMINATION PAPER II QUATERNARY SEDIMENTARY DEPOSITS OF KERALA COAST AND SEA LEVEL CHANGES Max. marks 100 Section A 3*21

1. More often than not, the Geomorphologic features of a terrain is a mirror of its tectonic fabric. Substantiate this statement with reference of to Kerala. OR Write an essay on the Inman and Nordstrom (1971) scheme of tectonic and morphologic classification of coasts. Examine the position of the Kerala coast in this scheme. 2. Discuss the principles involved, procedures in collection and preparation of samples and the methodology of TL dating. What are the limitations of this technique? List the Indian centers where the facilities currently exist. OR Explain the basis of fission track dating technique, pointing out the steps involved (both in collection and pretreatment of samples as well as step by step procedure in data capture) in obtaining a fission track date of glauconite. 3. Describe the methods of separation and concentration of pollen from sediments and sedimentary rocks. Portray the role of sediment geochemistry vis-a-vis preservation of pollen grains. Cite the contributions of the French Institute at Pondicherry in pollen studies and environmental and climatic changes. OR Comment on the relationships between sediment texture and sedimentary environments, as exemplified by the bivariate plots of Passega, Friedman and Folk and Ward. Section B Answer any six; limit answers to 300 words. 6*6 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Dendrochronology Radio-isotopes C14 clock Isochron Whole rock dating Application of Del O18 to paleo-temperature Isostatic and Eustatic sealevel changes Karewas Evolution of Thar desert and climatic implications --------------------

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY S1, Feb. 1998 Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hr. Part-A Sketches do support the answers Answer any 8 questions (Limit answers to 300 words) (8x10)

1.Average size 2.Textural maturity 3.Stoke's law 4. Lower flow regime 5. Reflux hypothesis. 6. Geological cycles 7.Diagenetic processes 8.Chert. 9.Zingg diagram 10. Bouma sequence Part-B (Limit answers to 1500 words) (20x1)

11. Desribe the process of weathering of a rock of granitic composition under a tropical climate. What are the important products yielded under this weathering scheme OR Briefly describe the materials and facilities needed for Heavy mineral seperation. --------------------------

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/Feb.1998) Marks:100 Sketches do support answers Time: 3 Hr. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Limit answers to 300 words) (8x10) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Intrastratal solution Carbonate sand Chemical weathering of feldspar. Textural maturity. Skewness QFR diagram Upper flow regime bedforms Protodolomite Litharenite Lagoon barrier Complex Part-B (Answers not to exceed 1500 words) 11. List the different types of Deltas. Discuss the origin of OR Describe the classification of clastic rocks by Pettijohn. (20x1)

the Mississippi delta.

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/Feb.1998) Marks:100 Sketches do support answers Time: 3 Hr. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Answers not to exceed 300 words) (8x10) 1. Q-F-R diagram. 2. Heavy liquid seperation 3. Sorting measure 4. Provenance. 5. Microspar 6. Upper flow regime bedforms 7. Missippi delta 8. Bioturbation 9. Grain roundness 10. Fall velocity Part-B (Answers not to exceed 1500 words) 11. Discuss the processes of lithification of lime sediment OR With suitable examples, examine how tectonics and climate rocks of granitic composition. influence weathering process of into (20x1) a sediment rock.

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/Feb.1998) Marks:100 Sketches do support answers Time: 3 Hr. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Answers not to exceed 300 words) (8x10) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Heavy separation. Geological cycles. Textural maturity Particle shape Trace fossils Lower flow regime Intrastratal solution Bragg's equation Lithofacies Aragonite. Part-B (Answers not to exceed 1500 words) 11. Write an essay on the Folk's classification of limestones. OR Comment on the tropical weathering products of granitic -------------------------rocks and the origin of arenites. (20x1)

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/Feb.1998) Marks:100 Sketches do support answers Time: 3 Hr. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Answers not to exceed 300 words) (8x10) 1. Q-F-R diagram. 2. Gypsum 3. Mean size. 4. Provenance. 5. Manning equation 6. Stoke's law 7. Primary dolomite 8. Chert. 9. Heavy minerals. 10. Ortho-chemical constituents Part-B (Answers not to exceed 1500 words) 11. (20x1)

Write an essay on the Dunham's classification of limestones. Point out the salient differences between this scheme and Folks scheme. OR Comment on the tropical weathering products of granitic rocks and the origin of arenites. ---------------

END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.514 GENERAL SEDIMENTOLOGY (S1/Feb.1998) Marks:100 Sketches do support answers Time: 3 Hr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Part A. Part-A Answer any 8 questions. (Answers not to exceed 300 words) (8x10) Heavy separation. Geological cycles. Textural maturity Particle shape Stokes law Lower flow regime Intrastratal solution Bragg's equation and clays Evaporite minerals Aragonite. Part-B (Answers not to exceed 1500 words) 11. Write an essay on Dunham's classification of limestones and with the Folk's scheme of classification. OR Flow regimes, bed forms and current structures. (20x1) point out its cardinal difference

Mid- SEMESTER EXAMINATION GOL.51A The DYNAMIC EARTH (S1/Dec., 97) Marks:100 Time: 60 min. Brevity & Sketches make answers effective Answer any 12 questions 1. Suggest as many reasons as you can in support of the dynamic nature of Planet earth.

2. You have been told about at least three different shells of the earth. Name them, cite their unique aspects. 3. Common sense has it that a cup of unfiltered coffee has a liquid phase and a solid phase in it, viz., the coffee extract in the water and the solid residue. Taking this analogy to river load, list the important types of sediment load carried by river water. 4. Define a mineral. Make a list of important minerals that are noticed in: 1). a sandstone 2). a gneiss and 3) a granite. 5. soil. 6. What is soil? How important is it to the humanity? Briefly comment on the process of formation of What are the fundamental concepts of Environmental geology?

7. Geologic processes and humans operate on different time scales leading to management problems. Explain. 8. These days Humans have assumed a role very much similar to that of geologic agents. Demonstrate. 9. Define cleavage in minerals. 10. You have been told that sinuosity is a measure of the degree of curvature of a river channel. It is assessed from aerial photos and topographic maps. Illustrate the different categories of sinuosity by suitable sketches. 11. Answer the following. a) Approximate age of the Earth, b). Material used for estimating the age of the Earth, c). Isotope dating method used by archaeologist and d). approximate age of the universe. 12. Answer the following. a). Name one hypothesis for the origin of the Earth b). who proposed it? c). the three basic requirements for existence of life on any planet, and d). what is half life?. 13. You may recall that while examining the river processes, there was a discussion on river metamorphosis. Explain it in 4 or 5 sentences. 14. With the brief exposure you had on river processes, now will you vote (give reasons) for or against the use of river bed sand as a construction material. Which ever side you may choose, the reasoning must be scientific. 15. What are glaciers and how do they propel themselves? Where are they seen now a days? Why don't we have them in the Deccan plateau?

16. List some of the important depositional landforms resulting from glacier action.

17. Sand dunes characterize only certain areas of the globe. What are the requisite conditions for their formation? 17. An assignment you did for the class, exposed you to the Geologic time table. Now comment on the basis of its design. 18. You were taken on a tour to the museum of the Dept. of Geology, to have a feel of the different tools of geological trade. List them out along with your comments limited to 2 or 3 sentences each. 19. a). If you have a cube of rock of 1.0 m. long edges, what would be the total surface area exposed to chemical weathering agents? b). In the next step, using a magical crusher, this cube of 1.0 m sides are broken down to smaller cubes of 1.0 cm edges. What then is the total surface area (of all these "baby" cubes) exposed to the weathering agents? c). If you cushed the entire crop of 1.0 cm. edged cubes to 1.0 mm. edged ones what would be the total surface area exposed to chemical weathering process. d). And finally, according to you, on which size would the chemical weathering be most effective? 20. You konw that rocks are divided into igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary types. Can you list the logic behind this grouping. -------------------------

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.Sc. DEGREE IV SMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY SEDIMENTARYGEOLOGY

Time: 3hr. Section A (All Questions carry equal marks; Answer all) 1x10

Max.Marks:60

1.Micrite characteristically forms in environments a. of high energy b. below wave base c. where salt water wedge occurs d. none of the above 2. River sediments generally show: a. positive skewness b. negative skewness c. positive skewness and very high sorting d. coarse tail 3. Coarsening upward sequence is characteristic of: a. fluvial sedidments b. Dune sediments c. toe of the slip face of dune sediments d. sedimentation by sediment avalanching 4. Kaolinite is characterized by: a.one tetrahedral and one octahedral layer b.one octahedral layer sandwiched between 2 tetrahedral layers. c. with OH layer between two tetrahedral layers d. a random arrangement of octahedral and tetrahedral layers. 5. Brown colour of sediment is a signature of environments: a. rich in oxygen b. devoid of oxygen c. with scarce oxygen only d. with ammonia only 6. Most continental shelves are covered by: a. coralgal reefs b. relict sediments c. red clays d. green clays 7. The marine manganese nodules were discovered during the a. Challenger expedition b. Leg 212 of DSDP c. 82/95 of S/V Sagar Kanya d. 25/89 of S/V Sagar Sampada 8.In the oceans CCD is a unique depth below which: a. carbonate oozes are abundant b. water has high redox potential c. only diagenetic glauconite occurs d. water is undersaturated with respect to carbonate

9. Aggregate of processes that turn sediments into rock is: a). authigenesis B). Digenesis c). sediment genesis d). lithogenesis 10. Due to transport ratio of monocrystalline to polycrystalline quartz a. will increase b. will not change at all c. will decrease d. will increase only in fluvial system Section –B

(Answer any six questions; Answer not to exceed 300 words. All questions carry equal marks) (5x6) II. Heavy mineral analysis. III. Intrastratal solution IV. ZTR index V. Folk & Ward size parameters VI. Settling velocity VII.Glauconite VIII. XRDA of clay minerals IX. Lithofacies and biofacies. Section-C (All questions carry equal marks. Answer not to exceed 1200 words) (10x2) X. Write an essay on the classification of Arenites OR Describe the role climate, source rock and relief on the nature of primary detritus. XI. Write an essay on the diagenesis of limestones. What is the fate of primary porosity due to diagenesis.. OR Discriminate between primary dolomite and dolomite. Examine the processes of formation of Dolomites. --------------

Time: 3hr. Section - A (Answer all questions by choosing the correct answer) (1x10marks) I. Choose the best answer from the list 1. The term micrite is used to describe a. carbonate sediment of muddy nature b. relict carbonate sediment c. red clays having good deal of calcite d. red clays with aragonite 2. The mineral stability series was proposed by: a. N.L.Bowen b. F.J.Pettijohn c. M.S. Krishnan d. S.S.Goldich. The concept of spreading sea floors has been attributed to:

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC DEGREE IV SMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY Max.Marks:60

3.

a. Dietz c. T.Wilson 4.

b. Harry Hess c. T.Atwater

The marine manganese nodules were discovered during the a. Challenger expedition b. Leg 212 of DSDP c. 82/95 of S/V Sagar Kanya d. 25/89 of S/V Sagar Sampada The Sundarbans delta is a good example of a. tide dominated delta b. wave dominated delta c. fluvial dominated delta d. Gilbert’s delta b. with a OH layer between tetrahedra d. of Glauconite composition

5.

6. Illite is a clay mineral a. and is expandable c. of detrital nature

7. CO2 of sea water is very critical in carbonate deposition. With fall in atmospheric pressure a. CO2 becomes more and more soluble b. CO2 becomes less and less soluble c. in fact CO2 content goes unaffected d. CO2 is absorbed by marine life 8. The marine maganese nodules form at the rate of: a. 0.1 mm/1000 yr. b. 1.0 mm/1000 yr c. 1.0 cm/1000 yr. d. 2.8 -3.7 mm/1000yr.

9.

Mudbanks of Kerala inshore and that too between a. Marthandan thura and Manjeshwar b. Thirkunnapuzzha and Kozhikode c. Varkala and Ponnani d. Ambalappuzha and Ponnani

10.Quartz is a sedimentary rock characteristic of a provenance of a. dominant aridity b. tectonic stability c. tropicality c. tropicality and stability SECTION B (Answer any six questions; answers not to exceed 300 words each all questions carry equal marks) (5x6) II. Evaporites. III. Stokes law IV. Upper flow regime V. Inrastatal solution VI. Mud rocks VII. Evaporeites VIII. Chert IX. Protodolomite

SECTION C (Answer all questions; answers not to exceed 1200 words) X. Desribe the process of weathering of a rock of granitic composition under a tropical climate. What are the important products yielded under this weathering scheme OR Discribe the procedures used in heavy mineral separation. Discuss the application of heavy minerals in sedimentological studies. XI. Discuss the processes of conversion of lime sediment into a sediment rock. OR What are evaporites ? State how they are formed. --------

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE II SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY JUNE, 2003 Max. Marks: 50 MGO 2208 GEOLOGY IN COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Section - A (Answer all questions. Choose the correct answer) 5x1 1. Charles Darwin was on board the research vessel: a. SV. ALVIN c. USS Roosevelt 2. b. H.M.S.Beagle c. SV Sagar Kanya

Time: 3 Hr.

The first Indian Antartic expedition was led by: a. H.K.Gupta b. S.Z.Quasim b. C.Karunakaran d. La Fond

3.

The Mahadeva canyon is off: a. Southern California c. the Malabar coast b. the east coast of Australia d. the east coast of Andhra

4.

All actively swimming animals belong to: a. the Planktons b. the Nektons b. the Benthos d. the oozes

5.

The rate of sedimnetation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

2.

The Chagos Murray fracture zone lies off the coast of a. Brazil c. New York b. Chile d. California

3. The carlsberg ridge continues northward to a. Owen fracture zone b. Austral seamount chain c. Marutias ridge c. Java trench 4. Charles Darwin participated in a scientific expedition in the research ship called: a. HMS Challenger c. INS Virad 5. b. USS Magellan d. HMS Beagle

According to Darwin an Atoll originated by the following steps: a. Drowning of a volcanic cone, growth of fringing reefs and growth of barrier reefs b. Growth of barrier reefs, tectonic activity, growth of fringing reefs c. Growth of barrier reefs, volcanic subsidence, growth of barrier reefs d. volcanic cone formation, growth of barrier reefs and formation of atoll. (Answer all questions in 1 or 2 sentences each) 5x1

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Alvin Wave refraction Pelagic sediments Blue green algae Barrier reefs (OVER) Section - B (Answer any six questions. Limit to 300 words each) 6x5

11.

Density current

12. Classification of shorelines 13. Beach cycles

14. Sediment Texture 15. 16. Brown clays Sparker

17. Low tide terrace 18. SCUBA Section - C 2x10 19. Discuss the origin of phosphatic nodules OR Describe the important topographic aspects of the Northern Indian Ocean. 20. Review the origin of sea water OR Comment on the different types of marine sediments. -------------------

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE IV SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY MAY, 2003 Max. Marks: 50 MGO 2401 COASTAL PROCESSES AND EVOLUTION Section - A (Answer all questions. Choose the correct answer) 10x1 1. Littoral currents are: a. always seasonal and change their direction c. measured by a wave rider bouy 2. b. caused only by spilling breakers d..like contour currents

Time: 3 Hr.

Beach erosion is seasonal and is caused by: a. long traveled swells b. by breakers c. by storm waves with periods in excess of 8 sec. d. a combination of a, b, and c. Black sand placers of Kerala are a handiwork of: a. breakers in the monsoon season b. wave generated littoral currents c. storm waves of the monsoon season d. all of the above.

3.

4.

Wave steepness is ratio of: a. wave length, H and length, L b. Wave length, L and wave period, T c. Wave period, T and Velocity, C d. the reciprocal of wave length and velocity, C 5. Wave energy is controlled by a. the wave height and the wave length b. velocity and period c. wave height and period. d. Wave steepness and angle of approach The site where waves are generated is in a condition called a. Sea b. surface current c. contour current d. none of the above Upwelling is a process controlled by : a. variation in the temperature distribution in the water column b. storminess where waves are instrumental in pushing the bottom waters to the surface. c. When large volumes of waters are moved relative to each other but both vertically and horizontally d. All of the above When waves move out of the area of generation or creation they cease to grow: a. they gradually attenuate with time b. they gradually attenuate with time and distance c. velocity does not vary but height falls d. all of the above Wave energy by definition is: a. partly kinetic b. partly potential c. only kinetic d. only a combination of both.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10 In the equatorial zone, tractive force of tides are composed of components like:

a. diurnal and semi diurnal c. lunar

b. solar d. all of the above.

Section – B (Answer any six questions in about 300 words each. All questions carry equal marks) 6x4 II. Beach profiling III. Echosouder IV. Sea level rise due to green house effect V. SCUBA VI. Beach erosion VII. Barrier islands VIII. Sediment bypassing IX. Shallow water waves Section – C (Answer all questions, limit answers to 1200 words) (2x8) Xa. Critically examine the beach erosion with Kerala situation in mind. OR b. Examine the theories of origin, mineralogy and nature of the physical system of Mud banks of Kerala. Critically comment of the mechanism of their role in preventing beach erosion. XI. a. Review the geological history of the Kerala coastal zone in the Pleistocene. OR Write an essay on the classification of coasts. -------

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE IV SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY MAY, 2003 Max. Marks: 50 MGO 2401 COASTAL PROCESSES AND EVOLUTION Section - A (Answer all questions. Choose the correct answer) 10x1 1. Littoral currents are: a. always seasonal and change their direction b. caused only by spilling breakers

Time: 3 Hr.

c. measured by a wave rider bouy 2.

d..like contour currents

Beach erosion is seasonal and is caused by: a. long traveled swells b. by breakers c. by storm waves with periods in excess of 8 sec. d. a combination of a, b, and c. Glass sand placers of Kerala are a handiwork of: a. breakers in the monsoon season b. wave generated littoral currents c. storm waves of the monsoon season d. all of the above.

3.

4.

Wave steepness is ratio of: a. wave length, H and length, L b. Wave length, L and wave period, T c. Wave period, T and Velocity, C d. the reciprocal of wave length and velocity, C 10. Wave energy is controlled by a. the wave height and the wave length b. velocity and period c. wave height and period. d. Wave steepness and angle of approach e. The site where waves are generated is in a condition called a. Sea b. surface current c. contour current d. none of the above Upwelling is a process controlled by : a. variation in the temperature distribution in the water column b. storminess where waves are instrumental in pushing the bottom waters to the surface. c. When large volumes of waters are moved relative to each other but both vertically and horizontally d. All of the above

11.

12.

13.

When waves move out of the area of generation or creation they cease to grow: a. they gradually attenuate with time b. they gradually attenuate with time and distance c. velocity does not vary but height falls d. all of the above Wave energy by definition is: a. partly kinetic b. partly potential c. only kinetic d. only a combination of both.

14.

11 In the equatorial zone, tractive force of tides are composed of components like: a. diurnal and semi diurnal b. solar

c. lunar

d. all of the above.

Section – B (Answer any six questions in about 300 words each. All questions carry equal marks) 6x4 II. Beach placer formation III. Echosouder IV. Neotectonics V. ALVIN VI. Shoreline types of Kerala VII. Barrier islands VIII. Sediment bypassing IX. Wave orthogonals Section – C (Answer all questions, limit answers to 1200 words) (2x8) X.a. Critically examine the beach placer gathering and beach erosion in Kerala. OR b. Examine the theories of origin, mineralogy and nature of the physical system of Mud banks of Kerala. Critically comment of the mechanism of their role in preventing beach erosion. XI. a. Review the geological history of the Kerala coastal zone in the Pleistocene. OR Write an essay on the modern methods of preventing erosion of beaches. Keeping Kerala scene in mind suggest suitable method/s for preventing beach erosion. -------

5.

The rate of sedimnetation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

2.

The Chagos Murray fracture zone lies off the coast of a. Brazil c. New York b. Chile d. California

3. The carlsberg ridge continues northward to a. Owen fracture zone b. Austral seamount chain c. Marutias ridge c. Java trench 4. Charles Darwin participated in a scientific expedition in the research ship called: a. HMS Challenger c. INS Virad 5. b. USS Magellan d. HMS Beagle

According to Darwin an Atoll originated by the following steps: a. Drowning of a volcanic cone, growth of fringing reefs and growth of barrier reefs b. Growth of barrier reefs, tectonic activity, growth of fringing reefs c. Growth of barrier reefs, volcanic subsidence, growth of barrier reefs d. volcanic cone formation, growth of barrier reefs and formation of atoll. (Answer all questions in 1 or 2 sentences each) 5x1

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Alvin Wave refraction Pelagic sediments Blue green algae Barrier reefs (OVER)

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE SECOND SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE BIOLOGY MARCH, 1996 Time: 3 Hr. Max. Marks: 60 GEOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Section - A (Answer all questions. Choose the correct answer) 5x1 1. Charles Darwin was on board the research vessel: a. SV. ALVIN c. USS Roosevelt 2. b. H.M.S.Beagle c. SV Sagar Kanya

The first Indian Antartic expedition was led by: a. H.K.Gupta b. S.Z.Quasim b. C.Karunakaran d. La Fond

3.

The Mahadeva canyon is off: a. Southern California c. the Malabar coast b. the east coast of Australia d. the east coast of Andhra

4.

All actively swimming animals belong to: a. the Planktons b. the Nektons b. the Benthos d. the oozes

5.

The rate of sedimnetation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

2.

The Chagos Murray fracture zone lies off the coast of a. Brazil c. New York b. Chile d. California

3. The carlsberg ridge continues northward to a. Owen fracture zone b. Austral seamount chain c. Marutias ridge c. Java trench 4. Charles Darwin participated in a scientific expedition in the research ship called: a. HMS Challenger c. INS Virad 5. b. USS Magellan d. HMS Beagle

According to Darwin an Atoll originated by the following steps: a. Drowning of a volcanic cone, growth of fringing reefs and growth of barrier reefs b. Growth of barrier reefs, tectonic activity, growth of fringing reefs c. Growth of barrier reefs, volcanic subsidence, growth of barrier reefs d. volcanic cone formation, growth of barrier reefs and formation of atoll. (Answer all questions in 1 or 2 sentences each) 5x1

(OVER)

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE II SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY JUNE, 2003 Time: 3 Hr. Max. Marks: 50 MGO 2208 GEOLOGY IN COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Section - A (Answer all questions. Choose the correct answer) 1X10 I.1. Charles Darwin participated in a scientific expedition in the research ship called: a. HMS Challenger b. USS Magellan c. INS Virad d. HMS Beagle 2. Littoral currents are:

a. always seasonal and change their direction c. measured by a wave rider bouy 3. The rate of sedimnetation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr

b. caused only by spilling breakers d..like contour currents

b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr

4. Upwelling is a process controlled by: a. variation in the temperature distribution in the water column b. Storminess where waves are instrumental in pushing the bottom waters to the surface. c. When large volumes of waters are moved relative to each other but both vertically and horizontally d. All of the above 5. Glass sand placers of Kerala are a handiwork of: a. breakers in the monsoon season b. wave generated littoral currents c. storm waves of the monsoon season d. all of the above. 6. Major cause of beach erosion is seasonal is: a. long traveled swells b. by breakers c. by storm waves with periods in excess of 8 sec. d. a combination of a, b, and c. 7. Mudbanks of Kerala inshore and that too between e. Marthandan thura and Manjeshwar f. Thirkunnapuzha and Kozhikode g. Varkala and Ponnani h. Ambalappuzha and Ponnani 8. According to one estimate per capita entitlement of Kerala shoreline to the citizen is: a. 1.8 cm b. 2.8 cm c. 3.8 cm d. 4.8 cm. 9. Coastal aquifers are threatened by salt water intrusion:: a. due to over pumping of the fresh water b. by a steep fall in annual rain fall c. due to Eustatic sea level rise

d. as a result of unscientific dumping of industrial waste in the recharge sites
10. Total length of world shore line is of the order of : a. 440,000 km. b. 340,000 km c. 240,000 km. d. 540,000 km. Section - B (Answer any six questions. Limit to 300 words each) (6x4) II. III. IV. V VI. VII. VIII. IX. X Rip current Emerging shorelines Black sand placers Brunn’s rule Barrier system Groins Barrier islands Scope for mining coral reefs Mud banks.

Section - C (Answer all questions, limit answers to 1200 words each) (2x 8) XI A. B. XII A. Critically review the tools and practices in the realm of Coastal Zone Management. OR “Beach sand mining has its deleterious consequences “ Elucidate Examine the chief provisions of Coastal Regulation Zone Act and the special problems that are encountered by a state like Kerala. OR B. Given the geological architecture of Kerala Coastal Zone, examine the impact of Sea Level Rise due to Green House Effect. -------------------

COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY M.SC. DEGREE II SEMESTER EXAMINATION IN MARINE GEOLOGY JUNE, 2003 Time: 3 Hr. Max. Marks: 50 MGO 2208 GEOLOGY IN COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Section - A I.1. Charles Darwin participated in a scientific expedition in the research ship called: a. HMS Challenger b. USS Magellan c. INS Virad d. HMS Beagle 2. Littoral currents are: a. always seasonal and change their direction c. measured by a wave rider bouy 3. The rate of sedimnetation in the deep ocean is about: a. 100 cm./Kilo yr c. 2-3 cm./Kilo yr b. 10 cm./Kilo yr d. 5-10 mm./Kilo yr b. caused only by spilling breakers d..like contour currents

4. Upwelling is a process controlled by: e. variation in the temperature distribution in the water column f. Storminess where waves are instrumental in pushing the bottom waters to the surface.

g. When large volumes of waters are moved relative to each other but both vertically and horizontally h. All of the above 5. Glass sand placers of Kerala are a handiwork of: a. breakers in the monsoon season b. wave generated littoral currents c. storm waves of the monsoon season d. all of the above. 6. Major cause of beach erosion is seasonal is: a. long traveled swells b. by breakers c. by storm waves with periods in excess of 8 sec. d. a combination of a, b, and c. 7. Mudbanks of Kerala inshore and that too between i. Marthandan thura and Manjeshwar j. Thirkunnapuzha and Kozhikode k. Varkala and Ponnani l. Ambalappuzha and Ponnani 8. According to one estimate per capita entitlement of Kerala shoreline to the citizen is: a. 1.8 cm b. 2.8 cm c. 3.8 cm d. 4.8 cm. 9. . Beach erosion is seasonal and is caused by: a. long traveled swells b. by breakers c. by storm waves with periods in excess of 8 sec. d. a combination of a, b, and c. 10. Total length of world shore line is of the order of : a. 440,000 km. b. 340,000 km c. 240,000 km. d. 540,000 km. Section - B (Answer any six questions. Limit to 300 words each) (6x4) II. III. IV. V VI. VII. VIII. IX. X Lonshore current Submerged shorelines Glass sand deposits of Chertala Brunn’s rule Barrier system Sea walls Low tide terrace SCUBA Mud banks Section – C (Answer all questions, limit answers to 1200 words each) XIA. (2X8)

“Coastal ecosystems are constantly threatened by pollution” Elucidate with Kerala and Indian examples. OR B. Taking the example of mining operations by the IRE and KMML, examine the long term and medium term consequences of Beach sand mining. Examine the chief provisions of Coastal Regulation Zone Act and the special problems that are encountered by a state like Kerala. OR

XIIA.

B. Discuss the geological frame work of the Kerala Coastal zone.

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