A heat exchanger is process equipment used for transferring heat from one fluid to another fluid through a separating wall. Usually heat exchangers are classified according to the functions for which they are employed. The most widely used heat exchanger is the Shell & Tube heat exchanger. It consists of parallel tubes enclosed in a shell. One of the fluid flows through the shell & the other flows through the tubes. The one, which flows through the shell side, is called as shell side fluid & the one flowing through the tubes is called as tube side fluid. " When none of the fluid condenses or evaporates, the unit is called as Heat Exchanger." In this only the sensible heat transfers from the one fluid to another. Degradation is an inevitable process for every heat exchanger, but affects some to great extent, depending upon the duties they are called upon to perform. Some heat exchangers never achieve their design objective. Their degradation stems from inadequate design or improper execution or poor workmanship. Others achieve their design objective but then deteriorates progressively in performance as time wears on. Deterioration may be due to fouling, where there is acceleration of deposits that increase the thermal resistance to heat transfer. This diminishes the heat transfer while simultaneously increasing the compressor and the pump work input because of the partial blockage of fluid conduit. Fouling
may be overcome by cleaning, with the potential for the restoration of the heat exchanger to its original performance. Corrosion is another principle source of heat exchanger degradation. Corrosion of heat exchanger structural material arises from variety of mechanisms and progressively weakens the element to the point where the failure by the rupture or leakage occur is eminent. The corrosion products will likely occupy a large volume, partially blocking the flow conduits & increasing the input pump work or inhibiting the mass flow rate of the flow. In heat exchanger the fluid flow do not follow the idealized path anticipated from the elementary conditions. This departure from ideality can be very significant indeed. As much as 50% of the fluid can behave differently from what is expected. Maldistribution of the flow is the word often used to describe unequal flow distribution in several parallel flow paths found in heat exchanger. The maldistribution of the fluid flow is reduced generally by improving the baffle arrangement & proper designing & placement of the inlet & the outlet nozzle. The measures to combat or repair degradation of performance are discussed ahead.
Plate .Fin Plate . The fluid flows simultaneously through the heat exchanger in separate paths & heat is transferred from hot to the cold fluid across the walls of the flow section.1. heat is transferred from the matrix to the matrix and the fluid cools.Pipe Cluster Pipe
Double pipe Fin Tube
Shell & Tube
Fig. Later when the cold fluid passes through (called the ‘Cold Blow’).
2.1 BASIC CLASSIFICATION (1) 2.1. For moderate temperature applications this heat exchanger is used because they may be made low in cost & the plastic honey comb or any finely divided material as the regenerative matrix. The hot and the cold fluid pass through the matrix alternately.Frame
Single . When the hot fluid is passing (called the ‘Hot Blow’) heat is transferred form the fluid to heat the matrix.1 Regenerative type These heat exchangers have a single set of flow channels through a relatively solid massive solid matrix.2 TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER
It is equipped with separate flow conduits for each fluid.2 Recuperative type
Recuperative Heat Exchanger
Plate Heat Exchanger
Tubular Heat Exchanger
Spiral Plate .
2. Both the fluids are pumped through the exchanger so that the principal mode of heat transfer is forced convective heat transfer.2. while the other is at the low pressure with a low density. The relatively high density of liquid results in very high rates of heat transfer. Typically.2 Liquid/Gas It is usually used for air-cooling of hot liquid effluent.
. Fins are usually added on the outsides (air side) of the tubes to compensate.2. The air in cross flow over the tubes may be in forced or free convective mode. cooling water on one side is used to cool a hot effluent stream.1 Liquid/Liquid This is by far the most common application of tubular exchangers. In many cases one gas is compressed. The liquid is pumped through the tubes with very high rates of convective heat transfer. Normally the high-density fluid flows inside the tubes. Heat transfer coefficients on the airside are low compared with those on the liquid side.2. Internal and external fins are provided to enhance the heat transfer.2 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TYPE OF FLUID FLOW (3)
2. so the density is high.
2.3 Gas/Gas This type of heat exchanger is found in the exhaust gas /air preheating recuperators of gas turbine systems. steel furnaces & cryogenic gas liquification systems. So there is very little incentive in conventional situations to use fins or other devices to enhance the heat transfer.
2 indicates the temperature profile for heating & heated stream.3 CLASSIFICATION BY FLOW ARRANGEMENTS (3) The flow arrangement helps to determine the overall effectiveness. 2
Thin Cold Fluid
Hot Fluid Cold Fluid
Co . the cost & the highest achievable temperature in the heated stream. The fig.2.Current Flow
Tcin Surface Area A
Thin Cold Fluid Tcout Thout
Hot Fluid Cold Fluid Counter . a counter flow heat exchanger must be used. The latter affect most often dictates the choice of flow arrangement.Current Flow
Tcin Surface Area Thin A Thin
Tcout Tcout Thout Tcin
Tcin Thout Cross Flow
Fig. If the waste heat stream is to be cooled below the load stream exit. respectively.
2.4 TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGER CLASSIFICATION (1)
2.4.1 Clustered pipe heat exchanger It is the development of single pipe heat exchanger. Two or more tubes are joined by thermally
Solder H-P Stream L-P Stream
conducting medium. So that the heat is transferred between the fluids flowing
in the tubes. Sometimes a cluster of tubes is arranged around a central core tube. High – density fluid passes through the core tube. The return stream of the low-density fluid passes through the multiple tubes arranged around the core tube. The construction is favored in small cryogenic counter flow Heat exchanger.
2.4.2 Double pipe heat exchanger It consists of central tube contained within a larger tube. It is relatively cheap, flexible & hence used in smaller units. It is customary to operate with high pressure and high pressure, high temperature, high density or corrosive fluid in small inner tube, with less demanding fluid on outer tube.
2.4.3 Shell & Tube heat exchanger To increase the capacity or reduce the required length, more than one internal tube is incorporated within the outer tube enclosure. But the most common form of multi tubular heat exchanger is the one shown in fig. 5. This one is widely used for liquid/liquid heat transfer. The best-known standards for the tubular heat exchanger are the TEMA – Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturing Associations, which include the basic nomenclature & classification scheme for Shell & Tube.
2.5 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER CLASSIFICATION (6)
2.5.1 Plate & Frame It consists of a series of rectangular, parallel plates held firmly together between substantial head frames. The plates have corner ports & are sealed by gaskets around the ports & along the plate edges. Corrugated plates provide high degree of turbulence even at low flow rates. In this exchanger, hot fluid passes between alternate pairs of plates, transferring heat to cold fluid in the adjacent spaces. The plates are readily separated for cleaning and heat transfer area can be increased by simply adding more plates. Plate heat exchangers are relatively effective with viscous fluids with viscosities up to about 30 kg/m.sec (300 poise)
2.5.2 Spiral Plate A spiral plate heat exchanger can be considered as plate heat exchanger into which plates are formed into a spiral. The fluids flow between the channels formed between the plates. The spiral heat exchangers are compact units. For a given duty the pressure drop over a spiral heat exchanger will usually be lower than that for the equivalent shell and tube heat exchanger. Spiral heat exchanger give true counter current flow and can be used where the temperature correction factor for a shell and tube heat exchanger would be too low. Because they are easily cleaned and turbulence in channels is high, spiral heat exchanger can be used for very dirty process fluids and slurries.
Shell and tube heat exchanger is basically a double pipe heat exchanger with fairly large central tube. Liquid-solid suspensions.6.6 SPECIAL PURPOSE HEAT EXCHANGER (6)
2. such as organic juice concentration are often heated or cooled in such type of exchanger. It is widely used in paraffin wax plants.2. The scrapping mechanically rotating shaft provided with one or more longitudinal scrapping blades is incorporated in inner pipe to scrape the inside surface. The process fluid (viscous liquid) flows at low velocity through the inside pipe and cooling or heating medium flows through the annular space created between two concentric pipes. The rotating scrapper continuously scrapes the surface thus preventing localized heating and facilitating rapid heat transfer.
. viscous aqueous and organic solution and food products.1 Scraped surface heat exchanger
Fig. 100 to 300 mm in diameter. jacketed with steam or cooling liquid.
1.3 Graphite Block heat exchanger Generally heat exchangers are made from various metals and alloys.
Air or gas side HTC is very low in comparison of film coefficient on the condensing side. longitudinal and transverse fins are used. Graphite is inert towards most corrosive fluids and has very high thermal conductivity. According to the flow of the gas. require the use of exotic metals as titanium. these exchangers are made in cubic or cylindrical blocks.2. gas or viscous liquid side) with the help of fins. tantalum. making it necessary to provide very large heat transfer area.
2. In such cases. heating of viscous liquids. HCl etc.6. But corrosive liquids like H2SO4. In such cases it is possible to increase the heat transfer by increasing / extending the surface area on the side with limiting coefficient (air. This reduces the capacity per unit area of heat transfer surface. Such situations often arise in. Graphite being very soft. suitable to process streams. 2. heating of air or gas stream by condensing steam. zirconium and others. graphite heat exchangers are well suited for handling corrosive fluids.2 Finned tube Heat exchanger When the heat transfer coefficient of one of the process fluids is very low as compared to the other. "The metal pieces employed to extend or increase the heat transfer surface are known as fins".
.6. the overall HTC becomes approximately equal to the lower coefficient. The heat transfer area is substantially increased by attaching the metal pieces. The fins are most commonly employed on outside of the tubes.
addition or removal of heat is conveniently done by heat transfer surface.4 Jackets and cooling coils in vessels In chemical industries a number of reactions are carried out in agitated vessel. Jackets as well as helical coils are used for heating or cooling purpose depending upon the situation.2.
Fig. In such cases. surface that can be in the form of jacket fitted outside the vessel or the helical coil fitted to inside.6. 7
Heat exchangers are becoming increasingly important in the heating & ventilating field as well. consequent on the very rise in prime energy costs. The heat is transferred to secondary fluids.
. in order to raise this air to the required working temperature. For normal heat transfer from the stream heaters or flues to circulating air. are pieces of equipment.1 INTRODUCTION Heat recuperators or heat exchangers as they are called so.3 IMPORTANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGER
3. To extract useful heat from the waste hot liquid & gases. For heat recovery from exhaust air. Because of importance of improving heat recovery. flue gases & other sensible heat source. For normal operating of air-conditioning equipment. which can then be used for either space heating or for the supply of preheated water to the boiler. They are essential features of all production process in chemical industry. 3. the heat is being abstracted from room air by refrigeration fluid or by chilled air.2 MAIN USES OF HEAT RECUPERATORS (4)
1. 2. 3. in which. 4. which can abstract sensible heat from one stream of flowing fluid and supply it to another stream.
In figure.1 Exhaust – Gas stream Recuperation is the most promising candidate for heat recovery from high temperature exhaust gas streams. heat recovery ceases when the two streams approach a common exit temperature. As shown in fig. It is seen that.3. which replaces the present stack.
Cooled Exhaust Gas
Heated Furnace Air Height of Chimney
st G as
Cool Furnace Air Th Hot Exhaust Gas Temperature Tc
Fig.3. in parallel flow heat exchanger. the heat exchanger being selected is the radiation recuperator. temperature profile sketch is drawn.8 the hot gases will be cooled by the incoming combustion air which will be supplied to the same furnace. Because of the temperature of the gases leaving the furnace. This is the concentric tube heat exchanger.3 UNIT OPERATIONS (3)
. The incoming combustion air is needed to cool the base of the recuperator & thus the parallel flow occurs.
The exhaust gases may contain water vapor both from the combustion air & from the combustions of hydrogen that is contained in the fuel. 9
. Boiler feed water flows through the tube to be heated by the exhaust gases. installed in boiler breaching. The extent of the heat recovery in the economizer may be limited by the lowest allowable exhaust gas temperature in the exhaust stack. condensation will occur & may cause damage to the structural material.
300°F Flue Exhaust Finned tube Economiser
220°F Feed water from deaerator
Boiler Exhaust 500°F
Water Tube Boler
Fig.3.2 Boiler economizer An economizer is constructed as a bundle of finned tubes.3. If the exhaust gases are cooled below the dew point of the water vapor.
1 INTRODUCTION Corrosion is defined as "The degradation of a material because of reaction with environment".
. and earthquakes. The annual cost of corrosion runs grater than costs of floods. The rate of decomposition can be can be determined by comparatively simple immersion test of the specimen in the fluid. It is the part of the cycle of growth and decay that is natural order of things.
4. This type of corrosion is easy to handle.2 UNIFORM OR GENERAL CORROSION Uniform or general corrosion is the most common form of corrosion. It is characterized by chemical or electrochemical reactions that proceed uniformly over the entire exposed surface or a substantial portion of that surface.4 CORROSION IN HEAT EXCHANGER (1)
4. The life of the equipment can therefore be predicted and extended to the degree required by the addition of corrosion allowance to the metal wall thickness to sustain the pressure or the other stress loading applied. Corrosion is principal cause of failure for engineering systems. The metal becomes progressively thinner and eventually fails because of the stress produced on it.
They tend to be localized and concentrated with the consequent premature or unexpected failure. as compared with their behavior when they are not coupled electrically.
4. The principle is shown
in fig. The various metals and
. The less resistant metal is described as 'Anodic' and the more resistant metal as ‘Cathodic’. Corrosion of less corrosion resistant metal is accelerated and that of the more resistant metal is decreased. a voltage will become established between them. Other forms of corrosion are difficult to predict. treatment of fluids to remove corrosive elements and the use of the sacrificial cathodic protection or impressed electrical potentials. 10 Copper Zinc
between them. the addition of corrosion inhibitors to the fluid. It the metals are then connected by electrically conducting path. a small current will pass continuously
Fig.3 GALVANIC OR TWO METAL CORROSION When two dissimilar metals are immersed in a corrosive or electrically conductive solution. Usually corrosion of the cathode is virtually eliminated. The combination of dissimilar metals and a corrosive or electrically conductive medium constitutes a galvanic cell.10.Prevention of Uniform general corrosion Uniform corrosion can be prevented or reduced by the selection of appropriate materials (including internal coatings).
Electrically insulate dissimilar metals where possible. 1.alloys. but less rapidly in combination with aluminum or zinc. The effect increase for the metals that is further apart in table. Avoid the use of small ratio of anode area to the cathode area. Use equal areas or large ratio of anode to cathode area. 2. Magnesium will rapidly corrode in seawater in conjunction with a titanium cathode. This
recommendation is shown in fig. The combination of metal from the upper half of the table with any other further down the table will establish a galvanic cell with the potential to accelerate the rate of corrosion of the anode. lower in the table. Those at the bottom are anodic and most subjected to attack. while decreasing the corrosion rate of the cathode. The noble metals leading the list are cathodic and the least subject to corrosion.11
Insulating Sleeve Insulating Washer Nut
Prevention of Galvanic Corrosion Use a single material or a combination of materials that are close in the galvanic series. along with other materials of interest can be arranged in order of decreasing corrosion resistance as shown in table. 11
4 CREVICE CORROSION It is charachterised by the intense local corrosion in the crevices and other shielded areas on the metal surfaces exposed to stagnant corrosive liquids. The nature of electrochemical process is such that the corrosion attack is
. Maintain all coatings in good condition. or crystalline solids may act as a shield and create the necessary stagnant condition the essence of crevice corrosion. such as at a small hole. it is
Fig. 5. lap joints. The mechanism of crevice corrosion is associated with the depletion of the oxygen in the stagnant liquid pool. This type of corrosion occurs with many fluids but is particularly intense with those containing chlorides. especially at the anode. Avoid the use of riveted or threaded joints in favor of welded or brazed joints.3. which results in the corrosion of the metal walls adjacent to the crevice. Relative to heat exchangers. It can occur where any undistributed liquid film exists.
important to note that nonmetallic deposits (fouling) of sand. gasket . Local failure of the protective coating. marked by accelerated galvanic corrosion. surface deposits.flange interface. particularly at the anode can result in small anode to cathode area. Install a sacrificial anode lower in the galvanic series than both the materials involved in the process equipment. and the crevice under bolt and rivet heads. 4.
3. Eliminate the solids suspended in the fluids. 5. 2.5 PITTING CORROSION Pitting corrosion is the phenomenon whereby an extremely localized attack results in the formation of the holes in the metal surface that eventually perforates the walls. Good welds with deep penetration are required to avoid porosity and crevices on the inside if the joint is welded on one side only. 6.
4. Weld tubes to the tube sheet. It is shown in the fig.13. 13
.localized within the stagnant or shielded area while the surrounding surfaces over which the fluid moves suffer little or no damage. The holes or pits are of various sizes and may be isolated or grouped very closely. Use welded butt joints instead of bolted or riveted joints. Eliminate crevices by continuous welding by solder or brazing filling and by caulking. crevices and the stagnant areas and complete drainage. 4. Some time is required between the initial establishment to the conditions for the crevice corrosion and the occurrence of the visible damage.
Prevention of Crevice Corrosion 1. Clean at regular intervals. which is called the incubation period. Design to eliminate the sharp corners. if possible. instead of rolling.
downward form horizontal surfaces. As with crevice corrosion an incubation period is required before pitting corrosion starts. but only in very exceptional cases do pits grow upward form the bottoms of horizontal surfaces.e.The mechanism of pitting is very close to crevice corrosion. Carbon steel is more resistant to pitting than stainless steel. undermining the surface as shown in figure. pitting corrosion is rarely found in metal surface over which fluids move constantly. Pits usually grow in the direction of gravitational action i. the pits tend to spread out. Thus. Stainless steel alloys are particularly susceptible to pitting corrosion attack. Failure as leak resulting from the complete perforation of the metal wall therefore occurs suddenly and unexpectedly. Further more once below the surface. The process of establishing a pit site is unstable and is interrupted by any movement of the fluid over the surface. thereafter.
Prevention of pitting corrosion The principal measure is to use material that is known to be resistant to pitting. They sometimes develop on vertical surfaces. This particularly is unfortunate for the small surface pits can easily become obscured by the corrosion products or other sediments and the deposits. These include:
. Most pitting corrosion arises from the action of the chloride or chlorine containing ions. it continues at an accelerated rate. Often a heat exchanger pump or a tube carrying a corrosive fluid shows no sign of pitting corrosion when in service but rapidly deteriorates if the plant is shutdown and the fluid not drained from the system. Even in these few cases it can be reduced if the fluid velocity is increased.
and waves in the directional pattern. The protective film is eroded by mechanical scrubbing. Erosion corrosion therefore differs from most other forms of corrosion. Failure by erosion corrosion can occur in a relative short time (a matter of weeks or months). Type 304 stainless steel (Pits badly in chloride solution). 14
Corrosion Film Water Flow Corrosion pits Original metal surface
usually a combination of chemical or electrochemical decomposition and mechanical wear action. similar to sand formations on the shorelines. following satisfactorily tests for the corrosion susceptibility of the specimen submerged in the corrosive fluid under static condition.
4.Titanium. Erosion corrosion can be recognized by the appearance of the grooves. The process is
Fig. gullies. exposing the soft core to chemical or electrochemical attack in addition to the continued mechanical wear.
. Aluminum and stainless steel are in this category. Metals that depend for their corrosion resistance on the formation of a protective surface film are particularly susceptible to attack by the erosion corrosion.6 EROSION CORROSION Erosion corrosion is the term used to describe corrosion that is accelerated as a result of increase in the relative motion between the corrosive fluid and the metal wall. Fig. where the rate of attack is highest under stagnant or lowvelocity conditions. It often comes as a surprise. Hastelloy C or Chloriment 20.14 is a sketch of the erosion corrosion corrosion pattern on a condenser tube wall. Type 316 stainless steel.
occurs in the tube side.7 STRESS CORROSION Stress corrosion is the name given to the process whereby the cracks appear in the metals subject simultaneously to a tensile stress and specific corrosive media. Use materials with superior resistance to erosion corrosion. the process is frequently called inlet-tube corrosion. above which the rate of attack increases. 5. Use protective coating. Provide cathodic protection. For many materials there appears to be a critical value. particularly at the tube inlet. 4. The metal is generally not subjected to appreciable uniform corrosion attack but is penetrated by fine cracks that progress by expanding over more of the surface and proceeding further into the wall. Change the environment. The cracks may or may not be branched. An increase in the rate of erosion corrosion as the velocity increases. 3. Many erosion corrosion failures in heat exchanger.
Prevention of Erosion corrosion 1. High velocity gases and vapors at high temperature may oxidize a metal and then physically strip off the otherwise protective scale. 2. They may proceed along the grain boundaries
4.Many fluids that are not normally considered aggressive corrosion agents can promote erosion corrosion. It arises essentially from the highly turbulent flow ensuing as a consequence of the sudden change in the section as the fluid leaves the inlet bonnet and enters the reduced flow section of the tubes. Design for minimal erosion corrosion.
Once a crack is started. Stress corrosion cracks develop in specific metal-fluid combination when the stress level is above a minimum level that depends on the temperature. Eventually the metal fails suddenly and catastrophically when the stress in the remaining metal exceeds the ultimate. In other cases the critical value may be as high as 70%. It is likely that stress corrosion cracks are initiated at a corrosion pit or other surface regularity. so the rate of propagation is accelerated. the remaining wall section assumes the whole load. The general stress level is therefore raised and is further magnified at the tip of the crack. In some materials minimum stress levels for crack formation are as low as 10% of the yield stress. alloy structure. For stress corrosion cracks to initiate. whereas brasses crack in ammonia but not in chlorides. Stainless steels crack with fluids containing chloride but not with ammoniacal fluids. Stress corrosion often occurs in lightly loaded structures that are not stress relived after fabrication. As the crack penetrates further into the metal. including residual welding stress.
. the stress at the tip of the crack is very high and the fosters continuing development of the crack. The base of the pit acts as a stress raiser so the local stress concentration is very high. They are induced from any source.only or may be transgranular and advance with no preference to follow the grain boundaries. the stress must be tensile in character and exceed the critical level referred to above. Not all metal fluids are susceptible to cracking. and environment.
Prevention of Stress Corrosion 1. Lower the stress level below the critical threshold level by reducing the fluid pressure or increasing he wall thickness.
leading to a concentration of atomic hydrogen on the metal surfaces. atomic hydrogen and molecular hydrogen on the metal surface of a heat exchanger. all produce hydrogen ions.8 HYDROGEN DAMAGE Hydrogen damage is a term applied to the variety of consequences followed by exposure of metal to hydrogen. Hydrogen may exist in the mono atomic form (H) or the diatomic form (H2). Molecular hydrogen cannot do this. 4. There are various source of atomic hydrogen. The hydrogen damages are of four distinct types. which reduce to atomic hydrogen molecules.
4. 3. nor can any other chemical species. such as phosphates. Modify the corrosion fluid by process treatment or by adding corrosion inhibitors.
4. and electrolysis. result in the aggregation of hydrogen ions. in some way.2. Change the metal alloy to one that is less subjected to stress corrosion cracking in the given environment.1 Hydrogen Blistering The production of hydrogen ions will. Relieve the stress by annealing.8. including high temperature atmospheres. Some of the atomic hydrogen will diffuse into and through the metal before reducing to molecular hydrogen on the outer surface. Corrosion and cathodic protection. Atomic hydrogen can diffuse through many metals. phosphorus and arsenic compounds) inhibit the reduction of hydrogen ions.
. Some substances (sulfide ions. electroplating. corrosion and electrochemical process.
Some will then reduce to molecular hydrogen. In others the mechanism of embrittlement is not known.
. Decarbonisation is the removal of carbon from a steel alloy on exposure to hydrogen at high temperatures.8. The tendency to embrittlement increases with the hydrogen concentration in the metal. The equilibrium pressure for atomic pressure for the atomic and the molecular hydrogen is several hundred thousand atmospheres so the one way accumulative process continues.8.
4.The atomic hydrogen diffusing through the metal will enter any voids in the metal. The growth appears as "Blisters" on the wall of the heat exchanger.3 Decarbonisation and Hydrogen attack It is associated with metals exposed to high temperature gas streams containing hydrogen and variety of other gases. Hydrogen attack is the interaction of metals or an alloy constituent with hydrogen at high temperature. Alloys are most susceptible to cracking from hydrogen embrittlement at their highest strength levels. which cannot permeate the metal wall.far exceeding the yield stress of the material.
4. giving rise to very high pressures .the penetration of apparently solid metal by atomic hydrogen.2 Hydrogen Embrittlement It arises from the source as blistering . It results in reduction of tensile strength and increase in ductility and creep rate. In some metals the hydrogen reacts to form brittle hydride compounds.
Rubber. 2. Use of metallic. plastic and brick liners are also used. Use of low hydrogen welding rods and the maintenance of dry conditions during welding operations. These are economically feasible in closed circulating systems. 4. 3. Addition of inhibitors to reduce corrosion and the rate of hydrogen ion production. Use of void free steels.
. Fluid treatment to remove hydrogen – generating compounds such as sulphides. Carbon steel clad with nickel is sometimes used. cyanides and phosphorous containing ions. inorganic and organic coatings and the liners in steel vessels. Water and water vapor sources are major sources of hydrogen.Prevention of Hydrogen Damage 1. The liner must be impervious to hydrogen penetration and resistant to other media in the vessel. 5.
16. As much as 50% of the fluid can behave differently from what is expected.5 MALDISTRIBUTION OF FLUID FLOW
5. passing through the tube bundles and performing the real function of the shell-side fluid. 5. into a number of separate streams. If the tube bundle shell clearance is greater than the tube pitch. The A stream represents flows that occur in the clearance between the baffles tube holes and the tubes. based on the simplistic model. Flow is due to pressure drop between the upstream and the downstream sides of the baffle. The maldistribution of flow is a term often used to describe unequal flow distribution in the several parallel flow paths found in most heat exchangers.
. rods or dummy tubes. The B stream is the true cross flow stream. 16.1 INTRODUCTION The fluid flows do not follow the idealized paths anticipated from the elementary considerations. was classified by Tinker. as shown in fig. it is advisable to include a sealing device to inhibit bypass flow. These departures form ideality can be very significant indeed. The C stream bypasses the tube bundle and flows in the annulus between the shell and the tube bundle. as represented diagrammatically in fig. The sealing devices can be stripes.15.2 THE TINKER DIAGRAM (1) Flow on the shell side of the shell and tube heat exchanger. This is highly ineffective use of the fluid.
The F stream includes other bypass streams that arise when the tube partitions of the multipass tube bundles are arranged parallel to the direction of the main cross flow stream.
D A C A B
Fig. 15 Tinker diagram
Bypass stealing strips
Dummy rods or tubes
Fig. for it serves no useful heat-transfer function. 16 Seal for by – pass flow
Note : For more information on “Maldistribution of Fluid Flow” refer TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Asso. This represents direct loss of fluid.)
. The D stream is leak flow that occurs in the clearance space between the edge of the baffle and the shell.
The miniature high performance heat exchanger was designed to achieve huge NTU of 200 (The NTU of most of industrial exchanger is less than 5).3 PARALLEL . A difference in the mass rate of flow through the tube carries the implication that the flow velocity is significantly different.17. the difference in channel mass flow rates may be as high as 90 percent. The flow channel are of variable geometry designs to incorporate a compensatory feedback mechanism. The flow is then function of some power of the principal flow resistance parameter e. acting to adjust the duct geometry to ensure uniform distribution of flow in various channels. Low mass flow and fluid velocity in some tubes may give rise to high fluid and wall temperatures with accelerated corrosion and fouling deposition rates.5. When the number of parallel paths is limited to two or three and the paths are highly restricted.PATH FLOW (1) Flow paths in the tube side of shell and tube heat exchanger cannot be made absolutely identical and fluid flows are incredibly sensitive to apparently trivial differences between one path and another. Even with great attention to manufacturing detail. Alternative solutions to heat transfer problem are also explored.g. The process is a cancer feeding on itself.18. can contribute appreciably to flow maldistribution as shown in fig. the third power of the width of a slit or the square of the cross-section area of a flow aperture.
. The fouling deposits and products of corrosion exacerbate the difference in flow resistance between one tube and the other and further diminish the mass flow in tubes already starved of fluid. The heat transfer rate depends on the fluid velocity and the tube wall and the fluid temperatures depend on the heat transfer. Special heat exchangers are shown in the fig. Tube distortion in bending or the squashing resulting from improper handling fabrications.
values of 167 were achieved.
Tube deformation increases flow resistance. 17
Cold Flow Hot Flow
Fig.the early high performance heat exchangers were unable to exceed an NTU of 33. With the compensation feed back geometry. 18
. Tube subject to erosion corrosion at the site of deformation
Surface temperature in the low velocity areas may be appreciably higher than the mean design condition. Even good designs can be hopelessly compromised if they are improperly or inadequately executed. dispersed flow. Baffle design and placement are the principal means by which to ensure adequate fluid velocities on the shell side and a well – regulated. which further accelerates the chemical reactions exacerbating the corrosion and fouling processes.5. Less obvious but of greater importance is the fact that corrosion and fouling processes are highly accelerated under stagnant conditions. It is necessary to establish the centerlines of the inlet and outlet nozzles some distance from the tube sheets so as to accommodate the nozzle flanges and to provide sufficient shell strength in the high stress areas near the tube sheets. In stagnant or semi stagnant areas the fluid velocities are. Sediments in slurries aggregate in the low velocity areas. A common location of semi stagnant fluid zones in shell and tube heat exchanger is the region on the shell side between the tube sheet and the inlet and outlet nozzles (fig. Excess clearance of the baffles in the shell will certainly facilitate loading the tube bundle in the shell during
.4 STAGNANT AREAS (1) Disappointing heat exchanger thermal performance often arises from the creation of stagnant areas in the fluid – flow circuits. zero or negligibly low. The obvious effect is that with low fluid velocity area for heat transfer is not effectively utilized.19). The consequences are often very serious. They fail to add extension to the calculated tube length to compensate for the “dead area”. by definitions. The existence of some low velocity regions on the shell side near the ends of the tubes is then virtually inescapable but is frequently overlooked by inexperienced thermal designers.
In lower diagram the bundle has been reversed. so that little of the fluid actually traverses the tube bundle. Excessive clearance of the tube holes will greatly facilitate construction. The effectiveness of the tube bundle is reduced by as much as 40 percent. In figure upper diagram shows the tube bundle correctly installed.
(a) Stagnant areas
fig. but again will result in a proportion of the fluid not passing through the tube bundle as intended.the construction. 19 (a) correct (b) incorrect placement of the tube bundle in shell and tube heat exchanger
. It is immediately clear that the compartments between the tube sheets and the first and last baffles are completely stagnant and virtually useless for heat transfer. However. that clearance will lead to substantial bypassing of the fluid at the periphery of the baffle.
1 INTRODUCTION (2) Most process application involve fluids that form some type of adhering film or scale on to the surface onto the inside or outside of the tube wall separating the two systems. Yet the general practice is to “throw in” a fouling factor. Although there are deposits on the clean tube or the bundle. the design practice is to attempt to compensate for the reduction in heat transfer through these deposits by considering them as resistance to heat transfer. These deposits may vary in nature (brittle.003 the total ends up with effective coefficient of 180. but a unit with clean
. This can be disastrous to an otherwise good technical evaluation of the expected performance of the unit. the metal surface (steel copper. These resistances or fouling factors have not been accurately determined for many fluids and metal combinations. nickel) as it affects the adherence of the deposit and the fluid velocity as it flows over the deposit or else moves the material at such a velocity to reduce the scaling or fouling. thermal conductivity. which affects the deposits. ease of removal etc. Actually considerable attention has to be given to such value as the temperature range. gummy). texture thickness. The percentage effect of the fouling factor on the effective overall heat transfer coefficient is considerable more on units with the normally high value of the clean unfouled coefficient than for one of low value. For example an unit with clean overall HTC of 400 when corrected for 0.6 FOULING
20). 20 Effect of fouling resistance on transfer rates (2)
. shows an effective coefficient of 50.003 fouling allowance.5 as shown in the graph (Fig.
Fig.coefficient of 60. when corrected for 0.
the engineer can determine when the condition will approach that time when cleaning of exchanger will be required. 0. 21 Graph for prediction of fouling and HTC as a function of velocity over a period of time (2)
The above (fig.0825
After 6 Months Clean
U 3.F.5 4.182
5.21) working chart presents a plot of actual operating Ua values to allow projection back to infinity and to establish the base fouling factor after the operating elapsed time.125
8 After 16 Months
0. U. These values are predominantly for the petroleum operations.286 0. As the value of B or the fouling factor increases with time. Gas flows are used because usually gas film controls in a gas – liquid exchanger.04 0.F. although portions of the table are applicable to general use and to petrochemical process.02 0.
Gas outside tubes 500 100 50 30 Flow Rate 20 17 15 Gas inside tubes
Fig. Fouling factors are suggested by TEMA in table below. The flow rate inside or outside the tubes is plotted against the overall heat transfer coefficient.
GUIDE TO FOULING RESISTANCES (2)
Fouling resistance for Industrial fluids Oils: Fuel oil Quench oil Gases and vapors: Steam (non oil – bearing) Compressed air Ammonia vapor Chlorine vapor Coal flue gas Liquids: Refrigerant liquids Ammonia liquid (oil – bearing) Co2 liquid Chlorine liquid Fouling resistances for chemical processing streams Gases and vapors: Acid gases Solvent vapors Liquids: MEA and DEA solutions Caustics solutions Vegetable oils Fouling resistance for natural gasoline processing stream Gases and vapors: Natural gas Overhead products Liquids: Rich oil Natural gasoline Crude and vacuum liquids: Gasoline Kerosene Light gas oil Heavy gas oil 0.002 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.002
.002 0.001 0.010
0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.004
0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.005 0.001 0.001 0.
As a rule the fouling factors are applied without correcting for the inside diameter to outside diameter.
.that is. This value must be determined with considerable examinations of the fouling range. Unless a fabricator is guaranteeing the performance of the exchanger in a specific process service they cannot and most likely will not accept the responsibility for the fouling effects on the heat transfer surface. both inside and the outside of the tubes and by determining the effects of these have on the surface area requirements. a correction is made to convert all values to the outside surface of the tube. The fouling factors are applied as a part of the overall HTC to both the inside and the outside of the heat transfer surface using the factors that apply to the appropriate material or fluid. the inside or the outside tubes.6. Also see fig.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS (2) Fig. To fouling resistance of significant magnitude. Sometimes only one factor is selected to represent both sides of the transfer fouling film or scales. Unless the specific plant/equipment data represents fouling in question. U.23. Therefore. Fouling can be generally kept to minimum provided the proper and general cleaning of the surface takes place. because these differences are not known. In the tables the representative or typical fouling resistances are referenced to the surface of the exchanger on which the fouling occurs . Just a large unit may not be the proper answer. to any degree of accuracy. the owner must expect to specify a value to use in the thermal design of the equipment.22 shows data on some fluids showing the effects of velocity and temperature. It is not wise to keep changing the estimated fouling to achieve the specific overall HTC. the estimates listed in table are the reasonable starting point.
Co Cracking Coil
Pa ra f
t hal Asp
CaSO4 .ro or ri
-3 2° F
Fouling resistance offered by various substances
0.06 Thickness of layer .P .10
Fouling factors as a function of time & temperature
Fouling Resistance ..04
. Similarly. respectively.6. the so called fouling factors Rf and Rfo. Such detailed process is not involved in determining the fouling resistance. The uncertainty is such that one simply includes arbitrary values of the fouling factor selected from the sources based on the experience. This can be individually represented in terms of thermal resistances. The summation of individual resistances is the total thermal resistance and its inverse is the overall HTC. Reynolds and Grashof numbers. U.
It is customary in design work for the heat transfer coefficient ho and hi to be determined from complicated relations involving the Nusselt. the less confidence one will have in the eventual result. The less experience on has. 1 = 1 + Ao 1 + Rfo + Ao Rfi + Rw U ho Ai hi Ai Where. That is. U = overall heat transfer coefficient based on outside area of tube wall A = area of tube wall h = convective heat transfer coefficient Rf = thermal resistance due to fouling Rw = thermal resistance due to wall conduction and suffixes ‘i’ and ‘o’ refer to the inner and outer tubes.3 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT ‘U’ (2) In a heat exchanger the process of heat transfer from hot fluid to cold fluid involves various conductive and convective process. the thermal resistance is determined from calculations involving properties and dimensions of the material of the tube walls. Prandtl.
Thus. There is therefore a substantial time lapse before the heat exchanger fouling resistance approaches the design value arbitrarily selected from some experience based source. D and E all share a lengthy incubation or induction period in which there is little or no build up of fouling resistance. The family of curves C. When first put into service. 24
years. perhaps may elapse before it arrives at the condition where it can no longer perform adequately and must be cleaned. Of course it does not do this. when the heat exchanger is new. followed by a rapidly increasing build up. the available temperature difference may be so great as to carry the process into the film
. the fouling resistance is the principal resistance. the heat exchanger will operate with a reduced thermal resistance and therefore with surplus of heat transfer area.6. In many cases involving boiling. which then develops at constant rate with time. but instead deteriorates
Time C A B D E
progressively. Curve A describes a process starting with clean surfaces having zero fouling resistance. the new heat exchanger instantaneously deteriorates to the fouled condition.4 FOULING AS A FUNCTION OF TIME (1) The assumption of constant values for the internal and the external fouling factors implies that.
Fig. The build up of fouling resistance as a function of time may follow various forms as indicated in fig. Curve B describes a process where the fouling resistance develops at a progressively diminishing rate.
time. when put in service.24.
In other cases the new heat exchanger with zero fouling resistance may be so effective as to overcool the process stream. 6. 3. Precipitation or scaling fouling : Precipitation on hot surfaces or due to inverse solubility. To compensate the cooling water flow may be reduced. 4. with the result that the water velocity is decreased and the water temperature increased. quite likely it has the reverse effect. 5. Particulate or scaling fouling : Suspended particles settle on heat transfer surface. Solidification fouling : Liquid and/or components in liquid solution solidify on tube surface.5 MECHANISMS OF FOULING (1) Various mechanisms of fouling have been recognized and can be categorized as follows: 1. The excess area has the reduced flow velocities and elevated temperatures.
. Both these factors are highly conducive to fouling on the water – side. Corrosion fouling : corrosion products produced by a reaction between fluid and the heat transfer surface and tube surface becomes fouled.boiling region. Chemical reaction fouling : Deposits formed by chemical reaction in the fluid systems. with the possibility of enhanced surface corrosion and consequent accelerated development of fouling resistance. 2. so the exchanger deteriorates in performance at drastic rates. The provision of excess allowance for fouling or an excess heat transfer area “just to be on the safe side” does not automatically increase the interval before cleaning is necessary.
Cooling processes without phase change also results in appreciable fouling as a result of particulate deposition.6 EFFECTS OF SURFACE MATERIAL AND STRUCTURE (1) By the time the fouling deposit has covered most of the surface. condensing or heat transfer without phase change. the primary effect is during the incubation or the induction period. stainless – steel and brass surfaces exposed to brackish water streams under constant flow conditions.
Fouling occurs to some extent in all systems where liquids. principally inverse solubility crystallization and chemical reactions occurs on hot surfaces in heating process without phase change. the material and the finish of the wall has become irrelevant. gases and vapors are being heated or cooled. sedimentation and chemical reaction.6. The process may involve boiling. The figure shows typical fouling resistance development histories during the induction period for carbonsteel. The greatest source of fouling. Polished surfaces resist the growth of fouling deposits but are highly susceptible to corrosive action that roughens the surface and increase the
. Biological fouling : Biological organisms attach to heat transfer surface and build a surface to prevent good fluid contact with the tube surface. 25
process responsible for initial fouling. 6. Different materials have different
catalytic actions with various fluids and may promote or inhibit the reactive
6. as shown by the typical
Fig. With reduced fouling there will also be a decrease in the maintenance requirements and cost.7 EFFECT OF FLUID VELOCITY There is much evidence
suggesting fluid velocity as the most important parameter affecting fouling. Doubling the fluid velocity from a low value may halve the fouling resistance. Improperly cleaned heat exchangers with residual fouling deposits on the surface will degrade by fouling more readily than those restored to the “as new” clean condition.potential crystallization sites. an increase in velocity decreases both the rate of fouling deposit formation and the ultimate level attained. Doubling the fluid velocity increases the pressure drop by four times. 26
development histories given by fig.
. However. However it must be recalled that the pressure drop is a function of the square of the fluid velocity. the second doubling requires an increase to four times the original velocity and gains only a reduction of one quarter the original thermal resistance. Improvement tends to be at progressively diminishing rate. Doubling it again may halve the remaining resistance. In addition to decreasing the fouling. the higher velocity increases the heat-transfer coefficients so that a double – barraled reduction in the size and cost of the heat exchanger might be anticipated. increasing both the capital cost and operating cost of the pumping. In most cases.
Of course the pressure drop and cost of pumping increases as the square of the fluid velocity.8 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE Temperature has a pronounced effect on fouling that can be
generalized as shown in fig. with consequent high fouling. are strongly dependent on temperature. Therefore an increase in the rate of deposition with no increase in removal will result in a higher ultimate stable level.
. 6. Because high velocity is important to minimize fouling.28(a). If the shell side mass flow were the same in both exchangers. 27
the surface temperature and the fluid bulk temperature. which explains the increase in fouling rate. it is clear that the baffle arrangement shown in fig. Temperature refers to either or both of
Fig. On the shell side.6. baffle designs and tube arrangements are influenced by fouling and cleaning considerations. (b) would be much greater than that in fig.side flow. The rate of development of fouling resistance and the ultimate stable level both increase as the temperature increases. would lead to many stagnant areas in the shell . the velocity in fig.28(a). The rates of chemical and inverse crystallization including catalytic effects. The rate of removal of fouling deposits is less a function of temperature than fluid velocity.28(b) has fewer stagnant areas and a longer mean flow path.9 EFFECT OF BAFFLE & TUBE PATTERN (1) The relative propensity to fouling and the ease with which cleaning can be accomplished are important factors in selecting the type of exchanger for a given application. The baffle arrangement shown in fig.
Of course their may be other compelling reasons to override this general rule. Exchangers likely to require periodic cleaning on the shell side should therefore have square tube arrangements.sheet ligaments of triangular arrangements.Tubes are generally arranged in the triangular in the triangular or square pattern shown in fig.
Fig. so as to increase the tube count or take advantage of the stronger tube . Triangular arrangements allow for inclusion of the greatest number of tubes in a given shell diameter and for the strongest tube-sheet ligaments. 29 Triangular and square pitch pattern
. However they are much difficult to clean with mechanical scrapers and brushes than square tube arrangements. 28 Baffle designs affecting fluid velocity at the creation of stagnant areas
10 PRACTICAL FOULING FACTORS (2) It is customary for the purchaser to specify the fouling resistance used in the thermal design of the exchanger. The exposition will do little to increase user's confidence in the value of the fouling resistance marked on the exchanger specifications sheets.6. however they should have a clearer understanding of the uncertainties prevailing in the specifications. based on past experience with similar equipment under equivalent conditions.
. These are the most reliable data. the indiscriminate application of these factors to equipment larger in size and the operating under more arduous conditions is of questionable validity. The uncertainty increases the more one departs from past experience. Many users have their own private collection of fouling factors. However.
The higher the value of ‘U’. Q = Total heat transfer U = overall heat transfer coefficient (HTC) ∆Tm = Log mean temperature difference A = Area of heat transfer 7. This is impossible to achieve with co – current operation. ∆Tm ) Where. A = Q / (U . while the heat receiving fluid is heated up from 40oC to 120oC or more. lesser will be the area required for heat transfer.e. (th – tc) throughout the heat exchanger is constant.7 ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN HEAT EXCHANGER
7. at say. Since in counter current mode of operation the hottest inflow faces the warmest out flow. This area required is directly proportional to the energy required for pumping of the fluid and pressure drop.1 INTRODUCTION Fouling factor plays a major role in overall HTC of heat exchanger. 150oC and leaving the exchanger at 80oC.2 MODE OF OPERATION (4) It is always feasible with counter current heat exchangers to have a heat donating fluid entering the heat exchanger. It decides the area required for heat transfer. By and large the efficiency of such heat exchanger is directly proportional to their length and the surface area of calendria. the vale of ∆T i.
Co – current operation is used. 7. 2.44 0.75 0. When the temperature of the heat donating fluid leaving the heat exchanger is lower than the temperature of the heat receiving fluid leaving the heat exchanger.e. When it is necessary to transfer as much as heat possible from heat donating fluid to the heat receiving fluid.
Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Fluids (4) Material Aluminum Copper Iron Magnesium Silver Zinc Thermal Conductivity W/moK at 20oC 237 166 147 159 427 115 Material Water Toluene Petrol Oil Glycerol Air Thermal Conductivity W/moK at 20oC 1. thermal conductivness of fluids are remarkably poor compared with those of metals.025
It is therefore necessary to ensure that the fluids in heat exchangers move turbulently i.967 0.97 0. 3.
. liquid molecules flow along in a parallel fashion & in consequence. in such a fashion that constant mixing occurs.47 0. 1. As table below shows.3 FLUID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS (4) In a stream line flow. heat transfer from the center of the fluid to the walls of heat exchanger tubes proceed by conduction only. When the difference in the temperature between the fluid is less.
is the pressure drop or pumping cost. D = Diameter of pipe containing fluid (m) v = velocity of fluid (m/s) ρ = Density of the fluid (Kg/m3) µ = Viscosity of fluid (Kg/m. by forcing the fluids through it at higher velocities thereby increasing the overall heat transfer coefficient. The size of the heat exchanger can be reduced. NRe = Dvρ µ Where. Turbulence can be inducted in a fluid if the Reynolds number exceeds about 2000. one can accept that the entire body of the fluid has the same temperature because of the turbulence. the smaller diameter pipe may involve less initial (capital) cost but definitely higher pumping cost for the life of heat exchanger. For a given flow rate.
. The only conduction heat transfer needed is across the boundary layer.s) 7. The selection of optimum pipe size also has a bearing on the pumping cost. But higher velocities will result in larger pressure drops and corresponding larger pumping costs.When turbulent motion occurs. It is known that the pressure drop of an incompressible fluids flowing through pipes and fittings is ∆p ∝ m2 Where m is the mass flow rate.4 PRESSURE DROP AND PUMPING POWER (7) Apart from heat transfer requirements an important consideration in heat exchange design.
Since the pumping cost increases tremendously with the higher velocities.
A – overall HTC B – Pumping Power C – Pressure drop D – Fouling factor
Above graph (fig. Power = v dp = (m/ρ) ∆p ~ m3
So the power requirement is proportional to the cube of the mass flow rate of the fluid and it may be further increased by dividing it by pump (fan or compressor) efficiency. C
. Hence optimization helps in cutting the annual cost and conserving energy.
A. with At increased fluid will
Annual Cost D
velocities.The power requirement to pump fluid in steady state is given by.30) explains that at higher fluid velocity fouling will be reduced but will require higher pumping power and higher pressure overall drops HTC. a compromise between the larger overall HTC and corresponding velocities will have to be made. 30 Optimization for fluid velocity
Hence optimization is done where a velocity of fluid is decided which will give economical pressure drops and heat transfer. since higher annual cost is directly related to higher energy requirements.
reduce and reduce pressure drop. B.
Fig. but with less overall HTC and higher fouling factor.
they are compressed as they travel the length. 31 (a)
The basic principle of cleaning with sponge rubber balls is to frequently wipe clean the inside of the tube while the unit is in operation. they distribute themselves in a homogeneous fashion.7. This constant rubbing action keeps the walls clean and virtually free from deposits. They travel the length of the tube forced by the pressure differential between the inlet and the outlet. They are available in various degrees of resiliency. The balls are selected in accordance with the installation. while bacterial fouling is wiped quickly away. depending on requirement. The ball's surface allows a certain amount of water to follow through the area of contact with the wall. their specific gravity being nearly equal to that of cooling media.
. Since the balls are slightly larger in diameter than the tube. Therefore. flushing away accumulated deposits ahead of the ball. Pits do not form as deposits are prevented.5 RUBBER BALL CLEANING (5)
Fig. Thus suspended solids are kept moving and not allowed to settle.
Here the effect is gentle souring that removes the scale slowly but steadily. although some modifications of piping or unit design may be required. The slight increase in pumping resistance due to pressure drop across the screening device is more than offsets by the reduction in fouling resistance in the heat exchanger tubes. These cleaning systems can be retrofitted into most existing heat exchangers.injection nozzles to ensure that the balls are uniformly distributed. 31 (b)
The balls are circulated in closed loop. A filter prevents solid debris from entering the water box of the heat exchanger. The number required for a particular service is a function of the number of cooling tubes. some wear occurs so that the balls must be eventually replaced. They are then rerouted through the collector back to the condenser ball . until the tube is ready to be maintained by the normal sponge-rubber ball.
. including the heat exchanger as shown in fig. Naturally.
Fig.transfer efficiency climbs steadily throughout this treatment. the balls can be counted or checked for size. At the collector unit. The most effective way to take advantage of these systems is for its installation at the design stage.An abrasive coated ball is also available for situations where the cooling water tubes have already been heavily fouled. Heat . At the discharge end they are caught in a screen installed directly in the line.
fewer outages and reduction or elimination of cleaning chemicals. 32 Before and after use of rubber ball cleaning
A typical case is shown in the "Before and "After" graphs (Fig. it was proved that the continuous system was highly economical and produced superior performance over manual cleaning.49 in. Continuous cleaning and filtering systems maintain a high level of heat exchanger efficiency.65 in. When the cleaning was restarted. it is flushed as need without shutting down or bypassing the filter. After extensive testing.Located in the cooling water inlet. After 1. An instance involved stainless steel tubing. the tube cleaning system was taken out of service for testing purposes.32). Continuous cleaning gives 17% better performance than manual cleaning.
. The ball cleaning scheme results in fuel saving.800 hr of operations. Hg. Hg and the cleanliness factor dropped from 98 to 81%. During a month of operations without cleaning.
Examples of continuous tube cleaning
Fig. where the rubber system maintained a cleanliness factor and a backpressure of 1. the heat exchanger back – pressure climbed to 1. the original backpressure and the cleanliness was recovered in 10 days.
each fluid passes through alternate channels).2 Pumping cost In the fig.6 PLATE OVER TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGER (5)
7. are of the following relationship: NNu = (0. the plate heat exchanger produces higher film coefficient than does a tubular unit (considering the flow inside the tube). Some of these have been highly successful in particular fields of application.6. The plates are corrugated so that the very high degree of turbulence is achieved.1 Introduction The continuous search for greater economy and efficiency has led to the development of many different types of heat exchanger. Plate heat exchangers are by far the best in this respect.
. it can be seen that for a given energy loss (HP / unit area). One of the most widely used plates.333 ( µ / µw)0. Briefly. the question of pumping should be considered.6. other than the popular
Fig. When accessing various heat exchanger types.15
7. since these will probably represent by far the greatest of the operating costs.7.668 NPr0. 33
shell and tube. with nominal gaps ranging from 2 to 5 mm.374) NRe0. Plates are spaced close together. a plate heat exchanger consists of number of corrugated metal sheets provided with gaskets and corner portals (to achieve the desired flow arrangement.
Fig. Since the plate is necessarily of a material not subject to massive corrosion (being relatively thin). Extreme simplicity of cleaning. 4. 3. 2. a mirror finish may be available. 5.
. The small hold up volume and very large turbulence in plate heat exchanger (plus the absence of dead spaces) mean that the chemical cleaning methods are rapid and effective. as in case of shell and tube. For some types. maintain solids in suspension. deposits of corrosion products to which fouling can adhere are absent. 35 Performance of plate heat exchanger
7.3 Fouling factors in plate heat exchangers Fouling factors required in plate heat exchangers are small compared to those commonly used in shell and tube designs for six reasons: 1. No dead spaces where fluid can stagnate. High degree of turbulence. 6. 34 Advantages of PHE over tubular heat exchanger
Fig. High film coefficients tend to lead to lower surface temperature for the cold fluid (the cold fluid is the culprit as far as fouling is concerned).6. Heat transfer surfaces are smooth.
36 Heliflow Heat Exchanger
The Graham Heliflow is a unique type of shell and tube heat exchanger. The tubes in the Heliflow are arranged in parallel. starting with an inlet manifold on one end. Each tube is in close contact with the tube above and below it. The spiral pattern also promotes turbulence.7.7. and terminating at an outlet manifold on the opposite end. leading to increased heat transfer rates. providing 100% true countercurrent-flow design. the shell side fluid is forced to circulate in a spiral pattern.7 ADVANCES IN HEAT EXCHANGER TECHNOLOGY 7. The coiled tube bundle is fit into a two – piece casing. When the casing is tightened. Because of the tight fit. In addition. The unique arrangement of the Heliflow Heat Exchanger creates spiral flow paths for both tubeside and shellside fluids. The tube bundle is wound into a helical pattern. it is designed to slightly compress the tubes. which is created by the open spaces between the coils.1 Spiral tube heat exchanger (9)
Fig. there are no baffles or dead spaces that lead to inefficiencies commonly found in other types of
. This coiled construction creates a spiral flow path for the fluid inside the coil.
With the casing removed. ceilings. The service life of a Heliflow varies with the application. No gaskets are required for the tube side of the Heliflow. Many units have been in operation for well over 40 years. Smaller surface requirements. Originally built for use in boiler sample cooling over 60 years ago. With higher heat transfer efficiencies. The spring-like coil of the Heliflow reduces stresses caused by thermal expansion of the tube material. nozzles. You can mount a Heliflow on columns. Once the casing is removed. which allows inspection of both the entire tube bundle and shellside of the exchanger. walls. No gaskets on the tube side will minimize the chance of leakage. the surface area required is normally less than a straight shell and tube. and the coiled tube design result in a very compact unit. Aggressive fluids are often placed tube side for this reason.shell and tube exchangers. but its many features add to its reliability when compared to a shell and tube exchanger. The casing of the unit can be removed without disturbing any of the piping connections. or in-line. Heliflow can do the job for you in a fraction of the space required by typical straight shell and tube exchangers. The net result is a Heliflow Heat Exchanger that is up to 40% more efficient than a standard shell and tube. certain sizes require no support. there are thousands of Graham Heliflow heat exchangers being used today in hundreds of services. Access space required for maintenance or inspection is very small compared to straight shell and tube exchangers. the entire tube bundle is exposed for inspection. A Heliflow is easy to maintain. the shellside of the unit can easily be cleaned in place.
. The only space required for a Heliflow is to remove the casing.
Since that time. a chemical plant in the United States compared for their severely fouling application a conventional solution versus the installation of self – cleaning heat exchangers. The result of this comparison is also shown in table 1.7. several generations of technological advancements have made the modern self-cleaning heat exchanger the best solution for most severely fouling liquids. 37(B) Self cleaning heat exchanger with widened outlet channel
Self-cleaning heat exchange technology applying a fluidized bed of particles through the tubes of a vertical shell and tube exchanger was developed in the early 1970s for sea – water desalination service.
. In the 90s.7.2 Fluidized bed heat exchanger (10)
Fig. 37(A) Self cleaning heat exchanger with Cyclone
the self-cleaning heat exchangers still have not been cleaned. Solid particles are also fed at the inlet where an internal flow distribution system provides a uniform distribution of the liquid and suspended particles
. These improvements and developments leading to new and very interesting applications will be discussed in the next paragraphs. which can benefit from this unique self-cleaning heat exchange technology.100 kW 12
As could be expected. The fouling liquid is fed upward through a vertical shell and tube exchanger that has specially designed inlet and outlet channels.600 m2 840 kW 0
24.Table: Comparison of self cleaning heat exchanger v/s conventional heat exchanger (10) SELF – CLEANING HEAT EXCHANGER CONVENTIONAL HEAT EXCHANGER
Heat transfer surface Pumping power Number of cleanings per year
Principles of Operation The principle of operation with respect to the original configuration of the self-cleaning heat exchanger employing an external down comer is shown in figure 1. During operation. the expectations for the self-cleaning heat exchangers were fully met and even better than that: After 26 months of continuous operation.000 m2 2. plant management decided in favor of the self-cleaning configuration. This striking example of the self-cleaning heat exchange technology and a large number of improvements and new developments have substantially increased the potential applications. but also convinced by a test.
thereby removing any deposit at an early stage of formation. This provides a control of aggressiveness of the cleaning mechanism. By varying the control flow.throughout the internal surface of the bundle. For both configurations. when applied in typically fouling services. Proper attention is required in designing the heat exchangers placed at the hot end of crude oil pre-heat operations where temperatures and velocity thresholds are highly dependent on heat exchanger geometry. It allows the particle circulation to be either continuous or intermittent. it is now possible to control the amount of particles in the tubes. then. The particles are carried through the tubes by the upward flow of liquid where they impart a mild scraping effect on the wall of the heat exchange tubes. within the separator. These particles can be cut metal wire. The helical baffle design
. Now. 7. glass or ceramic balls with diameters varying from 1 to 4 mm. are again returned to the inlet channel through an external downcomer and are recirculated continuously. At the top. the particles disengage from the liquid in a widened outlet channel and. connected to the outlet channel. Three to four times longer run-lengths are achieved between bundle cleaning operations. Figure 2 shows an improved configuration.3 Helixchanger heat exchanger (11) Heat exchanger fouling has been very costly for the industry both in terms of capital costs of heat exchanger banks as well as operation and maintenance costs associated with it. The HELIXCHANGER heat exchanger.7. has proven to be very effective in reducing the fouling rates significantly. the process liquid fed to the exchanger is divided into a main flow and a control flow that sweeps the cleaning particles into the exchanger. the particles disengage from the liquid and are returned to the inlet channel through a downcomer and the cycle is repeated.
the quadrant shaped baffle plates are arranged at an angle to the tube axis in a sequential pattern. Exchanger run lengths are increased by two to three times those achieved using the conventionally baffled shell and tube heat exchangers.
. Heat exchanger performance is maintained at a higher level for longer periods of time with consequent savings in total life cycle costs (TLCC) of owning and operating Helixchanger heat exchanger banks. Helical baffles address the thermodynamics of shell – side flow by reducing the flow dispersion primarily responsible for reducing heat exchanger effectiveness. Uniformly higher flow velocities achieved in a Helixchanger heat exchanger offer enhanced convective heat transfer coefficients. In a Helixchanger heat exchanger. the conventional segmental baffle plates are replaced by quadrant shaped baffles positioned at an angle to the tube axis creating a uniform velocity helical flow through the tube bundle. Near plug flow conditions are achieved in a Helixchanger heat exchanger with little back-flow and eddies. are presented to illustrate the improved performance and economics achieved by employing the Helixchanger heat exchangers. Least dispersion (high Peclet numbers) achieved with the helical baffle arrangements approach that of a plug flow condition resulting in high thermal effectiveness of the heat exchanger.offers great flexibility in selecting the optimum helix angles to maintain the desired flow velocities and temperature profiles to keep the conditions below the “fouling threshold”. Feedback on operating units. In a Helixchanger heat exchanger. Baffle plates act as guide vanes rather than forming a flow channel as in conventionally baffled heat exchangers. creating a helical flow path through the tube bundle.
Fig. In a Helixchanger heat exchanger. ordering longer heat exchanger run-lengths between scheduled cleaning of tube bundles. the quadrant shaped shellside baffle plates are arranged at an angle to the tube axis creating a helical flow pattern on the shellside. provide low fouling characteristics. 39 HTC using helical baffles of various angles
improvements in the fouling behavior of heat exchangers in operation. Uniform velocities and near plug flow conditions achieved in a Helixchanger heat exchanger.
40 Performance of segmental bundles
Fig.Fig. The HELIX bundles are reportedly expected to achieve more than three years of continuous
. 41 Performance of Helix bundles
Although it may be observed from the graphs that the HELIX bundles show marginal improvement in the drop in overall heat transfer coefficient with time in the initial stages. thus increasing the run-length by three times. it has since achieved and sustained an asymptotic level of performance much higher than the performance level achieved in the earlier segmental bundles.
The HELIX bundles have achieved significantly enhanced heat transfer performance and have sustained this performance for a long period of time. Three to four times longer run-length has already been achieved with these bundles.Earlier segmental bundles required two to three times cleaning in this time period.
It is generally seen that even though shell and tube heat exchanger gives less heat transfer for a particular pressure drop than in plate or spiral tube heat exchanger. along with their applications have been given. but still is widely used in Chemical Process Industries. due to its rugged construction and various design and trouble . From energy aspect. and higher will be the efficiency of heat exchanger. more advanced. although not heavily used in industry but in near future. proper cleaning of heat exchangers and regular maintenance to reduce fouling and if possible to avoid corrosion.shooting data available to the designers. where energy resources will become scares and need of highly efficient heat exchangers will be the need of hour. which helps in reducing the fouling or in some cases eliminates fouling. which is the main cause for lower heat transfer in the heat exchanger. along with its causes and prevention have been discussed in this seminar. even if they are having better efficiency. spiral tube heat exchanger and helical shaped baffles. Various types of trouble – shooting and non – ideal behavior of heat exchanger. which is not the case for other type of heat exchangers. lesser will be the wastage of energy.8 CONCLUSION
In this seminar various heat exchanger types.
. Upcoming technologies like the fluidized bed heat exchanger. Lesser the fouling. is needed. complex and compact heat exchangers like mentioned above will be in demand.
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