Cellulitis

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Cellulitis
Classification and external resources

Infected left shin ICD-10 ICD-9 DiseasesDB eMedicine MeSH L03. 682.9 29806 med/310 emerg/88 derm/464 D002481

Cellulitis is a diffuse inflammation[1] of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. Cellulitis can be caused by normal skin flora or by exogenous bacteria, and often occurs where the skin has previously been broken: cracks in the skin, cuts, blisters, burns, insect bites, surgical wounds, or sites of intravenous catheter insertion. Skin on the face or lower legs is most commonly affected by this infection, though cellulitis can occur on any part of the body. The mainstay of therapy remains treatment with appropriate antibiotics, and recovery periods can be anything from 48 hours to six months. Erysipelas is the term used for a more superficial infection of the dermis and upper subcutaneous layer that presents clinically with a well defined edge. Erysipelas and cellulitis often coexist, so it is often difficult to make a distinction between the two.

dry skin. pruritic skin rash. blistering. abrasion. eczema. This break does not need to be visible. Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are the most common of these bacteria.1 Risk factors 3 Diagnosis 4 Treatment 5 In animals 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [edit] Signs and symptoms Infected left shin in comparison to shin with no sign of symptoms The typical symptoms of cellulitis is an area which is red. or break in the skin. [edit] Causes Cellulitis is caused by a type of bacteria entering the skin.Cellulitis is unrelated (except etymologically) to cellulite. athlete's foot. which are part of the normal flora of the skin but cause no actual infection while on the skin's outer surface. recent surgery. hot. tattoos. and tender. usually by way of a cut. animal bite. Predisposing conditions for cellulitis include insect bites. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Causes o 2. It also has nothing in common with gingivitis. a cosmetic condition featuring dimpling of the skin. injecting drugs (especially subcutaneous or intramuscular injection or where an attempted IV injection "misses" or blows .

which causes swelling on the arms and/or legs. Diseases that affect blood circulation in the legs and feet. Immunosuppressive drugs. more serious infection of the inner layers of skin. The appearance of the skin will assist a doctor in determining a diagnosis. a wound culture or other tests to help rule out a blood clot deep in the veins of the legs. . pain and swelling (inflammation). Chickenpox and shingles often result in blisters that break open. It represents an extreme medical emergency. they are especially prone to cellulitis in the feet because the disease causes impairment of blood circulation in the legs leading to diabetic foot/foot ulcers. pregnancy. nursing homes and homeless shelters. though there is debate as to whether minor foot lesions contribute. Once below the skin. Diabetics are more susceptible to cellulitis than the general population because of impairment of the immune system. also called by the media "flesh-eating bacteria. the infection can spread to the deep layer of tissue called the fascial lining.This can result in flu like symptoms with a high temperature and sweating or feeling very cold with shaking as the sufferer cannot get warm. Cellulitis is also extremely prevalent among dense populations sharing hygiene facilities and common living quarters. providing a gap in the skin through which bacteria can enter. as well as burns and boils. the bacteria can spread rapidly. and other illnesses or infections that weaken the immune system are also factors that make infection more likely. such as warmth. Poor control of blood glucose levels allows bacteria to grow more rapidly in the affected tissue and facilitates rapid progression if the infection enters the bloodstream. such as military installations. In rare cases. can also put an individual at risk. college dormitories. The photos shown here of Cellulitis are of mild cases and are not representative of earlier stages of the disease. diabetes and obesity. Neural degeneration in diabetes means these ulcers may not be painful and thus often become infected. Necrotizing fasciitis. Usually the itch and/or rash appears a little after it vanishes leaving only a small mark which is commonly ignored. A doctor may also suggest blood tests. Cellulitis in the lower leg is characterized by signs and symptoms that may be similar to those of a clot occurring deep in the veins. which can affect circulation. This reddened skin or rash may signal a deeper. entering the lymph nodes and the bloodstream and spreading throughout the body.the vein)." is an example of a deeplayer infection. [edit] Risk factors The elderly and those with immunodeficiency (a weakened immune system) are especially vulnerable to contracting cellulitis. are also risk factors for cellulitis. Lymphedema. such as chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Occurrences of cellulitis may also be associated with the rare condition Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

As in other maladies characterized by wounds or tissue destruction. then this course is usually combined with oral phenoxymethylpenicillin or intravenous benzylpenicillin. but is not widely available. Standard treatments for cellulitis are not sufficient for curing Lyme disease. or ampicillin/amoxicillin (e. Because the characteristic bullseye rash does not always appear in patients infected with Lyme disease. hyperbaric oxygen treatment can be a valuable adjunctive therapy. Pain relief is also often prescribed. When it occurs with acne conglobata. which can be diagnosed with a compression leg ultrasound. Blood cultures usually are positive only if the patient develops generalized sepsis. which is recommended during warm months in areas where the disease is endemic. which is inflammation of the skin from poor blood flow. but excessive pain should always be investigated as it is a symptom of necrotising fasciitis. cutting away dead tissue. co-amoxiclav in the UK). Conditions that may resemble cellulitis include deep vein thrombosis.or strepinduced cellulitis. the similar set of symptoms may be misdiagnosed as cellulitis. Associated musculoskeletal findings are sometimes reported.g. which requires emergency surgical attention. but in more moderate cases.[edit] Diagnosis Cellulitis is most often a clinical diagnosis. and antibiotics (either oral or intravenous).[5][6] .[3] [edit] Treatment Treatment consists of resting the affected area. hidradenitis suppurativa. or where streptococcal infection is suspected.[2] There have been many cases where Lyme disease has been misdiagnosed as staph.[4] Flucloxacillin or Dicloxacillin monotherapy (to cover staphylococcal infection) is often sufficient in mild cellulitis. and stasis dermatitis. and local cultures do not always identify the causative organism. and pilonidal cysts. the syndrome is referred to as the follicular occlusion triad or tetrad. The only way to rule out Lyme disease is with a blood test.