Comprehension precedes learning.  Learner¶s existing state of knowledge. Language learning is an active process  How much learners have to think ± to use their cognitive capacities and knowledge of the world to make sense of the flow of the new information. .Second language learning is a developmental process.

Language learning is a decision-making process.  But the process of the developing and using a network of knowledge relies upon a train of learners decisions. Language learning is not just a matter of linguistic knowledge  Teaching must respect both levels of the learners¶ state .

Language learning is not the learners· first experience with language. Learning is an emotional experience  To develop the positive emotions as opposed to the negative ones .

while you are thinking about something else. Language learning is not systematic. . Laying out information in a systematic way will not guarantee learning.Language learning is to a large extent incidental You can learn language incidentally.

GAPS Exploitation to a number of techniques TYPES OF GAPS: Information gaps Media gaps Reasoning gaps Memory gaps Jigsaw gaps Opinion gaps Certainty gaps .

Builds learner confidence.Variety The spice of learning Prediction Matter of using an existing knowledge of a pattern or system in order to anticipate what is likely in a novel situation. Gives students an ego investments. . Activates the learner·s mind and prepares it for learning. Enables the teacher to discover where the gaps in knowledge are.

if it is bores the learners.Enjoyment Simplest of all ways of engaging the learner¶s mind. . An Integrated Methodology Using a range of skills greatly increases the range of abilities possible in the classroom. it is a bad lesson.

Coherence Preparation Preparing the learners to learn Involvement Asking questions. Participation of the students .

relationship of the teacher and the student.Creativity Atmosphere Some intangible factors that affect the learning e. interest of the students .g.

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