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SPONSOR: MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
GUIDELINES FOR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SMALL HYDROPOWER STATION
LEAD ORGANISATION: ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE
ITEMS SECTION-I GUIDELINES FOR OPERATION HYDROPOWER STATION 1.0 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.0 Civil & Hydraulic Structure Power House Switchyard Other systems OF SMALL
PAGE NO 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 10 11 11 12
Guidelines for Operation of Power Plant 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Water Operation Operation of Power Station Guidelines for Preparing Operation Manual Guidelines for Plant Reports and Records Guidelines for Safety Manual Guidelines for Disaster Management
GUIDELINES FOR MAINTENANCE OF SMALL HYDROPOWER STATIONS 1.0 2.0 Introduction Type of Maintenance 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 4.0 Reactive (Run to Failure) Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Proactive Maintenance Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)
15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 28
Requirement of Effective Maintenance Guidelines for Maintenance of Small Hydropower Station 4.1 4.2 Preventive Maintenance of Hydro Turbine & Auxiliaries Preventive Maintenance of Hydro Generator
ITEMS 4.3 4.4 4.5 Preventive Maintenance of Power Transformers Preventive Maintenance of Hydro-mechanical Equipment Procedures for Typical Maintenance Activities
PAGE NO 45 53 56
GENERAL GUIDELINES 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Guidelines for Taking over O&M of SHP Guidelines for Manpower, Selection and Training Essential T&P, Instruments ETC Fire Protection & Fire Fighting Safety Aspect of Running SHP Guidelines for Documentation
73 73 73 75 75 76 78
turbine & generator installed and power evacuation arrangement and will generally consists of following:1. associated OPU and guide apparatus • Station auxiliaries such as:(i) EOT cranes/hoists (ii) Station compressor (iii) Drainage & Dewatering system (iv) D.1 CIVIL & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE • • • • • • • • • • • • 1.0 INTRODUCTION Operation of Hydropower plant involves understanding of operation of hydraulic features and equipments.G. All features may not be included in every plant and will depend on type of plant water source.SECTION – I GUIDELINES FOR OPERATION OF SMALL HYDROPOWER STATION 1.2 Lake/pond/river/canal as main water source Dam/Diversion weir/Diversion barrage Head regulator Power channel/tunnel Desilting arrangements Fore Bay Bye pass/Spillway Trash racks Intake Gates with Hoist Siphon intake Surge Tanks/Spilling pipes Penstocks POWER HOUSE (i) Mechanical • Main inlet valve (Butterfly/Spherical valve) • Bye pass valve • Inlet bend and branching pipes • Drain valve • Pressure reducing valve for cooling water system • Cooling water system • Turbine and its auxiliaries • Draft tube • Draft tube gates • Governor. Set Electrical • Hydro generator and auxiliaries 1 (ii) .
• • • • • • • • • • 1.3
AVR & Excitation system Generator protection/relay and control panel A.C. auxiliary supply D.C. control supply, batteries & battery charger TG start up panel Synchronizing panel Generator transformer Station transformer Unit auxiliary transformer (if applicable) Relay and control panel
SWITCHYARD • • • • • • • • Switchyard structure VCBs/SF6 circuit breakers and Isolators CTs PTs LA Line side Isolator Surge counters Outgoing lines
OTHER SYSTEMS • • • • • Lighting system, emergency lighting Station earthing, lightening protection Communication system Fire fighting and hydrant system Safety tagging & safety interlocks
GUIDELINES FOR OPERATION OF POWER PLANT Guidelines for operation of power plant shall have two elements:• • Water operation Operation of Power Plant
WATER OPERATION Just like operation of Turbine Generator set or a transformer, efficient water operation forms an important part of hydro power plant be it large storage plant or small run of river plant. Water operation means operation of following systems of the hydro plant in such a manner that efficiency of plant is maximum. It is generally reflected in kWH / cumec.
Catchment Area The area gives the runoff into the lake/pond/river during rainy season. Run off rate cubic m/mm should be known to operator to adjust generation accordingly. 2
Lake/Storage/Pond The operation of lake based plant means keeping the level such that during rainy season the over flow chances are minimum. In case of diversion type plants it is essential to keep the gates during flood conditions open to avoid flooding and lower them only when rain is low or over. In such plant it is essential to check that there is no leakage from the gates or stop log gates. If operator notes that the leakage is more, he should pass on his observation to higher authorities to ensure corrective measures in the interest of having more generation.
2.1.3 Run of River Type Plants Availability of water is more important factor in operation of hydro power plants. It is therefore, essential to generate continuously to its full capacity during monsoon season. Failure of a machine during monsoon can cause a substantial generation loss. All operation staff must, therefore, be very vigilant during this period. In lean season diversion barrage gates/diversion weir gates are checked for leakage, corrective measures are taken as soon as possible so that there may not be any generation loss on this account. 2.1.4 Power Channel/Duct/Canal The operation of open channel/duct is critical to water operation and efficiency of plant. Depending upon the length, condition of lining, head on head regulator, time required discharge to reach fore bay and to the machine. As per this discharge guide vane opening is calculated. Any time delay or change in opening will affect water reaching the TG unit causing change in generation. The time taken by water to reach the turbine will depend on many factors and only experience will make the operator perfect. 2.1.5 Fore bay Fore bay is a essential part of any water conductor system with open channel. It serves the purpose of connecting penstocks with gates and acts as tank. It takes care of small variation in generation, water supply and acts as desilting basin. The operation of fore bay is important during picking up load and at the time of tripping of machines. Actual over flow, through bye pass, is always recorded to calculate water wasted during over flow, especially during lean season. 2.2 OPERATION OF POWER STATION The operation of power station requires that its staff is trained and well versed with all necessary technical as well as basic trouble shooting knowledge. As a brief description to bring out some details of operating a SHP, the following checks are to be made before starting of machine:• • • Shut down clearance Water restriction, if any Permission from ALDC 3
Permission from nearest grid substation Proper working of Communication system AC Power DC Power Firefighting system Cooling water system Drainage & dewatering system H.S. lubrication system L.P. & H.P. compressed air system Protection system
Check List for Starting of Machine The staff responsible for the operation should be well conversant with technical details and importance of following:• Intake gates ,bye pass gates, draft tube gates & fore bay • Inlet valves • Turbine • Generator • Generator Transformers • Switchyard • Synchronizing with grid • Shut down of machine • Emergency shutdown of machine • Importance of log sheets
Mechanical On Intake • Check bye pass gate are not mechanically locked and all valves are in okay position • Check position of intake gate • Check position of stop log gates • Check filling line valve of penstock • Check supply to gates is O.K. Inside P.S. (i) Inlet valve:• AC power for pump operation • HP compressed air • Locking pin position • Level and pressure in OPU (ii) Others:(a) Check valves: • Check spiral drain valve is closed • Check D.T. drain valve is closed • Position of strainer valves ensure water flowing in cooling pipes • Gland seal valve open 4
if applicable • AVR condition • DC supply for field flashing • Oil levels in bearings • IR values • Jack position • H.P.3 Electrical Check list of Generator • Brake system • Cooling water for bearings • Generator fire fighting. LGB • Sealing water pressure • Servo motor Pr.2. System • Grid Power • DG Set power • Event logger • Disturbance logger 2. lubrication system • Check earth link for bus duct/XLPE cables 5 .C. Gauge • Air pressure (brakes) (d) Check working of systems • Top cover drain • Oil leakage unit • Oil cooling unit • Oil pressure unit • Brakes • Position of CO2 batteries • Guide vane lock on or off • Check jacking/de-jacking of m/c • Check flow relays • Check emergency slide valve reset • Check working of ventilation system • D.• Air seal valve closed • Top cover drain system okay (b) Check levels: • Pressure accumulator (OPU) • Turbine Guide bearing • Lower Guide bearing • Upper Guide bearing • Thrust bearing (c) Check pressures: • Spiral casing • OPU • Stator cooling water pressure • Thrust bearing .UGB.
Check list for Transformers • Cooling water system • Firefighting system • Transformer cooling oil pump position • Buccholz relay • Oil level in conservator • Colour of silica gel • IR of winding and core • BDV of oil Check list for Switchyard • Compressed air in case ABCBs are used • SF6 gas pressure in case of SF6 breaker • Earthing switch position • Isolator position – close • Breaker position – off • Line isolator position 2.2.4 Operations (i) Inlet Valve Opening • Put oil pumps on ‘auto’ mode • Open compressed air valve. supply from battery cuts • Now generator excitation supply get from excitation transformer • Start command initiated 6 (ii) (iii) .C. supply for excitation flashing • At 30% of generator voltage D. if applicable • Open bye pass manual valve • Give opening command to bypass auto valve • Check water pressure for equalizing • Give opening command to inlet valve • When inlet valve is fully open oil pumps must be stopped Turbine Operation • Put oil pumps on auto mode • Check availability of Nitrogen cylinder and check pressure of the same • Open cooling water for bearings • Open shaft seal water • Put brake on auto mode • Release lock pin • Fix GV opening limit • Put machine on auto mode Generator Operation • AVR on manual mode • Cooling water for transformer on • Oil circulation of transformer on • Keep fire fighting system alert • On D.C.
(iv) Synchronization (a) Synchronization checks • Line protection • PLCC • Give clearance for line back charging • Close line isolators • Close line breakers • Now circuit is charged up to switchyard from remote end • Start machine on auto mode (b) Synchronization • Close field breaker • Now m/c will run at rated speed and rated voltage • Check line voltage & frequency • Check generator voltage & frequency • Reduce or increase generator voltage & frequency to match with line voltage & frequency. • At equal line & generator voltage and frequency. close generator breaker. • General check up of machine and other unit auxiliaries at all floors. there is vibration or abnormal sound in OPU pumps Check grease in the container of centralized grease lubrication system Check working of following .Sealing water flow and pressure .Cooling water flow and pressure of all bearings at inlet & outlet . 2.Grease pump Check oil level in housings of all bearings Check if.Lower guide bearing Check following in normal working condition . Transformers. • Now generator is synchronized with grid.Thrust bearing .OLU pump .Upper guide bearing .Stator cooling flow and pressure.2. if stator air coolers are provided .OPU pump 1 & 2 . • All parameters in control room are matching and correct. • Take minimum prescribed load immediately (c) Checks after synchronizing and taking load • Unit control board supply is changed to unit Aux.Drainage pump & Dewatering pumps 7 . • Transformer “Motor for Cooling Water Supply” started.5 (i) Checks at the Time of Shift Change Over (Machine Running on Load) Turbine & Governor Check Temperature of following .
. valves. Check various switches are in correct position. (ii) Generator. Ensure that these are within limit. chattering in bus duct. if applicable for SEE only Check temperatures of winding & core. Check grid voltage & frequency. governor panel and AVR & excitation panel are in OK condition. Check all inlet exhaust fans are working. Check movement of all pointers & reset them. Check all AC supply boards installed in Power House are okay. generator barrel. 8 . Check emergency lighting system is OK. Check rear of all panels and mounting on this side for OK condition. Check all indication lamps are glowing. Check all batteries are physically in good condition. Check for any sparking from the brush of slip ring. Check all instruments mounted on panels are in working order. Check position of circuit breakers for outgoing lines. Check all facias & relays are reset. Physical check of all sub distribution boards installed in P. Servomotor stroke & R. oil and air flow indicators Check physical appearance of various system such as man holes. indicators etc. room Check all indication lamps are glowing. Check G. angle is normal Check general housekeeping is in order and all panels. (iv) L.S.Cooling water strainers Check sealing water pressure & air seal pressure Check running and vibration of machine and ensure nothing is abnormal Check working of top cover drainage system Check water.Ejector system for top cover drains . Check battery chargers are in normal working conditions.B. Check whether supply to various distribution boards are OK. neutral cubicle.Governor compressor . Check all indicating lamps are glowing. Check for any abnormality. Have general look on instruments and relays mounted on board. Also check annunciations are OK. Check that all instruments and indicators mounted on unit control board. Check air conditioning plant is working satisfactorily. sound. Check with test push button that all fault indication lamps are OK. AVR & Excitation System Watch running and vibration of machine and ensure nothing is abnormal. (iii) Control room Check that all parameters indicated on various panel are matching.General purpose compress .T.V. mountings on wall are clean and in order.
Check all the switches on DC board are in correct position. Inspection of fore bay. Replacement of lamps. (viii) Routine maintenance to be carried out during each shift Cleaning of all panels. wave traps and coupling capacitor and ensure that everything is in order. Check all cells of battery bank are healthy. See that oil and water flow indicators are normal. Check both batteries are on float. Check that oil temperature and winding temperature are normal. Check silica gel colour is normal. Gravity and cell voltage is correct. Check that oil pressure and water pressure are normal. Surge counters. Oiling and greasing of all equipment as per instructions. instruments and equipment installed in power station. fuses etc. Ensure that there is no sparking anywhere and everything is in order. isolators & line isolator and cast a look on all CTs. Carry out following checks for healthy condition of Mulsifyre system: .(v) DC Distribution Board. voltage is correct. jumpers etc. This would ensure that batteries are connected with load. OPU sump. 9 . Any other work as assigned. Check D. (vi) Main Transformers See that oil level is OK & there is no leakage from anywhere. Check that both chargers are functioning correctly. Battery Charger & Battery sets Check D. bye pass gates. Check position of all breakers. Work carried out during each shift shall be logged in daily in control room log book.C. Their sp.Power Oil level in conservator is normal. Check compressed air system in case of ABCB is OK. (vii) Switchyard Have general look at switchyard including bus bars. Check SF6 gas pressure in case of SF6 breaker.Compressor . PTs. Topping up of oil in bearings. Cleaning of trash racks. intake gates. supply is healthy by making momentarily float off. LAs. if provided.C.
Procedure for operation personal for giving planned plant outage.Water conductor system outage . Essential Drawings (Enclosure) .Station illumination & emergency lighting .Station compressors .Station D.Cooling water system .List of circuit .Transverse section thru unit .Longitudinal section thru centre line of units .List of panels .Plant outage for maintenance of machine .EOT cranes 10 • • • • .Plant layout .Outage request form .Synchronizing and taking load .C. set in service Problems during plant operation Planned plant outage procedure .Emergency shut down .Schematic diagrams Operation of Auxiliaries and other system installed in P.Taking D.Taking turbine generator set out of work .Plant outage instructions .Generator fire extinguishing system .Station earthing layout .Generator neutral grounding system .S.2.Normal shut down .Turbine Governor Oil Pressure Unit .Dead bus synchronizing .Taking main transformer out for maintenance .G. Generally it should include following subjects: • • • • General information about the project Salient features of the Project Equipment data Plant operation procedure .Hydraulic layout .Normal Start (a) Prestart checks (b) Starting procedure Auto Manual .Drainage & Dewatering system .AVR & excitation system .Main single diagram .3 GUIDE LINES FOR PREPARING OPERATION MANUAL Every plant shall have an operation manual for guidance of operating staff.Plan of different floors . . control system .
logs.First Aid Duties of staff posted for operation of plant in each shift (Designation wise) . lake level Monthly generation & aux.Turbine operator .Electrical safety . Gates . 11 . Generally following reports. reading sheets are required to be prepared at different levels of management structure: Typical Plant Data Sheets:- (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) (xv) (xvi) (xvii) (xviii) (xix) (xx) (xxi) 2.5 Hourly panel meter readings Station event log book Station trouble/fault log book Energy meter readings Daily generation report Hydraulic data sheet Daily rainfall. copies of which shall be given to every employee. animals) Quarterly safety & fire drill.Attendants/Oilers . D. GUIDELINES FOR PLANT REPORTS AND RECORDS A vast amount of information is generated by the power station on every aspect of generation. consumption report Monthly water consumption & runoff report Occurrence and relay tripping report Special event report (eg.4 . Most of this data is generally compiled on daily basis at the Power Station level and at HQ level for generation of Management Information Reports. Landslide. (ii) The management shall conduct safety training for operation and maintenance staff on regular basis.Technician (control room) .Engineer-in-charge of Shift .MIV Safety & Fire fighting .) Accident report (involving human being.Intake gates.T.Intake Gate/Bye pass gate operator Trouble shooting of various equipments installed in the plant. training imparted at plant Control room Control room Control room Control room Control room Control room Control room Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager Plant Manager GUIDELINES FOR SAFETY MANUAL (i) Every power plant shall have safety manual. bye pass gates.• • • 2.General fire fighting . fire etc. The safety manual shall contain: • • • Safety policy of the organization Safety during work Outage procedure with safety tags.
hand gloves. protection of environment protection of installation and restoration of generation. (vi) Fundamentals on Safety: Prevention of accidents requires whole-hearted co-operation of all members of the organization. To organize all support services like fire fighting system etc. However an unsafe person is a liability. • Unsafe acts which may cause accidents: • Operations an equipment without authority on warning. (iv) The arrangement to supervise safety tags shall be made at each P. 2. Attend to all emergency maintenance jobs on top priority. . insulated T&P for electrical works. mentally alert employee will avoid accidents.S. accidents are the results of unsafe conditions or unsafe acts or combination of both. shall be kept at the location where these can easily be accessed. his fellow workers and to the equipment and organization. Isolate remaining plant and keep them in safe condition. earthing chains etc. goggles.Improper illumination. To organize safe shut down of Power Plant. . Using defective equipment or its improper use.Defective material or equipment. Working nearby dangerous or live electrical equipment which could conveniently be de-energized. A capable. Hence.Non-standard design or construction.6 GUIDELINES FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster management is aimed at ensuring safety of people. To record accident details. Unsafe conditions which may cause accidents: . (v) Guidelines for safety in working are to be given in detail in safety manual. Operating or working without proper instructions. 12 .(iii)The safety equipment such as helmet.Ungrounded equipment. He is danger to himself. The list of tags for every equipment outage must be finalized and given in safety manual. Making safety devices in operative. (i) A task force consisting of O&M personnel of different discipline needs to be constituted who will identify the following: • • • • • • • Source of disaster and steps to contain the same. To apprise authorities on all safety related issues. .
• • (ii) To arrange for evacuation of man material from affected area. The plant supervisors and operators will carry out this work without exposing them to any risk. The fire extinguishing system needs to be automatically cut in and in case of failure of auto system. Responsibilities of various teams constituted to deal with specific emergency requirement. The following staff will also help them: • • • • • Attendants First aiders Persons responsible for emergency lighting Persons responsible for transport Persons working as runners. Arrangement of ambulance and emergency first aid. in case communication fails 13 . so that rest of the plant remains healthy. The earmarked hospital need to be informed of such emergency. Responsibility of Emergency Management Manager (EMM) for declaration of emergency (EMM to be nominated by Plant In-Charge). This shall consist of following factors: • • • • Responsibility of employees about first information. The units should be restarted as soon as the cause for disaster has been cleared off. Fire tenders need to be summoned immediately. Responsibility of EMM for “All Clear” signal after disaster has been cleared off (iv) Essential Staff In plants immediately affected or likely to be affected efforts will be made to shut down and make other units safe. In case of fire.S. Ensure immediate shut down affected or likely to be affected portion of P. The disaster management plan for generating stations shall take care of the following: • • • • • • • Emergency power supply system shall be made operational.. the unit/station needs to be emergency tripped through the emergency push button. (iii) Action Plan For effective control and management of disaster an action plan and organization shall be prepared by Power Station In-Charge along with responsibilities. Back start procedure must be prepared needs to be reviewed from time to time. the system should be manually started.
a) Failure of top cover studs.S. c) Entry of water from downstream side windows of P. during floods. switchyard and switchgears. Call for emergency vehicles. d) Failure of diversion dam gates opening during floods and entry of water from upstream side in Dam Toe power station. earthquake. Areas prone to disaster on account of fire are cable galleries. wind storms which may affect outdoor installations. Power Station In-Charge should arrange drills. landslides. Power station staff should remain always alert for such emergent eventualities. Fire tenders. Following occurrence may cause flooding of P. ambulance.S. It is responsibility of EMM to identify such staff and form task force to carry out above activities.• Persons manning plant entrance. 14 . to control traffic leaving P.H. training for the staff at regular interval especially before rainy season. (v) Disaster Possibility in Hydro Power Stations • • • • • Disaster due to natural calamities such as floods. to turn away visitors and non-essential vehicles. b) Failure of Draft tube inspection window or nearby liner plates. liaison with police. Failure of underground structures due to inadequate support or geological reasons. Over speeding of turbines.
damaged machinery and overtime expenditure. Maximum availability of equipment with least number of shut downs by ensuring that the rate of deterioration of any component does not exceed the life expectancy of the equipment at any stage. Maintenance exercise at predetermined time interval is therefore. adjusting and minor component replacement to extend the life of equipment and facility.2 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Preventive maintenance is planned maintenance of plant & equipment. operation and maintenance etc. Its main purpose is to minimize break down and excessive deterioration. Planned maintenance is preferred over this type so as to reduce downtime of machine and avoid uncalled for outages.0 2. The equipment cannot be fully assembled or tested at Manufacturer’s Shop. It is designed to improve equipment life and avoid any unplanned maintenance activities. It includes painting. Preventive maintenance covers inspection. commissioning. 2.manufacturing.1 TYPE OF MAINTENACE REACTIVE (RUN TO FAILURE) This is sometimes called crisis maintenance or hysterical maintenance. Run to failure should be a very small part in a modern maintenance program. 2. Periodic /planned shut downs should be arranged to avoid long term forced shutdowns. 2.SECTION – II GUIDELINES FOR MAINTENANCE OF SMALL HYDRO POWER STATIONS 1. wherever required. replacement.0 INTRODUCTION Experience of running hydropower station reveals that even after detailed project planning/quality control measures taken at various stages from inception to commissioning several unforeseen problems do take place during the operation and maintenance resulting in forced outages/low generation and load shedding etc. 3. repair of any piece of equipment or component based on time and set parameters. design . The main reasons which can be attributed to these undesired phenomenon/events(during operation). erection. planned to ensure the following objective: 1. 15 . are that the hydro power station equipments are custom built in construction and tailor made at each discipline viz. lubrication. This has been dominant form of maintenance for long time and its costs are relatively high because of unplanned downtime. causing misery to the consumers and undesired set back to the overall economy. cleaning. Eradiction /non-repetition of operational problems by timely analysis of the cause of faults/problems and replacement of short term solutions by long lasting and permanent ones. Quality and reliable operation of equipment on long term basis through identified periodic inspection /checking of components and subsequent replacement /rectification parts.
parameters. temperature. These may be required at the time of diagnosis of the operational problems as well as defined maintenance purpose.5 RELIABILITY CENTERED MAINTENANCE (RCM) This sort of maintenance is defined as “a process used to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical asset in its operating context”. It is an on going process which determines the mix of reactive. 2. Usually it requires some form of testing and analysis which helps predict an eminent failure. The analysis of data can predict the future. alignment results. In this type of maintenance primary cause of failure is sought and corrected.2.0 REQUIREMENT OF EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE In addition to planning maintenance and allotting suitable time interval on the basis of water supply availability following items also require close watch otherwise it may become difficult to adhere to the schedules. In this system unimportant maintenance activities are left to reactive maintenance approach. which can be used to predict problems and possible failures. efficiency in power generation out put. 3. leakages of oil and water. In this system diagnostic tools and measurements are used to assess when a component is near failure and should be replaced. In this approach basic thrust is to eliminate more costly unscheduled maintenance and to minimize preventive maintenance. All of these things can be captured and tracked through computer system. i) ii) iii) Man power planning and arrangement is most essential as without experienced / skilled staff any maintenance program may fail. document to establish a record of installed clearances. preventive and proactive maintenance practices to provide reliability at the minimum cost. The maintenance engineers should have in his possession all the erection and commissioning log sheets. oil analysis. 2. It recognizes that design and operation of each equipment differs and therefore. Planning and arrangement of spares and consumable in advance so that time is not lost in arrangement of the same after taking shut down. These include vibration monitoring. systems ampere readings. Predictive maintenance can be used in conjunction with preventive maintenance practices. 16 . In hydro power station there are many monitoring systems.4 PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE Most recent innovative in maintenance is called proactive and it utilizes a technique called “root cause failure analysis”.3 PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE This sort of maintenance ensures ability to judge when a piece of equipment is going to fail and replace the same before it does. resistance readings of motors. It recognises that all equipments in facility are not of equal importance for generation as well as plant safety. test characteristics of all the power plant equipment. possibility of failure also differs from equipment to equipment.
seats etc. History registers of various machines duly recorded with all the abnormalities observed on the machine and details of action taken to provide a guide line for future maintenance exercise must be maintained at the power station. These may be required to compare with the clearances/ settings/characteristics achieved during present maintenance.1 Daily Checks 1. 3.1 Daily checks Weekly checks Monthly checks Quarterly checks Half yearly checks Annual inspection and maintenance Capital Maintenance PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF HYDRO TURBINE & AUXILIARIES 4. spiral casing manhole. expansion joint. Water Seal and Air Seal: i) Checks the position of water leakage of the water seals and see that there is no excessive splashing and water level do not rise in top cover ii) Note water pressure of water sealing /under sealing.0 GUIDELINES STATIONS In most of small hydro plants preventive maintenance approach is preferred over other approaches.iv) v) vi) Log sheets of the previous maintenance exercise carried out on the machines. Turbine Guide Bearing: i) Checks the oil level(stand still machine /running machine) ii) Note the temperature of bearing and check that the temperature of oil and guide bearing pads are within limits iii) Note the maximum and minimum temperature and compare with readings of the previous day. Following inspection checks are done in this type of maintenance: • • • • • • • 4. Vacuum Breaking Valve / Air Admission Valve: Checks the working of both vacuum breaking valve and see that there is no abnormality in the springs. FOR MAINTENANCE OF SMALL HYDROPOWER 4. 17 2. Foundation parts and Expansion Joints: Checks for any leakage in draft tube manholes. 4. . Logging of the performance characteristics of the power plant on daily basis recording all the abnormalities and misbehaviors (if any) of the total plant observed during its operation from one maintenance exercise to another.1.
Oil Pressure System: i) Check if there is any abnormal sound in the running of the motor and pump unit of OPU. should be reported. 9. . ii) Check the oil level in pressure accumulator. Cleaning of throttle filters in the governor mechanical cabinet. unions and nipples. ii) Check for any leakage iii) Working of end pressure relay and solenoid valves. Check oil level of all the bearings 18 4. 10. 5. noise in the pump motor. Greasing of guide vanes and servomotor with centralized grease lubrication system and manually. ii) Check any oil leakage from the joints iii) Note the pressure difference of opening and closing side of runner. do the crackle test for detecting presence of water. 8.2 2. 4. Take remedial measures.1. i) Oil in the gear box shall be checked. Cleaning of governor compressor air filters and checking of oil levels. Guide Apparatus: Check any leakage from GV servomotor and its piping Oil Leakage Unit: i) Check any leakage from pipe line joints ii) Check its satisfactory running on ‘Auto’. 3. if defective. iii) Check any oil leakage from oil piping and its valve. ii) Check grease container is filled with grease Oil Header: (For Kaplan) i) Check from Perspex sheet manhole any splashing of oil from top and bottom bush. 7. after taking sample through the sampling cock. ii) Vibration. Checking physically oil of OPU of the running machine. Centralized Grease Lubrication System: i) Check for any leakage from grease pipes. v) Note the timing of OPU pumps running and compare with previous day running hour Weekly Maintenance Checks 1.iv) Checks for any oil leakage from the bearing housing and check that oil is flowing above the bearing pads. 5. iv) Check for over heating of motor. iii) Any leakage form the water piping iv) Working and water pressure of the ejector. Top Cover Drain System: i) Main supply of ‘ON’ for DPM. 6.
This exercise becomes very essential in cases where performance level has been observed to have gone down in 5 years operation. iv) Check cup sealing of guide vane journals and replace. The damage due to cavitations & wear to be rectified by welding and grinding. It is. if these are worn out. 4. ii) Check the runner blade seals by pressurizing the system.1. iii) Replace damaged shear pins.6.4 Annual Inspection and Maintenance of Hydro Turbine After successful running of plant for about one year few weeks are required to be allotted to inspect rotating parts. Guide Bearing: 2. control equipment and measuring instruments etc. and analyze cause of change in the performance characteristics. ii) Change oil in the regulating ring. Following checks and inspections should be carried out during annual and five yearly maintenance: 1. Guide Apparatus: i) Check the presence of rubber sealing cords and the tightness of the rubber sealing between the adjacent guide vanes in fully dosed position of guide apparatus. Change seals if necessary. Foundation Parts: i) Check condition of water path system. however. After every five years it is necessary to inspect the machine more critically for abnormalities like fatigue defects for excessive wear and tear of some parts or any change in original parameters / clearances etc. But while carrying out these checks more attention is paid and short shutdowns. vi) Inspect the servomotor and change the seals. if required. if any. Modify / repair / replace (wherever required) the worn out parts in order to prevent forced outages of machine at later date. 3.3 Check wobbling of shaft at coupling flange and at oil header servo tube. 4. for rectification are taken. v) Check the bushes of guide vanes and change the worn out bushes of guide vanes journals. 19 . Runner: i) Check the condition of the surfaces of the runner hub and the blades.1. if necessary. leakages of water in the runner hub is not to be permitted (Kaplan only). 4. No oil leakage is to be allowed (Kaplan only). Monthly Maintenance Checks All the checks covered in weekly maintenance as above are carried out monthly also. The damage due to cavitation and wear to be rectified ii) Check painting of spiral casing. iii) Check the runner sealing for hermetic tightness. to be ensured that hydraulic profile of blades is not disturbed.
20 . attend wherever necessary. set the same. In case found damaged change the same. ii) Attend leakage of oil through pipe line joints and valves. ii) Check pipe lines and piping joints for leakage. replace damaged one. 11. ii) Check satisfactory working of all cooling unit. Thorough cleaning of housing is necessary. Oil Header(Kaplan only) i) Measure clearances of upper and lower bushes. if found damaged replace the same. Emergency Slide Valve: i) Check the functioning of emergency slide valve and the condition of inner surfaces. Centralized Grease Lubrication System: i) Check satisfactory working of CGLS system. Shaft Gland Seal and Air Seal: i) Check the condition of rubbing surface of sealing rings. if found increased get the bushes replaced. Governor Mechanical Cabinet(if applicable): i) Check filter and throttle. 5. ii) Clean the tank. iii) Check auto rod setting. iv) Clean oil sump. iii) Check filter and repair. ii) Attend wherever fault is located. ii) Provide proper lubrication to the bearings of pump motor. iii) Check the pipeline joints and valve for leakage. ii) Swift return of the valve in its original position after emergency operation should also be checked. iii) Check the rubber cord fixed below the oil guide to check any oil dipping on the exciter winding. if found disturbed. refill with centrifuged oil.i) ii) iii) iv) Check the condition of rubbing surfaces of guide bearing . Check all the RTDs and TSDs. v) Check setting of the float relays for proper sequence of operation of pumps. 6. if any. Oil Cooling Unit: i) Check all the oil and water pipe lines for leakage and attend if necessary. ii) Clean the oil bath. iv) Check alignment of feedback wire rope pulleys. 8. Adjust the clearances by moving the segments with the help of adjusting bolts. Clean the surface and polish it with the help of chalk powder. 10. if required. OPU: i) Check and attend leakage from any valve or flanged joints etc. 7. attend the same. 9. Oil Leakage Unit: i) Check satisfactory working on Auto as well as manual. 7.
iv) Check setting of pressure switches installed for Auto operation for OPU pumps. reassembled with new gaskets. bearings etc. if necessary. Clean Water System: Clean water pipes are dismantled.5 Capital Maintenance of Hydro Turbine Overhauling or capital maintenance of hydro set is usually recommended after about 10 years of operation services. 2. Gland Seals and Isolating Air Inflated Seals: Dismantling. Then the unit re-commissioned as per originally established commissioning practice of the power station. centering of shaft. cleaning and inspecting for wear and tear replacing with new ones if found necessary. if found worn out. cleaning and reassembly. filling of oil sump with filtered water. inspection. Following checks are to be exercised during capital maintenance of a hydro set: 1. 21 . replace with new ones.4. Guide Vanes Bush Housing : i) Removing. Guide Vane Servomotor: Dismantling for inspection and cleaning. inspection. Replace bushes. Reassembling and replacing the seals with new ones. Replace seals. ii) Cleaning OPU sump and pressure accumulator and refill with filtered oil. After capital maintenance the units are subjected to all periodic maintenance exercises outlined above before it reach the next cycle of capital maintenance. if necessary. if necessary. 6. ii) Check the temperature sensing device. The whole unit is to be stripped off during capital maintenance and all the defective/worn out parts/components repaired /replaced with new ones. cleaned. Governor: i) Cleaning and checking OPU pumps. iii) Attend oil pipeline flanges and valves for leakages. 5. 3. Turbine Bearing: i) Disassembly. all the valves are attended for any leakage etc. ii) Guide vanes are reconditioned and proper bedding in closed position is ensured. Also attend pump motors. cleaning. 4. measurement of clearances. if necessary. setting of clearances. polishing of guide pads.1. Replacing of worn out rubber flaps or carbon segments. reassembly.
material of the blade washes away with passage of time. rectify defects by welding and grinding. 3. iv) Inspect blades of the runner and make up profile of the blades by welding. abrasion and cavitations. Runner i) Dewatering of draft tube and fabrication of platform in the draft tube for inspection of runner. ii) Cleaning and painting of penstock. 4. Replace gaskets and other parts. 22 8. spiral casing and draft tube. 2. Set Auto rod as per designs Alpha Beta setting may also be checked in case of Kaplan turbine. vi) In case of Kaplan runner hydraulic test is also required to be done.v) vi) Attend Governor Mechanical cabinet for leakages. Replace worn out valves and gaskets etc. 7. draft tube drain valve should also be checked and repaired. Oil Cooling Unit i) Overhaul cooling pumps ii) Attend all the valves and pipe line for leakage Centralized Grease lubrication System i) Overhaul greasing pump. spiral drain valve. loose links. Penstock filling line valve. iii) Check all the nylon pipes connected with the guide vane bushes. Clean main and pilot slide valves. ii) Check pipe lines and valves. Tightening of all the connections should be done. iii) Replace blade seals. ii) Check whole greasing lines. v) In case the runner is found to be irreparable arrange to replace the same with new one. Turbine Auxiliaries 1. Check electrical circuit. overhaul the ejector and drainage pumps. Replace damaged pipes. if necessary. spiral casing and draft tube liner. 9. . if necessary. After weld repair heat treatment and dynamic balancing is must before installation. Due to erosion. ii) If it is a Kaplan Runner test the same after applying full governor pressure for leakage of oil. DPM i) Inspect top cover drain system. Oil Leakage Unit i) Check the oil leakage unit overhauls the pumps. Under Water Parts i) Inspect condition of welded seams of penstock. iv) Check that all the guide vanes are receiving grease properly.
Fore bay is also used as desilting basin with flushing conduits in some power plants.6 Clean tank and check that float is properly working. be paid to effective desilting arrangement in such power station. Checking all the pipe liens and valves for leakages. Cavitation is inherent even in the best designed turbines and cavitation damage occurs under unfavorable operating conditions. shaft seals and draft tube cone. failure of turbine bearings. 5. leakage of water through guide vane seals and turbine gland seals. These problems are discussed in detailed in the following paragraphs. therefore.ii) iii) 4. About half a kilometer downstream of the head regulator a silt ejector has been constructed in the bed of the power channel In some projects desilting basin is constructed. This can be due to following reasons: i) Faulty design ii) Poor metallurgy iii) Metal fatigue The cavitation phenomenon occurs due to the vaporization of flowing fluid in a zone of excessive low pressure. guide vanes. Greater attention should. A. guide vanes and other under water parts has assumed serious proportions especially in some of the run-of-river schemes. Major Maintenance Problems of Hydro Turbines Some of the major problems encountered in the hydro turbines are damage in runners due to erosion.1. At surface power stations with open channels following measures of desilting are taken: i) ii) iii) iv) Silt extruders have been provided near under sluice gates of the barrage. Runner 1. Heavy damages have been observed on the runner. inlet valve. Cavitation & Cracking of Runner The problem of cracking of runner and Pelton buckets in few power stations has been reported. instability of operation at partial gate opening. The remedy appears to lie in effective desilting arrangements and manufacturing of turbine parts with harder and erosion resistant material like stainless steel of popper grade and also design of runner for such conditions. The wear due silt occurs so fast that the unit has to be taken out for reconditioning every few years in some stations. labyrinth seals. cracking and cavitation due pressure pulsation in draft tube. limits of metal 23 . The rivers in the northern region of India carry enormous silt loads especially during monsoon periods so much so that the power stations had to be closed down to prevent serious damage to the turbines part and water conductor system. Erosion due to silt The problem of erosion of turbine runners.
The parent material about 70 to 75 mm. areas on the crown on the throat ring and the tip of the blades and the upper portion of the draft tube liner are affected by the action of cavitation. To locate crack etc. form the weld. It is achieved by welding for a short time in any one particular area and then moving to a diametrically opposite area to continue with the work. ii) Operate the machines as per guide lines given by manufacturers. -Provision of fins or flow splitter in draft tube to break the vortex flow. Precaution in welding of runners in situ i) ii) iii) iv) Surface should be prepared by chipping or grinding. should be done. should not be allowed to get too hot to be touched with bare hand. iii) At design stage itself. cavitation can effectively be controlled. 6. there may be pitting on the pressure side surfaces of the buckets or blades due to a unusual amount of over hung of the guide vanes. In rare cases. After welding all the welded areas should be properly ground to match with the desired profile. it will be desirable to take out the runner and repair the same as per advice of manufacturer and also to get heat treatment done. if necessary. Avoid any localized excessive heating. Hot peening (hitting with mallet) is also must for relieving locked stresses. Die penetration tests should once again be carried out to ensure crack free welding. Rectification. ensuring proper submergence. Plenty of time should be allowed for the welded area to cool down since forced cooling may cause distortion due to locked in stresses. Static as well dynamic balancing of the rotating parts also becomes necessary before re-commissioning to prevent problem of cracking of blades and excessive vibrations in machines. 24 . To minimize cavitation following steps are necessary: i) Periodically (annually) inspect the runner and other turbine parts and take remedial measures. The unit should not be run below certain load to avoid cavitation prone zones. Preheating of the blade to about 60 °C is necessary. die penetration test must be carried. iv) As a result of draft tube pulsation and surges at no load or part gate opening excessive noise. Normally the discharge side surface of buckets or blades. use of cavitation resistant material and adoption of optimize runner profile based on model tests. vibrations and cavitation is experienced.removal have been specified beyond which cavitation becomes harmful and requires repair. improper design or unusual operating conditions. A close check should be made at least two to three times per day during the repair of runner to runner chamber clearances. -Provision of a bypass arrangement for releasing the pressure built up below the top cover. To minimize pulsation of draft tube following measures must be taken: -Air admission through air admission / vacuum breaking valve installed at top cover. v) vi) vii) viii) ix) If extensive welding on the runner is required.
In the case of plain water cooled bearings. These are: • • • Starvation of oil in the bath. TSDs. These sumps. 1. C. • Grease lubricated bearing. A number of cases of turbine guide bearing failures have come to notice. • Bath type with cooling water tubes embedded in the pads. oil level and flow relays etc. Two separate oil sumps are located in the top cover in diametrically opposite locations. These may be classified as follows: • Plain water cooled bearing. Small diameter cooling pipes embedded in bearing pads have a tendency to clog especially at the time of high silt contents resulting in water starvation. The oil is circulated between sumps and the bath Top cover being stationed just above the draft tube. separate cooling water arrangement for bearing oil is not required. Gland Seals Normally two types of shaft gland seals are in use in different power stations: i) Carbon or ferrobestos segment. To avoid failure of bearing due to cooling water tube clogging a new design of turbine guide bearing has been developed by M/s BHEL Hardwar. The ferrobestos lined bearing have given considerable trouble at one of the power station and these had to be replaced by rubber lined pads. The bearing temperatures with this arrangement never go beyond 40°C to 42 °C. Complaints of excessive oil splashing have been received about the rotating bath type bearing. Stuffing box being always in touch with the shaft is subjected to excessive wear and tear. Mal-functioning of instrument like RTDs. The overhauling of the stuffing box becomes necessary when it is observed that consumption of cooling water has 25 . through pipe lines are connected to the oil bath of the bearing. Turbine Guide Bearing A number of turbine guide bearing designs are in use. Carbon or ferrobestos Segment Type The seal segments are housed in the stuffing box. either ferrobestos or rubber lined pads are used against a welded shaft sleeve. • Bath type with circular cooling turbines. Grease lubrication bearings have a tendency to clog when in contact with the water and it is very essential to use grease with the right type of properties.B. Failure of cooling water due to clogging of pipe. ii) Rubber flap type.
In the event of breakage or damage to a carbon segment it is advisable to replace the whole set of carbon segments. • All stainless steel facings are flat and square with the gland sleeve and there are no steps at the facing joints. Guide vane servomotor Normally main source of trouble is rubber cup seals which need to be replaced after a few years. D. • All garter springs are assembled to obtain even tension all around. Only precaution during assembly of rubber gland is jointing of the rubber seal in the proper way. All carbon segments and spacers are fitted to place and match marked on assembly. Whenever reassembly of the gland seal with existing gland ring or new ring is done it is importance to ensure: • All carbon / ferrobestos segments are carefully examined for any chipping or damage. 2. • Alignment of segments in the lower assembly is carefully checked with a hard wood peg or similar device before fitting retaining pins. Rubber seals should be replaced during annual maintenance. Governor Different types of governors are in use in different hydro power stations: o Mechanical governor can be classified as follows Fly ball type 26 .002” of the existing ring to which it is to be fitted. E. • Ensure proper bedding of segments with shaft sleeve. • All segment to segment and segment to stainless steel mating surfaces are perfect. it should be circular and smooth and properly secured on the shaft. The quality of rubber used plays a very important role for satisfactory performance of the rubber gland. The shaft sleeve should also be checked. • Stainless steel facing and sleeve are completely free from grease. In general maintenance of the seal is required to be done annually.considerably increased or excessive water in top cover appears to be coming. Rubber flap type Maintenance of rubber flap type gland seal is comparatively simpler and easier. Whenever any part is replaced it should be ensured that match marking after final assembly is done. In very rare case only the damaged segment is replaced care must be taken to ensure that the axial thickness of the new segments falls within the limit size to ±0. It is important that all the parts are match marked before dismantling so that reassembly is correctly done.
and after cleaning and reassembly governor parameters and characteristics should be readjusted so that there is no hunting of the governor. This may be due to some worn out bearing of the pump which would be replaced. if excessive water found in the Governor oil. In case of Kaplan turbine water may enter into the runner hub through rubber seal of blades. In this case governor should be opened and all the throttles etc. From following two sources the water can enter in the governing oil system. One more problem which has been faced in different power station is entry of water in the governing oil system. thus providing access to the top cover water which may ultimately be pumped in to the OPU sump. should be cleared. Oil Header In Kaplan turbine the oil header is required to supply governing oil to the runner servomotor and return oil to the OPU sump.Accelero tachometric type o Governor employing magnetic amplifier. o The governor may require maintenance because of the following reasons: Chocking of oil parts and throttles. To eliminate first possibility the oil leakage unit delivery should be isolated from the OPU sump and connected to a separate tank. Regular centrifuging of oil with the help of De-Laval type oil purifying machine would go a long way in enhancing the life of the oil. During annual overhauling OPU sump and pressure accumulator should be completely emptied and cleaned. if necessary. ii) Daily check of the OPU sump oil sample and test of the same is necessary to keep track of such possibilities. Its sump being located will below the level of servo motors in the top cover may not be properly sealed. Governing Oil System The oil sump should be properly cleaned and filled with filtered oil. Wearing out of throttles due to which oil leakage becomes more and readjustment of governor becomes essential. The servo tube has ports to receive return oil to the 27 . In certain cases oil retained its properties even up to 15 to 20 years of continuous use. through oil leakage pumps which caters leakage of servo motor oil. The strainers should be inspected and repaired. Oil header has an oil guide connected with the rotating and servo tube. But for the second possibility there is no way except replacing blade seals. The OPU pumps require maintenance when they develop excessive noise or vibration. G. The oil samples should be got tested for verification of the desired properties. o Governor employing electro hydraulic amplifier. F. Filters should also be cleaned. i) From top cover.
05 1. Periodicity Hourly Once in months Once in months Once in months 6 6 6 Cleaning to be done such that the dust does not collect in side machine. Check pins & fixing of stator with foundations.07 1. Remedial measures to reduce run out of the servo tube must be taken at this stage. Remarks 1. monthly. No. once in 3 months. Clean the winding with dry & clean compressed air (2 to 3 kg/cm2).02 1. inner periphery of stator core (if possible). This tube is guided by three sets of bushes in the oil tube. based on the past experience. Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Record to maintained -dobe Check functioning of RTDs of stator. the recommendation given may be taken as a guide line and these may be altered slightly.pipes coming form OPU sump. Check the fixing of stator active iron with the frame body in all possible places. IR & PI value. Check D. Monitoring of wobbling of the servo tube with help of dial indicator may provide a guide line and save the bushes from further wearing.09 1. 4. While it is appreciated that it is not always possible to rightly follow this schedule due to generator loading constraints. Yearly Blow the winding.08 1. bus bars. 1.04 Description Stator: Temperature record on log sheet for core and winding. Given in the following table are the recommended daily. parts of stator winding in slots (specially at sector joint) binding & spacers between the winding bars/ bandage rings. Checking the fixing of winding. half yearly & yearly maintenance checks to be conducted on the generator.2 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF HYDRO GENERATOR Preventive maintenance ensures a long trouble free operation of the generator.C. At the time of assembly of various parts of header proper match marking and dowelling is essential so that reassembly may be correctly done. bus bars slot wedges etc.03 1.01 1.11 Check overhang parts of stator winding. condition of winding joints with bus bars etc.06 1. active iron and bandage Yearly rings etc. Due to run out of the shaft these bushes has to press the servo tube which may cause failure of the same.10 1. tighten the studs of pressing plates. resistance. with dry & clean compressed air (2 28 . If it is necessary. Sl. hot and cold air temperature Visual inspection of the overhang parts of the stator winding.00 1. Check looseness of overhang.
00 2. brake track. Slip ring & Brush Rocker Check sparking. Inspection. Measure D.Sl.07 2. Monthly 29 . 2 Description to 3 kg/cm ). Check the pole coils for inter-turn fault. drying of winding by passing current is not allowed initially as electrolysis of water may take place. This is harmful to the winding.12 1. 2.13 Not required during 600 hrs.02 2. In case of excessive wetting of stator winding during conditions such as flooding.01 3.04 Check IR value of rotor through slip rings Once in before & after cleaning slip rings. Check pitting & Grooving of slip ring Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Keep a record Not required during 600 hrs. Check locking of rim wedges Periodicity Yearly Remarks 1. Check the locking of pole wedges. inspection.03 2. slip rings Monthly and the surrounding areas.01 2.09 2.08 2. Check the condition of inter-polar connections Check the condition of damper winding. resistance and IR value of rotor winding.00 3. Every shift Monthly 3. In case of excessive grooving rectify by grinding.02 Check the gaps of spider arms. If required carryout additional wedging.C.10 3.04 2. ROTOR: Check rotor winding and insulation details of current carrying leads. Clean rotor from dust by blowing compressed air free from moisture (2 to 3 kg/cm2). No. months Clean the brush rocker. As per External heating requirement arrangement is to be provided till wetness is removed 2. Use a precision spring balance for adjusting spring tension. Check tightening & proper locking of all fasteners.03 3.05 Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly In case the wedges are loose contact manufacturer before attempting any rectification. Brushes.05 Check brush wear & spring tension. After cleaning apply Red-gel coat on the overhang. The carbon brushes can be used till it is not 3. 6 Keep a record Special care be taken to clear carbon dust from ‘V’ shaped insulation pieces fitted between slip rings.06 2.
Sl. Pad & Oil by RTD & TSD and record on log sheet. Once in months Monthly 6 In case the damage is excessive. Every shift. Measures insulation resistance of T. Check all fasteners of slip rings.06 .12 3. Description Periodicity 3. 3.13 3. oil bath 4.07 3.03 4. Stop oil leakages in this area.05 Once in a shift Half yearly Record to be kept.B. disc. Analysis of oil from oil bath. 30 Yearly 4. leakage from cooling tube.11 Check for absence of oil or its vapors slip ring area. When centrifuging doesn’t help in improving its quality up to acceptable values. Check wobbling at slip rings. brush rocker & current carrying lead. The brush should not be too tight/loose inside the holder. to be removed. In case the original insulating enamel is peeling off remove the balance enamel and apply fresh enamel. Check & record reading of oil level relay.14 Yearly Yearly Yearly While cleaning avoid using insulating paint removers. Carryout thorough cleaning of slip ring area.09 3. Oil leakages. Check level of oil from the gauge glass. Change of oil in T. plugging of cooling tubes upto 10% can be done depending upon bearing temperature.00 4.02 4. Any Once in every Unit should be increase in level may be due to leakage of shift.06 3.01 4. New brushes to be used after bedding the brushes.15 At the time of installation/ during major overhauling Hourly 4. Check distance of brush holder from slip ring and keep it as specified in the drawing. stopped in case of water in the oil bath coolers.B. No.08 3. Monthly While replacing Remarks possible to measure/ adjust spring tension. Check carbon brushes for absence of pitting and severe wear & tear. 3.04 Thrust Bearing Measurement of temperatures of T. replace complete set.B. Inter change polarity of slip rings. Ensure use of same & recommended grade of carbon brushes on one machine. if any.10 3.
requirement. disc after apply lard (animal fat) on the pads & giving rotation to the unit.02 5. pads. Check the condition of weld seam of oil bath Yearly & oil pipe lines for leakages visually.12 4. Clean all inner surfaces of oil bath from dust.B. if required. Check if any insulating segment over T. No.13 4.00 5.B.09 4.03 5.10 4.B. If oil level is not rising. Hourly oil by RTD & TSD & record on log sheets Check & note reading of level relay Once in every shift Analysis of oil from oil bath Once in 3 Record to be kept.01 5. wash them with Kerosene and dry with clean cloth. Check the condition of insulation of RTD Yearly leads. maintenance Check (in case of problem) the intactness of As per spherical surface of thrust bolt.11 4.B.07 4.17 4.15 4. 4. Once in Two Oil bath is to be years. pads and the verticality of the unit is to be checked thereafter. Load sharing on T. This is normally rise in water level to due to mixing of water leaking from oil confirm leakage and coolers.B. Check the working surface of thrust bearing pads. need de-foaming. finally flushed with fresh turbine oil. Oil sample to be checked. should be carried out with respect to T.14 4. the oil may attend accordingly.Sl. In case of uneven wear of pad. to be discarded after use. Check if excessive foaming is taking place As required Watch carefully for on oil through gauge glass. months Change of oil in T. Periodicity Yearly Yearly Remarks . oil bath When centrifuging doesn’t help in improving its quality up to acceptable 31 Description Check calibration of the TSD’s & RTD’s of thrust bearing. Disc.16 4. During capital Disc is displaced. Check for proper seating of pads As required Change rubber seals & woolen felts As required GUIDE BEARINGS Measurement of temperatures of G. scrapping.18 5. check that the As per pad eccentricity is correct.04 During capital This will require maintenance partial dismantling of unit. Check the condition of mirror surface of T. requirement.B. Polishing of the surface can be done to remove minor scratches.08 4.
01 AIR/OIL COOLERS Check water boxes for clogging by opening Yearly them. measure and record As per To be readjusted if guide bearing clearances. No. Check condition of pad insulation Yearly Check looseness of bolts holding ‘Z’ clamps Yearly (in wedge type construction of guide bearings. As required Check operation of the level relay and its Yearly calibrations. 6. The spares set to be scrapped with respect to it’s respective journal surface by giving rotation to the unit. Check welding of pad support block with oil Yearly bath. Clean all inner surfaces of oil bath wash them Once in two Oil bath is to be with Kerosene and dry with clean cloth.06 5. if required ii) Heavy damage on babbit surface of pads – full set be replaced from spares.12 5.14 5. Description 6. pads. Change rubber seals and woolen felts. requirement Check the friction surface of the bearing Yearly journal.17 5.B. if necessary. Check the gasket between oil cooler & oil Yearly 32 This checking may be done frequently if clogging is more. Check the centering of the unit vis-à-vis the Yearly as per labyrinth/runner chamber of turbine. Scrapping to be done with respect to the journal. requirement required. Yearly Prior to removal of pads.13 5.07 5.16 5. Wash pads & journal with aviation petrol and Yearly then carryout assembly of the guide bearing.15 5. years finally flushed with fresh turbine oil.08 5. to be discarded after use.18 5. 5.Sl.10 5. Check the condition of welding seems of oil Yearly bath & leakages from them and oil pipe liens.00 6. Remove all dirt etc & finally clean with fresh water & dry. Yearly Check calibration of TSD’s & RTDs of G.05 5.19 Periodicity Remarks values Measures insulation resistance of G.11 5.09 5. during reinstallation Check each pad for: Yearly i) Absence of scratch marks.B. In case of clogging clean tubes water boxes with wire/ nylon brush. Carryout it’s polishing.02 . Check looseness of pad and pad support Yearly bolts.
UPPER BRACKET / LOWER BRACKET External inspection & tightening of the lock nuts in the radial jacks. 33 . No.02 7. Check the value of air gap between air baffles and rotor. if required. Check foundation bolts tightening for stator & lower bracket. Check fixing of the generator cover plate Check all fasteners of Upper and lower air baffles. In case if this time has increased abnormal then look for increased guide vanes 8. When the shutdown exceeds 10 days. Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly These gaps are to be compared with original values during erection and maintained as such.04 Description Periodicity Remarks bath & between air cooler & stator frame.05 7.01 7.03 Measure: During first i) Time for unit to come to braking speed spinning / yearly from rated speed after signaling the unit to stop.02 Clean the brackets of dirt & dust. the unit. Check thickness of brake pad Yearly Yearly Yearly Yearly Every shift As required Record on log sheet Record to be maintained along with number of braking in the period with Air pressure used for braking. bearing pads/ stator winding to be taken in view while plugging tubes of the coolers. Normally upto 10% of the cooling tubes of As required Temperature of the coolers can be plugged. Cleaning can be done more often if possible. Check fastening between upper bracket & stator and foundation plates.01 8.03 7. 6.05 7. if required.00 7. Check all fasteners for locking / tightness Brake pipe line Record air pressure available at brake panel.08 8. Gaskets to be replaced if required. Record be kept.03. water As required from coolers is to be drained and the coolers kept dry. 7. if required. failure on subsequent commissioning of the unit.04 6.00 8. Coolers are to be immediately attended to as On flooding of This is to safe guard given above at 6.07 7.Sl.06 7.03 6.
Sl. Open brake cum jack assembly. Terminal Blocks. Clean the Yearly inner surface of dust with Kerosene & reassemble. Check no oil leaks from return line during jacking operation Check function of the braking system on manual & auto and the operation of the limit switches of brake.04 9. 8.00 9.05 Remarks clearances. Check wobbling of the shaft at turbine generator flange/ TGB. oil coolers. Presence of oil on brake track or reduction in air pressure. if required. Clean the affected areas periodically as required Limit switch to be suitably mounted to check the rotor lift.0 mm) Keep the unit on jacks which are mechanically locked during each shut-down of the unit After each jacking operation ensure cleaning of pipe with air under pressure as provided in the system.06 To be cleaned necessary if . Ensure cleanliness of all external accessible parts of the generator & wipe with clean & dry cloth. During jacking operation lifting of the rotor is to be limited to the specified value (7.11 8. pipe lines. Panels etc.08 8. Blow with compressed air the internal surface of the generator. 34 Once shift Once shift Once shift Daily Monthly Monthly in in in each each each Replace the gasket.06 As required 8. defective gauge etc. Bus Bars. 8.02 9. During jacking 8. Description Periodicity 8.09 As required Yearly Record be maintained. for leakages.01 9. No.12 Check all fasteners of brakes and brake pipe Yearly lines & gaskets wherever provided.04 Check if excessive brake dust is generated Yearly and find its cause. sealing & control etc.07 As required 8.05 9. 9. External inspection of current carrying leads PMG. External inspection of air coolers.10 8. Check leakage through pipelines during braking / jacking. GENERAL External examination of parts of generator which are accessible. In case of any problem brake panel & brakes are to be checked & rectified as required.03 9. Check the condition of brake track and its Yearly holding with the rotor.
energy meter etc. Check the Operation of D. Frequency meter. UGB & LBG Yearly predetermined points. No.02 10.15 10.e.07 9. Check for proper cleaning of slip rings.13 9.Sl.C. Check connections of current carrying leads Yearly & cables. OIL PIPE LINE/ EXTERNAL OIL COOLING SYSTEM (If applicable) Check oil pressure at the pump across the Every shift filter & point of entry to the bearing. Check the calibration of Electrical measuring Yearly instruments i.00 10.F. There are holes in pipes which feed oil in between the pads.06 10. Check the characteristics of Static Excitation As specified in system in both auto & manual mode and its O&M sensitivity of various limits. is not to exceed the specified limits. ammeter.08 Check conditions of gland packing of the pump and see that air is not being sucked from here into the system. Check the working of Fire Extinguishing Yearly (CO2) system without actually releasing the CO2) gas on manual and on auto operation as per the instructions provided in O&M manual of the Fire Extinguishing System provided by its supplier. is excessive check if lubricating grease is filled as required.01 10. P. Check the operation of the electrical contact Monthly pressure gauge. Remarks Reasons for variance to be investigated Record is to be maintained. Check the Sensitivity & Stability of Yearly Generator Electrical Protection scheme.08 9. voltmeter. after removing the insulation. if required. oil bath Clean the oil pipe line after disconnecting it Check the operation of the valves of the pipe line. manual.03 Description Periodicity Check the condition of lighting inside the Monthly barrel Check the recordings of lighting inside Daily original results.Daily motor set.07 10.09 9. As per requirements Check the vibrations at TGB. Yearly Yearly Yearly Monthly .B.14 9. pump motor set 35 Monthly This temp.11 9. 9.12 9.10 9.05 10.04 10. In case temp. Completely clean the oil tank & T. Tighten the bolts. Check temperature of bearings of the Pump. 10. Active/ Reactive Power meter. Voltmeter & Ammeter in Field winding circuit. meter for Stator output.
Sl. No. 10.09 10.10 10.11
Description (if provided) Remove sludge from oil tank. Check the temperature of cold & hot oil.
Periodicity Monthly Hourly
Keep record in the log sheet.
Check the air ventilation cock of the oil tank During start of is open during operation of the unit. the unit/ during each shift. Check pipe line for leakage of oil. Once in each shift. Check oil sample for acidity, viscosity, Once in 3 Separate oil sample moisture content, foreign material & sludge. months from each bearing Formations. should be sent for chemical analysis & record to be kept. Clean holes for oil entry into the T.B. Yearly housing
All the above checks and some more checks are again tabulated for daily, weekly, monthly and annual checks and maintenance. 4.2.1 Daily Checks Sl. No. 1. Assembly Stator Core Item Core Noise Check Point Abnormal noise around stator Method Periodic listening Remark & Remedial Measures Checking for core looseness especially at frame joints If abnormal add additional paramax paper in core joints Check cooled air & cooling system Abnormal Vibrations, Balancing of rotor, dirty oil coolers, cooling water flow contaminated oil, bearing clearances High- Due to Water Leakage Low- Leakage of Oil From Housing Plug the leaking tubes Cleaning Check for leakage, pipeline, joints
Wound Stator core Stator and coils Guide & Bear pads thrust bearing
Core & winding temp. Bear. Temp.
Temp. scanners R.T.Ds.
5. 6. 7.
Air Coolers Collector Brake & Jack
Cooler tubes Brushes Air Pr.
Water leakage Sparking, Mix of C-Dust/ Oil Pr. Gauge
Visual Visual Pr. Gauge
Commutator brush gear
4.2.2 Sl. No. 1. 2.
Weekly / Monthly Checks (As per recommandations of Manufacturer) Assembly Weekly Collector ring Brushes Item Check Point Method Remark & Remedial Measures Clean compare, IR value Smoothen collector surface clean adjust brush (5 to 8 mm for 1000 R-hour) Attend leakages More than 4 to 5 mm per 50 operation Reduce application, speed & pressure. Check air pressure, Clean Track, Change Lining Clean Drain Trap & Clean Brake Track Brushes are not sticking in their boxes, rough or high spot on commutator smooth surface. Adjust core packing of jack screws, insert paramax paper Clean Comp. Air
Accumulation of dirt Sparking, chattering, wear & clearance Air leakage, excessive wear
Commutator Brush Gear
Clean liners & Oil Sludge/ Moisture Trap Commutation
Monthly Stator core
Back of stator core Field coil top
Commutator, Brush Gear, Air Filter
Visual Feeler Gauge Visual Visual
Replace brushes, clean commutator,risers. Clean with detergent solution. Dry the same.
4.3 Sl. & O. No. pole & cleanliness Measure IR values after cleaning Visual Dry out if IR Value is low Clean the field coil with compressed air Field coil & rotor leads 3.D. Correct it. Annual Inspection & Maintenance Assembly Stator Item (i) Frame Check Point Joint bolt tightness & dowel Pins Tightness of core Method Hammering Remark & Remedial Measures Retighten. Any local looseness between punchings can be filled up with asbestos or paramax paper glued with epoxy varnish & core bolts retightened.D. After repairs spray the top & bottom three packets (both from I. if necessary (ii) Core Core Duct Stator winding Contamination Cleanliness & general condition Visual Visual Check tightness of core especially at the top & bottom most packets. Brush gear and Brushes & Slip rings Slip rings Inter turn faults Measure impedance of field coils by applying 60 to 100 V AC. Field winding Field coil & rotor General condition of coil. Clean with Dry compressed air Clean the end windings 2.) with loctite – 290 Marketed By M/s Fit Tite Chemicals Ltd. The slip ring is running out. any groves etc to be removed by oil stone for excessive sparking 39 . 50 Hz supply General Visual Conditions & Cleanliness Check the coil joints for any cracks overheating etc.2. If impedance of some coils is very low (say less than 40%) they must be checked for possible inter-turn faults. 1.
PMG and DC Exciter. if & centering & necessary rotor level 11. Oil coolers Coolers Clean inside & outside tubes of oil Check for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than maximum expected working pressure. stator winding. Air coolers Coolers Clean inside and tubes outside of air cooler tubes Checks for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than maximum expected working pressure. Shaft run out Readjustment. Assembly DC exciter Item Check Point Method Remark & Remedial Measures For cleaning the exciter . If pad Guide clearance has to be Bearing reset the shaft must be Pads centered first. 9. rotor leads.Core & Accumulation Visual Winding of dust Note: For cleaning stator ducts. Use cleaning agents as recommended by manufacturer 5. Bearings Top & Clearance Feeler Gauge Check guide bearing Bottom pad clearance. Lubrication Grease. HS HS Inspect bearing & Lubrication. visual if necessary to remove 40 Sl. 7. Examine the condition of guide pads and any slight scouring marks can be attended by water emery paper (GR-400) 6. relays. No. field coils. if necessary System Motor HP check the condition of Hose the hoses & if Assembly necessary replace them. brush gear. 8. Water flow Clean water passages. PMG Air gap General Check air gap winding condition & Clean the stator & field cleanliness windings check the open circuit voltage and if less than 100 V re-magnetize 10. 4.
Brush gear Rotor assembly Insulated parts Looseness of fasteners Visual Visual Clean the insulated parts by compressed air Tighten all the approachable fasters on rotor assembly including tightening pole and rim keys & 41 . 13. RTD terminal. Check IR value of vapor seal insulation and replace. No. heater terminal connection Cleaning Tightening of fasteners Tightness Check IR value of bearing Insulation & replace insulation if damaged. Assembly Item Check Point Method 12. if damaged Tighten all electrical joints Tighten all electrical joints. similarly clean the bowl of lubricator also. Thrust & top guide bearing Bearing Oil vapor seal of top bearing Bearing insulation Vapor seal insulation IR value IR value Proper operation cleaning & 15. Electrical Connections Pole to pole Electrical connections. 17. Joints Brush gear connection.Sl. cessation of oil dripping through that sight glass is an indication that cleaning is done Tightness clamps of dog • Brake track fixing • Brake limit switch 14. 16. inspection of flow indicators & flow meters Oil level indicator Braking & • Combinat Jacking system ory unit and air supply pipe line Remark & Remedial Measures silt etc. Clean rod probe Clean the filter element and bowl of filter.
Check for run out at slip ring and turbine coupling and readjust if found more than the specified value. 20. Current carrying leads Check for proper operation Check for proper operation Plunger & contact mechanism Insulation Visual provided on supporting structure Tightness of Visual clamps. damaged. general condition Rectify.4 Capital Maintenance of Hydro generator Dismantling: . Rebalance. fasteners. Proper operation 4. found damaged if Check that these are in good working condition Clean & replace glands where needed. . Rotor rim to be supported by block and jacks all around the circumference. Rotor pole Bracket vibration Damper system structure Vibration Balancing equipment Interconnection Visual between poles Supporting structure for proper tightness By tapping By shaking Remark & Remedial Measures lock all of them.Decouple generator shaft and turbine shaft after recording guide bearing clearances air gaps between stator & rotor air gaps of main. .Rotor should be taken out very carefully and kept in rotor assembly pit duly bolted with base plate. if necessary Tighten and lock properly if supporting structure found loose. 42 . .Dismantling other components one by one in proper sequence till rotor is free to be lifted. No. Assembly Item Check Point Method Rotor Shaft vibration Slip ring and coupling Dial gauge 19.All cares are to be taken during dismantling to ensure safety of all components. 18.All stator air coolers are to be dismantled and kept for testing and repair. . pilot exciter & PMG etc if mounted on shaft. 23. pins etc. Top shaft 21.Braking & jacking units to be dismantled .2.Sl. Generator Auxiliaries Cooling water valves Over speed device 22. if found Repair insulation.
Measure IR value of winding after through cleaning. All safety precautions for external damage. spray paint the rotor with insulating red gel paint. special T&P. Paint used should be specified insulating paint. After rectification of all defects and thorough cleaning. is also necessary. Check general condition of coil and pole. If impedance of some coil is very low (<4%) they must be checked for possible inter turn faults. Retighten if necessary.- Prior arrangement of proper T&P. Maintenance of brush gears and slip rings Check if there are any grooves. Any local looseness between punchings can be filled up with paramax paper glued with epoxy varnish & core bolt retightened. pole key rim keys etc. Check top and bottom rotor fans.Maintenance of Stator Frame Check all joints.B. After rectifying all defect and thorough cleaning the inner bore and overhang portion of winding is to be spray painted. Maintenance of Rotor The rotor is to be thoroughly cleaned with dry compressed air. fire etc are to be taken in the service. Dry out if IR is low. Measure impedance of coils by applying 60 to 100 VAC. Check field coils and rotor leads for inter turn fault. Maintenance of Bearing Guide bearings 43 - - - . Carryout Electronic Core Imperfection detection test also to ensure healthiness of core. D-shackles etc. Check the coil joints for any cracks due to overheating etc. Shaft is to be checked specially at G. slings. clean with dry compressed air. roughness high points use oil stone for rectification Check brush gear connections clean all the insulated parts with dry compressed air. Clean core duct with dry compressed air Clean the ends of winding. tightness of bolts and location pins etc. journals for any marks roughness etc. Remedial measures are to be taken if marks. 50 C/s. roughness is found. Maintenance of Stator core winding Tightness of core especially at the top and bottom most packets. Keep the rotor covered with asbestos cloth to prevent deposit of dust and fire safety. if found damaged replace the same. After repair spray top and bottom three packets with loctite-290. Maintenance of Generator components: . Check tightness of all the joints of rotor spider and extension arms Check tightness of rotor rims.
Check all water & oil valves for their proper working Check general operational healthiness of all auxiliaries Check proper working of overspeed device. Check all pressure gauges. expected working pressure If more than 10% tubes are leaking change full set of tubes or change only leaking tubes After repair paint the body of coolers. Check insulation of vapor seal also and replace. pivot points of thrust bearing. level indicator. Maintenance of Oil Coolers Clean inside and outside of cooling tubes Check for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than maximum expected working Replace full set of tubes if more than 10% of total tubes are leaking. Check all RTDs & TSDs Maintenance of Air Coolers Clean inside and outside of air cooler tubes Check for any tube leakage by pressurizing to a pressure slightly more than max.- - - - - - - Check condition of Housing Check condition of Pads. Check IR value Check all RTDs & TSDs Thrust Bearing Check condition of pads. Replace brake lining General checks Check condition of current carrying leads. visual flow indicators and flow meter: Inspect. tighten dog clamps Check working of brake limit switches. Maintenance of Flow relays. Maintenance of H. if found some damage to babbit material. if found damaged Check condition of housing. Braking and jacking system: Check brake units and clean inside outside of the unit Change seals Carry out hydraulic test Clean the filters. Lube system Inspect bearing and grease. Check pressure gauges etc. Check bearing insulation by measuring IR value. if necessary Check the condition of hoses.S. bowl of lubricator Check brake track. get rebabbiting done Bedding of pads to ensure removal of high points and having desired contact area. 44 . if found damaged replace the same. Check insulation of pads. bedding is to be done In case babbit material found damaged or thinned. clean water passages remove silt. if necessary replace Check for any leakages and take remedial measures. if required. All defective meters are to be replaced. rebabbit pads with proper grade of white metal. Replace insulation if found damaged.
T. complete checking is done. Station & distribution transformers. 6. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure Action required if unsatisfactory condition indicated Applicable for transformers 4 Applicable UATs. Transformer/ Check for any Shunt reactor abnormality in sound. Tighten any looseness in external parts. This is applicable to Main. Winding temperature indicator reading relation 3.4. if it exceeds the specified limits. Auxiliary. Voltage - B. SSTs and distribution transformers when ticked √ 5 √ 1 A 1. Oil temperature indicator reading Load (amperes) If the temperature indicated is more than envisaged as per loading condition. 2. ratio adopted. √ √ √ Check against figures rated - 5. -doReduce load. No. Check for abnormalities in to ambient temperature and load.3 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS The maintenance of transformer is an ongoing process and stress should be on preventive maintenance rather than acting when a fault occurs. 4. v) Check calibration of OTI and WTI. Daily 45 . iii) Fans/oil pumps are in circuit iv) Winding CT connection and C. ii) Fans operate at set value of temperatures. 2 Hourly Ambient temperature 3 Take air temperature near the transformer for air cooler transformers. A schedule of maintenance activities is drawn and tabulated below. humming and general vibration. Sl. Correct tap position in line with voltage. check: i) That radiator valves or cooler circuit valves are all open. Take water temperature at the inlet to the cooler for water cooled transformers. If abnormal sound still persists.
2 Oil level in transformer / shunt reactor 3 Check oil level from oil gauge - 2. pump and the cooler Operation of Check anti. If leakages are observed. Oil level in diverter switch Check oil level from the gauge glass. C. If oil leakage found. Replace ‘O’ ring or washer suitably. if cracked / broken. Check oil and water flow indicators. Set them right if not working . Check that fans / oil pump are running as required. Relief vent diaphragm Check for any crack - 6. Check oil level from the oil gauge of the bushings in which oil remains separate from the tank oil. tighten evenly the gasket joints. Tighten gasket joint at the leak point. unsatisfactory condition SSTs and indicated distribution transformers Applicable for transformers when ticked √ 4 5 Top up if found low. 4. Operating Change over from one sequence of oil cooler to the other. If low.anticondensation condensation heaters 46 Ensure proper change over. If found defective correct them. Fans/ oil pump running Oil & cooling water flow. Examine transformer/ shunt reactor for leaks. 5. 1. 3.Sl. top up oil. Examine bushing for any oil leakage. Weekly Leakage of water into cooler 7. Check by opening the end covers of the cooler. No. Plug the tube leaking. Top up oil. 2. Check opening of valves if restricted flow observed. 3. check sealing gasket between diverter switch and transformer/ reactor tank. Pipe work and Check for oil leaks accessories for leakage Oil level in bushings Action required if Applicable UATs. Check connections. If broken. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure 1 1. ensure from other protections provided that there is no fault inside the transformer / reactor. if needed. Replace. Replace gasket.
1. - If more than half of silica gel has turned pink. Check whether the readings are within permissible limits. marshalling box and OLTC motor drive panel. No. Ensure air passages are free. iii) Check that air passages are free. Quarterly Bushings 2. Monthly Dehydrating breather i) Check colour of silica gel ii) Check oil level in the oil cup and contamination of oil visually. Add oil. 3. cracked bushing should be rectified / replaced. Cooler bearing Clean dirt deposits. Replace oil if contaminated. The old charge may be reactivated for use again. operate the fans manually to check their running. fan Check contacts. if temperature of oil has been less than the fan control setting temperatures. E. Maximum Record the maximum pointer of OTI oil and winding and WTI temperature readings reached during the month. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure 1 3 heater in are working. change by spare charge. if required to maintain oil level. 2 Action required if unsatisfactory condition indicated Applicable for transformers 4 Applicable UATs.Sl. and manual control 47 Ensure smooth running of fans. Reset maximum pointer of OTI and WTI. 2. Lubricate bearings. If cracks observed. Visual inspection for cracks and dirt deposits. 1. Operation fans of In mixed cooling in ONAN/ ONAF. SSTs and distribution transformers when ticked √ 5 D. Replace worn out .
Sl. 6. Measure IR value . trip and Check operation of protection alarm / trip contacts of circuits each protection by actual initiation and also check display and annunciation on the 48 Action required if Applicable UATs. pumps External earth connections 3. 4. limit switches in end position limit position. If the values are low. Oil in diverter switch Insulation resistance 8.Tighten them if found terminals are tight. Examine contacts. Check for dielectric . The comparison to earth. measure IR values after isolating it. Oil bag sealing arrangement where provided. F. should be done with those values where transformer/ reactor is connected externally to the line and bus ducts. brake shoe lining. are tight. connections for discoloration or hot joints. applying air pressure. unsatisfactory condition SSTs and indicated distribution transformers Applicable for transformers when ticked √ 3 4 5 contacts. .If oil is present check outside the oil bag in leakage in the oil bag by the conservator. Clean fans and adjust controls. Half Yearly Alarm.Compare with previous between windings and values. No. Inspection Procedure . OLTC 5. Set mechanism operation. Check wiring and that .Tighten them if loose. Item to be inspected 1 2 control. In case of faulty operation.Replace all the worn out Check step by step and burnt contacts. Check all external . 1. Tighten terminals if found loose. 9. Check that wiring is Lubricate all bearing and intact and all terminals coupling points suitably. Clean / replace switches and brakes. Marshalling box Oil transformer in 7. check contacts and wiring circuits. Check presence of oil . loose.Take suitable action to strength and moisture restore quality of oil content Check for dielectric -dostrength and moisture content.
Oil and winding i) Calibrate and also temperature check differential indicators. 2 Oil in bushings 3 Action required if unsatisfactory condition indicated Applicable for transformers 4 Applicable UATs. - - Tighten clamps if loose. Check contacts if abnormality found.If values are low. if required. movement 3. iii) Check tightness of mercury switches. 49 Adjust if found reading incorrectly. ii) Check the movement of floats for rise and fall. 2. Replace glass if cracked.Filter to restore quality transformer/ oil. or replace if the values shunt reactor ii) DGA(dissolved gas have reached discarding analysis) of oil. or replace with fresh oil. - To be sealed to avoid ingress of moisture. values. iv) Check the operation of alarm and trip contacts by air injection. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure 1 2. filter oil moisture content of oil. - Replenish. 1. Check BDV and . panel. SSTs and distribution transformers when ticked √ 5 3. indicator ii) Clean the oil gauge glass. ii) Check oil in the pockets. Buchhloz Relay Mechanical inspection i) Close valve between Buchholz and conservator and lower oil level. shunt reactors.Sl. - 4. between WTI and OTI by feeding current to the WTI pocket heating element. Vibration level Measure vibration . If oil level indication is not correct check the float. No. Make the smooth. Magnetic oil i) Check oil level in level gauge and conservator by dip prismatic level stick method. . limit.Compare with previous of tank walls for level. Yearly Oil in i) Complete testing of . v) Clean cable entry terminal box. G. Buchholz contacts should operate when oil level comes below Buchholz relay level.
Compare resistance values with previous results. Bushing top i) Check contact connectors and joints. Air bag sealing i) Check healthiness arrangement of air bag. Gasket joints Check the tightness of Tighten the bolts evenly to bolts. ii) Check resistance measurement at each tap. - 15. - 13. Off circuit tap i) Move from switch minimum to maximum tap position & return to minimum position. In case IR value is poor. 7. -Mechanical inspection Replace any component of all accessories. Cable boxes. Lightening i) Examine for cracks arrestors and dirt deposits. if earth resistance resistance is high. - Clean. if Check for sealing provided arrangement for filling holes. replace.Draw out diverter. Examine compound for cracks. arcing horns ii) Clean arcing horns and check gap. Replace gaskets. avoid uneven pressure. 9. OLTC i) Diverter switch . 14. No. 11. Action required if Applicable UATs. found damaged. 6. for burning or pitting marks. if found low. 8. where provided. noise balancing of fans. ii) Check the contacts . if necessary. - Dry out bushing if . if leaking. 12. unsatisfactory condition SSTs and indicated distribution transformers Applicable for transformers when ticked √ 2 3 4 5 Fan motors Check IR value of Dry out. tap switch contacts to be attended to. Earth resistance Check earthing Take suitable action. required. Condenser Measure power factor/ 50 Retighten. if required. Replace compound. and vibration of fans. Check motor winding. Clean or replace.Sl. ii) Measure IR value of each stack of LAs. 1 5.Recondition/ replace. Adjust arcing horn gap Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure 10. If resistance is high. Tanks and -Check painting and Touch up / re-paint. clean servicing & tighten contacts. if accessories surface finish. if of diverter switch required.
5 yearly for UATs and SSTs and Distribution Transformers & 7-10 yearly for other Transformer/ Shunt Reactors Transformer i) Wash by hosing core and down with clean windings dry oil. Compare with previous values. minimum and normal taps for transformers with OLTC ii) Magnetizing current at 415 volts. Electrical tests 17. H. if required. unsatisfactory condition SSTs and indicated distribution transformers Applicable for transformers when ticked √ 4 5 values are abnormal and replace oil. replace the total tube nest. 1. I 1. No. 16. Oil coolers Carry out i) Resistance measurement at all taps for transformers with off circuit tap switch and at maximum. See following points a & b. Incase of abnormality investigate causes. tests measurement 51 . If more than 10% tubes leaking. Clean oil coolers. Flush cooler tubes Repair leaky tubes. 20 Yearly Life assessment DP and Furan content See following point c. - Action required if Applicable UATs. Check for leaky tubes.Sl. iii) IR values after isolating the transformer. iv) Turn ratio. Item to be inspected Inspection Procedure 1 bushing 2 3 capacitance measurement.
the data are still being built and one should go by the re-commendation of the Test Laboratory. Clean core and winding by hosing down clean dry oil through the inspection cover. it is preferable that the core and windings and the inside surfaces of tank be thoroughly cleaned for any deposits etc. Whenever transformer windings are to be taken out due to any reason such as to repair a damage. This may vary considerably depending upon the overloads it has carried and the temperature at which it has worked during its span of operation. Therefore. thorough washing due to sludge formation or for thorough inspection to locate a fault as a result of DGA or some other tests. (iii) Tighten core yoke bolts. Let there be a continuous entry of dry air into the tank while the cleaning activity is on so that there is a minimum contact of the transformer core and windings with the atmospheric air. at regular intervals. Degree of Polymerization New transformer Nearing end of life 800-950 150-200 Furan content ppm (mg/kg) Negligible 10 (b) (c) 52 . This can be done by assessing extent of degradation of cellulosic paper through furan content in transformer oil or / and degree of polymerization (DP) of paper. (ii) Tighten all nuts and bolts whether metallic or made of insulating material on mechanical and electrical joints. after carrying out the necessary work for which the transformer was opened. As these are comparatively new studies. Under the normal operating condition transformer has a useful life of about 25-30 years. It is proposed to carry out this study after a period of 20 years of service. core-clamping screws etc. After knowing the remnant life in a transformer. Similarly drain oil from cooling circuit and radiators and fill dry clean oil. Remove dirty oil from the tank and wipe off this oil from the tank bottom. However the following figures may serve as guidelines. for any future planning it may be worth while to know well in advance the remnant life of the transformer in service. Drain oil from the tank while letting the dry air to go inside. do the following also: (i) Tighten all coil clamping screws to remove looseness from the windings.Note: (a) As there is continuous deterioration of oil and insulation in a transformer. This can be done while the transformer is in position. if any. Close all valves connecting the cooler circuit/ radiators to the tank. the action can be planned in conjunction with life assessment studies on generating unit.
Gears & Pinions for manual operation (once in 3 months) .Gears & Pinions for all travel mechanism (once in 2 months) .4.g. are must.4.4 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF HYDROMECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 4. taking proper shut down installing safety tags. Periodic inspection (half yearly or annual) • Dissemble and check all components for any damage.Rope drum shaft for all hoisting unit (once a month) .Gears & Pinions for all hoisting units (once in 2 months) (Meshing faces only) .Gears & Pinions for position indicators (once in two months) • Servosystem (320 IOC) or (equivalent of other brand) . • All safety precautions e.Plumber blocks for manual operation (once in three months) • Servogem – 3 (IOC) or (equivalent of other brand) . Lubrication of gate parts: • Servogem EPI (IOC) or (equivalent of other brand) . when any work is being done on gates. Checking general condition of gates and gate grooves wheels etc. • Rectify damages or replace worn out irreparable components. Inspection and checks • • • • Daily inspection should be carried out by gate operator to ensure: Proper oiling and greasing wherever required Tightening of loosened parts tightening contacts in electrical system Checking of ropes and hoisting arrangement. red flags etc. • Before taking up work on gates.WOM reducer for all hoisting units (once in two months) 53 .Spherical roller bearings for gate wheels (once in 2 months) • Compound – D (Bharat camax) or (equivalent of other brand) .Lifting ropes (once in six months) • Servocoat 120 T (IOC) or (equivalent of other brand) .Plumber blocks for all hoisting units fitted with bush bearing (once in two months) . stop log gates must be lowered in the groove meant for the same and plug all leakages through these.1 Maintenance of Intake Gates The maintenance work shall included • • • • • • • Cleaning up Adjustment Lubrication with recommended lubricants & methods Replacement of Defective parts Repair of damaged parts Recoating of damaged coat on ropes Recording details of all work carried out with date & time.Coupling for transmission shaft (once in two months) .
power source and hydraulic links are the main primary maintenance concern.2 MAINTENANCE OF MAIN INLET VALVES The turbine may have either a butterfly or spherical valve. This valve is used each time the unit is shut down. seals. Butterfly valves (head up to 120 m) • • • • • • Butter valves generally consists of a disc or lattice mounted on a shaft that rotates in cylindrical body Usually. if found fused. bushings. Sometime welded connection are preferred to save cost Maintenance procedure Check operating system daily and ensure it is working smoothly Check for any leakage through connection daily Replace seals in annual maintenance Overhaul operating system annually Replace gaskets in flanged connection during overhaul 54 .4. Valve seats. Incoming supply healthy but volt meter not showing – check fuses of voltmeter circuit Motor is running even after pressing stop push button Immediately put main switch off Check contacts of motor control contactor & push button contacts. bearings. operating links. Check by pressing lamp test push button replace bulbs. If damaged replace these Reset O/L relay before starting again O/L relay tripped Check control fuse If fuse OK check control transformer Gate is creeping down & restoration has failed indicating lamp is glowing but alarm not ringing Check position of toggle switch (it should be in reset position) Indication lamps are not glowing.Problem in electrical circuit and checks • • • No supply at control panel in spite of turning on main switch – check fuses. the disc and lattice profile is contoured in the flow direction to provide a smooth hydraulic flow and balance forces on the valve. • • • • • 4. The disc is oriented parallel to the flow to minimize any restriction when opened and at right angle to the flow to provide full closure Valve seals are on the circumference or in contact portion of the valve body These seals can be replaced or adjusted without removing the disc from the valve. Valves have flanged connections and spool pieces to facilitate dismantling. The valve function should be verified periodically through test or normal frequent operation.
Checking gland packing and lubrication 55 . • • • • • Daily checks of operating system and remedial measure are must. the valve rotor is turned to 90o from the axis of rotor opening. pitting and cavitation etc. Moveable seals reduce valve leakage when the valve is closed. the upstream maintenance seal allows replacement or maintenance of the working seal without dewatering the penstock. Spherical valve has tendency to close for positions less than 50% opening which facilitates emergency closing. Annual overhauling of the valve rotor and other parts are also taken up as required. To close the valve. Mostly valves have both upstream and downstream seal. bolts & nuts etc. Annual inspection and overhauling of mechanical seal after dewatering penstock is must. The upstream maintenance seals have positive mechanical locking to prevent accidental opening. Checking and attending the setting of Limit Switches & Operation of the same Checking and attending leakages of distributing valve Checking the correct working of the pressure gauges. Annual overhauling of operating mechanism to ensure smooth working throughout year is also done. Checking the operation of bypass valve Checking for cracks. Checking and attending oil leakages from Servomotor Checking the operation of operating valves. looking for backlash Cleaning of valve body. the valve offers an unrestricted flow with minimum disturbance to the flow path. has a cylindrical hole through its centre at right angles to support shafts located on each side of valve. When valve is closed under full pressure. Checking all the MIV System connections & Union for tightness Checking all the MIV servo linkage during operation. Annual inspection and over hauling of operating seal is also essential. of MIV and Servomotor Inspection of Rubber Seals Checking trunions & bushes. Checking and attending for leakages in the piping. In open position with rotor opening parallel to the flow direction.Spherical valves (for heads more than 120 m) Spherical valves have a body shaped like hollow sphere with flanges or other connection for mounting in a piping system. shaped like ball. The rotor. the downstream seal is working seal. Lubricate the parts if necessary. seal & solenoid valve Checking the actuating solenoids for operation of valve. Cleaning the contacts and rollers. The upstream seal is maintenance seal or emergency seal. Following Checks are also essential • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Checking and attending leakages from Valve & dismantling joint.
For withdrawal of gate/ equalizing pressure across the gates is done with bypass line valve located within gate. These are usually cable suspended gravity gates and designed for balanced pressure closure. The main problem with sealing is due to collection of debris at bottom seal area. These are usually dropped to close or lifted to open through hoisting arrangement having rope drums. 4. Checking the opening & closing times of the MIV.• • • • • Checking foundation bolts and nuts of valves & servomotor. Lubrication of operating mechanism. two or three bulk head gates are needed to close off the draft tube.5 PROCEDURES FOR TYPICAL MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES (Fig 1 to 4. centering and tighten with foundation. Lower bottom bracket with brake.4. 56 • • • . During annual maintenance of the unit these gates are required to be lowered so that dewatering of draft tube is possible. As such maintenance and overhaul of these gates are taken up before starting annual maintenance of machine. Cleaning the bolts and nuts etc. its electrical system and coating all ropes meant for lifting are of main concern for maintenance. runner shaft and top cover and lower the complete assembly in pit. to service by. 12 to 14 have been taken from “Hydropower Stations: Generating Equipment and its installation” by AN Goncharov) 4. Checking servomotor piston and its collars & its gland packing Checking hole of the servomotor cylinder Checking the pins and bushes of servomotor & its air valve Checking the diaphragms in the opening & closing circuit. 4. These should always remain in perfect condition for use during emergencies of power station. Lower rotor with brake track in pit. After setting above clearances take out runner & shaft assy. 10.3 MAINTENANCE OF DRAFT TUBE GATES One.1 Reassembly of Vertical Hydro Unit Sequence and Checks • • • • Lower all guide vanes. set elevation. Check top and bottom clearances of all guide vanes and set.5. Again check clearances between runner and runner chamber. Lower all the guide apparatus components in the pit and carry out installation & setting. Also check free movement of guide vanes. When machine are running these gates and hoist remains available for maintenance. Trial assembly of Turbine runner for checking clearance between runner & runner chamber (Kaplan) or static labyrinths & rotating labyrinths (Francis). Assemble runner.
rectify defects. Couple Turbine and Generator shaft properly as per procedure with help of torque spanners. The top of stand will have half portion of sphere having hardened surface will be fixed so as to create pivot point. Check vibrations of machine at no load.2 Checking Concentricity of Labyrinth Seals The upper and lower labyrinth rings must be concentric with the shaft to within 10% of the gap on one side of the labyrinth seals. 57 . Ensure elongation of shaft bolts as per procedure.• • • • • • • • Carry out fitting & setting of Thrust bearing (and other guide bearings). if any. Will be required. 4. correction of inclination of shaft to be done at this stage itself (Alignment of generator).5.3 • • Balancing of Runner For balancing of runner a device as shown in Fig. verticality of shaft and centering of shaft. Check rotor level. Checking unit alignment and taking corrective action by providing shims or scrapping.5. This is checked with a special device mounted on the shaft (Fig. Balancing of the machine by adding calculated weight on rotor spider and at proper angle. Oil header (Kaplan) etc. is done. 1) Fig 1: Checking Labyrinth Concentration 4. part load and full load. 2. Carry out load sharing of thrust pads. After completing assembly of machine and rotating the machine at no load check balancing of rotor as per procedure. carry out centering and setting. Couple Exciter shaft and assemble exciters. PMG.
The runner will be up on lighter side and will have maximum height at one point from the base plate over which balancing device is placed perfectly in vertical position. This process is repeated by placing weights at six to eight positions on the circumference of the runner. 58 . The magnitude of imbalance is half of the maximum and minimum weight needed for this. It has to rest on the centre point of half sphere mounted on balancing device. For checking horizontality a precision level is placed at six places on the top surface of upper cylinder. For achieving this position the weight may have to be moved either to left or to right to have correct magnitude of weight and as well as its position. The weight of this imbalance is placed where the maximum weight was placed.• At the lower end of upper cylinder of runner bore an arrangement to fix hardened steel plate. The centre of gravity of runner should be well below the centre of gravity sphere (out of which half sphere is imagined to be carved out). The weight is to be placed on the bottom cylinder at such a place on lighter side that runner comes to the equilibrium position. its centre should match with the centre of runner. Fig 2: Balancing of Runner [Goncharov] • • Runner is placed on the device in such a manner that it should swing freely Steps of balancing Place runner on the device – check free swing of runner.
For this a special device. For hydraulic testing an arrangement of oil sump. schematic of which is shown in fig. pump motor with valve and high pressure system is done to feed compressed oil at high pressure to top of piston for checking down ward movement.5. As shown in the figure a rotating boom having jerk free motion will have a piano wire with dash pot. 3 will be required. Ensure it should be within limits all around. Clearance between runner and runner chamber is the guiding factor.4 Checking Concentricity of Kaplan Runner • • • Concentricity of Kaplan runner is checked in service bay after assembly of runner blades and their operating mechanism but before hydraulic testing. This device can be mounted on the shaft after checking horizontality of the top of runner hub and verticality of the shaft. 59 .5. Hydraulic Testing of Kaplan Runner in Service Bay Runner is assembled in service bay.5 • • Fig 3: Checking concentricity of runner blades Measure clearances between the piano wire and the outer edge of runner all around the circumference. Tightness of flanged joints and blade seals is checked. • • • 4.4.
6 Runner dia. Procedure for alignment of unit Set elevation of thrust bearing Carry out rotational check of gen.15 7. half load & full load position and held for 8 hrs for each position. No oil should leak through fixed joints of runner.10 5. (m) Oil leakage per day (liter) 3.Then final alignment generator and turbine is done. . Maximum permissible limits are as follows: 4.18 9. 60 .20 Centering and Alignment of Vertical Hydro Generator • • Alignment of rotor during installation is ensuring rubbing surface of thrust bearings and the shaft mirror disc face are perpendicular to rotor centre.2 0.Then perpendicularity of rubbing surfaces of thrust bearing and shaft flange face to the generator shaft centre line is checked.00 0. During test runner blades are set to their normal. The procedure for rotor centering is as follows. . I. shaft Calculate maximum throw and direction Minimize throw by scrapping insulated surface of mirror disc.3 0.First centering of turbine shaft is checked since its flange and centre line form reference bases for centering of the generator rotor .5. The hub is filled with oil through a plug in the bottom and then pressured to three times of the normal pressure.00 0. The runner should remain under the test pressure for 24 hours.Fig 4: Hydraulic Testing of Kaplan Runner in Service Bay [Goncharov] • • • • • Another pump motor with sump is connected to supply high pressure oil to the bottom side of piston for upward movement. .The generator is then provisionally centered relative to turbine shaft.
II.01 mm shaft axis 2.03 mm thickness Sl. Type of Deviation B. Non parallelity of mating surfaces of both flanges at shaft dia. 1. No. Couple generator shaft with turbine shaft Again check elevation & level of thrust bearing Carry out rotational checks Find out run out at LGB & coupling flange If throw is still more again carry out scrapping of insulated surface of mirror discs.030 Coupling • • • Force of tightening of all bolts should be identical Elongation of bolts. Up to 600 mm 0. by providing shims under flexible support 61 .020 Up to 1000 mm 0. Mount thrust bearing on upper bracket Check perpendicularity of thrust collar with shaft Set elevation of bearing.025 Up to 1500 mm 0. ensure these are within limit. required to ensure proper tightening Soundness of flange connection is checked by feeler gauge of 0. Coupling of Shafts Before coupling of generator shaft and turbine it is to be checked that following requirements are met: Allowable Deviation in mm Shift of Gen. Check verticality of shaft with respect to duly leveled thrust bearing at correct elevation. Setting Elevation of Thrust Bearing Elevation of upper bracket should be such that the runner is at desired level Allowance for deflection of upper bracket due to weight of rotating parts and initial thrust should be taken into account. coupling flange and TGB. A. shaft axis with turbine 0. III. Again check by rotation method and repeat till throw is within limit Check throw and its direction at TGB Minimize throw by providing shim between coupling flange Check throw at LGB. This is necessary to establish unit axis.
Flange & TGB to find out run out (Fig 5) Throw and its direction is calculated by resultant method (Table 1 & Fig 6) V. In other machine mechanical arrangement is made and rotation is done with the help of EOT crane. shaft 62 . LGB. Rotational Checks Arrangement to turn rotor by 360o in steps of 45o smoothly In machines having high pressure lubrication of TH. For correcting gen.Fig 5: Position of Dial Indicators IV. For lubrication of thrust pads in such case is ensured by using Molybdenum-di-Sulfide Grease (Molysulf Grease) Mount dial Gauges at UGB. It is possible to rotate machine manually.B. Shimming of Scrapping Amount of Scrapping or Shim Thickness (Fig 7 & 8) ‘t’ = a.
For correcting turbine shaft (i) Max throw at TGB (ii) Eff. c1. Precision stick micrometer is used to measure a1. If the deviation is less than 0. b2. c2. d1 and a2. d2. Length = Between Flange and TGB (Dial Gauge Locations) (iii) Diameter = Dia. them verticality is taken to be normal otherwise corrective measure has to be taken. throw at coupling flange for correcting gen. shaft Eff. The whole procedure of calculation of deviation is given with the figure its self. 63 . Length = distance between insulated surface or mirror disc and coupling flange Diameter = Dia of thrust bearing mirror disc.01 mm/ m of shaft length. of coupling flange Shimming or scrapping to be done at coupling shaft joint VI. Checking Verticality of Shaft (Fig 9) Four piano wires with dash posts are placed as shown in the figure. b.(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) t = amount of scrapping Max. b1.
5 900 2 0 – 40 – 85 – 40 1350 3 0 – 40 – 86 – 40 0 180 4 0 – 30 – 65 – 30 2250 5 +1 –8 – 22 –9 0 270 6 –½ + 15 + 26 + 15½ 0 315 7 0 +6 + 17 +6 3600 8 –1 +4 + 14 +5 Dial Gauge was not fixed Dial Gauge was not fixed Note: (a) (b) Unit-II Side Dial Gauge LGB Flange TGB d f h d-b f-b g-a UGB b h-b 0 – 45. Further calculations and correction is based on these. of UGB LGB Flange TGB Gauge Point a c e g c-a c-a at Shaft 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450 1 +½ – 32 – 46 – 31. Unit-II side readings are fine because (i) closing error is negligible (ii) curve plotted along X-Y axis is nearer to sine curve (iii) these are confirmed in subsequent rotation also. 63 .5 – 85 – 86 – 65 – 23 + 26½ + 17 + 15 0 0 + 3½ + 6½ +7 +7 +7 +3 +1 0 Dial Gauge was not fixed 0 +1 +3 + 13 + 28 + 41 + 30 + 18 –6 0 +1 + 30 + 31 + 71 + 80 + 76 + 51 –1 0 Dial Gauge was not fixed 0 0 +1 +1 – ½ + 26½ + 6½ + 24½ + 21 + 64 + 34 + 73 + 23 + 69 + 15 + 48 –7 –2 No. 6) Upstream Side Dial Gauge Position of Dial No.Table – 1 RESULTANT METHOD OF ALIGNMENT (ACTUAL EXAMPLE OF UNIT-I OF A POWER STATION) (VECTORIAL RESULTANT – AT FIG. of Point at Shaft 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 The readings of upstream side dial gauges are not acceptable as closing error is more.
Fig 6: Resultant Method of Throw Calculation Fig 7: Calculation of Shims between Flanges 64 .
Fig 8: Illustrative Example of Scrapping 65 .
66 . Over loading of any pad may cause destruction of babbit material and failure of thrust bearing.Fig 9: checking Verticality of Generator Shaft 4. The position of locking device of each support screw is then marked with the vertical lines on it and on the thrust bearing housing or on the support stand.5. The load distribution is adjusted in this manner by first checking that all supporting screws are tightened equally.7 Load Sharing of the Thrust Bearing There must be uniform distribution of load between all thrust pads. Uniform distribution of load is achieved by tightening supporting screws against the elastic plates beneath the shoes carrying rotor weight. The load is equalized after the generator shaft wobble has been eliminated or after the turbine and generator shaft has been connected and the unit has been aligned. This is done by striking the spanner with sledge hammer.
002 mm) is fixed as shown in Fig. Note reading of dial gauge. Another round of tightening the screws is then performed with lighter sledge hammer. The load can be adjusted by using a dial indicator also as shown in Fig 10. 11. The process is carried out on all shoes with the same force. This tightening process is repeated several times until distances between the lines are increased equally by hammer blows on all supporting screws. Make two marks on rotor ‘A’ & ‘B’ at Oo and 180o respectively Second run Put a calibration weight (Wc) at Oo and run up to full speed and note the dial gauge reading (the calibration weight must be sufficient to produce and appreciable difference in the reading compared to the first run reading). Third run Remove weight from Oo position and put at 180o position and run up to full speed.Fig 10: Load Sharing of Thrust Pad [Goncharov] A sledge hammer of approximately 8 kg weight is then used to strike hard once or twice at the end of 600 to 700 mm long spanner placed on the head of supporting screw considered. The support screws must be locked after completion of this activity 4. Adjustment is considered completed if the distance between the lines has not changed in one round. The position of all pads are measured after each round with a slide caliper and distances between the lines on the locking devices and on thrust bearing housing are recorded. will be required to fix dial gauge. which is firm and rigid. 67 .5. Four runs of machine at full speed will be required to find out magnitude of weight and position of correction First run Run to rated speed and note total deflection of the pointer on dial (the reading is proportional to the unbalance force). A suitable bracket.8 • • • Dynamic Balancing of Low Speed Hydro Generator A sensitive dial gauge (0.
the weight and direction is correct otherwise the weight is required to be put in the opposite direction. Join AB. Whether this angle is to be measured in the direction of rotation or opposite to the direction of rotation is done by trial. Balance weight ‘W’ = The angle of the placement point of this weight with reference to 0o position and is given by angle OAB. Extend OA to ‘C’ such that OA = AC With centre ‘O’ and radius equal to second run reading to the earlier scale draw an arc. For fourth run calculated weight at calculated angle is fixed and machine run at full speed if dial gauge reading is almost zero.Draw to some scale a line ‘OA’ to represent reading of first run. This is done by Fourth run. The position which gives minimum vibration is the required position. With centre ‘C’ and radius equal to third run reading to same scale draw an arc to cut earlier arc at point ‘B’. 68 .
When distributor is closed there should be no clearance in guide vanes.6 mm. This should also be checked with level.5 to 0.5. These should be half of clearance between shaft and upper bearing shell.4. Length of this wire is placed across the shaft in two sections beneath the shell which is then tightened well.1 mm / m of shaft length. The permissible inclination in transverse direction is 0. Correct position of wire inside spiral casing is checked with inside micrometer. it indicates that the shaft is resting on both bearings.06 mm per m length of shaft.5 to 3. These can be adjusted by tightening bolts. These are measured by pushing the rotating parts to extreme positions.0 mm. Then turn the level by 180o and place in the same position as before and check level.6 mm.2 to 0.2% of shaft dia. The gaps in labyrinth seals should be within 0. The permissible inclination in shaft is 0. Arithmetic mean of two measurements should be taken. The adjusted shaft of turbine will be reference base for alignment of generator shaft. The thicknesses of flattened wire thus indicate the clearance on top of the shaft which should be 0.3 mm. 1 mm thick lead wire of 30 to 50 mm length is used to measure clearance between turbine shaft and the upper bearing shell. Measure clearance with feeler gauge between shaft and the lower bearing shell to ensure correct position of rotating parts of turbine.04 to 0. All the clearances and gaps are measured again after turning the rotating parts through 180o and 360o. The horizontal position of shaft is checked by placing a level successively on both bearing journals. Bearing housings are centered with respect to longitudinal axis of generator by an end gauge which is inserted into the bores of bearing shell Ensure clearances of guide vanes at both ends are uniform and are between 0. These should be within permissible limit. The lateral clearance between the shaft and the lower shell are checked at a depth 10 to 12 mm below the plane in which bearing is split. The axial gaps in labyrinth seals should also be measured and these should be within 0. these should be uniform. If difference is more investigate reasons and take remedial measure. Feeler gauge is used to check these.2 mm 69 . Preliminary alignment of generator shaft Alignment consists (i) Removal of misalignment of turbine shaft and generator shafts (Fig 12) (ii) Making generator shaft horizontal (iii)Making centerlines of generator and turbine shaft coincide (iv) Alignment is carried out relative to half couplings of turbine and generator shafts (v) Wobbling at half coupling should not be more than 0. The radial clearance between runner and the cover plates which should not exceed 2.9 Alignment Horizontal Generating Set Adjustment of Turbine Shaft • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The centre line of turbine bearing with respect to longitudinal axis of generator is checked by stretching a horizontal wire through spiral casing and along bearing centre line.2 to 0. the two should not differ more than one division. If there is no clearance.
180o. if any is checked and equalized. For this shims are provided beneath foundation fame. This clearance should be 5 to 6 mm (or as designed) A straight edge is pressed against the turbine or generator shaft along generator axis in four diametrically opposite positions. 270o & 360o The position of half coupling should be same of initial position and after rotation by 360o For radial displacement of half couplings is measured by mounting a dial indicator on a bracket fixed at turbine half coupling (Fig 12) Fig 13: Horizontal Shaft Generator Bearing Arrangement 70 .Procedure for preliminary alignment: • • • • • • The turbine and generator shafts are forced to their outer most position after the generator is assembled and clearance between half couplings is ensured. By measuring clearances between faces of half coupling at four points. Clearance. alignment of shafts at joint is checked. The position of generator is first checked in vertical plane than in horizontal Misalignment is corrected by placing shims under foundation frame After this foundation bolts are tightened and locked Fig 12: Showing Misalignment of Turbine Shaft and Generator Shaft of Horizontal Unit Procedure for final alignment • • • • Check positions of half coupling Measure clearances between half couplings in the initial position and after turning through 90o.
Distances a to generatrices of measurements mm half-couplings. then in horizontal plane. • • • • • • • • • Compute displacements of generator rotor. Record measurement in following table. Rotational speed of generating set. All measurements are repeated till good set is achieved. Computing eccentricity of generator shaft with respect to turbine shaft (measurement ‘a’) and its direction and computing inclination and its direction (measurement ‘b’) is done as explained below: (Fig 14) (i) Displacement of generator shaft axis due to eccentricity relative to turbine shaft: Horizontal plane hx = (a2-a4) / 2 Vertical plane hy = (a1-a3) / 2 71 . for ensuring correct position Move generator rotor in correct position and check axis.08 If.b4 + + + + + + – – – + – Note: The “plus” sign indicates that measurements were carried out at this point. after alignment radial and end clearances at diametrically opposite points are within limit as shown in table.b3 + + + + + + – – + – – Right a2.02 mm. mm 0.b1 + + + + + + + – – – + Bottom a3. The mean clearance is then calculated for each position of generator rotor (Fig 12) The measurements are satisfactory if both [(a1 + a3)-(a2+a4)] and [(b1 + b3)-(b2+b4)] are within 0. Magnitude ‘a’ are measured in one position and after turning rotating parts by 90o. Site of Clearance b between half-coupling ends.10 0. Permissible deviations in alignment of horizontal hydro generating unit are given in following table. mm Positions of rotating parts of generating set 0 0 0 90 1800 2700 3600 Mean 00 900 1800 2700 3600 Clearance Top a1. Check position of stator All measurements of clearances and displacement should be recorded viewing from generator side. 270o & 360o End clearance ‘b’ is measured at four points in order to eliminate the effects of axial displacement of the rotor.b2 + + + + + + – + – – – Left a4.• Determine alignment and inclination of generator axis first in vertical. 180o. rpm Up to 500 Up to 750 Up to 1500 • • Permissible skewness and eccentricity. the alignment is taken as adequate otherwise repeat alignment procedure and compute more accurately.15 0.
These should be equal all around the circumference The turbine and generator half coupling are connected after completing alignment of generator shaft 72 . of coupling ‘Dc’. They depend on the location of bearings and dia. (a) Front bearing in horizontal plan kx1 = (b2-b4) l1/Dc kx2 = (b2-b4) l2/Dc (b) Front bearing in vertical plane Ky1 = (b1-b3) l1/Dc ky2 = (b1-b3) l2/Dc Correct position of the generator rotor can be obtained by moving its bearings by following distances: (a) Front bearing – horizontal plane Ax1 = (a2-a4) / 2 + (b2-b4) l1/ Dc Ax2 = (a2-a4) / 2 + (b2-b4) l1/ Dc (b) Front bearing – vertical plane Ay1 = (a1-a3) / 2 + (b1-b3) l1/ Dc At2 = (a1-a3) / 2 + (b1-b3) l2/ Dc • • • • The rotor must be moved up and to the right if the computed displacement is positive The rotor must be moved down and to left if the computed displacement is negative The air gaps of generator are checked after completing alignment.Fig 14: Displacements of Generator Bearings • The displacement of bearings due to inclination of shaft is given by difference between end clearances.
If any defect is found. etc shall be monitored during load test and observations and defects noted. generator. panel wiring drawing. Following are the guide lines: 1. control metering and relay panels. transformers and breakers. All the tools and instruments ordered for the plant shall be listed and their condition checked. This shall include turbine. panels. fore bay. All civil building and structures such as water carrier system. These shall include gate. diversion weir. auxiliaries. Relay test report and relay setting duly signed by manager/ resident engineer. battery charger Cable schedule and termination drawing. SELECTION AND TRAINING Man power required for the operating and maintenance of SHP shall be based on following factors: 1.0 2. turbine. generator transformers. tailrace. and operation of main gates shall be noted. breakers.2 1. All the area of the plant shall be cleaned and all rooms checked for unwanted material stored in it. turbine.1 Operating condition of E&M equipment shall be monitored for 72 hrs continuous running for full load condition and results. AVR and governor spares. DC station battery. However all civil structures under water shall be inspected on draining.5 1. Documents: Following documents shall be insisted upon: • • • • • 2. valve. Supplier’s manuals including erection and troubleshooting manual. pipe line. Such material shall be taken out of building and stored in closed out door yard. observations are noted. cracks on wall. A report shall be prepared and both handing over and taking over party shall sign it. GUIDELINE FOR MANPOWER. All commissioning reports duly signed. if possible. it shall be noted and corrected. channel. draft tube. lake. main and auxiliary transformer and switchyard equipments. HT and LT switchgear. All the spares of the E&M equipment shall be listed and their condition checked for use during replacement.4 1. Leakages.3 1.6 73 .0 GUIDELINES FOR TAKING OVER O&M OF SHP The O&M of the plant shall be taken over from agency executing the project after due diligence and checking following conditions. This shall include generator.SECTION-III GENERAL GUIDE LINES 1. auxiliaries.1 All plant and equipment drawings with as executed status.
• The operation staff shall be selected well in advance preferably during the precommissioning and commissioning of the plant. Testing engineer is most important for any generating plant. A plant with 3 shift working will need more staff than a single shift. welding and fabrication. Other method is to employ local labor. This may increase the strength of the remotely located ROR plant. TRAINING OF OPERATION STAFF • • • • • 2. safety and fire fighting. if these persons are given proper on job training. Experienced personal and also on simulator. He should be experienced engineer familiar with all equipment testing to take decision in case of any fault on electrical equipment such as generator. transformer and switchgear. A training period of three month is necessary for small hydropower plant. electrical installation. Contractual work such as civil maintenance. This being a specialized job it may be difficult to get such persons and to hold them as such can be engaged by group of plants or among the IPPs in the area. For the technician an ITI certificate with hands on experience in electro-mechanical work such as DG plant. unsafe operation etc. the water channel and its equipment. DG plant of a cogeneration plant. during requirement of additional work such as rainy season where inspection of water channel is needed or during annual maintenance work. hydraulic equipment. The number of shifts/ hours the plant is going to work e. Plant in charge having basic degree/ diploma in electrical with experience in civil and mechanical works is most suitable.2 SELECTION Man power required for operation and maintenance shall be selected before commercial operation of the plant. 74 . cannot be ruled out. PLC panels cabling work etc. An experience on large electrical substation with DG set may be accepted.• • • Type of plant such as ROR. However the manpower can be kept minimum by employing a multidisciplinary force such as an engineer with experience in civil and electromechanical work or technician with driving experience etc. dam based or canal based. They should be given proper training otherwise possibility of mishandling of plant. maintenance of residences. Location of the plant. electrical panel. a remotely located plant will need additional staff for the support services such as transport. maintenance. It will benefit the plant. etc may be awarded on annual basis to keep work force low. one shift or three shift.3 The operation staff shall be given training by Sr. The experience of the persons shall be in hydro generating plant. drinking water supply etc. The manpower for the ROR plant is more because of the spread of hydraulic structures. 2. The guiding factor is safety of equipment and manpower. loss of generation.g. The training shall be in the area of SHP operation. if available.
• • On completion of training the trainee shall be assessed for his skills and capability on actual work in the plant where they will be working. INSTRUMENTS ETC 3. rotating device and slings for alignment. as such these should be properly stored and secured. On placing them on operation duty they shall be periodically assessed for their performance in actual operation such as start of units etc. ESSENTIAL T&P. if required. Shift in charge should also ensure timely refilling of fire extinguishers installed in the powerhouse. These are not required for day to day maintenance.0 FIRE PROTECTION & FIRE FIGHTING It is necessary to install necessary hydrant points. Asbestos cloth must be used to cover electrical parts during such maintenance activities. Throwing match sticks and other burning stuff may sometime create fire in the power station. Additional fire extinguishers must be kept during maintenance especially when activities like. rotor lifting device and endless slings. fire extinguishers at different locations of the power station as per recommendations of district fire officer. instruments For effective maintenance it is necessary to list out all required ordinary T&P as also assess quantity and arrange the same otherwise it may become difficult even for a skilled and capable technicians to carry out the require maintenance job. First aid boxes as per recommendation of Factory Rules must be kept in the PS and these should be inspected periodically by station in charge. (ii) Special T&P Such type of T&P is required during assembly or dismantling of machines. Slings should be stored duly coated with preservatives as recommended by the manufactures. brazing etc. must be carried out on these devices in time. In power stations normally following types of fire extinguishers are used: o Soda acid type o Dry chemical type foam type (chemical foam) 75 . Periodic drill of use of different types of fire extinguishers is must so that staff on duty in the power plant could operate these in case of emergencies. are going on. He must periodically check working of hydrant points.0 (i) Ordinary tools. pole turning device. spanners hammers etc. shaft extension pieces and so on. welding. Timely recoupment of consumed items must be ensured by shift in charge. pliers. Ordinary T&P includes different type & sizes of screw drivers. Smoking inside power station should be prohibited. 4. shaft lifting device. For example. Necessary maintenance.
General Safety Precautions in SHP • • All voltage level.0 SAFETY ASPECT OF RUNNING SHP It is said that 90% of accidents are avoidable. even low shall be considered dangerous even though the voltage may not be high to cause shock. All electrical circuit to be treated live and no work should be carried out without proper shut down and ensuring that it is (i) De-energized (ii) Insolated from all sources (iii) Effectively connected with ground Fundamental on Safety Prevention of accidents requires whole hearted cooperation of all members of organization. Safety measures are therefore. safety talks. Unsafe conditions which may cause accidents are as follows: Ungrounded equipment Defective material or equipment Improper illumination Non standard design and construction 76 . Unsafe acts which may cause accidents are as follows: Operation of equipment without authority or warning. mentally alert employee will avoid accident. Out of these 20% are due to faulty conditions and 20% due to faulty behavior and 60% due to both. Some of the methods to improve safety consciousness are given below: • • • Prompt investigations. pin pointing cause of accident and remedial measures Use of personal protective equipment such as helmet. films. gloves safety belts etc. safety competition etc. journal. Arousing safety consciousness through the use of posters. A capable.o CO2 cylinders o Fire hydrants o Sand and water buckets 5. essential. Operating without proper instructions Making safety device inactive Working nearby dangerous or live electrical equipment which could conveniently be de-energized Using defective T&P or equipment or its improper use. Accidents cause human suffering and loss of production to the organization. goggles. Success of safety measures depends on safety mindedness of the management supervisions and workers.
in order to safeguard personals or property. All protective equipment should be periodically tested. In case of any modifications/ change in the layout operating instructions should be reviewed. results of unsafe acts or unsafe conditions or combination of both. First aid and artificial respiration chart shall be exhibited. in which quick action is necessary. transformers. Use HRC fuses only with proper capacity. Supervisor shall guard against the use of defective safety appliances. Every person shall be familiar with the same. therefore. isolators CTs. A person should be allowed to operate or take over the equipment only after he has acquired adequate knowledge of the equipment. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 77 . and materials. Extra precaution should be taken by all the parties during such cases. tools. Operation and Maintenance staff should be familiar with the station layout and operations limits of different equipment such as breakers. All persons must use the standard protective equipment intended for the job. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to interpret correctly and explain safety rules and regulations to all the persons concerned and ensures that they thoroughly understand the same. only authorized persons will take necessary action. Equipment are designed for certain operating conditions. Metal ladders should not be used in switchyard. Every person shall be familiar and should know how to operate firefighting equipment. Adequate number of first aid and firefighting equipment shall be maintained. Written permissions should be obtained from the superintendent/ in charge of the station. PTs. etc. This will avoid damage to the equipment. Breach of safety rules should be suitably dealt with. Overstressing of the equipment should be for minimum possible time with minimum percentage of overloading. Interlocks should not be by-passed unless it is very essential. it should be operated within prescribed operations limits.Accidents are. Operation should be carried out as per Operations Instructions. Only authorized persons shall be allowed to carry out operation and maintenance. In the event of the fire on electrical installation. Feedback regarding unsafe operation/ condition should be taken into consideration with proper spirit and review should be made to avoid accidents. In case of any emergency. Under no circumstances attempt shall be made to carryout operations which are not safe. This will help in carrying out operations safely and maintaining uniformity. the affected part shall be immediately switched off and isolated from all the sources. Booklets/ manufacturer’s instructions for different equipment should be available and should be referred to before taking out equipment for maintenance. so that fire can be extinguished promptly thus minimizing damage. Safety Precautions and Practices in Operating and Maintenance • • • No unsafe operation will ever be permitted.
0 Documentation Documentation at all levels of work done is necessity for any references and analysis of data/information in future as and when required. No breaker should be operated beyond stipulated operating duty. voltage. Similarly isolator should not be closed on load. Lighting arresters shall be grounded independently. in the operation log books and shift registers. generation voltage and current etc. fore bay levels/reservoir levels. ASKAREL compound used in capacitor bank as a dielectric is very toxic and harmful. 78 . such as relay operation details. Hence. inflows etc. Restoration activities after every tripping should be reported with details of preventive action taken or to be taken based on certain conditions. This information should be presented in prescribed format. annunciations temperatures. The areas should be cordoned off indicating location of work on the particular equipment.g. disturbance recorders and event logger print outs. its operating mechanism should be de-energized such as discharging spring. Underrated circuit breakers should not be used to clear the fault. Apparatus. MW. Current transformer secondary should never to be left open circuited. The bank should be grounded with hot stick before commencing the work. it should be allowed to discharge through discharge PT for about 10 minutes. Any tripping event should be clearly noted with relevant details. MVAR. alarms. should be handled with great care. While working on the breaker. Transformer should be discharged and grounded from all sides (windings). Neutral grounding of the transformer should not be treated as grounding. Roll of operation staff is very important in registering all valid information operating parameters such as temperature. GUIDELINES FOR DOCUMENTATION 6. Every event should clearly mention frequency. After cutting out capacitor bank. releasing air pressure etc. Isolating switches provided for Generators and synchronous condensers and other rotating machines should never be opened when connected to any voltage source even when the machine is carrying no load. as may be necessary from case to case. should be checked on daily basis by Engineer concerned. frame work and other non-current carrying metal parts associated with power system are to be effectively grounded. who will check and authenticate the same for future use. Use of safety tags must be ensured while allowing shut down for maintenance on some part/ equipment.• • • • • • • • • • • • • While opening isolator confirm that it is not carrying load current. MWH at the instant with other necessary data e. vibrations. pressure.
Hourly readings of all panel meters.a above. Log Books a. switchyard operations etc. a. pumps running. Ambient temp. sheet aux. b. synchronizing. time and proper sequence in case some operation is carried out. Turbine operator shift b. etc. turbine water head/pressure and other quantities as per manufacturer. c. Hourly KWH meter. Helps during event analysis by others. or break down maintenance. in service. Recording of instructions given or taken from. Turbine room log Hourly readings of bearing temperature. compressor air pr. All turbine and its Aux. The log books and log sheets normally maintained in SHPs are given in annexed table:Operating Condition Record Sheets Type Description of Log 1. consumption meter. Control Room Shift Log Book Purpose/used for Very important station record of events. import–export meter. Aux. 3. cooling water pressure.For maintenance also similar registers are maintained giving details of maintenance activities at different frequencies such as daily. Record of events. Control room/ Shift charge/ assistant shift engineer. a. with date. Action taken to be recorded by maintenance engineer. Turbine Room Shift Log Book Log Sheets Control Room Meter Reading Turbine operator Control room / assistant shift engineer / shift engineer. Control room / charge engineer. Gives station equipment load condition. Helps in assessing during event analysis. Location/authority Control Room Charge Engineer Shift b. Results of test and measurements carried out during maintenance should be tabulated in standard formats and this should include the commissioning and acceptable values are applicable for proper comparison and planning remedial action. Equipment under their scope. Control room energy meter log sheet. Defect log book – Record of equipment defects on Hydraulic Turbine room/ shift Hydraulic equipment noticed during shift needing charge/ assistant shift 79 . operation and events. 2. and general condition of equipment. monthly. Defect cum Equipment defects noticed by operator and Equipment Record action taken by maintenance dept. transformer auxiliaries. Books Defect log book – Record of electrical equipment defects electrical noticed during shift needing attention of maintenance dept. Left side of the page to be used to record specific equipment operated and right side to record events such as tripping. same as 1. taking over shift with signature. annual etc. generator and transformer temperature.
5. It further in charge 80 . Equipment under his scope. rainfall. leakage. down hours. manager operation. black start procedure. the data is important in studying plant performance over years. separately. Station water consumption report. water rate. lake discharge and other hydraulic data. plant load factor. availability factor etc. consumption. Over loading of units etc. maximum equipment temperatures during month. Station manual safety 11. tripping of lines etc. For sending daily short summary to main Control room Resident office of important events in plant. all mechanical installation operating procedure and drawings. starting and stopping of units. meteorological and atmospheric data. loss of time. Relay setting register. and Resident engineer tagging procedure. Daily report book (duplicate) 6. forced and emergency outages. Disaster management Location/authority engineer. Control room shift aux. Resident records of daily/ monthly water discharge engineer/ manager for generation. Monthly (duplicate) 7. Giving all manager operations. and Shift charge engineer. station interlocking drawings Safety procedure for giving outages. Manual giving all step by step operation Resident engineer. Gives details of instructions to be followed Resident engineer/ shift by shift staff during any disaster. lake contents etc. Station occurrence record. 8. keeps Control room. First Aid instructions. Shall engineer/ manager give rainfall.Type Description of Log Purpose/used for attention of maintenance dept. cause of tripping. This is an extremely important register shall be available for reference at all times. Safety use of fire protections and fighting officer if appointed equipment. Station manual operation 10. Head works evaporation losses for storage dams.. 4.. engineer. water utilized. engineer. manager operation. outages. lake condition. Record of all tripping. DC batterycell voltage and specific gravity . pumps etc. Monthly Generation record register. Keeps monthly total of unit generation. at lake and at power house. compressor. Record of all relay equipment relay setting Manager operation/ giving normal condition and during outage Resident engineer of transformer or line. and any other operation related information. cranes. shut charge engineer. wind and operations. Guidelines for emergency operation. equipment data and equipment operating parameter. record of all instructions for revision. generation. outages. For mainly Hydro power plant. instructions giving medical officer. Use of tools. running hours. procedure for outages etc. 9. relay action etc. water operation/ shift charge utilized.
Some sample formats of log book and reports are also enclosed to provide a guide line to create formats for the power station under considerations: 81 .Type Description of Log instruction Purpose/used for Location/authority gives details of how to act and tackle the disaster.
Hr: Min (MU) Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 ……. Cumecs Cumecs MIN MIN MAX TRW LEVEL. Total TRANSMISSION (MU) LINE-I EXPORT IMPORT STATION DATA AUX. M LEVEL. Hz Monthly Cum1 (MU)=_______ LINE-II LINE-III Yearly cum1 (MU)=_________ MINIMUM WATER UTILIZED. CONSUMPTION TOTAL. Hours Hr: Min Gen Planned Forced Misc. (PPM) RESERVOI INTAKE R LEVEL. M SILT. SPILLAGE. INFLOW Cumecs MAX RESERVOIR LEVEL.(NAME OF POWER STATION) DAILY GENERATION/ TRANSMISSION REPORT FOR GENERATION (MU) Monthly cum1 (MU) =_______. KV FREQ. M WEATHER OUTAGE DETAILS UNIT/ LINE COMMUNICATION STATUS: PLCC/P&T / LDST/WIRELESS OUTAGE TRIPPING/ RESTORED TOTAL TYPE OUTAGE TIME AT Hr: Min OUTAGE PO/FOR/MISC Hr : Min TIME Hr: Min OK/AS PER REMAKRS Energy REASONS Loss MU (If Any) MW AVERAGE LOAD MW MAXIMUM MVAR BUS/VOLT. M TRIPPING DETAILS NIL / AS PER TRIPPING REPORT REASONS FOR LESS GENERATION / REMAKRS: [SHIFT INCHARGE] 82 . Yearly cum1 (MU)=__________ Unit Daily R/ OUTAGES HOURS (Hr: Min) Available Deemed No.
(NAME OF POWER STATION) HOURLY STATION DATA REPORT FOR BUS END Tim e kV VOLTAG E Hz 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 0 11:0 0 12:0 0 13:0 0 14:0 0 15:0 0 16:0 0 17:0 0 18:0 0 19:0 0 20:0 0 21:0 0 22:0 0 23:0 0 24:0 0 UNIT -1 UNIT -2 GENERATIO GENERATIO N N FREQ MVA MW MVA MW . UNIT -3 GENERATIO N MVA MW R TOTAL GENERATION MVA R MW 83 . R R MW ….
STATOR WINDING THRUST BEARING TURBINE GUIDE BEARING UPPER GUIDE BEARING ANY ABNORMAL OPERATION PARAMETER NOTED O C Hrs.OPERATION PARAMETERS MAX TEMP. OC at Hrs. O C Hrs.. O C Hrs NORMAL VALUE O C [SHIFT INCHARGE] NAME & DESIGNATION 84 .
(STATION)/TRIP/ Sl No Name of Line/ Unit Time Hr : Min Details of tripping Replay operated along with Alarm and Flags Power Grid Station Station end end Remarks COPY OF EVENT LOGGER/ DISTURBANCE RECORDER PRINTOUT ENCLOSED – YES/NO Specify reason if not attached_____________________ [Shift In charge] Name/ Designation 85 .(NAME OF POWER STATION) DAILY TRIPPING REPORT FOR ______________ REPORT NO.
10.(NAME OF POWER STATION) GENERATION REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF _______________ DATE 1. 7. 3. 31. 27. 29. 8. 28. 22. 16. 19. 30. 21. 5. 26. 12. 15. 11. 9. 4. 17. 2. Total UNIT-1 MU UNIT-2 MU UNIT-3 MU ……… TOTAL MU DEEMED GENERATION (MU) INCHARGE [OPERATIONS] NAME / DESIGNATION 86 . 6. 25. 24. 23. 20. 18. 14. 13.
/ oil level etc. inspection. closure of units due to high ppm. less availability of water etc. line problems. DOWN WATER OF M/S (Hrs: Min) A B C D E F G H I J K 1 2 3 PLANNED OUTAGE : FORCED OUTAGE : MISCELLANEOUS OUTAGE : Outage planned in advance for annual maintenance. 87 . high temp. stopping/ closure of units for inspection / investigation /rectification of abnormal operating parameters/ behavior condition. Outage due to tripping caused by abnormal operating parameters like high temp. should come under forced outage and not in planned outage. etc. Outages due to reasons beyond control of generating stations or for which generating stations are not responsible like tripping of units due to failure of grid. Any outage planned in advance because of abnormal operating parameters i. CONSTRAINTS (Hrs: Min) BREAK (Hrs:Min) Min) OF ETC. outage for less than 15 minutes due to tripping and resynchronization should also come under miscellaneous outage. oil level failure of shaft seal etc. backing down due to grid constraints/ requirements.(NAME OF POWER STATION) M/C AVAILABILITY REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF % Unit GENERATION TOTAL RUNNING PLANNED FORCED MISCELLANEOUS OUTAGE DUE TO AVAILABILITY IN HRS AVAILABILITY TIME OUTAGE OUTAGE (MU) TIME HIGH LESS TRANSMISSION (D+G+H+I) DUE TO (Hrs: Min) (Hrs: (J/C)*100 PPM AVAIL.e. periodical/ routine maintenance/ checking.
(NAME OF POWER STATION) ABSTRACT OF OUTAGES FOR THE MONTH OF UNIT NO.___________________ Sl No FORM TO DATE TIME DATE TIME dd/mm/yy Hr:Min dd/mm/yy Hr:Min PLANNED OUTAGE TOTAL TIME Hr:Min ENERGY LOSS (MU) Reasons FORCED OUTAGE MISCELLANEOUS OUTAGE INCHARGE [OPERATIONS] NAME/ DESIGNATION 88 .
& Date Comments / Remarks (if any) INCHARGE [OPERATIONS] NAME / DESIGNATION 89 .MONTHLY TRIPPING REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF ____________________ Sl. Name of Units/ Line Type of Tripping Tripping Report No. No.
(NAME OF POWER STATION) DEEMED GENERATION REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF Sl. IN MW ENERGY LOSS ELOSS (MU) TOTAL GENERATION LOSS DURING THE DAY GLOSS (MU) SPILLAGE ENERGY DURING THE DAY GSPILLAGE (MU) DEEMED GENERATION GDEEMED (MU) NAME/ DESIGNATION 90 . No Unit No. DATE dd/mm/yy CONSTRAINTS/ BACKING DOWN CODE TIME FROM TO Hr:Min Hr:Min BACKING DOWN PERIOD (t) Hr CAPACITY BACKED DOWN.
s.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS TRIPPINGS POWER STATION A B C D E F G H I J LEGEND K L M N O P Q R S T U V W CLARIFICATION FROM THE STATION LEGEND a. o. u. d. h. r. b. DESCRIPTION OF PROTECTION NO. t. j. f. c. q. m. n. l. k. p. g. i. OF OCCURRENCE 91 . e.
NO. DETAILS OF EQUIPMENT TYPE OF ACTIVITY FROM PERIOD TO 92 . Approved: Issued: (POWER STATION) ANNUAL MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (FOR THE YEAR ) UNIT/ EQUIPMENT FEEDER BAY/: SL.v. w.
IF ANY ACTION PLAN IF ACTIVITY NOT COMPLETED IN TIME SIGNATURE ISSUED BY POWERSTATION Engineer (O&M) Head (O&M 93 .SIGNATURE ISSUED BY POWER STATION (POWER STATION) MONTHLY MAINTENANCE REPORT (FOR THE MONTH) UNIT/EQUIPMENT/FEEDER BAY/: SL NO DETAILS OF EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE PLANNED DATE OF COMPLETION AS PER SCHEDULE STATUS AT THE END OF THE MONTH REASON FOR DEVIATION.
(POWER STATION) BREAK DOWN STATUS UNIT/ EQUIPMENT/ FEEDER BAY/: DATE & TIME OF BREAKDOWN: DATE & TIME OF RESTORATION: BREAKDOWN BRIEF ACTION TAKEN FOR RESTORATION PREVENTIVE ACTION TO AVOID RECURRENCE SIGNATURE / DATE ISSUED BY STATION Approved: Issued: 94 .
(NAME OF POWER STATION) OUTAGE REPORT SL NAME OF STARTING RESTORATION TOTAL REASONS GENERATION ACTION PREVENTIVE NO EQUIPMENT DATE OUTAGES LOSS IN MU TAKEN FOR ACTION TO TIME DATE TIME OF THE TIME RESTORATION AVOID (Hrs:Min) (Hrs:Min) UNIT/ (Hrs:Min) RECURRENCE FEEDER ACTION TAKEN BY STATION: [SHIFT IN CHARGE] NAME/ DESIGNATION 95 .
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