Right to Rule of Law-Tamil

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rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rpf;fhd cupik


Right to Rule of Law

Discussion Materials compiled by NDI for the
District Multi stake holder forums on Constitution
and Peaceful Co-Existence
















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Content
1. Rule of law research paper
2. Law and democracy
3. Constitutionalism and Constitution
4. Constitutional Democracy
5. Declaration of Delhi on the Rule of law in a Free society
6. Basic principles on the independence of Judiciary
7. Judicial independence and financial Disclosure
8. Code of conduct for Law enforcement officials
9. Guidelines on the role of prosecutors
10. Basic principles on the use of fire arms by law enforcement officials

11. Basic principles on the role of lawyers
12. Educating Communities about how to be policed in a democracy

13. Introduction on the policing in South Asian Countries
14. Police reform in Sri Lanka
15. Police Accountability
16. Forced displacement and housing land and property ownership
challenges in post conflict and reconstruction







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rl;lg;gb Ml;rpf;fhd cupik

A. rl;lg;gb Ml;rpf;fhd tiutpyf;fzk;

gy Mz;Lfshf rl;l tuyhw;W Mrpupau;fspd; Mu;tq;fis> rl;lg;gb Ml;rp vd;why;
vd;d? mjd; %yhjhukhd ngWkhdq;fs; vd;gd <u;j;Js;sd. rl;lg;gb Ml;rpiag;
gw;wp tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;Jtjpy; gy rl;l nfhs;ifapayhsu;fSk;> vOj;jhsu;fSk;
fUj;Jf; $wNth my;yJ tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jNth Kad;wNghjpYk; 19Mk;
E}w;whz;by; tho;e;j Nguhrpupau; V.tp.ilrp mtu;fNs ,e;j vz;zf;fU njhlu;ghf
njspthd tpsf;fj;ij toq;fpa NghjpYk;> gpw;fhyj;jpa nfhs;ifahsu;fshy; mtuJ
fz;Nzhl;lq;fs; fLikahf tpku;rpf;fg;gl;ld.

a) ilrpapd; rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rp

ilrpiag; nghUj;jstpy; rl;lg;gb Ml;rp %d;W mu;j;jq;fisf; nfhz;lJ.

1. gutyhd jw;WzpG mjpfhuq;fis itj;jpUf;Fk; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fSf;F jdp
egu; fs; cl;gLjy; $lhJ. MfNt> rl;lg;gb Ml;rpf;fhd mbg;gil> vy;yh
mjpfhuq; fSNk cj;jpNahfg+u;tkhfNth my;yJ VjhtJ rl;luPjpahd mbg; giliaf;
nfhz; bUf;fNth Ntz;Lk;. gutyhd jw;WzpG mjpfhuq;fs;> mjpfhu
J\;gpuNahfj;ijNa Kd;ndLg;Gr; nra;Ak;. Vnddpy; nghJ cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs;>
epahakw;w tifapy; my;yJ jdpg;gl;l ed;ikf;fhf mjidg; gad;gLj;jyhk; vd
mtu; fUjpdhu;.

2. rkj;Jtk; vdg;gLk; vz;zj;ij rl;lg;gb Ml;rp cs;slf;FfpwJ. ,q;F mtu;
ehl;bd; rhjhuz ePjpkd;wq;fshy; gupghypf; fg;gLk; xNu khjpupahd rl;lj;Jf;F rfy
tFg;ghu;fSk; rkkhfNt cl;gLj;jg;gLtu; vd typAWj;Jfpd;whu;. cau;kl;l cj;jp
Nahfj;ju;fspypUe;J fPo;kl;lk; tiuapyhd cj;jpNahfj;ju;tiu ve;jnthU
gpui[f;fhfTk; rl;luPjpahd epahag;gLj;jYld; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; xt;nthU
nraYf;Fk; xNu khjpupahd nghWg;igf; nfhz;Ls;sdu;.

3. ilrpapd; rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rp> jdpg;gl;l vOj;J%y murpay; ahg;Gf; FwpaPl;il
cs;slf;fpapUf;ftpy;iy. rl;lj;jpd; Kd;dhy; jdpg;gl;l egu;fspd; cupikfis
jPu;khdpg;gjw;fhf nfhz;L tug;gLk;NghJ eP jpkd;wj;jpd; KbTfshf mikfpd;witNa
murpay;ahg;Gr; rl;lnkd mtu; ek;gpdhu; .

vt;thwhapDk; ,jidj;njhlu;e;J tpy;ypak; nuhg;rd; kw;Wk; Itu; n[dpq;];
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MfpNahuhy; vOjg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fshy; ; ilrpapd; vz;zq;fs; tpku;rdj;Jf;F
cs;shfpd. ilrpapd; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpapd; tbtikg;gpypUe;J gy gpur;rpidfs;
Njhd;Wfpd;wd.














gpur;rpidfs; / fye;Jiuahly; tplaq;fs;

 muRf;Nfh my;yJ murhq;fj;Jf;Nfh gutyhd jw;WzpG mjpfhuq;fis xg;gilg;gJ
J\;gpuNahfj;Jf;Fk; CoYf;Fk; jtpu;f;f KbahjthW topaikf;Fk; vd;w fUj;ij
ilrp epuhfupj;jhu;. MapDk; eyNdhk;Gjy; kw;Wk; r%f Nritfis toq;Ftjpy; etPd
murhq;fq;fspd; gq;F tpupthf;fg;gl;lJld;
(Rfhjhuk;>fy;tp>tPlikg;G>njhlu;ghly;>ifj;njhopy;fs; Nghd;wit) rl;lj; ijAk;
xOq;ifAk; NgZk; mjd; ghuk;gupa njhopw;ghl;Lf;F Nkyjpf khfTk; ghJfhg;G kw;Wk;
ntsptptfhuq;fis Kfhikg;gLj;jTk; Nkyjpfkhf kf;fSf;F gaDWjpAk;
tpidj;jpwdhd NritiaAk; toq;Ftjw;fhf epiwNtw;Wk; gpupTf;F ([dhjpgjpf;F)
NkYk; NkYk; jw;WzpG mjpfhuq;fis toq;FtJ mtrpakhFk;. ,jid ePq; fs;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwPu;fsh?
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rl;lg;gb Ml;rpAk; mjd; cs;shu;e;j ngWkhdq;fSk; - khwpf;nfhz;bUf;Fk; murpay; ahg;G. n[g;up
N[hty;> 6Mk; gjpg;G 2007 - 6 Mk; gf;fk; ghu;f;f





























































 ehl;bd; mbg;gilr; rl;lq;fSf;fika Nkyhz;ik mspf;fg;gl;l my;yJ epiwNtw;wg;gl;l rfy
rl;lq;fSk; ,d;Dk; $l fLikahdjhfNt ,Uf;Fk;. ,jw;F cjhuzkhf epwntwp njhlu;ghd
njd;dhgpupf;fr; rl;lq; fs; r%fj;jpd; xU gpuptpd;kPJ tpjpf;fg;gl;l fl;Lg;ghLfisAk;
,ayhikfisAk; rl;lq;fs; Ntz;L nkd;W ghugl;rkhf ele;Jnfhz;ld. ,d;ndhU cjhuzk;:
,yq;ifapy; cs;s mtrufhy gpukhzq;fSk; (ER) gaq;futhj jLg;Gr; rl;lKk; (PTA) MFk; .
,jpy; rl;lg;gb Ml;rp kw;Wk; Ngr;Rr; Rje; jpuk;> kf;fspd; Rje;jpuk; Nghd;w mbg;gil
cupikfSf;F vjpu;g;ghd gy;NtW tpjpfs; cs;sd. cjhuzkhf> mtrufhy gpukhzq;fspd;
19Mk; ruj;jpd; gb ehl;bd; ghJfhg;Gf;F ve;j nthU tpjj;jpy; Fe;jfk; tpistpf;fNth my;yJ
nghJr; rl;lq;fisg; NgZtjw;F my;yJ mj;jpahtrpa NritfSf;nfjpuhf ele;J
nfhz;likf;fhf ePjp rhu;e;j kPsha;TfSf;fhd mZFjy;fs; ,y;yhJ Xuhz;L tiuf;Fk;
egu;fs; ifJ nra;aNth my;yJ jLj;J itf;fg;glNth KbAk;.
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 rhjhuz ePjpkd;wq;fshy; tprhupf;fg;gLfpd;w rl;lq;fSf;F midtUk; rkkhf elj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lnkd ilrp tw;GWj;jpa NghjpYk; etPd [dehaf murpay; ahg;GfspYk; $l> vy;yh
tFg;gpdUk; xNu tpjkhf elj;jg;gLtjpy;iy. rpy nghJ cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; VidNahu;fshy;
gadilahj rpwg;Gupikfis mDgtpf;fpd;wdu;. ePjpgjpfs;> ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fs;>
J}Jtuhya Nrit fisr; rhu;e;j cWg;gpdu;fs; rl;luPjpahd nray; KiwfspypUe;J
tpLtpf;fg;gl;l rpwg;Gupik fisf; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. ,it rhjhuz kf;fshy;
mDgtpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. murpay;ahg;gpd; 35Mk; cWg;Giuapd;gb ehl;bd; [dhjpgjp mtu;
gjtpapy; ,Ue;j fhyj;jpy; cj;jpNahfg+u;t khfNth my;yJ jdpg;gl;l uPjpapNyh Mw;wpAs;s
my;yJ Mw;Wtjw;F mjpfhuk; toq;fpa ve;j tplaj;Jf;fhfTk; tpyf;F mspf;fg;gl;Ls;shu;.

 mj;Jld; ilrp> rhjhuzkhd rl;lj;ijAk; rhjhuzkhd ePjpkd;wq; fisg; gw;wpAk;
Fwpg;gpLfpd;whu;. MapDk; ,yq;ifapd; rl;l mikg;G rpf;fyhd xU fyitia jd; dpy; nfhz;L
cs;sJ. ,jpy; Mq;fpNya nghJr;rl;lk; (ePjpgjpapdhy; Mf;fg;gl;l rl;lq;fs;) kw;Wk; ehl;bd;
ngUk;ghyhd kf;fSf;Fr; nry;Ygbahfpd;w Nuhkd; lr; Rr; rl;lk;> ,j;Jld; r%fj;jpd; rpy
gpuptpdUf;F kl;LNk gpuNahfpf;fg;gl;l fz;ba rl;lk;> K];yPk; rl;lk; kw;Wk; Njr toikr;
rl;lq;fs; (aho;g;ghzj; jkpo;r;rl;lk;) Nghd;w jdpg;gl;l rl;lq;fSk; cs;sd. ,t;thwhd
jdpg;gl;l rl;lq;fs; murpay; ahg;gpd; 16 Mk; cWg;Giuapy;; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ld.

 NkYk; vy;yh egu;fSNk xNukhjpupahd ePjpkd;wq;fshy; tprhupf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. ,yq;if>
K];ypk; rl;lj;jpy; jpUkzk; kw;Wk; tpthfuj;J njhlu;ghd tplaq;fspd; fhrp ePjpkd;wk;
vd;wiof;fg;gLk; tpNrlkhd ePjpkd;wq; fSf;Nf K];ypk;fs; tpz;zg; gpf;fpd;wdu;. NkYk; etPd
Kiwfspd; gb epahar;rigfs; my;yJ tof;Fj; jPu;f;Fk; tpNrlkhd mikg;Gfisf;
nfhz;litAk; (kPsha;Tf;fhd tUkhd tupr;rig> njhopy; epahar; rigfs;> ,yQ;r tprhuiz
epahar; rig Nghd;wd) cs;sd. ,tw; Wf; F njhopy;El;g epGzj;Jtk; Njitg;gLtJld;
JupjkhfTk; kypthd gupghydj; Jf;fhfTk; ehl;bd; rhjhuz ePjpkd;wq;fSf;F
cjtpahfTs;sd. murpay; ahg;gpd; rl;lkhdJ ePjthd;fshy; Mf; fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd ilrp
tFj;jhu;.

 vt;thwhapDk; vOjg;glhj murpay; ahg;G> vOjg;gl;l murpay; ahg;igtpl mbg;gil cupikf;F
cWjp $w KbAkh? my;yJ mjd; epue;juj; jd;ikAk; cWjpg;ghLk; nghJ mgpg;gpuhaj;jpYk;
nraw;ghl;bYk; jq;fpapUf;Fkh?

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gpd;thq;Fk; ePjp - ,yq;ifapd; rl;lj; njhopypd; Rje;jpuKk; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpAk; njhlu;ghd mwpf;if
Nk 2009 ( jpwe;j r%f epWtdj;jpdhy; Mjutspf;fg;gl;l ru;tNjr tof;fwpQu; rq;fj;jpd; kdpj cupik
epWtd mwpf;if.

b. ilrpapd; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpapd; tpj;jpahrkhd cs;shu;e;j ngWkhdq;fs;

1. rl;lg+u;tkhdJ – rl;lj;Jf;F fPo;g;gbthf ,Uj;jy;. ,jd; fUj;J (m) rl;lkhdJ
cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs;>jdpegu;fs; vd;w tpj;jpahrkpd;wp mDrupf;fg;gLjy;.(M) rl;lg; gbahf
cj;jpNahfj;ju;fSf;F jug;gLk; mjpfhuq;fSf;Fl;gl;ljhfNt mtu;fs; ele;Jnfhs; sy;
Ntz;Lk;.
2. epr;rakhdJ –epr;rakhdJk; Kd;$l;bNa $wf;$bajhfTk; rl;lq;fs; ,Uj;jy;. xU
gpui[f;F fLikahd rl;lq;fis tpl njupe;J itj;jpUf;fhj rl;lq;fshNyNa
$Ljyhd NfLfs; tpisfpd;wd vd;W ilrp fUJfpd;whu;.
3. khwhj; jd; ikAilaJ – epr;rakhd jd;ikapd; ngWkhdj;Jld; khwhj;jd;ik
njhlu;GilaJ. vg;NghJk; njupe;j rl;lq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjdhy;
rl;lq;fisAk; juq;fisAk; rkkhf eilKiwg;gLj;Jtij xUtu; Kd;ndLg;Gr;
nra;fpd;whu;.
4. tif$wy; - xU nraw;ghl;bd; rl;lg+u;tkhd jd;ikia mstpLtjwfhd
nghJj;juq;fis toq;Fk; rl;lq;fs;.
5. tpidj;jpwd; - rl;l mbg;gilahd nraw;ghLfs; tpidj;jpwid mspf;fpd;wd.
6. ePjpf;fhd cupa nray;KiwAk; mZFKiwAk; - ve;jnthU egUk;
ePjpkd;wnkhd;wpy; ghugl;rkpd;ikahfTk; gf;fr;rhu;gpd;ikahfTk; tprhupf;fg;glhJ>
(rpiw thrk; nra;ag;glNth mguhjk; tpjpf;fg;glNth) fz;ldj;Jf;F cs;shff;$lhJ.






























gpur;rpidfs; / fye;Jiuahly; tplaq;fs;

1. rl;lg;gb Ml;rpia cz;ikapNyNa rl; lg;gb Ml;rpapd; cs;shu;e;j ngWkhdk;>
epr;rakhdijAk;; khwhj; jd;ikiaAk; Kd;ndLg;Gr; nra;fpd;wdth? xNu khjpupahf
elj;jg;gLtJ vg;NghJk; gjpy; $wf;$ba jd;ikiaAk; ePjpiaAk; Kd;ndLg;Gr;
nra;fpd;wdth? mg;gb apy;yhtpbd; vy;NyhUf;Fk; rkkhf rl;lj;ijg; gpuNahfpg;gij
epahag;gLj;Jfpd;wjh? cjhuz khf> 1978 Mk; Mz;bd; murpay; ahg;gpd; (12 rp 4)
ruj;jpd; gb ngz;fs;> rpWtu;fs;> tyJ Fiwe;j egu;fs; MfpNahUf;fhf kw;wtu;fis tpl
tpjptpyf;F mspf;fg;gl;L Kd;Ndwpr; nry;tjw;fhd rl;lj;Jf; fhd tpNrl xOq; FKiw fis
nfhz;Ls;sJ.
3
NkYk; gy;fiyf; fofq;fSf; fhd mDkjpapd;NghJ mJ jFjpapd;
mbg;gilapy; kl;LNk ftdj;jpw; nfhs;sg; gl;lJ. 55% Md ,lq;fis gy;NtW
khtl;lq;fSf;F rdj;njhifapd; mbg;gilapYk; 15% trjp Fiwe;j khtl;lq;fs; kj;jpapYk;
tpepNahfpf;fg;gLfpd; wd. NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;l cjhuzq; fspd;gb tpNrl ftdpg;G my;yJ
egu;fSf;fhd tpj;jpahrkhd ftdpg;Gf;F cs;s epahak; vd;d?
2. ilrp Fwpg;gpLtJNghy ‘njupe;j rl;lq;fshf’ cs;sit mtw;wpd; mKyhf;fj;ij cWjpg;
gLj;Jkh? MfNt njupe;j rl;lq;fspy; cs;sit Kf;fpak; NghyNt jdpg;gl;l egu;fis
jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; jPu;khdq;fspd; cupa nray;KiwAk; nray;uPjpahd gq;Nfw;Gk;
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ciladth?
3. ePjpf;F mZFjy; vdg;gLtJ> ePjpkd;wq;fSf; fhd mZFjiy Fwpf;Fkh? rptpy; my;yJ
Fw;wtpayhf ,Ue;jhYk;> mtw;Wf;F vjpuhd kdf;FiwfSf;fhd epthuzq;fis toq;Fk;
Kjd;ik topahf ePjpkd;wj;Jiz ,Ue;jNghjpYk; vy;yhr; re;ju;g;gq;fspYk; ePjp toq;fg;
gLtjw;F ePjpkd;wq;fs; Vw;witahf ,y;iy. cjhuzk;: 1995 ,d; eLtu; jPu;g;Gr; rl;lk;
kw;Wk; 2000 Mk; Mz;bd; tu;j;jf uPjpahd ,zf;fr; rl;lk; vd;gd tu;j;jfuPjpahd
gpzf;Ffspy; Jupjkhd jPu;itf; fhz;gjw;F topnra;fpd;wd. NkYk;> rk;ge;jg;gl;l
jug;GfshYk; ePjp kd;wq;fshYk; Fwpg;gplg; gLk; rpW gpzf;FfSf;fhd r%f ,dj; Jf;fhd
Vw;ghl;il ,zf;fr; rig rl;lk; toq;FfpwJ.
4. Rje;jpukhd ePjpj;Jiwf;fhd Nkyjpf epge;jidahf ,yq;if Nghd;w Nkhjy; kw;Wk;
NkhjYf;Fg; gpe;jpa ehnlhd;wpy; ePjpf;fhd mZFKiwAld; KOikahf ,aq;Fk; ePjp
kd;wq;fs; fpilf; ff;$bajhf ,Uj;jy;> ePjp kd;wq;fSf;F ngsjpf uPjpahf mZff;$bajhf
,Uj;jy;> ePjpkd;wq;fis mZFk; NghJ> fyhrhu r%f> nghUshjhu jilfs; Fiwjy;
tof;F thjhl tpUk;GNthupd; ghJfhg;Gk; mtu;fsJ nrhj;Jk; murpay; ahg;gpdhy; cWjp
nra;ag;gl;l tpUk;gf;$ba nkhopapy; njhlu;ghly; nra;td vd;gd cs;slf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
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,Nj Nghd;W xU toptif ,e;jpa murpay; ahg;gpd; 15 Mk; ruj;jpy; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd;gb
ngz;fs;> rpWtu;fs; kw;Wk; r%f uPjpahfTk; fy;tp rhu;e;jjhfTk; gpd;jq;fpa tFg;gpdUf;Fk; rpy tif
rjpfSf;Fk; ,dq;fSf;Fkhf tpNrlkhd toptif nra;ag;gl;Ls;sd.

B. rl;lg;gb Ml;rpAk; ePjpj;Jiwapd; RahjPdKk;
[dhjpgjpapd; (epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk;) kw;Wk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; (rl;lthf;fr; rig)
mjpfhuq;fis nrt;it ghu;j;Jf; nfhs;tjd; %yk; kf;fspd; cupikfis RahjPd
khd ePjpj;Jiw ghJfhf;ff; $bajhf ,Uf;Fk;. vt;tpj mr;rKk; ,d;wp ePjpj;Jiw
ahdJ ,aq;ff; $baij cWjp nra;tJ ePjpj;Jiw RahjPdkhf ,Ug;gjw;F kl;Lk;
Kf;fpaky;yhJ rl;lj;JiwapYs;s kf;fspd; ek;gpf;ifia NkNyhq;fr; nra;tjw;Fk;
Kf;fpakhFk;.

a). ePjpj;Jiwia murpay;kakw;wjhf Mf;Ftjw;Fk; ePjpj;Jiwapd; RahjPdj;ij
cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fkhf murpay;ahg;G uPjpahd cWjpg;ghLk; typAWj;jp eilKiwg;
gLj;Jtjw;fhd nghwpKiwAk;

murhq;fj;jpd; %d;W cWg;Gfshd epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; > rl;lthf;fr; rig kw;Wk;
ePjpj;Jiw vd;gdtw;wpd; mjpfhuq;fis NtWgLj;Jtjw;fhd 1978 Mk; Mz;L
murpay; ahg;gpd; 4k; cWg;Giuapy; njspthf mq;fPfupj;Js;sJ. ,jd; tpisthf
kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpdJk; Nkd; KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpdJk; mjpfhuq;fis
murpay;ahg;gpy; ed;F Mog;gjpe;Js;sd. mj;Jld; Nju;jy; kDf;fs; fPo;
ePjpkd;wq;fspy; Nkd; ;Kiw aPLfs;> murpay; ahg;G tplaq;fs;> mbg;gil cupikfs;
kw;Wk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; rpwg;Gupik kPwy; Nghd;w gy;NtW tplaq;fs; njhlu;ghf Nky;
cau;ePjpkd;wj;ij kpf cau;thdJk; ,WjpahdJkhd kPAau; ePjpkd;wk; vd;wjd;
gq;if Fwpg;ghf murpay; ahg;G ghJfhf;fpd;wJ.
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,J NghyNt murpay;ahg;G
Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuq; fisg; ghJfhf;fpd;wJ. fPo; ePjpkd;wq;fis
nghWj;jstpy; ePjpthd;fspd; epakdk;> ,lkhw;wk;>gjtpAau;T> xOf;fhw;W
eltbf;iffs; vd;gd ePjpj;Jiw Nrit Mizf; FOtpdhy; (JSC) Nkw;
nfhs;sg; gLfp;d;wd.,yq;ifapd; murpay; ahg; G ePjpj; Jiwapd; RahjPdj;ij 107 Mk;
gpuptpy; cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

murpay; ahg;Gf;fhd 17 Mk; gpupT ,aw;wg;gLtjw;F Kd;du; kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;Jf;Fk;
gpujk ePjpauru; Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jiytu; cl;gl midj;J ePjthd;fspd;
epakdk; kPjhf [dhjpgjp (epiwNtw;W) epiwa mjpfhuq;isf; nfhz;bUe;jhu; . ,jw;F
Nkyjpfkhf ghuhSkd;wk; (rl;lthf;fr; rig) ePjpthd;fis ePf;Fjy; njhlu; ghf ePjp
kd;wk; kw;Wk; Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wk; vd;gdtw;wpd; ePjthd;fis epakpg;gJ njhlu;
ghf jkJ mjpfhuj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp cs;sd.

murpay; ahg;Gf;fhd 17 Mk; jpUj; jk;
ePjthd;fis epakpg;gJ cl;gl nghJr;Nrit murpay;kakw;wjhf;Fk; Kaw;rpapy; 17k;
jpUj;jk; mwpKfQ; nra;ag;gl;lJ. 17 Mk; jpUj;jk; murpay; ahg;Gg; Nguit (CC) xd;iw
cUthf;FfpwJ. ,J epakdq;fis Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd rpghupRfisAk; my;yJ rpy
re;ju;g;gq;fspy; Nfe;jpukhd nghJj;Jiw fhupahyaq;fSf;fhd epakdq;fis
mq;fPfupf;fTk; MdhYk; mjpfhuj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;s xU mikg;ghFk;
.5
vt;thwhapDk;
[dhjpgjp epakpf;Fk; mjpfhuq;fis nfhz;ltuhf ,Ug;gJld; CC apd; rpghupNrh
my;yJ mDkjpNah ,d;wp NkNy Fwpg;gpl;lthW xUtuhy; ve;jtpj epakdNkh
Nkw;nfhs;sKbahJ. kPAau; ePjpkd;wq;fSf;Fk; Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;Jf;Fk; gpujk
4
murpay; ahg;gpd; XV k; mj;jpahaj;jpy; ePjpkd;wq;fis epWTjy;> nghJ mku;Tfs;> ePjpgjpfspd;
rk;gsk;> ePjpgjpfspd; nrayhw;wYk; mtu;fspd; njhopw;ghLfSk;> ePjpgjpfspd; epakdk;> eP f;Fjy;> xOf;
;fhw;W eltbf;iffs;> ePjpr; Nrit Mizf;FO> ePjpg;gupghyd tuk;ngy;iy> kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpdJk;
7
7
Nkd; KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpdJk; rl;lq;fSk; gjpNtLfs; cl;gl ePjpj;Jiw njhlu;ghd Nkyjpf top
tiffSk; cs;slq;fpAs;sd.
5
murpay; ahg;Gg; NguitahdJ> 10 cWg;gpdu;fisf; nfhz;lJ. ,jpy; ;> Itu; r%fj;jpy; ‘cau; me;j];
Jk; Neu;ikAk; tha;e;Njhuha; ’ gpujkuhYk; vjpu;fl;rpj; jiytuhYk; ngauplg;gLtJld;> Mwhktu;> ghuh
Skd;wj;jpy; cs;s Vida rpWfl;rpfshy; ngauplg;gLgtuhtu;. VohtJ cWg;gpdiu [dhjpgjp epakpg;g
Jld;> NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;l MW epakdq;fSk; jdf;Fr; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;lJk; mtu;fis epakpf;ff;
flikg;gl;ltuhf ,Uf;fpwhu;. Vida %tUk; jk; gjtp fhuzkhf epakpf;fg;gLgtu;fs;. ,tu;fs; gpujk
ke;jpup> vjpu;f;fl;rpj; jiytu; kw;Wk; ,f;FOtpd; jtprhsuhf ,Uf;fTs;s rghehafu; Mtu;.
ePjpauru; kw;Wk; Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj; jiytu; Nghd;Nwhiu CCapd; mDkjp CC
apd; mDkjpapd;wp mt;thwhd epakdq;fis [dhjpgjpapdhy; nra;a KbahJ.

MfNt gutyhd [dhjpgjp mjpfhuq;fs; kPjhd Kf;fpakhd rupgpiofis ghu;j;Jf;
nfhs;tjw;fhd xU toptifia 17Mk; jpUj;jk; toq;fpaJ. MapDk; mjd; cWg;
gpdu; fspd; gjtpf;fhyj;jpy; Kjyhk; jtiziaj; njhlu;e;J CC nrayw;Wg; NghdJ.
,jw; Ff; $wg;gl;l gy fhuzq;fSs; Nju;e;njhLf;fg;gl;l egu; njhlu;ghf rpWghd;ikf;
fl;rpfSf;fpilNa cz;lhd ,zf;fkpd;ik> murpay; cWjpg;ghbd;ik vd;gd cs;s
lq;fpapUe;jd. ,J ePjpj;Jiwapd; RahjPdj;jpy; jhf;fNkw;gLj;jpaJ. rptpy; r%f FOf;
fspdJk; fupridf;Fs;shd nghJkf;fspd; Ml;Nrgq;fspdhy; murpay;ahg;gpy; $wg;
gl;bUe;j toptiffSf;F khwhf [dhjpgjp ,t;thwhd cWg;ghz; ikfSf;Fk; gjtp
fSf;Fk; Neubahd epakdq;fis Nkw;nfhz;lhu;. cz;ikahfNt jw;;Nghija gpujk
ePjpauru; CC njhopw;glhj epiyapy; [dhjpgjpahy; Neubahf epakpf;fg;gl;lhu; .

ePjpr;Nrit Mizf;FO

murpay; ahg;Gf;fhd 17 Mk; jpUj;jj;Jf;F Kd;du; murpay; ahg;gpd; 112 Mk; gpuptpd;
fPo; ePjpr;Nrit Mizf;FO cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jpy; [dhjpgjpahy; gpujk ePjpaurUk;
,U ePjpgjpfSk; JSC f;F epakpf;fg;gl;bUe;jdu;. ePjpr;Nrit FOthdJ rfy cau;
ePjpkd;wq;fs; fPo; ePjp kd;wq;fspd; vy;yh eP jthd;fspdJk; gjtp cau;T> xOf;fhw;W>
,lkhw;wk;> gjtptpyfy;fSf;Fk; fPo; ePjpkd;w ePjthd;fspd; epakdj;jpw;Fk; nghWg;
ghf ,Ue;jJ. ,yq;if murpay;ahg;gpd; 111 D-M cWg;Giufs; 17 Mk; jpUj;jj;jpdhy;
jpUj;jg;gl;L murpay; ahg;Gg; Nguitapd; Kd; mDkjpapd;wp ,U kPAau; ePjpkd;w ePj
thd;fis [dhjpgjp epakpg;gij jil nra;jJ.
6
NkYk; ePjpr;Nrit Mizf;FOtpd;
xUtiu ePf;Ftjhapd; murpay; ahg;Gg; Nguitapd; rpghuprpd; Ngupy; [dhjpgjpahy;
kl;LNk nra;a KbAk;.






















gpur;rpidfs; / fye;Jiuahly; tplaq;fs;
 2005 Mk; Mz;bypUe;J nray;uPjpahd murpay; ahg;G Nguit xd;W ,y;yhjjd; fhuz
khf [dhjpgjp 17 Mk; jpUj;jk; nra;ag;gLtjw;F Kd;dpUe;j epiyikf; F khwpdhu;. mj;J
ld; nghJr;Nritfs; Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpj;Jiw kdpj cupikfs; Mizf; FO kw;Wk;
Njrpa fhty;Jiw Mizf;FO vd;gtw;wpy; Vw;gLk; ntw;wplq; fSf;F epakdq;fis Nkw;
nfhz;lhu;. ,t;thwhd epakdq;fs; ,e;j Kf; fpakhd nghJ epWtdj;jpdupd; tpsq;fpf;
nfhs;sg;gl;l kw;Wk; cz;ikahd Rje;jpuq;fis ,t;thwhd epkdq;fs; Fiwj;jd.
eilKiwapYs;s 17Mk; jpUj;jk; mKyhf; fg;gl; lhik ,yq;ifapy; rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rpf;F
ghuJ}ukhdJk; fpukkhdJkhd mr;RWj;jiy Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. ePq; fs; ,jid Vw;Wf;
nfhs;fpwPu;fsh?

 ,t;thwhd gjtpfs; njhopw;glhkypUg;gpd; mjdhy; ,of;f NeupLfpd;w kf;fSf;fhd jkJ
flg;ghLfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf ,t;thwhd Neubahd epakdq;;fis Nkw; nfhs;tjhf
murpd; gf;fj;jpypUe;J $wg;gLfpd;wJ. ,f;$w;Wld; xj;Jg; NghtPu;fsh my;yJ murpay;
ahg;Gg; Nguit Vd; KjypNy njhopw;glhjpUf;fpwJ vd;w tpdhit ,e;j thjk; myl;rpak;
nra; fpwjh? NkYk; murpay;ahg;gpd; mDkjp kw; Wk; gupe;Jiuf;Fk; nghwpKiw epiwNtw;W
mjpfhuj;jpd; jw;WzpG mjpfhuq;fis fl;Lg;gLj;j Kad;wJ. 17 Mk; jpUj;jj;Jf;F Kd;du;

8
8
6.
ghuk;gupaj;jpd;gbAk; eilKiwapd;gbAk; kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; ePjthd;fs; kj;jpapy; ,Ue;J rpNu\;l
jd;ikapd;gb Vida ,U ePjthd;fSk; epakpf;fg;gl;L xt;nthU %d;W Mz;LfSf;Fk; Row;rp Kiw
apy; gzpahw; Wfpd;wdu;. jkJ gjtpf;fhyk; g+uhTk; gpujk ePjpauru; ePjpr;Nrit Mizf;FOtpy;
njhlu;e;Jk; ,Ug;ghu;. ePjpr;Nrit Mizf; FOtpd; rfy jPu;khdq;fSk; ‘ngUk;ghyhd’ thf;Ffshy;
epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lnkd rl;lg;gbahf ,aq;f Ntz;bAs;sJ. mjhtJ %d;wpy; ,uz;L ,jpy;
gad;gLj;Jthu;. %d;W cWg;gpdu;fSs; ,Utu; r%fkspj;jhNy Nfhuk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.
jdJ gjtpfSs; xU ntw;wplk; ,Ue;jhy; ePjpr;Nrit Mizf;FO mjw;Nfw;g ,aq;f mjpfhuk;
cilaJ.







·
C. rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rpapd; tif$wy; gaDWjpg;ghL kw;Wk; ghugl;rkw;w
jd;ikia eilKiwg;gLj;Jk; Njrpa epWtdq;fis tYt+l;ly;.

murpay;ahg;Gf;fhd 17Mk; jpUj;jk;

murpay;ahg;Gg; Nguitapd; (CC) Fwpf;Nfhs; ,yq;ifapd; Nfe;jpu epWtdq;fs; Kiw
ahf njhopw;gLtij RahjPdkhf Nkw;ghu;it nra;J> mjd;%yk; murpay;kakhffg;
gLjy; kw;Wk; epWtduPjpahd jg;Gnra;jy; njhlu;ghd VJk; nghJkf;fspd; Gyg;ghL;
fis mfw;Wk; nghUl;L RahjPdkhd toptiffis Vw;gLj;JtjhFk;. 17Mk; jpUj;
jj;jpy; Nfe;jpug; nghJ epWtdq;fshd Nju;jy; Mizf;FO> nghJr; Nrit Mizf;
FO (PSC) Njrpa fhty; Nrit Mizf;FO (NPC) kdpj cupikfs; Mizf;FO
(HRC)> Nju;jy; vy;iy epu;za Mizf; FO Nghd;W Kf;fpakhd jdpg;gl;l gjtp
fshd rl;lkh mjpgu;> fzf;fha;thsu; ehafk;> nghyp]; khmjpgu;> vd;gd Fwpg;gplg;
gl;Ls;sd. Nguitapd; Mizf; FOf;fspd; rpghupRfs; ,y;yhky; ve;jnthU egUk;
[dhjpgjpahy; epakpf;fg;glf;;$lhJ.

murpay; ahg;Gg; Nguitapd; njhopw;ghl; Lf;F 17k; jpUj;jkhdJ ,U tifj;Jiw
njhFjpfis mikj;Js;sJ. rpy epakdq;fSf;Fg; Nguitapd; rpghupRk; VidNahuJ
mDkjpAk; Njitg;gLfpd;wJ.

Nju;jy; Mizf;FO> nghJr;Nrit Mizf;FO, Njrpa fhty; Nrit Mizf; FO
(NPC)kdpj cupikfs; Mizf;FO> ,yQ;rk; my;yJ Coy; njhlu;ghd Fw;wr;
rhl;Lf;fis tprhupf;Fk; Mizf;FO> epjp Mizf;FO kw;Wk; Nju;jy; vy;iy
epu;za Mizf;FO Nghd;w Nguitapd; Mizf; FOf;fspd; rpghupRfs; ,y;yhky;
ve;jnthU egUk; [dhjpgjpahy; epakpf;fg;glf;; $lhnjd 41B (1) gpupT Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ.

gpujk ePjpauru;> kPAau; ePjpkd;w ePjthd;fs;> Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jiytUk;
Vida ePjpgjpfSk;> ePjpr;Nrit Mizf;FOtpd; (jtprhsiuj;jtpu ,tu; vg;NghJk;
gpujk ePjpauruhfNt ,Ug;ghu; ) cWg;gpdu;fs;> rl;lkh mjpgu;> fzf;fha;thsu; ehafk;>
nghyp]; khmjpgu;> epu;thfj;Jf;fhd ghuhSkd;w Mizahsu; (Mshl;rp mjpfhup)
Nghd;w epakdq;fSf;F cupa egiu Nguitf;F [dhjpgjp rpghupR nra;J> me; epak
dj;ijg; Nguit mDkjpj;jhnyhopa mt;thwhd gjtpfSf;F ve;jnthU egUk; epa
kpf;fg;glf;; $lhnjd 41C(2) gpupT Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ.



,Ue;j epiyf;F khWtjd; %yk; Kjypy; mjd; epiyj; jpUf;Fk; Kf;fpakhd
Fwpf;NfhSf;F vjpuhf ,Ug;gJld; mJ epakpf;fg;gl;lNj ePjpj;Jiw cs;spl;l
mbg;gilahd nghJ epWtdq;fis murpay; kakw;wjhf Mf;Ftjw;NfahFk;. Vnddpy;
,tw;wpy; kf;fs; ek;gpf;if ,oe;jpUe;;jdu;.
7
rl;lj; jpd; cs;slf;fq; fSf;F Nkyhf murpay;
ahg;G toptiffspy; tpahf;fpahdk; nra;tjpy; eP jpj;Jiw rhu;e;jjhf jPtpukhfr; nraw;gLe;
jd;ik> rl;lg; gbahd Ml;rpia cWjpnra;tij ,d;wpaikahjjhf;Fk;. murpay; ahg;G ghJ
fhg;gjhf thf;FWjp mspf;Fk; rpWghd;ik kf; fspd; cWjpia nra;aj;jtwpdhy; mJ
mjw;Nf Ntl;L itf;Fk;.

gpur;rpidfSk; / fye;JiuahlYk; tplaq;fs;
 murpay; ahg;Gg; Nguit xd;iw cUthf;fp [dhjpgjpapd; (epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk;
nfhz;l) jw;Wzpig fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd nghwpKiwapd; mjpfhu J\;gpuNahfj;ij
jtpu;j;J rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rpia NkNyhq;fr; nra;tjw;F murpay; kdTWjp ,Ue;jh
nyhopa rhj;jpakhfhJ. murpay; ahg;Gg; NguitahdJ njhopw;gl;Lf;nfhz;bUf;Fk;
fhyj;jpy; Nju;jy; Mizf;FO epakpf;fg;gltpy;iy.

9
9





7
122 (1) (b) cWg;Giuapd; fPo; 17k; jpUj;jr; rl; lj;Jf;fhd kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;ig crhtpf; nfhs;f.







































· D. kdpj cupikfSk; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpAk;

a). rl;lg;gb Ml;rpia cWjpg;gLj;Jk; toptiffs;

ru;tNjr kdpj cupik epWtdq;fs;

,uz;lhk; cyf Aj;jj;jpd; ,Wjpapy; kdpj cupikfs; njhlu;ghf tiutpyf;fzg;
gLj;jg;gLtjw;F gyk; tha;e;j xU ,af;fk; fhzg;gl;lJ. rl;lg;gb Ml;rpapd; ru;tNjr
Vnddpy;> murpay;ahg;Gg Nguitahy; rpghupR nra;ag;gl;l Nju;jy; Mizf;FO tpd;
jtprhsu; ngaiu rpghupir [dhjpgjp epuhfupj;jhu;. murpay;ahg;Gg; gpuptpdhy; Nkw;
nfhs;sg;gLk; epakdq;fis epuhfupg;gjw;Fupa jw;Wzpig [dhjpgjp nfhz;b Ug;gpd; 17Mk;
jpUj;jr;rl;lj;jpd; xl;L nkhj;jkhd mbg;gil Nfhl;ghl;ilNa mJ Njhy;tpailar; nra;J
tpLk;
 Nkw;$wpa cjhuzkhdJ kf;fspd; ed;ikf;fhf gad;gLj;Jtjd; nghUl;L kf;f shy;
(Nju;jy; Nghd;wit) ghuQ; rhl;lg; gl;l nghJ ek;gpf;if mjpfhuq;fs; vd;gd tw;wpy;
mtu;fs; gjtpapypUf;Fk; fhyj;jpy; ,J ve;j tifapYk; Nju;e;njLf;fg;gbDk; nghJthd
,yf;ifAila murpd; gy;NtW fhupahyaq;fSf;F ,ilapyhd xj;Jiog;gpd; Kf;fpaj;
Jtj;ij ,J gpujpgypf;fpd;wJ. xj;Jiog;gpy;yhj jd;ik murpd; cWg;Gfs; kPjhd rupgpio
ghu;f;Fk; nghUl;L cUthf;fg;gl;l mikg;Gfspd Jk; rl;;lg;gb Ml;rpapdJk; epiyFiye;j
jd;ikNa tpisthf mike;jJ. cjhuzkhf> Mrpa kdpj cupikfs; Mizf; FO
tpdhy; (AHRC) nra;ag;gl;l mwpf;iffspd; gb 17 Mk; jpUj;jj;jpd; fPo; tUk; vy;yh
epakdq;fSk; 17Mk; jpUj;jj;jpdhy; Mizaplg;gl;l gy Rje;jpu Mizf;FOtpd;
cWg;gpdu;fs; cl;gl Nkd; KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;Jf;F kPcau; ePjpkd;wj;Jf;Fk; epakpf;fg;
gl;ltu;fs; Nghy; midtUk; murpay;ahg;G Nguitapd; %ykhfNt epakpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lnkd rl;lkh mjpgu; [dhjpgjpf;F mwptpj;jhu;. MapDk;> 2006 Mk; fhyg; gFjpapy;
kdpj cupik Mizf;FO> Njrpa fhty; Jiw Mizf;FO kw;Wk; nghJj;Jiw
Mizf;FO> ePjprhu; Mizf;FOf; fs; epakdq; fis [dhjpgjp epakpj;jhu;.AHRC apy;
Fwpg;gpl;l thW rl;lkh mjpgupd; MNyhridia njhlu;e;Jk; myl;rpak; nra;jthW
Fwpg;ghf 17 Mk; jpUj;jj;jpy; Mizaplg;gl;l rigfSf;F [dhjpgjp epakdq; fis Nkw;
nfhz;lhu;. [dhjpgjp rl;lkh mjpgu; jpizf;fsj;jpd; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fis gytPdg;
gLj;Jtjw;fhf mtu;fs; jkJ nrhe;jthz;ikj;Jiw ed;ikf;fhf jk; eyd;fis
tpupTgLj;Jk; nghUl;L murpay; nry;thf;Ff;F cl;gLk; tpjkhf Mf;fg;gl;ldu;
.8

 murpay; ahg;G Nguitapd; (CC) Nehf;fk; (epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk;) [dhjpgjpapd; jw;W zpG
mjpfhuq;fis fl;Lg;gLj;JtJ kl;Lkpd;wp Kf; fpakhd nghJj;Jiw epakdq; fs; kPjhd
murpay; nry;thf;if mfw;wp mit Rje;jpukhfTk; ghugl;rkpy;yhkYk; nraw; gl
toptFg;gitahFk;.
 rhjhuz FbkfDld; kdpj cupik Mizf; FO kw;Wk; ,yQ; r Mizf;FO Nghd;w
Kf;fpakhd tplaq;fs; njhlu;ghf Neubahf njhlu;Gnfhs;s itf;Fk; mt;thwhd Kf;fpa
Mizf;FOTf;F epakdk; nra;Ak;NghJ> murpay;kakw;w jhf ,Ug;gjd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij
msTf;fjpfkhf typaWj;j mtrpakpy;iy. ,t;thwhd Mizf; FOf;fs; murpd;
cj;jpNahfj;juhy; tpistpf;fg;gLk; (mbg;gil cupik kPwy;fs;> ,yQ;rk; kw;Wk; Coy;
Nghd;wtw;why; Vw;gLk;)ghuJ}ukhd kdf;FiwfSld; nfhLf; fy;> thq;fy; nra;a
Ntz;bAs;sJ. FLk;gk;> my;yJ nrhj;Jf;fs; gopthq;fg;gL Nthk; vd;w mr;rkpd;wp
,t;thwhd gjtpfSf;F vjpuhf nghJ kf;fs; Kiwg;ghLfs; nra;tjw;F Kd;tu
Ntz;Lkhapd; ,t;thwhd epWtdq;fs; kPjhd ek;gpf;if kPsf; fl;bnaOg;gg;gLtJk; mjd;
Kjw;gb ghugl;rkhd mjd; Njhw;wj;ij mfw;WtJkhFk;.

10
10
vz;zf;fUtpy; xU Kf;fpakhd ghfj;ij tbtikg;gjw;fhf tiutpyf;fzg; gpufl
dq;fs; Njhd;wpd.



8
fprhyp hpd;Nlh [atu;jd rl;lkh mjpgupd; nghJj;Jiwf;fhd tif$wy; - mtuJ rl;luPjpahd mjpfh
uq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLtJ ve;jsTf;F ePjpkd;wj;jhy; kPsha;T nra;ag;gly; Ntz;Lk;. rl;lKk; r%f
Kk; ek;gpf;if kPsha;T> njhFjp 15 kyu; 211 Nk 2005
ru;tNjr kdpj cupikfs; gpufldk; (UDHR) ru;tNjr kdpj cupikf; FOtpdhy;
tiuag;gl;L 1948 ,y; nghJr; rigfspdhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gl;lJ. vy;yh ehLfspYk;
cs;s vy;yh kf;fSf;Fk; nghJthd juk; miltij ,g;gpufldk; typAWj;jpaJ.
,g;gpufldk; mur jug;ghu; kPJ rl;lg;gbahff; fl;Lg;gLj;jhtpl;lhYk; mJ murpd;kPJ
jhu;kPf kw;Wk; murpay; nry;thf;if typAWj;jpaJ. ,jidj; njhlu;e;J rptpy; kw;Wk;
murpay; cupikfs; njhlu;ghd ru;tNjr cld;gbf;ifAk; ICCPR nghUshjhu r%f>
fyhrhu cupikfSf;fhd ru;tNjr gpufldj;jpy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg; gl;l cupikfisAk;
Rje;jpuq;fisAk; tpsq;fg;gLj;jpathW tiuag;gl;L cld;gbf;ifapYs;s toptif
fis mKy; nra;tjw;fhf mjpy; xg;gkpl;l muR fisidj;Jk; fl;Lg;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd $wg;gl;lJ. NkYk; ISSPRf;F Nkyjpf Kjw;Fwpg;G xd;Wk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;L
,jd; %yk; kdpj cupikfs; FOTf;F jdpg;gl;l njhlu;ghly;fis NkYk; mDkjpf
;fpd;w xUgbia kdpj cupikfs; vLf;f itj;jJ.
9

,t;nty;yh cld;gbf;if fisAk;
,yq;if cWjp nra;jJld; kdpj cupikfs; Fwpg;ghd cupikfshd ngz;fs;
cupik> rpWtu; cupikfs;> FbNaw;wj; njhopyhsu;; cupik Nghd;wtw;wpd; ghJfhg;G
Kd;ndLg;Gr; nra;Ak; Vida cs;Su; rl; lq;fis ,aw;Wtjd; %yk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
cld;gbf;iffspd; fPOs;s mDkjpf; fg;gl;l ,t;thwhd cupikfis epiwNtw;W
tjw;Fupa flg;ghL ,yq;if muRf;F cs;sJ.10 ,t;nty;yh cld;gbf;iffisAk;
,yq;if cWjp nra;jJld; kdpj cupikfs; cjh uzk;> CEADW vd;w cld
;gbf;ifia ,yq;if 1989 ,y; cWjp nra;jJ. ,jd; tpis thf 2005 Mk; Mz;L
tPl;L td;Kiwfs; rl;lk; 35 Mk; ,yf;f rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;L epiwNtw;wg; gl;lJ.
,jdhy;> ,e;j cld;gbf;ifapd; fPo; mq;fPfupf; fg;gl;l cupikfSf;F topgpwe;jJ.
11

NkYk;> ,yq;if murpay; ahg;ghdJ jdp egu; fspd; cupikfisAk; Rje;jpuq;fisAk;
ghJfhg;gjw;fhd mNefkhd Kf;fpa ghJfhg; G toptiffs; cs;slf;fpAs;sd.











9.
Nkd;ikf; Fwpg;G (supra) 2 gf;fk; 19

10
,yq;if ru;tNjr kdpj cupikfspd; fUt+ykhd fUtpfis cWjp nra;Js;sJ. ,tw;Ws;
mlq;Fgit ,dg;gLnfhiy Fw;wq;fis jtpu;j;jy; kw;Wk; jz;lidf;fhd cld;gbf;if> rfytpjkhd
,dg;ghugl;rj;ij jtpu;j;jy; kw;Wk; jz;lidf;fhd ru;tNjr cld;gbf;if. rptpy; kw;Wk; murpay;
cupikfs; kPjhd ICCPR ru;tNjr cld;gbf;ifAk; mtw;wpd; njupTf;Fupa Kjw;Fwpg;Gfs;
,uz;Lk; nghUshjhu r%f murpay; cupikfs; kPjhd ru;tNjr cld;gbf;ifAk; njupTf;Fupa mjd;
Kjw; Fwpg;GfSk; rpWtu;fSf;fhd cupikfs; kPjhd cld;gbf; ifAk; CROC njupTf;Fupa mjd;
Kjw; Fwpg;GfSk; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd rfy tpjkhd ghugl;rq;fis ePf;Ftjw;fhd cld;gbf;if
CEAW mjd; njupTf;Fupa Kjw; Fwpg;GfSk; ,k;rpj;jy; kw;Wk; Vida nfh^ukhd kdpjj;jd;ikaw;w
Nftykhd elj;jg;gly; my;yJ jz;bf;fg;gLtjw;F vjpuhd eltbf;ifAk; mjd; njupTf;fhd
Kjw;Fwpg;GfSk; Nghu; Fw;wq;fSf;Fk; kdpjhgpkhdj;Jf;F vjpuhd Fw;wq;fSf;Fr; rl;luPjpahd
tuk;Gfis tpjpf;fhj cld;gbf;if rfy FbNaw;w Ntiyahl;fs; mtu;fspd; FLk;g mq;fj;jtupd;
ghJfhg;G kPjhd ru;tNjr cld;gbf;if tpisahl;Lj;Jiwapy; ,d xJf;fPLf;nfjpuhd ru;tNjr
cld;gbf;if> tyk; Fiwe;j egu;fspd; cupikfs; kPjhd cld;gbf;if mjd; njupTf;Fwpg;GfSk;
11
11
gyte;jkhf fhzhky; Nghfr; nra;tjpypUe;j rfy egu;fisAk; ghJfhg;gjw;fhf ru;tNjr
cld;gbf;if.
11.
If;fpa ehl;Lr; rigapd; nghJr;rig cWg;gpdu; vd;w tifapy; kdpj cupikf;fhd ru;tNjr
gpufldj;jpd; toptiffs (UDHR), ePjpj;Jiwapd; Rje;jpuk; kPjhd If;fpa ehl;bd; mbg;gil
Nfhl;ghLfs> tof;fwpQu;fspd; gq;F gw;wpa I.eh.tpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfs;>; Fw;wQ;rhl;LNthu;
gq;fpd; kPjhd I.eh topfhl;ly;fs; Nghd;wtw;Wf;F ,yq;if jd;id mu;g;gzpj;Js; sJ. ,yq;if
nghJeytha ehLfspy; xU gpujpepjpahfTk; cs;sJ. vdNt `uhNu gpufldj;jpy; mlq;fpAs;s
nghJeythaj;jpd; mbg;gil tpOkpaq;fis epiyepWj;J tjw;Fk; mJ jd;id mu;g;gzpf;f Ntz;ba
flg;ghLilaJ.

1978 murpay; ahg;Gk; mbg;gil cupikfSk;

,yq;ifapy; kdpj cupikfSf;F murpay; ahg;gpd; %ykhf Mff;$ba ghJfhg;G
toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jw;F Ke;jpa murpay; ahg;ghd Nrhy;gup murpay; ahg;G 1972
murpay; ahg;G Fbkf;fspd; mbg;gil cupikfis
12
ghJfhg; gjw;fhd toptiffis
nfhz;bUe;j NghjpYk; 1978 Mk; murpay; ahg;gpd; fPo; mbg;gil cupikfs; 17 Mk; >
126 Mk; gpupTfspd; gb epahag;gLj;jg;gl;bUe;jd. mjhtJ gpupTfs; 17> kw;Wk; 126
My; toq;fg;gl;l nghwp Kiw apd;gb ghjpf;fg;gl;l xU egu; (jkJ mbg;gil
cupikfs; kPwg;gl;l epiyapy; cs;stu;) ehl;bd; mjpcau; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; (kPAau;
ePjpkd;wk;) mjw;fhd epthuzj;ij murpay; ahg;gpd;gb mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l mbg;gil
cupik my;yJ nkhop cupikia epiwNtw;W my;yJ epu;thf
13
eltbf;ifahy;
kPwg;gl;ljw;F my;yJ kPsg;gLtjw;F epthuzkhfg; ngwyhk;.

murpay; ahg;gpd; 10-14 gpupTfspy; mbg;gil cupikfs; cs;slf;fg;gl;ls;sd. ,tw;
wpy; rpe;jid kdr;rhl;rp kw;Wk; rka Rje;jpuk;
14
,k;rpj;jy;> nfh^ukhd kdpjhgpkhd
kw;w fPo;j;ju khf elhj;jg;gLtjpypUe;J Rje;jpuk;
15
rl;lj;Jf;F Kd;dhy; rkj;JtKk;
rl;lj;jpy; rkkhd ghJfhg;G
16
jd;dpr;irahd ifJ nra;ag;gly;> jLj;J itf;fg;gly;>
jz;bf;fg;gltjpy; Rje;jpuk;
17
Ngr;R $Ljy;> rq;fk; mikj;jy;> njhopy; elkhLjy;
Mfpa Rje;jpuq;fs;
18
Nghd;wd. Njrpa ghJfhg;G ,d uPjpahd my;yJ r%f ,zf;
fg;ghL Njrpa nghUshjhuk; ePjpkd; wj;ij mtkjpj;jy;> ghuhSkd;w rpwg;Gupikfs;
Nghd;w fhuzq;fSf;fhd rpy mbg;gil cupikfs; gpuNahfpf;fg;gLtjpy; 15 Mk;
gpupT rpyfl;Lg;ghLfis tpjpf;fpd;wJ. rpe;jid> kdrhl;rp> kw;Wk; kj Rje;jpuq;fs;
Jd;GWj;jg;gLtjpy; ,Ue;J Rje;jpuk;> epahakhd tof;FfSf;fhd cupikfs;>
rl;lj;jpd; gbahyd;wp jz;bf;fg;gLtjpypUe;J Rje;jpuk; vd;gd midj;jpYNk
KOikahd Rje;jpuk; KOikahd cupikfshFk;.
19
nghJg;ghJfhg;G rl;lj;jpd; fPo;
epiwNtw;wg;gLk; mtrufhyr; rl;lq;fs; cl;gl;l NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;l Vida cupik
fs; rl;lj;jpd;gb fl;Lg;ghLfSf;F cl;gl;lit. mjp\;ltrkhf gaq;futhj jLg;Gr;
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; (PTA) epiwNtw;wg;gl;l gpukhzq;fs; rl;lq;fshf fUjg;gL tjpy;iy.
mit mbg;gil cupik fis fl;Lg;gLj;jf;$ba cupikfisf; nfhz;lit.
20


ICCPR rl;lk; Nghd;w rl;lq;fs; kdpj cupik kPwy;fSf;F vjpuhf ghJfhg;ig
toq;Ffpd;wd.
b). rl;lg;gb Ml;rp gaDWjpAld; mKy; nra; ag;gltij cWjp nra;Ak; toptiffs;





11.
If;fpa ehl;Lr; rigapd; nghJr;rig cWg;gpdu; vd;w tifapy; kdpj cupikf;fhd ru;tNjr gpufl
dj;jpd; toptiffs (UDHR), ePjpj;Jiwapd; Rje;jpuk; kPjhd If;fpa ehl;bd; mbg;gil Nfhl;ghLfs>
tof;fwpQu;fspd; gq;F gw;wpa I.eh.tpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfs;>; Fw;wQ;rhl;LNthu; gq;fpd; kPjhd
I.eh topfhl;ly;fs; Nghd;wtw;Wf;F ,yq;if jd;id mu;g;gzpj;Js;sJ. ,yq;if nghJeytha ehL
fspy; xU gpujpepjpahfTk; cs;sJ. vdNt `uhNu gpufldj;jpy; mlq;fpAs;s nghJey thaj;jpd;
mbg;gil tpOkpaq;fis epiyepWj;J tjw;Fk; mJ jd;id mu;g;gzpf;f Ntz;ba flg;ghLilaJ.
12.
mbg;gil cupikfs; murpay; ahg;gpy; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;s kdpj cupikfshFk;. vy;yh mbg;gil
cupikfSk; kdpj cupikfshf ,Uf;Fk; mNj Neuk; vy;yh kdpj cupikfSk; mbg;gil cupik
fsy;y. cjhuzkhf tho;tjw;fhd cupikia kdpj cupikahf ICCPR Vw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;s NghjpYk;
12
12
1978 murpay; ahg;gpd;gb mjpy cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;s tho;tjw;fhd cupik mbg;gilahd cupikahf
nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy.
13.
,yq;ifapy; mbg;gil cupikfs; (ghu;f;fTk;) 2 Mk; gjpg;G Iak;gjp tpf;ukul;d 2006 gf;fk; 754
14.
cWg;Giu 10
15.
cWg;Giu 11
16.
cWg;Giu 12
17.
cWg;Giu 13
18.
cWg;Giu 14
19.
Nkd;ikf;Fwpg;G(supra) 13 gf;fk; 211
20.
jtdPjd; vjpuhf jah jprhehaf;f 2001 – I Sri I L R 74
mbg; gil cupikfs;
NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l murpay; ahg;gpd; gb mbg;gil cupikfs; Kiwahf mq;fPfupf;fg;
gl;Ls;s mNj Neuk; kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epthuzj;ij ehlf; $ba xUtopia mJ
toq;fpAs;sJ. MapDk; 17 Mk; 126 Mk; cWg;Giufspy; Fwpg;ghff; $wg;gl;Ls;s
epthuzg; nghwpKiwapy; rpy fl;Lg;ghLfSk; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. Kjyhtjhf 17
Mk; gpupT epiwNtw;W my;yJ eputhfr; nraw;ghl;bdhy; mbg;gil cupikfs; tuk;G
kPwg;gLtijg;gw;wp $Wfpd;wJ. vdNt> ,g;gpuptpd; tplag;gug;gpypUe;J rl;lthf;f
eltbf;iffs; kw;Wk; ePjpj;Jiw eltbf;iffshy;
21
tuk;G kPwg;gLtJ Ntz;L nkd;Nw
jtpu;f;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. cWg;Giu vd;gJ (3) ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; ve;jnthU rl;lj;jpdJk;
mbg;gil cupikfs; vg;gbg;gl;ltifapYk; kPwg;gLtjd; #o;epiyapy; mjd; nry;Ygb
ahFk; jd;ik gw;wp ePjpkd;wNkh epahar;rigNah tpdTtij jilnra;fpwJ. murpay;
ahg;ghdJ kNrhjh epiyikapy; mJ (ghuhSkdwj;jpy; epiwNtw;wg; gLtjw;F
Kd;gjhf rl;l kNrhjh vd;wiof;fg;gLk;) murpay; ahg;gpy; mjd; nry;Ygb ahFk;
jd;ik my;yJ VNjDk; xt;thj jd;ik Fwpj;J ePjpkd;wq;fs; tpdTtjw;F kl;LNk
murpay; ahg;G mDkjpf;fpd;wJ.
22
MapDk; khfhz rig xd;wpdhy; epiw Ntw;wg;gl;l
xU rl;lj;jpd; nry;YgbahFk; jd;ikiag; gw;wp Nfs;tp Nfl;gjw;F vt;tpj jd;ikAk;
,y;iy.
23
,uz;lhtjhf ghjpf;fg;gl;l jug;gpdu; mbg;gil cupikfs; cz;ikahfNt
kPwg;gl;l my;yJ kPwg;gLk; rhj;jpaKs;s xU khjj;Jf;Fs; kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;Jf;F kD
nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. %d;whtjhf ghjpf;fg;gl; l jug;ghu; my;yJ mtuJ tof;fwpQu;
fSf;Nf ePjpkd;wj;jpy; kD rku;g;gpg;gjw;fhd rl;lg;gbahd cupik cz;nld murpay;
ahg;G tw;GWj;JfpwJ. MapDk; ePjpkd;wkhdJ ,r;rl;lj;ij jsu;j;jpaJ. ve;jsTf;F
vdpd; rk;ge;jg;glhj jug;ghiuAk; kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; nghJkf;fs; eyidf;fUjp kD
nra;tjw;F mDkjpj;jik ahFk;. ehd;fhtjhf> re;ju;g;gj;ij nghUj;jstpy; epaha
khdjhfTk; rkj;Jtkhf ,Ug;gpd; mt; thwhd gzpg;Giufis my;yJ epthuzk;
juf;$bajhf toq;Ftjw;F kPAau; ePjpkd;wk; tYt+l;lg;gl;Ls;sJ
.24
,J xt;nthU
tplaq;fSk; xg;Gik ,y;yhj epiyf;F toptFf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; tpj;jpahrg;glyhk;.

kdpj cupikfs; Mizf; FO
If;fpa ehl;Lr rigapd; cWg;gpdu; vd;wtifapy; kdpj cupikfis ghJfhg;gjw;fhf
murpd; mu;g;gzpg;Gf;F tY Nru;f;Fk; tpjj;jpy; 1996,y; kdpj cupik Mizf;FO
epWtg;gl;lJ. murpay; ahg;gpd; fPo; mbg;gil cupik kPwYf;fhd nghwpKiw Vw;f
dNt ,Ue;j NghjpYk; mt;thwhd kPwYf;fhd epthuzj;ij fpuhkq;fspypUe;J kpfj;
njhiytpy; nfhOk;gpy; mike;J cs;s xU ePjpkd;wj;jpy; kl;LNk ngwKbAk;
vd;gij rhjhuz gpui[fSs; xU rpyNu mwptu;. MfNt kdpj cupikfis kf;f
Sf;F kpfr; rkPgkhf tur;nra;J mjid ajhu;j;jkhf
25
Mf;Fk; Kaw;rpNa kdpjcupik
Mizf;FOthFk;. murpay; ahg;Gf;F Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l 17Mk; jpUj;jj;jpd;gb kdpj
cupikfs; Mizf;FO kpfTk; tYTs;sjhf;fg;gl; lJ. ,J ve;jnthU ghugl;rk;
my;yJ murpay; nry;thf;Fg; gw;wpa czu;it Mizf;FOtpypUe;J mfw;wp Mizf;
FOTf;fhd epakdq;fis [dhjpgjpf;F rpghupR nra;tjw;fhf murpay;ahg;Gg;
Nguitia mwpKfk; nra;jJ

21.
Fkhurpq;fTf;F vjpuhf rl;lkh mjpgu; kP Aau; ePjpkd;w tpz;zg;gk; 54/82 SCMN 06/09/1982 mj;Jld;
jahee;jTf;F vjpuhf tPurpq;f FRD(2)292
22.
cWg;Giufs; 121> 122
23.
Nkd;ik 14> gf;fk; 755
13
13
24
cWg;Giu 126 (4)
25.
kdpj cupik Mizf;FO Ie;J cWg;gpdu;fisf; nfhz;lJ. ,tu;fs; kdpj cupikfs; njhlu;ghd
tplaq;fspy; mwpit my;yJ nray;uPjpahd mDgtj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. ,e;j Mizf;FOtpd;
njhopw;ghlfs; gutyhfTs;sJld; mbg;gil cupik kPwy;fisg; gw;wp tprhuj;Jg; guprPyid nra;tjw;
fhd mjpfhuj;ij nfhz;ljhfTk; mbg;gil cupikfSld; xj;Jg;Nghfhj nray; xOq;Ffs; njhlu;
ghd Kiwg;ghlfis tprhupj;Jg; guprPyid nra;Ak; mjpfhuk; cilad. Mizf;FOTf;F tprhuiz
nra;fpd;w gue;jsthd mjpfhuq;fs; cilaJld; mt;thW nra;tjw;F cg FOf;fisAk; epakpf;fyhk;.
mj;Jld; jd; nrhe;j tpUg;gpd;gb xU Kiwg;ghL ,d;wpNa kdpj cupik kPwy;fs; njhlu;ghfTk;
tprhupf;ff;$ba mjpfhuj;ij nfhz;Ls;sJ. Mizf;FO mbg;gil cupikfs; njhlu;ghd ePjpkd;w
tprhuizfspy; jiyaplTk; jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Nlhupd; eyid mtjhdpf;fTk; KbAk;.
MapDk; murpay; ahg;Gg; Nguit njhopw;glhjjd; fhuzkhfTk; tsq;fspy;yhik
fhuzkhfTk; Mizf;FOtpd; mjpfhuq;fis mKy;gLj;j kdTWjp ,y;yhik
Nghd;w fhuz khf kf;fspd; mbg;gil cupikfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;F ,d;W kdpj
cupikfs; Mizf;FO jtwpAs;sJ. ,e;jr; rl;lj;jpNyAs;s ,d;DnkhU gpujhdkhd
FiwghL ahnjdpy; ,e;j Mizf;FOtpdhy; ,zf;fQ; nra;aNth my;yJ kj;jpak;
nra;aNth rpghupR my;yJ gzpg;Giufis kl;LNk toq;f KbAk;. jtpu mt;thwhd
tpjg;Giufis typAWj;Jtjw;fhd mjpfhuNkh my;yJ nry;thf; Nfh nfhz;bUf;f
tpy;iy. Nkyjpf eltbf;iff;fhf ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; [dhjpgjpapdhy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;
gLtjw;fhd mwpf;ifg;gLj;jYf;fhf mwptpg;gijj; jtpu NtnwJkpy;iy.

epWtdj;Jf;fhd ghuhSkd;w Mizahsu; (Mshl;rp mjpfhup)

nghJj;Jiw fhupahyq;fspdhy; nghJj;JiwAld; njhlu;Ggl;l fhupahyaq;fspdhy;
cs;Suhl;rp mjpfhu rigfspdhy; my;yJ mit Nghd;w epWtdq;fspdhy; Nkw;nfhs;
sg;gl;l mePjpahd my;yJ mbg;gil cupik njhlu;ghd KiwaPL my;yJ Fw;wr;
rhl;L xd;iwg; ngWkplj;J Mshl;rp mjpfhup tprhuiz nra;J mwpf;if rku;g; gpf;f
yhk;. ,q;Fs;s mbg;gil Nfhl;ghL kdpj cupik Mizf;FOit NghyNt ePjpia
kf;fSf;F rkPgpf;fr; nra;tjhFk;. NkYk; 17 Mk; jpUj;jkhdJ epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;
jpdhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; ve;jnthU nry;thf;ifAk; mfw;Wtjd; %yk; ,g; gjtpia
murpay;kakw;wjhf;f Kad;Ws;sJ.

























gpur;rpidfSk; fye;Jiuahly; tplaq;fSk;

ru;tNjr cld;gbf;iffs; ,ay;ghfNt mur jug;ghiu mjw;F cld;gLkhW fl;Lg;
gLj;jhtpbDk; xU cld;gbf;ifapy; xU muR xg;gkpLtJld; jdJ cs;Su; kdpj
cupik Mjhu %yq;fs; njhlu;ghf ru;tNjr tprhuizfspy; XusTf;F mJ jhdh
fNt miog;G tpLf;f Ntz;bapUf;fpwJ. ru;tNjr tprhuiz gy Njhw;wq;fis vLf;f
yhk;. cld;gbf;if apdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l rk;ge;jg;gl;l mikg;GfSf; F mwpf;if
gLj;Jk; Njit Kjyht jhFk;. ICCPRIg; nghUj;jstpy; cld;gbf;if apy; $wg;gl;l
cupikfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;f xt;nthU murhq;fj;jpdhYk; vLf;fg; gl;l eltbf;if
fs; gw;wp ICCPRf;F mwptpg;gJ) ,uz;lhtjhf ru;tNjr r%fkhdJ If;fpa ehl;Lr;
rig Nghd;w ru;tNjr nghwpKiwfs; %ykhf my;yJ gpuhe;jpa nghwpKiwfs; %yk;
,t;thwhd cupikfis epiwNtw;W tjw;F mOj;jj;ij gpuNahfpf;Fk; . cjhuzkhf
,yq;if Nkhjypd; ,Wjpapy; td;Kiwfs; mjpfupj;jjd; fhuzkhf ru;tNjr kdpjhgp
khd kw;Wk; kdpj cupikr; rl;lq;fspd; fPo; mjd; flg;ghLfs; njhlu;ghf fupridf;
Fs;shd ru;tNjr r%fj;jpdhy; mJ gyj;j tprhuizf;Fs;shfpaJ. If;fpa ehl;L
(UN) kdpj cupikg; Nguit td;Kiwf; nfjpuhf ghJfhf;Fk; cs;Su; kdpj cupik
fl;likg;Gfspd; Mw;wy;fspYs;s FiwghLfs; ru;tNjr kdpj cupik cld;gbf;if
fis Kiwahf mKy; elj;J tjw;F Njrpa rl;l thf;f rigapd; Mw;wy;fs; kw;Wk;
kdpj cupik epakq; fs; kPwy;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gl;l Nghjpa tprhuizfs; ,d;ikAk;
vd;gd FiwghLfshf ,dq;fhzg;gl;ld. 2008 Mk; Mz;by; If;fpa ehl;L kdpj
cupikfs; Nguitapy; kPz;Lk; njupT nra;tjw;fhd Kaw;rpapy; Njhy;tp fz;lJ.
26

%d;whtjhf> xU ehl;bd; rpwe;j kdpj cupikfs; %yk; gjpTfs; cjtpfs; kw;Wk;
Vida nghUshjhur; rYiffis xJf;PL nra;tjw;fhd Kd;epge;jidahf cs;sJ.
cjhuzkhf 2008 Mk; Mz;L INuhg;gpa Mizf;FO (EU) GSP+ jpl;lj;jpd; fPo;
mtrpa khd rpy ru;tNjr cld;gbf;iffs; mKyhf;fk; nra;tJ njhlu;ghf ,e;j
jplk;lj;jpd; ,yq;ifapd; cWg;ghd;ik ePbf; fg; gl Ntz;Lkh my;yJ thg]; ngw
Ntz;Lkh vd;gw;fhf xU tprhuizia Kd;ndLg;Gr; nra;jJ.
27

murpay; ahg;gpy; Fwpg;gpl;L mbg;gil cupikfs; xU Kd;Ndw;wj;ij fhl;bdhYk;
mjpy; gy FiwghLfs; cs;sd. Kjypy; mjd; cs;slf;fj;ij nghWj;jstpy; capu;
tho;tjw; fhd cupik Rje;jpuk; xU egupd; ghJfhg;G my;yJ nghUshjhu my;yJ
r%f cupikfs; Nghd;w ,d;waikahj cupikfis cs;slf;fpapUf;f tpy;iy.
,uz;lhtjhf mjpy; gy fl;Lg;ghLfs; cs;sd. cjhuzkhf epiwNtw;W my;yJ


14
14






26
Nkd;ikf; Fwpg;G (Supra) 2. 20Mk; gf;fk;
27.
,jw;F Ke;jpa E}ypy; $wg;gl;lthW

































D. epiwNtw; W mjpfhuKk; rl;lg; gb Ml; rpAk;
a). rl;lg;gb Ml;rpf;fhd epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; tfpg;Nghupd; tif$Wk; jd;ik
epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;Jf;Fk; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpf;Fkhf njhlu;ghf 1959 Mk; Mz;L ru;t
Njr [_upfs; fhq;fpurpd; ,uz;lhtJ mwpf;ifapy; vl;lg;gl;l KbTfis ,uz;lhtJ
mwpf;if nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,jpy; epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; jdJ mjpfhuj;ij J\;gpu
Nahfk; nra;tjw;F vjpuhf NghJkhd ghJfhg;Gf;fis rl;lKiwfs; nfhz;bUj;jy;
Ntz;Lk;. rl;lj;ijAk; xOq; ifAk; NgZtjpy; jpwiknfhz;l gaDWjpkpf;f murhq;
fk; xd;W ,Ug;gJ kl;Lkpd;wp> r%fj; jpDs; r%f nghUshjhu epiyikfis
milaf; $bajhd nghJkf; fspd; nghUahjhu ghJfhg;G nghUshjhu ed;ikfs;
kw;Wk; fy;tpiag; gw;wpa epahakhd juj;ij cUthf;ff; $baij cWjp nra;Ak;.

,yq;ifapd; [dhjpgjp MW Mz;L fhyj;Jf;Fk; [duQ;rfkhd thf;Ffspd; %yKk;
,uz;lhtJ jtizf;F jFjp tha;e;jtuhfTk; njupT nra;ag;gL fpd;whu;. [dhjpgjp
murpd; jiytuhfTk; gzpGuptJld; epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;jpd; jiytuhfTk; murhq;
fj;jpd; jiytuhfTk; MAjg;gilfspd; (gpujk jsgjpahfTk; gzpGupfpd;whu;. mtNuh/
mtNsh gpujk ke;jpup ve;jnthU nghWg;igAk; jd;dplNk itj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; Mw;w
iyAk; nghJ[d thf;nfLgnghd;iw gpufldg;gLj;j$ba Mw;wiyAk; ghuhSkd;wj;
epu;thf eltbf;if fSf;F vjpuhfNt mbg;gil cupik kPwy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.
,J jdpg;gl;l eltbf;ifia tpjptpyf;F Mf;FfpwJ. epiw Ntw;W my;yJ epu;thf eltbf;
iffs; njhlu;ghd mbg;gil cupikfs; gw;wpa kDf;fis tprhupf;f kPAau; ePjp kd;wNk Vf
mjpfhu tuk;igf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;. mNj Neuk; jdpg;gl;l jug;nghd;wpdhy; mbg;gil cupik
kPwy; gw;wpa tof;nfhd;iw gpw jdpahu; fk;gdpfSf;F vjpuhf khtl;l ePjp kd;wq;fs; Nghd;w
,d;ndhU ePjp kd;wj; jpy; tof;Fj; njhluyhnkd thjpf;f KbAkh?
 mbg;gil cupikfs; rl;lj;jpd;gb fl;Lg;ghLfSf;F cl;gl;lit. MfNt rl;lkhdJ
nghJg;ghJfhg;G rl;lj;jpd; fPo; [dhjpgjpapdhy; Mf;fg;gLk; mtrufhy rl;lq;fs; Nghd;w
nghJg;ghJfhg;Gld; njhlu;Gila mr;rkaj;Jf;Fupa rl;lj;jpd; fPo; cUthf;fg;gl;l gpukhzq
;fis rl;lk; cs;slf;FfpwJ. MfNt> mtrufhy rl;lq;fs; nghJ kf;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;
fhd Nehf;fj; ijf; nfhz;l mNj cupikfis gbg;gbahf Nja;e;J nry;Yk; my;yJ vLj;
Jf; nfhs;sg;gLk; epiyikia cUthf;Fk;. cjhuzk;> mtrufhyg; gpukhzk; 64,d; gb xU
egu; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gbUg;gpd; ePjthd; Kd;dpiyapy; M[u; nra;ag;gl;L me;j ePjthDf;F me;
egiu jLg;Gf; fhtypy; itf;fNth my;yJ gpizapy; tplNth jw;WzpG ,y;yhj epiyapy;
me;egiu jLg;Gf; fhtypy; itf;f cj;juT ,l fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gLfpwhu;. ,J 13 Mk; cWg;G
iuapd;; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;s cupikfis kPwp elg;gjhFk;.
 fle;j Mz;L fshf kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy; mbg;gil cupik njhlu;ghd tpahf;fpahdk;
nra;ag;gl;lik goik tha;e;jjhfTk; njhopy;El;guPjpahf ,Ue;jjhfTk; fLikahd rl;l
uPjpahff; ftdpj;Jg; ghu;g;gijtpl murpay; uPjpahd mf;fiwfs; kw;Wk; Njrpa eyidf;
nfhz;ljhf thjpf;fg;gLtjhfTk; rpy re;ju;g;gq;fspy; xt;thj; jd;ik nfhz;ljhfTk; rpy
tof;Ffs; jPu;khdpf;fg;gLtjhf tpku;rpf;fg;gLfpd; wd. MfNt mbg;gil cupikfis rl;lj;
jpd; fPo; ghJfhf;fg;gLtJ Kf;fpak; NghyNt ,t;thwhd tplaq;fis tprhupg;gjw;F Rje;jpu
khdJk; ghugl;rkw;w ePjpj;Jiw ,Uf;f Ntz;baJ Kf;fpakhFk;.
 MfNt mbg;gil cupikfis KOikahf cWjp nra;tij cWjpg;gLj;Jk; gy jpUj;jq;
fs; murpay;ahg;Gf; Fr; nra;tJ mu;j;jkw;wjhfptpLk;. ,t;thwhd cupikfis KOikahf
miltjw;Fk; ghJfhf;Fk;tpjkhf mtw;wpd; gq; ifAk; tpahf;fpahd El;gq;fisAk; jpUj;jpa
ikj;jhy; xopa.

15
15
jpdhy; epuhfupf;fg;gl;l kNrhjhf;fs; njhlu; ghfTk; cl;gl) kw;Wk; mikr;ruitAk;
mtu; jiyik jhq;Ffpd;w mtuJ njhopw; ghLfisAk; jPu;khdpf;Fk; gutyhd mjpfh
uq;fisAk; nfhz;bUf;fpwhu;. [dhjpgjp jdJ mjpfhuq; fs;> nghWg;Gfs;> njhopw;ghL
fs; Nghd;wtw;iw murpay; ahg;gpd;gb gad;gLj; jTk; nrayhw;wTk; epiw Ntw;wTk;
nghJg; ghJfhg;G njhlu;ghd28 ve;jnthU vOj;J %ykhd rl;lk; jw;NghJ epiyikf
Nfw;w rl;lk; vd;gtw;wpw;fhf ghuhSkd;wj;Jf;F nghWg;Gf; $wf; $batuhf ,Uf;fp
whu;. MfNt eilKiwapYs;s murpay; ahg;G fl;likg;gpd; fPo; [dhjpgjp gjtpia
tfpf;Fk; fhyj;jpy; fzprkhd msT fhyj;ij [dhjpgjp gad;gLj;JtJld; [dhjpgjp
gjtp fhyj;Jf;Fs; cj;jpNahfg+u;tkhfNth my;yJ jdpg;gl;l uPjpapNyh VJk; nra;jp
Ue;jhy; my;yJ nra;J nfhs;sg;gl;bUe;jhy; [dhjpgjpf;F tpjptpyf;F mspf;fg;gL
fpd;wJ.







































29.
,j;jPu;g;ig murhq;fk; KOikahf mKy; nra;;atpy;iy. khwhf tpiyfis 2 &ghthf Fiwj;J 120
&ghthf (m.nlj.1.5) ,e;j KbT kPcau; ePjpkd;wk; jdJ midj;J ,ilf;fhy cj;juTfisAk; ,uj;
Jr; nra;a Ntz;bAs;sJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf murhq;fk; rpf;fyhdJk; tpiy mjpfupj;jjpy; ,Ue;J jd
;idf; fhj; Jf; nfhs;Sk; cs;Su; kw;Wk; ru;tNjr tq;fpfSld; Vw;ghLfspd; fhuzkhf fzprkhd el;l
gpur;rpidfSk; fye;Jiuahly; tplaq;fSk;
 murpay; ahg;gpy; toq;fg;gl;l tpjptpyf;fpd; fhuzkhf jdJ gjtpf; fhyj;jpd;NghJ> [dhjp
gjp (epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk;) gue;jstpyhd mjpfhuq;fis [dhjpgjp mDgtpf;fpwhu;. 35Mk;
cWg;Giuapd;gb epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;jpdhy; mDgtpg;gLk; tpjptpyf;fpd; fhuzkhf murp
ay;ahg;Gg; Nguitapd; mq;fP fhukpd;wp nra;ag;gLk; Neubahd [dhjpgjp epakdq;fs; rth
Yf;Fs;shf KbahJ. MapDk; 35 Mk; cWg;Giuappd; fPo; [dhjpgjpf;F toq;fg;gLk; tpjp
tpyf;F mtu; [dhjpgjp fhyj;jpy; nra;Ak; eltbf;iff; Nf nry;YgbahFk;. MfNt
[dhjpgjp xUtupd; Ml;rpf;fhyk; KbtilAk; NghJ epiwNtw;wjpfhuj;Jf;F toq;fg;gl;l tpjp
tpyf;F fhyhtjpahfpwJ. MfNt 17Mk; jpUj;jj;jpd; tplag;gug;Gf;F ntspapy; [dhjpgjp
ahy; nra;ag;gLk; epakdq;fs; mtuJ Ml;rpf;fhyk; fhyhtjpahdJk; rthYf;F cl;gLj;jg;
;gl KbAkh? ,jid Kd;dhy; [dhjpgjp re;jpupfh gz;lhuehafh Nthl;lu;]; v[; tof;F
njhlu;ghf tif$w Ntz;ba epiyikAld; xg;gpLf
 ehd;fhk; cWg;Giuapd; gb mjpfhuq;fs; NtWgLj;jg;gly; cWjp nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. MfNt
murhq;fj;jpd; vy;yh %d;W cWg;GfshYk; mjpfhuk; J\;gpuNahfk; nra;tij fl;Lg;gLj;
Jk; tpjkhf rupgpio ghu;f;Fk; Kiw nahd;iw mJ Vw;gLj;jfpd;wJ. MfNt rl;lg;gb
Ml;rpia cWjp nra;tjw;fhf %d;W cWg;GfSk; jkJ njhopw;ghLfisAk; tuk;Gfis
Ak; kjpg;gJ Kf;fpakhFk; . mt;thW nra;aj; jtwpdhy; mJ rl;lg;gb Ml;rpf;Nf Ntl;L
itj;JtpLk;. muR xd;wpd; ve;jnthU ePjpj;JiwapdJk; Kf;fpakhd Fwpfhl;bahf [dhjp
gjpf;Fk; (epiw Ntw;W) ePjpj;Jiwf; Fk; ,ilapyhd cwT cs;sJ. KO ePjpj;JiwANk
my;yJ ePjpj; Jiwapd; jdpg;gl;l cWg;gpdiu murpay; uPjpahf epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;jp
dhy; fLk; tpku;rdj;Jf;Fs;shf;FtJ fzprkhd msT neUf;fbf;F cs;shtJld; murp
ay; uPjpahf czu;r;rpkpf; f tof;Ffis ghugl;rkpd;wpAk; Rje;jpukhfTk; tprhupf;ff;$ba ePjp
thd;fspd; Mw;wypy; Fwpg;ghf jPq;fhd jhf;fq;fis Vw;gLj;Jk;.
 ,Nj Nghd;W ePjpkd;wq;fspd; jPu;g;gf;fis murhq;fk; mKy; elj;j jtWk; NghJ mJ
rl;lg;gb Ml;rpiaAk; ePjpapd; gupghydj;ijAk; mbg;gilahfNt jfu;j;JtpLk;.cjhuzkhf
kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy; toq;fg;gLk; jPu;khdq;fSf;F vjpupilahf [dhjpgjp fle;j fhyj;
jpy; ele;J nfhz;l gy;NtW rk;gtq;fs; cs;sd. cjhuzkhf ngtpjp `z;l vdg;gLk;
gpugy;akhd tof;fpy; ngtpjp `z;l vDk; mikg;gpdhy; nghJrd thf;nfLg;G njhlu;ghf
mr;rplg;gl;l gpuRuq;fis ifg;gw;wpaik rl;l tpNuhjkhdJ vdTk; fk;g`h fhty; Jiw
mj;jpal;rfUf;F Nrjq;fisAk; nrytpdq; fisAk; nrYj;JkhW kPAau; ePjpkd;wk; cj;ju
tpl;lJ. ,r;re;jug;gj;jpy; murhq;fk; kf;fs; epjpapypUe;J mguhjj;ij nrYj;jpaJ kl;Lk;
my;y> ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;ig mtkjpf;Fk; tpjkhf rk;ge;jg;gl;l mjpfhupia gjtp cau;T
toq;fpaJ. kpf mz;ikf; fhy cjhuzkhf kPAau; ePjpkd;wj;jhy; ,ilf;fhy jPu;g;ig
murhq;fk; mKy; elj;jj; jtwpaikahFk;. ,j;jPu;g;Gld; njhlu;Ggl;l gpur;rpid ngw; Nwhypa
tpiy Fiwg;ghFk;. ,jidj; njhlu;e;J rpf;fyhd rl;l thjg;gpujpthjq;fspd; gpd;du; 2008
brk;gupy; jPu;g;G toq;fg;gl; L xU yPl;lu; ngw;Nwhypd; tpiyia 122 &gh tpypUe;J
(mnkupf;f nlhyu; 1.07 ,ypUe;J) 100 tiuf;Fk; (m.nlh.0.8) yPl;lUf;F murhq;fk; Fiwf;f
Ntz;bapUe;jJ. ,j;jPu;g;G murpay;ahg;gpd; 12 Mk; cWg;Giuapd;gb rkj;Jtj;Jf;fhd
cupikapd; mbg;gilapy; mbg;gil cupik kDnthd;W njhlu;ghf Nkw; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
,jpy; kDjhuu;fs; cyf krnfz; nza; tPo;r;rpapd;29 gpd;dUk; ,yq;if ngw;Nwhy; tpiy
fis ,yq;if ngw;Nwhypa $l;Lj;jhgdk; Fiwf;ftpy;iy vd Kiwg;ghL nra;jdu;.
29

16
16
<l;il Nfhupf;iffSf;F murhq;fk; js;sg;gl Ntz;ba epiyikf;F MfpaJ. Murhq;fk; Muk;g cj;j
uit jhd; KOikahd mKyhf;fhnjdTk; mJ Aj;jj;Jf;fhd Kaw;rpfSf;F tpNuhjkhf mikAk;
vdTk; gfpuq;fkhf Fwpg;gpl;lJ. ,jw;F Kd;du; Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy;> ngw;Nwhy; tpiyfis epu;zapj;jy;
Nghd;w tplaq;fspy; ePjpj;Jiw rhu;e;j jiyaPL epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;jpd; Kiwahd mjpfhu vy;iyf;
Fs; mtrpakhd vy;iy kPwpg; gpuNtrkhfNt nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. vt;thwhapDk; ePjpkd;wj; jPu;g;ig KO
ikahf mKy; elj;Jtjw;F kWf;fpd;w epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;jpd; gjpybahdJ ePjprhu; mjpfhuj;jpd;
toikf;F khwhd nra;ifapd; fhuzkhf KLf;fptplg;gl;ljhf ,Ue;j NghjpYk; epiwNtw;W mjpfhu
khdJ ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jPu;g;ig myl;rpag;gLj;Jtjw;F KbT nra;ayhk; vd;gJ Mgj;jhd Kd;khjpupia
cUthf;Ffpd;wJ. murhq;fj;jpd; ,UgpupTfSf;fpilapyhd ,e;j MNuhf;fpaj;Jf;F cfe;jjhd fapwp
Oj;jy; ,yq;ifapd; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpf;fhd cld;ghlhd gq;fspg;G MfhJ.

F rl;lthf;fKk; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpAk;

1959 ru;tNjr [_upfs; ehl;by; rl;lthf;fk; kw;Wk; rl;lg;gb Ml;rp njhlu;ghd Kjyh
tJ mwpf;ifapy; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpapd; fPo; xU rl;lthf;f rigapd; njhopw;ghL xU
jdpg;gl;l egu; vd;w tifapy; mtuJ nfsutj;ij Nkk;glr; nra;Ak;tpjkhf epiyik
fis cUthf;fp mijg; NgZtjhFk;. vdf; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jJ. rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rp>
rl;lthf;f rigapd; mjpfhuq;fs; murpay; ahg;G topKiwfshy; mikf;f Ntz;b
apUf;Fk;. ,J Rje;jpukhd Nju;jy;fis cWjp nra;jy; rl;lthf;f rigapdhy; ,aw;w
Ntz;ba rl;lq;fisAk; ,aw;Wjy; ghuQ;rhl;lg;gl;l rl;lq;fis fl;Lg;ghl;il cWjp
nra;jy;> Rje;jpukhd ePjpj;Jiwapd; epiy Ngw;iwAk; ghJfhj;jy; kw;Wk; mbg;gil
cupikfs; kw;Wk; gpd;Ndhf;fpa rl;lq;fis ghjpf;Fk; tpjkhf ghugl;rkhd rl;lq;fis
rl;lthf;fr; rig ,aw;whjpUj;jy; vd;gtw;iwf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.

murpay; ahg;gpd; 93 Mk; gpupT Nju;jy;fs; Rje;jpukhdjhfTk; rk tha;g;GfisAila
jhfTk; ,ufrpa thf;nfLg;gpd; %yk; elf;f Ntz;LnkdTk; gpufldk; nra;fpd;wJ.
cWg;Giu 4 (V) kw;Wk; cWg;giu 75 vd;gd ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; kPJ rhjhuzkhf
rl;lj;ij Mf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ij toq;F fpd;wJ. rpy tpNrlkhd rl;lq;fs; nghJ rd
thf;nfLg;G xd;wpy; (83 Mk; cWg;Giu) kf;fshy; mDkjpf;fg;gl Ntz;bapUg;gpDk;
$l NghJkhdsT fl;Lg;ghLfs; 30 ,Ug;gpd; rl;l g+u;tkhd rl;lq;fis Mf;Fk; ghuhS
kd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuq;fSf;F ,uz;lhk; jukhd rl;lq;fs; ,Ug;gJ ve;jtifapYk;
vjpuhf mikahnjd ePjpj;Jiwapy; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ
.30
NkNy Fwpj;jthW ,Uf;Fk; gy;
NtW gpupTfSk; (cjhuzkhf gpupTfs; 107> 108> 112> 115> 116) ePjpj; Jiwapd; Rje;
jpuj;ij cWjp nra;tJld; mbg;gil cupikfspd; mj;JkPWfpd;w ghuhSkd;w cWg;
gpdu;fshy; nra;ag;gl;l my;yJ nra;tjw;F vz;zpAs;stw;iwAk; cWjp nra;fpd;wJ.
rl;lthf;f rigahdJ nghJj;Jiw epjp njhlu;ghd tplaq;fspy; epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;
Jf;F Nkyhf nghWg;GilajhfTk; nghJ ghJfhg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; mtrufhy gpukh
zq;fis tpLg;gjw;F Njitahd mtrufhy gpufldj;ij Nkw; ghu;it nra;Ak;
nghWg;igAk; nfhz;lJ.

















gpur;rpidfSk; fye;Jiuahly; tplaq;fSk;

 njupT nra;ag;gl;l xU mikg;G vd;wtifapy; rl;lg;gb Ml;rpiaAk; ey;yhl;rpiaAk;
cWjpg; gLj;Jtjw;fhd nghWg;ig nfhz;Ls;sJ. MapDk; murpay; ahg;gpd; 17 Mk;
gpuptpd; fPo; murpay; ahg;G Nguitf;F cWg;gpdu;fis njuptpg;gjw;F Vw;gl;Ls;s
ngUk;ghyhd jhkjq;fs; K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; gpujpepjp xUtiu cWg;gpdu;fspd; 5 Mk;
tifapy
31;
fPo; njupT nra;tjw;F K];ypk; fl;rpfs; ,zq;f KbahikNa fhuzkhFk;.
mj;Jld; ghuhS kd;wj; jpYs;s rpwpa fl;rpfSf;F nrhe;jkhd ngUk;ghyhd
ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fs; ,zf;fg; ghl;Lld; epakpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba 6 MtJ tif
cWg;gpdu; fPo; epakdk; nra;ag;gl Ntz;ba ,zf;fkpd; ikAk; fhuzkhFk;. murpay;
ahg;G Nguitapd; Kf;fpaj;ij tpl FWfpa fl;rp murpaNy fye;Jiuahly;fis top
elj;jpd.
17
17

30.
tPurpq;f vjpu; rkurpq;f 68 gf;fk; 361 murpay; ahg;gpd; Vida toptiffSf;F Nkyjpfkhf 158 Mk;
cWg;GiughuQ; rhl;lg;gl;l rl;lj;jpd; kPjhd cldb fl;Lg;ghl;il cWjp nra;fpd;wJ.

31.
murpay; ahg;G NguitahdJ 1. gpujk ke;jpup 2. rghehafu; 3. vjpu;f;fl;rpj; jiytu; 4 [dhjpgjp
ahy; njuptpf;fg;gl;l xUtu; 5. gpujk ke;jpupahYk; vjpu;f;fl;rpj; jiytuhYk; njupT nra;ag;gl;l Itu;
[dhjpgjpahy; epakpf;fg;gLtu;. ,J ghuhSkd;wj;jpYs;s fl;rpfspd; jiytu;fSld; fye;J iuahbr;.
nra;ag;gLk;. ,tu;fSs; %tu; rpW ghd;ik ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdUld; fye;Jiuahlg; gl;l rpWghd;ik
eyd;fis gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;thu;. 6. xUtu; ngUk; ghd;ik ghuhSkd;wcWg;gpdupd; ,izf;fg;ghl;L
ld;> gpujk ke;jpupAld;> vjpu;f;fl;rpj; jiytUld; NruhJ [dhjpgjpahy; njupT nra;ag;gLthu;











9. KbG

vg;gbg;gl;l tpahf;fpahdj;ij xUtu; Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhYk; rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rpahdJ
mjpfhuj;jpd; kPjhd gaDWjpg;ghl;Lila jilfisAk; tpjpg;gJld; vy;yhtpjj;jpYk;
jiyapLk; Nfhupf;iffisf; nfhz;l mjpfhuq;fspypUe;J gpui[fSf;fhd ghJfhg;
igAk; toq;FfpwJ.
32
rl;lg;gbahd Ml;rpahdJ jhu;kPf rl;lj;jpd; Nfhl;ghNlh my;yJ
rl;l g+u;tkhd jd;ikiaf; nfhz;lNjh my;y. mJ epWtd uPjpahd jhu;kPff; Nfhl;
ghlhFk;. ,J rl;l mKyhf;fj;ijAk; rl;l Mf;fj;ijAk; xNu khjpupahf topfhl;L
tjd; %yk; rl;lj;jpd; epr;rajd;ikiaAk; nray; xOq;FuPjpahd ghJfhg; igAk;
cWjp nra; fpd;wJ. cupikfs; gw;wpa vz;zf;fUtpd; Kiwrhu;e;j Mdhy; jd;dpiy
ahd midj; Jk; cs;slq;fpa eilKiwahFk;. mj;Jld; mJ tif$wy; jd;ikAk;
tpidj;jpwidAk; epahaj;jd;ikiaAk; nfsutj;Jf;fhd jd;ikiaAk; J}z;LfpwJ.

.



















32
Nkd;ik Fwpg;G (Supra) gf;fk; 15










 ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fis ntspNaw;wk; nra;tJ njhlu;ghf murpay; ahg;G
toptiffs; ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdupd; ];jpu jd; ikf;F Fe;jfj; tpistpg;gJ mtu; ;fspd;
Rje;jpukhd rpe;jpj;jiyAk; ghjpf;fpwJ. murpay; ahg;gpd;gb jdJ fl;rpapdhy;
ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gl;l xU cWg;gpdu; (,d;ndhU fl;rpapy; ,ize;J nfhs;t jw;fhf)
fl;rp khwpa fhuzj;Jf;fhf my;yJ jdJ murhq;fj; jpdhy; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l xU
kNrhjhTf;F vjpuhf thf;F toq;fpajhy; mtu; jd;id ntspNaw;wk; nra;tjw;F
Mshfpwhu;. mj;Jld; kPAau; ePjpkd;wNkh ghuhSkd;w njupTf;FONth fl;rpapd; xOf;
fhw;W eltbf;if my;yJ epahakhd ePjp Nfhl;ghLfs; gpd;gw;wg;gltpy;iy vd
jPu;khdpj;jhy; xopa mtuhy; ghuhS kd;wj;jpy; epiyj;jpUf;f KbahJ.

18
18
rl;lKk; rdehafKk;

rl;lj;jpw;Fk; murpayikg;Gthjj;jpw;Fk; rdehafj;jpw;Fk; cs;s njhlHG
vd;d?

ve;j r%fj;jpYk; rl;lj;ij ,aw;wntd xU cr;r mjpfhu mikg;G cz;L. ve;j
murpay; KiwikapdJk; jPHkhdq;fs; nraw;ghLfs; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;L
njhlHghly; nra;ag; gLk; gpujhd topahf rl;lk; cs;sJ. rdehaf Kiwapy;
nghJkf;fs; ed;ikf;fhd jPHkhdq;fis vLf;Fk; murhq;f mjpfhu %ykhf
kf;fs; cs;sdh;. rl;lj;jpd; topNa ,j; jPHkhdq;fs; xOq;Ffshf cUthf;fg;gl;L
nghJf; nfhs;ifahf eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jd;gbf;F rl;lkhdJ
nghJf; nfhs;ifapd; nkhopahfg; ghHf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. nghJf; nfhs;iffs; rl;lj;jpy;
cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhy; mitfs; mKy;gLj;jf;$badthf cs;sd.

murhq;fk; mKy;gLj;j flikg;ghLila mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffis xOq;Fg;
gpukhzkhf khw;Wtjd; %yk; rl;lkhdJ murpayikg;Gj;Jtj;jpw;Fk;
rdehafj;jpw;FkpilNa xU mtrpakhd ,izg;ig mJ Vw;gLj;JfpwJ.

rl;lkhdJ kdpj nraw;ghLfis newpg;gLj;JtjhfTk; fl;Lg;gLj;JtjhfTk;
fUjg;gLk; mNjNtisapy; mJ rdr%fj;jpd; tpUg;Gf;fisAk; Nehf;fq;fisAk;
ePbg;gjw;fhd gpujhd Clfj;ijAk; toq;FfpwJ. r%fk; mjpfk; mjpfk; Nehf;fk;
fUjp nraw;gLk;nghOJ mjd; murhq;f epWtdq;fis topelj;j nrt;itg;gLj;j
mjd; rl;lq;fspYk; mjd; tpsf;fq;fspYk; jq;fpapUg;gJ mjpfkhFk;. Vnddpy;
r%fj;jpd; jPHkhdq;fs; rl;lj;jpy; gpujpgypf;fpd;wd vd;gJld;> rl;lj;jpd;
cs;slf;fk; gw;wpa gue;j mwpT murhq;fk; rl;lj;jpw;F gpukhzpf;fkhf ,Uf;f
Ntz;ba> murhq;fj;jpd; nghWg;Gf;$w Ntz;ba jd;ikf;F ,l;Lr; nry;Yk; . rl;lk;
fye;JiuahlYf;Fk; nghWg;Gf;$Wk; jd;ikf;Fk; trjp nra;Ak; msTf;Fk;
rdehafj;ij Cf;Ftpf;fpwJ.

1. rl;lj;jpd; cl;$w;W Fzhk;rk;: xU r%fj;jpd; cwTfis fl;likj;jy;>
xOq;fikj;jy;> epWTjy; vd;gtw;Wf;fhd mbg;gil toptiffis rl;lk;
toq;Ffpd;wJ. ,e; Nehf;fpy; rl;lkhdJ kdpj tho;Tf;F xOq;if mspf;f
Njitahd mbg;gil Vw;ghLfisAk; ,izg;Gf;fisAk; Kd;itf;fpwJ.
mj;Njhly;yhky; Kiwahf Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l rl;lkhdJ thrpf;fg;gl;L nrt;it
nra;ag;glyhk;. ,ij khw;wKbahj xd;whf fUjNtz;bajpy;iy. ,J kPs;
ghprPyidf;Fk; khw;wj;jpw;Fk; cl;gLj;jf;$baJ.

2. nghJf; nfhs;if: murpay; nrad;Kiwapd; rhuk; nghJf;nfhs;iffis
tFg;gjhf ,Ug;gpd; mJ nghJj; jPHkhdq;fis njhpTfis Nkw;nfhs;tjhf
cs;sJ. ,jpy; rl;lNk fUtpahfr; nraw;gl;L mjD}lhf ,j; jPHkhdq;fs;
vLj;jpak;gg;gl;L eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;L mKy;gLj;jg;gl;L jPHg;gspf;fg;gLfpwJ.
3. njhlHr; rp: r%fj;jpw;F xOq;ifAk; Kd;dwptpg;igAk; ghJfhg;igAk; jg; gpg;
gpiog;igAk; toq;Fk; gpujhd top tifahf rl;lk; cs;sJ. rl;lk; mjd;
mHj;jj;jp;y; Kd;Djhuzk; my;yJ mDgt kuG vd;gtw;wpy; jq;fpapUf;Fk;
msTf;F rdr%fk; chpa fhyj;jpy; ek;gfj; jd;ikiaAk; Ra xj;j jd;ikiaAk;
rhjpf;fr; nra;fpwJ.
4. mgpyhi\fs;: r%fk; jd;id ntspg;gLj;jp mjd; tpOkpaq;fis ,yf;Ffis
kw;Wk; gytw;iwAk; xOq;FgLj;Jk; gpujhd toptifNa rl;lk; MFk;. ,e;j
tifapy; rl;lk; r%fj;jpd; mgpyhi\fis cUtg;gLj;jp mjid gpujpgypf;Fk;
Nritiar; nra;fpwJ. rl;lkhdJ r%f NtWghLfSf;F ghyk; mikg;gJld;>
jdpg;gl;l ek;gpf;if ,y;yhj epiyikfspy; xUtH kPJ xUtH re;Njfj;Jld;
,Uf;Fk; jug;gpdhpilNa KiwrhH flg;ghLfis cUthf;fp mjw;fhd
ghpfhuq;fisr; nra;fpwJ.
19
19
murpayikg;GthjKk; murpayikg;Gk;

murpayikg;Gthjk; vd;why; vd;d? murpay; mikg;Gld; mjw;Fs;s cwT
vd;d?
murpayikg;GthjKk; vd;gJ tiuaWj;j murhq;fj;jpd; murpay; Nfhl;ghlhFk; . ,e;j
murpay; Nfhl;ghlhL kw;Wk; mjDila tpOkpaq;fshdit> jhuhz;ikthjk; kw;Wk;
rdehaff; nfhs;ifAld; xj;Jg;Nghtjhf ,Ue;jhYk; jhuhz;ikf; Nfhl;ghL xU
rdehaf; Nfhl;ghl;bypUe;J RahjPdkhdJ. jhuhz;ikthjkhdJ tuyhw;W hPjpahf
jdpegHfspd; tpLjiy rhHghf murhq;fj;jpd; tiuaWg;Gf;fhd xU nghpa gpujhd
thfdkhf Nritahw;wpaJ. murhq;fk; gphpTfspd; tpUg;GfSf;fhf Nritahw;Wtjw;F
vjpuhf nghJed;ikf;fhf Nritahw;w murhq;fj;jpd; mjpfhuq;fis tiuaWf;f etPd
rdehafk; murpyikg;Gthjj;jpd; mHg;gzpg;gpy; jhDk; gq;F nfhz;L nraw;gLfpd;wJ.
etPd rdehafkhdJ jhuhz;ik murpayikg;Gthjj;jpd; mHg;gzpg;gpy; jdpegHfspd;
chpikfisg; ghJfhg; gJ rhHghf mur mjpfhuq;fis tiuaWg;gjpy; jhDk; gq;F
nfhz;L nraw;gLfpd;wJ.

kdpj mjpfhuj;ij tpl caH mjpfhuk; cz;L vd;w vz;zj;jpypUe;J tuyhw;W
hPjpahf murpayikg;Gthjk; vOe;Js;sJ. ,e;j vz;zj;jpd;gb cah; mjpfhuj;Jf;fhd
xUthpd; flikg;ghLfs; murhq;fj;jpw;fhd xUthpd; flikg;ghLfis jhz;br;
nry;fpd;wJ. MfNt murhq;fj;jpd; fPo;g;gbTf;fhd chpa Nfs;tpahdJ
mj;jpahtrpakhf tiuaWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j tiuaiwfshdit cyf
Ml;rpahsHfis MSk; caHthdthplk; ,Ue;J tUk; caH rl;lk; vd;w
vz;zf;fUtpy; mbgl;Lg; Nghfpd;wJ.

mj;Jld;> murpyikg;G tuyhw;wpd; ,d;ndhU fl;lj;jpy; fpNuf;f rdehafj;jpy; my;yJ
cNuhikf; Fbaurpy; gpuirfspd; cah;thd kjpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba epiyapypUe;J
vOe;jit> murhq;fj;jpd; mjpfhuj;jpy; tiuaiwfis cUthf;fpaJ. tuyhW
KOtJk; ey;y murhq;fj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;F vLf;fg;gl;l Kaw;rpfs;
murpayikg;Gthjj;jpd; murpay; Nfhl;ghl;bd; fzprkhd nfhs;iffis
mKy;gLj;Jtjw;F KiwrhHe;j vOjg;gl;l murpayikg;Ng rpwe;j topnad
ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;L epWtg;gl;Ls;sJ. murpay; rf;jpg; nghWg;ig kf;fsplNk nfhLf;Fk;
rdehaff; nfhs;ifAk; tpLjiyiag; ghJfhf;Fk; jhuhz;ikf; nfhs;ifAk;
mJNtahFk;.

tiuaWf;fg;gl;l murhq;fj;jpd; Nfhl;ghlhf murpayikg;Gthjk; mjpfhuj;ijf;
fl;lisapLk; mjpfhukhf khw;Wfpd;wJ. ,f; Nfhl;ghl;bd; fPo; cs;s xNunahU
rl;lG+h;t mjpfhukhf mlf;fg;gl;l mjpfhuk; cs;sNjhL> gfpHe;J nfhLf;fg; gl;lthW
tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjpfhuk; Mizf;FOf;fs; %ykhf> tpNrl Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf
epakpf;fg;gl;l> tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jg;gl;l epiyikfspy; kw;wtHfs; rhHghf
gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. mjpfhuj;ijg; gpuNahfpj;jy; $l ahH rhHghf mJ
nra;ag;gLfpd;wNjh mtHfspd; rpwe;j ed;ikf;fhf Nritahw;wntd
nraw;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. MfNt mjpfhuk; vd;gJ xU ek;gpf;ifahf kpfTk;
mbg;gilahd %yj;jpypUe;J cUthfp mJ cUthf;fg;gl;l Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
njhlHr;rpahf epge;jidAld; gad;gLfpwJ. ,e; ek;gpf;ifapd; Nehf;fKk; nfhs;ifAk;
mlf;fg;gl;l mjpfhukhf kl;Lkd;wp ePbj;J epw;gjhfTk; cs;sJ.

murpay; Kiwikfspd;gb mjpfhuk; vd;w tifapy; rpy KiwrhH murpayikg;Gf;fs;
me;j Mizf;FOf;fshYk; ek;gpf;iff; FOf;fshYk; tiuaWf;fg; gl;l murhq;ff;
Nfhl;ghl;il gpujpgypf;fpd;wd. Mdhy; NtW rpy mt;thW gpujpgypg;gjpy;iy. xU
murpay; Kiwik Mizf;FotpdhYk; ek;gpf;iff; FOtpdhYk; ,af;fg;gLk;NghJ>
mjd; murpayikg;ghdJ> ahH rhHghf murhq;fj;jpd; mjpfhuk; nraw;gLj;jTk;
fl;Lg;gLj;jTk; KbfpwNjh> me;j caH %yj;jplkpUe;Nj ngw;Wf;nfhs;fpwJ. ,e;j
20
20
caH %yNk (kf;fs; my;yJ flTfs;) ,iwikAilNahuha; fUjg;gLfpd;wdh;.
tiuaWf;fg;glhj murhq;f re;jHg; gq;fspy; murpayikg;ghdJ Vkhw;W
Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf gad;gLj;jg;gLtJld;> mjpfhuj;jpy; cs;Nshhpd; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;glhj
mjpfhuj;ijAk; kiwf;fTk; jtwhd Ml;rpia kiwf;fTk; mJ gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

Mizf;FO> ek;gpf;iff;FO vd;w mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffisg; gpujpgypf;Fk; murpay;
mikg;Gf;fs;> mtw;wpd; mjpfhuKk; epWtdq;fSk; tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sNghJ kl;LNk
,t; murpay; KiwikahdJ> mJ KiwrhH murpayikg;ghf ,Ue;jhnyd;d
,y;yhtpl;lhnyd;d murpayikg;G thjj;jpd; nfhs;ifiag; gpujpgypf;Fk;. ,t;
tplaj;jpy; murpayikg;G thjk; caH rl;lj;jpd; tfpgq;if vLj;Jf; nfhs;fpwJ.

,jd; tz;zk; murpay; FOkk; (murhq;fk;) murpayikg;GlDk;> murpayikg;Gthjk;
(murpayikg;G murhq;fk;) ,ilNa NtWghL cs;sJ. vy;yh murpay; KiwapYk;
xU murpayikg;G ,Uf;Fk;. mJ murpayikg;G Kiwik cilajhfNth my;yJ
Kiwikaw;wjhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. ,e;j tifapy; murpayikg;gpy;
nra;ag;gl;litfspd; tpguzk; my;yJ murpay; Kiwik Ml;rp Kiwikf;$l;L
vd;gjw;F Nkyhf ,J vJTk; ,y;iy. murpay; FOkk; vt;thW mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ
vd;gijNa ,J fhl;LfpwJ. mjhtJ ,jd; mbg;gil vt;thW mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
mjd; Kjw;nfhs;if vt;thW ciuf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ. mjd; Fzhk;rk; vt;thW
tbtikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gijAk; ,J fhl; LfpwJ. mjDila KiwrhH vOjg;gl;l
Mtzk; $l mJ murpayikg;G epakk; vd mHj;jg;glhJ. ,e;j murpayikg;G
epakq;fspd; fPo; murhq;fk; xd;W xOq;Ffshy; fl;Lg;gl;lJ.

,e;j epakq;fis mKy;gLj;j murpayikg;Gthjj;jpd; nfhs;iffisg; gpujpgypf;Fk;
murpayikg;ghdJ> caH rl;lkhfr; nraw;gLk;.

,t;TaH rl;lk; jdpgH chpikfisg; ghJfhf;fTk;> nghJ ed;ikia Cf;Ftpf;fTk;
murhq;fq;fis mikg;gJld; tiuaiwfisAk; nra;fpwJ.

1. murpayikg;Gthjk;

murpayikg;G thjf; Nfhl;ghl;bd; fPo; xU murpay; KiwahdJ xU tiuaWf;fg;gl;l
Kiwikia mjd; Fzhk;rj;ijAk; vLj;Jf;nfhz;L rpy epWtg;gl;l
Nehf;fq;fSf;Fk; tiuaiwfSf;Fk; cl;gl;L nraw;gl flg;ghLilajhAs;sJ. xU
murpayikg;G Kiwikapd; tbtKk; Fzhk;rKk;> mbg;gil Mtzq;fspy; mjd;
tbtk;> kw;Wk; mjpfhu tiuaiwfis tpghpf;fTk; Fwpj;Jr; nrhy;yTk; vd
Ntz;Lnkd;Nw Kd;itf;fg;gl;bUf;fyhk;. murpayikg;ghdJ> tpsf;fj;ijAk; rl;l
,ak;giyAk; nfhz;lJ. mJ nra;af;$baJ> nra;a KbahjJ> nra;ag;gl Ntz;baJ
vd;gtw;iwf; $Wfpd;wJ.

murpayikg;G Kiwikapd; tbtk;> Fzhk;rk; vd;gtw;iw epWTifapy;
murpayikg;G Kiwikia cUthf;FtJ vd;gJ xU Mokhd rdehaf
eltbf;ifahf cs;sJ. nghJ tpsf;f nrad;Kiwfspd; gpd;G> kf;fs; xU
murpayikg;ig mq;fPfhpg;gJ> rdehafj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;fhd xU fUtpahf
cs;sJ. ,e;jf; fye;Jiuahly; nrad;KiwahdJ murpay; Kiwikia
cUthf;Ftjpy; kf;fspd; fzprkhd gq;fspg;ig vjpHghHf;fpd;wJ.


m murpayikg;Gthjj;jpd; nfhs;iffs; - murpayikg;Gthjj; jpd; gb
 epWtg;gl;l epakq;fspd; gpufhuk; mjpfhuk; nraw;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

 murpay; Kiwik ,Wjpapy; tiuaWf;fg;gLtJld; rl;lG+Ht KbTfisr;
rhjpg;gjw;F mJ gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
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21

 xU njhFjp mbg;gil epakq;fspd;gb kjpg;gplg;gl;L> rl;l xOq;Fld; xj;JtUk;
rhjhuz rl;lq;fs; cUthf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

 rdehafj;jpd; ,iwikf;Fhpa kf;fs;> murpayikg;Gf;F ,zf;fk;
mspf;Fk;nghOJ murhq;fj;ij khj;jpuk; tiuaiwg;gLj;Jtjhf md;wp
jk;ikAk; mt;thW nra;a Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzk; mtHfs; Kiwahf khw;wg;gLk;
tiuf;Fk; murpayikg;gpd; Vw;ghLfSf;F mtHfs; fl;L;g;gLfpwhHfs;.

 murhq;fj;jpd; mjpfhuj;jpd; kPjhd fl;L;g;ghLfshy; khj;jpukd;wp murhq;fj;jpd;
fl;Lg;ghl;bw;F mg;ghw;gl;l tpNrbj;j chpikfspd; cj;juthjq;fshYk; my;yJ
chpikfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd mur epWtdq;fspd; tpNrl mjpfhuq;fshYk;
jdpegH mjpfhuq;fs; ghJfhf;fg;glyhk; .

 tho;tpd; rpy tplaq;fs; murpaypdJk; murhq;fj;jpdJk; chpa mYty;fshf
,y;yhJs;sJ. mtHfspd; mjpfhukplYf;F mg;ghyhditahf cs;sd.

M murpayikg;G murhq;fk;. murpd; mjpfhuq;fspd; mbg;giliaAk; msitAk;
Kd;itf;Fk; murpayikg;Ng murpayikg;G murhq;fkhFk;. ,e;j mjpfhuq; fis
tiuaWg;gjw;fhd> kw;Wk; nfhs;iffs; tpOkpaq;fs; vd;gtw;Wf;fhd ,ilapyhd
njhlHG Nehf;fpa efHTfs;> murpay; tho;tpd; ajhHj;jk;> vd;gtw;iw mJ
Kd;itg;gJld; mjw;fhd jhf;fkhd toptiffisAk; murpayikg;G toq;FfpwJ.
xU murpayikg;G murhq;fkhdJ mjpfhuj; ijf; nfhz;bUg;gJld; murpayikg;ghy;
mjd;Nky; ,lg;gl;l tiuaiwfSf;Fk; mike;J NghfpwJ.

,. 'jtwhd (Sham) murpayikg;Gfs;" : murpayikg;Gf;fis my;yJ murpayikg;G
thjj;ij kjpg;gJ vd;w NghHitapy; rpy murhq;fq;fs; gpioahd topelj;Jjy;fis
my;yJ jtwhd murpayikg;Gf;fis Kd;itf;fpd;wd. ,itfs; cz;ikahd
epWtdq;fSlDk; nraw;ghLfSlDk; kpfr; rpwpjsthd cwit
itj;Jf;nfhs;tJky;yhky; murpayikg;G murhq;fj;jpd; tiuaiwfs; kPjhd jk;
mHg;gzpg;ig gpujpgyp;g;gJkpy;iy. murpayikg;G murhq;fq;fSf;F khwhf ,itfs;
xOq;fikg;gw;witahf cs;sJld; tiuaiwaw;w murhq;fq;fshf mjpfhuj;ij
itj;jpUf;Fk; topfspy; jhf;ftpisTk; ,itfsplk; ,Ug;gjpy;iy.

2. murpayikg;G thjj;jpw;Fk; rl;l xOq;F vz;zf;fUtpw;Fk; ,ilapyhd
njhlHG” rl;l xOq;F vz;zf;fUthdJ xOq;Ffs; Vw;fdNt Kd;itf;fg;gl;L
gutyhf mwpag;gl;L nghJg;ghtidapy; cs;sijAk;> mtHfs; eLepiyahfg;
gpuNahfpf;fg;gLtijAk; Ntz;b epw;fpwJ. ,itfs; mur mjpfhhpfSf;Fk; ehl;bd;
Vida kf;fSf;Fk; chpadthf cs;sd. MfNt ,r; rl;l xOq;F vd;gJ ntWkNd
rl;lj;ij itj;jpUj;jy;> rl;lj;ij ,aw;Wjy; vd;gij tpl NkyhdJ. ,f;
nfhs;ifahdJ VNjr;rhjpfhuj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l rl;lj;ij khw;WjYld;
Kuz;gLtJld; Ml;rpnra;Ak; Ml;fs; mt;tg;NghJ fz;Lgpbf;Fk;> jk; nrhe;j
tpUg;Gf;fis> ghugl;rj;Jld; gpuNahfpg;gjw;Fk; kw;Wk; my;yJ jkf;Fg;
nghWg;ghditfspy; njsptw;wpUg;gjw;Fk; KuzhdJ.

rl;l xOq;fpd; Fiwe;jgl;r Ghpe;JzHtpd; fPo; ,r; rl;l xOq;fpd; rhukhdJ ey;y
epakq;fSlNdh mwj;JlNdh mitfs; KiwikhPjpahfTk; epahakhdjhfTk;
epHtfpf;fg;gLk; tiuapy; xj;J mike;jpUf;fj; Njitapy;iy. ,t;tz;zk; rl;l
xOq;fhdJ rdehafk; mw;w murpaypYk; ,Uf;fyhk;. rl;l xOq;ifg; gw;wp ed;F
Ghpe;J nfhz;l epiyapd; fPo; rl;lkhdJ> mJ rl;lk; vd;w jifik ngw> ePjpapd;
cr;r epakj;Js; xj;jpUf;f Ntz;bAs;sJ.

22
22
nghJ ed;ikiaAk; jdpegH chpikiaAk; ghJfhg;gjw;fhf> gpuirfspdJk; mur
mjpfhhpfspdJk; nraw;ghLfis tiuaWf;f> rl;l xOq;Ffisg; gad;gLj;j KbAk;.
xOq;fhdJk; Kd;dwptpf;ff;$baJkhd murpay; epiyikf;F cfe;jjhf
,Ug;gjw;fhf> ngUk; vz;zpf;ifahd jdpegHfspdJk; epWtdq;fspdJk;
vjpHghHg;Gf;fis xUq;fpizf;Fk; ,aYik Clhf> rl;lk; xOq;fhdJ murpay;
mjpfhuj;ij mjpfhpf;Fk;.

rl;lk; xOq;fpd; m&gpf; Fzhk;rj;ij> murpayikg;G thjk; vz;zq;fis kpfTk;
ntsp;g;gilahd rl;lq;fshfTk; Vw;ghLfshfTk; khw;Wk; nraw;ghLfspy; czUfpwJ.
,itfs; mur epWtdq;fspdhYk;> nghJkf;fspd; nghJf; fye;Jiuahly; kw;Wk;
tpthjq;fshYk;> gpuNahfpf;fg;gl;L tpsf;fk; nra;ag;gLk;.

3. murhq;fj;ij tiuaWf;Fk; topfshf murpay;> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; jdpahs;
chpik Rje;jpuk;

murpayikg;Gthjj;jpw;Fk; kw;Wk; murpay; nghUshjhuk;> jdpegH chpik
vd;gtw;Wf;FkpilNa cWjpahd cwTKiw cz;L. murpay; nghUshjhuk; kw;wk;
jdpahs; Rje;jpuk; murhq;fj;ij tiuaWg;gjpy; Nritahw;Wfpd;wJ. mjhtJ
tiaWj;j murhq;fq;fs; ,t; Rje;jpuq;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;F mtrpakhditahf
cs;sd.

murpay; Rje;jpuk;: murhq;fj;ij fl;L;g;gLj;Jtjw;fhd nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd
kf;fspd; chpikAld; ,J rk;ge;jg;gLfpd;wJ. murpay; Rje;jpukhdJ kf;fspd;
nraw;ghLfspYs;s Rje;jpuk;: mtHfs; jk; fUj;Jr; Rje;jpuk;> nghJmYty;fs;
vd;gtw;Wf;Fs; murhq;fk; jiyapLtijj; jLf;fpwJ. ,t;thW jkJ murpay;
Rje;jpuj;ij gad;gLj;Jtjdhy; murhq;fj;jpd; kPjhd jkJ ,iwikia
epiyehl;LfpwhHfs;.

nghUshjhu Rje;jpuk;: nghUshjhu Rje;jpukhdJ mur Neub fl;Lg;ghl;bypUe;J
njhopy;Kaw;rp kw;Wk; epWtdq;fspd; nraw;ghLfs; Rje;jpukhf ,Ug;gij Fwpj;J
epw;fpwJ. xU jhuhs r%fj;jpd; mbg;gil tplak; ,JthFk;. nrhj;Jf;fspd; RtPfhpg;G>
mtw;wpd; ghtid> mjpfhpg;G> khw;wk;> iftpLif vd;gtw;Wld; ,J rk;ge;jg;gLfpwJ.
nghUshjhu Rje;jpukhdJ jk; tho;tpd; mbg;gil tplaq;fis elj;Jtjw;fhd
kf;fspd; chpik> kw;Wk; ePjpaw;w murpd; Nkw;ghHitfs;> jiyaPLfspd;wpa
Rje;jpukhd mtHfsJ nraw;ghLfSld; rk;ge;jg;gl;Ls;sjhy;> ,J mur mjpfhuj;jpd;
vy;iyia tiuaWg;gJld;> mjDld; Nghl;bapLk; RahjPdkhd mjpfhu
ikaq;fisAk; cUthf;Ffpd;wd.

jdpahs; chpik : ,J jdpegHfSk; jdpegH FOf;fSk; tho;f;if topfis
nfhz;L nry;Yk;> kw;Wk; murpaypy; murhq;f mjpfhuj;jpd; mDkjpapd;wpNa jkJ
nraw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;Sk; xU Rahl;rp tyaj;ij Fwpf;fpwJ. cjhuzj;jpw;F
FLk;gq;fisAk; el;Gf;fisAk; cUthf; Fjy;> kjj;ijf; filg;gpbj;jy;> rq;fr;
nraw;ghLfspy; gq;Fgw;Wjy;> mofpay; Kaw;rpfspy; <LgLjy; vd;gtw;Wld; ,J
rk;ge;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;jr; nraw;ghLfs; jdpegHfspd; RaepHzaj;ij mjpfhpg;gJld;>
Rje;jpuj;jpd; Cw;iw gpujpj;Jtk; nra;J muhq;fj;jpd; Neubf; fl;Lg;ghl;bypUe;J
jdpegiug; gphpf;Fk; njhpitAk; jUfpd;wJ.






23
23
murpayikg;G rdehafk;

murpayikg;G vd;w vz;zj;Jld;> kf;fis mbahff; nfhz;l murhq;fj;jpd;
cwTKiw vd;d?

murpayikg;G vd;w vz;zk; %d;W kl;lq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. fPo;kl;lkhd kf;fspd;
$l;bizg;G> nfhs;if tFg;G> kw;Wk; murhq;fj;jpd; rl;lf mikg;G vd;gd
mitahFk;. murpayikg;gpd; vz;zj;jpd; xt;nthU kl;lj;jpYk; murpayikg;ghdJ
gpuirfSf;F mtH jk; tho;itAk;> KbitAk; chpikahf;fpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd
toptiffis toq;FfpwJ.

xU tiutpyf;fzk; nra;ag;gl;l kf;fs; $l;lkhf my;yhkNy> mjhfNt rptpy;
mbg;gilapy; xd;wpize;J murpay r%fkhf> murpay; epWtdkhf khw;wk;
ngWfpd;wJ. mt;thW rptpy; If;fpa kf;fshf murpay; rigahf khw;wk; ngw
nghJtho;it ,aYkhdjhf;Ftjw;fhf mk; kf;fs; $l;lkhdJ gu];gu my;yJ
Nghjpa rfpg;Gj; jd;ikAld; xd;whf cwTfis Vw;gLj;j Ntz;bAs;sJ. ,r;
rdj;njhifapd; xl;Lwtpy; rptpy; r%fkhf kf;fspd; mbg;gil murpayikg;ghdJ
cUg;ngw;W mjpy; mtHfs; jk; rfghbfspd; ,aYikia xUtUf;nfhUtH
mq;fPfhpf;fpd;wdh;.

,t;tz;zkhd rdj;njhifapd; xl;LwthdJ ,iwikAila murpay; kf;fs;
r%fj;jpd; mgptpUj;jpf;fhd rhj;jpaj;ij cz;lhf;Ffpd;wJ. ,t; mbg;gil
murpayikg;ghdJ xU Rahl;rp kpf;f murpay; myif my;yJ murpay; r%fj;ij
cUthf;Ftjw;fhd js mikg;ig toq;FtJld;> mJ gytpjkhd tbtq;fisAk;
vLf;ff;$bajhfTk; cs;sJ.

kf;fspd; mbg;gil murpayikg;gpd; tpOkpaq;fs; mtHfspd; cwtpy; ntspj;
njhpfpd;wJ. mitfs; toikahf ntspg;gilahf cUthf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. mjidAk;
tpl ,e;j tpOkpaq;fs; vy;yhk; ghjpf;fg;glhJ cs;sJld;> KOikahf
vLj;jpak;gg;gLfpd;wJ. Vnddpy; ,itfspy; gy Fwpg;gplg;glhj my;yJ kaf;fkhd
Cfq;fspNyNa ,aq;Ffpd;wd. ve;j murpay; KiwapdJk; kpf ntspg;gilahd
murpayikg;ghdJ ,k; kf;fspd; mbg;gil murpayikg;Gld; xj;Jg;ghHf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. Koikahfg; ghpzhkile;j KiwfspNy xU murpay; r%fj;jpd;
ntspg;gilahd murpayikg;ghdJ murpay; epWtdq;fSf;fhd kd;wkhf kf;fspd;
mbg;gil murpayikg;gpd; Kf;fpa tpOkpaq;fis Kiwahf vLj;jpak;Gfpd;wJ.

kf;fs; jk;ikj; jhNk Ms;tjw;fhd> chpa epWtd Vw;ghLfis mtHfs;
cUthf;ff;$bajhf cs;sJld;> murpay; Kiwikapy; cUthf;fj;jpw;Nfh my;yJ
kpfTk; KiwrhHe;j murpayikg;Gf;Nfh Njitahd mbg;gilfis kf;fspd;
mbg;gil murpayikg;ghdJ toq;FfpwJ. ,jd;gb kpfTk; KiwrhH
murpayikg;ghdJ kf;fspd; nghJtho;it Jbg;ghdjhf;Fk; cw;rhf murpay;
cs;slf;fkhf Nritahw;Wfpd;wJ. ,t; murpay; r%fj;jpd; kpfTk; KiwrhH
murpayikg;Gk; kf;fspd; Jbg;Gldhd cw;rhfKk; xd;Wld; xd;W ed;F
nghUe;jhJtpbd; mt; murpayikg;ghdJ cWjpaw;w mj;jpghuj;ijf;
nfhz;bUg;gJld;> kf;fspd; Rahl;rpia jf;f itf;Fk; jpwikaw;wjhfTk; cs;sJ.
murpayikg;gpd; %d;W kl;l vz;zkhdJ kf;fspd; nghJj;jd;ik kPJ mj;jpghuj;ijf;
nfhz;L murpay; xOq;F xd;iw epiyepWj;jp rdehaf Fzhk;rq;fis gpujhdkhfg;
gpujpgypf;fpd;wJ.

kf;fSf;fhd Fwpg;gpl;l murpay; xOq;fpd; tbtikg;ghdJ epWtg;gl;l gpw;ghL
cjhuzk; (xU Fwpg;gpl;l FbauR my;yJ rHthjpfhu tifg;ghL fhzg; gLtJld;>
murpayikg;G vz;zj;jpd; NtnwhU vz; zf;fU vd;dntdpy;> rhrd murhq;fk;
xd;wpd; Vw;ghlhFk;. mjhtJ mbg;gilahd my;yJ vspa fl;lq;fshfr;
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24
Nritahw;Wk; mur epWtdq;fspd; rl;lf mikg;ghFk;. ,r;rhrdkhdJ toikahf
vOjg;gl;l murpayikg;gpypUe;J cUg;ngWfpd;wJ. murhq;f rhrdj;jpd; Vw;ghLfs;
ed;F cWjpg;ghlila mtHfspd; cWjpg;gLj;Jgitfs; Clhf kf;fspd;
Nehf;fj;jpw;Fj; Njitahd nfhs;iffs; gpujpgypf;fg;gLfpd;wd. mNjNeuk; murpay;
r%fk; rdehafk; nghUe;jpajhf ,Ue;jhnyd;d ,y;yhtpl;lhnyd;d murpd; rhrd
Vw;ghLfs; murpay; FOtpd; tiutpyf;fzg; Nghf;fpw;F cz;ikAilajhf
epiyj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

rptpy; kf;fspilNa NtWgLj;Jk; tifg;ghLfs; ,Ug;gjdhy; cyfshtpa hPjpapy;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gl;l vy;yh ,lKk; gad;gLj;jf;$ba murpay; tbtNkh my;yJ
murpayikg;Ngh fhzg;gLtjpy;iy. vy;yh ehl;bYk; ngaH ngw;w> Rahl;rpia
ntw;wpfukhf nfhz;L elhj;j Kd;dNu> tiutpyf;fzk; nra;ag;gl;l mur
epWtdq;fspd; njhFjpAk; ,y;iy. ,t;thwhf kpfTk; cWjpg;ghLila kf;fSf;fhd
murpayikg;ghdJ kf;fsplkpUe;Jjhd; vo Ntz;Lk;. khwhf ntspapYs;s ve;j
epGzhplkpUe;Jk; xU ,Wjpg; nghUshf ,jid ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbahJ.

1. KiwrhH murpayikg;gpd; vz;zf;fU: xU KiwrhH murpayikg;ghdJ vOjpa>
xU gFjp vOjpa my;yJ vOjhj murpayikg;ghf xU murpay; rdr%fj;jpd; kf;fs;
$l;lj;jpd; nghJf; Fzhk;rq;fisAk;> mbg;gil tpOkpaq;fisAk; gpujpgypf;fpwJ. xU
murpayikg;gpd; vz;zf;fUthdJ mjid epWTiff;F Kd;gjhf Kd;itf;fg;gl;l
murpay; Kiwikapd; jpl;lkhf ,Uf;fyhk;. my;yJ ,Ue;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk; murpay;
KiwikfspypUe;J vLj;J cUthf;fg;gl;l nfhs;iffspypUe;J cUthfpajhf
,Uf;fyhk;. xU KiwrhH murpayikg;ghdJ xU r%fj;jpw;fhd murhq;fj;jpdJk;
murpay; rf;jpapdJk; murpay; rf;jpapd; epwtdj;jpdJk; Nehf;fq;fis Kd;itj;J
cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.

KiwrhH murpayikg;gpd; vz;zf;fUthdJ Mff; Fiwe;jJ gpd;tUk;
tifg;ghLfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. xU cld;ghL my;yJ r%f mlf;fk; mjpNy
jdpegHfs; murpay; kf;fshf jk;ikj;jhNk ,zq;fpAs;sdh;. murpay; kf;fSf;Fk;
mtHfspd; murhq;fq;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa xU xg;ge;jk; xd;W cs;sJ. mj;Jld;
mq;NfAs;s mbg;gilr; rl;lkhdJ rl;l xOq;fpd; Kiwikf;fhd mbg;gilia
cUthf;FfpwJ. murpayikg;G vd;w gjkhdJ gpd;tUk; jifik cilajhAs;sJ.

m. murhq;fj;jpd; tifapd; tpguiz
M. mbg;gilr; rl;lj;ij Kd;itf;Fk; Mtzk; my;yJ Mtzq;fspd; Nrfhpg;G.
,. vOjpa Mtzk; my;yJ Mtzq;fspd; njhlH;r;rp. jpUj;;jq;fSf;fhd
eilKiwfSld;> toikg;gb tpthjpf;fg;gl;lJld;> rl;lthf;fk; kw;Wk;
ePjpkd;wj; jPHkhdq;fs;.
<. kughf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l> jPHf;fg;gl; l Ghpe;JzHTfspd; njhFg;G
c. mur mjpfhuj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;> vy;yhr; rl;lthf;fj;jpw;Fk; xU epakj;ij
toq;Fk;> murpd; Vida nraw;ghLfSk; xl;br; nry;y Ntz;bapUg;gJld;>
r%f KiwrhH mgpyhi\fspd; njhFg;ghfTk; cs;s> caHe;j mbg;gilahd
my;yJ vspa rl;lq;fs;.
C. murpay; kf;fs; $l;lj;ij ,yf;fzg;gLj;Jk; nfhs;if tpOkpaq;fspd;
njhFg;G


2. KiwrhH rdehaf murpyikg;gpd; Nehf;fq;fSk; gad;fSk; :
murpayikg;ig gpd;tUtdtw;Wf;Fg; gad;gLj;jyhk;.

m. murpay; Kiwikapd; mjpfhuq;fisAk; murhq;fj;jpd; njhopw;ghLfisAk;
cUthf;Ftjw;F

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25
M. kf;fshy; mspf;fg;gl;l murhq;fj;jpd; mjpfhuj;ij tYit tpghpg;gjw;F

,. murpay; mjpfhuKk; murhq;f nraw;ghLfSk; jPh;g;gplg;gLk; ePjp epakj;ij
epWTjy;

<. murhq;f fl;likg;gpd; rl;lf mikg;ig Kd;itj;jy;> murhq;fj;ij
tYT+l;ly;> murhq;f mYtyfq;fisAk; mit vt;thW epug;gg;gl Ntz;Lk;
vdTk; Fwpj;Jiuj;jy;. kf;fSf;Fk; murhq;fj;jpw;FkpilNa cwit epWTjy;.

c. jdpegH chpikfis ghJfhf;fTk; nghJed;ikia Cf;Ftpf;fTk; murhq;f
mjpfhuq;fis tiuaWj;jy;.

C. rptpy; r%fk; kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l me;juq;fj;jpd; Rakhd njhopw;ghl;Lf;fhd
trjpia cUthf;fy;.

v. xU nghUshjhu Kiwikf;fhd Kd; epge;jidfisAk; mbg;gil
xOq;FfisAk; epWTjy;

V. khfhz khtl;lq;fs; my;yJ muRfs; vd murpay; r%fj;jpd;
cl;$WfspilNa mjpfhuj;ij xJf;Fjy;.

I. mikjpahd Kiwapy; gpzf;Ffisj; jPHf;f xOq;Fis Vw;gLj;jp rl;l
xOq;Ffis epWTjy;.

x. xU murpay; Kiwikapd; Kf;fpa tpOkpaq;fisAk; nfhs;iffisAk; r%f
mgpyhi\fisAk; vjpHfhyj;jpw;fhd topfhl;Ljy;fisAk; NrHj;Jf;nfhs;Sjy;.

X. khw;wj;jpw;fhd topfspy; gzpahw;WtJld;> r%fg; gpur; rpidfisj; jPHj;J
itj;jy;.

Xs. gpuirfs; jk; murhq;fj;ij kjpg;gplf;$ba vLj;jhsy; tplaq;fisAk;
epakq;fisAk; mtHfSf;F toq;Fjy;.



















26
26
o¬ ++«+¡a·n +¬+++x
+cc++n ¬c+ +ao«+a·n axxo o¡+cna
q=axx. j«+n·
(: - iã »ns· iª:ª,
q=axx ¬n¬ì 1o¡¬snn +¬o7o·¬a 0o¬ ++« +¡a·n +¬+++x +cc++n ¬c+0 .no+·=a
j«+o 1o¡¬s +cc++n ¬c++= ¬aoo¬cn·n 1+·co·m+¬a.a. «csa+¬++¬n+¬a.a ¬o
s¬++ 7+n+1+·m. j«+ .==++¬¬s s¬¡sx++=oom++. 7+as·++n=
0axx ¬n¬ì 1o¡¬s +cc++n ¬c+ .nza .= =++¬sx ¬ny +++na·n ¬a+v+¬a .m+
=¬¡++= ++x·s+·+. +n«o¬+= =noocc ++«+¡v+na. ±·¬a+na ±= 7cnya. j« + ±·¬
a+a. ++«+¡v+¬a ¬¡+n mc·+o o·=+·+=+7+·a s+n= ¬s¬+= ±·+== 7cnya 7+·s++=
j¡=c·s+·+. o¬ +n·+ na·n « ++=¬n+=a. +ccsn¬ì+a ¬¬aoq+=a. ¬aoo¬c ±·¬a+a
anya ++«+¡v+an o·=+·oq++·n onzy+.aa sa+¬nn¬aoq+n+=a·n +++n 1+¬s ±aa
7+ny 7+·s++= ¬nn·s+·+. +¬+. 7o·¬a·+·¡ anya +x·+·¡ «¬x¬a+¬a «nom+=s= ¬c
+a 7+a¡sa·+ s·as+n=a. +a= +cc«¬x+++~aa ¬ox·¬++¬a «¬n1snn+7+·as+n=a ±
+~7anya +nn=0
(+ìs1++ +cc sxx«ì+a ¬¬=+=+0 +n1n·a s¬cv+a. x·+nn » s ¡a«+·. o+ :J
,
7a·++a·+ j«+ ¬n¬ì 1o¡¬snx :: «·m+¬a+ 1+ì«+ is:+= 1anocc « +o++na. +cc ¬n¬ì+
na. +cco 1o¡·+·nì+na ov=onnnì jo1o¡¬s+=+ +n··oq+7+n.++a·+ ¬¬=+=+ 7«+ìx·«
=. 1~+ «+·x iª:s n¬x : anya s¬a 1+++ax o¬ +n··oq+ +cc+¬+ «c++n= jv= +cc
++n ¬c+ +ao«+a·n 1o¡¬s+ 7+nno·cm ¬n+¬+¬n s¬¡.a 7o·yoq +nn·a »m= 7+nx·a
ì «·n+a +¬ 1«·ìan a·ì+ ¬sì+n+= sav+oocc= j«+ iJt o++v+a 7+·=c ¬n+¬+ iª::
¬a ¬=ax »m= 7+nx+a «c++n +ccsn¬ì+a anya +cc «ysnv+a +ao«+a·n +ìs1++
a+oo·nsx +¡ccoocc ++sx+an ¬aoo¬cnx ¬¬a«++·=a +¡ccoocc ++sx+a ons¬a
o·~+a·+ ¬¬a++ooccn
i o·¡·nann+a. +cc++n ¬c+.a
: «¬n1sny+=¬n.a. +cc++n ¬c+.a
J =nnsnx 7+nx+¬n.a. +cc++n ¬c+.a
t +cc++n ¬c+nn+ as¬a « ++=¬n.a. +cc+7+·axa
1o¡¬snn ¬aìsn1o·= «ysoocc =+++a os7s·nya «·n= +¬o 7o·¬c+na os7s·ny+
=a ¬ìoo=oq+7+·=c¬sn·+ sav+n 7+nno·cm ¬n+¬+1n +x«=¬¡n·cx+n++·n ¬aoo¬
c¬n sav+n= =+++an ¬n+¬++na. +a~+na j¡=m ++«¬n ¬aì~+ax +aìoo++ooc
cn scn s·++v+a onnì sa«c++x =+~+= ¬nyoom++ooccn j+=+ +a~y+=a ++«
¬n ¬aìsn1o·= +a~+¬a+ +aìoo++=
=+++an +a~+a +ao«+a·n o¬ +·¡·a+a
i o·¡·nann+a. +cc++n ¬c+.a
o·¡·nanna +ao«+a·n =+ +n= +a~+ax +cc++n ¬c+nn+ a o·¡·nanna an+·n 7+a¡s
+¬+ ±nìs·+ a++=a «¬x¬a+¬a ±¬s·++. 1oma +¬aoo·m+¬a «¬n1sny+nn= .ny 7
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+·s++= j= +sx anya ¬¡+nx ±·¬a+¬a.a. +¬+. 7o·¬a·+·¡. +xs anya +x·+·¡ «¬x
¬a+¬a.a ¬v+ +·oo¬+ ±aac+=s+·=a j¬s +n«o·n ¬n¬a¬no o¡=a·+ ¬os¬++7+
n=7+·as+n= jnnn¬an·+¬s .ny =+ +¬+n=
=+ +cc++n ¬c++=+ +¬+++za s·+a +nan+¬¡o o¡a·=oom+=a ¬+=¬ns·n +¡«nav
+na 1+·co·m+na ¬s+n7anya 7+·s++= .s s·n·nza. j++¬+n +¡«nav+a +ccs·++ ¬
++·¡++na = +x acmoo·m+¬a+ =noo+·=a o·¡·nann++na = s+++ooma acmoo·m+a ¬¡+
nx¬aoox ±aac++oocm. o¬ +n·+ na·n « ++¬n+·ì j=++ +¬onn·x o·=+·++oom+x 1s=
ma
=+sn +a~+an o¡+·¡a o·¡·nann+=+=o ons¬a 7o·yoq+a ±aan
+c«+ +·x+¬+.a ±aac+=as¬+nx·n +ccs·++v+¬a «nom++·+¬++x0 +n= +ccv+ax o
¬ o¡¬»+=a. 1s7n·¬s¬+=a¬cnx o·¡oc+a +·cc·+¬++x0 a+ «ao+¬+ ++«+¡++x +¬xn
c·+¬++x0 +¬+++n ¬v+++sì+n+= o¬ 7o·yo qaa ¬¡+·v++¬+o 7ony+7+·as+n+·n ±·¬
a¬n ay++·+¬++x0 1o+++ ++«+¡a. +cca+ma ++«+¡a ¬xx= +v+v+¬a ¬¬a+=a ++«+¡
a .nosnnna = acmoo·m+¬a s+++·+¬++x0 +n«o·n ¬aoo¬c ±·¬a+a anya ++«+¡v+
a o¡1n·++=+= my 7+nn·+¬++x0 anya 1an+nn ++«+¡v+¬ao o·=+·oo+n+·n «csa+¬+
+¬n+·ì sa+¬nn¬aoq+¬a sav=+x (0±·n 7+nx+¬n +ao«+a·n «csa+¬++¬n0,
: «¬n1sny+=¬n.a. +cc++n ¬c+.a
«¬n1sny+=¬n +ao«+a·n =+ o·¡·nann++n·x «¬n1sny+=¬n+= sav+ooma ¬++·¡v+
a +·++na·n. ¬++=y+n acmoo·m+na «ny+7+·aao oc1s=m7anya j++¬+n ¬+na++oo
cc ¬++·¡v+an ¬a¬s.a. 1«·+++¬+.a o·¡·nann1a «ì=n++1s=m7anya. j++¬+n ¬+
na++oocc ¬++·¡v+a «¬c+¬n+=+ 7+·=ms¡ooma «csa+¬++¬n+¬a.a o·¡·nann1a +
ìa·n++1s=m7anya +a~7+n+= o¬ +n·+ na·n « ++¬n+·ì ¬¬aoq+= «¬n1sny+=¬nn
n·x 7+·=ms¡ooma +ccs·++v+¬a a ao·ì¬s7+n.a ¬++·¡a sav+oom+x 1s=ma (« ++¬n
+·ì a a·n~,
«¬n1sny+=¬n 1«¡an·+~a. o·++a·+~a o¬ «o¬¡ ¬xx= o¬ 7+·+¬+ ¬xx= o¬ +n«o·
n ±·¬a+¬ao o·++=a1o·=. ¬sì +n= scn+¬+ o¬ « +ann++n+n +aìoo+=a ±·¬a¬n
.a. o¬ 1o·+n «s·¡=+¬+o 7ony+ 7+·ana ±·¬a¬n.a 7+·=a¬++x 1s=ma « ++¬n+·
ì a a·n~ sa+¬nn¬ao7o·ny jxx·sax. +n«++a s+·¡¬= anya +x«+·1x·+¬n «csa+
¬++¬n+a «nom++oom+x 1s=ma jsnnz·c·+. +a= ±·¬a+a ¬xx= «xn+a o·+++ooma
+¡oonì +a= +¬+¬+ .m+=¬¡oo+n+·n 1o·+n +«+ìoo+¬+o 7ony+ 7+·aax·a
=+ «¬n1sny+=¬n +n= + ìa·nv+¬a 1an7+·ana1o·=. ¬+n+·n +·¡=v+¬a.a s=++¬
a++1s=m7any 1+c+oocc·x. ¬= +cc++n ¬c+¬n sxoom+=7anya. ¬++¬n.aa o¬
+¡oq 1s=a+7+·ana1o·= ¬++¬+n +·¡=v+¬a+ 7+·s++1s=m7anya +a~7+n+=
J =nnsnx 7+nx+¬n.a. +cc++n ¬c+.a
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=+ =nnsnx 7+nx+¬n =¬nnx «¬c+¬n· +nx +cc++n ¬c+¬no o¡1n·+oo==n+=+ +
«+++= =+ +cc++n ¬c+¬n 1an7+·as¬+ ±y+oom+=as¬+nx ¬s+na·n ¬+=¬ns·n
s++¬n+¬a.a 7+a~om++n=
=+ +c«+ +·x+¬+.a ±aac+=as¬+nx·n +=c¬n+ +ccs·+++¬++ +¬c7+ns= +ao«+a·
+~a (+cc++n «++na·n +n¬a,. «¡o¡·+7nny +nz·+oo= +ao«+a·n 1+·co·m=n+=a +a
~+¬a 1an7+·=c= =+sn ¬ooo¡·n++x j¬s oì .+¡·n +nz·++¬+ ±¬s·+=a «+a~
=¬a+a «ysoocc onn1¡ .=o++1s=an 7o·yoq anns¬+= a·nnooc1s=ma
o¬ «o¬¡+ ¬+=7+n.a scn++x ¬+=7+n.a ¬++·¡a o¡a·=oom++o oms+·m. ¬+=7+nnoo
cc «o¬+= ¬s·n ¬+=++·n +·¡=v+a 7+·s++oom+x 1s=ma o¬ +cc a+.¬¡n·a¬¡o 7
ony+7+·ana ±·+= ¬s¬+= ±aa= ¬sì o¬ =y+n +·xoo=+nza o¬ « ++¬n+·ì ¬++
··+= +no·++ 7+·=ms¡oom+x 1s=ma
s+·¡¬=+= +«+n +moq++·sx scn++x =+ o¬= 1+·· s==oo+=a ±·¬a ±aacv=a
s¬+nx. ¬+=7+nnooccs·n ±·¬a+¬a «¡xcc=
o·=+·oq s·++¬++ +n··+= «c+=s= anya sa++·a +¡oon ¬+=¬n«+ +c¬a+a .no¬s
+ao«+a·+~a +a~+a 1an7+·aaooccn j¬s sa++·a +¡oq +·++a·n +·ny+¬a+ =nna+·c
cooccs·ca¬«= a¬n++x ¬+·= .no¬+.a ±aac+=sns·=a
=nn¬+·ccooccs¬¡+ =y+= s+·¡¬=7+n.a scn++x. =+ ¬+=¬ns·n +¡«nav+¬a «ì
=na7+n+= j¬s o¬sì +n¬n++·1n =nn«¬xo om++·+¬+=a ±·¬a++·n a+oq anya =
nn¬+·ccooccs·n ±cx anya ±asnx s+oo+¬+ ±++¡s·+oom+=a 1+·co·m+a ¬=a
=+ =nnsnx sa+=+ax o+¡v+ s+·¡¬= +ao«+a·+~a 1an+¬nn m+a anya «s·¡=v+n+
+·n ±·¬a +ao«+a·+~a +a~+¬a 1an7+·=c=
jy+n·+. =+ +cc++n ¬c++= +=c¬n +ao«+a·+ .«+s+a·n =noo·n ++=s+a ¬s+na
x¬x7nny + ìa·n++= ¬nza. +cc++n ¬c+ .no= 7+·m¡a·n. an+·oa·nann ¬xx= a+
a¬+n +moq «csa+¬++¬a ¬xx= +=c¬n+¬a+ +=a++1s=ma .nya +a~7+n+= j
ss·n·+ =+ jnnn jcv+a7xxx·a + ì+¬++ «csa+¬++¬a 1an7+·as+n= ¬+¡~ sav+n=
t +cc++n ¬c+nn+ as¬a « ++=¬n.a. +cc+7+·axa
« ++=¬n anya +cc+7+·ax +ao«+a·n =+ +cc++n ¬c+¬n ±nìs·+ a++=as¬+nx +n·
+ na·n « ++=¬n7n·nnn +++n+=s+¬+ sx.y++n= « +o++an «nana +ao«+a·+ ¬¡+n
j¡=m +¬a+n++¬cnx·s= o+=¬aoq (¬+·s= « ++=¬n.a . o·¡·nann+a, ±aacv=as
¬+nx +x =noocc «csa+¬++a¬xa « ++ =¬nnn ++«+¡a o·=+·++ooma 1axa. =+ +cc
++n ¬c+¬no o·=+·+=a o¬ +++n scn7anns¬+nx « ++=¬n .no= 0¬+nn+an·+0 o
ny .no¬+ ±=ì«+=
+cc+7+·a¬xo 7o·y++s¬¡nx =+ +n= 7+·«+ ss+·¡v+¬a ++·¬a+=sa 7+n.a ++«+¡a7
+·=c. «n= o+v=om++oocc o¬ +cc+7+·ax jnnn¬an·+7+ny +¬+n= o¬ +cc ¬n¬ì
¬s¬+= s¬a .«+ sa+¬+.a «ny+7+·ana ++«+¡+¬++ 7+·=a¬++1s=m7ann ¬1+1s
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¬anx. ¬sì +x sa+=+ax +n+= j¡++a «noc·+ «oì+¬ao o·=+·+= s·+·ms+n=a +coo·c
¬c+ 7+·=a¬++1s=ma
=+ « + ¬¬ns¬+=a +aa·n +¬nnx +cc1s=m7ann o¡++¬n¬n.a ¬+n·=c= 1o·+n
¬asx·n +cc a+.¬¡.a. o¡+«++=s+a sav+ooms¬+ ±y+7+n.as¬+nx +cc+7+·ax +
n= a+++noo·n o¡n++nv+¬a 1an7+·as= ¬+n o¡+·n +coo·c·=a .no=a ±=¡oocc=
.ss·n·nza. ¬¡+a. »n+¬++a +cc+7+·ax jo7o·yo¬o «¬n1snys+x ±+s7+n.a +coo
·c¬c+ 7+·=a¬+=a
axxo o¡+cna
joo¡+cna o=¬oo7o·y++s¬¡nx 7o·=s·n+·+~a. +cc++n ¬c+ «x~a «·m+an s¬oq+
=·n ¬a+v+¬a ±aac+=s+·+~a ¬¬a«+= 7o¬aa~+=o o¡+cna ±x+a·sns¬+nx +cc
++n ¬c+¬n ±y+7+n+= o¡+cn+¬+ «¬c+¬noom+=s+n+·n 7o·yoq ov1+n1o·¬¡.a. +ì
s1++ +ccsn¬ì+a ¬¬=+=+¬s.a 1+ì«++·=a o¡+cna ¬n¬ì 1o¡¬snn +a~+ax .m+
=¬¡++oocc 1+·co·m+¬a+ ++x «·m+ax+aa +ccsn¬ì+a +a= 7+·«+ »n+¬+v+ax «¬c
+¬noom++1s=m7any ¬¬aoqsm++nn= +ìs1++ +ccsn¬ì+a ¬¬=+=+ 0±x+a ++
s+xa ¬n¬ì 1o¡¬s +a~+n+= «¬c+¬n s¬a¬s+ 7+·m+=as¬+nx +n= o¡=a·n ¬
xsav+¬ao onnom++1s=ma0 .nya 1+cm+7+·aaoocc=
axxo o¡+cna
:J «·m+¬a+ 1+ì«+ is: « +o++a. 7+·ax7+n.a sa++n¬ì+a. anya +cc+¬+o 1o·++=a ¬+·n
ì+a iª:ª »ns·nx q=axxnx +ìs1++ +ccsn¬ì ¬¬=+=+sn ¬z+¡¬=nn+ a +a. ±x+
a ++s+xa +cc++n ¬c+ anya « + «ìs·+a .nosn¬n+ ++«+¡a·+~a. 7saoo¬cn·+~a
+x«=¬¡n·a. o·¡·nanna. «¬n1sny+=¬n. =nnsnx 7+nx+¬n. « ++=¬n anya +cc+ 7+·
ax +ao«+a·n +a~+¬a .m++¬oo+·x. (j«+ +a~+a joo¡+cn+1+·m j¬=++oocmaan,
jo7o·+= ono++.cn.
iª:ªjx +ìs1++ +cc ¬n¬ì+a 1o¡¬sn·x «ny+7+·aaoocc «+n« +cc++x .m+=¬¡++ooc
c 1+·co·m+¬a sx.y++. o¡++1n+a·+ ++«+¡a·n « ++=¬n.a. +cc+7+·axa +cc++n ¬c
+¬no 1oms+n=a. +¬nn·n « + «¬s·++=+=a jnnn¬an·+¬s .nya a a sx.y++0
+cc++n ¬c+ oì jn++ sx+7+·=c .==++¬ .no¬+.a . ¬+n s«+·oq+=a. «¬n1snn
+=+=a +ccsn¬ì+a ++n¬xn·+o 7o·yoo·nsì+a .no¬+.a. ¬= o¬ ++«+¡ +¬+++x +n
«oì+an +sx anya ¬¡+nx ±·¬a+¬ao o·=+·+= +n1nnys+n= a·++¡ann. +nan+n=
+cc«¬x+ ++~aa ¬ox·¬++a anya 7+a¡sa .no¬s +ccooc++ans¬+nx +¬+. 7o·¬a·
+·¡. +xs anya +x·+·¡ «¬x¬a+¬a.a ¬= «nom+=s+·=a .no¬+.a ¬v+ +·+=0
¬n¬ì 1o¡¬snn +a~+na .m+=¬¡++oocc 1+·co·m+n+=+ ++x «·m+¬a.a 1+ì«+ +ccsn
¬ì+a +a= 7+·«+ »n+¬+v+ax «¬c+¬n sx sav+1s=m7anya ¬¬aoqsm+=0 anya
jy+n·+.
+ìs1++ +ccsn¬ì+a ¬¬=+=+¬so ons¬a·y 1s=a+7+·an+nn=
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i ¬n¬ì 1o¡¬snn +a~+ax .m+=¬¡++oocc 1+·co·m+n+= ±x+a ++s+xa «¬c
+¬n sx¬s sav=s+n= ¬+n o¡=a·n ¬xsav+¬ao onnom+=+x 1s=ma
: +a= ¬¡+nx anya +cc «ysnv+¬a «y~a . a 7a·+v=om+=a ¬xx= +coom+=a
7+nx+¬nnx jo7o·+= +mocmaa ++x «·m+n+=a s1+c +sn+¬+.a. ±+s¬n.a s
av=+x 1s=ma
J +cc++n ¬c++= ¬+¡~ sav=a·y +cc a·=sì+n+=a. anya +cc+ 7+·axn +n
+c ¬v+++sì+n+=a m+=soq sav+oom+x 1s=ma
t ±x+a ++s+x+aa ¬¡+·v+v+a. ¬++¬n +·=o+=a +ìs1++ «ysnv+a anya sa++
n¬ì +v+v+n+= j«+o o¡+cna anya j¬=oqnn + ìa·nv+a .nosn¬n ¬ns++x 1
s=ma
j«+o o¡+cna axxo o¡+cna .ny ¬¬a++ooma
iª:ª »ns· iã¬a «·a ¬+n jny axxnx «¬n1snnoocc=






























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2. ePjpj;JiwahdJ jkf;F Kd;dhy; cs;s tptfhuq;fis NeubahfNth
kiwKfkhfNth Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; vt;tpj jiyaPLfspdhYk;>
mr;RWj;jy;fspdhYk;> mOj;jq;fspdhYk;> J}z;Ljy;fspdhYk;. Kiwaw;w
nry;thf;FfspdhYk;> vf;fhuzj;Jf;fhfTk; > ghjpf;fg;glhky; rl;lj;jpw;Fk;>
cz;ikf;Fk; mikthf gf;fr;rhHgpd;wp jPhkhdpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

3. ePjpapd; jd;ikAs;s vy;yhtptfhuq;fspd; kPJk; ePjpj;Jiwf;F epahahjpf;fk;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. jdf;F Kd;dhy; rkHg;gpf;fg;gl;Ls;s tptfhuk; rl;lj; jpdhy;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;lgb jdJ mjpjhuj;jpw;F cl;gl;ljh vd;gijj; jPHkhdpf;Fk;
jdpahd mjpfhuk; ePjpj;Jiwf;F ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

4. ePjpKiwr; nraw;nwhlupd; kPJ nghUj;jkw;w> Njitaw;w jiyaPLfs;
,Uf;ff;$lhJ. ePjpkd;wq;fspd; ePjpj;jPHg;Gfs; kPsha;Tf;F cl;gLj;jg;glf;$lhJ.
,e;jf; Nfhl;ghlhdJ ePjpKiw kPsha;T kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpw;fikthf toq;fg;gl;l
jz;lidf; fhyj;ij khw;Wtjw;fhd mjpfhuq;fspd; nraw;ghLfis ghjpf;fhJ
nraw;gLj;jg;gLk;.

5. Xt;nthUtUf;Fk;> jhgpf;fg;gl;l rl;l eltbf;ifKiwfSf;F mikthf
rhjhuz ePjpkd;wq;fs;> epaharigfspdhy;> tprhupf;fg;gLtjw;fhd
cupikAz;L. ePjpKiw epaharigfs;> ePjpkd;wq;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd
tptfhuq;fis ,lkhw;Wtjw;fhf Kiwahf jhgpf;fg;gl;l rl;l eltbf;if
Kiwfis gpd;gw;whj epaharigfs; cUthff;fg;glf; $lhJ.

6. ePjpj;Jiwr; Rje;jpukhdJ> jug;Gfspd; cupikfs; kjpf;fg;gLjiyAk;> ePjpr;
nrad;KiwahdJ epahakhf nkw;nfhs;sg;gLjiyAk;> ePjpj;Jiwf;F
cupj;jhf;FtJld; mjid Ntz;bAk; epw;fpwJ.

7. ePjpj;Jiw jdJ flikfis kpfr;rupahf nra;tjw;F mtrpakhd NghjpasT
tsq;fis toq;fNtz;baJ mq;fj;Jt muRfspd; flikahFk;.


xd;W$Ltjw;Fk; fUj;J ntspg;ghl;Lf;Fkhd Rje;jpuk;

8. ePjpgjpfSk; Vida gpui[fisg;NghyNt NgRjw;Fk; $l; lq;fis $Ltjw;Fk;
njhlHGnfhs;tjw;Fkhd Rje;jpuKs;stHfs;. ,Ug;gpDk; ,j;jifa cupikfis
mDgtpf;Fk;NghJ jkJ gjtpapd; nfsutj;ijAk; ePjpj;Jiwapd;
gf;fr;rhHgpd;ikAk; Rje;jpuKk; ghjpf;fhj tz;zk; ghHj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;

9. ePjpj;Jiwapd; Rje;jpuj;ijg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhfTk;> jkJ njhopy;rhH gapw;rpfis
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhfTk;> jkJ fupridfis gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;tjw;fhfTk;
33
33
ePjpgjpfspd; mikg;Gfis my;yJ NtW mikg;Gfis jhgpg;gjw;Fk; mtw;wpy;
,ize;J nfhs;tjw;Fkhd Rje;jpuk; ePjpgjpf;F ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.


jifik njupT kw;Wk; gapw;rp

10. ePjpj;Jiwg; gjtpfSf;F njupT nra; ag;gLk; egHfs; ek;gfj;jd;ik
tha;e;jtHfshfTk;> nghUj;jkhd gapw;rp my;yJ rl;lj;jpy; jifik ngw;wjd;
%yk; ,aYik cs;stuhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. jfhj Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf
ePjpj;Jiw epakdq;fs; toq;fg;gLtjw;F vjpuhd ghJfhg;Gf;fis vy;yhj;
njupT KiwfSk; cj;juthjg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ePjpgjpfisj;
njupTnra;Ak;NghJ Fwpg;gpl;l ehl;ilr; NrHe;jtuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;
vd;gijj;jtpu> rhjp> epwk;> ghy;> rkak;> murpay;> my;yJ Vida fUj;J
Njrpa my;yJ r%fg;gpd;dzp> nrhj;J> gpwg;G> my;yJ me;j];J mbg;gilapy;
vt;tpjkhd ghugl;rq;fSk; fhl;lf;$lhJ.


Nritr;#oYk; gjtpf;fhyKk;

11. ePjpgjpfspd; gjtpf;fhyk;> mtHfspd;> Rje;jpuk;> ghJfhg;G> NghjpasT rk;gsk;>
Nritr;#oy;> Xa;T+jpak;> Xa;T+jpa tanjy;iy vd;gd cupatpjkhf
rl;lj;jpdhy; cWjp nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

12. ePjpgjp xUtH njupT nra;ag;gl;lhy; my;yJ epakpf;fg;gl;lhy; mtuJ
gjtpf;fhyk; KbAk;tiu mt;thW fhzg;gLkplj;J> my;yJ Xa;T+jpa taij
milAk; tiu mtuJ gjtpf;fhyk; cj;juthjg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

13. ePjpgjpfspd; gjtp caHTf;fhd Kiwfs; fhzg;gLkplj;J mj;jifa Kiwfs;
Gwtaf;fhuzpfis Fwpg;ghf jpwik> ek;gfj;jd;ik mDgtk; vd;gtw;iw
mbg;gilahff; nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

14. ePjpkd;wnkhd;wpy; ePjpgjpfSf;Fs; tof;Ffisg; gpupj;Jf;nfhs;tJ ePjpj;Jiw
epHthfj;jpd; cs;sftptfhukhFk;.


njhopy; ,ufrpaKk; fhg;GupikAk;

15. ePjpj;JiwahdJ njhopy;rhH ,ufrpaq;fisf; fhf;f Ntz;Lk;. gfpuq;f
tprhuidfspyd;wp> jkJ flikapd; NghJ mtHfshy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk;
jfty;fs; njhlHgpy; cWjpAiu toq;FkhW mtHfs;
fl;lhag;gLj;jg;glf;$lhJ.

34
34
16. ePjpgjpfs; jkJ ePjpj;Jiwf; flikiar; nra;fpd;w NghJ mtHfshy;
Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l ePjpuPjpahd ghjpg;G my;yJ mtHfSila Kiwaw;w nra;iffs;
my;yJ nra;ahikfs; njhlHgpy;> Njrpa rl;lq;fSf;fikthf xOf;fhw;W
eltbf;if my;yJ Nkd;KiwaPl;Lf;fhd cupik my;yJ murpdhy;
toq;fg;gLk; e\;l<L vd;gd Nkw;nfhs; sg;glyhNk jtpu ePjpgjpfSf;F vjpuhf
rptpy; tof;Fj; njhLf;f Kbahjthwhd rl;lf;fhg;Gupik toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.



xOf;fhw;W eltbf;if> ,ilepWj;jy; kw;Wk; gjtpafw;wy;

17. ePjpgjpfSf;F vjpuhd mtHfsJ njhopy;KiwrhH nraw;ghL Fwpj;j
Fw;wr;rhl;Lfs; my;yJ Kiwg;ghLfs; tpiuthfTk; epahakhdjhfTk;
nghUj;jkhd eilKiwfSf;F ,zq;fATk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
epahakhd tprhuizf;fhd cupik ePjpgjpf;F ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ePjpgjpapdhy;
Nfhug;gl;lhyd;wp> tprhuizfs; gw;wpa tpguk; ,ufrpakhf Ngzg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

18. jkJ flikfis ruptu Nkw;nfhs;s Kbahjthwhd jifikaPdk; my;yJ
elj;ij fhuzkhf khj;jpuNk xU ePjpgjp gjtpapypUe;J ,ilepWj;jg;glNth
gjtpafw;wg;glNth KbAk;.

19. ePjpj;Jiw elj;ij gw;wpa jhgpf;fg;gl;l epakq;fSf;fikthfNt midj;J
xOf;fhw;W ,ilepWj;jy; my;yJ gjtpafw;wy; eltbf;iffSk; Nkw;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.

20. xOf;fhw;W eltbf;if> ,ilepWj;jy;> my;yJ gjtpafw;wy; gw;wpa
jPHkhdq;fSk;> nrad;KiwAk; RahjPdkhd kPsha;Tf;F cl;gLj;jg;gly;
Ntz;Lk;. MapDk; ,f;Nfhl;ghL Nky;epiy ePjpkd;wq;fspd; jPHg;GfSf;Fk;
Fw;wg;gpNuuid kPjhd rl;lthf;fj;Jiwapd; nraw;ghLfSf;Fk;
ghtpf;fg;glf;$lhJ.












35
35

ePjpj;Jiw Rje;jpuKk; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;JifAk;
(This is a Consolidated Response prepared by Prepared by Scott Worden and Leigh Toomey for the
International Network to promote the Rule of Law with contributions from Tyler Rauert, Scott Worden,
Laura Mercean, Meghan Stewart, David Ennis, Nathalie Ndongo-Seh, Rick Messick, Zafar Gondal,
Natalia Djurickovic, Claudia Baroni)

gpd;Gyk;
rl;l mKyhf;fj;jpd; %iyf;fy; ePjpj;Jiwapd; xUikg;ghlhFk;. epiykhw;w epiy
ehLfspYs;s ePjpgjpfs;> Coy; Ml;rp njhlHghd ngUk; murpay; kw;Wk; epjp
mOj;jq;fis vjpHnfhs;fpwhHfs; . ePjpj;Jiw Coy; ePjpapd; ghy; kw;Wk; nghJthf
Ml;rpapy; cs;s kf;fspd; ek;gpf;ifia rpijf;fpwJ. gykhd tprhuiz ,aYik
my;yJ ntspg;gilahd ePjp Kiwik ,y;yhj ehLfspy; Coiy ,y;yhky; nra;tJ
kpfTk; fbdkhd xd;whFk;. ePjpgjp> kw;Wk; ePjpj;Jiw mjpfhhpfsplkpUe;J
fhyj;Jf;Ff; fhyk; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj; Jifiaf; Nfl;gJ Coiyj; jLf;Fk;
gyKs;s fUtpahFk;.

Nfs;tp ePjpgjpfspd; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jifia Mizg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd rpwe;j
rHtNjr epakq;fs; my;yJ rpwe;j tof;fq;fs; vd;d? ,e;j Njitg;ghLfis
mKy;gLj;j gpd;gw;w Ntz;ba nghwpKiw vd;d? Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgLtJk; xU
ehl;by; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jifia mKy;gLj;j gpd;gw;wf;$ba Kf;fpa khwpypfs;
vd;d? ePjpj;Jiw nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif njhlHgpy; mz;ika mDgtq;fspy;
,Ue;J gpuNahfpf;ff;$ba> fw;Wf;nfhz;l ghlq;fs; vd;d?

RUf;f gjpy;
mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfspy;> Coypy; ,Ue;J ghJfhg;gjw;fhf> ePjpj; Jiwiaf;
fz;fhzpg;gjw; fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; gaDs;s fUtpahf> ePjpgjpfspd; nrhj;J
ntspg;gLj;Jif cs;sJ. mitAk; Aj;jj;jhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;L> Kuz;ghl;by; ,Ue;J
tpLgl;L tUk; ehLfspy;> me; ehl;bYs;s ePjpj;Jiwfspd; jd;ikf;Nfw;gNt ,J
gpuNahfpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. rHtNjr mikjp eltbf;ifr; #oypy; me; ehLfspy; nrhj;J
ntspg;gLj;Jifia fz;fhzpf;ff;$ba jhf;fkhd Coy; vjpHg;G KiwikfSf;fhd
tiuaWj;j ,aYikia nfhz;Ls;sd. ,yj;jpudpay; tq;fp Kiw ,y;yhj ehLfspy;
epjpg; gjpTfisj; NjLtJ fbdk;. Nkw;ghHit mikg;GfSNk CoYf;F
cl;gl;litahf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,jdhy; ngwf; $ba epjpj; jfty;fSk; ,of;fg;glyhk;.
,jw;fhd Rygkhd gjpy;fs; ,y;iy. MdhYk; Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;l ehLfspd;
,J Fwpj;j ntw;wpfukhd rpy cjhuzq;fs; cs;sd.

36
36
Coy; Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;F cl;glf;$ba ePjpgjpfis vjpHj;J thjhLk; xU Nkyjpf
fUtpahf xU nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif Kiw gaDs;sjhf cs;sJ. mbg;gil
kl;lj;jpy; ePjpgjpfs; jk; nrhj;Jf;fisg; gpufldk; nra;J gjpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
gpd;G mJ G+Hj;jpailahjjhf my;yJ gpioahdjhf ,Ug;gpd;> gpd;tUk;
epiyikfspy; mtUf;F vjpuhf Fw;wtpay; Nehf;F ep&gpf;f cjTk;. ,r; nrhj;J
ntspg;gLj;Jif Kd;G jhf;fkhd rl;l Ml;rp ,Uf;fhj ehLfspy; $l
nraw;ghLfSf;fhd nghWg; Gf; $Wk; jd;ikia Vw;gLj;Jk;.

nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;JifahdJ> CoYf;F vjpuhd xU fUtpahf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ.
xU ePjpj;Jiw> epjp ntspg;gLj;Jifapd; mKy; gLj;Jifiaj; jpl;lkpLk;NghJ>
,g; gjpw;nraw;ghlhdJ ghprPypf;f Ntz;ba gy nghJ tplaq;fSld; <LgLfpwJ. ePbj;J
epiyf;ff;$ba mikjpiaj; NjLk; r%fq;fspy; mKy;gLj;Jif njhlHghd rpy
vr;rhpf;ifahd mtjhdpg;GfSld; ,J KbtilfpwJ.

1. rl;l mjpfhuj;Jtk;
(m) gy;tifg;gl;l fUtpfs;: ePjpgjpfspd; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;JifahdJ xU rHtNjr
epakkhf khwp tUfpwJ. ,J ePjpj;Jiwapd;
1
Rje;jpuk; kPjhd I.eh
mbg;gilf;nfhs;iffspy; ,J ntspg;gLj; jg;gLfpwJ. CoYf;F vjpuhd I.eh
rkthak; gy tifg;gl;l Coy; jLg;G tplaq;fisf; $WfpwJ. mur
cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;fhd elj;ijf; NfhitahdJ> mtHfs; jk; nrhj;Jf;fs;
nghWg;Gf;fisAk;> tho;f;ifj; JizapdJ nrhj;Jf;fisAk; gpufldk; nra;AkhW
Nfl;fpwJ. gpuhe;jpa hPjpapy; gy rkthaq;fs;> nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif gw;wp
cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. Coy; kPjhd Fw;wtpay; rl;l rkthaj;jpd; rig> CoYf;F
vjpuhd rkthak;> CoYf;F vjpuhd mnkhpf;fhTf;F ,ilapyhd rkthak; vd;gd
,t; thpirapy; cs;sd.
(M) Njrpa xOq;Ffs; Njrpa kl;lj;jpy;> ePjpgjpfSf;fhd> nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif
flg;ghLfs; %d;W %yq;fs; %yk; nrhy;yg; gLfpwJ. murpayikg;G> rl;lthf;fk;> rpy
Ntisfspy; khj;jpuk; ePjpj;Jiwj; jPHkhdq;fs; my;yJ ePjpkd;wj; jPHg;Gfs;
nghJthfg; NgRk;NghJ> xU nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif xOq;if Mf;Fk;NghJ> ehl;bd;
mjpfhug; gphpg;G gw;wpa murpayikg;G my;yJ Vida rl;lj; Njitg;ghLfs; Fwpj;J


1
Adopted by the Seventh UN Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders in 1985. These
principles do not specifically address the issue of financial disclosure, but provide the basis for judicial ethics and
disclosure legislation. The principles state that persons selected for judicial office shall be individuals of integrity and
shall conduct themselves so as to preserve the dignity of their office and the impartiality and independence of the
judiciary (Principles 8 and 10). Appropriately drafted financial disclosure laws support these ethical requirements by
reducing the possibility and the perception of conflict of interest and corruption.

37
37
ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy; ePjpj;Jiw mjpfhhpfs; epHthfg; gphptpy; ,Ue;J
Gwk;ghf ,Ug;gjhy; mtHfspd; chpikfis rl;l Fiwg;Gr; nra;ahJ ,Ug;gij
cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif rl;lthf;fk;> gy;NtWgl;l
ePjpj;Jiwfspd; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif tbtq;fs; fPNo cs;s %yq;fs; gphptpy;
cs;sJ.

(,) ePjpgjpfspd;
2
nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif Fwpj;jhd> kpfTk; tpNrbj;j cyfshtpa
hPjpapy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l epakq;fs; ,y;yhj epiyapy; IFES MdJ ePjpgjpfs;
tUkhdk; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;j xU epuiy cUthf;fpAs;sJ.

2. ntspg;gLj;Jif tPr;R
(m) ahH ntspg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;? ,J vy;yh ePjpfSf;Fk; nghUj;jkhdjh? My;yJ
rpy jPa ePjpgjpfSf;F kl;Lkh? my;yJ vy;yh ePjpj;Jiw gzpahsUf;Fkh?
Cz; ikapy; ,J nry;thf;Ff;F cl;glf;$ba ePjpj;Jiwiar; NrHe;NjhUf;F chpaJ.
gpioahd nry;thf;F> ,yQ;rk; vd;gd %yk; xU tof;fpd; gpd;tpistpy;
nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jf;$ba Nghjpa ty;yiikAila gjtpepiyiaf;
nfhz;NlhUf;Nf ,J gpuNahfpf;fg;glf;$bajhf cs;sJ. rpy Kiwikfspy;
gjpthsH> Fw;wk; rhl;LNthH> ypfpjH vy;NyhUk; cl;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wdh;. rl;lk; %yk;
,e;j ntspg;gLj;Jif Ntz;lg;gLfpd;wJ. Koikahd Coy; vjpHg;G
rl;lthf;fq;fisf; nfhz;L te;J ngUk; tPo;;r;rpia mur CopaHfSf;F nrhj;J
ntspg;gLj;jy; KiwikAs;s ehLfspy;> ePjpj;Jiw mjpfhhpfspd; xt;nthU chpa
tifAk; ntspg;gilahf ,dk; fhzg; gl Ntz;Lk;.


2
In 2001, an attempt to produce a more specific model code on the financial disclosure requirements for judges was
made by a UN convened group of experts - the Judicial Group on Strengthening Judicial Integrity. The group
produced a draft Code of Judicial Conduct in 2001, which contained several guidelines including:
Rule 1.15 prohibition on serving as a fiduciary, except for the estate of a family member;
Rule 1.16 prohibition on financial and business dealings that would interfere with judicial independence or
the appearance thereof, except for personal or family investments;
Rule 1.20 prohibition of judicial bribery, whether the beneficiary of the gift or advantage is the judge or a
family member;
Rule 1.21 authorization of gifts and benefits, subject to public disclosure requirements;
Rule 1.22 authorization of compensation and expenses for extra-judicial activities;
Rule 1.22a reasonable amount and proportionality to what a non-judge would receive for the same
activities;
Rule 1.22b limitations on reimbursement;
Rule 1.23 requirement of financial disclosure and payment of taxes required by law.

The Code was developed primarily by judges from a common law background. When it was revised in 2002 (see the
Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct) by judges from other legal traditions, these guidelines were not included.

38
38
(M) vd;d ntspg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ntspg;gLj;jg;gLgitfspd; cs;slf;fk;
NtWgLfpwJ. ,J tUkhdthp Kiwikia xj;jjhf cs;sJ. vy;yh %yq;fspy;
,Ue;Jkhd mbg;gil tUkhdq;fs; KjyPl;Lr; nrhj;Jf;fs; (gq;Ffs;> gpizfs;)
tq;fpf; fzf;Ffs;> Xa;T+jpak;> njhlf;$ba nrhj;Jf;fs;> cs;ehl;L ntspehl;L
nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fs;> nfhLg;gdTj; jpfjpfs;> rhpghHg;gjw;fhd Vida jfty;fs;>
vd;gd ntspg;gLj;Jifapy; cs;slq;fp ,Uf;Fk;. mjpy; ve;jtpj epjpg; nghWg;GfSk;
cs;slf;fg;gLk;.

(,) FLk;g cWg;gpdHfs; cwtpdH Nghpy; nrhj;Jf;fis ePjpgjpfs; kiwg;gijj;
jLf;f> FLk;gj; njhlHGfisg; ghtpj;J ,yQ;rk; thq;Ftijj; jLf;f>
tho;f;ifj;Jizfs;> guhakilahj gps;isfs; vd;NghhpdJ nrhj; J
ntspg;gLj;JifAk; cs;slf;fg;gLfpwJ. cwtpdHfspNlNa nrhj;Jf;fs;
gq;fplg;gl;Ls;s r%fq;fspNy ,J cz;ikahdJ. kpfTk; gue;j xU
tiutpyf;fzkhdJ> me;juq;fk; gw;wpa gpur;rpidfis cs;slf;fp> ,r;
nrad;Kiwia xU Rikahf;fyhk;.

(<) vt;tsT fhyj;jpw;F xU jlit ntspg;gLj;Jif Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;
ePjpgjpfspdJk;> Vida epHthf foq;fspdJk; gjtpf; fhyj;ijg; nghWj;J ,J
NtWgLk;. gjtp Ntiy njhlq;f Kd;G> gjtp KbAk;NghJ ,uz;L tUlq;fSf;F xU
jlit vd tifg;gLk;. tUlhe;jk; nra;ag;gLtJk; cz;L. ePjpgjp caH
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F gjtp caHT ngWk;NghJ nra;ag;gLtJz;L.

3. nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jifapd; gad;ghL

(m) mur kw;Wk; jdpahH : kf;fSf;F jfty; njhpe;j mstpw;Nf> ,e;j nrhj;J
ntspg;gL rl;lj;jpd; gyhgyd; jq;fpAs;sJ. vt;tsT mjpfk; kf;fs;
mwpe;jpUf;fpwhHfNsh me;jstpw;F> fz;fhzpg;G mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;. cz;ikapy; ,J
,g; gzpahl;fspdJk; FLk;gq;fspdJk; me;juq;fj;ijg; ghjpf;Fk;. epahakhd Njrpa
epakq;fs;> me;juq;f chpikfisr; rkepiyg;gLj;Jk; rpy muRfspy; ePjpgjpfs;
juTfis xU mjpfhu fz;fhzpg;G mikg;Gf;Fj; njhptpg;ghHfs; . RUf;fkhd
tpguq;fNs nfhLf;fg;gLk;. mjidg; ghHf; ff;$batH nghJkf;fshf ,Ue;jhYk;>
epahakhd fhuzq;fSld; tiuaWj;j ,lq;fspy; khj;jpuNk ghHitaplyhk;.

(M) jfty;fis gpioahfg; gad;gLj;jy;
epjpj; jfty;fis jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; ghJfhg;gJ> nry;te;j jdpegHfis> flj;jy;>
,yQ;rk; vd;gtw;Wf;F ,yf;F itf;Fk; ehLfspy; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ.
39
39
ntspaplg;gl;l jfty;fs; ,ufrpakhf itf;fg;gLk; vDk; ve;j cWjpnkhopAk;>
fz;fhzpg;G Kfthpd; NeHikiag; nghWj;Nj kjpg;gplg;gLk;. ,j; jfty;fs; murhy;
my;yJ Fw;wtpay; FOf;fshy; mr;RWj;Jtjw;Fk; gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;. MfNt ,t;
ntspg;gLj;jy;fspd; ,ufrpak; Ngzg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

(,) tprhuizg; gad;fs;
jtW nra;jjhf Fw;wQ;rhl;lg;gLk;NghJ kl;Lk; ,y;yhky;> xU xOq;Ff; fpukkhf
ntspg;gLj;jy; fz;fhzpg;igr; nra;tJ rpwe;jjhFk;. ,J Nkhrb kw;Wk; tpUg;G
Kuz;ghL vd;gd Nghd;w Vw;ghLfisj; jLf;Fk;. ntspg;gLj;jy; gw;wpa
rl;lthf;fkhdJ> mJ vJ tiuf;Fk; rhd;whf gad;gLj;jg;glyhk; mLj;J tUk; Fw;wr;
nray;Kiw my;yJ Vida ePjpr; nrad;Kiw tiuAkh vdf; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.

4. ntspg;gLj;jiy epHtfpj;jYk; fz;fhzpj;jYk;

Coy; vjpHg;G Mizf;FO> mur NkNyhl;lg;ghHit mikg;Gfs;> fzf;fha;thsH
ehafk; Nghd;w NtWgl;l mikg;Gfs; nrhj; J ntspg;gLj;Jifiaf; fz;fhzpf;fyhk; .
Kf;fpak; vd;dntdpy; me;j mikg;ghdJ murhq;fk; > ePjpj;Jiw vd;gtw;wpy; ,Ue;J
RahjPdkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. nfhs;ifj; jPHkhdq;fs; vLf;fg;gl;l gpw;ghL vt;tsT
jfty;fs; nghJTf;F chpaJ vdj; jPHkhdpj;jy;. ,t; mikg;Gj; jfty;fis
rhpghHf;f tprhuiz ,aYikiaf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Njitg;ghLfSld;
xj;Jiof;fhj ePjpgjpfspd; kPJ jilfs; Nghlf;$ba mjpfhuk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j
mikg;Gf;F ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;l jfty;fis rhpghHg;gjw;fhd tprhuiz ,aYik
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. nrhj;J ntspapLif Njitg;ghLfs; my;yJ gpur;rpidapYs;s rl;l
Kiwikapd; Njitg;ghLfisg; nghWj;J mjNdhL xj;Jiof;fhj cld;gl;L tuhj
ePjpgjpfSf;fhd chpa jilfis tpjpf;ff;$ba mjpfhuk; ,e;j mikg;Gf;F ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j gpufldj;ij G+uzkhdjhfTk; me;j Neuj;jpw;Fs;Ns fpilg;gjhfTk;
,Ug;gij fz;fhzpg;gjw;F gjpT nra;tjw;Fkhd xU Kiwikia epWtp
ghpghypg;gjw;fhd Miz> ,aYik tsq;fSld; $ba mikg;G ,ij ntw;wpfukhf
nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F Njitg;gLfpwJ.

5) ,NjhL mikahjtplj;jhd jz;lidfs; - ,NjhL mike;J Nghfhjtplj;J
fLikahdJk; ek;gj;jFe;jJkhd jz;lidfs; ,y;yhJNghdhy; ,e;jr; nrhj;J
ntspg;ghl;L epHthfkhdJ rhptu ,aq;f KbahJ. ,e;jr; nrhj;J ntspg;ghl;L
Njitg;ghl;Lld; xj;Jg;Nghfhj epiyikfs; gy;NtW tifg;gl;ljhd tPr;Rf;Fs;
mlq;fpapUf;Fk;. mitahtd ,e;j nrhj;ij ntspg;ghl;ilr; nra;aj; jtWjy;>
gpioahd my;yJ G+Hj;jpahfhj ntspg;ghl; ilr; nra;jy;> my;yJ rpwe;j fhuzkpd;wp
40
40
chpa Neuj;jpy; ntspg;ghl;ilr; nra;aj; jtWjy; vd;gdthFk;. ,jw;fhd jz;lidfs;
kpfTk; fLikahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpioahd elj;ijf;fhd gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk; mjPj
jz;lidfshtd mjhtJ ntspg;gLj;JifahdJ jpl;lkplg;gl;lJ vdf;
fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lhy; mJ nghJj; Njitg;ghl;Lld; mike;J tuhj xd;W vd
fUjg;gLk;. ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;l jfty;fis gpioahfg; gad;gLj;JnthUf;F vjpuhfTk;
,e;jj; jil epUthfk; jz;lidfis toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

6. Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;l ehLfspy; eilKiwrhH ghprPypg;Gfs;

m. ,aYik – Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;LtUk; xU ehl;bd; epjpr; nrhj;Jf;fis
ntspg;gLj;Jtjpy; eilKiwg;gLj;Jk; NghJ ghprPypf;fg;gl Ntz;ba gy khwpypfSs;
me;j ehl;bYs;s cs;Sh; epjpKiwapd; ek;gfj;jd;ik ghprPypg;Gf;F cs;shf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. Kf;fpa epWtdq;fspd; mgptpUj;jp kl;lk; mjhtJ rptpy; r%fq;fs;>
Clfk;> nghJepUthf epWtdq;fs; vd;gd nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jiff;fhd MjuT
kl;lj;ijAk; kw;Wk; Vida CoYf;F vjpuhd Kidg;Gf;fisAk; jPHkhdpf;fpd;wd.
Kuz;ghl;Lf;F gpe;jpa r%fq;fspNy mNefkhf epWtdq;fs; gytPdkile;jpUf;Fk;
my;yJ ,y;yhjpUf;Fk;. ,jd; tz;zk; murpayikg;gpw;fhd Mjuit
ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Kf;fpa cs;slf;fKk; murhq;fj;jpd; nghWg;Gf;$Wk; jd;ikia
mOj;jpAiuf;Fk; Kf;fpa cs;slf;fKk; mq;F ,y;yhjpUf;Fk;. ePjpj;Jiw Coy; vd;w
gpur;rpidia ifahs;tjw;fhd xU jhf;fkhd epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lkhdJ ePjpj;Jiw
epWtdq;fisAk; kw;Wk; nghUj;jkhd mur mikg;Gf;fisAk; ,aYikiaf;
fl;bnaOg;Gtjpy; kl;Lk; ftdk; nrYj;jhJ> r%fj;jpd; ,e;j Vida rf; jpfspd;
fl;bnaOg;GtjpYk; ftdk; nrYj;Jk; .

M. rhpghHj;jy; - Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgLk; ehLfspy; etPdkag;gLj;jg;gl;l
ek;gj;jFe;j epjp Kiwik mjhtJ nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;jiy rhpghHg;gjw;F kpfTk;
rpukj;ij Vw;gLj;jf;$ba Kiwikfisf; nfhz;bUg;gjdhy; rpwe;j etPdj;Jt epjp
Kiwikfs; ,y;yhjpUf;Fk;. Aj;jj;jhy; rpijtile;j nghUshjhuj;jpy; mNefkhd
nfhLf;fy;thq;fy;fs; fhR mbg;gilapy; eilngw;wpUf;Fk; vd;gij ,e;j nrhj;J
ntspg;ghl;L Njitg;ghLfs; fUj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. fzdpkag;gLj;jg;glhj
tq;fpKiw> fzf;fha;T epakq;fs;> mt;thNwahd nrhj;J ,lhg;Gfs;> fhg;GWjp
Kiwikfs; vd;gd ,e;j rhpghHj;jy; nray;Kiwf;F nghpJk; cjt Kbahjit.
,jdhy; cz;ikahdJk; njhlf;$baJkhd jdpg;gl;l nrhj;Jf;fspd; rhpghHf;ff;$ba
Rygkhd KOikahd nrhj;J ntspg;ghl;il Ntz;bepw;Fk;nghOJ mjpy; ifahs;tJ
tiuaiwAilajhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

41
41
,) Nghjpa ePjpj;Jiw nfhLg;gdT
ePjpgjpfs; xU kjpg;Gfukhd epiyikiag; NgZtjw;Fk; tho;f;if Kiwiaf;
nfhz;bUg;gjw;Fk; jq;fSila FLk;gq;fis guhkhpg;gjw;Fk; Nghjpajhd xU
rk;gsj;ijg; ngw KbahJNghdhy; ,e;j nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;JifNahL ePjpgjpfisAk;
ePjpj;Jiw mjpfhhpfisAk; ,r; nrhj; J ntspg;gLj;JifNahL KOikahf
xj;Jg;NghFk;gb vjpHghHg; gJ kpfTk; rpukkhdJ. gy ehLfspy; Mg;fhdp];jhd;>
fk;Nghbah> iygPhpah ,t;thW rpy ehLfspd; ngaHfisr; nrhd;dhy; mitfspy;
ePjpj;Jiw mjpfhhpfSk; ePjpgjpfSk; ,d;Dk; kpfTk; Fiwe;j rk;gsj;ijNa
ngWfpwhHfs; . mijAk; mtHfs; tpNrlkhf fpuhkg; gFjpfspy jhkjkhfNt
ngWfpwhHfs;.;> ,jdhy; jhd; ePjpgjpfSk; ePjpj;Jiwapy; gzpahw;Wk; VidNahUk;
ntsp tUkhdq;fis ePjpkd;w Ntiyfis nghWg; ngLg;gjw;fhd rl;lhPjpaw;w
fl;lzq;fs;> tof;F tprhuizfSf;fhd fl;lzq;fs; vd;gd mtHfspd; Ntiyapd;
xU gFjpahf ,Ue;jNghJk; mtHfs; ,jidg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tJ nghJthfpapUf;fpwJ.
rpyH jpwe;j epiyapNy ,yQ;rk; thq;Ftijf; fhzf;$bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

7. kpif epug;Gg; nghwpKiw
NkNy nrhy;yg;gl;l tplaq;fshdit epjpr; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif epHthfj;ij
mKy;gLj;Jifapy; ghprPypf;fg;gl Ntz;ba kpff; Fiwe;j Njitg;ghLfNs. MdhYk;
ePz;l fhyg;Nghf;fpy; ,r; nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;jy; rl;lq;fs; kpfTk; jhf;fkhdjhf
khw;wg;gl;L mitfs; nghpa epWtd murpayikg;G nrad;Kiwahff; fhzg; gl;lhy;
mjw;nfd chpa tuT nryTj;jpl;l xJf;fPLfSk; nra;ag;gl;L ePjpj;Jiwf;fhd ts
Vw;ghLfSk; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. gapw;rp> kw;Wk; ntspg;gilahd Ml;NrHg;G kw;Wk;
ePjpgjpfis gjtpAaHT toq;Fjy; vd;gdTk; xU njhopy;thz;ik tha;e;jJk;
nghWg;Gf;$wf;$baJkhd ePjpj;Jiwia Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;F cjTk;. xU
midj;Jklq;fpa nfhs;ifj; njhFg;ghdJ cUthf;fg;gl;L mKy;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
mjpy; kf;fs; jfty; gpurhuk;> tprpy; CJgtH ghJfhg; G vd;gd vy;yhk;
cs;slf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. me;juq;fj;jd;ik kPjhd rl;lq;fs; Njrpa ghJfhg;G
jfty;fisg; ngWjy; vd;gdTk; ePjpgjpfspd; chpikfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;Fk; ,e;j
ntspg;gLj;jy; nrad;Kiw rk;ge;jg;gl;l VidNahhpd; chpikfisg; ghJfhg;gJk;
Kd;Ndw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

INPROL ,e;j Nfs;tp rk;ge;jkhf cWg;gpdHfsplkpUe;J Nkyjpf tpkHrdq;fis
vjpHghHf;fpwJ. Fwpg;ghf Kuz; ghl;Lf;F gpe;jpa #oypy; ntw;wpfukhdJ vd
ep&gpf;fg;gl;l nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jifapd; epHthfq;fSf;fhd cjhuzq;fs; kw;Wk;
Vida nrhj;J ntspg;gLj;Jif NtWgl;l kl;lq;fspd; nryTfs; juTfs; vd;gd
tuNtw;fg;gLfpd;wd.
42
42

----------------------------------------------------------
Compilation of Resources:
This Consolidated Response draws from many of the following resources. All listed documents with a
hyperlink are uploaded to the INPROL Digital Library unless otherwise noted.

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL STANDARDS AND BEST PRACTICES
UN Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary (1985)
UN Convention Against Corruption (2003)
The Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct (2002)
UN Code of Conduct for Public Officials (1996)
Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (1999)
OECD Anti-Corruption Convention (1997)
Inter-American Convention against Corruption (1996)
































43
43
rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fSf;fhd elj;ij tpjpf; Nfhit
1979 Mk; Mz;L brk;gh; khjk; 17 Mk; jpfjp nghJr; rigj; jPh;khdk; 34/169 My;
epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ.
cWg;Giu 1
jkJ cah; njhopypdhy; Njitg;gLj;jgl;l nghWg;Gilikapd; cahpa jd;ikf;F
mikthf r%fj;Jf;Fr; Nritahw;Wtjd; %yKk; rl;l Kuzhd nray;fSf;F
vjpuhf rfy egh;fisAk; ghJfhg;gjd; %yKk; rl;lj;jpdhy; mth;fs; kPJ
Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;s flikia rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs; ve;NeuKk; epth;j;jp nra;jy;
Ntz;Lk;.
tptuzk;
(m) ‘rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs; ’ vd;Dk; gjkhdJ nghyp]; mjpfhuj;ij Fwpg;ghff;
ifJ nra;Ak; my;yJ jLj;J itf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ijg; gpuNahfpf;fpd;w
njhpTnra;ag;gl;lth;fNsh my;yJ epakpf;fg;gl; lth;fNshthd> rl;lj;jpd; rfy
mYtyh;fisAk; cs;slf;Fk;.
(M) nghyp]; mjpfhuq;fshdit ,uhZt mjpfhhpfspdhy; gpuNahfpf;fg;gLfpd;w
ehLfspy;> mth;fs; rPUilapy; ,Ug;gpDk; my;yJ ,y;yhJtpbDk;> my;yJ mur
ghJfhg;Gg; gilfs; Nghd;w mj;jifa Nritfspy; cs;Nshh; rl;l mKyhf;fy;
mjpfhhpfs; vd;Dk; tiutpyf;fzj;Jf;Fs; cs;slf;fg;gLth;.
(,) r%fj;Jf;fhd Nrit vd;gJ r%fj;jpd; mq;fj;jth;fSf;F jdpg;gl;l>
nghUshjhu> r%f kw;Wk; Vida mtruq;fspy; cldb cjtp NjitahfTs;s
fhuzq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; Fwpg;ghf cjtpf;fhd Nritfis toq;Ftij
Nehf;fhff; nfhz; Ls;sJ.
(<) ,t; Vw;ghlhdJ ntWkNd rfy td;Kiwahd> nfhs;isapLfpd;w> kw;Wk;
jPq;fhd nraw;ghLfis khj;jpuk; cs;slf;fhky; jz;lidr; rl;lq;fspd; fPohd
KOikahd jilfSf;Fk; tphpTgLfpd;wJ.
cWg;Giu 2
jkJ flikiag; Ghpifapy;> rl;l mOyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs; kdpj nfsutj;Jf;F
kjpg;gspj;J ghJfhf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; rfy egh;fspdJ kdpj chpikfisAk;
Ngzpg; ghJfhf; f Ntz;Lk;.
tptuzk;
(m) Nfs;tpf;Fl;gLj;Jk; kdpj chpikfshdit Njrpa kw;wk; rh;tNjrr; rl;lj;jhy;
milahsq; fhzg;gl;L ghJfhf;fg;gLfpd;wd. nghUj;jkhd rh;tNjr
rl;lthf;fq;fSf;F kj;jpapy; midj;Jyf kdpj chpikfs; gpufldk;> Fbapay;
kw;Wk; murpay; chpikfs; kPjhd rh;tNjrf; fl;LWj;J> rpj;jputij kw;Wk;
Vida nfhLukhd> kdpjhgpkhdkw;w> juf;Fiwthd> ifahSif my;yJ
jz;lidf;F cs;shf;fg;gLtjw;F vjpuhd gpufldk;> rfy tpjkhd ,dg;
ghugl;rq;fisAk; ,y;yhnjhopg;gjw;fhd If;fpa ehLfs; gpufldk;> rfy
tpjkhd ,dg; ghugl;rq;fisAk; ,y;yhnjhopg;gjw;fhd rkthak;> epwf;
Fw;wj;Jf;fhd jz;lid kw;Wk; mjid ,y;yhnjhopg;gjw;fhd
rh;tNjrf;fl;LWj;J> ,dg;gLnfhiy Fw;wj;ij jLg;gjw;Fk; jz;bg;gjw;Fkhd
rkthak;> rpiwf;ifjpfis ifahStjw;fhd epak Mff;Fiwe;j tpjpfs;
kw;Wk; ,uh[je;jpu cwTfs; kPjhd tpad;dh rkthak; vd;gdTk; mlq;Fk;.
(M) ,t; Vw;ghl;Lf;fhd Njrpa tptuzq;fs;> ,t;Thpikfis milahsq;
fhZfpd;wJk; ghJfhf; fpd;wJkhd gpuhe;jpa my;yJ Njrpa Vw;ghLfisf;
Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.

cWg;Giu 3
kpff;fLikahfj; Njitg;gLk; NghJk; kw;Wk; mth;fSila flikia epiwNtw;wj;
Njitg;gLfpd;w msTf;F kl;LNk rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fs; gyhj;fhuj;ijg;
gpuNahfpf;fyhk;.
tptuzk;
(m) rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fspdhy; gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk; gyj;jpd; msT
fl;lhakhf tpjptpyf;fhdjhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,t;Ntw;ghL
44
44
typAWj;Jfpd;wJ; Fw;wnkhd;iwj; jLg;gjw;fhf my;yJ Fw;wthspfis my;yJ
Fw;wthspfs; vd;W re;Njfpf;fg;gLgth;fisf; rl;l hPjpahff; ifJ nra;Ak;
my;yJ mjw;F cjTk; re;jh;g;gq;fspd; fPo; epahakhd Njitg;ghL xd;wpd;
mbg;gilapy; rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fs; gyj; ijg; gpuNahfpf;Fk;
mNjNtisapy; ghtpf;fg;gl;l gyj;Jf;fg;ghy; nry;yf; $lhJ.
(M) rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs; gyj;ijg; gpuNahfpg;gij tpfpjhrhuk; vd;Dk;
Nfhl;ghL xd;Wf;F mikthf Njrpar; rl;lk; rhjhuzkhfj; jil nra;fpd;wJ.
tpfpjhrhuk; njhlh;ghd mj;jifa Nfhl;ghLfs; mt; Vw;ghl;ilg; nghUs;
Nfhly; nra;ifapy; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ Ghpe;J nfhs;sf;
$banjhd;whFk;. Milag;gl Ntz;ba newpKiwahd ,yf;F xd;Wf;F
tpfpjhrhukpy;yhj gyg;gpuNahfj;ij mq;fPfhpg;gjw;fhf ve;jnthU re;jh;g;gj;jpYk;
,t;Ntw;ghl;bidg; nghUs;Nfhly; nra;jyhfhJ.
(,) RLfyd;fis cgNahfpg;gJ vd;gJ mjPj topnahd;whff; nfhs;sg; gLfpd;wJ.
Fwpg;ghf rpWth;fSf;F vjpuhf RLfyd;fis cgNahfpg;gij tpyf;Ftjw;F
xt;nthU Kaw;rpfSk; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gl Ntz;Lk;. nghJthf> re;Njfj;Jf;Fhpa
Fw;wthspnahUth; MAj vjph;g;igj; njhptpj;jhnyhopa my;yJ NtWtifapy;
Vidath;fspd; caph;fis Mgj;Jf;Fs;shf; FtJld; kw;Wk; re;Njfj;Jf;Fhpa
Fw;wthspnahUtiu fl;Lg;gLj;j my;yJ ifJ nra;a Fiwe;jsthd
topkiwfs; NghJkhdjhf ,y;yhj epiy jtph;e;j Vida re;jh;gq;fspy;
RLfyd;fs; cgNahfpf;fg;glyhfhJ. RLfyndhd;W gpuNahfpf;fg;gLfpd;w
xt;nthU re;jh;g;gj;jpYk;> nghWg;G tha;e;j mjpfhhpfSf;f tphpthd
mwpf;ifnahd;W Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
cWg;Giu 4
rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfspd; clikapy; cs;s ,ufrpaj; jd;ik tha;e;j
tplaq;fs; flikia ntspg;gLj;Jifapy; my;yj NtW tifapy; ePjpahdJ
fLikahfj; Njitg;gLj;jpdhnyhopa ,ufrpakhf Ngzg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
tptuzk;
mth;fSila flikfspd; jd;ikapy;> kw;iwath;fspd; jdpg;gl;l tho;f;if my;yJ
mf;fiwfSf;F> tpNrlkhf kjpg;Gf;F Fwpg;ghf CW tpistpf;fpd;w rk;ge;jkhd
jfty;fis rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs; ngwyhk;. flikia ntspg;gLj;Jifapy;
my;yJ ePjpapd; Njitfisd; G+h;j;jp nra;tjw;F khj;jpuNk mj;jifa jftiy
cgNahfpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; mjpf ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
cWg;Giu 5
rpj;jputij my;yJ nfh^uk;> kdpjhgpkhdkw;w> my;yJ juf;Fiwthd elhj;Jif
my;yJ jz;lid njhlh;ghd VNjDk; nraYf;F fhuzkhfNth> J}z;LtjhfNth
my;yJ nghWj;Jf; nfhs;tjhfNth my;yJ my;yJ Nkyjpfhhpapd; fl;lisia rl;l
mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs; epiwNtw;wyhk; my;yJ Aj;jr;#o;epiy my;yJ
Aj;jnkhd;Wf;fhd mr;RWjj;jy;> Njrpag;ghJfhg;Gf;fhd mr;RWj;jnyhd;W> cs;sf
murpay; ];jpukpd;ik my;yJ NtW VNjDk; nghJ mtruk; Kjyhd tpjptpyf;fhd
#o;epiyfisNah ve;jnthU rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpAk; rpj;jputij my;yJ
nfh^uk;> kdpjhgpkhdkw;w> my;yJ juf;Fiwthd elhj;Jif my;yJ jz;lidf;F
epahag;gLj;j KbahJ.


tptuzk;
(m) ,k;kl;Lg;ghlhdJ nghJr;rigahy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg; gl;l rpj;jputij my;yJ
nfh^uk;> kdpjhgpkhdkw;w> my;yJ juf;Fiwthd elhj;Jif my;yJ
jz;lidf;F cs;shtjpypUe;J rfy egh;fisAk; ghJfhf;fpd;w
gpufldj;jpypUe;J Njhd;Wfpd;wJ. ,jd;gb:
“(mj;jifanjhU nrayhdJ) kdpj nfsutj;Jf;F chpa Fw;wnkhd;Wld;
If;fpa ehLfs; rig gll;aj;jpd; Nehf;fq;fis epuhfhpf;fpd;w xd;W vd;w
tifapYk; midj;Jyf kdpj chpikfs; gpufldj;jpy; (kw;Wk; Vida
rh;tNjr kdpj chpikfs; Mtzq;fspYk;) $wg;gl;l kdpj chpikfspdJk;
45
45
mbg;gilr Rje;jpuq;fspdJk; kPwnyhd;W vd;w tifapy; fl;lhakhf
fz;bf;fg;gl Ntz;bajkhFk; ”.
(M) gpufldkhdJ rpj;jputijia gpd;tUkhW tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ:
“… cly; hPjpahfNth my;yJ cs hPjpahfNth Ntz;Lnkd;Nw my;yJ
gfpuq;f mYtyhpd; Kd;dpiyapy; mthplkpUe;J my;yj %d;whk; eghplkpUe;J
jftiy mt;tJ Fw;w Xg;Gjynyhd;iw ngWk; Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf> mth; Ghpe;j
my;yJ Ghpe;jjhf re;Njfg;gLfpd;w mtuhy; nra;ag;gl;l nraYf;fhf my;yJ
mtiu my;yJ kw;wth;fis mr;RWj;Jtjw;fhf nra;ag;gLk; Ntjidia
my;yJ Jd;gj;ij jUtjhd nranyhd;W rpj;jputij vd;w nghUs;gLk;. ,J
typ my;yJ ntWkNd cs;shh;e;j my;yJ jw;nrayhd> ifjpfisf;
ifahStjw;fhd Mff; Fiwe;j epak tpjpfSld; xj;Jg; Nghfpd;w
rl;lhPjpahd jz;lidfis cs;slf;fhJ.”
(,) ‘nfh^uk; > kdpjhgpkhdkw;w my;yJ juf;Fiwthd ifahSif my;yJ
jz;lid’ vd;Dk; gjkhdJ nghJr; rigahy; tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jg;glhj
NghjpYk; cly; kw;Wk; csj; J\;gpuNahfq;fSf;F vjpuhd rhj;jpakhd
ghJfhg; Gf;fis cl;gLj;Jk; tifapy; tphpTgLj;jg;gl;l nghUs;Nfhly;
nra;ag;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
cWg;Giu 6
rl;l mOyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs; mth;fSila ghJfhtypy; ,Uf;Fk; egh;fspd;
MNuhf;fpaj;Jf;F KOg;ghJfhg;ig cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; Fwpg;ghf
Njitg;gLk;NghJ kUj;Jtf; ftdpg;ig toq;Ftj;fk; cldb eltbf;if vLf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
tptuzk;
(m) mj;jhl;rpg;gLj;jg;gl;l kUj;Jt nraw;ghl;lhsh;fs;> ,uhZt kUj;Jth;fs;
cs;slq;fyhd VNjDk; itj;jpauhy; toq;fg;gLk; ‘kUj;Jtf; ftdpg;G’
Njitahd NghJ my;yJ mtrpakhd NghJ cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
(M) rl;l mOyhf;fy; eltbf;ifapy; itj;jpah;fSk; cs;sPh;f;fg;glj;jf;fjhd
mNjNtisapy;; rl;l mOyhf;fy; eltbf;iff;F ntspapy; cs;s itj;jpa
epGzh;fsplk; ,Ue;Jk; nghUj;jkhd rpfpr;irapd; Clhf my;yJ
fye;jhNyhridAld;> jkJ fhtypy; cs;s mj;jifa egh;fs; kPjhd
fzpg;igg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
(,) rl;l kPwy;fspdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fs; my;yJ rl;l kPwy;fs; fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l
tpgj;Jf;fspdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSf;fhd kUj;Jtf; ftdpg;igAk; rl;l
mOyhf;fy; mYtyh;fs; cWjp nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lnkd;gJ tpsq;fpf;
nfhs;sg; gl;ljhFk;.
cWg;Giu 7
rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fs; Coy; njhlh;ghd ve;jnthU nraw;ghl;bYk;
<LgljyhfhJ. mj;jifa rfy nraw;ghLfSf;F vjpuhfTk; xopf;fTk; mth;fs;
fLikahf nraw;gl Ntz;Lk;.
tptuzk;
(m) Coypd; vNjDk; nraw;ghL> mNj Nghd;W NtW VNjDk; mjpfhu
J\;gpuNahfk; vd;git rl;l mOyhf;fy; mYtyh;fSf;F nghUe;jhjitahFk;.
jkJ nrhe;j Kfth;fSf; nfjpuhf my;yJ jkJ Kftuikg;Gf;fSf;Fs;
rl;lj;ij Kiwahf mKy;g;gLj;jhJ tpbd; murhq;fq;fshy; jkJ
gpui[fspilNa mKy;g;gLj;j KbahJ my;yJ mKy;g;gLj;j Kbahky;
NghFk; vd;w tifapy; Coy; Ghpfpd;w rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fSf;F
vjpuhf rl;lkhdJ KOikahf mKy;g;gLjj;g;gl Ntz;Lk;.
(M) Coy; gw;wpa tiutpyf;fzkhdJ Njrpar; rl;lj;Jf;Fl;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fpd;w
mNjNtis> xUtUila flikfis epiwtw;WtJ njhlh;gpy;> ghpRfs;>
thf;FWjpfsd;> nfhLg;gdTfs; Nfhug; gl;l my;yJ Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;l
my;yJ xUKiw mr; nray; nra;ag;gl; ljhf my;yJ tplg;gl;ljhf tpioahd
mDkjpg;ig toq;fy; %yk; nraw;ghl;il epiwNw;Wtjpy; nra;if my;yJ
nra;ahik fhzg;gLfpd;wikiaAk; cs;slf;fpapUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
46
46
(,) “Coy; nraw;ghL” vd;gJ Nkw;Fwpj;j Coy; mbg;gilapy; Ghpe;J
nfhs;sj;jf;fjhFk;.

cWg;Giu 8
rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fs; rl;lj;ijAk; jw;Nghija NfhitiaAk; fl;lhak;
kjpf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mth;fs; jkJ ,aYikapd; cr;r mstpy; mtw;wpy; VNjDk;
kPwiy fLikahf vjph;f;f Ntz;Lk;
jw;Nghija Nfhit njhlh;gpy; VnjDk; kPwy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sjhf my;yJ cldbahd
,lk;ngwTs;sjhf ek;Gtjw;fhd fhuzk; cs;s rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fs;
mth;fSila NkyjpfhhpfSf;Fk; Njitg;gLk; NghJ kPsha;tjw;fhd my;yJ
epthuzk; toq;Ftjw;fhd mjpfhuj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;s nghUj;jkhd Vida
mjpfhhpfs; my;yJ mikg;GfSf;Fk; mt;tplaj;ij mwpf;ifaply; Ntz;Lk;.

tptuzk;
(m) ,f;NfhitahdJ Njrpa rl;lthf;fj;Jf; Fs; my;yJ nrad;Kiwf;Fs;
cs;sPh;f;fg;glbUf;Fk; NghJ mtjhdpf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;lk;. rl;lthf;fk; my;yJ
nrad;Kiwapy; jw;NghJs;s Nfhitia tpl ,Wf;fkhd Vw;ghLfs;
cs;slf;fg;gl;L ,Uf;Fkhdhy;> mj;jifa ,Wf;fkhd Vw;ghLfSk;
mtjhdpf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
(M) xU Gwk; nghJkf;fspd; ghJfhg;G nghpJk; jq;fpAs;s Kfthpd; cs;sf
xOf;fhw;Wf;Fk; kWGwk; mbg;gil kdpj chpikfspd; kPwy;fSld;
ifahSfpd;w Njitf;Fk; ,ilapy; rkepinahd;iwg; NgZtjw;f ,t;thtzk;
KaYfpd;wJ. rl;l mKyhf;fy; mYtyh;fs; kPwy;fs; njhlh;gpy; fl;lisapd;
rq;fpypf;Fk; khj;jpuNk nraw;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; NtW VNjDk;
epthuzq;fs; fpilf;f Kbahj ,y;yJ nraw;ghby;yhj re;jh;g;gq;fspy; kl;LNk
fl;lisr; rq;fpypf;F ntspapy; Vida rl;l eltbf;fifis vLf;fyhk;.
,f;Nfhitapy; kPwnyhd;W ,lk;ngw;Ws;sJ my;yJ cldbahf
,lk;ngwTs;sJ vd;W mwpf;ifapl;l fhuzj;Jf;fhf rl;l mKyhf;fy;
mYtyh;fs; epUthf my;yJ Vida jz;lq;fshy; Jd;GWj;jg;glyhfhJ
vd;gJ tpsq;fpf; nfhs;sf; $bajhFk;.
(,) ‘kPsha;tjw;fhd my;yJ epthuzk; toq;Ftjw;fhd mjpfhuj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;s
nghUj;jkhd Vida mjpfhhpfs; my;yJ mikg;Gfs; ’ vd;Dk; gjkhdJ
,f;Nfhitapd gug;Gf;Fs; vOfpd;w kPwy;fs; kPjhd Kiwg;ghLfisAk;
mf;fiwfisAk; kPsha;tjw;fhd epajpr;rl;l> tof;fhw;W> my;yJ
kPsha;tjw;fhd NtW VNjDk; mjpfhuj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;s Njrpar; rl;lj;jpd; fPo;
nraw;gLfpd;w> mJ rl;l mKyhf;fy; KftUf;Fs; ,Uf;fpd;w cs;sf
mikg;ghapDk; my; yJ Rje;jpukhdNjh Md VnjDk; mjpfhhp my;yJ
mikg;G MFk;.
(<) rpy ehLfspy;> cgge;jp ‘,’apy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;ltw;Wf;F xj;jjhd Kiwg;ghL
kPsha;Tr; nraw;ghLfis Clfq;fs; Ghpfpd;wd. MfNt rl;l mKyhf;fy;
mjpfhhpfs;> jkJ nrhe;j ehLfSila rl;lq;fs; tof;fhWfs; kw;Wk;
jw;Nghija Nfhitapd; cWg;Giu 4 f; Fk; mikthf Clfq;fspD}lhf
nghJkf;fs; mgpg;gpuhaj;jpd; ftdj;Jf;F nfhz;L nry;yyhk;.
(c) ,f;Nfhitapd; Vw;ghLfSld; xj;jpzq;Ffpd;w rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhhpfs;
rl;l mKyhf;fy; njhopy; Nghd;Nw r%fj;jpdJk; rl;l mKyhf;fy; Kfthpd;
KOikahd MjuitAk; xj;Jiog;igAk; ngWfpd;w khpahijf;Fhpath;fs;
Mth;.





47
47
tof;FiuQh;fspd; tfpgq;F gw;wpa topfhl;b tpjpfs;
1990 Mk; Mz;L Mf];l; khjk; 27 Mk; jpfjp njhlf;fk; nrg;lk;gh; khjk; 7 Mk;
jpfjp tiu fpA+ghtpy; cs;s `thdhtpy; ,lk;ngw;w Fw;wq;fisj; jLj;jYk;
Fw;wthspfisf; ifahSjYk; kPjhd vl;lhtJ If;fpa ehLfs; fhq;fpurpdhy; Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
ePjp epiyehl;lg;glf; $bajhd epakq;fspid cUthf;Ftjw;fhd mth;fSila kd
cWjpAld;> ,jdpilNa ,d> ghy;> nkhop my;yJ rkag; ghugl;rq;fspd;wp kdpj
chpikfSf;Fk;; mbg;gilr; Rje;jpuq;fSf;Fkhd kjpg;ig Kd;Ndw;WtjpYk;;
cw;rhfg;gLj;JtjpYk; rh;tNjr xj;Jiog;ig miltij jkJ Nehf;fq;fSf;Fs;
xd;whf gpufldg;gLj;jp If;fpa ehLfs; gl;laj;jpy;> ,t;Tyfpy; cs;s kf;fs;
cWjpg;gLj;jpajhifahy;>
fsq;fkw;w jd;ik gw;wpa Cfj;ijAk;> Rje;jpukhdJk; ghugl;rkw;wJkhd
Mizf;FOnthd;wpdhy; ePjpahdJk; gfpuq;fkhdJkhd tprhuizf;fhd
chpikiaAk; rl;lj;jpd; Kd;ghd rkj;Jtf; Nfhl;ghLfisAk; midj;Jyf kdpj
chpikfs; gpufldk; njhlh;eJ ghJfhf;fpd;wjhifahy
mj;jifa Nfhl;ghLfshy; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;w njhiyNehf;fpw;Fk; cz;ikahd
#o;epiyf;Fk; ,ilapy; njhlh;e;Jk; ,ilntspnahd;W fhzg;gLfpd;wjhifahy;>
ePjpia epUtfpg;gjpy; tof;FiuQh; fs; Kf;fpakhdnjhU tfpgq;if
tfpf;fpd;wikahYk; kw;Wk; mth;fSila Kf;fpakhd nghWg;Gilikfis
epiwNtw;WtJ njhlh;ghd tpjpfs; mth;fsJ khpahijia fl;lhak; Kd;Ndw;w
Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; Nkw;Fwpj;j Nfhl;ghLfSld; nghUe;jpr; nry;Ytjd; fhuzkhfTk;
ePjpahdJk; xg;GuthdJkhf Fw;wtpay; ePjpKiw kw;Wk; Fw;wj;Jf;F vjpuhf
Fbkf;fspd; tpidj;jpwdhd ghJfhg;G vd;gdtw;wpy; gq;fspj;jjhifahy;>
Ml;Nrh;g;G kw;Wk; rl;l kw;Wk; njhopy; rhh; gapw;rpapy; Kd;Ndw;wkile;j
KiwikfspD}lhfTk;> kw;Wk; Fw;wtpaiy xopg;gjpy; mth;fspd; tfpgq;fpy; rhpahd
nraw;ghl;il Nkw;nfhs;Stjw;fhd rfy rhj;jpag;ghlhd topKiwikfSf;$lhfTk;
tof;FiuQh;fs; mth;fSila nraw;ghLfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd njhopy; rhh;
jifikfis nfhz;bUg;gij cWjpg;gLj;JtJ mj;jpahtrpakhifahy;>
Fw;wq;fisj; jLj;jYk; Fw;wthspfisf; ifahSjYk; kPjhd Ie;jhtJ If;fpa
ehLfs; fhq;fpurpd; ghpe;Jiuapd; mbg;gilapy; 1979 Mk; Mz;L brk;gh; khjk; 17
Mk; jpfjpad;W jd;Dila jPh;khdk; ,yf;fk; 34/169 khf rl;l mKyhf;fy;
mYtyh;fSf;fhd elj;ij tpjpf; Nfhitahf nghJr; rig Vw;Wf;nfhz;l tifapy;>
ePjpgjpfspdJk; njhptpdJk; Rje;jpuj;jd;ik> njhopy;rhh; gapw;rp> kw;Wk; ePjpgjpfspdJk;
tof;FiuQh;fspdJk; me;j];J Mfpatw;iw mjd; Kd;Dhpikfspy; xd;whf
cs;slf;Fk;gb Fw;wj;jLg;G kw;Wk; fl;Lg;ghL gw;wpa Mizf;FOtpw;F miog;G
tpLj;J Fw;wq; fisj; jLj;jYk; Fw;wthspfisf; ifahSjYk; kPjhd MwhtJ
If;fpa ehLfs; fhq;fpurpd; 16 tJ jPh;khdj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;l tifapy;>
ePjpj;Jiwapd; Rje;jpuk; gw;wpa Nfhl;ghLfs; Fw;wq;fisj; jLj;jYk; Fw;wthspfisf;
ifahSjYk; kPjhd VohtJ If;fpa ehLfs; fhq;fpurpdhy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;L
njhlh;e;J 1985 Mk; Mz;L etk;gh; khjj;jpy; nghJr; rigahy; mjDila 40/32 Mk;
,yf;fj;jPh;khdkhfTk; 1985 Mk; Mz;L brk;gh; khjk; 13 Mk; jpfjp mjDila
40/146 ,yf;fj;jPh;khdkhfTk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l tifapYk;>
Fw;wk; kw;Wk; mjpfhu J\;gpuNahfj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSf;fhd ePjpapd;
mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfSf;fhd gpufldkhdJ ePjp kw;Wk; epahakhd elhj;Jif>
tpLjiy> e\;l<L kw;Wk; Fw;wj;jhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSf;F cjtp vd;gdtw;iw
mZtjw;F rh;tNjr kw;Wk; Njrpa kl;lj;jpy; vLf;fg;glNtz;ba topKiwfis
rpghhpR nra;fpd;wikahYk;>
tof;FiuQh;fspd; me;j];Jk; njhopy; rhh; gapw;rpAk;> njhpT> Fw;wtpay; ePjp
Kiwikapd; RKfkhd nraw;ghl;Lf;fhd mth;fSila gq;fspg;G kw;Wk;
nghypRldhd xj;Jiog;G> mth;fsJ jw;WzpG mjpfhuq;fSf;fhd gug;ngy;iy>
kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; elgbapy; mth;fspd; tfpgq;F>kw;Wk; vjph;fhy If;fpa ehLfs;
fhq;fpuRfSf;F mwpf;ifapLjy; Nghd;wit njhlh;ghd topfhl;bfSf;fhd
48
48
Njitfis fUj;jpy; vLf;FkhW FOit VohtJ fhq;fpurpd; 7 tJ jPh;khdj;jpy;
Nfhhpa tifapYk;>
Fw;wtpay; elgbfspy; tpidj;jpwd;> ghugl;rkpd;ik> tof;FiuQh;fspd; Neh;ik
Mfpatw;iw ghJfhg; gjw; Fk; Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;Fkhd mq;fj;Jt ehLfspd; flikfspy;
cjtp nra;tjw;fhf cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s> fPNo Fwpg;gplg;gl;l topfhl;b tpjpfs;>
murhq;fq;fspdhy; mtw;wpd; Njrpa rl;lthf;fk; kw;Wk; nrad;Kiwapd;
gug;ngy;iyf;Fs; kjpg;gspf;fg;gl;L ftdj;jpy; vLf;fg;gLtJld;> tof;FiuQh; fspd;
ftdj;Jf;Fk; nfhz;L tug;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; mNj Nghd;W ePjpgjpfs;>
rl;lj;juzpfs;> eph;thfj;Jiw kw;Wk; rl;lthf;fj;Jiw kw;Wk; nghJkf;fspd;
mq;fj;jth;fs; Nghd;w egh;fSf;F Kd;Dk; nfhz;L tug;gl Ntz;Lk;. gfpuq;f
tof;FiuQh;fis fUj;jpy; vLj;J Muk;gj;jpy; topfhl;b tpjpfs; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s
NghjpYk;> mit rkj;Jtkhf gpuNahfpf;fg;glj;jf;fit vd;gJld; nghUj;jkhd
tifapy; Fwpj;j Nehf;fpy; epakpf;fg;gLk; tof;FiuQh;fSf;Fk;
nghUj;jkhditahFk;.
jfikfs;> njhpT kw;Wk; gapw;rp
1. tof;FiuQh;fshfj; njhpT nra;ag;gLk; egh;fs; Kiwikahd gapw;rp kw;Wk;
jifikfSld; Nkd;ikAk; jpwikAk; cilath;fshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

2. muRfs; fl;lhakhf:

(m) ghugl;rk; my;yJ ePjpaw;w jd;ik vd;gdtw;wpw;F vjpuhd
ghJfhg;GfSlDk; tof;FiuQh; gzpf;F Njitg;gLj;jg;gLk; mNgl;rfh;
fUj;jpy; vLf;fg;gl Ntz;ba ehl;bd; gpui[ahf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;
vdg;gLtJ ghugl;rkhf fUjg;glyhfhJ vd; gJ jtph;e;j ,dk;> th;zk;>
ghy;> nkhop> rkak;> murpay; my;yJ NtW mgpg;gpuhak;> Njrpak;> r%f
my;yJ ,d %yj;jd;ikapy;> Mjdk;> gpwg;G> nghUshjhuk; my;yJ
NtW me;j];J vd;gdtw;wpd; kPjhd ghugl;rj;ij tpyf;fpAk;
tof;FiuQh;fis njhpT nra;Ak; Kiwik ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;
vd;gijAk; ;

(M) tof;FiuQh;fs; nghUj;jkhd fy;tp kw;Wk; gapw;rpiaf; nfhz;L
,Ug;gJld; Njrpa kw;Wk; rh;tNjrr; rl;lj;jhy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l kdpj
chpikfisAk; mbg;gilr; Rje;jpuq;fisAk; kw;Wk; re;Njf
egh;fSf;Fk; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSf;Fk; murpayikg;G kw;Wk; epajpr;
rl;lg; ghJfhg;ig gw;wpAk; jkJ gjtp gw;wpAk; xOf;ff; flikfs;
kw;Wk; cahpa jd;ikfs; Fwpj;jhd tpopg;Gzh;T Cl;lg;gl;bUf;fTk;
Ntz;Lk; vd;gijAk;

cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;.

me;j];Jk; Nritf;fhd epge;jidfSk;

3. ePjp eph;thfj;jpd; Kf;fpakd Kfth;fshd tof;FiuQh;fs;> jkJ cah;
njhopypd; nfsutj;ijAk; khpahijiaAk; vg;nghOJk; NgZjy; Ntz;Lk;.

49
49
4. mr;RWj;jy;> ,ilA+W> njhy;iy> Kiwaw;w jiyaPL my;yJ
epahag;gLj;jKbahj Fbapay; ntspg;gLj;Jif> jz;lid my;yJ NtW
nghWg;G vd;git ,y;yhky; tof;FiuQh; fs; jkJ njhopy; rhh; nraw;ghLfis
epiwNtw;Wtij muRfs; cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;.

5. tof;Fiuj;jy; nraw;ghLfis epiwNtw;Wtjd; tpisthf mth;fspd; jdpg;gl;l
ghJfhg;G mr;RWj;jYf;Fs;shFk; NghJ tof;FiuQh;fSk; mth;fSila
FLk;gq;fSk; fl;lhakhf mjpfhhpfspdhy; ngsjPfg; ghJfhf;fg; gl Ntz;Lk;.

6. tof;FiuQh;fspd; Nritf;fhd epahakhd epge;jidfs;> NghJkhd
nfhLg;gdTfs;> kw;Wk; nghUj;jkhd jUzq;fspy; gjtpf;fhyk;> Xa;T+jpak;
kw;Wk; Xa;Tf;fhd taJ Nghd;wit rl;lj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;
my;yJ tpjpfs; my;yJ xOq;F tpjpfshy; gpuRhpf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

7. tof;FiuQh;fspd; gjtpAah;thdJ> mj;jifanjhU Kiwik nraw;ghl;by;
cs;s nghOJ Fwpg;ghf njhopy; rhh; jifikfs;> ,aYik> fPh;j;jp kw;Wk;
mDgtk; Nghd;w Gwk; rhh; fhuzpfspd; mbg;gilapYk; Neh;ikahdJk;
ghugl;rkw;wJkhd elgbfSf;F mikthfTk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl ntz;Lk;.

fUj;J ntspapLtjw;Fk; xd;W $Ltjw;Fkhd Rje;jpuk;

8. Vida gpui[fisg; NghyNt tof;FiuQh;fSk; fUj;J ntspapLk;> ek;gpf;if>
xd;W $Lk; kw;Wk; xUq;F Nrh;tjw;fhd Rje;jpuj;Jf;F chpj;Jilath;fs;.
Fwpg;ghf mth;fs; rl;lk;> ePjp epUthfk;> kw;Wk; kdpj chpikfspd; ghJfhg;Gk;
Kd;Ndw;wKk; njhlh; ghd tplaq;fspy; gfpuq;f fye;Jiuahly;fspy;
gq;Fgw;Wtjw;fhd chpikiaf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whh;fs; vd;gJld; cs;Sh;>
Njrpa my;yJ rh;tNjr mikg;Gfis cUthf;Ftjw;Fk; ,iztjw;Fk; kw;Wk;
mth;fspd; $l;lq;fspy; fye;J nfhs;tjw;Fk; rl;lG+h;tkhd mikg;nghd;wpy;
cs;s mth;fspd; mq;fj;Jtk; my;yJ mth;fSila rl;lG+h;tkhd nraw;ghL
fhuzkhf njhopy;rhh; gpujp$yq;fSf;F cs;shfhky; ,Ug;gjw;f
chpj;Jilath;fs; Mth;. ,t;Thpikfisg; gpuNahfpg;gjpy;> tof;FiuQh;fs;
rl;lj;JlDk;> jkJ cah; njhopypd; mq;fPfhpf;fg;;gl;l epakq;fSlDk;
xOf;ftpjpfSlDk; mth;fis xj;jpzq;fpr; nry;yy; Ntz;Lk;.

9. tof;FiuQh;fs; jkJ njhopy;rhh; gapw;rpia Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;Fk; jkJ
me;j];ijg; ghJfhg; gjw;Fk; njhopy;rhh; mikg;Gf;fspy; my;yJ mth;fSila
mf;fiwfis gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jk; NtW mikg;Gfspy; ,iztjw;Fk;
cUthf;Ftjw;Fk; chpj;Jilath;fs;.


Fw;wtpay; elgbfspy; tfpgq;F

50
50
10. tof;FiuQh;fspd; mYtyfkhdJ fl;lhakhf ePjpj;Jiwr; nraw;ghLfspypUe;J
NtWgLj;jg;gl;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

11. tof;Fiufis Muk;gpg;gJ kw;Wk; rl;lj;jhy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l rkaj;jpy;
my;yJ cs;Sh; eilKiwAld; xj;Jr; nry;Yk; tifapy; Fw;wg;Gydha;T>
,j;jifa Gydha;Tfspd; rl;lj;jd;ik kPjd Nkw;ghh;it> ePjpkd;w
cj;juTfis epiwNtw;Wjy; njhlh;ghd Nkw;ghh;it> kw;Wk; nghJ
mf;fiwapd; gpujpepjpfs; vd;w tifapy; NtW nraw;ghLfs; cs;slq;fyhf
Fw;w elgbfspy; tof;FiuQh;fs; nraw;ghlhd tfpgq;if tfpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

12. rl;lj;Jf;F mikthf> tof;FiuQh;fs; jkJ flikfis ePjpahf>
Kuz;ghbd;wpAk; kw;Wk; JhpjkhfTk; kw;Wk; kdpj nfsutj;Jf;F kjpg;gspj;Jk;
kdpj chpikfis epiyehl;bAk;> fl;lhakhf epiwNtw;Wtjd; %yk;
Fw;wtpay; ePjpKiwikapd; RKfkhd nraw;ghl;ilAk; nrad;KiwiaAk;
cWjpg;gLj;j gq;fspf;f Ntz;Lk;.

13. jkJ flikfis epiwNtw;Wtjpy; tof;FiuQh;fs; fl;lhakhf:
(m) jkJ flikfis ghugl;rkpd;wpAk; murpay;> r%f> rka> ,d> fyhr;rhu>
ghy;epiy> my;yJ NtW tpjkhd ghugl;rq;fisj; jtph;j;J Kd;ndLf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
(M) re;Njf egUf;F mit mD$ykhdjh my;yJ gpujp$ykhdjh vd;gijg;
nghUl;gLj;jhJ nghJ mf;fiwia ghJfhj; jy;> Fwpf;NfhSld; nraw;gLjy;>
re;Njf eghpdJk; ghjpf;fg;gl;lthpdJk; epiy njhlh;gpy; rhpahff;
ftdj;jpnyLg;gJld;> njhlh;Gila midj;J #o;epiyfspYk; ftdk;
nrYj;Jjy;.
(,) flikapid epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf my;yJ ePjpapd; NjitfSf;fhftd;wp jkJ
clikapy; cs;s tplaq;fis ,ufrpakhf itj;jpUj;jy;.
(<) ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSila jdpg;gl;l eyd;fs; ghjpf;fg;gLk;NghJ mth;fspd;
mf;fiwfisAk; fz;Nzhl;lq;fisAk; ftdj;jpnyLg;gJld; Fw;wk; kw;Wk;
mjpfhu J\;gpuNahfj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSf;fhd ePjpapd; mbg;gilf;
Nfhl;ghLfSf;fhd gpufldj;Jf;fikthf mrth;fspd; chpikfs; Fwpj;J
mth;fSf;F jftyspf;fg;gl;ljh vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;
14. Fw;wkhdJ fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;bUf;ftpy;iy vdf; fhl;Lfpd;w ghugl;rkhd
Gyd;tprhuiznahd;wpd; NghJ tof;FiuQh; fs; mjid Muk;gpf;fNth my; yJ
tof;F tprhuizia nfhz;L elj;jNth my;yJ elgbfis elj;j xt;nthU
Kaw;rpnaLf;fNth $lhJ.

15. Coy;> mjpfhu J\;gpuNahfk;> kdpj chpikfs; kPjhd ghhpa kPwy;fs; kw;Wk;
rh;tNjrr; rl;lj;jhYk; kw;Wk; rl;lj;jhy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;lJkhd my;yJ
cs;Sh; eilKiwAld; nghUe;jhj Vida Fw;wq;fs; vd;git gfpuq;f
mYtyh;fspdhy; Ghpag;gl;Ls;s NghJ mj;jifa Fw;wq;fs; kPjhd Gyd;
tprhuizapy; tof;FiuQh;fs; chpa ftdk; nrYj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

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51
16. re;Njf egh;fSf;F vjpuhf rhd;Wfis tof;FiuQh;fs; clikapy;
nfhz;Ls;sNghJ> re;Njf egh;fspd; kdpj chpikfspy; mJ ghhpa kPwiy
cUthf;Ffpd;w> Fwpg;ghf rpj;jputij my;yJ nfhLuj;jd;ik> kdpjhgpkhdkw;w
my;yJ juf;Fiwthd elhj;Jif my;yJ jz;lid> my;yJ kdpj
chpikfspd; NtW VNjDk; kPwy;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;Ls;s rl;lhPjpaw;w
topKiwfspy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lit vd;gij epahakhd fhuzq;fspd;
mbg;gilapy; mth;fs; mwpAk; NghJ my;yJ ek;Gk; NghJ mj;jifa
rhd;wpid mj;jifa Kiwikfis cgNahfpj;jtUf;F vjpuhftd;wp ghtpf;f
kWf;f Ntz;Lk;> my;yJ ePjpkd;wj;Jf;F njhpag;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld;
mj;jifa Kiwfis ghtpj;jth;fis rl;lj;Jf;F Kd; epWj;Jtjw;fhd
nghUj;jkhd eltbf;iffisAk; Nkw;nfhs; s Ntz;Lk;.

jw;WzpGr; nraw;ghLfs;

17. tof;FiuQh;fSf;F jw;WzpG mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;Ls;s ehLfspy;> rl;lk;
my;yJ gpuRhpf;fg;gl;l tpjpfs; my;yJ xOq;F tpjpfs; vd;git
tof;Fiuapyp;ue;J tpLtpf;fg;gl;l my;yJ mikg;G cs;slq;fyhf tof;F
tprhuizr; nraw;ghl;bd; KbntLf;Fk; mZFKiwapy; xj;j jd;ikiaAk;
Neh;ikiaAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd topfhl;bfis toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

tof;Fiuf;fhd khw;Wf;fs;

18. ,aw;ifr; rl;lj;Jf;F mikthf> re;Njf egh;(fs;) kw;Wk; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;;(fs;)
cila chpikfSf;F KOkjpg;gspj;J tof;Fiuia tpyf;fpf; nfhs;tJ>
elgbfis epge;jidfSld; my;yJ epge;jidapd;wp ,ilepWj;JtJ> my;yJ
Kiwikahd ePjpKiwapypUe;J Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffis jpUg;GtJ njhlh;gpy;
tof;FiuQh;fs; chpa ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; . ,e;Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf>
ePjpkd;wq;fspd; msTf;fjpfkhd Rikfisf; Fiwg;gJ kl;Lky;yhJ tof; Ff;F
Kd;duhd jLj;Jitg;G> rpiw kw;Wk; jz;lid mt;thNw rpiwj;jz;lidapd;
rhj;jpakhd vjph;kiw tpisTfisf; Fiwg;gjw;Fk; khw;W Kiwikfis
cs;thq;Ftjw;fhd rhj;jpaf;$Wfis muRfs; KOikahff; fz;lwpa
Ntz;Lk;.

19. rpWtnuhUtiu tprhuizf;Fl;gLj;Jtjh my;yJ ,y;yiyah vd;gjw;fhd
jPh;khdj;ij vLg;gjw;fhd jw;WzpGr; nraw;ghLfs; tof;FiuQh;fSf;F
toq;fg;gl;Ls;s ehLfspy; Fw;wj;jpd; ghuJ}uj;jd;ik> r%fg;ghJfhg;G kw;Wk;
MSik kw;Wk; rpWthpd; gpd;dzpf;F tpNrl ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
mj;jifa jPh;khdj;ij vLf;ifapy;> nghUj;jkhd rpWth; ePjpr; rl;lq;fs; kw;Wk;
elgbfSf;fhd fpilf;fj;jf;fjhd khw;Wf;fs; Fwpj;J tof;FiuQh; fs;
Fwpg;ghf ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. fLikahf Njitg;gLk; msTf;f kl;LNk
rpWth;fSf;F vjpuhd Kw;ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffis vLg;gjw;fhd
mth;fSila rpwe;j Kaw;rpfis tof;FiuQh;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.

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52
Vida murhq;f Kfth;fs; my;yJ mikg;GfSldhd cwTfs;

20. tof;Fiuapd; Neh;ikapidAk; tpidj;jpwidAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jk; Kfkhf>
tof;FiuQh;fs;> nghyp];> ePjpkd;wq;fs;> rl;l cah; njhopy;> nghJg;
ghJfhtyh;fs; kw;Wk; Vida murhq;f Kfth;fs; my;yJ mikg;GfSld;
xj;Jiof; Ntz;Lk;.

xOf;fhw;W eltbf;iffs;

21. tof;FiuQh;fspd; xOf;fhw;W Fw;wq;fs; rl;lk; my;yJ rl;lhPjpahd
xOq;Ftpjpfspdbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;Fk;. njhopy;rhh; epakq;fSf;fg;ghy;
mth;fs; nraw;gl;lhh;fs; vdr; rhh;j;Jfpd;w tof;FiuQh;fSf;nfjpuhd
Kiwg;ghLfs;> Neh;ikahfTk; ghugl;rkpd;wpAk; Kiwahd elgbfspd; fPo;
elj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Neh;ikahd tpsf;fj;Jf;fhd chpikia tof;FiuQh;fs;
nfhz;Ls;sdh; . ,k;KbthdJ jdpg;gl;l kPsha;Tf;F cl;gl;ljhFk;.

22. tof;FiuQh;fSf;nfjpuhd xOf;fhw;W elgbfs; Gwk; rhh; kjpg;gPl;ilAk;
KbitAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;. mit rl; lj;Jf;F> njhopy;rhh; elj;ijf;
Nfhit kw;Wk; Vida Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;l epakq;fs; kw;Wk; xOq;F tpjpfs;
kw;Wk; jw;Nghija topfhl;bfspd; mbg;gilapy; mikthfj; jPh;khdpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.

topfhl;bfs; kPjhd mtjhdpg;G

23. tof;FiuQh;fs; jw;Nghija topfhl;bfSf;F kjpg;gspf;f Ntz;Lk;. mth;fs;
jkJ rf;jpapd; cr;r mstpy;> mjw;nfjpuhd VnjDk; kPwy;fSf;F vjpuhfTk;
jLf;fTk; Ntz;Lk;.

24. jw;Nghija topfhl;bfs; njhlh;gpy; VnjDk; kPwy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sjhf my;yJ
cldbahd ,lk;ngwTs;sjhf ek;Gtjw;fhd fhuzk; cs;s tof;FiuQh;fs;
mth;fSila NkyjpfhhpfSf;Fk; Njitg;gLk; NghJ kPsha;tjw;fhd my;yJ
epthuzk; toq;Ftjw;fhd mjpfhuj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;s nghUj;jkhd Vida
mjpfhhpfs; my;yJ mikg;GfSf;Fk; mt;tplaj;ij mwpf;ifaply; Ntz;Lk;.










53
53
rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhupfspd; MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; njhlHghd
mbg;gil Nfhl;ghLfs;;
rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; NritahdJ kpf juk;tha;e;j r%f Nritahf
,Ug;gjdhy; mjid nfhz;L ehj;jTk; Njitahd NghJ ,e;j mjpfhupfspd;
epiyikiaAk; juj;ijAk; Nkk;gLj;jTk; Njitg;ghL ,Ug;gjdhYk;
rl;l mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;Fk; mtHfsJ capUf;Fk; mr; RWj;jy;
Vw;gLNkahdhy; mJ rKfj;jpd; ,Ug;Gf;fhd mr;RWj;jyhfNt ghHf;fg;gLtjdhYk;
midj;Jyf kdpj cupik gpufldk; kw;Wk; rptpy; kw;Wk; murpay; cupikfSf;fhd
rHtNjr rkthaj;jpy; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;Ls; s xU egupd; ghJfhg; G> Rje;jpuk;>
tho;Tf;fhd Rje;jpuk; vd;gtw;iw ghJfhg;gjpy; Kf;fpa tfpgq;F rl;l mKyhf;fy;
cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;F ,Ug;gjdhYk;
rpiwf;fhty; cj;jpaNahfj;jHfs; jkJ flikapid nra;fpd;wNghJ rpiwf;ifjpfis
fl;Lg;gLj;j gad;gLj;Jfpd;w kpff;Fiwe;j xOq;Ftpjpj; juj;jpw;Nfw;g ,Ug;gjdhYk;
rl;l mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;fhd elj;ijf;Nfhit tiuG ,y 3y;
toq;fg;gl;Ls;sthwhd mjpfhuq;fis kpff; fl;lhakhf Njitg;gLk;
re;jHg;gq;fspYk; jkJ flikapid nfhz;L elhj;j mj;jpatrpkhtjdhy; rl;l
mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj; jHfs; gad;gLj;jKbAk; vd;wpUg;gjdhYk;
,j;jhypapy; ntnwd;dh efupy; Fw;wr;nray; jLg;gjw;fhfTk; kw;Wk; Fw;wk;
rhl;lg;gl;ltHfis elj;Jiff;fhfntd elhj;jg;gl;l If;fpa ehLfs; rhrdj;jpd;
Kd;Ndw;ghl;Lf; $l;lj;jpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl; l rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfshy; ;
MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahf fl;Lg;ghLfs; gw;wp Fwpg;gpl;bUg;gjdhYk;
rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhupfspdy; MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfkhdJ kdpj
cupikia kjpf;ff;$batifapy; ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;gjid 7tJ fhq;fpu]pd; 14tJ
jPHkhdj;jpy; mOj;jk; nfhLj;J Fwpg;gpLtjhYk;
nghUshjhu r%f MNyhrid rigahdJ mjd; 1986/10 ,Yk; 1986 Nk khjk; 21k;
jPHkhdj;jpy; gpupT IX ,Yk; rl;l mKyhf;fy; mjpfhupfspdy; MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk;
gyg;gpuNahfk; njhlHghd elj;ij newpapid mKy;gLj;JtJ njhlHghf cWg;Gupik
ehLfSf;F ftdk; nrYj;JkhW Fwpg;gpLtjdhYk;> nghJf;$l;lj;jpy; ,e;j
MNyhrid rigapd; Kd;nkhopTfs; tuNtw;fg;gl;bUg;gjdhYk;
nghJ kf;fspd; ghJfhg;igAk; r%f mikjpiaAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jtw;F Rje;jpuk;>
tho;Tf;fhd Rje;jpuk; vd;gtw;iw ghJfhj;J ePjpia epHtfpg;gjpy; rl;l mKyhf;fy;
cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; tfpghfj;jpidAk; kw;Wk; jkJ Ra ghJfhg;G
fUj;jpw;nfhs;Sk;NghJ ,J nghUj;jkhdjhf ,Ug;gjdhYk;
mbg;gil Nfhl;ghLfs; gpd;tUkhW xOq;F nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. ,J cWg;G ehLfs;
jkJ rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; rpwe;j tfpghfj;jpid cWjpg;gLj;jp
Cf;Ftpg;gjw;F nra;ag;glNtz;batw;Wf;F cjTtjdhYk;>

rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; nghUj;jkhd tfpgq;fpid
cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; Cf;Ftpg;gjw;Fkhd tplaj;jpy; cWg;Gwpik ehLfSf;F
cjTjw;F cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jid me;ehLfs; mtHfsJ murhq;fj;jpy; Njrpa
rl;lkpaw;Wk;> eilKiwg;gLj;Jk; fl;likg;gpw;Fs; epd;W ,jid
fUj;jpw;nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. mj;NjhL rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; kw;Wk;
ePjthd;> rl;lj;juzp> nghJkf;fs;> rl;lkpaw;WgtHfs; Nghd;NwhuJ ftdj;jpw;F ,jid
nfhz;Ltu Ntz;Lk;.

nghJ epge;jidfs;
1. rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfspd; MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; njhlHghd
mbg;gil Nfhl;ghl;L xOq;F tpjpfis murhq;fKk; rl;l mKyhf;fy;
mikg;GfSk; Vw;Wf;nfhz;L eilKiwg;gLj; jyhk;. murhq;fKk; rl;l
mKyhf;fy; mikg;GfSk;> MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; njhlHghd
xOf;f jHkq;fis njhlHr;rpahf kjpg;gPL nra;tjD}lhf ,j;jifa
xOq;Ftpjpfis tpUj;jpnra;ayhk;.
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2. murhq;fKk; Vida rl;l mKyhf;fy; KftH mikg;GfSk;> Kbe;jtiu
gue;j guk;gYila tpj;jpahrkhd tiffSila MAjq;fisAk; mjw;F
Njitahd ntbnghUl;fisAk; rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;F
toq;Ftjd; %yk; NtWgLk; tpjkhd gyg;gpuNahfj;jpw;fhd tha;Gfis
mtHfSf;F Vw;gLj;jp nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,it ghupastpyhd ghjpg;Gfis
Vw;gLj;jhj kuzj;ijNah ghupa fhaq;fisNah Vw;gLj;jhj MAjq;fis
nghUj;jkhd re;jHg;gj;jpy; gad;gLj;jf;$bajhf mikaNtz;Lk;. ,Nj
fhuzj;Jf;fhf rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; jLg;Gf;Nflaq;fs;
jiyf;ftrq;fs; Fz;L Jiof;fhf mq;fpfs; Fz;L Jiof;fhj thfdq;fs;
Nghd;w jw;fhg;G cgfuzq;fisAk; nfhz;bUg;gJ MAjg;gad;ghl;Lj;
Njitia Fiwf;fcjTk;.

3. capuhgj;J Vw;gLj;jhj Vidaghjpg;Gfis Vw;gLj;Jk; MAjq;fis tpUj;jp
nra;Ak; NghJk; xOq;FgLj;Jk;NghJk; ,j;jifa MAjg;ghtidapy;
<LglhjtHfSf;F Vw;gLk; Mgj;jpid Fiwf;Fk; Nehf;fpy; ftdkhf kPsha;T
nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mj;NjhL ,j;jifa MAjq;fs; kpff;ftdkhf ifahsg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.

4. rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfs; jkJ flikia nra;JtUfpd;w NghJ
MAjg;ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; vd;gtw;iw gad;gLj;j Kd;dH
KbAkhdsT mikjpfhf;Fk; topKiwfis ifahsyhk;. ve;j cgha
topKiwfSk; rhj;jpag;glhJ vd;fpd;wNghJk; jhd; epidj;j ,yf;if
milaNtz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf ,y;yhjNghJk; khj;jpuNk rl;l mKyhf;f
mjpfhupfs; MAjg;ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; vd;gtw;iw ifahsyhk;.

5. rl;luPjpahd MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; jtpHf;fKbaJ Nghfpd;w
Nghnjy;yhk; rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfs;:


(a) ,j;jifa ghtidapy; fl;Lg;ghLfis Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhs;tNjhL Fw;wj;jpd;
jd;ikf;F Vw;wthwhdJk; milag;glNtz;ba rl;luPjpahd
tplaj;jpw;Nfw;gTk; mtw;wpd; jd;ikf;Nfw;gTk; ele;Jnfhs;syhk; .

(b) ghjpg;Gf;fisAk; fhag;gLjiyAk; Fiwj;jy; kw;Wk; kdpj capHfis
kjpj;jYk; ghJfhj;jYk;

(c) ghjpf;fg;gl;l my;yJ fhag;gl;ltHfSf;F cjtpfs; kw;Wk; kUj;Jt
trjpfs; Kbe;jtiu Muk;gf;fl;lj;jpy; fpilf;fg;ngWtjid
cWjpg;gLj;jpf;nfhs; sy;;

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(d) ghjpf;fg;gl;l my;yJ fhag;gl;ltHfspd; cwtpdHfs; my;yJ neUq;fpa
ez;gHfSf;F Kbe;jsT mtrukhf mwptpf;fg;gLtjid cWjpnra;J
nfhs;sy;

6. rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfspd; MAj ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; fhuzkhf
fhaNkw;gLfpd;wNghJ my;yJ capHr;Nrjk; Vw;gLfpd;wNghJ nfhs;if ,y 22
gb; me;j rk;gtk; gw;wp mtHfs; cldbahf mtHfsJ NkyjpfhupfSf;F
mwpaj;juy; Ntz;Lk;.

7. rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfspd; MAj ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk;
jhd;Njhd;wpj;jdkhf my;yJ J\;gpuNahfk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wNghJ mtHfs;
Fw;wtpay; rl;lj;jpw;fika jz;bf;fg;gLfpwhHfs; vd;gjid cWjp
nra;Jnfhs;sy;.

8. rHtNjr murpay; epiyaw;w jd;ik my;yJ nghJ mtruepiyikfs; Nghd;w
jtpHf;f Kahj epiyikfspd;Nghjy;yhky; ,j;jifa mbg;gil
%yjHkq;fspypUe;J tpyfpaikia epahag;gLj;Jtjid uj;Jnra;ayhfhJ.


tpNrl epge;jidfs;


9. rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfs; Ra ghJfhg;GfUjp my;yJ fhag;gLjy;>
Ngujgj;Jf;fs; Vw;glTs;s re;jHg;gq;fs;> my;yJ jkJ mjpfhurigf;F
mj;jifa Nguhgj;jpid tpistpf;f KaYk; xUtiu ifJnra;a Kaw;rpf;Fk;
re;jHg;gk; my;yJ jg;gpf;f Kaw;rpf;Fk; re;jHg;gq;fiAk; my;yJ Nkw;nrhd;d
epiyikfis jLf;f NtW Kaw;rpfs; gadspf;fhj epiyikfisj; jtpu
,d;ndhU egUf;f vjpuhf MAj ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; nra;a
KbahJ. xU capiughJfhg; gjw;F Ntnwe;j topfSk; rhj;jpakhfJ vd;w
fLikahd epiyay;yhJ capuhgj; ij Vw;gLj;Jk MAjq;fis
gad;gLj;jf;$lhJ.

10. %yjHkk; 9 ,d fPo; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sthW rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfs;
vd;gjid milahsg;gLj;JtJk; jhk; MAjj;ijg; gad;gLj;jg;Nghtjid
vr;rupg;gJTk; mjw;F NghJkhd Neu mtfhrk; nfhLg;gJTk; mtrpakhFk;.
,Ug;gpDk; ,t;thW nra;tJ rl;l mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;F my;yJ
Vid egUf;F capuhgj;ij my;yJ fLikahd ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;Jk;
re;jHg;gj;jpy; my;yJ Fwpj;j #o;epiyapd;gb mt;thW nra;tJ
nghUj;jkw;wjhf ,Ug;gpDk; mj;jifa vr;rupg;gpid jtpHf;fyhk;.

11. rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfspdhy; MAjq;fis gad;gLj;Jtjw;fhd xOq;F
tpjpfs; gpd;tUtdtw;iw cs;slf;fpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
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56

(a) rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhupfshy; vj;jifa re;jHg;gq;fspd;NghJ MAjq;fs;
nfhz;Lnry;y mDkjpaspf;gl;Ls;shHfs; vd;gjidAk; MAj
tifiaAk; Fwpg;gpl;Lf;$wpapUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

(b) MAjq;fs; cz;ikahfNt nghUj;jkhd kw;Wk; Njitaw;w
Mgj;Jepiyikfis jtpHj;jy; Nghd;w epiyikfspd; NghJk;
khj;jpuNk gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gjidAk;

(c) Njitaw;w fhaq;fisAk; Mgj;Jf; fisAk; Vw;gLj;jf;$ba
MAjq;fisSk; ntbnghUl;fisAk; ghtpg;gJ jilnra;ag;glNtz;Lk;.

(d) rl;l mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s MAjq;fSf;Fk;
ntbnghUl;fSf;Fkhd mtHfSila nghWg;Glikia
cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd eltbf;if Kiwikfs; cs;slq;fyhf
MAjq;fspd; tpepNahfk;> fsQ;rpag;gLj;jy;> fl;Lg;ghL vd;gd
xOq;FKiwgLj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

(e) MAjq;fis toq;Fk;NghJ Njit Vw;gbd; mjw;fhd vr;rupf;iffis
toq;Ftjw;Fk; Vw;ghLfs; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

(f) rl;l mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; jkJ flikapd;NghJ MAjq;fis
gad;gLj;jpdhy; mJ gw;wp mwpf;ifapLtjw;fhd xU Kiwik Ngzg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.

rl;ltpNuhj xd;W$ly;fSk; nghyP]{k;
12. midj;Jyf kdpj cupik gpufldKk; murpay; kw;Wk; Fbapay; kPjhd
rHtNjr rkthaj;jpd; gbAk; vy;yh egHfSk; rl;l Kiwahd kw;Wk;
mikjpahd xd;W$ly;fspy; gq;Fgw;Wtjw;F mDkjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdH. Mjyhy;
murhq;fq;fSk; rl;l mKyhf;fy; Kftuhz;ikfSk; mjpfhupfSk;
MAjq;fis 13k; 14k; %yjHkq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; khj;jpuNk gad; gLj;j
KbAk; vd;gjid Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

13. rl;l tpNuhjkhd Mdhy; td;Kiwaw;w xd;W$ly;fis fiyf;fpd;wNghJ rl;l
mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; gyg;gpuNahfk; nra;tij jtpHf;f Ntz;Lk;. mJ
rhj;jpakhfhj re;jHg;gj;jpy; gyg;gpuNahfj;ij kpff;Fiwe;j Njitahd
msTf;F khj;jpuk; jhd; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.

14. td;Kiw epiwe;j xd;W$ly;fis fiyf;fpd;wNghJ rl;l mKyhf;fy;
cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; ghjpg;G Fiwe;j MAjq;fspd; gad;ghL gpuNahrdk;
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mspf;fhj gl;rj;jpy; khj;jpuNk Njitahd kpff;Fiwe;jsT MAjq;fis
gad;gLj;jyhk;. Mj;jifa re;jHg;gq;fspy; 9tJ %yjHkj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s
epahajHkq;fSf;fikthf md;wp rl;l mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfj;jHfs;
MAjq;fis gad;gLj;j $lhJ.


fl;Lf;fhty; my;yJ jLg;Gf;fhtypy; cs;stHfSk; nghyp]{k;


15. jdpg;gl;l ghJfhg;G my;yJ epWtdj;jpd; cs;sf ghJfhg; G vd;gtw;iw
ghJfhf;f Kbahj #oy; jtpu Vida re;jHg;gq;fspy; rl;l mKyhf;fy;
cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; fl;Lf;fhtypy; my;yJ jLg;Gf;fhtypy; cs;stHfs; kPJ
gyg;gpuNahfk; nra;a KbahJ.

16. 9tJ %yjHkj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;s Mgj;Jf;fis tpistpf;Fk;
tifapy; jLg;Gf;fhty; my;yJ fl;Lf;fhtypy; cs;s egHfs; jg;gpg;gij
jLg;gjw;Fk; kuzk; my;yJ fLk;fhak; tpistpg;gij jLg;gjw;fhd
jw;fhg;Gf;fhfTk; jtpu rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; fl;Lf;fhty;
my;yJ jLg;Gf;fhtypy; cs;stHfs; kPJ MAjq;fis gpuNahfpf;f KbahJ.

17. Nkw;nrhd;d Nfhl;ghLfs; rpiwr;rhiy cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; flikfs;>
cupikfs;> nghWg;Gf;fis ghjpf;fhj tpjkhfTk; rpiwf;ifjpfis guhkupj;jy;
njhlHghd kpff; Fiwthd epaktpjpfspd; 33> 34> 54k; tpjpfSf;fikthfTk;
ifahsg;gl Ntz;Lk;.


jifikfs;> gapw;rpfs; kw;Wk; Mw;Wg;gLj;Jif

18. rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfis njupTnra;Ak;NghJ Kiwahd
eilKiwfs; gpd;gw;wg;gLtNjhL jkJ flikfis tpidj;jpwDld;
Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F Njitahd nghUj;jkhd kNdhepiy cstpay; kw;Wk;
clypay; Fdhk;rq;fs; ,Ug;gjid murhq;fq;fSk; rl;l mKyhf;fy;
Kftuhd;ikfSk; cWjpnra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mj;NjhL njhlHr;rpahd
njhopw;gapw;rpfis ngWtjw;fhd jd;ikfSk; fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jkJ
flikia nra;tjw;F mtrpakhd cly; cs juhjuk; fhyj;Jf;F fhyk;
kPs;guprPyidf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

19. rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; gyg;gpuNahfk; njhlHgpyhd juhjuq;fs;
gw;wp guprPypf;fg;gl;Lk; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;Lk; ,Ug;gjid murhq;fq;fSk; rl;l
mKyhf;fy; Kftuhz;ikfSk; cWjp nra;a Ntz;Lk;. MAjq;fs;
toq;fg;gLfpd;w rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfSf;F toq;fg;gLfpd;w
MAjq;fspd; gad;ghL gw;wpa gapw;rp toq;fg;gl;lgpd;dNu me;j MAjq;fs;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
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20. rl;l mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; gapw;rpapd; NghJ nghyp]; xOf;fq;fs;>
kdpj cupikfs;> Gyd;tprhuiz nrad;Kiw> MAj kw;Wk;
gyg;gpuNahfj;jpw;fhd khw;Wtopfs;> Kwd;ghLfSf;fhd RKfj;jPHT>
rdf;$l;lj;jpd; elj;ij> J}z;Lif Kiwikfs;> Ngr;RthHj;ij kw;Wk;
kj;jpa];jk; vd;git gw;wpa gapw;rpfis toq;Ftjd;%yk; MAjq;fspdJk;
gyj;jpdJk; gpuNahfj;ij Fiwg;gjw;fhd Kaw;rpfis murhq;fq;fSk; rl;l
mKyhf;fy; Kftuhz;ikfSk; Nkw;nfhs; s Ntz;Lk;. rl;l mKyhf;fy;
epWtdq;fs; jkJ gapw;rp epfo;r;rpfisAk; eltbf;if KiwfisAk; Fwpg;gpl;l
rk;gtq;fs; njhlHgpy; kPsha;T nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

21. MAjq;fisAk; gyj;ijAk; gpuNahfpf;fpd;w re;jHg;gq;fspy; flikahw;Wk; rl;l
mKyhf;fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfspd; kd cisr;rYf;fhd Mw;Wg;gLj;Jiff;F
Njitahd trjpfis Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhLg;gJ murhq;fq;fspdJk; rl;l
mKyhf;fy; Kftuhz;ikfspdJk; flikahFk;.

mwpf;ifaply; kw;Wk; kPsha;T eilKiwfs;

22. 6 k; kw;Wk; 11 F %yjHkq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s rk;gtq;fs; njhlHgpy;
mwpf;ifapLtjw;Fk; kPsha;T nra;tjw;Fkhd eilKiwfis murhq;fq;fSk;
rl;l mKyhf;fy; Kftuhz;ikfSk; jhgpf; f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jf; Nfhl;ghLfs;
njhlHghd rk;gtq;fs; mwpf;ifaplg;gLfpd;wNghJ mitgw;wpa kPsha;T
nra;tjw;Fk; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk; Njitahd Rje;jpukhd epHthf
kw;Wk; ePjpj;Jiw mjpfhuq;fs; nghUj;jkhd re;jHg;gj;jpy; jkJ
epahahjpf;fj;ij gad;gLj;Jtij murhq;fq;fSk; rl;l mKyhf;fy;
Kftuhz;ikfSk; cWjp nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. kuzk; fLk;ghjpg;G Nghd;w
re;jHg; gq;fspy; xU tpupthd mwpf;if jahupf;fg;gl;L cldbahf epHthf
kPsha;T kw;Wk; ePjpKiw fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;fhd jFjptha;e;j mjpfhuq;fSf;F
mDg;gpitf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

23. MAjg; ghtid kw;Wk; gyg;gpuNahfk; fhuzkhf my;yJ rl;l gpujpepjpahy;
ghjpf;fg;gl;l xU egUf;F rl;lr; nrad;Kiw cl;lgl Rje;jpukhd
nrad;Kiwapid ngwg;glyhk;. mj;jifa xUtuJ ,wg;gpd;NghJ ,J
me;egupy; KiwNa jq;fptho;NthUf;F nghUe;Jk;.


24. murhq;fKk; rl;l mKyhf;fy; Kftuhz; ikfSk; ; caH mjpfhupfs; jkJ
fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPOfs;s rl;l mKyhf; fy; cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; rl;luPjpaw;w
MAjg;ghtidia ehLfpwhHfs; my;yJ ehbapUf;fpwhHfs; vd;gjidAk;
mtHfs; mjid jLg;gjw;F vj;jifa eltbf;iffisAk; vLf;ftpy;iy
vd;gjidAk; mitgw;wp mwptpf;ftpy;iy vd;gjidAk; njupe;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

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25. murhq;fKk; rl;l mKyhf;fy; Kftuhz;ikfSk;> rl;l mKyhf;f
xOf;ftpjpfSf;Fk; mbg;gil %yjHkq;fSf;Fk; Vw;g elg;gtUk;>
gyg;gpuNahfk; my;yJ MAjg;ghtidia Nkw;nfhs;SkhW tpLj;j fl;lisia
epuhfupj;NjhUk; my;yJ mj;jifa gad;ghl;il VidNahH nra;jjhf
Kiwg;ghL nra;NjhUf;Fk; vjpuhf ,j;jifa Fw;wtpay; xOf;f jz;lid
toq;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gjid cWjpnra;Jnfhs;sy; .

26. MAjk; my;yJ gyg;gpuNahfj;jpw;fhd fl;lis xUtUf;F kuzj;ij my;yJ
fLk;ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;Jk; vd;Wk; mJ rl;ltpNujkhd fl;lis vd;gJ
njspthfj; njupe;jpUe;Jk; mjid kWjypg;gjw;fhd epahakhd re;jHg;gq;fs;
,Ue;j nghOjpYk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l xU nraypid jdJ Nkyjpfhupfspd;
fl;lisg;gpufhuk; nra;jjhfr; nrhy; Ytjd; %yk; ghJfhg;G ngw KbahJ.
vt;thwhapDk; ,jw;fhd nghWg;G rl;ltpNujkhd fl;lisfis toq;fpa
NkyjpfhupfisAk; rhUk;.































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rl;lj;juzpfspd; tfpghfk; njhlHghd mbg;gilf;Nfhl;ghLfs;;;;

1990 Mk; Mz;L Mf];l; khjk; 27 Mk; jpfjp njhlf;fk; nrg;lk;gh; khjk; 7 Mk;
jpfjp tiu fpA+ghtpy; cs;s `thdhtpy; ,lk;ngw;w Fw;wq;fisj; jLj;jYk;
Fw;wthspfisf; ifahSjYk; kPjhd vl;lhtJ If;fpa ehLfs; fhq;fpurpdhy; Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.

If;fpa ehLfs; rhrdj;jpy; cyf kf;fs; ; eP jp ghJfhf;fg;gLtjw;fhd epiyikfisj;
jhgpg;gjw;fhd jkJ KbitAk;> rkak; kjk;> nkhop> ghy;> rhjp> mbg;gilapyhd
NtWghLfsw;w> mbg;gil Rje;jpuq;fisAk; kdpj cupikfisAk; ghJfhg; gjw;fhd
rHtNjr xj;Jiog;ig ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJ vdTk; gpuflzg;gLj;jp ,Ug;gjdhYk;
kdpj cupikfs; gw;wpa midj;Jyf gp;ufldk; ; rl;lj;jpd; Kd; ahtUk; rkk;> Fw;wk;
ep&gpf;fg;gLk;tiu epuguhjp vDk; vLNfhs; RahjPdkhdJk; gf;fr;rhHgw;wJkhd epaha
rig xd;wpd; Kd;dhd epahakhdJk; gfpuq;fkhdhJkhd tpsf;fj;jpw;fhd cupik>
Fw;wk; xd;wpw;fhf Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;l xUtupd; ghJfhg;gpw;F Njitahd mj;jid
cj;juthjq;fisAk; Fwpg;gpl;bUg;gjdhYk;
rptpy; kw;Wk; murpay; cupikfSf;fhd rHtNjr rkthak; ; rl;lj;jpdhy; jhgpf;fg;gl;l
jFjp tha;e;j Rje;jpukhd gf;fr;rhHgw;w epaharig xd;wpdhy; gfpuq;fkhfTk;
epahakhfTk; mehtrpa jhkjKk; ,d;wp tprhupf;fg;gLtjw;fhd cupikia
gpufldg;gLj;jpapUg;gjdhYk;
rKf nghUshjhu fyhr;rhu cupikfs; kPjhd rHtNjr rkthakhdJ kdpj
cupikfSf;Fk; Rje;jpuj;Jf;Fkhd midj;Jyf gpd;gw;WjiyAk; kjpg;igAk;
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd muRfspd; flikg;ghl;il kPs epidTWj;JtjhYk;
vt;tifahd jLg;Gf;fhty; kw;Wk; rpiwgpbj;jypd; NghJk; vy;yh egHfSf;Fkhd
ghJfhg;G Fwpj;j Nfhl;ghlhdJ jLj;J itf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;w egH xUtH jdJ rl;l
gpujpepjp xUtupd; cjtpia ngWtjw;Fk; mtiu njhlHG nfhs;tjw;Fk;
cupj;JilatH vd Vw;ghL nra;tjdhYk;
rpiwf; ifjpfis guhkupj;jy; njhlHghd kpff;Fiwe;j juhjuq;fspd; tpjpahdJ
tprhuid KbTWj;jg;glhj ifjpfs; rl;l cjtpia ngWtJTk; jdJ rl;l
gpujpepjpAld; ,ufrpakhf njhlHG nfs;tJTk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;glNtz;Lk; vd rpghupR
nra;tjhYk;
kuz jz;lid ifjpfspd; ghJfhg;ig cj;juthjg;gLj;Jfpd;w MtzkhdJ rptpy;
kw;Wk; murpay; cupikfSf;fhd rHtNjr rkthaj;jpd; 14tJ gpuptpd;gb kuz
jz;lidahy; jz;bf;fg;glf; $ba Fw;wnkhd;Wf;fhf Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;l my;yJ
re;Nj egH xUtUf;F vy;yh re;jHg;gq;fspYk; NghJkhd rl;l cjtpfs;
ngWtjw;fhd re;jHg;gk; toq;fg;gl cupik cz;nld;gjid kPs; cWjpg;gLj;JtjhYk;
mjpfhu J\;gpuNahfk;> Fw;wj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;fhd ePjp vd;gtw;Wf;fhd
mbg;gilf;Nfhl;ghLfspd; gpufldkhdJ Fw;wj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;fhd cjtp>
e\;l<L> GdHtho;T epahakhdJk; ePjpahdJkhd elj;Jif vd;gtw;iw
cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd eltbf;iffs; Njrpa kw;Wk; rHtNjr kl;lj;jpy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd rpghupR nra;tjdhYk;
murpay; rptpy; my;yJ rKf fyhrhu nghUshjhu cupikfs; vJthapDk; vy;yh
egHfSf;Fk; cupj;Jila mbg;gil Rje;jpuj;ijAk; kdpj cupikfisAk;
ghJfhg;gjw;F vy;yh egHfSf;Fk; RahjPdkhd rl;lj; njhopw;Jiwapd; Nritia
ngWtjw;fhd re;jHg;gk; Njitg;gLtjdhYk;
rl;lj;juzpfspd; njhopy; rhH mikg;Gf;F njhopw;Jiwapd; juhjuq;fisAk; xOf;f
Nfhl;ghLfisAk; Nkk;gLj;Jtjpy; kpfg; gpujhdkhd gq;F ,Ug;gjdhYk; mtHfsJ
mq;fj;jtHfs; Kiwaw;w fl;Lg;ghLfSf;Sk; cupik kPwy;fSf;Fs;Sk;
kl;Lg;gLj;jhky; jkJ Nritia ehLk; midtUf;Fk; Nrit toq;FtJld; murhq;f
kw;Wk; Vida epWtdq;fSld; ePjpiaAk; nghJ mf;fiwiaAk; fhg;gjw;fhf
xj;Jiof;f Ntz;b ,Ug;gjdhYk;
rl;lj;juzpfspd; tfpghfk; Fwpj;j mbg;gil Nfhl;ghLfs; fPNo Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wd.
,J mq;fj;Jt ehLfs; rl;lj;juzpfspd; rupahd tfpghfj;ij cWjpg;gLj;jTk;
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61
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; cjTk; Kfkhf jahupf;fl;lJ. ,J muRfspdhy; jkJ Njrpa
rl;lthf;fy; eilKiwapy; gpd;gw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,J rl;lj;juzpfs;> ePjpgjpfs;>
epiwNtw;Jiw> rl;lthf;fj;Jiw> nghJkf;fs; MfpNahUf;F njupag;gLj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,e; j Nfhl;ghlhdJ; - Kiwahd rl;lj;juzpapd; juhjuj;ij
ngw;wpUf;fhtpl;lhYk; xU rl;lj;juzpapd; flikfisr; nra;Ak; egHfSf;Fk;
nghUj;jkhd tifapy; gpuNahfpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

rl;lj;juzpfisAk; ePjpr;NritiaAk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd toptiffs;
1. ve;jnthU Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltUk; jk;ik ghJfhj;Jf;nfhs;sTk; jkJ
cupikia epiyehl;lTk; Kw;ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;sTk; jhk; tpUk;gpa xU
rl;lj;juzpapd; cjtpia ehlTk; jFjpAilatHfshtH.

2. jkJ epahahjpf;f kw;Wk; thopl vy;iyf;Fs; ,d> kj> epw> rhjp ghy; nkhop
murpay; Njrpa rKf gpwg;G nghUshjhu kw;Wk; Vida fhuzq;fSf;F
mg;ghy; ve;j ghugl;rKkpd;wp rl;lj;juzpfis ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tha;g;G
midtUf;Fk; ,Ug;gjid murhq;fk; cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;.

3. ViofSk;> trjp tha;g;gw;wtHfSk; mtHfspd; Njitf;Nfw;gTk;
ePjpr;Nritapid ngw;Wf;nfhLg;gjw;fhd Nghjpa epjp kw;Wk; Vida tsq;fis
ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhd re;jHg;gk; ,Ug;gjid murhq;fk;
cWjpg;gLj;jpf;nfhs; sy;. Nritfs;> tsq;fs;> trjptha;g;Gfis toq;FtjpYk;
rl;lj;juzpfSf;fhd JiwrhH mikg;G murhq;fj;Jf;F xj;Jiog;G toq;fyhk;.

4. jkJ cupikfisAk; flikfisAk; mbg;gil Rje;jpuq;fisAk;
ghJfhg;gjpy; rl;lj;juzpfSf;Fs;s tfpgq;fpid kf;fSf;F tpsf;Ftjw;fhf
murhq;fKk; rl;lj;juzpfSf;fhd JiwrhH mikg;Gk; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fis
Kd;ndLf;fyhk;. ,jpy; Kf;fpaftdk; Viofs; kPJk; trjptha;g;gw;wtHfs; kPJ
nrYj;Jtjd; %yk; mtHfsJ cupikfis ghJfhf;f ,aYkhtJld;
Njitahd re;jHg;gq;fspy; rl;lj;juzpfspd; cjtpfis ngw;Wf;nfhs;s
tha;g;gspg;gjhfTk; ,;Uf;Fk;.

Fw;wtpay; rl;lk; njhlHghd Kf;fpa ghJfhty;

5. Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gl;l re;jHg;gq;fspYk; ifJ nra;ag;gl;l my;yJ
jLj;Jitf;fg;gLk; re;jHg;gq;fspYk; jkJ tpUg;gj;jpw;Nfw;wthW xU
rl;lj;juzpapd; cjtpapid ngw;Wf;nfhstjw;fhd cupik ,Ug;gjidg;gw;wp
mjpfhuKs;s mikg;Gfspdhy; kf;fs; mwpaj;jug;gl;Ls;sduh vd murhq;fk;
cWjp nra;Jnfhs;sy; .

6. ve;jnthU egUf;Fk; jd;Dila rl;lj;juzpia ngWtjw;F gzk; nrYj;j
Kbahj re;jg;gj;jpy; jk;ik ghHfhj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpy; jdf;F Njitahd
Nghjpa mDgtKs;s rl;lj;juzpapd; cjtpia Nfhu cupj;JilatuhtH.

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62
7. Fw;wtpay;> Fw;wQ;rhl;bd;Ngupy; my;yJ NtWfhuzq;fSf;fhf ifJ
nra;ag;gl;l my;yJ jLj;Jitf;fg;gl;l xt;nthUtUk; ifJnra;ag;gl;L
my;yJ jLj;Jitf;fg;gl;L 48 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;Fs; rl;lj;juzpapd;
Nritapid ngw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba tha;g;Gfs; ,Ug;gjid murhq;fk; NkYk;
cWjpg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;Sjy; .

8. ifJnra;ag;gl;l my;yJ jLj;Jitf;fg;gl;Ls;s my;yJ $z;byplg;gl;l
midtUk; ve;jtpj jhkjKkpd;wp rl;lj;juzpia re;jpj;J ,ufrpak;
NgZk;tifapy; ciuahlf;$ba trjpfSk; mjw;fhd Nghjpa fhyNeuKk;
toq;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,j;jifa MNyhridfis ngWk;NghJ rl;l
mKyhf;fs; cj;jpNahfj;jHfs; ghHitf;F vl;ba Mdhy; nrtpkLf;fKbahj
J}uj;jpy; ,Uj;jy;.

jifikfSk; gapw;rpfSk;

9. murhq;fKk; rl;lj;juzpfSf;fhd JiwrhH mikg;Gk; fy;tp epWtdq;fSk;
rl;lj;juzpfs; nghUj;jkhd jFe;j fy;tpiaAk; gapw;rpfisAk; ngw;Ws;sJld;
rl;lj;juzp xUtuJ xOf;ftpay; flikfs; rPupagz;Gfs; njhlHghf
rpwe;jKiwapy; mwpe;Jitj;Js;shHfs; vd;gjidAk; Njrpa rHtNjr
rl;lq;fshy; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l mbg;gilr; Rje;jpuk;> kdpj cupikfs; vd;gd
gw;wpAk; njspthd tpsf;fk; ngw;Ws;sdH vd;gjidAk;
cWjpg;gLj;jpf;nfhs; sy;.

10. rl;lj;juzp jk;ehl;bd; gpui[ahf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gjid jtpu ,d> kj>
epw> rhjp ghy; nkhop murpay; Njrpa rKf gpwg;G nghUshjhu kw;Wk; Vida
fhuzq;fSf;F mg;ghy; ve;j ghugl;rKkpd;wp rl;lj;Jiwapy; <LglTk;
njhluTk; tha;g;G midtUf;Fk; ,Ug;gjid murhq;fKk; rl;lj;juzpfSf;fhd
JiwrhH mikg;Gk; fy;tp epWtdq;fSk;; cWjpg;gLj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;.

11. tpj;jpahrkhd fyhrhuq;fs; ghuk;gupaq;fs; nkhopfs; my;yJ fle;jfhy
nraw;ghLfspdhy; ghugl;rq;fSf;F cs;shdtHfs; Nghd;wtHfs; fhzg;gLk;
ehLfspy; mj;jifa rKfj;jtHfSf;F my;yJ gpuhe;jpaq;fSf;F jkf;F
Njitahd rl;l Nritfis ngw;Wf;nfhs; s Kbahj #oy; fhzg;gLkplj;J
murhq;fKk; rl;lj;juzpfSf;fhd JiwrhH mikg;Gk; fy;tp epWtdq;fSk;
,j;jifa FOf;fis NrHe;jtHfs; rl;lj;njhopw;Jiwapy; gapd;WNjHtjw;F
tha;g;gspf;Ftpjkhd tpNrl Vw;ghLfis nra;tNjhL mtHfsJ FOf;fspd;
NjitfSf;F nghUj;jkhd gapw;rpfis toq;FtNjAk; cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.



nghWg;GfSk; flikfSk;

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63
12. ePjp epHthfj;jpy; Kf;fpa KftHfs; vd;wuPjpapy; jkJ njhopypd; kjpg;gpidAk;
nfsutj;jpidAk; vg;NghJk; Ngzpelj;jy;.

13. jkJ fl;rpf;fhuH njhlHgpyhd xU rl;lj;juzp xUtuJ flik

(m) fl;rpf;fhuuJ cupik flikfSf;F mikthf rl;l Kiwikapd;
nraw;ghLfs; Fwpj;J MNyhrid toq;Fjy;.

(M) jkJ fl;rpf;fhuupd; mf;fiwia ghJfhf;Fk; Nehf;fpy rl;l
eltbf;iffis vLf;ff; $ba jFe;j vy;yhtifapYk; nghUj;jkhd
KiwapYk; cjTjy;.

(,) ePjpkd;wk;> epaharig> epHthf mjpfhurig kw;Wk; nghUj;jkhd ,lq;fspy;
fl;rpf;fhuUf;F cjTjy;.

14. rl;lj;juzpfs; jkJ fl;rpf;fhuupd; cupikfis ghJfhf;Fk; tifapYk; ePjpia
Nkk;gLj;Jk; tifapYk; Njrpa kw;Wk; rHtNjr uPjpapy; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l
cupikfs;> mbg;gil Rje;jpuq;fspid epiyehl;l vjpghHg;gJld; vg;NghJk;
jkJ njhopypy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;l;l juj;jpidAk; xOf;ftpjpfSf;F Vw;Gs;sjhf
Rje;jpukhfTk; mf;fiwAlDk; nraw;gLjy;.

15. rl;lj;juzpfs; vg;NghJk;; jkJ fl;rpf;fhuupd; mf;fiwapid tpRthrj;Jld;
kjpj;J elj;jy;.


rl;lj;juzpfspd; nraw;ghl;Lf;fhd cWjpnkhop

16. murhq;fkhdJ
gpd;tUtdtw;iw cWjpnra;J nfhs;sy;
rl;lj;juzpfs; (m) jkJ JiwrhH nraw;ghLfis ve;jtpj njhe;juTk;
Jd;GWj;jYk; mr;RWj;jYk; my;yJ Kiwaw;w jiyaPLfs; ,d;wp Kd;ndLj;J
nry;yf;$bajhf ,Uj;jy;. (M) jkJ ehl;bYk; ntspehLfspYKs;s jkJ
fl;rpf;fhuHfis re;jpj;J fye;jhNyhrpg;gjw;fhf Rje;jpukhf gazq;fis
Nkw;nfhs;sf;$bahjhf ,Uj;jy;. (,)mq;fP fupf;fg;gl;l JiwrhH flikfs;>
xOf;f tpjpfSf;F mikthf vLf;fg;gLfpd;w ve;j xU eltbf;if fhuzkhf
vjpHjug;GthjpfspdhNyh> epHthfj;jpdhNyh> nghUshjhu uPjpapNyh Vida
mDkjpaspg;Gf;fs; vd;w uPjpapNyh mr;RWj;jg;glNth ghjpf;fg;glNth $lhJ.

17. jkJ Nrit
fhuzkhf rl;lj;juzpapd; ghJfhg;Gf; F mr;RWj;jy; Vw;gLk;NghJ
mjpfhurigfspdhy; NghJkhdsT ghJfhg;G toq;fg;gly;.

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64
18. jkJ fl;rpf;fhupd;
my;yJ fl;rpf;fhuUf;fhf jhk; Nkw;nfhs; Sk; eltbf;iffis mbg;gilahf
itj;J rl;lj;juzpfs; milahsg;gLj;jg;glf; $lhJ.

19. Njrpa
rl;ljpl;lq;fSf;F Vw;g xU rl;lj;juzp jFjpaw;wtuhFk; re;jHg;gk; jtpu
Ntnwe;j re;jHg;gj;jpYk; ve;jf;fl;rpf;fhuhH rhHgpYk; Kd;dpw;gjw;fhd
cupikapid ve;j ePjp kd;wKk; my;yJ epHthf mjpfhurigfSk; epuhfupf;f
KbahJ.

20. ePjpkd;wk;>
epaharig> rl;l/epHthf mjpfhuk; xd;wpd; Kd; ey;nyz;zj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;
rl;lj;juzp xUtuhy; Kd;itf;fg;gLk; fUj;Jf;fs; my;yJ $w;Wf;fSf;F
Fbapay; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; uPjpahd fhg;Gupikf;F rl;lj;juzpfs;
cupj;JilatHfshtH.

21. rl;lj;juzpfs; jkJ
fl;rpf;fhuUf;F rpwe;j Nritia toq;Fk;nghUl;L jkf;F Njitahd
jfty;fs;> Nfhg;Gfs;> Mtzq;fis ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fk; mjid
NjitahdsT Neuk; jk;trk; itj;Jf;nfhs; tjw;fhd toptiffs; ,Ug;gjid
mjpfhuKs;s mjpfhurigfs; cWjpnra;Jnfhs;tJ flikahFk;. ,j;jifa
trjpfs; Fwpj;j Neuj;jpw;F Kd;gjhfNt toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

22. murhq;fkhdJ
rl;lj;juzpf;Fk; fl;rpf;fhuUf;Fk; ,ilapyhd njhopy;uPjpahd fye;JiuahLjy;
kw;Wk; MNyhrid toq;Fk;NghJ ,ufrpaj;jd;ik NgZtjid tpsq;fpf;
nfhs;sYk; kjpj;jYk;.


fUj;J ntspg;ghl;Lf;Fk; njhlHGnfhs;tjw;FKs;s Rje;jpuk;

23. rl;lj;juzpfSk;
Vida gpui[fisg;NghyNt NgRjw;Fk; $l;lq;fis $Ltjw;Fk;
njhlHGnfhs;tjw;Fkhd Rje;jpuKs;stHfs;. mtHfSk; rl;lj;JiwArhHe;j ePjp
epHthfk;> kdpj cupik ghJfhg;G vd;gtw;wpid ghJfhf;Fk; Nehf;fpy; Njrpa
kw;Wk; rHtNjr uPjpapy; nghJf;$l;lq;fs; $lTk; my;yJ Muk;gpg;gjw;Fk;
my;yJ fye;Jnfhs;tjw;Fk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdH. jkJ njhopy; ePjpAld;
rk;ge;jg;gl;bUg;gjdhNyh ePjp epWtdj;jpd; mq;fj;jtd; vd;w uPjpapy; ve;jtpj
jilfSk; mjpy; ,Uf;fkhl;lhJ. jkJ njhopw;Jiw rhH xOf;fk; fl;Lg;ghL
vd;gw;Wf;fika ,e;j cupikfis mDgtpf;fyhk;.

rl;lj;juzpfSf;fhd JiwrhH mikg;G
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65

24. rl;lj;juzpfs; jkJ
mf;fiwapid ntspg;gLj;JKfkhfTk;> jkJ fy;tp> gapw;rpfis njhlHtij
Nkk;gLj;jTk;> jkJ njhopy; jHkq;fis ghJghf;FKfkhfTk; Ra
fl;Lg;ghLs;s JiwrhH mikg;Gf;fis cUthf;f jifik nfhz;Ls;sdH.
,e;j JiwrhH mikg;gpd; mjpfhuf;FO cWg;gpdHfs; thf;F %yk; njupT
nra;ag;gl;L ntspj; jiyaPLfspd;wp nraw;glyhk;.

25. rl;lj;juzpfspy;
JiwrhH mikg;ghdJ vy;NyhUk; rkkhd nrw;jpwd;kpf;f ePjpr;Nritapid
ngwf;$ba toptiffs; ,Ug;gjidAk; me;j rl;lj;juzpfs; jkJ
fl;rpf;fhuHfSf;F ve;j jilAkpd;wp rl;l epahajHkq;fs; xOf;ftpjpfs;
JiwrhH juhjuq;fs; vd;gtw;Wf;Nfw;g cjTtjw;Fk; MNyhridfis
toq;Ftjw;Fk; jFjptha;e;jtHfs; vd;gjid cWjpg;gLj;j murhq;fj;jpw;F
xj;jhir toq;fyhk;.


xOf;fhw;W nrad;Kiw

26. Njrpa rl;lk;
ghuk; gupak; kw;Wk; rHtNjr uPjpapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gl;l juk; kw;Wk;
ghuk; gupaq;fSf;F Vw;g JiwrhH xOf;f tpjpf;Nfhhitia rl;l JiwahdJ
mjd; jFe;j gpupTfspD}lhf my;yJ rl;lj;jpd; Clhf cUthf;fyhk;.

27. Rl;lj;juzpfSf;nfjpu
hf mtHfsJ njhopy; KiwrhH nraw;ghL Fwpj;j Fw;wr;rhl;L my;yJ
Kiwg;ghLfs; tpiuthfTk; epahakhdjhfTk; nghUj;jkhd
eilKiwfSf;fpdq;fTk; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gl Ntz;Lk;.

28. Rl;lj;juzpfSf;nfjpu
hf xOf;fhw;W Kd;ndLg;G rl;lj;Jiw rhHe;jtHfs; Rje;jpu mjpfhurigf;F
Kd; my;yJ ePjpkd;wj;Jf;F Kd;dpiyapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l gf;fr;rhHgw;w
xOf;fhw;W tprhuiz fkpl;bapdhy; guprPypf;fg;glyhk;.

29. vy;yhtpj
Kd;ndLg;GfSk; JiwrhHe;NjhUf;fhd xOf;f tpjpf;Nfhitf;F Vw;gTk;
Vida milahsg;gLj;jg;gl;l juq;fs;> xOf;fk; kw;Wk; rl;lj;Jiw kw;Wk;
nfhs;iffSf;F Vw;gTk; jPHkhdpf;fg;glyhk;




66
66
rdehafj;jpy; nghyp]; Nritia vt;thW gad;gLj;JtJ Fwpj;J
r%fq;fSf;F mwpT+l;ly;
(This is a Consolidated Response prepared by the International Network to promote the Rule of Law with
the contribution from Major Moayyad Abzakh, David Bayley, Robert Bereiter, Art Crosby, Elizabeth
Kunce-Wagner, Otwin Marenin, John Nikita, Gordon Peake)

gpd;Gyk;
nghyp]; Jiw Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;L tUk; ehLfspy; rl;lG+Htj;ijf;
fl;bnaOg;Gtjpy gy rthy;fis vjpHnfhs;fpd;wdH Vnddpy; rPUil mzpe;j
mjpfhhpfs; gaj;jpw;Nf fhuzkhapUf;fpd;whHNs md;wp nrsfhpaj;jpdJk;
ghJfhg;gpdJk; Cw;whf ,y;yhjpUf;fpd;whHfs;. murpayhy; J}z;lg;gl;l Fw;wq;fs;
nghyprhuhy; tprhhpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. nghyp]; Nritia kWrPuikg;gjw;fhd
cghaq;fs; r%fj;jhy; Mjutspf;fg;gl;L cjtg;gl;L rdehafg; nghyp]; NritAld;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l tpOkpaq;fs; kw;Wk; nrad;Kiw Fwpj;J fy;tpA+l;lg;gLtJld;
njhlq;fg;gl;L epiyNgWilajhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

Nfs;tp
rdehafj;jpy; nghyp]; Nrit vg;gbapUf;f Ntz;Lnkd rptpy; r%fj;jpw;F
fy;tpA+l;Ltjw;fhd jhf;fkhd Kiwfs; vd; d cs;sd. gyhj;fhuj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jk;
nghyp];gil vd;gJ murhq;f Nritapy; ftdaPHg;G ngw;w xd;whFk;. rdehaff;
nfhs;iffisAk; rl;ljpl;lq;fisAk; kdpj chpikfisAk; epiyepWj;Jtjw;F
vt;thW r%fk; nghyprhiug; nghWg;ghdtuhfTk; nghWg;Gr; nrhy;thuhfTk;
Mf;FfpwJ.

gjpw;nraw;ghl;Lr; RUf;fk;
Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;l ehLfspy; rdehafj;jpy; nghyp]; Nritia vt;thW
vjpHnfhs;syhnkd rdr%fq;fSf;F fy;tpA+l;l> rdr%f mbg;gilapyhd
nghyp];Nrit kw;Wk; rdehafj;jpw;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l jj;JtKk; cghaq;fSk;
nghUj;jkhditahf cs;sd. rdr%f nghyp];gzp gpd;tUk; rdehaf nghyp]; gzp
nfhs;iffis epakg; gof;fq;fshf cUthf; fpf; nfhs;tij tpUk;gp epw;fpwJ.

 KbAkhdstpy; mikjpahd rdehaf r%fj;ij cUthf;Fk; r%f xOq;F
kl;lj;ijg; Ngzy;. (Ms; MSf;fpilNa FOf;fSf;fpilNaahd
Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tUk; ehshe;j gpzf;Ffspy; kj;jpa];jk; nra;jy;)
67
67
 jdpeghp;d; tho;Thpik> jdpg;gl;l ghJfhg;G> nrhj;ij mDgtpj;jy;
vd;gtw;iwg; ghJfhj;jy;.
 rkj;Jtk;> ePjp> eLepiyik> Rje;jpukhd jPHkhdj;ij nraw;gLj;Jjy; vd;gd
%yk; ePjpapd; vy;iyf;Fs; rl;l mKy;gLj;Jifia cWjpg;gLj;jy;.
 NjitapYs;NshH kw;Wk; jk;ikf; ftdpf;f KbahNjhUf;F gjpw;nraw;ghL
nra;jy; kw;Wk; cjTjy;. ,f;nfhs; if nghyp]; njhopw;ghl;bdJk;
rdr%fj;jpw;fhd nghWg; GzHtpdJk; r%fg; gf;fj;ijAk; kdpjNeaj;ijAk;
mq;fPfhpf;fpwJ.
 rl;lj;jpy; gq;Fgw;Wtjw;F> khpahijia Vw;gLj;Jk; nghJkf;fSld;
cwTKiwia Vw;gLj;jpg; Ngzy;. ,f;nfhs; if kpf Kf;fpakhd tplaq;fshd
Fw;wk;> kw;Wk; r%f xOq;fPdq;fspy; gpuirfspd; <Lghl;bid r%fj;jpd;
gpuirfs; vd;w Kiwapy; mtHfspd; nghWg; ig Vw;Wf;nfhs; fpwJ.
 Fw;wj;ijj; jLg;gJld; Ml;fs; my;yJ nrhj;jpw;F mr;RWj;jy; Vw;gLj;Jk;
elj;ijia fl;Lg;gLj;jy;. ,jd; %yk; r%fj;jpDs;Ns ghJfhg;G czHit
Kd;Ndw;Wjy;. ,J nghyprhhpd; gpurd;dj;jhYk; nraw;ghl;lhYNkNa ghJfhg;Gk;
fhg;Gk; Vw;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ vd;W mq;fPfhpf;Fk;.
 nghJkf;fsplkpUe;J MjuTk; khpahijAk; fpilf;Fk; topapy; Fw;wePjpKiwia
Mjhpf;fTk;. ,J nghyprhhpd; eltbf;iffis fz;fhzpg;gjd; ClhfTk;>
nghJkf;fspd; ePjpahd rkj;Jtkhd elj;ijia Cf;Ftpg;gjd; %yKk;
Vw;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

r%fg; nghyp]; gzpf;F rdr%fj;jpd; vy;yhg; gpuirfSk;> nghyp];gil>
r%fNritfs; kw;Wk; mrhepfs; Fw;wj;jpd;> xOq;fPdj;jpd;> nghJg; ghJfhg;gp;w;fhd
mr;RWj;jypd; NtHf;fhuzq;fis ,dq;fhzTk;> xd;W NrHe;J xU jPHit
cUthf;fTk; xd;whfg; gzpahw;Wfpd;wdh;. ,jd; jhf;fk; ,U Kf;fpa tplaq;fspy;
jq;fpAs;sJ.

 ,uhZtf; Fiwg;G cl;gl nghyp]; tfpgq;if khw;Wjy; NjitNaw;gbd;
murpay; mjpfhuj;Jtj;jpw;fhd fl;rp MjuTf;F vjpuhf rdr%f Nritf;F
Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij mspj;jy;.
 nghyprpw;Fk; nghJkf;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa MjuT cwit epWTjy;.



1. rdr%f Nritf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;f nghyprpd; tfpgq;if khw;Wjy;.
68
68
rdehafj;jpy; vt;thW nghyp]; gzpia ngw;Wf;nfhs;sy; vd;gJ Fwpj;J
nghJkf;fSf;F fy;tpA+l;LtJ khj;jpuk; ntw;wpiag; ngw;Wj;juhJ. rdehafg; nghyp];
gzpapd; nfhs;iffis cWjpg;gLj;j nghyp]; elj;ijiaj; njhlq;f Ntz;bAs;sJ.
,jw;F xU mbg;gil khw;wk; Njit. rdehafj;jpd; gb nghyp];gzp gw;wp fy;tp
epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ij mKy;gLj;j Kd;gjhf rHtNjr nghyp]; MNyhrfHfSk;
fz;fhzpg;ghsHfSk; gpd;tUtdtw;iw kjpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.
 cs;sf Kuz;ghl;by; <Lgl;Ls;s r%fq;fSf;Fk; nghyprhUf;Fk; ,ilapyhd
jw;Nghija cwtpd; ,ay;G vd;d? nghyprhH; murpay; kag;gLj;jg;gl;L> murhy;
Kuz;ghl;bd; xU jug;gpdUf;F vjpuhd td;Kiwahf> xLf;Fk; fUtpfshf
gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wduh? ,J Gjpa nghyp];gilapd; gjtp epiyfSf;Fs;Ns
gpujpgypf;Fk;. FOf;fSf;fpilapyhd ,zf;fkpd;ikah? Kd;G Kuz;ghl;Lld;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l FOf;fspd; cWg;gpdHfsJ Nrit miog;GfSf;F kf;fs; vt;thW
gjpyspf;fpwhHfs;? fyhrhuf; $UzHitAk; FOf;fSf;fpilapyhd
xj;Jiog;igAk; Kd;Ndw;w nghyprhH vd;d nra;fpd;wdh;.
 MSk; murpay; gpuKfHfSldhd njhlHGfSf;Fk;> Fw;wtpay;
tiyg;gpd;dy;fSf;Fk; nghyprhH trg;gLfpd;wduh? rl;l xOq;fpw;Fk;> rdehafg;
nghyp]; gzpf;Fk; vjpuhf rl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhd mjpfhuf; fl;likg;ig
cUthf;FfpwhHfsh?
 ,ize;J gzpahw;w xU rptpy; r%fk; cs;sjh? vj; jdpg;gl;ltHfs;>
epWtdq;fs;> FOf;fs; nghyprhUf;fhd rdehaf tfpgq;F gw;wp rdr%fj;jpw;F
fw;gpf;fTk;> ek;gpf;ifiaf; fl;bnaOg;gTk; gq;nfLf;fpd;wdh;. nghyprhhpd;
nghWg;Gr; nrhy;yYf;F Mjutspf;Fk; ty;yik ,r; nraw;ghl;lhsH ahUf;Fk;
cz;lh?
 nghyprhhpd; gpioahd elj;ijf;fhd jw;Nghija nghWg;Gr; nrhy;Yk;
fl;likg;G vd;d? mitfs; njhopw;gLfpd;wdth? mitfs; ed;fwpag;gl;ldth?
ntspg;gilahditah? nghJkf;fshy; ek;gg; gLgitah?
 rdehafk; kw;Wk; rdr%fg; nghyp];gzp Fwpj;J nghyprhUf;Fs;Ns cs;s
jw;Nghija kNdhghtk; vd;d? nghyprhUf;Fk; rdr%fj;jpw;FkpilNa
ek;gpf;ifiaf; fl;bnaOg;g gad;gLj;jg;gLk; jw;Nghija eilKiwfs; vd;d?

Kuz;ghl;bw;Fg; gpw;ghL; rdehafg; nghyp]; gzpf;F vjpuhd xU murpay; #oiktpy;
jw;NghJs;s nghyp]; gilapdh;> nghyprhH ,uhZt kag;gLj;jg;gl;ljhyh> murpay;
kag;gl;ljhyh my;yJ Fw;wKilikg;gl;ljhyh> my;yJ %d;whYkh vd;gjid ,e;j
kjpg;gPL ntspf;fhl;lf; $bajhf cs;sJ. mur mjpfhuj;jpd; J\;gpuNahfj;ij
ghpNrhjpg;gtHfshf rptpy; r%fk; nraw;gLtjhdJ gytPdkhdJ my;yJ mg;gbapUf;f
69
69
KbahJ kw;Wk; eilngw KbahjjhFk;. nghyp]; kWrPuikg;ig cUthf;Ftjw;fhd
ntw;wpfukhd #o;epiyfs; ,itfsy;y. Mdhy; rHtNjr nghyp]; MNyhrfHfs; ,k;
khw;wj;ijg; nghWg;ngLg;gjw;F xU Miz nfhz;Ls;shHfs;. me;j MizahdJ
rHtNjr nghyprhiu ,uhZt kaj;jd;ik Fiwg;ig> murpay; Fiwg;ig>
Fw;wj;jd;ik Fiwg;ig nghyprhhpilNa Fiwg;gjw;F mtHfs; Mjuit Ntz;b
epw;fpwhHfs;. Nrhjidr; rhtbfs; ,y;yhnjhopf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mt;thNw mbg; gilj;
Njitfs; Nghd;w chpkq;fSf;fhd tpz;zg;gf; fl;lzq;fs; Fiwf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
,jd; thjkhf nghyprhUf;F xU tho;tpw;fhd Cjpak; toq;f Ntz;bAs;sJ.
rHtNjrg; nghyprhUk; nghyp]; kWrP uikg;gpy; tpisTfisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s
jtWthHfshapd; rdehafg; nghyp];gzp Fwpj;J nghJkf; fSf;F mwpT+l;Lk;
Kaw;rpfs; rdr%fj;ij xd;W jpul;LtjpYk; kWrPuikg;ig Ntz;LtjpYk; ftdk;
nrYj;jg;gLk;. MdhYk; mk;khw;wq;fis Vw;gLj;j mtHfis tYT+l;LtJ vd;gJ
,yFthdjy;y.

xU rdehafj;jpy; nghyprhhpd; gq;F Fwpj;J nghJkf;fSf;F mwpT+l;Lk; kpfTk;
jhf;fkhd top jhf;ftpisTs;s eLepiyahd mwhPjpahd nraw;ghlhFk;. nghyp];
nraw;ghLfs; nghJkf;fs; fy;tpA+l;ly; gpur;rhuq;fspd; Clhf elj;jg;glf;$baitfs;
vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F nghJkf;fis fy;tpA+l;Ltjw;F gpd;tUk; Vw;ghLfs;
jhf;fkhdjhf ,Uf;Fk;.
 rdr%f MNyhridr; rigfis cs;SH rdr%fj;jpy; mikj;J nghyp];
mjpfhhpfis njhpT nra;jy; kw;Wk; epakq;fis mikj;jy;> mtHfs;
gapw;wg;gl Ntz;ba Kiwfis mikj;jy; Nghd;w tfpgq;Ffis toq;Fjy;.
rdr%fj;jpw;Fs;Ns rdr%f Fw;wf; fz;fhzpg;G kw;Wk; gpuirfs; nghyp];
fy;tp vd;gtw;iw mikj;J cs;SH gq;fhsHfisAk; Gjpa
jiyikj;Jtj;ijAk; cUthf;fy;.
 mLj;j gphptpy; tpsf;fg;gLk; rdr%f <LghLfs; njhlf;fg; Gs;spahf rpghHR
nra;ag;gLfpwJ. ed;F mikf;fg;gl;l cwT KiwahdJ r%fj;Js;Ns
xl;LwitAk;> ed;Kiwapy; njhopw;gLk; rl;l xOq;fpw;fhd Mjutpd;
nghWg;Gf;$Wk; jd;ikiaAk; epWTfpwJ. nghJkf;fs; NkNyhl;lg; ghHit
KiwahdJ ed;ikfisAk; jPikfisAk; nfhz;lJ. mitfs;
nrythdjhfTk; ePbj;J epiyf;f KbahjditahfTk; cs;sd. ,r;
nrythdJ epjpia gapw;rp> fy;tpA+l;ly;> Kd;ndr;rhpf;if KiwikAld; $ba
gzpahl;fSld; $ba xOq;fikf;fg;gl;l cs; tptfhu mYtyfj;ij
mikg;gjpypUe;J epjpia NtW ,lj;jpw;F mDg;GfpwJ. ,J xl;Lnkhj;jj;jpy;
rpwe;j njhopy;thz;ikAila rl;l mKyhf;f mjpfhhpf;F Mjutspj;J
Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;fhf tbtikf;fg;gLfpwJ. mitfs; ,ay;gpNyNa jLg;gijtpl
70
70
vjpHj;jhf;fKilait. kw;Wk; murpay; Vw;ghLfs; rdr%fj;jpw;F ed;ikahf
,Ug;gJld;> xl;Lnkhj;j cwit rl;l mKyhf;fYld; fl;lhakhf
khw;wpaikf;fhJ.
 rHtNjrk; kw;Wk; cs;SH kdpj chpik epWtdq;fis ehb xd;whfg;
gzpahw;Wk;gb J}z;b gpuirfSf;Fg; nghWg;Gf;$wf; $ba r%f Nrit
Nehf;fpa rdehafg; nghyp]; gzpia ghpe;Jhpj;jy;. mtHfSld; gzpahw;wp
MNyhrid kw;Wk; nghWg;Gf; $Wk; fl;likg;Gfspy; mtHfis
<LgLj;Jtjw;fhd mj;jpthuq;fis toq;Fk; nghyp]; jifikfSld;
njhlHghly;fis jpwe;J epWtpf; nfhs; Sjy;. cs;Shpy; kdpj chpik
epWtdq;fs; ,y;yhJ Nghapd; mtHfSila tpUj;jpia Cf;Ftpf;f rHtNjr
kdpj chpikf; FOf;fSld; gzpahw;wTk;.
 nghyprhH rdr%fj;jpw;F nghWg;Gr; nrhy;gtuhapd; nghWg;ghdtHfshfTk;
rdr%fj;jpd; gq;fhsHfshfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkd;w nra;jpia vLj;Jr;
nrhy;y rHtNjrf; nfhiltoq;FdHfs; mrhep r%fj;jpdH Nghd;w
gq;fhsHfSld; ,ize;J gzpahw;wy;. Gjpa rdehafg; nghyp]; gilapd;
tfpgq;F gw;wp nghJkf;fSf;F mwpT+l;l nghyprhH ,izg; gq;fhsuhFk; fy;tp>
mgptpUj;jp kw;Wk; kdpjNeaf; fUj;jpl;lq;fis ,dq;fhzy;.
 nghyprhUf;fhd gilf;nfhs;if kw;Wk; rdr%f Kf;fpaj;Jtk; vd;gtw;iw
gad;gLj;JtJ kPjhd nra;jpia ntspg;gLj;j Clfq;fSld; ,ize;J
gzpahw;wy;. mikr;R kl;lj;jpYk; ehLG+uhfTk; cs;s rpwe;j Clf re;ijapYk;
Clfj; njhlHGfis Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s ey;y mDgtKs;s nghJ mYty;
njhopy;thz;ikahsiu thliff;F mkHj;jy;. Kf;fpa epfo;Tfs;
eilngWk;nghOJ mbf;fb gj;jphpif khehl;il elhj;Jjy;> nghpa tof;Ffs;
Fwpj;J fye;Jiuahly; nra;J Gjpa nghyp]; gzpia ntspg;gLj;jpf; fhl;ly;.
 fy;tp KiwA+lhf cq;fspd; ,isQHfis nghJf;fy;tpg; gpur;rhuj;jpy;
<LgLj;jy;. ghlrhiyfSld; njhlHGfis Vw;gLj;jp nghyp]; gof;fq;fis
tpsf;fp khztHfSf;F ,Uf;ff;$ba ghJfhg;G tplaq;fis jPHg;gjw;Fk;>
nghyprhH fpilf;ff;$ba jd;ikia typAWj;Jk; tpNrbj;j njhopw;ghLfisf;
nfhz;l ghlrhiy ,izg;G cj;jpNahfj;jh;fis gapw;Wtpj;jy;. nghyprhhpd;
,lq;fSf;F ghlrhiyg; gps;isfis vLj;Jr; nry;tjw;F xOq;F nra;jy;.

2. nghyprhUf;Fk; nghJkf;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa xU MjuTldhd cwTKiwia
epWTjy;
[dehafj;jpy; vt;thW nghyp];gzp Mw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij nghJkf;fSf;F
fw;gpf;Fk; kpfTk; jhf;fkhd toptif [deha tpOkpaq;fis kjpf;Fk; nghyprhUld;>
71
71
fye;J gOFtJ kw;Wk; ,ize;J nraw;gLtJ vd;gJ ClhfNtahFk;. gpd;tUk;
nraw;ghLfs; Clhf xU gu];gu MjuT cwit cUthf;Ftjw;fhd rdr%fg;
nghyp]; gzp tbtikf;fg;gLfpwJ.
 cs;SH murpay; jiytHfs; rdr%f %j;jtHfs;> tHj;jfHfs;> ghlrhiy
mjpfhhpfs;> khztg; gpujpepjpfs;> r%f NritahsHfs; vd;Nghiuf; nfhz;l
FOf;fis cUthf;fp cs;SH nghJ xOq;F kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l ghJfhg;Gf;
ftdq;fis ,dq;fhZtjw;F mbf;fb nghyprhiu re;jpg;gJld; xd; whf
jPHTfis tFg;gJk;> khw;Wk; Kiwfis mKy;gLj;JtJk; KbTfis
kjpg;gpLtJk;
 Rw;W tl;lhuq;fspYk;> fpuhkq;fspYk; gl;bdq;fspYk; Nuhe;J nrd;W
nghWg;Gld; kf;fSld; gof;fkhfp mtHfspd; NjitfSf;F gjpw;nraw;ghL
fhl;b mt;tt; ,lq;fSf;nfd r%fg; nghyp]; epGzHfis epakpj;jy;. nghyp];
epiyak; ,Uf;Fkplj;jpy; tho;e;J rdr%fj;jpd; gq;fhjy;. nghyp];
epiyaq;fSf;F tp[aq;fis xOq;F nra;J> mtHfSld; Ngrp vd;d
nra;fpwhHfs; vd;gij mtjhdpj;jy;.
 KbAkhdsT ele;Jk;> Jtpr;rf;futz;bapYk; Nuhe;Jfis Nkw;nfhs;sy;.
nghyprhUf;Fk; kf;fSf;Fk; ,ilapy; gpizg;ig Vw;gLj;j tPLfSf;Fk; Ntiy
nra;Ak; ,lq;fSf;Fk; tp[aq;fis Nkw;nfhs;sy;. ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;Fk;>
Fw;wj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;glf;$batHfSf;Fk; rpWghd;ikf; FOtpdHfSf;Fk;>
KjpNahUf;Fk; cjTjy;. ,tHfis re;jpf;fr; nry;y Kaw;rpg;gjhy;
cq;fSila gpurd;dj;jhYk; ftdj;jhYk; mtHfspd; ghJfhg;G msT
cWjpg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
 ghlrhiyfSf;Fr; nrd;W khztHfSlDk;> MrphpaHfSlDk; [dehafg;
nghyp]; gzp cs;SH gpur;rpidfis jPHf;Fk; top> cs;ehl;L Kuz;ghl;by;
<Lgl;l FOtpdUldhd mikjpahd cwTfs; vd;gd gw;wpg; NgRjy;.
gpd;D}l;liy jpul;Ljy;.
 cq;fsplk; tpisahl;L Nghd;w tpNrl jpwik ,Ug;gpd; nghyprhiuAk;
,izj;J Kd;dpd;W gof;fp xU rdr%f epfo;it xOq;FgLj;Jq;fs;.
(cjhuzk; cijge;jhl;l tpisahl;Lfs;) cs;SH r%fj;jpw;F cjtf;$ba
nraw;ghLfis mDruiz nra;Aq;fs;. (cjhuzk; tpisahl;L epfo;Tfs;>
jHkr; nraw;ghLfs;> #oy; ghJfhg;G)
 nghypRf;F Kiwg;ghL nra;tJ rk;ge;jkhd nghJkf;fs; ek;gpf;ifapd; fUj;Jf;
fzpg;Gfis Nkw;nfhs;sTk;. Kiwg;ghLfs; cldbahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; gl;L
cldbahf eltbf;if vLf;fg;gLfpwjh vd Nrhjpj;J> nghyp]; Kiwg;ghl;L
nghwpKiwia ghpNrhjid nra;aTk;.
72
72

ePq;fs; nrd;w gpw;ghLk; ePbj;J epiyf;ff;$ba Kidg;Gfis khj;jpuNk Muk;gpAq;fs;.
rHtNjr MNyhrfHfSk; fz;fhzpg;ghsHfSk; cs;SH nghyp]; gilapd; vy;;yhg;
gjtp epiyapdiuAk; fUj;jpy; vLf;f Ntz;batuha; ,Ug;gNjhL> kf;fSf;Fk;
mtHfSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd gzpahw;wy; cwitAk; ek;gpf;ifg; gpizg; igAk; fl;l
Ntz;ba epiyahd mHg;gzpg;igAk; nfhz; Ls;stHfsha; cs;shHfs;;.

3. nghyp]; vt;thW nghWg;Gr; nrhy;Nthuha; ,Ug;gJ Fwpj;J rdr%fj;jpw;F
mwpT+l;ly;

nghyprhiu nghWg;Gr; nrhy;Nthuhf itj;jpUf;Fk; mDgtk; rdr%fj;jpw;F
,y;iynadpd; mtHfs; ntspg;gilj; jd;ikia vjpHghHf;fNth mDgtpf;fNth
khl;lhHfs;. NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;l ,uz;L gbepiyfSk; epge;jidfis
cUthf;Ftjpy; Kf;fpakhdJ. ,jd; fPNoNa nghyprhhpd; elj;ijg; gpio
nrad;Kiwia nraw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd njhopw;ghl;L nghWg;G Kiwik cs;sJ.
nghyprhH nghWg;ngLg;Gf;F tpUg;gkpy;yhJ ,Ug;ghHfshdy; mjw;F nghJkf;fs;
fy;tpA+l;lyhy; vJTk; nra;a KbahJ.

[dehaf nfhs;iffis NkNyhq;fp itj;jpUg;gjpy;> nghyprhiu vt;thW
nghWg;GilNahuha; Mf;FtJ vd;gjpy; nghJkf;fis ehk; fy;tpA+l;l Ntz;ba
NjitAila vz;zf;fUf;fshf rl;l xOq;F kw;Wk; kdpj chpikfs;
gpd;tUtdtha; cs;sd.

 nghJr;Nrit vd;why; vd;d? nghJr; Nritia ehd; vt;thW ngwyhk;.
 gpuir vd;w tifapy; vdJ chpikfSk; nghWg;Gf;fSk; vd;d? nghyp];
mjpfhhpfspd;> ePjpkd;wq;fspd;> rpiwr;rhiyfspd; tfpgq;FfSk;
njhopw;ghLfSk; vd;d?
 nghyprhH jk; mjpfhuj;ij vg;NghJ J];gpuNahfk; nra;fpwhHfs; my;yJ
nghJr; Nritapd; nfhs;iffis vg;NghJ kPWfpwhHfs; vd vdf;F vg;gbj;
njhpAk;. ehd; vdJ chpikfis vg;NghJ epl;rag;gLj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;.
 nghyprhhpd; gpioahd elj;ijia ehd; vg;nghOJ mwptpf;fyhk;.
Kiwg;ghLfis ,ufrpakhf rkHg;gpf;ff;$bajhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Neubahf
nghyp]; epiyaj;jpw;F nry;yhkYk;> tprhuizapd; KbTfs; gfpuq;fg;gLj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
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 murpay; gopthq;fiy ehd; vjpHnfhs;Ntd; vd ehd; mr;rkile;jhy; ahhplk;
ehd; cjtpf;Fr; nry;y KbAk;.

Note: All opinions stated in this consolidated reply have been made in a personal capacity and do
not necessarily reflect the views of particular organizations. INPROL does not explicitly advocate
policies.








































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ெத0காசிய நா0கள|0 காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 (Policing) மதான
அறிQகðதிைன ேம0ெகாuKu ெபாðநலவாய மன|த உmைம
QGென0LLகu

“ðத0திரu ம0mu வQவான ஜனநாயக நிmவன0கைள உmவாðக0
எQu உmதிெமாழிைய ெத0காசிய ெபாðநலவாய நா0கu
நிைறேவ0mவத0@, பlரா0தியðதி0 காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 மா0றLபட0
ேவM0u. ðmðகமாகð ðறிG, ஜனநாயக நா0கKð@ ஜனநாயக
Qைறயlலான கMகாணlðதேல ேதைவ.”

ைகபû கணவாயlலிm0ð பûமிய எ0ைலவைர ம0mu
இமாலயðதிலிm0ð கிழðகிG QðெதனLப0u இல0ைக வைர
ெத0காசிய ெபாðநலவாயu QmவதிQமாக காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0
எGபð மிகOu ேமாசமாகOuளð. 2007 இG QLவl0, ெபாðநலவாய
மன|த உmைம QGென0LLகளானð மான|யL பைடகu: ஜனநாயக
நா0கu-ெத0காசிய ெபாðநலவாயðதி0 காவ0ðைறயlG (Police)
ெபாmLLððற0 எQu அறிðைகைய ெவள|யlLடð. அ0த அறிðைக
ஜனநாயக காவ0ப0ðத0 ெகாuைக ம0mu அð இLபlரா0தியðதி0கான
மாதிmயாக ஏG வlmuபL ப0கிறð எGபð ப0றி ஆழமாக ஆராüகிறð.
ெத0காசியாவl0 காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 மதான அதG ஆüO சLட
அQ0ப0ðதலானð, Q0றிQu ெபாmðதம0றதாகOu ம0mu மðகu
நuபlðைகையð ெகாMLராதெவாm நிைலைமயl0 இmLபைதüேம
ெவள|Lப0ðதியð. காவ0ðைறயlG அரசிய0 மயLப0ðதைலð
@ைறðத0 ம0mu அதG Qகாைமððவðைத ேமuப0ðத0
எGபவ0mð@ சில பலவ னமானQய0சிகu ேம0ெகாuளLபLடாQu,
அQ0ப0ðத0 எGபð திmLதி அ0றதாகேவ இm0தð. ஏெனன|0,
அவரசமாகð ேதைவLப0கிGற சீûதிmðத0கள|0 QmைமயாகOu
ம0mu உடனLயாகOu ஈ0பட அரசா0க0கu தய0கின.

காவ0ðைற ெதாடûபlலான பlரðசிைனகu, ெபாðநலவாய மன|த உmைம
QGென0LLðகள|னா0 மான|யL பைடகu: ஜனநாயக நா0கu எQu
அறிðைகயl0 @றிLபlடLபLடைவ உLபட ெதள|வானதாகOu, நG@
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ஆவணLப0ðதLபLடைவயாகOu உuளன. த0ேபாைதய அறிðைக,
ெத0காசியாவl0 காவ0ðைறL ப0ðதைலL பாதிð@u ேக0கைளð
@றிLபl0கிGறெதாm சலைவð ðணlL பLLயெலாGைற
வழ0கவl0ைல. மாறாக, அதG ேநாðகu த0ேபாைதய நிைலைம ம0mu
ப0களாேதO, இ0தியா, பாகிOதாG ம0mu இல0ைக
1
ஆகிய நா0கள|0
ேம0ெகாuளL ப0u காவ0ðைற சீûதிmðத0கள|G ேவகu ம0mu
பlரா0தியðதி0 காவ0ðைறைய ஒm ஆüதLபைடயlலிm0ð
ேசைவLபைடயாக நிைலமா0றu ெசüவதி0 ேம0ெகாuளLபட
ேவMLய காðதிரமான நடவLðைககu எGபைவ ப0றிð ð0தலான
வlளðக0கu அள|Lபதா@u.


1.1 காலன|ððவ மரLðெசாðð

பlmðதான|ய சாuரா9யu, ெத0காசியவlQuள அதG காலன|ððவ
நா0கள|0 ð0தலான கL0Lபா0 ம0mu ெச0வாð@ எGபவ0ைற
QதG Qதலி0 அதிகாரu ெசüவத0@ ஆரuபlðத ெபாmð, அð லMடG
நகmðகானைதL ேபாGm மðகKðகான மாதிmயாக அ0லாம0 ஐmO
இராQவð காவ0பைடையL பlGப0றி காவ0 ðைறைய
வLவைமðதð. இð, ஒLப Lடளவl0 சிறிய பைடüடG மிகL
ெபmமளவlலானðu, எதிûLLணûO ெகாMட ðேதசிய மðகu ெதாைகைய
அLைமLப0ððவத0கான ேநாðகிலானதாக இm0ðð. பlmðதான|யûகu
பlGவmu ேதைவகKð@ பதிலிmð@u தGைமயlலான காவ0ðைறL
பைடைய அQ0ப0ðதியð:

 மðகKðகGறி அதிகாரðதிலிmð@u ஆLசி ம0mu அதG பணlð
ðைறயாளûகKðேக QðகியமாகL பதிலள|Lபத0@;

 சHக0கைளL பாðகாLபைத வlட மðகைளð கL0L ப0ððவத0ேக
ெபாmLLைடயதாக;
 ஒm ஆதிðகð @mவlG நலGகைளL பாðகாLபத0@ நாLயைம;
 சHகðதிலிm0ð வlலகிüu, ேவmபL0u நி0கð ேதைவL ப0ðதL
பLடைம; ம0mu
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 சLடðதிG ஆLசிைய வlட தைலைமððவu ம0mu Oதாபனu
எGபவ0mðகான வlðவாசேம உயû0ðதாðð கmðகிGற அதிகாரð
கLடைமLL.


பlmðதான|ய ஆLசியlலிm0ð ðத0திரu ெப0ற பlGனmu ðட,
ெத0காசிய நா0கள|G அரசா0க0கu இ0தð காலன|ððவ காவ0 ðைறð
கLடைமLைபL ெபmðu தðக ைவððð ெகாMடன. இ0தியாவl0 மðதிய
அரசா0கu 1861 ஆu ஆM0 காவ0ðைறð சLடðைதð தðகைவððð
ெகாMடðடG மாநில அரசா0க0கu ðட த0களð காவ0ðைற
சuப0தLபLட சLட0கைளüu அðதைகய மாதிmயl0 அைமððð
ெகாMடன. ஒ0ைறயாLசி நாடான ப0களாேதஷுu 1861 ஆu ஆM0
காவ0ðைறð சLடðைதL ேபQவத0@ð ெதmO ெசüதð. இல0ைக 1865
ஆu ஆM0 காவ0ðைறð கLடைளð சLட இல.16 ஐL
பயGப0ððவைதð ெதாடû0தð. பாðகிOதாG 2002 இலிm0ð
காவ0ðைறð கLடைளகைளð ெகாM0uளð. ஆயlQu, அð
ெபmமளவl0 அலLசியLப0ðதLபLடð. மாைலத O அதG ேதசிய
பாðகாLL ேசைவயlலிm0ð தன|யானðu ேவmபLடðமான
காவ0ðைறL பைடைய 2004 இேலேய உmவாðகியð.
2
இ0த
வlேனாதமான தGைமð@ð @றிLபlLடெவாm நியாயQu இGறிேய,
ெத0காசிய ெபாðநலவாய நா0கu QmவதிQேம அதிகாmகu ம0mu
காGOடபlu தர காவ0ðைற உðதிேயாகðதûகள|ைடேய
க0ைமயானெதாm அதிகார மLடL பlmO ெதாடû0தð. இதி0 QGைனய
பlmவlனû, அேநகu நG@ க0வl பயlGறவûகளாகOu ஒLப Lடளவl0
ந0ல சuபளQu வழ0கLப0u ேவைளயl0, பlGைனய பlmவlனû
ேமாசமான பணl நிைலைமகைள அQபவlðதனû.

1.2 ðத0திரQu அதG தவறிய வாð@mதிüu

ெத0காசியாவl0 காலன|ððவ எதிரLLணûOகள|G அQபவu
அரசியலைமLL உmவாðகðதிQu ஆழமாக ெச0வாð@ð ெசQðதியð.
இதG வlைளவாக, ப0களாேதO, இ0தியா, பாகிOதாG ம0mu
இல0ைக ஆகிய அைனððu மðகள|G இைறைமையL
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பாðகாðகிGறðu, சLடðதிG Qðகியððவðைத ஏ0mðெகாMடðu,
சிவl0 ம0mu அரசிய0 உmைமகKð@ð ெதள|வாக உðதரவாத0கைள
வழ0கியðu ம0mu சHக ம0mu ெபாmளாதார உmைமகைள
வlவmðகிGறðமான உmைமகள|G ஒm இலLசிய வLவlலான சLட
Hலðைத உmவாðகின. இm0த ேபாதிQu, அmபð வmட0கள|G
பlGனû, அðதைகய ேமGைமயான பlரகடன0கu ேம0ெகாuளLபLட
ேபாதிQu, ஒOெவாm நாKu எேதðசாதிகார மாகð த0ðð
ைவðகLபடாதிmðத0 அ0லð ைகð ெசüயLபடா திmLபத0கான
உmைம ேபாGற ெபாðவான அLLபைட உmைமகைள காவ0ðைறயா0
ஒm நாu ðட பாðகாðக QLயாðuளð. ெத0காசியா அைனðதிQேம
சிðதிரவைதையL பயGப0ððவத0@ எதிரான உmைமகKu ðட
Qmைமயாகð காவ0ðைறயlனரா0 ðOபlரேயாகிðகLப0கிறð.
3

பlரா0தியðதி0 காவ0ðைறLப0ðதலானð, ðð0திரðதி0@L பlGனû
அð எ0ðதிmðக ேவMLய மா0றu ெப0ற பlரைஜ-அரð உறO
நிைலையL பlரதிபலிðகவl0ைல. காவ0ðைற உðதிேயாகðதû ஒmவû
மðகKð@ ஒm சLடLûவமான ேசைவைய வழ0@கிGற
சீmைடயlQuள ஒm பlரைஜ மL0ேம எGகிGற கmðð அரசா0கðதி0
அ0லð காவ0ðைறயlQu ðட அmதாகேவ வlள0கிð ெகாuளLபLடð.
காவ0ðைறLப0ðதலானð, பlரைஜகள|G அரசியலைமLL உmைமகu
பாரபLசமான Qைறகள|0 மறLபடாð வQவாகL
பாðகாðகLப0ெமGபைத உmதிLப0ððவத0@ கLடைமLL ûதியl0
இயலாதெவாm காலன|ððவð ðலிLபைட மாதிmையேய ெதாடû0ðu
பlரதிபலிðதð.

1.3 “ஜனநாயக காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0” எGறா0 எGன?

ெத0காசிய ெபாðநலவாய நா0கu ðத0திரðதிG வாð@mதிைய
நிைறேவ0mவத0@u ம0mu வQவான ஜனநாயக நிmவன0கைள
வளûð@u QகமாகL பlரா0தியðதிQuள காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0
மா0றமைடத0 ேவM0u. எள|ைமயாகð ðmவதாயlG, ஜனநாயக
நா0கKð@ ஜனநாயக காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 ேதைவ.
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ஜனநாயகðதிG
வைரவlலðகணu சûðைசகKð@ உLபடð ðLயைவ எGபைத
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அ0கீகmð@u அேதேவைள காவ0ðைறðகான ஐðகிய நா0கள|G மன|த
உmைமகu பயl0சிð ைகேயLL0 ேம0ெகாuளLபLட அQ@Qைற
மிகOu ெபாmðதமானதாக உuளð. ஜனநாயகðதிG இ0த
வைரவlலðகணu மன|த உmைமகள|G சûவேதசL பlரகடனu ம0mu
சிவl0 ம0mu அரசிய0 உmைமகKðகான சமவாயðதிG
கLடைமLபl0@u ெசய0ப0வேதா0 பlGவmவனவ0ைறüu
உuளடð@கிறð:

 அரசா0கðதி0 ப0ேக0க இயQமாகவlmðத0;
 ெபாððேசைவகKð@ சமððவமான வழிவைககைள
QGேன0mத0;
 மðகள|G வlmLபேம அரசா0கðதிG அLLபைடெயGபைத
உmதிLப0ðத0;
 இ0த வlmLபu ேதûத0கள|Qடாக ெதmவlðகLப0தைல உmதி
ெசüத0; ம0mu
 சLடðதிG ஆLசி ம0mu உmைமகள|G பாðகாLைபL ேபQத0
.5


ஜனநாயக காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 எGபð காவ0ðைறைய
ஜனநாயகLப0ððவதிG @ணாuச0கைள வlளð@வத0@ கட0த தசாLத
காலðதி0 ேதாGறியெவாm ெசா0பதமா@u, இ0ேக காவ0 ðைற
நாLLG மðகKð@ ேசைவயா0mேமயGறி ஆLசியாளû கKðக0ல.
6

“ஐðகிய நா0கள|G சûவேதச ெபாலிO கர0தLLபைட (Police Task Force)
ஜனநாயகðதிG காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 எைதLேபாGm இmðத0
ேவM0ெமGபைத ðmðகமாக, ெதள|வாக ெவள|Lப0ððகிறð.”
ஜனநாயக சQதாயெமாGறி0, காவ0ðைற ðத0திர0கைளð
தைடெசüவைத வlட அவ0றிைனL பாðகாLபத0ேக
ேசைவயா0mகிGறð. இ0த ðத0திர0கைள அLபlயாசிLபத0கான
பாðகாLபான, ஒm0@ Qைறயானெதாm ðழைல வழ0@வேத
காவ0ðைறயlG ேநாðகமாக இmðத0 ேவM0u. ஜனநாயக
காவ0ðைறயானð மðகள|G நuபlðைககu அ0லð அவ0mடG
ெதாடûLபLடைவ ப0றி ம0mu அவûகளð நடமாLட0கu அ0லð அரச
கmðதியQடனான இணðகLபா0 எGபைவ ப0றிய கmசைனகைளð
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ெகாMLரா. அð ஒm0@ வlதிகu அ0லð ஆLசிððைற நியம0கu
எGபவ0றிG அQ0ப0ðத0 ப0றிð ðட Qதலி0 கmசைன ெகாuளாð
பதிலாக ஜனநாயகðதிG காவ0 ðைறயானð சHக0கள|G பாðகாLL
ம0mu அðசேமா அ0லð பாரபLசேமா இ0லாம0 அைனðð
மðகKð@u @0றவlய0 சLடðைத சமððவமாகL பlரேயாகிðத0
எGபைவ ெதாடûபாக மL0ேம கmசைன ெகாMLmð@u.”
7

ஜனநாயக காவ0ðைறLப0ðதலானð, காவ0ðைறðகான அதG
QைறகKu உபாய0கKu ஒm நியாயாதிðகதிலிm0ð ம0ெறாGm
மிகOu ேவmபLடைவயாக இm0தாQu ðட ஜனநாயகெமாGறி0
@றிLபlLடெவாm கLடைமLபlைன அð உmவாð@கிGறð. சிவl0
சHகu, ெகாuைக வ@Lபாளûகu, நGெகாைடயாளûகu ம0mu
காவ0ðைற ஆகிேயாûகu @றிLபl0வத0@L ெபாðவானெதாm
கLடைமLைப அð அள|ðகிறð.
8
ஜனநாயக காவ0ðைறLப0ðதெலாGm
பlG வmவனவ0றா0 @ணாuசLப0ðதLப0கிறð: அரைச வlட சிவl0
சHகðதி0@ ேசைவயா0mவைத ேநாðகியதாக இmðத0;
ெவள|Lபைடயான தGைம ம0mu ெபாmLLððmu தGைம எGபன
காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 அைனðதிQu பர0திmðத0; காவ0 ðைறயl0
பணlயா0mபவûகu நாLLG @Lசன அைமLபlைனL பlரதிபலிð@u
வைகயl0 காணLப0த0; தகாத அரசிய0 ெச0வாðகிலிm0ð
காவ0ðைற த0ðகLபட0; அதG உmLபlனûகu த0களð
ெபாmLLðகைள அ0லð பணlகைள பயQmதியானðu ம0mu
வlைனðதிறனானðமான வைகயlQமாக நிைறேவ0mத0; ம0mu
காவ0ðைற QmவதிQu ஒm ெதாழ0சாû தGைம காணLப0த0.
9
“இ0த வlmமிய0கu மா0றL படðதðகைவய0ல எGபðடG
இைவயைனððமிGறி அ0லð காவ0ðைறைய அவûகளð
கடைமகள|G நிைறேவ0றu ேநாðகி ெசQðத Qைனüu
ெசüQைறகள|0 காவ0ðைறயானð அதG கLடைமLL, கலாðசாரu
அ0லð ெசய0பா0 எGபவ0றிG அLLபைடயl0 ஜனநாயகமானð எனð
கmதLபட QLயாð.”
10

ஜனநாயக வழிLப0ðதெலGபð, தன|ேய “சLடðைதüu ஒm0ைகüu
ேபQத0” எGபைத வlட ேமலானெதாGறா@u. அð பரOபர மmயாைத
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80
ம0mu Lm0ð ெகாuள0 எGபவ0றிG அLLபைடயl0 சHகððடG ஒm
ஆேராðகியமான உறவlைன ேபணl வளûLபð ப0றியதா@u. ஆனா0
இதைனð ெசüவத0@ ெத0காசிய ெபாðநலவாய நா0கu
அைனðதிQQuள சLடðைத அQ0 ெசüüu அைமLLகu த0களð
மனLபா0@கைள மா0றியைமðத0 ேவM0u. இத0கான
வலிümðதலானð, சLடðைத அQ0ப0ððவெதGபð பலðைதL
பயGப0ððவைத வlட சLடðைதL ேபணl நிைலநாL0வத0கான ஒm
வழிQைறயாக ேசைவைய வழ0@வதG மதானதாகேவ இmðத0
ேவM0u. ஆனா0, இ0தL பlரா0தியðதிQuள காவ0ðைற எ0தெவாm
உðேதச Qைறகள|னாQu இ0த நியம0கைள அMமிðத வைகயl0 ðட
திmLதிLப0ððவத0@ QGவரவl0ைல. சHக0கள|G ðத0திரu
ம0mu Qmைமயான தGைமையL பாðகாLபத0@
ேசைவயா0mவத0@L பதிலாக காவ0ðைற அதிகளவlலான
பலLபlரேயாகu, சிðதிரவைத, காணாம0 ேபாத0கu, நதிð@L Lறuபான
ெகாைலகu, Qைறயான ெசüQைறகைளð கைடLபlLðகð தவmத0,
பாரபLசமான நடðைத ம0mu ஊழ0 ஆகிய அைனðைதüேம அதிகu
அLபlயாசிLபதாக அLðகL @0றkசாLடLப0கிGறð. இதG வlைளவாக
இ0திய உப கMடðதிQuள காவ0ðைற ஒm “பைட” எQu
நிைலயlலிm0ð ஒm “ேசைவ” எQu நிைலð@ மாmவத0@ QG பல
பணlகu ெசüயLபட ேவMLüuளð.

1.4 ெத0காசியாவl0 காவ0ðைறLப0ðதQடனான
பlரðசிைனகu

ெத0காசியாவl0 காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 மðகள|G நuபlðைகையð
ேவMLð ெகாuவதாகவl0ைல ஏெனன|0 அடðகிெயா0ð@கிGற,
நியாயம0ற ம0mu வlசனLப0மளவl0@ வlைனðதிறன0றதாகேவ அð
காணLப0கிறð. பயனாக, அð ேசைவயா0mu சHக0கள|0 இm0ð
அேநகu அ0நியLப0வðடG அதனா0 @0றu, சிவl0 அைமதியlGைம
ம0mம த வlரவாத வGQைற எGபவ0ைற ெவ0றிகரமாக அடð@வதி0
@ைற0தளO வாüLLðகைளேய ெகாM0uளð. ஒm அவசியமான
ேதைவயlQu ðட காவ0ðைற நிைலயெமாGmðகான வlஜயu ஒm
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கைடசி Qய0சியாகேவ அேநகu ேநாðகLப0கிறð. (வlேசடமாக,
ேதைவையð ெகாMட நபû ெபMெணாmவராக அ0லð பா0நிைல
ûதியl0 சிmபாGைமயlனராக இmð@u ச0தûLபðதி0). பlரா0தியu
QmவதிQேம காவ0ðைறLப0ðதைல எMண0ற ெபாðL
பlரðசிைனகu ெதா0ைலLப0ððகிGறன.

Qதலாவதாக, காவ0ðைறயlனா0 LmயLபLடதாக கmதLப0u தவறான
நடவLðைககKð@ @0றவlலðகள|LL காணLப0கிGற ஒm கலாðசாரu.
அதிகார ðOபlரேயாகu, பðகðசாûL, ஊழ0, சLட வlேராத Qைறகu
ம0mu அதிகL பலLபlரேயாகu எGபன நG@ ஆவணLப0ðதLபLட
ேபாதிQu ðட கவனðதி0 ெகாuளLபடாமQu, தMடைன
அள|ðகLபடாமQu வlடLபட0. ெபாðவான ðOபlரேயாக0கu
பlGவmவனவ0ைற உuளடð@கிறð: நதிð@L Lறuபான ெகாைலகu
(ேவm வைகயl0 “எதிû நடவLðைகள|G ேபாதான இறLLகெளன
அறியLப0பைவ); LலG வlசாரைணகள|0 வlசாரைண ேம0ெகாuKu
பlரதான Qைறயாக பர0தளவl0 சிðதிரவைதையL பயGப0ðத0; நதி
Qைறய0ற ைகðகu; Qத0 தகவ0 அறிðைககைளL பதிO ெசüய
மmðத0; அQமதிðகðதðக சLடðகாலெவ0ைலகKð@u அLபா0
த0ðð ைவðதிmðத0; அவ0ைறL LலG வlசாரைண ெசüவத0@
அ0லð QைறLபா0கைள ஏ0பð0@L பlGனLðத0 ம0mம ெபாüð
சாLசியu அள|ðத0.

இரMடாவð, காவ0ðைறயlG நடðைத ப0றி மிகOu பயQmதி
@ைற0த ேம0பாûைவ அ0லð மளாüேவ உuளð. @0ற
வlலðகள|LLடG ெதாடûLபLட வைகயl0 ெபாறிQைறெயாGm
காணLப0வதானð, காவ0ðைறð சLடLபL நட0ð ெகாu வத0கான
சாðதியðைதL ெபmðu அதிகmðகிறð. எOவாறாயlQu,
ெத0காசியாவlQuள எ0தெவாm ெபாðநலவாய நா0u சûவேதச
ûதியl0 சிற0த நைடQைறகKடG இண0@கிGறðu,
ஒள|OமைறவlGறி-ெவள|Lபைடயானðu ம0mu ெவள|வாmயான
ெசய0பா0கKð@L (அ0லð உuவாmயான) ெபாmLLð
ðmகிGறðெமன வlபmðகLபடð ðLய ெபாறிQைறையð
ெகாMLmðகவl0ைல. இத0@ ேமலதிகமாக பாராKமGறu Hலமான
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ேம0பாûைவüu இLபlரா0தியðதி0 இ0லாðuளð. சLடமிய0mேவாû
காவ0ðைறLப0ðதலிG பயQmதிðதGைமைய ெதாடûðசியாக
ேம0பாûைவ ெசüத0 ேவM0u. ஆனா0 காவ0 ðைற ெசய0பா0கள|G
வlடயðதிைன ஆராüவதி0 உMைமயl0 @ைற0த ேநரðைதேய
ெசலவlட0 ேவM0u. த0காலிக வlசாரைண ஆைணð@mðகu அ0லð
ேதசிய மன|த உmைம நிmவன0கu எGபன ஒOெவாm ெத0காசிய
நா0கள|Qu இmðகிGற ேபாதிQu சLட Qரணான ெசய0கKð@
காவ0 ðைறைய ெபாmLLð ðmபவûகளாக ஆðகேவா அ0லð அதG
Qைறைமகள|0 மா0ற0கைளð ெகாM0 வmவத0ேகா
இயலாதிm0தைத அைவ நி(பlðதன.

HGறாவð, காவ0ðைற நிûவாகðதிG அைனðð அuச0கள|Qu
சLடவlேராத அரசிய0 தைலய 0 இLபlரா0தியðதி0 QmவðமாகL
பரவlüuளð. இதG ேபாð இடமா0ற0கu, பதவlüயûOகu ம0mu
பதவlðகால வlடய0கu எGபன நியாயu அ0லð தைகைம தவlû0த
ஏைனய கmசைனð@mய வlடய0களா0 த ûமான|ðகLப0வெதGபð
அசாதாரணமானத0ல. பயனாக, சLடu ம0mu ஒm0@L
பlரðசிைனகைள ைகயாuவðu ம0mu @0றL LலG வlசாரைணகள|G
ðmதQu இ0த வlடயðதா0 அேநகu அரசிய0 சாயu LசLப0கிGறன.
அரசிய0 தைலயெடGபð, ெத0காசியா QmவதிQேம
காவ0ðைறயlனð ெதாழி0சாû தGைமையð கீuநிைலLப0ððu
மிகOu ஊ0mவlL ேபாüuளðu, அபாயகரமானðமான
பlரðசிைனகள|ெலாGறா@u. இ0த நிைலைம யானð, சிரðைதüu,
ேநûைமüu ெகாMட உðதிேயாகðதûகKð@ அவûகளð
ேநûைமðதிறைனL ேபQவத0@u ம0mu அவûகளð ெதாழிலி0
QGேனmவத0கான எதிûபாûLLகைளüu மிகOu சிரமðதி0@
உuளாð@கிGறð.

நாGகாவதாக, காவ0ðைற பாmய வளLப0றாð@ைறயா0
பாதிðகLப0கிறð. வரO ெசலOðதிLட ஒððகீ0கைள அதிகmðத
ேபாதிQu சLட அQ0ப0ðதQðகான நிதி வழ0க0கu ேமாசமான
வைகயl0 இடLபL0u, நிûவகிðகLபL0u வmகிGறð. இதG
வlைளவாக, காவ0ðைற நிைலய0கள|Quள காவ0ðைற
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உðதிேயாகðதûகu த0களð பணlகைள ஏேதQu பயQuள வைகயl0
ெசüவத0@ð ேதைவயான அLLபைடð ேதைவகைள அேநகu
இழ0தனû. உதாரணமாக, காவ0ðைற நிைலயðதி0 காகித0கKðகான
ைகயlmLL அLðகL இ0லாð ேபாüவl0வதா0 ெபாðமðகள|G
QைறLபா0கைள எmத QLயாðuளð அððடG பயGப0ððவத0@
வாகனெமாGm இmð@மாயlG அð எmெபாmள|Gறி இmð@u. இத0@u
ேமலாக, யதாûðதம0ற வைகயl0 உபகரண0கKð@ ஏ0பாடள|ðதQu
வழைமð@ மாறான நிைலைமகைள ஏ0ப0ðதியð. உபகரண0கu
வழ0கLபLடன (அதாவð: கணlன|கu, ைகயடðகð ெதாைலேபசிகu,
வாெனாலிð ெதாடûLசாதன0கu அ0லð தடயL ெபாmu
ேசாதைனðகmவl) ஆனா0 அவ0ைறL பயGப0ððவத0@ அவசியமான
இைணLLð கmவlகu, பராமmLL ஒLப0த0கu அ0லð
பயGப0ððவத0கான பயl0சிகu எGபன இ0லாதிm0தன.

ஐ0தாவதாக, கீuமLடð தரðதிQuள நிைலகu ம0mu அவûகKðகான
நிைலைமகைள அள|ðதQu மிகOu ேமாசமாக உuளð. இ0தெவாm
நிைலð@ ேமலதிகமாக, காவ0ðைறðகான ஆLேசûLL
நடவLðைககKu அேநகu இலkசu வழ0@த0 ம0mu ெச0வாðைகL
பlரேயாகிðத0 எGபவ0றா0 மாðபLLm0தð. இmதியl0,
பணlðகமûðதLப0u உðதிேயாகðதû கKu சHகðதிG இனLபரuப0
வlகித அைமLபlைன அேநகu பlரதிபலிðகð தவறினû. ேமQu,
காவ0ðைறð@u மðகu ெதாைகð@மான வlகிதu சûவேதச
நியம0கைள வlட மிகOu @ைற0ததாகð காணLபLடð. ஏெனன|0
அQமதிðகLபLட பல பதவl நிைலகu ெவ0றிட0களாகð காணLபLடன.
அðேதா0 காவ0ðைற உðதிேயாகðதûகu ஓüO நாள|Gறி 24
மணlðதியால0கKð@ கடைமகu Lmவðu அ0லð வசதிகள0ற காவ0
இmLபlட0கள|0 த0கியlmLபðu ஒGmu அசாதாரணமான வlடயமாக
கவனu ெகாuளLபடவl0ைல. கீuமLடð தரðதிலான
காவ0ðைறயlனmG இ0தð திmLதிய0ற நிைலைமகu LலG
வlசாரைண 0Lப0கu ம0mu @0றðசuபவ இடððL பmேசாதைன
எGபவ0றி0 இ0லாத அ0லð ேபாதியளவ0ற பயl0சியlனா0 ேமQu
ேமாசமைட0தன. இðதைகய நிைலைமகள|G கீu காவ0ðைறயlனû
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84
QரL0ðதனu, திmLதியlGைம ம0mu ெதாழிலி0 ஊðகம0ற தGைம
எGபவ0mடG இmðத0 ஆðசmயLப0வத0கான ஒm வlடயம0ல.
இதG பயனான அ0நியLப0த0 ெபாð மðகள|டமிm0ð காவ0 ðைறைய
ேமQu தன|ைமLப0ðதியðடG QLவைடüu ஒOெவாm
வmடððடQu பரOபர நuபlðைகயlGைமüu ேமாசமைடüu ஒm
ðGபð ðழேல காவ0ðைறயl0 ெதாடûகிறð.


1.5 ெத0காசியாவl0 காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 ஏG
@ைறபா0ைடயதாகOuளð?

ெத0காசியாவl0 @ைற0த காவ0ðைறð ெசய0பா0கKð@ அதG
கLடைமLL ûதியாலானெதாm தவlûðக QLயாைம காரணமாகOuளð.
ஏெனன|0 இ0த நா0கள|Quள ஆLசி Qைறைமகu
அசாதாரணமானைவ. பlரா0தியðதிG அரசிய0, ெபாmளாதார சHக
நிைலைமகu காவ0ðைறLப0ðதைல வm0தðதðகதாகOu ம0mu
சீûதிmðதðதி0கான Qய0சிகu தைடLபLடைவயாகOu இmLபைதேய
உmதி ெசüதð. Qதலாவð வlடயu ெதாடûபl0, ெத0காசிய
ெபாðநலவாய நா0கள|G அரசிய0 கலாðசாரேம இ0தL பlரா0தியðதி0
காவ0 ðைறLப0ðத0 ெதாழி0சாû Qைறய0றதாகOu ம0mu
ஐயðதி0@mயெதாGறாகOu இmLபத0கான பlரதான காரணமாக
இm0தð. சில நியாயாதிðக0கள|0 இராQவu ம0mu ஜனநாயக ஆLசி
எGபவ0mðகிைடயl0 கிரமமான ஊசலாLடu, அேதேபாGm
அரசியலைமLLகu மM0u மM0u மKmவாðகLபLடைம அ0லð
திmðதLபLடைம எGபவ0ேறா0 ஆLசியl0 ெதாடûðசியான
நிðசயமிGைம காவ0ðைற சீûதிmðதu ேநாðகிய நிைலயானெதாm
அQ@Qைறைய இ0லாதாðகியð.

ேமQu, ஊழ0 ப0களாேதO, இ0தியா, பாகிOதாG ம0mu இல0ைக
ஆகிய நா0கள|0 ஆழமாக ஊ0mவlüuளð. ெச0லmð@u இ0த
நைடQைறயானð காவ0ðைறயlG ேநûைமð தGைமைய மL0மGறி
அதG ெகாuைக Hல0கைளüu அரசிய0 வûðகðதினû மðதியl0
தாைரவாûðð வlட ைவðகிறð, நதி ம0mu சிவl0 ேசைவ எGபன
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த0கKடனான காவ0ðைறயlG இைடðெதாடûLகள|னா0 இmதியl0
தவlûðக QLயாம0 த0கKð@u அேத சாயu LசLபL0வl0ெமனð
கmðகிGறன. இOவாm, காவ0ðைற நிmவன0கu ஒmநாu
அதிசயlðகðதðக வைகயl0 உuளக ஊழ0கைள ஒழிðதவlடð
த ûமான|ðதாQu ðட அதG Qய0சி பயனள|ðகாð ஏெனன|0
சீûதிmðதமைடயாð இmðகிGற ெபmu கLடைமLL QைறயlQu
இOOழ0 இGனQu ஆழமாகL பதி0ð ேபாயlmðகலாu.

ெபாmளாதாரð காரண0கள|னாQu ேமாசமான காவ0ðைறL ப0ðத0
இmðகð காணLப0கிறð. ெத0காசியாவlQuள அதிக வmைம,
மL0Lப0ðதLபLட நிதிðெதாைகேய பல ேபாLLð தGைமயான
ேதைவகKðகாகL பயGப0ððவத0காக உuளð எGபைதð கmðகிறð.
இதெனாm வlைளவாகL பlரா0தியu QmவதிQமாக காவ0ðைறL
பைடகKð@ ஓû பயQmதியான பணlð@ð ேதைவயான அLLபைட
அðதியாவசிய0கu எLெபாmðu வழ0கLப0வதி0ைல.
சிலசமய0கள|0 இ0தð @ைறபா0 ஒm நிதிL ப0றாð@ைறயlலான
காரணðதினாலGறி தவறான Qகாைமððவðதிெனாm
ெசய0பாLLனாலானதாகOu உuளð. எOவாறாயlQu,
காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 மð ஆெளாmவmðகான ெசலO ப0களாேதஷி0
11

1.40 அெமmðக ெடாலûகளாகOu, அெமmðகாவl0
12
215 ெடாலûகளாகOu
காணLப0கிGறைம, காவ0ðைற @ைற0தளவlலான நிதிையð
ெகாMLmLபத0@ வரO ெசலOðதிLட நிதிெயாððகீ0கள|G தவறான
Qகாைமððவu மL0u காரணமி0ைலெயGபைதð
ெதள|Oப0ððகிறð. மL0L ப0ðதLபLட வள0கள|னா0
ஏ0ப0ðதLப0கிGற தைடகைளð தாM0வð, காவ0ðைறைய
ேமuப0ððவத0@ உuள ெதாடûðசியான சவாலா@u.

பlரா0தியðதிG சHக நிைலைமகKu ðட காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0
ம0mu சீûதிmðதðதி0கான அதG இய0தGைம மð அதிகu எதிû
மைறயான தாðக0கைளேய ெகாMLm0தð. ெத0காசிய சHக0கள|G
மரLûதியான வûðக அ0லð வ@LL ம0mu மான|யð கLடைமLL
காவ0ðைறைய மðகu எOவlதu நடாððகிறாûகu ம0mu எOவlதu
ேநாð@கிறாûகu எGபைத ெதmயLப0ððகிறð. உதாரணமாக, ðயநலu
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சாû0த காரண0கKðகாகL பணu பைடðதவûகu ம0mu ெச0வாð@ð
ெகாMடவûகளா0 காவ0 ðைற பயGப0ðதLப0வðடG
ðரMடOuப0கிGறð, ஆனா0 இðதைகய நிைல ேவmபLடதாக
அ0லð ெபாmðதம0றதாக அmதாகேவ ேநாðகLபLடன. ேமQu,
ேபாதியளவ0ற க0வlð ேசைவகu, சராசmL பlரைஜ தனð உmைமகu
அ0லð தாu எ0த வைகயlலான காவ0ðைறL ப0ðதQð@
உmððைடயவûகu எGபைதL ப0றிð ðட அmதாகேவ அறி0தவûகளாக
இmLபைதð ðLLðகாL0கிறð. இதனா0, தமð@ எ0தவைகயான
காவ0ðைறð ேசைவ ேதைவெயGபð ப0றி மðகu ஒm @ழLபமான
சமிðைககைளேய ெதmவlðகிGறனû எGபð வlள0கிð ெகாuளLபடð
ðLயதா@u. @0றவlய0 நடவLðைககள|0 அð பயQmதியானðu,
உðேவகu ெகாMடதாகOu இmðத0 ேவM0u ஆனா0
காவ0ðைறயlG அத த நடவLðைககளா0 சிரம0கKð@ ஆளாைகயl0
“நியாயமானðu, பதிலிmð@u தGைம” ெகாMடதாகOu உuள
காவ0ðைறLப0ðதQðகான ஒm வlmLபðதி0@ அவûகu உடG
ப0கிGறனû. இ0த QரMபLட நிைல அறிOL0த0 ம0mu
காவ0ðைறLப0ðதQடG சuப0தLப0ðத0 எGபைவ Hலu மL0ேம
த ûðகLபட QLüu.


1.6 QGெச0வத0கான வழி

காவ0ðைறயlG QGேன0றðைத வரலா0m ûதியாக கL0L ப0ðதிய
அரசிய0, ெபாmளாதார ம0mu சHக நிைலைமகள|0 இm0ð
காவ0ðைறைய ேவmப0ððவத0காக சில காðதிரமான நடவLðைககu
எ0ðகLபட0 ேவM0u. Qதலாவð, ஜனநாயகu ஒGறினா0
எOவைகயான காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 ேதைவLப0ðதL ப0கிறெதGபð
ப0றிய ெதள|வானெதாm Lm0ðெகாuள0 இmðத0 ேவM0u.
காவ0ðைற ம0mu அரசிய0 நிûவாகu எGபவ0mðகிைடயlலான
உறவl0 சீûதிmðதu, காவ0ðைறயlG Qகாைமððவu ம0mu
தைலைமððவðதிலான QGேன0றu, சuப0தLபLட அைனððð
தரLபlனðu மனLபா0கிலான மா0ற0கu, ஏ0பாடள|ðத0கள|னாலான
ேமuப0ðத0கu ம0mu இைவயைனðைதüu வlட ேமQu சிறLபான
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ெவள|வாmயான ேம0பாûைவ ம0mu ெபாmLLððற0 எGபவ0ைற
ெத0காசியாவlG காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 ேதைவLப0ððகிறð. இ0த
வlடய0கu ஆரuபðதிேலேய கவனðதி0 ெகாuளLபL0 சீûதிmðதu
மதான ஏேதQu கல0ðைரயாட0கள|0 QGன|ைலL ப0ðதLபட0
ேவM0u.

இரMடாவதாக, அரசிய0 நிûவாகu ம0mu காவ0ðைற
எGபவ0mðகிைடயlலான உறவlG எ0ைலகைள வைரயைற ெசüவð
Qðகியமா@u. எ0தெவாm ஜனநாயகðதிQu மðகள|G பாðகாLைப
உmதிLப0ððu இmதிL ெபாmLL மðகள|G பlரதிநிதி கள|ேலேய
த0கிüuளð. காவ0ðைறயlனû அQ0ப0ððபவûகu மL0ேம.
அOவlதமாயlG, காவ0ðைற ம0mu அரசிய0 அதிகாரu ஆகிய
இரM0u, @0ற0கைளð த0ðð வlசாmðத0, சLடu ம0mu
ஒm0கிைனL ேபQத0 அððடG வாuðைக, ஆதனu, ðத0திரu
எGபவ0ைறL பாðகாð@u நG@ ெசய0ப0u அðதியாவசிய ேசைவைய
மðகu ெகாMLmLபைத உmதிL ப0ððத0 ம0mu பlரைஜகu-
வlேசடமாக ெபMகu, சிmவû, சிmபாGைமயlனûகu, Qதியவûகu
ம0mu உட0 ஊனu ெகாMடவûகu ஆகிேயாû அரசியலைமLபlனா0
உðதரவாதu அள|ðகLபLட உmைமகைள Qmைமயாக
அQபவlLபத0கான ðழைல உmவாð@த0 ேபாGற ெபாð Qய0சிகள|0
ஒGறாகL பlைண0ðuளன.

காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 வlைனðதிறனானðu, பðகசாûப0ற வைகயlQu
பணl ெசüவத0@ சuப0தLபLட ஒOெவாm நிmவனðதினðu
அதிகார0கu ம0mu ெபாmLLகu எGபன Qைறயாகð ெதmவlðகLபட0
ேவM0u. அரசிய0 நிûவாகðதினா0 காவ0ðைற மதான
சLடLûவமான “ேம0பாûைவ” ம0mu சLடவlேராதமான தைலய0
ம0mu ெச0வாð@ எGபவ0mðகிைடயl0 கவனமானெதாm சமன|ைல
ேபணLபட0 ேவM0u. மாறாக, காவ0ðைற சLடðதிைனL
ேபQவத0@u ம0mu அதG கடைமகைள சLடðதி0கைமவாக
நிைறேவ0mவத0@மாக ேதû0ெத0ðகLபLட அரசிய0வாதிகKð@
எLெபாmðu ெபாmLLððmபவûகளாக இmðத0 ேவM0u. இ0தð
சமன|ைல சmயாகL ேபணLப0மாயlG, ஜனநாயக காவ0ðைறL ப0ðத0
88
88
தவlûðகLபட QLயாததாக உmLெபmu. அதனாேலேய, காவ0
ðைறயlG “ேம0பாûைவ” எGபð எதைன உMைமயாகð கmðகிறð
எGபைதð கவனமாக வைரவlலðகணLப0ððவðடG காவ0ðைற
ெசய0பாL0L ெபாmLைபð ெகாMLmðைகயl0 நிûவாக அதிகாரu
நிப0தைனLப0ðதLப0வைத உmதி ெசüüu த@திகள|G எ0ைலகைள
உmவாðகிெய0Lபðu மிகOu Qðகியமா@u.

HGறாவð, Qகாைமððவu ம0mu நிதி, கL0மாண வசதிகu ம0mu
உபகரண0கu எGப0றிG ஏ0பாடள|ðத0 எGபð மிகð சிற0த
ெசய0பா0கைள உmதிLப0ððவத0@L ெபாmðதமான தாகOu
ேபாðமானதாகOu இmðத0 ேவM0u. சLட அQ0ப0ðதQð@
ð0த0 நிதியlைன ஒðð@வð இயலாத ஒGறாகவlmLபlQu அதG
பயGபாL0ðகான QGQmைமகu மuவைரயைற ெசüயLபட0
ேவM0u அððடG உðச பயைன உmதிLப0ððவத0@ உMைமயான
ெசலவlன0கu ஆüO ெசüயLபட0 ேவM0u. ஆனா0 இLெபாmðuள
நிைல இðவ0ல.


நாGகாவதாக, காவ0ðைற சLடðதிG ஆLசி ம0mu ஜனநாயக
நியதிகKð@ ð0தலான மதிLபlைனð ெகாMLmðகாவlLடா0
சீûதிmðதu ெவ0றியைடயமாLடாð. அரசியலைமLL வlmமிய0கu
இ0லாத வlைனðதிறQu நG@ ஏ0பாடள|ðகLபLடðமானெதாm
காவ0ðைற, த0ெபாmð இmLபதைன வlட க0ைமயான அைமLபாகேவ
காணLபடðð0u. நிைலயான காவ0ðைறð சீûதிmðதðைத அைடய
ேவM0மாயlG சHகðதி0 காவ0ðைற ப0றி நிைலððuள
நிைலLபா0கu கவனðதி0 ெகாuளLபட0 ேவM0u. உதாரணமாக உப
கMடðதிQuள சLடðைத அQ0ப0ððu நிmவன0கu அைவ
காவலðைற ெசüüu ப0கலாðசார ம0mu ப0லின மðகu ெதாைகைய
அmதாகேவ பlரதிபலிðகிGறன. இல0ைகயlG காவ0ðைற அேநகu
Qmவðமாகேவ சி0களவûகளாகOu அððடG அ0த இனu
சாû0ததாகOேம அதிகளவlQu அறியLப0கிGறð.
13
ேமQu, இ0திய
காவ0ðைறயlG உயû பதவlð தர0கள|0 பl0பLட சாதிகu, பlறபLட
பழ0@L மðகu ம0mu QOலிuகu ெபmமளவl0 @ைறவாகேவ
89
89
பlரதிநிதிððவu ெசüயL ப0கிGறனû.
14
ேமQu, ெத0காசியாவlQuள
ெபாðநலவாய நா0கள|0 எðOேம காவ0ðைறð ேசைவயl0
ெபMகைள ேபாðமானளவl0 உuள|ைணðகவl0ைல.
15
காவலðைறயlQu சிmபாGைம இனðதவûகu ம0mu ஓர0கLடLபLட
@mðகைள ð0தலாக ஆLேசûLபð ஒm Qðகியமான பLQைறயாக
அைமüu.

காவலðைற சீûதிmðத0களானð @0றவlய0 நதிQைற ம0mu பர0த
வைகயlலான அதG நிûவாகu ஆகிய இரMLQமாக ெசய0பட
ேவMLயேத சிற0ðதா@u. ஏைனய Qðகியமான பlmOகைளL
Lறðகணlðð காவ0ðைற சீûதிmðதðதி0 மL0ேம கவனu
ெசQððவதானð அைனðð Qைனகள|Qேம ேதா0வlðேக
உðதரவாதமள|ð@u. இm0த ேபாதிQu, அைனðைதüu த ûLபத0காக
காðதிmLபெதGபðu, ஒGைறüேம த ûðகாதிmLபத0கான ஒm
வழியாகேவ நிðசயu அைமüu. இ0த ெவாm ðைறயlG @ைறபா0கைள
த ûLபதG Hலu அதைனð சீûெசüய QயQைகயl0, ெபmðu
வlைனðதிறன0m ம0த நிைலயlQu ம0mu மான|ய QைறயlQமாகð
கிட0த காவ0ðைறயl0 சீûதிmðத0கெளGபð இறð@0 தmவாயl0
உuளைத ெசய0ப0வத0@ð ðMLவl0u, இதG Hலu
பlரா0தியðைதL ப Lðதிmð@u ம0தநிைலையð கட0ð வரலாu.
காவ0ðைற ஓû @றிLபlLடðu, உடனLயானðமான கவனðைத
ேதைவLப0ððகிறð, ஏெனன|0 அவûகu பlரைஜகள|G பாðகாLL,
அைமதி ம0mu நதி எGபவ0ைற அQமதிð@u வாயl0காLேபாûகளாவû.
ெபாðமðகu ம0mu காவ0ðைற எGபவ0mðகிைடயlலான ெதாடûL
நதிððைற, பணlððைறயாLசி அ0லð அரசிய0 வûðகðதினû
ஆகிேயாûகKடனான இைடðெதாடûLகைள வlட மிகOu
உடனLயானðu, த வlரமானðu ம0mu அLðகL ஏ0ப0வதாகOu
உuளð. ஆகேவ, அð கவன|ðகLபடாமQu, சீûதிmðதLபடாமQu
வlடLபLG காவ0ðைற பாðகாLைப அள|Lபைத வlட அதைனð
ெதாடû0ðu ெக0Lபதாகேவ அைமüu.

இ0த வlடயu ெதாடûபl0 நடவLðைக எ0ðகாைமயlனா0 ஏ0பLட
பலாபலGகu கணlசமானைவ. 2008இ0, பாðகிOதான|0 67 த0ெகாைலð
90
90
@M0ð தாð@த0கu 973 ேபûகைளð ெகாGறðடG 2318 ேபûகைளüu
காயLப0ðதியð.
16
ெதGகிழðகாசியாவlலிm0ð ஐேராLபாவl0@
ெஹேராயlG ேபாைதL ெபாmைளð கடððகிGற பlரதான இைடவழி
மாûðகமாக ப0களாேதO தனð அ0தOைத ஏ0ப0ðதிð
ெகாM0uளð.
17
இ0தியா நðசைலL0கள|G ஆதிðகu நிைற0த
ப@திகள|0
18
நைடெபmகிGற வனQைறகைளð கL0Lபடðத இயலாð
இmLபðடG 2008இ0 பய0கரவாதிகள|G ெபmu தாð@த0கu
பலவ0றினாQu பாதிLபைட0ðð.
19
ேமQu, இல0ைகயl0 ஆயlரð
கணðகான மðகu காணம0 ேபானðடG, இð @0ற0கKð@L
ெபாmLபானவûகu பlLðகLப0வாûகu எGபத0@ சிறிதளவான
எதிûபாûLேப உuளð.
20
ெபmu அளவlலான பய0கரவாதð தாð@த0
அ0லð நாளா0தu ேமாசமான காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 எGபைவ Hலu
மðகள|G ெபௗத கL பாðகாLைப வlL0ð ெகா0ðகிGறைம மðகu
ம0mu காவ0ðைற எGபவ0mð@ இைடயlலான ேவmபாLைட
ெதாடû0ð வlmOப0ððகிறð.

ஒOெவாm நியாயாதிðகðதிQu காவ0ðைறLப0ðத0 ேசைவகைள
ேமuப0ððவத0@ ேம0ெகாuளLபட ேவMLய வQவான Qைறகைள
இðகL0ைர வழ0@கிறð. அறிOLடLபL0, வlளðகமள|ðகLபLட
மðகள|G அபlLபlராயu, பாரuபmய நடðைத Qைறகைள
மா0mவத0கான அரசிய0 ðணlவl0கான ேதைவைய உmவாð@கிGற
ேபாð மL0ேம உMைமயான சீûதிmðதu நைடெபmu எGபð
ெபாðநலவாய மன|த உmைம QGென0LLகள|G உmதியான
நuபlðைகயா@u. இைதL ேபாGற கL0ைரகu, அேத ேபாGm இ0த
வlடயu மð நணட காலðதி0@ உmதியான வைகயl0 ஆதmðð
வாதா0த0கu எGபன மிகOu ேதைவLப0கிGற சீûதிmðத0கKð@
தகவ0 அள|LபைவயாகOu, ஊðகியாகOu இmLபத0@
கmதLபLடைவயா@u.

காவ0ðைற சீûதிmðத0கu LறðகணlðகLபட இயலாதளவl0@ அதிக
QðகியððவமானðடG தாமதிðகLபட இயலாதளவl0@ மிகOu
அவசரமானைவயா@u.

91
91
.................................................................................
1
Maldives has been omitted due to an inability to conduct primary research in that jurisdiction.

2
Maldives also passed its first Police Act in 2008. However, CHRI has been unsuccessful in securing an English
version of the Act.

3
Human Rights Watch (March 2008), Recurring Nightmare: State Responsibility for “Disappearances” and Abductions
in Sri Lanka, v.20, no.2(c): http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/03/05/recurring-nightmare-0 as on 12 November 2008;
International Crisis Group (2008), Reforming Pakistan’s Police, Asia Report N°157, p. 8: http://www.crisisgroup.org/
home/index.cfm?id=5570&l=1 as on 12 December 2008; Odhikar (2008), Human Rights Report: Odhikar Report on Bangladesh,
p. 38: http://newsfrombangladesh.net/dbimages/241473-0 Odhikar%20annual%20human%20rights%20report%202008.doc as
on 20 March 2009; Human Rights Watch (July 2008), Being Neutral is Our Biggest Crime, pp. 54-58: http://
www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/07/14/being-neutral-our-biggest-crime-0 as on 17 October 2008.
4
For a detailed discussion of democratic policing and why it is important, please refer to Chapter 2 of Rauch J.,
Prasad D., Mehta S., and Canineu M.L. “Police Accountability: Too important to neglect, too urgent to delay”, 2005,
CHRI report by the International Advisory Commission of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative: http://
www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/chogm/chogm_2005/chogm_2005_full_report.pdf.
5
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (1997), Human Rights and Law Enforcement: A
Manual on Human Rights Training for the Police, Chapter IX: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/training.htm as on
11 December 2008.
6
Commonwealth Human Right Initiative and Kenya Human Rights Commission (2006), The Police, The People, The Politics-
Police Accountability in Kenya: http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/police/kenya_country_report_2006.pdf.
7
United Nations International Police Task Force (1996), Commissioner’s Guidelines for Democratic Policing in the
Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
8
Bruce, D. and Neild, R. (2005), The police that we want - A handbook for oversight of police in South Africa, Centre for the
Study of Violence and Reconciliation, p. 15: http://www.justiceinitiative.org/db/resource2?res_id=102519 as on 13 September
2008.
9
Marenin, O. (2005), Restoring Policing Systems in Conflict Torn Nations: Process, Problems, Prospects, Democratic
Control of Armed Forces, June 2005.
10
Ibid, p. 29.
11
Van Zant, E. (2005), “Better Policing: Tracking the problems besetting the Bangladeshi police services means overcoming a
long history and great shortage of funds”, ADB Review: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Periodicals/
ADB_Review/2005/vol37-2/better-policing.asp as on 12 December 2008.
12
Greene, J .R. (2006), The Encyclopedia of Police Science, 3rd edition, CRC Press, p. 271: http://books.google.ca/
books?id=HIE_zF1Rv7MC&dq=The+Encyclopedia+of+Police+Science&printsec=frontcover &source=bl&
ots=fVss9CXj5K&sig=q12KHMFxkRP89LHfu84dgTFqLJE&hl=en&ei=bubqSZLJPNCGkQX4jeClCA&sa=X&oi=boo
k_result&ct=result&resnum=4#PPA713,M1 as on 24 November 2008.
13
Edrisinha, R., Olander, K., and Orjuella, C. (December 2007), Review of Development Cooperation between Sri
Lanka Police and Swedish National Police Board, p. 10; Laksiri, F. (2005), Police-Civil Relations for Good Governance,
Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association.
14
Swami, P. (2006), “Bias and the Police”, Frontline, v.23, Issue 24, December 2-15: http://www.hinduonnet.com/
fline/fl2324/stories/20061215002503300.htm as on 13 November 2008.
15
Nataranjan, M. (2005), “Status of Women Police in Asia”, The Journal for Women and Policing, Issue No.17, pp.45-47:
http://www.auspol-women.asn.au/issue%2017.pdf as on 1 December 2008.
16
Usman, A. (2009), “HRCP launches report on human rights situation in 2008: a year of challenges”, The Daily
Times, 7 April 2009: http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009%5C04%5C07%5Cstory_7-4-2009_pg7_23 as on 8
April 2009.
17
2008), “Bangladesh transit route for heroin trafficking”, The Bangladesh News, 7 March 2008: http://
www.bangladeshnews.com.bd/2008/03/07/bangladesh-transit-route-for-heroin-trafficking/ as on 17 September 2008.
18
Human Rights Watch (July 2008), Being Neutral is Our Biggest Crime: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/07/14/ being-
neutral-our-biggest-crime-0 as on 17 October 2008.
92
92
19
There were major terror attacks in Jaipur (13 May 2008), Ahmedabad (28 July 2008), New Delhi (13 September 2008),
Guwahati (30 October 2008) and Mumbai (26-28 November 2008).












































93
93


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,jpy; xU rhjidahf> ,Ugf;fj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapyhd Aj;j epWj;j xg;ge;jkhdJ> 2002
ngg;Uthpapy; ,ilj;juF nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,J NehHNtapdhy; fz;fhzpf;fg;gl;lJld;>
gyUf;fhd tho;f;if Kiwahf khwpapUe;j mopitAk; mdHj;jj;ijAk; Fiwg;gjpy;
ntw;wpfukhdjhf ,Ug;gjhf Nehf;fg;gl;lJ.

2002 Aj;j epWj;jj;Jld; vy;hphp< kw;Wk; ,yq;if murhq;fk; vd;gd gu];guk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg; glf;$ba> murpay; xOq;if mile;J nfhs;tjpy; tpUg;Gilajhf
Njhd;wpajhy;> khw;wj;jpw;fhd xU ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jJ. nghyp]; tplaj;jpyhd khwpa
mZFKiw Nkhjypy; kpfTk; njspthd xd;whf ,Ue;jJ. nghyprhUf;F Nkyjpf
mjpfhuq;fis mspj;jpUe;j gaq;futhjj; jilr; rl;lk; Nghd;w nghpa
rl;lthf;fq;fspd; eilKiwg;gLj;jy; xj;jpitf;fg;gl;lJk;> vy;hphp<apd; gaq;futhjr;
nraw;ghLfSf;F Kuz;ghl;Lf; fhyj;jpd; fbdkhd epiyikfspy; gjpw; nraw;ghL
fhl;ba nghyprhUf;F> xU mq;fPfhuk; ,Ue; jJ. mtHfs; Kuz;ghl;Lj; jPHtpd; Gjpa
fl;lj;jpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd> Kidg;Gfspy; <LglNtz;b> nghJkf;fis nghyp];
mjpfhuk; nra;Ak;> rk;gpujha tfpgq;fpw;F jpUk;g Ntz;b te;jJld;> mjidAk;
gy;ypd> gd;ikj;Jtj;jpy; NtWghLfis kjpj;J> ,J njhlHghd rthy;fspd;
$UzHTfSf;F Vw;gTk;> ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;bapUe;jJ.
2




3
Wikipedia website, “List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita”: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita#cite_note-2 as on 12 November 2008.

2
Edrisinha, R., Olander, K., and Orjuella, C. (December 2007), Review of Development Cooperation between
SriLanka Police and Swedish National Police Board, p. 9.

94
94
MdhYk; 2005 NjHjiy vy;hphp< gfp];fhpj;jikahdJ> ,yq;if rdhjpgjpahf
caHj;jp tpl;lJ. ,yq;ifr; Rje;jpuf; fl;rpapd; jiytH> murpay; gpur;rhuq;fspd;NghJ
jhk; vy;hphp< aplk; fLikahd mZFKiwiaf; filg;gpbf;fg; Nghtjhfj;
njhptpj;jpUe;jhh;. mtH gjtpf;F te;jJk;> Gjpa epHthfj;jpy;> murhq;fj;jpw;Fk; vy;hphp<
f;Fk; ,ilapy; ,uhZt Nkhjy; mjpfhpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. nghJkf;fs; Rje;jpukhd>
Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuk;> elkhl;lr; Rje;jpuk; vd;gtw;wpy; tiuaiw Vw;gLj;Jk; mtrufhy
xOq;Ffs; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. ePjpf;F mg;ghw;gl;l nfhiyfs;> flj;jy;fs;>
fhzhky; Nghjy;fs; mjpfhpj;jd. xg;gPl;lstpy; FWfpa fhyg;gFjpf;Fs; rptpy;
r%fj;jplKk; rHtNjr r%fj;jplKk;> fzprkhd ftdj;ij Vw;gLj;jpa jz;lidapy;
,Ue;J tpyf;Fg; ngWk; fyhrhuk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.
3


2. jz;lidapy; ,Ue;J tpyf;Fg; ngWk; fyhrhuk;
,yq;ifapy; Ml;rpapy; cs;Nshuhy; ,iof; fg;gl;l kdpj chpik kPwy; Fw;wq;fspd;
vz;zpf;if> msT vd;gd ed;F Mtzg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. tpghpf;fg;glhj> fhzhky;
Nghfr; nra;jy; rk;gtq;fspd; kl;by;> ,yq;if mtHfspd; epuypy; ,uz;lhtjhf
,Ug;gjhf fhzhky; Mf;fy; my;yJ fhzhky; Nghfr; nra;jy; kPjhd gzpf;FO
mOj;jpAiuj;Js;sJ.
4
murhq;fj;jhy;> tprhuiz Mizf;FOthdJ 1988 – 90
fhyg;gFjpapy; fpl;lj;jl;l 27>200 NgH fhzhky; Nghdjhf njhptpj;Js;sJ.
5
mz;ika
vy;hphp<f;Fk; murhq;fj;jpw;Fkpilapyhd td;Kiwf; fpsHr;rpahdJ xU Gjpa Rw;W
fhzhky; Nghif Fwpj;J Fw;wr; rhl;Lfis vOg;gpAs;sJ. ,yq;if kdpj chpikfs;
Mizf;FO 2006 ,y; ghJfhg;G gilapduhy; my;yJ murhq;fj;Jld; ,ize;J
,aq;Fk; Jiz ,uhZtf; FOf;fspdhy; my;yJ vy;hphp< apduhy; ehL G+uhfTk;
murpay; Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf 345 rk;gtq;fs; eilngw;wjhf Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.
6
fhzhky;
Nghjypy; nghyp]; kw;Wk; ,uhZtj;jpdhpd; tfpgq;if ,yq;if nghyp];kh mjpgH
khHr; 2007 ,y; Kd;dhs; giltPuH> gzpahw;Wk; giltPuH> nghyp]; mjpfhhpfs;>
ghjhsf; FOf;fs;> xOq;fikf; fg;gl;l rf;jpfs; cl;gl 400 f;F Nkw;gl;l Ml;fs;

3
Ibid., p. 11.
4
Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances (1999) Report on the visit to Sri Lanka by a member
of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, (25-29 October 1999) p. 13:
E/CN.4/2000/64/Add.1:http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/AllSymbols/E6D08BB09C61C6D7802568A90
06830F1/$File/ G9916479.pdf?OpenElement as on 12 November 2008.
5
Human Rights Committee (2002), Fourth Periodic Report: Sri Lanka, State Part report submitted to the Human
Rights Committee under Article 40 of the ICCPR, p. 37, CCPR/C/LKA/2002/4: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/
(Symbol)/CCPR.C.LKA.2002.4.En?Opendocument as on 5 November 2008.
6
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, (2007), Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
2006:Maldives, United States Department of State: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78875.htm as on 1
November2008

95
95
flj;jy; Fw;wr;rhl;by; 2006 nrg;nuk; ghpypUe;J ifjhfpAs;sjhf mwpj;jnghONj
mq;fPhpj;Jtpl;lhH.
7


jhd; Nkw;nfhz;l Fw;wq;fSf;Fg; nghWg; Gf;$whj xU nraw;ghl;lhsUf;F ey;y
cjhuzkhf tpNrl mjpubg;giliaf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. 1983 ,y; ,J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.
,J gaq;futhj> fpsHr;rp vjpHg;Gf;fSf;fhf tpNrlj;Jtk; ngw;w Jiz ,uhZtg;
gphpthFk;. ,J vy;hphp< apdUldhd rz;ilfspNyNa gpujhdkhf <LgLfpwJ. ,J
mjd; kdpj chpik kPwy;fSf;Fk;> fhzhky; Mf;FiffSf;Fk;> ePjpf;F khwhd
nfhiyfSf;Fk; ngaH NghdJ. tpUg;gj;jpw;F khwhf vLj;Jr; nry;yy;> tlf;F kw;Wk;
fpof;F khfhzq;fspy; fhzhky; Nghjy; Fwpj;j ,yq;if tprhuiz Mizf;FO
1997 ,y; tprhuizia Kbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. 1988 – 1996 fhyg;gFjpapy; tl fpof;F
kl;lf;fsg;G khtl;lj;jpy; eilngw;w fhzhky;Nghd rk;gtq;fspd; 1219 ,y; 5 tPj
ifJ nra;Ak; Kftuhf mjpubg;gilNa ,Ue;Js;sJ.
8
ePjpf;F mg;ghw;gl;l> kw;iwa
VNjr;rhjpfhukhd nfhiyfs; kPjhd I.eh tpNrl Ngr;rhsH> ,yq;ifapy; nfhOk;gpy;
mjpubg;gilapdhpd; fhtypy; ,Ue;jnghOJ jdpegHfs; ,we;J NghapUg;gjhf Fw;wk;
rhl;bAs;shh;. ed;F Mtzg;gLj;jg; gl;l mtJ}W Fw;wq;fs; ,Ue;jhYk;> jk;
njhopw;ghLfis jz;lidapypUe;J tpyf;Fg; ngw;w epiyapy; nfhz;L nry;yTk;> jk;
nraw;ghLfSf;F nghWg;Ngw;gij mjpubg;gil cWg;gpdHfs; jtpHj;Jf;nfhs;tjpYk;
rpukk; vLj;Js;sdh;.
10


rl;lj;juzpfshy; my;yJ kdpj chpik epWtdq;fspdhy; nghyp]; J\;gpuNahfq;fs;
Fwpj;j Kiwg;ghLfs; njhlq;fg;gLk;nghOJ mitfspd; tprhuizfs; J];gpuNahfk;

7
Asian Centre for Human Rights (2007), “Sri Lanka: Spectre of abductions by the security forces officially
admitted”, ACHR Weekly Review, March, Review: 157/07: http://www.achrweb.org/Review/2007/157-07.htm as on
29 October 2008.


8
Commission of Inquiry into Involuntary Removal or Disappearance of Persons in the Northern and
Eastern Provinces (1997), Final Report, Sessional Paper No.7: http://www.disappearances.org/news/mainfile.php/
frep_sl_ne/ as on 12 November 2008
9
UN Commission on Human Rights (1998), Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or
arbitrary executions, Mr. Bacre Waly Ndiaye submitted pursuant to Commission on Human Rights resolution
1997/61, E/ CN.4/1998/68/Add.2, 12 March 1998, p.31 at para. 131: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-
bin/texis/vtx/refworld/ rwmain?page=search&amp;docid=3ae6b1044&amp;skip=0&amp;query=waly as on 1
December 2008.
10
Human Rights Watch (2008), Recurring Nightmare: State Responsibility for “Disappearances” and Abductions in
Sri Lanka, v.20, no.2(c), pp. 48-50: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/03/05/recurring-nightmare-0 as on 12
November 2008.



96
96
ele;j me;jg; gFjpiar; NrHe;j caH mjpfhhpfspdhNyNa Nkw;nfhs;sg; gLfpwJ.
mitfspd; tprhuizfs; toikahf ePz;lfhyj;jpw;F ,Oj;jbf;fg;gl;L
ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfisAk; mtHfspd; MjuthsHfisAk; Fw;wk; ,ioj;NjhH mr;RWj;j
mjpf re;jHg;gk; toq;fg;gLtJld;> mJ ve;j ek;gj;jF tpisitAk; Vw;gLj;jTk;
khl;lhJ. mt;Ntisapy; mt; mjpfhhpfs; Kiwg;ghl;lhsiu mr;RWj;jp my;yJ
trg;gLj;jp xU ,zf;fj;jpw;F tu Kaw;rpg;gH.
11


rhjhuz re;jHg;gq;fspy; tplak; cz; ikap;y; ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F vLj;Jr;
nry;yg;gLk;nghOJ> ePjpj;Jiw gpio nra;jtiu nghWg;Gilatuhf;f mNefkhfj;
jtwp tpLfpwJ. fl;lhag;gLj;jp fhzhkyhf; fy; Fw;wk; ,yq;ifr; rl;lf;Nfhitapy;
,y;yhjjhy; Fw;wk; rhl;LgtH rhjhuzkhf flj;jy; Fw;wr;rhl;bd; kPNj tof;Fj;
njhlHfpwhH. MdhYk; Kuz;ghl;Lf; fhyj;jpy; mt;thwhd Fw;wq;fis ep&gpg;gJ
kpfTk; fbdkhdJ.
12
,jd; tpisthf chpik kPwg;gl;ljpypUe;J vg;NghjhtJ tUk;
tof;F jpdk; tiu jz;lidapypue;J tpyf;Fg; ngWk; fyhrhuk; NfhNyhr;RfpwJ.

Aj;jj;jpd; jPtpur; #oy;fs; jPtpu gjpw;nraw;ghLfis Ntz;b epw;gjhf ghJfhg;Gj;
jug;gpdH mNefkhf thjhLifapy;> cyfk; G+uhfTk; ,Ue;jhd mDgtq;fs;>
jz;lidapypUe;J tpyf;Fg; ngWk; fyhrhuk; ghJfhg;G epiyikia Kd;Ndw;whJ.
khwhf murpay; r%fg; gjw;wj;ij mjpfhpg;gJld;> mjd; %yk; ghJfhg;G neUf;fbia
,d;Dk; jPtpug;gLj;Jk;. cz;ikapy; MAj Kuz;ghl;bd;NghJ rptpypad;fis
ghJfhg;gJ kPjhd I.eh. ghJfhg; Gr; rig 1974 (2006) gpd;tUkhW $WfpwJ.
Kuz;ghl;by; cs;s r%fk; my;yJ Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J kPSk; r%fk; MAj
Kuz;ghl;lhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l rptpypad;fSf;F vjpuhf ,iof;fg;gl;l fle;j fhy
J];gpuNahfq;fs; rk;ge;jkhf xU Kbtpw;F te;J> mt;thwhd J];gpuNahfq;fis
vjpHfhyj;jpy; jLf;f> jz;lidapypUe;J tpyf;Fg; ngWk; epiy KbTf;F nfhz;L
tug;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

3. Aj;j epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; KbT

11
Fernando, B. (2009), Recovering the authority of public institutions, Asian Human Rights Commission (Hong
Kong), p.12: http://www.ahrchk.net/pub/pdf/AHRC-PUB-002-2009-RecoveringAuthority.pdf
12
Pinto-Jayawardena, K. (2007), “‘Cosmetic’ Commissions and the Rule of Law in Sri Lanka,” CHRI Newsletter,
Spring 2007: http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/nl/newsletter_spring_2007/article2.htm as on 6
December 2008
13
International Commission of Jurists (2008), Briefing Paper, Sri Lanka’s Emergency Laws and International
Standards, June 2008: p.8: http://www.icj.org//IMG/SriLanka-BriefingPaper-Mar09-FINAL.pdf as on 11 October
2008
14
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1674(2006), S/RES/1674, 28 April 2006, para. 7:
http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/f45643a78fcba719852560f6005987ad/e529762befa456f8852571610045ebef!O
penDocument as on 12 November 2008
97
97

2006 Mk; Mz;by; Aj;j epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; epge;jidfs; mNefkhf
guhjPdg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. 2008 [dthp 02 ,y; ,yq;if murhq;fk; Aj;j epWj;j
xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J tpyFtij Kiwahf mwptpj;J tpl;L vy;hphp< f;F vjpuhd jPtpu
,uhZt jhf;Fjiy Muk;gpj;jJ.
15
,e;j gy jhf;fq;fis Vw;gLj;Jk; ,uhZt
nraw;ghL ,yq;ifapy; kdpj chpikfs; kPjhd fzprkhdsT fye;Jiuahliy
,lk;ngwhky; nra;jJ. gaq;futhjj;ij ,y;yhnjhopf;Fk; jdJ Nehf;fpy; ,yq;if
murhq;fk; jdJ Neuk; rf;jp midj;ijAk; tpLjiyg;Gypfis fPo;g;gLj;Jk; tpjkhf
rl;lthf;fq;fis cUthf;fp nfhs;iffisAk; ehbaJ. ,JTk; rl;l Ml;rpiaAk;>
kdpj chpikfisAk;> khpahij nra;ahj jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. cjhuzj;jpw;F
mtru fhy xOq;F tpjpfspd; (2005 ,d; mbg;gilapy; nfhz;Ltug;gl;ljd;) 23 Mk;
tpjp 2006 ,y; jpUj;jg;gl;lJld;> mjd;gb nghyp]; nghWg; gjpfhhpahy; Nfl;fg;gLk;
,lj;J xt;nthU tPl;lhspAk; tPl;by; trpf;Fk; midtuJ ngaHfisAk; toq;f
Ntz;bapUe;jJ.
1 nghyp]; epiyaj;jpw;F nghWg;ghf ,Uf; Fk; xt;nthU mjpfhhpAk; jdJ nghyp];
epiyag; gFjpf;Fs; thOk; xt;nthU tPl;lhspaplkpUe;J> tPl;bNy mtUld; thOk;
vy;yhhpdJ ngahpd; epuiyAk;> mthpd; tPl;lhhpd; ngahpypUe;J gpwpjhf Vida
jw;fhypfkhf> epue;jukhf tho;gtHfs;> CopaHfs; vd;Nghhpd; ngaHfisAk;
ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; mtH fhyj;J fhyk; mtH toq;fpa epuypypUe;J $Lk;>
FiwAk; Ml;fspd; vz;zpf;if gw;wpa mwpf;iffisAk; nghyp]; mjpfhhpf;F toq;f
Ntz;Lk;.

2 ge;jp xd;wpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l mwpTWj;jiy ngw;Wf;nfhz;l ve;j tPl;lhspAk; jdJ
tPl;bNy me;j cz;ikia nghWg;gjpfhhpaplk; njhptpf;fhky; ve;j me;epaUf;Fk;
tPl;bNy ,lk; nfhLj;jyhfhJ.

3. ge;jp 1> 2 ,d; gb mt; mwpTWj;jy;fspd;gb xOfj; jtWk; jfty;fis toq;fj;
jtwpNahH; xU Fw;wk; nra;jtHfshf ,Ug;gh; .
16


xOf;f tpjpfs; vy;y ,yq;ifaHfSf;Fk; gpuNahfpf;ff;$bajhf ,Ue;jhYk; njspthf
,J nfhOk;gpy; thOk; jkpoHfisNa Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. jw;NghJ

15
Ministry of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order (Sri Lanka) website, “Government takes policy decision to
abrogate failed CFA”: http://www.defence.lk/new.asp?fname=20080102_12 as on 12 November 2008.

16
Gazette Extraordinary No. 1450/18 of 21 June 2006, Amended Regulation 23 found in the Public Security
Ordinance (Chapter 40).

98
98
nfhOk;gpy; cs;s nghyprhuhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; ngUk;ghyhd ifJfs; ,f;
Fwpg;gpl;l xOq;Ftpjpapd; gpuNahfpg;G %ykhfNt ngUk;ghyhf eilngWfpwJ.
nghyprhH mNefkhf Ntz;lg;gLk; jfty;fis tpl mjpfkhd jfty;fisf;
Nfl;fpwhHfs;.
17
tUkhdk;> tq;fpf;fzf;Ffs; kw;Wk; Vida jPtpu jfty;fisf;
$UzHTj; jd;ik tha;e;jtw;iwAk; Nfl;fpwhHfs;. jPtpuj; jd;ik tha;e;j
jfty;fis Ntz;b epw;fpwhHfs;. ,e;j Ntz;LNfhs;fs; mNefkhf xOq;Ftpjp 23
,d; vy;iyf;F ntspahNyNa cs;sd. MdhYk; nghJkf;fs; 23 Mk;
xOq;Ftpjpf;fhf cUthf;fg;gl;l epakg; gbtj;jpd; cz;ikia mwpahjtHfshf
cs;sdh;. gpur; rpid vd;dntd;why; nghyprhH ,e;j epakg; gbtq;fis
gad;gLj;Jtjpy;iy. mtHfs; jq;fs; tpUg;gj;ijg; gpujpgypf;Fk; Nkyjpf
jfty;fisf; Nfl;Fk; gbtq;fisNa gad;gLj;JfpwhHfs;.
18


xOq;Ftpjp 23 Nghd;w Vw;ghLfs; jkpoHfSf;F Nkhjy; #oiy Vw;gLj;JfpwJ vd
xU jfty; Nrfhpg;ghsH njhptpj;jhH;. cjhuzj;jpw;F 2007 Mk; Mz;L [{d; khjk; 07
Mk; jpfjp mjpfhiyapy; nghyp]; kw;Wk; ,uhZt mjpfhhpfs; nfhOk; gpy; jq;Fk;
tpLjpfspy; tho;e;j 376 jkpoHfis ntspNaw;wpdhHfs;.
19
mg;NghJ mk; kf;fSf;F
cilikfisf; fl;bf;nfhz;L g]; tz;bapy; VWtjw;F miu kzpj;jpahyj;jpw;Fk;
Fiwe;j NeuNk toq;fg;gl;lJ. me;j Neuj;jpypUe;j nghyp];kh mjpgH jkpoHfs;
chpa fhuzkpd;wp nfhOk;gpy; jq;fpapUf;f KbahJ vd;W $wpajdhy;jhd;> ,t;thW
eilngw;wJ vd mtHfs; epidj;jhh;fs; .
20


23 Mk; xOq;Ftpjpapd; tp];jhpf;fg;gl;l gpuNahfKk; rpyNtisfspy; J];gpuNahfk;
nra;ag;gl;likAk;> nfhOk;gpYk; ,yq;ifapd; Vida ghfq;fspYk; cs;s
nghyprhhpdhy; mbf;fb gpuNahfpf;fg;gl;l fLikahd cghaq;fspd;
ntspg;gLj;JifahFk;. mjidj; njhlHe;J ,yq;ifapNy nghyprhhplj;jpy; nghJ
ek;gpf;if kpfTk; Fiwthf ,Ue;jJ. 1970 Mk; Mz;by; ,yq;ifapy; nghyprhhpd;
vy;yh ,lKk; tpahgpj;j FiwghLfis xU RahjPd Mizf;FO ,dk; fz;lJ.


17
Interview with former police official, Colombo, 19 June 2008.

18
Ibid

19
(2007), “Police evicts Tamils from Colombo”, BBC News, 7 June 2007: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/
south_asia/6729555.stm as on 10 December 2008.


20
Edrisinha, R., Olander, K., and Orjuella, C. (December 2007), Review of Development Cooperation between
SriLanka Police and Swedish National Police Board, p. 13.

99
99
“nghyprhH nghJkf;fspd; ed;kjpg;ig ngwtpy;iy. nghJkf;fspd; nghyprhH gw;wpa
Nehf;F mJ ,Uf;f Ntz;bakhjphp ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vy;yh gpuirfsplj;jpYk; nghyprhH
Fwpj;J ga czHNt fhzg;gLfpwJ. gy rpj;jputij rk;gtq;fs; Fwpj;j tplaq;fs;
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ntspr;rj;jpw;F te;Js;sd. MfNt nghJkf;fspd; xj;Jiog;ig
ngWtjw;F Kd;gjhf nghyprhH ePz;lfhykhf jkJ elj;ijia jpUj;jp
nghJkf;fspd; ek;gpf;ifia ntw;wp nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. nghJkf;fs; Fwpj;j mtHfsJ
Nehf;Fk; kNdhghtKk; khw Ntz;Lk;. nghyp]; epiyaq;fspd; Fzhk;rq;fshd
mlhtbj;jdk; kw;Wk; ,uhZt kd vz;zq;fs; vd;gd khpahij> ftdk;>
mf;fiwahd ftdk; vd;gdthf khw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ve;jr; rl;lKk; khw;wj;ijf;
nfhz;L tu KbahJ. nghyprhH nghJrdj;jpw;F mOj;jpAiuj;j gpw;ghLk;> nghyprhH
,t;thW nghJkf;fsplk; thf;Fthjg;gl;l rk;gtq;fspd; vz;zpf;if> kPJ nghJkf;fs;
ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl;l gpw;ghL $l nghyprhhpd; td;Kiwfs; Fwpj;j mwpf;iffs;
,d;Dk; gj;jphpifapy; njhlHe;J te;j tz;zk; ,Uf;fpd;wd. nghyprhhpd; ,e;j
vz;zj;jpw;Fk; kNdhghtj;jpw;Fk; fhuzk; vd;dntd;why;> nghyprhUf;F vjpuhd
nghJkf;fspd; Kiwg;ghLfis tprhuiz nra;Ak; mikg;gpd; nghwpKiw jhd;. mJ
jw;NghJ jpUg;jpfukw;wjhf ,Ug;gJld; kf;fspd; ek;gpf;ifia ntd;wjhfTk;
,Uf;ftpy;iy.
21


Nkw;gb trdq;fs; 1970 ,y; vOjg;gl;lnghOJk; ,d;Wk; mit cz;ikahf cs;sd.
njd;dhrpahtpy; cs;s Vida ehLfisg; Nghd;W ,yq;ifapYk; nghyp];
cj;jpNahfj;jpd; vspa epiy Fwpj;J gy mwpf;iffSk;> fw;iffSk;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sd. Vida ehLfisg; Nghd;W ,t; mwpf;iffshditfs;
murpay;thjpfshy; ,yq;ifapy; ftdg;gLj;jg;glhJ tplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,yq;ifapy; nghyp]; kWrPuikg;gpd; tuyhW

1865 Mz;L 16 Mk; ,yf;f nghyp]; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpid> nghyp]; rl;lthf;fj;ij
MSk;; fl;lisr; rl;lkhf ,yq;if nfhz;Ls;sJ. gphpT 56 ,d;iwf;Fk; nghUj;jkhd
flikfis mjhtJ vy;yhf; Fw;wr; nray;fisAk; jLj;jy;> nghJkf;fs;
njhe;juitj; jLj;jy;> rkhjhdj;ij epiyehl;ly;> Fog;gfukhd kw;Wk; re;Njfkhd
egHfisf; ifJ nra;jy;> Fw;wkpioj;jtHfis ePjpf;F Kd; nfhz;LtUjy;>
nghJkf;fs; mikjpia ghjpf;Fk; Gydha;Tfis Nrfhpj;jYk;> njhlHghly; nra;jYk;>
mjpfhuk; cs;s ve;j mjpfhhpahYk; mwpTWj;jg;gLk;> rl;lhPjpahd tpwhe;JifisAk;

21
21 Basnayake Commission (1970), Final Report of the Police Commission of 1970, Chapter 4, para 54:
http://www.ruleoflawsrilanka.org/resources/PoliceCommissionReport1970.doc/view as on 10 December 2008.

100
100
xOq;FfisAk; epiwNtw;WtJld; cldbahf mike;njhOFjy; vdr;
nrhy;yg; gl;Ls;sJ.
22


,yq;ifapd; nghyp]; kWrPuikg; gpd; Mokhd KjyhtJ ghpNrhjpg;ghf ,Ug;gJ 1946
k; Mz;L Nrhnwl;];; Mizf;FO mwpf;ifahFk;. ,J ePjpgjp gpuhd;rp];
N[.Nrhnwl;]; MizahsUf;F gpd;G mt;thW ngahplg;gl;Ls;sJ. me;j mwpf;ifapd;
jiyg;G ,yq;if nghyp];Nrit vd;gjhFk;. mJ gaDWjpahd jhf;ftpisTs;s
nghyp]; Nritia Kd; Ndw;Wtjw;fhd MNyhridfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,e;j
mwpf;ifahdJ gilapy; NrHj;jy;> Nritapd; epiy> gjtp caHTf;Fk;
,lkhw;wj;jpw;Fkhf cj;jpNahfj;jHfis njhpT nra;jy;> nghyprhUf;F vjpuhf
nghJkf;fspdhy; nra;ag;gLk; Kiwg;ghLfis tprhhpg;gjw;fhd nra;Kiw> nghyprhhpd;
mjpfhuKk; flikfSk;> Mizf;FOtpd; rpghHRfSf;F tpisT nfhLf;Fk; Kfkhf>
nghyp]; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpy; khw;wq;fisf; nfhz;LtUjy; vd;gtw;iw cs;slf;fp
,Uf;fpwJ.
23


mLj;j Mizf;FO mwpf;ifahdJ mur ntspaPl;L gzpafj;jpdhy; 1970 Mz;L
xf;NlhH khjk; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. ,jw;F jrehaf;f vdg; ngahplg;gl;lJ. ,e;j
Mizf;FOtpd; Mizahf ,Ue;jJ vd;dntdpy;> nghyprhhpd; njhopw;ghLfisAk;
tPr;nry;iyiaAk; ,ay;igAk; ghpNrhjpj;jy; vd;gjhFk;. rl;lj;ijAk;> xOq;ifAk;
epiyehl;Lk; KftHfspd; tpidj;jpwid caHe;j gl;rj;jpw;F ghJfhg;gjw;F vLf;f
Ntz;ba Vw;ghLfs;> nghyp]; Jiwia kPsikg;gjw;F vLf;fg;gl Ntz;ba Vw;ghLfs;>
nghyp]; gilapd; fl;likg;Gk;> cl;NrHf;ifAk;> Ml;NrHg;G nra;jy;> Ml;fSf;F
gapw;rpaspj;jy;> gjtpAaHTf;Fk; ,lkhw;wj;jpw;Fkhf mjpfhhpfisj; njhpT nra;jy;>
nghyp]; Nritapy; cs;s cWg;gpdHfSf;nfjpuhd nghJkf;fspd; Kiwg;ghLfis
tprhhpg;gjw;fhf iff;nfhs;sf;$ba nray;Kiw> vd;gtw;iw ,J cs;slf;fpapUe;jJ.
24
jrehaf;f Mizf; FOthdJ nghyprhH vjpHnfhs;Sk; tplaq;fis tphpthf
Muhar; nrd;W> 1865 Mk; Mz;L rl;lj;ij mjDila FiwghLfisj; jPHf;Fk;

22
Section 55, Police Ordinance No. 16, 1865 (Sri Lanka), states that the IGP may frame orders and regulations
that the police under his command are bound to follow so as to prevent neglect or abuse and ensure the efficient
discharge of duties. And while there are penalties if an officer does not follow the rules, the ordinance does not
provide for any external review of misconduct or provide internal procedures for disciplinary proceedings.
23
Asian Human Rights Commission website, “Sri Lanka: Police Reform Initiatives within a Dysfunctional
System”:http://www.ahrchk.net/pub/mainfile.php/sldysfunctional/254/ as on 1 December 2008.

24
Ibid.
25
Ibid.

101
101
Kfkhf> kPs; Ntiy nra;jJ. MdhYk; xl;Lnkhj;jj;jpy; ,e;j Kaw;rpapy; ,Ue;J
vijAk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy.
25


NkYk; mLj;j Mizf;FOtpd; mwpf;if 1995 ,y; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. mJ nghJthf
ePjpgjp b. [p. [ayj; nfhkp\d; mwpf;if vd mwpag;gl;lJ. ,e;j Mizf;FOtpd;
MizahdJ> nghyp];gilapd; cs;slf;fj;ijAk; fl;likg;G kPjhd mwpf;ifiaAk;
ghpNrhjpg;Gk; mlf;fpapUe;jJ. Ml;fis gapw;Wtpj;jy;> Ml;NrHg;G nra;Ak; Kiwfs;
vd;gdTk;> gjtp caHTf;Fk; ,lkhw;wj;jpw;Fk; mjpfhhpfisj; njhpT nra;jy;>
nghyp]; njhopw;ghLfspd; ,ay;Gk; tPr;nry;iyAk;> rl;lj;ijAk; xOq;ifAk;
ghpghypf;Fk; Nehf;Fld;> tpidj;jpwid cr;rkl;lj;jpy; itj;jpUg;gjw;fhd Vw;ghLfs;>
nghJkf;fsplk; ey;Ywtpid Cf;Ftpg;gjw;fhf ifahsf;$ba Vw;ghLfs;>
nghyp];Nritapy; xOf;ff; fl;Lg;ghl;ilAk; kw;Wk; epue;ju nghyp]; Mizf;FOtpd;
epHthfk; Ml;NrHg;G gjtpAaHT vd;gtw;iw epWTtijAk; ,J cs;slf; fpAs;sJ.
26

[ayj; Mizf;FO> jrehaf;f Mizf;FOtpd; rpghHRfisAk; ftdq;fisAk; kPs
ciuj;jJ. MdhYk; nghyp]; njhopw;ghl;by; rl;lhPjpaw;w murpay; jiyaPLfis
Fiwg;gjw;F ,e;j mwpf;iff;Fg; gpw;ghL vJTk; nra;a Kbahky; Ngha;tpl;lJ.
27


4. kWrPuikg;gpy; xU Kaw;rp 17 tJ jpUj;jk;

,yq;ifapd; tuyhW G+uhfTk; nghyp]; Nritia kWrPuikg;gjw;fhd miuntWg;G
Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs; sg;gl;l NghjpYk; ,e;j ghuJ}ukhd epiyahdJ 2001 ,y; xU
rHr;irf;Fhpa xU epiyia mile;jJ. mur mYty;fis murpay; kag;gLj;Jk;>
kw;w JiwfspYk; epWtdq;fspYk; murhq;f mYty;fis murpay; kag;gLj;Jk;
epiyf;F ePz;lfhy $l;LKaw;rpapy; jPHT fhz;gjw;fhd NeHikahd Nehf;fk;
,yq;ifapy; ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j mjpfhpj;j murpay; JUtg;gLj;jypd; tpisthf
mNefkhf xt;nthU nghJr;Nrit epakdKk;> fl;rprhH tplakhfNt ,Ue;jJ. ,jd;
tpisthf ghuhSkd;wj;jpNy ,e;j tplaj;ij jPHg;gjw;fhf xU murpayikg;gpd;
ge;jpapNy xU jpUj;jj;ijf; nfhz;L tUtjw;fhf Vfkdjhd MjuT ,Ue;jJ.
,yq;if murpayikg;gpd; 17 tJ jpUj;jkhdJ xU 10 cWg;gpdHfis nfhz;l
murpayikg;G rigia cUthf;fpaJ. ,e;j murpayikg;G rigapy; gpujk ke;jphp>
vjpHf;fl;rpj; jiytH rghehafH [dhjpgjpapdhy; epakpf;fg;gl;l xUtH gpujk
ke;jphpahYk; vjpHf;fl;rpj;jiytuhYk; Kd;nkhopag;gl;L [dhjpgjpahy; epakpf;fg;gl;l
ItH> kw;Wk; rpWghd;ikf; fl;rpfshy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;l xUtH> vd;NghH; mq;fk;

26
Article 41(A), 17th Amendment, Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Sri Lanka, 1978
27
See Article 41(B), 17th Amendment, Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Sri Lanka, 1978.

102
102
tfpg;gh;. ,e;j mikg;Ng Kf;fpa epWtdq;fSf;fhd epakdq;fis Nkw;nfhs;tjdhy;>
,jd; cs;slf;fk; vy;yhf; fl;rpfsplk; ,Ue;J tUtJ Kf;fpakhdjhf ,Ug;gJld;
,J fl;rpf;F rhHghdjhf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ.

4.1 Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO

murpay; jiyaPl;lhy; kpfTk; ghjpf;fg;glf;$ba epWtdq;fSs; xd;whf nghyp];
,Ug;gjhy;> 17 tJ murpayikg;G jpUj; jkhdJ Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO vd;W
xd;iw cUthf;Ffpd;wJ. ,jpNy murpayikg;G rigapdhy; rpghHR nra;ag;gl;L
[dhjpgjpahy; njhpT nra;ag;gl;l 7 nghJkf;fs; mlq;fpapUg;gH. Njrpa nghyp];
Mizf;FOtpd; Mizahf ,Ug;gJ vd;dntdpy;> ,J murpay; jiyaPLfspypUe;J
nghyprhiu gphpj; Jf; fhg;gJk; nghyprhUf;F vjpuhd nghJkf;fs; Kiwg;ghLfis
tprhuiz nra;tJkhFk;. ,f; Fwpg;gpl;l gzp vt;thW Fwpg;ghf Njrpa nghyp];
Mizf;FOthy; elj;jg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gij cWg;Giu 155 vg; (1.1) ,y;
fhzg;gLfpwJ.

xt;nthU MSk; me;j Mspy; rl;lhPjpahd flikapy; Neubahf my;yJ kiwKfkhf> jhdhf my;yJ
NtW MSld; ,ize;J> ve;j tifapyhapDk; Mizf;FOtpd; my;yJ xU FOtpd;; jPHkhdj;jpy;
nry;thf;F nra;jy; my;yJ nry;thf;F nra;a Kidjy; my;yJ Mizf;FOtpd; xU cWg;gpdiu
my;yJ FOtpd; xU cWg;gpdiu nry;thf;F nra;jy;> vd;gJ xU Fw;wk; nra;jjhf Fw;wTzHTld;
,Ue;jhy; my;yJ Fw;wk; ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy; 100>000 f;F Nkw;glhj jz;lj;Jf;Nfh my;yJ 07
tUlq;fSf;F Nkw;glhj rpiwj;jz;lidf;Nfh my;yJ Nkw;gb ,uz;Lf;FNkh MshFth;.

Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FOtpd; ,e; epakdq;fs; 03 tUlq;fSf;F epiyg;gNjhL
mjd; cWg;gpdHfs; NtW VJk; murpay; gjtpepiyfisg; ngwj; jPHkhdpf;Fk;NghJ
,jpypUe;J tpyfpf;nfhs;Sk; gb Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg; gLfpd;whHfs;.
28
Njrpa nghyp];
Mizf;FOtpd; mjpfhuq;fs; cWg;Giu 155 G apy; gpd;tUkhW jug;gLfpd;wJ.

 epakdq;fs;> gjtpAaHTfs;> ,lkhw;wq;fs; xOf;ff; fl;Lg;ghLfs; kw;Wk;
tpyf;Fjy; nghyp];kh ghpNrhjfH jtpHe;j Vida nghyp]; mjpfhhpfiSld;
rk;ge;jg;gl;lJ. (,e;j mjpfhukhdJ nghyp];kh mjpgUld; fye;jhNyhrpj;J
gpuNahfpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;)

28
Article 155(A), 17th Amendment, Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Sri Lanka, 1978.


103
103
 nghyp]; NritapYs;s my;yJ nghyp]; cj;jpNahfj;NjhH xUtUf;F vjpuhf
xU ghjpf;fg;gl;l Mshy; njhLf;fg; gLk; ve;j nghJkf;fs; Kiwg;ghl;ilAk;
tprhupg;gjw;fhd eilKiwfis epWTjy;.
 nghyp]; Nritf;F Ms; NrHg;gjw;fhd jpl;lq;fis cUthf;Fjy;>
gapw;rpaspj;jy;> kw;Wk; nghyp]; Nritapd; RahjPdj;ijAk; tpidj;jpwidAk;
Kd;Ndw;Wjy;.

2002 ,Ny 60 mjpfhhpfspd; murpay; hPjpahf jpl; lkplg;gl;l ,lkhw;wf; fl;lisfis>
29
Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO kWj;jnghOJk;> Mizf;FOthdJ Muk;gj;jpy; ,e;j
,lkhw;w mjpfhuq;fis> mjpfhug; gfpHTs;s nghyp];kh mjpghplk;
30
; jpUg;gpajhy;
tpkHrdq;fis vjpHnfhz;lJ. Vnddpy; nghyp];kh mjpgUk; ,t; mjpfhuq;fspNy
gFjp mjpfhuk; nfhz;ltuhf ,Uf;fpwhH. Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FOthdJ> murpay;
mOj;jq;fspy; ,Ue;J nghyprhiu Ntwhf;Ftjhf cUthf;fg;gl;ljdhYk;> ,jd;
mjpfhug; gfpHTfs; kPz;Lk; nghyp]; epiwNtw;W mjpfhuj;jhy; epakpf;fg;gl;l nghyp];
jiyikaplNk kPz;Lk; nry;tjhy; ,t; mjpfug; gfpHT mjd; Nehf;fj;ijNa
tpuf;jpf;Fs;shf;Ffpd;wJ vd;W tpthjpf;fg;gl;lJ. nghyp]; epWtdj;ij Njrpa nghyp];
Mizf;FO epHtfpg;gJ rpukk; vd;gij Vw;Wf;nfhz;L nghyp];kh mjpgUld;
mjpfhuq;fis gfpHe;Jnfhz;L eltbf;if vLg;gijf; fhl;bYk; Njrpa nghyp];
Mizf;FO mjd; mjpfhuq;fis Mizf;FOtpd; xU FOtplk; gfpHe;J nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> mf; FOtpy; Mizf;FOtpy; cs;stHfs; ,Uf;fj; Njitapy;iy
vd;Wk;> mf;FOit epakpf;fNtz;Lk; vd;Wk; fUj;J njhptpj;NjhH tpthjpj;jdh;.
31


2004 ,y; Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO jdJ tpkHrdq;fSf;F gjpyspj;J mjpfhug;
gfpHTfis khw;wpf; nfhz;lJ. epakdk;> gjtpAaHT> ,lkhw;wk;> xOf;fhw;W
,lkhw;wk; Vida ,lkhw;wq;fs; vd;gtw;iw cg ghpNrhjfH fPohd epiyf;F
Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F 03 cWg;gpdHfisf; nfhz; l FOTf;F toq;fpaJ. Mizf;FOtpd;
,f; FOthdJ xU Xa;Tngw;w caHePjpkd;w ePjpgjpahy; jiyik jhq;fg;gl;lJ.

29
A national daily reported that the transfer list of these officers “was prepared at the request of certain Ministers
and government party MPs [Members of Parliament]”. It added that this was “the first occasion when the
Commission has issued orders countermanding the orders of the Police Department.” Daily Mirror, December 24,
2002, as cited by Weliamuna, J.C. (2004) “The National Police Commission”, Sri Lanka: State of Human Rights
2004, p. 178, Colombo: Law and Society Trust.

30
National Police Commission (2003), Circular No. 1703/2003, 26 March as cited by Weliamuna, J.C. (2004) “The
National Police Commission”, Sri Lanka: State of Human Rights 2004, p. 173, Colombo: Law and Society Trust.
31
Article 155(J)(1), 17th Amendment, Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Sri Lanka, 1978: The Commission
may, subject to such conditions and procedures as may be prescribed by the Commission, delegate to the Inspector-
General of Police or in consultation with the Inspector-General of Police to any Police Officer, its powers of
appointment,promotion, transfer, disciplinary control and dismissal of any category of police officer
104
104
MdhYk; Njit mbg;gilapy; tpNrl epiyfspYs;s rpNu];l mjpfhhpfs;
jq;fSila ,lkhw;wq;fis ,d;Dk; G+Hj;jp nra;af;$bajhf ,Ug;gJld;>
gjtpepiyfSld; njhlHGilajhf mtHfSf;fhd xOf;fhw;W eltbf;iffSk;
rpe;jpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mj;Jld;> gjtpepiyfSf;F fPNoAs;s mjpfhhpfs; rk;ge;jkhd
xOf;f fl;Lg;ghl;L mjpfhuq;fshdit kPz;Lk; rpNu];l mjpfhhpfsplk;
nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. nghyp]; ghpNrhjfH gjtp epiyf;F Nkw;gl;l vy;yh mjpfhhpfspd;
epakdk;> gjtpAaHT> xOf;ff;fl;Lg;ghL> Nghd;witfspd; vy;yh mjpfhuq;fisAk;
Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO ,d;Dk; itj;jpUf;fpwJ. 2004 ,y; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l
khw;wq;fSld; nghyp]; njhopw;ghl;by; murpay; jiyaPl;il ghpNrhjpg;gjpy; XusTf;F
ntw;wpaPl;bajhfj; Njhd;wpaJ. ,Ue;jhYk; mjd; KjyhtJ cWg;gpdHfspd;
gjtpf;fhyk; Kbtile;jJk;> Gjpa cWg;gpdHfs; murpay;> [dhjpgjp epakdq;fshf
,Ue;J nghyp]; Mizf;FOtpd; epiyik> Nflhf khwpg;NghdJ.


4.2 murpayikg;Gr; rigAk;> Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO gytPdkhjYk;;
2005 khHr;rpy; murpayikg;Gr; rigapd; Kjy; cWg;gpdHfspd; fhyk; Kbtile;jJ.
gpujk ke;jphpAk;> vjpHf;fl;rpj; jiytUk; rigapd; Gjpa cWg;gpdHfspd; ngaHfis
rdhjpgjpf;Ff; nfhLj;jhYk;> rpWghd;ikf; fl;rpfs; rhg;gpy; nfhLf;fg;gLk; cWg;gpdH
ngaH kl;bd; xU ,zf;fj;Jf;F tu mit jtwptpl;ld. rpWghd;ikf; fl;rpfs;
njhlHe;J xU cWg;gpdH ngaiuf; nfhLf; fj; jtwpajhy;> rdhjpgjp uh[gf;r xU
jiyg;gl;rkhf Mizf;FOf;fSf;F> nghyp]; Mizf; FO cl;gl> Vw;fdNt
murpayikg;G rigf;F epakpf;fg;gl;l cWg;gpdHfSf;Fg; gjpyhf xU jiyg;gl;rkhf
epakdq;fis Nkw;nfhz;lhh;. epakpf;fg;gl;ltHfs; rdhjpgjpapd; MjuthsHfSk;>
jdpg;gl;l ez;gHfSk; vd;w gykhd Fw;wr;rhl;by; Mizf;FO mjd;
ek;gfj;jd;ikia ,oe;J tpl;lJ.
32


vjph;fl;rpapYk; rptpy; r%fj;jpdJk; 17 tJ jpUj;jj;jpw;fhd mHg;gzpg;ig
ntspf;fhl;Lk;gb vOe;j mOj;jj;ijj; njhlHe;J> rdhjpgjp uh[gf;r ghuhSkd;wj;
njhpTf; FOnthd;iw> jpUj;jj;ij kPsha;T nra;J> mij vt;thW Mf;fyhnkd
kjpg;gLk;gb ifaspj;jhh;. MdhYk; FO 17tJ jpUj;jj;ijg; ghprPypf;Fk;NghJ>

32
Pinto-Jayawardena, K. (2007), “Regretting what might have been: a critique of the National Police Commission
of Sri Lanka”, paper presented at the Roundtable on Police Reform: A exchange of experiences from South Asia
held on 23 and 24 March 2007:
http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/programs/aj/police/exchange/CHRI%20PAPER%20%20MARCH%202007.do
c as on 12 November 2008.

105
105
rdhjpgjp murpayikg;Gj; jpUj;jk; gpuNahfpf;fg;glkhl;lhJ vdf; Fwpg;gpl;lhH.
33
,e;jj;
jHf;fk; gyUf;F E}jdkhf ,Ue;jJld;> nfhiyapd; tiutpyf;fzj;ij kPs;ghprPyid
nra;a jPHkhdpj;Js;sjhy; nfhiy tof;F Fw;wr;rhl;Lfis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;lhk;
vd;gjw;F rkdhdJ vdf; Fwpg;gpl;ldh;.
34
17 tJ jpUj;jj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;litfis
gpd;gw;WtjpypUe;J murhq;fj;ij epWj;jf;$baJ vJTk; ,y;iy. murpay;
jiyaPLfis Fiwg;gjpy; KO tpUg;gkpd;ikNa jtpu> xU kPs;ghHit
eilngw;Wf;nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

Nj.ngh.M. Kjy; cWg;gpdHfs; fhyk; 2005 etk; gH 24 ,y; Kbe;j gpw;ghL> Gjpa
epakdq;fs; nra;a Kd;dNuNa ,lkhw;wk;> gjtpAaHTg; gzpfs; rdhjpgjpapd;
rNfhjuH> ghJfhg;Gr; nrayH Nfhjgha uh[gf;rtplk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,f;
fhyg;gFjpapy; Fw;w vjpHg;Gg; gzpfis ntw;wpfukhf Nkw;nfhs;tjpy; <Lgl;l rpNu];l
mjpfhhpfs; gyUk; ngUkstpy; ,lkhw;wg;gl;ldh;. jk; fLikahd rl;l mKyhf;fy;
Clhf> Kf;fpa Gs;spfSf;F jhf;fk; Vw;gLj;jpa rpNu];l mjpfhhpfs;
,lkhw;wg;gLtjhf rpy mwpf;iffs; njhptpf;fpd;wd.
35


rpwpJ fhyj;jpw;Fg; gpd;G 2006 Vg;uy; 10 ,y; rdhjpgjp uh[gf;r Mizf;FOtpw;F>
jdJ xUjiyg;gl;lr epakdq;fis Nkw;nfhz;lhh; . Nj.ngh.M. jtprhsuhf netpy;
gpajpfk njhpT nra;ag;gl;lhh;. ,tH rdhjpgjpAld; neUf;fkhdtuhf ,Ue;jjhy; ,J
xU rHr;irf;Fhpa epakdkhf ,Ue;jJ.
36
gpjpafktpy; gjpT jtprhsH vd;w tifapy;
Fog;gfukhdJ. gjtpf; fhyj;jpd;NghJ (fPNo ghHf;fTk; ) ,Wjpapy; nghJ Kiwg;ghl;Lr;
nrad;Kiw tHj;jkhdpapy; gpuRuk; nra;ag;gl;lNghjpYk;> 17tJ jpUj;jj;jpy;
nrhy;yg; gl;lthwhf Nghjpastpy; jd; tfpgq;if Nj.ngh.M. nra;atpy;iy vd
gyuhy; czug;gl;lJ. cjhuzj;jpw;F> Nj.ngh.M. jw;NghJs;;sdthd mjpfkhd

33
Fernando, B. (2009), Recovering the authority of public institutions, Asian Human Rights Commission
(HongKong), pp. 10-11: http://www.ahrchk.net/pub/pdf/AHRC-PUB-002-2009-RecoveringAuthority.pdf.

34
Interview with Mr Lasantha Wickramatunga, Editor of Sunday Leader, Colombo, 17 June 2008
35
Asia Human Rights Commission (2006), “Sri Lanka: Bypassing the 17th Amendment is a move towards the
returnto absolute power”, Asia Human Rights Commission (statement), 14 February 2006, AS-024-2006:
http://www.ahrchk.net/statements/mainfile.php/2006statements/432/ as on 12 November 2008

36
When President Rajapakse was Labour Minister, he made Mr Piyadigama his Ministry Secretary and when he
wasappointed as the Fisheries Minister, again Mr. Piyadigama functioned as Ministry Secretary. See Gnanadass,
W.(2006), “A post for President’s pal cuts root of 17th Amendment”, The Nation, 11 June 2006:
http://www.nation.lk/2006/06/11/newsfe4.htm as on 12 December 2008.

106
106
xOf;ff;fl;Lg;ghl;L mjpfhuj;ij nghyp];gil kPJ gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lnkd
MNyhrid njhptpf;fg;gl;lJ.
37


Nj.ngh.M Kjy; ,uz;L gjtpf; fhyq;fspYk;> epjptskpd;ik> Nghjpajw;w tprhuiz
mjpfhuk;> nghyp]; jpizf;fsj;jplkpUe;J xj;Jiog;gpd;ik Nghd;w fhuzq;fshy;
mjd; njhopw;ghl;Lf;F ,ilQ;ry; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ.
38
,e;j Kiwik hPjpahd
jilfis tpl> jw;Nghija Nj.ngh.M tpd; fhzhky;Nghjy;> flj;jy; vd;gtw;wpy;
nghyprhhpd; rk;ge;jk; Fwpj;j Fw;wr;rhl;Lfisj; jPHf;f tpUk;gpa nj.ngh.M Nfs;tpf;F
cl;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. kdpj chpikfs; Nthr; ,d; tprhuiz xd;wpw;F gjpw;nraw;ghlhf>
nj.ngh.M jhd; flj;jy;> fhzhky; Nghjy; njhlHghf gy Kiwg;ghLfisg;
ngw;Wf;nfhz;ljhfj; njhptpj;jJ. MdhYk; ,itfspy; mNefkhdit. Jiz
,uhZtf;FO> fUzh FO> ,uhZtk;> kw;Wk; ,dk;; fhzKbahj Ml;fshy;
nra;ag;gl;lJ vd Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lJ.
39
,f; Fw;wq;fspy; nghyprpd; rk;ge;jk; cs;sJ
vd Fwpj;Jiuj;j Fw;wr;rhl;L ,y;iy vd Nj.ngh.M njhptpj;jJ. ,k;
Kiwg;ghLfSf;F nghyprhH nraw;ghL fhl;lhJ ,Ug;gjhf mwpf;iffisg;
ngWk;NghJ> mt; tplaq;fis Mizf;FO rpNu];l mjpfhhpfSf;F tprhuizfisj;
Jhpjg;gLj; Jtjw;fhf nfhz;L nry;fpwJ.
40
MdhYk; Mizf;FO kdpj chpikfs;
Nthr; f;F ,itfs; njhlHghd juTfisNah Nkyjpf tpguq;fisNah toq;f
Kbatpy;iy. chpikfisg; ghJfhg; gjpy; Nj.ngh.M jpwd; Fwpj;J ntWkNd
nghJkf;fs; khj;jpuk; re;Njfg;gltpy;iy.

rhjhuz nghyp]; tPuHfSk; ,jd; nraw;ghL Fwpj;J tprdk; mile;jdh;. ,yq;if
uhd;];gud;rp ,d;uerdhy; elhj;jg;gl;l Ma;tpd;gb 66.8% nghyp]; fhd;];ugps;fSk;>
rhH[d;fSk; Nj.ngh.M tplk; mjpUg;jp mile;Js;sdh;. fdp];l mjpfhhpfNs
Nkyhz;ikahsHfspd; Coy; fl;lisfSf;F cl;gLtjhy; ,J gpur;rpidahdJ
vd;gJld; Nj.ngh.M Nghd;w epWtdq;fspd; cjtpAk; mtHfSf;Fj; Njitg;gLfpwJ.
41


37
Pinto-Jayawardena, K. (2007), “An Unfulfilled Promise: Critical Scrutiny of the National Police Commission of
SriLanka”, LST Review, Volume 18, Issue 238, August 2007, p. 18

38
(2007) “Sri Lanka: Spectre of abductions by the security forces officially admitted,” Asian Center for Human
Rights Weekly Review, 157/2007, 7 March 2007, http://www.achrweb.org/Review/2007/157-07.htm as on 20
November 2008

39
Human Rights Watch (2008), Recurring Nightmare: State Responsibility for “Disappearances” and Abductions
in Sri Lanka, v.20, no.2(c), at Annex II: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/03/05/recurring-nightmare-0 as on 12
November 2008.

40
Ibid
41
Weliamuna, J. C. (2006), In Pursuit of ‘Absolute Integrity’: Identifying Causes for Police Corruption,
Transparency International – Sri Lanka, p. 76
107
107

4.3 nghyp]; Kiwg;ghl;L tprhuizg; gphpT PCID
m.m.gpd; 17 tJ jpUj;jkhdJ Nj.ngh.M tpw;F xU nghJkf;fs; Kiwg;ghl;L
nghwpKiwia mwpKfk; nra;jJ. nghyp]; Ml;fSf;Fk;> nghyp]; Nritf;Fk; vjpuhd
Kiwg;ghLfis Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;> tprhuiz nra;jy;> gpio jpUj;jy; vd;gtw;Wf;fhd
nrad;Kiwia Nj.ngh.M mikg;G cWg;Giu 155 G (2) Ntz;b epw;fpwJ. MdhYk;
Muk;gj;jpy; jhf;ftpisTs;s xU nghJkf;fs; Kiwg;ghl;L nghwpKiw ,Uf;ftpy;iy.
Vnddpy; Nj.ngh.M. Kiwg;ghLfis nghyp];kh mjpgUf;F Mw;Wg;gLj;j> mtH
fbjj;ij tpNrl tprhuizg; gphptpw;F mDg;GthH.
42


,Ue;jhYk; Kjw; gjtpf;fhyj;jpy; Kiwg;ghLfSld; <Lgl vd khtl;l
xUq;fpizg;ghsHfis (mNdefkhf Xa;T ntw;w nghyprhH) Nj.ngh.M. epakpj;jJ.
43

me;j tUlk; NPC 1078 Kiwg;ghLfisg; gjpT nra;jJ. ,jd; tpisthf> gpioahd
nghyp;]; mjpfhhpfSf;F vjpuhf xOf;fhw;W eltbf;if vLf;fg;gl;lJ. 13 NgH
Vkhw;wpajhf Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lhH. xUtH gjtpapy; ,Ue;J ,il epWj;jg;gl;lhH.
44


2007 ,d; Muk;gj;jpy; PCID f;fhd xOq;Ffis ,Wjpahf Nj.ngh.M tHj;jkhdpapy;
gpuRuk; nra;jJ. MdhYk; xOq;Ffs; vjpHghHj;jJ Nghy; Kd;Ndw;wfukhdjhf
,Uf;ftpy;iy. xOq;F 17 nrhy;tjpd;gb tprhuizapy; nghWg;Gs;stHfs;
vdf;fhzg;gl;l mjpfhhpfs; fLikahd rl;lepiyf;F Mw;Wg;gLj;jg;gLtijtpl
njhlHe;Jk; nghyp];kh mjpghpd; nghWg;gpy; ,Ug;ghHfs; vd;fpwJ.
45


Njitahd rl;lq;fis cUthf;fpa gpd;G> Nj.ngh.M 2007 rdthp – [{d;
fhyg;gFjpapy; nghyp]; mjpfhhpfSf;F vjpuhf nghJkf;fsplkpUe;J 1216
Kiwg;ghLfisg; ngw;wJ. MdhYk; 4 tof;FfspNyNa re;Njf egHfs; Kiw hPjpahf

42
Ibid., p. 36.

43
Pinto-Jayawardena, K. (2007), “An Unfulfilled Promise: Critical Scrutiny of the National Police Commission of
Sri Lanka”, LST Review, Volume 18, Issue 238, August 2007, p. 17.
44
National Police Commission (2006), Annual Report 2006, p. 37.

45
The precise wording of Rule 17: “At the conclusion of an investigation, if it recommended that disciplinary action
or prosecution against a police officer shall be instituted, the IG or DIGG, as the case may be, shall be notified
along with evidence recorded at the investigations and draft charges, to initiate forthwith such disciplinary action
according to departmental procedure or prosecution against such police officer”. See Gazette Extraordinary 1480/8
– 17 January 2007.

108
108
Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lhHfs;. 7 re;jHg;gq;fspy; nghyprhUf;F vr; rhpf;if tpLf;fg;gl;lJ.
46

epWtdq;fs; ,Ue;jnghOjpYk;> Ntz;ba rl;lq;fs; epWtg;gl;bUe;jhYk;> Nj.ngh.M
f;F Kd;G nfhz;Ltug;gl;l tof;FfspNyNa> rpwpjhd murpay; tpUg;G fLikahfg;
gpd;njhlHtjhfj; njhpfpwJ.

nghyp]; kh mjpgiu ePf;Ftjw;fhd eilKiwfs;
17 tJ jpUj;jj;jhy; fhzg;gl;l m.m.r jw;NghJ xU RahjPdkhd mikg;ghf
,y;yhikahy; cWg;Giu 41 C apy; cs;sthW rdhjpgjpapd; epakd nghyp];kh
mjpgH> murpay; rhHG ,y;yhJ tbfl;lg;gl;ltH vd;W ,Uf;f KbahJ. ,J xU
rpukkhd nrad;Kiwahf ,Ue;jhYk;> mjpfhhpfis ePf;Fjy; (nrad;Kiw) vd;w
%d;whk; gphptpd;> 2002 Mk; Mz;L 5 Mk; ,yf;fr; rl;lk; gpd;tUk; epiyfspy;
nghyp];kh mjpgiu ePf;fyhk; vd;fpwJ>

(m) jFjptha;e;j ePjpj;Jiw ePjpkd;wj;jhy; jFjptha;e;jtH vd mwptpf;fg;gl;lhy;.
(M) cly;> cs FiwghL> Neha; fhuzkhf gjtpiaj; njhlu Kbahjtuha;
,Ue;jhy;
(,) Coy;> fz;zpakpd;ik> Fw;wk; vd;gtw;Wld; rk;ge;jg;gl;ltuhf
ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy;>
(<) gpioahd elj;ij> Coy; nra;jjhff; Fw;wk; fhzg;gl;lhy;
(c) gjtp epiyapy; mjpfhuj; J\;gpuNahfk; nra; jtuhf Fw;wk; fhzg;gl;lhy;
(C) flikia cjhrPdk; nra;jtuhf Fw;wk; fhzg;gl;lhy;
(v) gjtpepiyapy; gf;fr;rhHGilatH vd Fw;wk; fhzg;gl;lhy;
(V) ,yq;ifapd; gpuir vd;w epiy KbTw;why;

m>M>,>< vd;gtw;wpd; fPo; rdhjpgjpahy; ePf;fg;glyhk;.
47
Mdhy; <> c> C> v
epiyikfspy; xU tprhuizf;FO (cr;r ePjpkd;w ePjpgjp> Nj.ngh.M> jtprhsH>
gpugy rl;lj;juzp / rghehafhpd; ,zf;fj;Jldhd nghJ epHthf];jH vd;NghH
mlq;fpa) ,t;tplaj;ij Muha;e;J mjd; fhz;Gfis ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F mwpf;if

46
Human Rights Watch (2008), Recurring Nightmare: State Responsibility for “Disappearances” and Abductions
in Sri Lanka, v.20, no.2(c), p. 101: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/03/05/recurring-nightmare-0 as on 12
November2008.

47
Section 4(1),Removal of Officers (Procedure) Act, No. 5 (2002).

109
109
rkHg;gpf;Fk;.
48
mtiu ePf;Ftjw;F rhHghf ngUk;ghd;ikAila gh.c. fs;
thf;fspj;jhy;> mtH gjtpepiyapy; ,Ue;J ePf;fg;gLthH.
49


5. kWrPuikg;gpd; kw;WnkhU Kaw;rp RtPlDk; ,yq;ifAk;
NkNy nrhy;yg;gl;l kWrP uikg;Gr; nrad;Kiwf;F Nkyjpfkhf> ,yq;ifg; nghyprhhpd;
njhopw;ghl;ilAk; nrad;KiwiaAk; Kd;Ndw;w cjTk; Kaw;rpia RtPld;
murhq;fKk; nghWg;ngLj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. ,yq;ifapy; rptpypad;fs; kPjhd nghyp];
gzpia caHj;jy; vd jiyg;gplg;gl;l ,e;jf; $l;L Kaw;rpahdJ> murhq;fj;jpw;Fk;
vy;hphp< apw;Fk; Aj;jepWj;jk; ,Ue;j 2005 gFjpapy; Muk;gkhfpaJ. ,jd;
,yf;Fshdit: (1) Fw;w tprhuizia Kd;Ndw;wy; Fw;w ,lg; ghpNrhjpg;G cl;gl (2)
,yq;ifg; nghyprpy; ,d xw;Wik> kdpj chpikfs; vd;gtw;iw Kd;Ndw;WtJk;>
khpahijiag; gyg;gLj;JtJkhFk;. (3) ,yq;ifg; nghyprhhpd; Kfhikj;Jt
,aYikia mjpfhpj;jy;
50


,yq;if murpw;Fk; vy;hphp< apw;Fk; ,ilapyhd Nkhjy; mjpfhpj;jikapdhy; me;
epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ijj; njhluKbatpy;iy. mbg;gilapy; ,yq;ifg; nghypir
kWrPuikg; gJk;> ftdj;ij Njrpa ghJfhg; gpy; ,Ue;J> nghJkf;fs; nghyp;]; gzp
Nehf;fpj; jpUg;GtJNk Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. Aj;jk; Muk;gkhfpajhy; mjd;ghyhd
tpUg;Gf; Fiwe;jJ> murhq;f khw;wKk; ,yq;ifg; nghyprpd; caHKfhikj;JtKk;
kWrPuikg; gpy; tpUg;gj;ijf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.
51
,yq;ifg; nghyprpy;> rptpy; Aj;j
epiyapy;> rkhjhdk;> kdpj chpik rhHghd fzprkhd tpUg;gf; Fiwit> RtPb];
murhq;fk; fz;Lnfhz;lJ. kWrP uikg;G Ntz;bNahhplk; kdpj chpik kw;Wk; nghyp];
kWrPuikg;G Fwpj;j tiuaiwahd tpUg;Ng ,Ue;jJ.
52
,jd; tpisthf ed;F
Muha;e;j gpw;ghL> rz;ilAk; FWq;fhyj;jpy; mjpfhpf;Fk; epiy Vw;gl;lNghJ> RtPld;
fUj;jpl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpyfp> ,yq;iff;Fg; gjpyhf Mgphpf;fhtpy; jdJ mgptpUj;jp>
Ml;rp fUj;jpl;lq;fspy; ftdk; nrYj;j jPHkhdpj;jJ.
53



48
See Sections 5 and 6, Removal of Officers (Procedure) Act, No. 5 (2002).

49
Section 18 of the Removal of Officers (Procedure) Act, No. 5 (2002).

50
Edrisinha, R., Olander, K., and Orjuella, C. (December 2007), Review of Development Cooperation between
SriLanka Police and Swedish National Police Board, p. 3.

51
Ibid., p. 4
52
Ibid., p. 30.

53
Interview with Mr Goran Schill, First Secretary of the Swedish Embassy, Colombo, 18 June 2008.
110
110
,yq;ifapy; rpwe;j nghyp]; gzp mKy;gLj;jYf;fhd Kaw;rp> jilg;gl;lJ. tlf;fpy;
ftdk; nrYj;jpaikahdJ> 17 Mk; jpUj;j nghyp]; kWrPuikg; G Nghd;W RtPb];
Kidg;Gk; tplg;gl fhuzkhfpaJ. njhlHe;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; ,uhZtg; gil
eltbf;if> Fwpg;ghf nghyp]; Nrit cl;gl vy;yhj; JiwfSf;Fk; Ml;rpj;
jPHkhdj;ij nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. rpy rkaq;fspy; ,uhZt cghak; Kuz; ghlhf
te;J> J];gpuNahf Fw;wr;rhl;LfSf;F tprhuiz vd tUk;NghJ> mitf;F ,lk;
nfhLf;fg;glkhl;lhJ.
54
mt;thNw rhjhuz nghyp]; NtiyiaAk; ghHf;f mjpfkhf
,uhZtj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jk;NghJ> nghyprhUf;Fk; ,uhZtj;jpdUf;Fk; ,ilapyhd
tpj;jpahrk; kq;fpg;Nghf> ed;F Mtzg;gLj;jg;gl;l> ghJfhg;G KftHfSf;F
ngaHNghd> flj;jy;fSf;Fk;> fhzhky; NghiffSf;Fk; ahH nghWg;G vd
epr;rag;gLj;jg;gLtJ ek;gKbahky; fbdkhfpaJ.
55
,yq;if murpw;Fk; vy;hphp< f;Fk;
rz;il eilngWifapy;> nghyp]; kWrPuikg;ig vt;tifapYk; Kd;nfhz;L
nry;ifapy; kpfr; rpwpa ek;gpf;ifNa njd;gLfpwJ.

6. rHtNjr mOj;jk; cgNahfg;gLfpd;wjh?
mjd; tpisthf> ,yq;if murhq;fk; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l> fLikahd kdpj chpik
kPwy;fis neUf;fkhf mtjhdpj;J> 16 fLikahd rk;gtq;fis>
ghJfhg;Gg;gilapdNuhL njhlHGgl;litfs; cl;gl tprhhpf;f> xU Mizf;FOit
epWtpaJ. nray;KiwfSf;F nghpa rl;l mq;fPfhuk; mspg;gjw;fhf Kf;fpa Ml;fspd;
RahjPd rHtNjr FO xd;W Mizf;FOTf;F cjtpnra;Ak; gzpf;fhf
mkHj;jg;gl;lJ. ,J Fwpj;j tprhuizfs; rHtNjr epakq;fspd; mbg;gilapy;
ntspg;gilj;jd;ikAld; elj;jg;gLk; Nehf;FlNdNa nra;ag;gl;lJ.
56

Mizf;FOtpd; tprhuiz ntspg;gilajhdhfTk; jhf;fKilajhfTk; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lnkd;W rHtNjr mOj;jq;fs; ,Ue;jNghjpYk;> rl;lG+Htj;jd;ikahdJ
Muk;gj;jpypUe;Nj Nfl;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. 2007 [{d; 15 ,y; Kf;fpa Ml;fspd;
RahjPdf;FOthdJ> Mizf;FOtpy; rl;lkh mjpgNu rhd;Wfis
Kd;ndLf;fg;Nghtjpy; jhk; fhpridahf ,Ug;gij Rl;bf;fhl;b xU $w;iw
ntspapl;bUe;jJ. ,J xU fLikahd tpUg;g Kuz;ghLfspd; njhlHr;rpnadTk;> ,e;j

54
Fernando, B. (2009), Recovering the authority of public institutions, Asian Human Rights Commission (Hong
Kong), p. 7-8: http://www.ahrchk.net/pub/pdf/AHRC-PUB-002-2009-RecoveringAuthority.pdf.

55
International Commission of Jurists (2008), Briefing Paper, Sri Lanka’s Emergency Laws and International
Standards, June 2008: p. 12: http://www.icj.org//IMG/SriLanka-BriefingPaper-Mar09-FINAL.pdf as on 11 Octobe
2008.
56
International Independent Group of Eminent Person website: http://www.iigep.org/mandate.htm as on 12
Decembe 2008.

111
111
Mizf;FOit itj;jpUg;gJ vd;gJ mjd; nrad;Kiwfs;> rHtNjr
juf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fk; epakj;ijAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jk; tifapy; eilngWk; vd;gij
cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd> rhpahd Vw;ghLfis Nghjpastpy; nfhz;bUg;gjhfj;
njhpatpy;iy vdTk; mJ njhptpj;jJ.
57
(rHtNjr epakq;fs; RahjPdk; eLepiyik
jifik tha;e;j epakq;fs;) ,yq;if murhq;fk; ,e;j mZFKiwia
Kd;Ndw;whjNghJ Kf;fpa Ml;fspd; RahjPdf;FO kpfTk; tpuf;jpaile;J 2008 khHr; 6
Mk; jpfjp me;j tprhuizapy; jdJ rk;ge;jj;ij epWj;jpAs;sjhf mwptpj;jJ.
58
,J
jpUNfhzkiyr;
59
rk;gtj;jpd; nghyp]; tprhuizia jifikaw;wJk; rhHgw;wJk;
vdj; njhptpj;jJld;> nghWg;Gs; s mur mjpfhhpfshy; KjyhtJ tprhuiz Vd;
fz;L gpbf;fg;gl KbahjjhfTk;> ftdj;jpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;glhjJk;
cjtKbahjJkha; ,Ue;jJ vd tpdtpaJ.
60


rHtNjr r%fkhdJ kdpj chpikfs; elj;ijfs; ,yq;ifAld; tpahghu
njhlHGfis Vw;gLj;jp nry;thf;if ngUf;f Kaw;rpj;jJ. cjhuzj;jpw;F
Kd;Dhpikfspd; nghJg;gLj;jg;gl;l Kiwikapy; [pgpv]; vd;W miof;fg;gl;l
Kiwikapd; fPNo ,yq;iff;Fk; mjDld; NtW rpy njhpTnra;ag;gl;l ehLfSf;Fk;
tpNrl tHj;jf rYiffis INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;NjhL toq;fpaJ. mJ 27
rkthaq;fSld; njhlHGfis Vw;gLj;jp #oy; njhopy; kw;Wk; kdpj chpik
epakq;fis mitfSf;F ,zq;fpf;nfhs;sNtz;Lnkdf; Nfl;Lf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,e;j
tHj;jfj;Jld; njhlHGila 7>000 cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fs; cs;slf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. ,jd;
mHj;jk; 300>000 Neub Ntiytha;g;Gfs; Milf; ifj;njhopypy; fpilg;gJld;> 700>000
Neubaw;w Ntiytha;g;GfisAk; ngwf;$bajhf ,Ue;jJ.
61
,e;j tHj;jf xg;ge;jj;jpd;
ngWkjpahdJ ,yq;ifapy; 1 kpy;ypad; mnkhpf;f nlhyHfSf;F Nkyhdjhf
,Ue;jJ. ,Ue;jhYk; ,yq;ifapy; td;Kiwfs; NkNyhq;fpajhy; mz;ikapy;
INuhg;gpa xd;wpakhdJ 2008 xf;Nuhghpy; [pgpv] apid toq;Ftij> NkYk; 3

57
(2007), “International Independent Group of Eminent Persons (IIGEP) Second Public Statement”, June 15,2007:
http://www.ahrchk.net/statements/mainfile.php/2007statements/1065/ as on 12 November 2008.

58
International Independent Group of Eminent Person website, “Press Releases: 6 March 2008”:
http://www.iigep.org/press-releases.htm as on 12 November 2008
59
Trincomalee refers to a highly controversial incident where 5 youth were shot in the head at close range by
security forces, who claimed that the teenagers belonged to the LTTE. Evidence subsequently revealed suggests that
the five teens were all advanced level qualified civilian students from the same school who were simply at the beach
for a night out.

60
International Independent Group of Eminent Person website, “Press Releases: 6 March 2008”:
http://www.iigep.org/press-releases.htm as on 12 November 2008.

61
Interview with Mr Lasantha Wickramatunga, Editor of Sunday Leader, Colombo, 17 June 2008.

112
112
Mz;LfSf;F GJg;gpg;gjhfTk; mjpy; xU tUlj;ij xj;jpitj;J ,yq;if INuhg;gpa
xd;wpaj;jpd; kdpjchpikfs; Njitg;ghl; Lld; ,zq;fpg; Nghfpd;wjhf vd;gij
kPs;ghHit elj;Jtjw;F xUtUl fhyj;jpy; mijg;gw;wpj; jPHkhdpg;gjhfTk;
njhptpj;jJ.
62


kdpj chpik Mh;tyHfSf;F xU nghpa ntw;wpahf ,yq;if rpj;jputijf;nfjpuhd
kw;Wk; Vida nfh^uk; kdpjNeakw;w jd;ik my;yJ Fiwthd elj;ij>
jz;lidaspj;jy; 1994 rkthak; kw;Wk; mjidj; njhlHe;J 1994 Mk; Mz;L 22 Mk;
,yf;f rl;lk; vdgtw;iw cj;jpNahfG+Htkhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;lJ tpoq;fpaJ. rpj;jputij
tof;Ffspy; Fw;wk; rhl;L nrad;Kiw jhf;ftpisTs;sjhf> murhq;fkhdJ
rl;lkhmjpghpd; jpizf;fsj;jpDs;Ns rpj;jputij Fw;wkpioj;Njhiu jz;lid
toq;FjYf;fhd myF xd;iw cUthf;fpaJ. MdhYk; me;j myfhdJ
fljhrpastpy; ,Uf;fpwNj jtpu mjw;nfd;W epue;ju gzpahl;fNs fpilahJ. myfpd;
ePjpj;Jiwf;Fs; tUk; rpj;jputij tof;Ffisnay;yhk;> Vida Fw;wtpay;
tof;Ffis nra;Ak; 5 rl;lj;juzpfshNyNa ifahsg;gLfpd;wJ.
63
kdpj chpik
J];gpuNahfq;fis tprhhpj;Jf; Fw;wk; rhl;Lk;> rpwe; j Kaw;rpia Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fg;
gjpyhf ,yq;if murhq;fk; gy tUlq;fshf ntWkNd rHtNjr tpkHrdq;fSf;Fg;
gjpyspf;Fk; Nehf;Fldhd NtWgl;l nghwpKiwfis ntWkNd mikj;Jitj;jJ
vd;gJ njspthdJ. kdpj chpik kPwy;fSf;F jPHTfhz;gJ Nghd;w vz;zj;ij
Vw;gLj;j> ,e;j nghwpKiw epHthfq;fSf;F murhq;fkhdJ jhd; eltbf;if
vLj;Jtpl;ljhf chpik Nfhur; nra;jNjnahopa ajhHj;jj;jpy; ,w;iwtiuf;Fk;
mitfnsy;yhk; fhzhky; Nghjy; vd;w neUf;fbia epWj;Jtjw;F jtwptpl;ld.
64

,e;j kdpj chpik tplaj;jpd; nraw;ghbd;ikapd; tpisthf> kdpj chpikfs;
rigahdJ ,yqifia mr; rigapy; ,uz;lhtJ fhyg;gFjpapy; Nritahw;w
tpUk;gpaij kWj;jpUf;fpwJ.
65
rHtNjr r%fj;jpd; cWjpahd epiyg;ghL cWjpahfj;

62
(2008), “EU grants GSP+ to Sri Lanka for another three years,” 11 December 2008: http://
www.colombopage.com/archive_08/December11121813RA.html as on 18 December 2008.

63
(2005), “Persisting problems and outstanding issues, An alternative report to the Committee Against Torture”
presented by the Law & Society Trust, Sri Lanka and Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong, October
7,2005. From 1994-2004, there were no convictions under the CAT Act and since then, there have been only 3
convictions till date.

64
Human Rights Watch (March 2008), Recurring Nightmare: State Responsibility for “Disappearances” and
Abductions in Sri Lanka, v.20, no.2(c), pp. 102-103: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/03/05/recurring-
nightmare-0 as on 12 November 2008.

65
Tighe, P. (2008), “Sri Lanka Loses Bid for UN Human Rights Council Seat”, 22 May 2008:
http://www.bloomberg.com/ apps/news?pid=20601091&sid=ajQ846Zx3do8&refer=india as on November12, 2008.
113
113
njhlHe;jpUf;fpwjh? mJ mt;thW nra;Akhdhy; mJ ,yq;ifapd; elj;ijapy; khw;wp
jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jf;$Lkh? vd;gij nghWj;jpUe;Jjhd; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk;.
66


7. rpghHRfs;
,yq;if murhq;fk;
1. jw;Nghija Kuz;ghl;Lf;F murpay; jPHit ehl Ntz;Lk;. Aj;j fhyj;jpy;
kWrPuikg;ig mKy;gLj;JtJ vd;gJ kpfTk; rpukkhdJ. MfNt
nghyp];gilia [dehafkhf;Ftjpy; murhq;fk; VjhtJ ntw;wpiar; rhjpf;f
Ntz;bapUe;jhy;> ,uhZtj; jhf;Fjy; msitf; Fiwj;Jtpl;L mk;
khfhzq;fSf;fhd mjpfhug; gfpHit rpy tbtq;fSld; mikj;Jtpl;L xU
ePz;lfhy murpay; jPHitg; gpd;njhlHtNj kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ.
2. 17 tJ jpUj;jj;ij khpahij nra;jy; - mur epWtdq;fs; murpay;
kakhf;fg;gLtij jtpHg;gjw;fhd fl;rpr; rhHgw;w 2001 ,y; vLf;fg;gl;l
Kaw;rpahdJ rhpahd jpirapyhd xU gbahFk;. uh[gf;r epHthfkhdJ 17
tJ jpUj;jj;jpd;gbnahOf kWj;jikahdJ mur JiwfisAk;> nghyp];
JiwiaAk; [dehafg;gLj;Jk; Kaw;rpia kpfTk; fLikahfg; ghjpj;Js;sJ.
,d;Dk; nfhz;L nry;yg;glhky; mg;gbNa ,Uf;Fk; 17 tJ murpayikg;Gj;
jpUj;jj; ij vt;thW ifahs;tJ vd;gjw;F ghuhSkd;wj; njhpTf;FOtpd;
rpghHRfs; ,d;Dk; KbT fhzg; glhky; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;w cz;ikAld;>
,yq;if murhq;fkhdJ cldbahf 17 tJ jpUj;jjpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l
eilKiwfspd;gb murpayikg;G rigia epakpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
3. ,yq;ifiag; gPbj;jpUf;Fk;> Fw;wj;jpw;fhd jz;lidapypUe;J jg;Gk;
fyhrhuj;jpw;F ntspg;gilahf jPHT fhz Ntz;Lk;. xU ntspg;gilahdJk;
nghWg;Gr; nrhy;yf;$baJkhd nghyp];gilia cWjpg;gLj;Jk; nghUl;L>
,yq;if murhq;fkhdJ =yq;fh nghyp]; rPUilia mzpgtHfspd;> kdpj
chpik J];gpuNahfq;fSf;F Fw;wk; rhl;Ltjw;fhd xU mHg;gzpg;ig
ntspg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzj;jpw;F rl;lkh mjpgH Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l
njhlHr;rpahd kdpj chpik kPwy;fis tprhhpg;gjw;F tprhuizf; FOtplj;jpy;
rhd;Wfis Kd;ndLf;f $lhJ. gpio nra;NthhUf;F vjpuhf gf;fr;rhHgw;w
tprhuizfspy; <LgLtjw;F murpay; tpUg;gpy;yhjpUg;gJ> ,yq;ifapd;
nghyp]; kWrPuikg;G vd;gJ eilngw KbahjJk; ajhHj;jG+Htkw;wjhFk;.

66
For greater detail on Sri Lanka’s human rights record, please refer to CHRI’s publication, “Easier Said Than
Done:A report on commitments and performances of the Commonwealth members of the UN Human Rights Council
2007-2008 Edition” (to be published in 2009), R.I. Ilango and L. Mathieson (Ed.), Commonwealth Human Rights
Initiative.

114
114
4. Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FOit gyKs;sjhf;Fjy; - 17 tJ jpUj;jk;
gpd;gw;wg;ngWtjhf ,Ue;jhy;> ,yq;if murhq;fkhdJ mLj;j Njrpa nghyp];
Mizf;FO 2009 ,y; Kbtila> mLj;j fhyg;gFjpf;fhd jtprhsiu
epakpg;gjw;fhd mHg;zj;ijf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mJ RahjPdkhdjhfTk;>
[dhjpgjpAld; njhlHgw;wtHfshfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,JNt Njrpa nghyp];
Mizf;FOtpd; ek;gfj;jd;ikia Kd;Ndw;Wk; xd;whf ,Uf;Fk;.
5. ,yq;ifg; nghyp]; - ePjpaw;wJk; rl;lj;jpw;nfjpuhdJkhd ,lkhw;wq;fisAk;
gjtpAaHTfisAk; tiuaWj;jy; - ,lkhw;wq;fisAk; gjtpAaHTfisAk;
nra;tjw;fhd tpUg;g topahf gjpYgfhuj;ij mbg;gilahf itj;Jr; nra;tJ
,yq;if nghyp]; mjpfhhpfspd; kNdhgyj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ.
,e;j rl;lhPjpaw;w gof;fkhdJ xU xOq;fhf ,Uf;fhky; tpjptpyf;fhf
,Uf;Fkhf ,Ue;jhy; ,J =yq;fh nghyprhhpd; njhopy;thz;ikia kpfTk;;
mjpfhpf;Fk;.

6. rhjhuzkhf nghyp]; nraw;ghLfspy; MizapLgtNu nghWg;ghf ,Ug;gjhf
xU vz;zk; epiyepWj;jg;gl;bUf;fpwJ> MfNt xU fdp];l mjpfhhp xU
jdpegH kdpj chpik kPwYf;F nghWg; ghff; fhzg;gLk;nghOJ mtuJ
NkyjpfhhpAk; Fw;wKilNahuha; epWtg;glf;$batuha; cs;shh;. mjhtJ
(m) xU caujpfhhpf;F fPo;g;gl;l cwTKiw
(M) mt; caujpfhhpf;F nra;Ak; my;yJ mtUf;F fhuzq;fs; cz;L
,f; Fw;wr; nra;ifahdJ nra;ag;gl;ljh> elj;jg;gl;ljh vd mtUf;F
mwpe;jpUf;f tha;g;Gz;L.
(,) mt; caujpfhhp me;jf; Fw;wr; nray; elg;gijj; jLg;gjw;fhd
epahakhd Vw;ghLfis vLf;fj; jtwpapUf;f Ntz;Lk; my;yJ ,J
rk;ge;jkhf Fw;wkpioj;Njhiuj; jz;bf;fj; jtwpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
fPo;gl;ltHfs; caujpfhhpfSf;F jPq;fpiof;Fk;gb mJ cs;sf
nghWg;Gf;$Wk; nrad;Kiwapd; kl;lj;jpy; cz;ikapNyNa mjpfhpf;Fk;.

7. cs;sf xOf;fj;ij xU myfpw;Fs; kj;jpakakhf;fy; - NtWgl;l cs;sf
xOf;fk;> tpNrl tprhuizg; gphpT> fhzhkw; Nghjy; tprhuizg;gphpT> rl;lkh
mjpghpd; rpj;jputij rk;ge;jg;gl;l gphpT vd;gdtw;Wld; gy;NtW tifg;gl;l
gphpTfis xd;whf itj;jpUg;gJ. mjhtJ ,e;j ,e;jg; gphpTfspNy cs;s
xOf;fj;jpd; NtWgl;l mk;rq;fis itj;jpUg;gJ nghWg;Gf;$Wk; jd;ikia
cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd jdpj;jdpahd mZFiwia Vw;gLj;Jk;. RahjPd
cWg;gpdHfspd; vz;zpf;ifAld; xU myfpYs;s cs;sf xOf;fj;ij
115
115
kj;jpag;gLj;JtjhdJ mikg;gpd; ek;gfj;jd;ikia mjpfhpg;gJld; jw;Nghs;s
KiwikiaAk; Vw;Gilajhf;Fk;.

8. rpwpyq;fh nghyprhhpd; kdpj chpikfs; gphpitg; gyg;gLj;Jjy; - kdpj
chpikg; gphpthdJ ,yq;ifg; nghyprhhpd; rl;lkh mjpghpd; Neub
Nkw;ghHitapd; fPo; ,Uf;fr; nra;tJld;> nghyp]; Ml;fSf;F kdpj
chpikfisg; ghJfhj;jypd; Njit Fwpj;J fy;tp Cl;LtJld;> mjw;F
mjpfkhd tsq;fis MjuitAk; epWtd mikg;ig toq;FtJld;> rpwe;j
nghyp]; Nritf;F> chpikfis kjpg;gjw;F Ghpe;JzHit Vw;gLj;JtJk;> mt;
myfhy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jg; Ghpe;JzHit NkYk; Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;fhf
,g; gphpthy; toq;fg;gLk; fy;tpahdJ> kdpj chpik Mh;tyHfspd; gzpf;F
mOj;jk; Cl;LtJld;> mtHfspd; gq;fhsHfis cw;rhf%l;LtjhfTk;
mtHfis vjphpfs; vd;W ghuhJ jhf;fkhd nghyp]; gzpf;F
gq;fhsHfshf;FtJk; mtrpakhdjhFk;.

9. ,yq;ifg; nghyprhiu xd;wpizf;Fk; Kaw;rpfis Kd;Ndw;Wjy; - ,yq;ifg;
nghyprhhpy; mjpfk; jkpoH gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;af;$bajhf mtHfisAk;
Ml;NrHg;gpy; cs;slf;Fk; topfisg; gad;gLj;Jjy;. mj;Jld; nghyp];
Nritf;F jkpo; kw;Wk; rpq;fstHfSf;F ,lk; toq;FtJld;> Fwpg;ghf
jkpo;nkhop Ngrg;gLk; khtl;lq;fSf;Fk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspj;jy;. ,J rpq;fs
kw;Wk; jkpo; r%fq;fspilNa xU ghyk; mikg;gjw;F cjtpahf ,Uf;Fk;.

10. rpj;jputij vd;gJ xU rl;lhPjpahd tprhuiz El;gk; vd;gij cz;ikahf
kWf;Fk; topfhl;bf; Fwpg;Gfis ciuj;jy;. rhl;rpfsplkpUe;Jk; re;Njf
egHfsplkpUe;Jk; jfty;fis vLf;Fk; jhf;ftpisTs;s xU Kiwjhd;
rpj;jputij vd;w xU ek;gpf;if =yq;fh nghyprhhpd; gf;fj;jpy; cs;sJ.
cWjpahf ,yq;if G+uhTk; nghyp]; epiyaq;fspy; ,t;thW fhl;lg;gl;L
mbf;fbf;fhd rpj;jputijfs;; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. rl;lhPjpahd jil khj;jpuk;
rpj;jputijiag; ghtpg;gij xopj;Jtpl KbahJ. ,q;Nf ntspg;gilahd
Ghpe;JzHTk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba jd;ikAk; nghyprhH kl;by; Vw;gl Ntz;Lk;.
mjhtJ rpj;jputijahdJ gyd; juhJ. Vnddpy; rpj;jputij %yk; ngwg;gLk;
jfty;fs; cz;ikahf ,Uf;Fnkd;wpy;iy.

11. tprhuiz El;gq;fspd; gapw;rpfis Kd;Ndw;Wjy; - tpQ;Qhd hPjpahd kw;Wk;
kw;Wk; Fw;w ,lj; J ghpNrhjpg;G nrad;Kiwfs; vd;gtw;wpy; rpwe;j ghPl;rakhf
,Ug;gJ ,yq;ifg; nghyprhiu njhopy;thz; ikapy; cjtp nra;Ak;.
116
116

Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO

12. nghJkf;fs; Kiwg;ghLfs; tprhhpf;Fk; gphpitg; gyg;gLj;Jjy; - nghJkf;fs;
Kiwg;ghl;Lg; tprhuizg; gphpit fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; jw;Nghija rl;lq;fs;
Vw;Gilajhditay;y.

,jd; 17 tJ rl;lkhdJ fPo;epiy mjpfhhpfSila tpjpahdJ gpuNahfpf;fg;glf;$ba
jpizf;fs nrad;Kiwfspd;gb nghyp];kh mjpghpdhNyNa jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpwJ vdr;
nrhy;fpwJ. jw;NghJ rpwg;Gwr; nraw;glhj ,e;j KiwikapNy rpwpJ khw;wk;
Njitahf cs;sJ. ,g; nghJkf;fs; Kiwg;ghl;L tprhuizg; gphptpd; topfis
Muha;tijf; fhl;bYk; khw;wk; fhz;gjw;fhd topfis cWg;Giu 17 tJ jpUj;jj;jpd;
155 G nrhy;yg;gl;lthwhf mjid Kiwg;ghL nra;gtHfSf;F toq;fp tplyhk;.

13 Ms; gw;whf;Fiw ,ilntspfis epug;Gjy;
Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FO ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapyhd Kiwg;ghLfisg;
ngw;Wf;nfhz;lhYk; mjw;F NghjpasT gzpahl;fs; ,y;iy vd;gJ xU
cz;ikahFk;.
67
,e;j ntw;wplq;fis epug;Gtjw;fhf vLf;Fk; eltbf;if> nghyprhhpd;
gpioahd elj;ij kw;Wk; rpj;jputij rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fis tpiuthf
tprhhpg;gjw;fhd ty;yikia mjpfhpf;Fk;.

14 murpay; jiyaPLfis tiuaWg;gjw;F mjpfk; nra;a Ntz;bAs;sJ. jw;NghJ
Njrpa nghyp]; Mizf;FOtpdhy;> ,lkhw;wk;> gjtpAaHT vd;gd murpay;
kag;gl;bUg;gjd; gpur;rpidfis jPHf;f KbAnkd;Nwh jPHf;fj; jahuhf ,Uf;fpd;wNjh
vd;w ek;gpf;if nghyp]; mjpfhhpfsplk; ,y;iy.
68
mJ jdJ gzpia nrt;tNd
nra;tjw;F Nj.ngh.M thdJ nghyp]; mjpfhhpfspd; khpahijg; ngw;wpUg;gJ
Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.

rptpy; r%f epWtdq;fs;


67
National Police Commission (2006), Annual Report 2006, p. 32.


68
Weliamuna, J. C. (2006), In Pursuit of ‘Absolute Integrity’: Identifying Causes for Police Corruption,
Transparency International – Sri Lanka, pp. 81-82
117
117
15 rdr%f nghyp]; gzpia J}z;Ltjw;fhd Kaw;rpfis vLj;jy; - KiwrhH
nghyp]; jiyaPl;bw;fhd cs;SH kl;lj;jpy; Kuz;ghl;Lj; jPHTf;fhd trjp
Vw;gLj;JtJ> KiwrhH nghyp;]; jiyaPl;bd; Njitia ,y;yhJ nra;Ak; . jw;NghJ
nghyprhUf;Fk; nghJkf;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa ,Uf;Fk; ek;gpf;ifaPdj;ij rhp
nra;tjw;fhd xU nghpa Ntiyia> =yq;fh nghyp]; kw;Wk; rptpy; r%f
epWtdq;fspd; $l;L Kidg;Ng ,e;j tplaj;jpy; xU nghpa Ntiyiar;
nra;af;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,uj;jpdGhp khtl;lj;jpy; mikf;fg;gl;l gpuirfs; FOf;fs;
may; gpuNjrq;fisg; ghJfhg; ghf itj;jpUg;gjpy; rdr%fj;ij vt;thW cs;slf;f
KbAk; vd;gjw;fhd xU ntw;wpfukhd milahskhf cs;sJ.
69


16. nghyp]; kWrPuikg;gpd; Njit kPjhd gpurhuKk; fy;tpA+l;lYk; - kpfTk;
fLikahd Clff; fl;Lg;ghLfs; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy; kdpj chpik tplaq;fSf;fhd
xU rpwpa ,ilntspNa fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,yq;ifapNy [dehafg; nghyp];gil
,Uf;f Ntz;bajd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; gfpuq;fkhf vLj;Jr; nrhy;tJ kpfTk;
gpur;rpidf;Fhpa xd;whFk;. ,t;tz;zkhd ciuahly;fs; mw;w epiyapy;
cUg;gbahd vijAk; epWtpf;nfhs;s KbahJ.

17. tpNrl nghyp]; Mtz epiyaq;fis cUthf;Fjy; - =yq;fh nghyprhUf;F
vjpuhfr; nra;ag;gl;l Kiwg;ghLfs; kw;Wk; rpj;jputijr; rk;gtq;fs>; nghyprhhpd;
njhopy;thz;ik jhf;fj;ij ep&gpf;Fk; nraw;ghLfspd; rhpahd chpa gjpTfis
itj;jpUj;jy;> mjw;fhd Mtzg;gLj;jy; mikg;nghd;iw cUthf;Fjy;> nghyp];
kWrPuikg;G tplaq;fs; kPjhd fy;tp kw;Wk; mbg;gilf;F cjtp nra;Ak;.












69
Weliamuna, J. C. (2006), In Pursuit of ‘Absolute Integrity’: Identifying Causes for Police Corruption,
Transparency International – Sri Lanka, p. 67.


118
118
7o·x«··n s¬+o7o·yoq
±+·+na 7+nn +an·+ ¬a~+= +++na·n=.
+·a+++ +an·+ ¬a~+= ¬s+¡a·n=
+nz¬¡
7o·x «·n «c+¬+ ¬c++¬nnn +n¬a¬n «n= .m+=++·cms+·=a ¬= 1++v+an +¬+ ¬
1¡·++n+¬+ +++na·ns¬+nx sas¬a+++ +an+·=a o¬ »n«·n+ ¬c++ =+sn + a·nz¬+
·. ¬xx= o¬ +ìs·++·¡ ¬c++=+sn + a·nz¬+·. 7o·x «·ì o1¡s+a·n +¬av+¬a1n ¬ny+
nnnì «xx 7o·x « «csa+¬+¬n 1a·+a·n 7o·x « 7+nno·cax¬«= 1syom+=s= +n«oì+a
n +sx anya ¬¡+nx ±·¬a+¬ao o·=+·oo+n+·n ¬ìoo= ±=ì~a . ¬1+1«¡++x 7o·¬a·+·¡
. +¬+ anya +x·+·¡ ±·¬a+¬a.a ¬++m+x·+=a ¬a7x·n¬n ±¬s·+=s+n= ±+~a .=
=+a·=a
+ ì+¬«+·+. s¬+o7o·yoonn 7o·x « «csa+¬++a +·¡=a·+. »n«·n+v+a 7+x+=a s¬x a+~
a ¬++a·n+·=a «·cm+= 7sanx onv+¡s·++¬++ 7+·=¡++an=a. «·caza ¬c++= s1¡·
+a·n .++++¬a «nom++++an=a·n ±x+ana·+ +x ¬a7x·ny +·¡=a·+. ¬¬n+=acv =a a
n+ o·=+·oq+=a. 1++n o·=+·oq+=a 1+ì«+=v =+x¬xa·+ ¬o+= s¬as++oom+nn= «n7
+n1s ox¬+= .cc·++nn·+~aa « + 7o¬aasx·n a++c 7+·¬+nn¬+= 1axa +cc·+ onn·
+1s a·nsm+nn= 7o=+a. +ysì+a. +yo·n¬a jnv+a anya 7o·=«xs·n «·m+ax s·+a
«¬a a++¬a+7+·=c o··n a++c 7+·¬+nnì 1o·nn jx=sx oxn·+++ansì+an ±·¬a+a «
¬x«·ccooc·a1x 1o·nsm+nnn max. sn7+nx anya o + .no¬s saì«=7+x¬+nx. +cc++
n ¬c+7nno= ¬¬n+= a++na +a= ¬nn·c s·a¬s «¬x«y+=s+n+·n .m+=++·=o++
++an .m1+·a·+snn 7sya1n +c+·+nxaa oì ¬ox·¬+n·+ a·nsm+nn=
+ ì+¬++++n ¬x+v+a oxs·=a s¬+o7o·yoq .ss·y «¬x«·cco occ= .no¬++ +·=o+=
a ±nn+a·n. 7++¬an·n ±+·¡=v+a 7o·=«xs·n «·m+ax +·=oom+nnn .ss·n·nza. +x
«n·n·+++v+ax 0¬c++=aox0 «csa+¬++ax¬«= 0»n«·n+· +n·n0 +cmoo·m+n+= «+ì«
=7+xs+n+·n o¬ sc·ooan·n anan¬a.a +·=oom+nn= + ì+¬++v+¬a 1an7+·as= an
ya s¬+o7o·yo ¬o ±y+7+ns= +ao«+a·n ¬+a«+o1o·+= ¬¬+ .ss·y +ca+7+·as= .no
= +ao«+a·n ¬aoo¬c ¬n¬so 7ony+7+·as+n+·n ±a«·cmo 7o·x «··n=a. ¬¡+nx 1ax·
=¬an·aì+an=a ¬nnxn¬a +·¡=a·+ .+s+·=a
j«+ ¬n+¬+ 7o·x « + ì+¬++v+a +ao«+a·n 1axa sxs·n o¡n++nv+a=n+=o o¡oq¬¡7+n
¬+nx. s¬+o7o·yoq +ao«+a·n +x +noo·n «¬c+¬n+¬a.a .m+=++·=o++nn= j= + ì
+¬++v+¬a .ss·y «+a+=s= .no= +ao«+a·n «¬c+¬n ¬1x·+¬n+¬a.a. 7o·=«xs·n
«·m+ax 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a onzy+.cn 1an7+·aaooms+n= ¬s+na·n ¬aoo¬c s+an
v+¬a.a sav=+nn=
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»n«·n++¬+.a. ¬os¬++¬n.a +ca+7+·as+·nn 7o·x « + ì+¬++v+na. s¬+o7o·yoqa + ìa
·n+¡a·n= .no¬+o 7o·=«xs·n «·m+a 7saoo¬cn·+1s «ny+7+·an+x 1s=ma j«+ ¬¬
aoq +noo·n 7o·x « «¬c+¬n+¬a sx.y+=a 7o·=«xs·n+ 1+·co·m+¬a ¬os¬++7+n=7
+·as+n=+ +n¬n ¬ìoo=+=+7+·as1+·m. =+o¡1n·+a anya max+¬a oa+=++ca. 7o·x
« «csa+¬++ax a+~nn+a·n +¡«nav+¬a «¬x«·cmas¬+nx +cc+ + ì+¬++v+a anya «
ysn· +n·n «no·m+¬a s=++¬aoo+n+·n ±+s+¬a.a sav =+x 1s=ma








7o·=«xs·n «·m+ax 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a
7o·=«xs·n «·m+ax ¬++noo·n +x 7o·x « «¬c+¬n+¬a.a. ¬1+1s¬anx ¬+1a·+a·n +x
«¬c+¬n+¬a.a +·=x·a ¬nza. 7o·=s·+o o·ì+=a1o·= j«+ ¬¬aoon is oxxnn a++
n+= ±·n+·+s¬++1s=ans¬+nx ¬= +·=oocsx¬x 7o·x « + ì+¬++7ano= jo7o·+=
±+·+ na 7+nn+an·+ ¬a~+= +++na·n+·+~a. 1axa +·a+++ +an·+ ¬s+¡+ 1+¬sn·+~a
a·n.aa=
a+o o··n .==+¬+nx·n «·m+ax ¬¡+·v+v+a +a= a++n+=+ +cc++n ¬c+. o·+oon¬a
±=ì~ anya o·=+·oo·n ¬a¬x ±y+ 7+n.a s¬+nx·n 1«ì¬an·n. s¬n++nza. onzy+
.a7+·=c 7o·x « 1+¬s¬n sav=a +a= ++n¬x+ +c¬anx +sns¬+nnn s1+ca·+. »n
«·n+++n ±¬¡+xx·n +v=+¬cnn n ¬¡+nx «csa+¬++a anya o +nnns¬+nx a++an an+
±·¬a+¬a +ca+ 7+·as+n= ±+sn·n ¬a¬x «nom+=a 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+1a +cc«¬x++
+~aa o1¡7n·¬ 7o·x « +¬aoo·c·=a
+·ny+¬a ¬s+=o o·ì+=a1o·=. 7o·=«xs·n «·m+axaa 7o·x « o¬c¬n 1a·+a·n7+ny sì
=oo= jx=s·n+·=a ¬nza. j= ++++ ++++ «n·nann+·=a ox «·m+ax 7o·x « .no
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120
= a+~a «ao+¬++=·n. a·n·¬++=·n 7o·=+1+¬sn·+ sav=s1+·m. 1axa ox 1++v+ax ¬
sì+a a+~a jcìa++ ¬a«¬x+ax o¬ +ana·n. «nn 7+·s++ooc·+ o=¬n ¬nns¬+nnn
ì .ss·n·nza. o¬+x 7+a¡sa·n qn«¬c+a +sì«+s¬+nx. j«+ ¬¬aoqa ¬+n ¬v++=s
¬¡++na 7+·cì«= ±+·+ na7+nn +an·+ ¬a~+= ¬++·¡ sx+7+·=c. s¬+o7o·yoonn. oxs
«+a·n. o·¡oc+a·n. max«¬n«+ 7o·x « «csa+¬++a 7+·c¬s= +nnao+¬+7+·=c j¬n¬
ann 7saoo·c·+snn. +·x+=+7+·ss·+ =a1nnns·+ ¬a¬a++n++n ¬¬cn·aa·+1s.aa=


7o·x « o¬cnx +·=ooma o¡++¬n+a
+noocc 1a·+a·n «c+¬+nx¬«= «ysnanoom++oocc =nnsnx 7+nx+¬n+as¬¡ 7o·x «·
·n +sy+a a =ma a =ma +ca++·cco oms= 7o·=«xs·n ¬¬aoon ¬v++=s «·m+a ¬ìo
o=~=ì¬s 7saoom++n 7o·=«xs·n ~¡·1¡ o¡+cn++n ¬aoo¬c+ 1+·co·m+n+=o o··n
mys¬asoo+·+~aa= =+o¡1n·+a·n 7o·x « +¬aoo·cm sa+¬n+a »n«·n++=+=+ 1++a
s¬as+=. +cc++n ¬c+¬no oxs noom++. ¬oocca·n an+ ±·¬a a nx+n+= sa+¬a+
+nnn ++x 7o·=«xs·n «·m+axa ¬++·+=s¬a =nn+7+nx+a. jx=sx oxn·+x anya o·+
oqn++m7ann o +=n++ ¬++·++ ±=ì~+a 1aa om++n 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a 1s=a«n+nn
n +n7no7o·+=a¡·+s¬+nx·n ¬++·++ o·=+·oq ¬v+x·noq+a. 1a·+a·n oxs«+o 7o·x «
+¬aoo·cm sa+¬n+n+=a. jy++a·n ±a«¬xo o·=+·oq «no·m+n+=a jcm+7+nyaan
j= 7o·x «·ì-»n+¬+ ±n~+ax q+n o¡++¬n+¬a ±¬s·++.aa1+·m. 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a.
»n«·n+ s+anv+a anya an+ ±·¬a+a +ao«+a·n j¬=oq j¬aa+=+= mys¬as+=a
a=
«csa+¬++¬n+ +cc+¬++ +¡aa·n +¬nnx ±+·+ n¬7+ns=. =+o¡1n·+a·n 7o·x « +¬ao
o·m+an sa¬an·n oì ¬a+a·+~aa= j= anya0¬xx= ¬za+++oocc+n=a 1ax++a·n +
·xoo=++n+=. o¬ o+s«¬x ¬++··+= +no·+ ¬sì+¬a +nn¬xoom++·ax. +m+= ¬s++x
0 +=coa ¬+=7+n+x0 anya s+·¡¬=+= ¬s+na·n «oì+¬a s¡+
7+ns+n= «¡o¡·++¬a.a ¬s·n =mao ¬v+++sì+¬a.a o=n+ ¬++
+a·+o oa+=¬s++¬++x 1o·nn scnv+¬a ±aac+=s+·=a 7o·=«
xs·n++n ox o=++ax max+na 7o·x « +¬aoo·m +n+=o 7o¬«+¬
cn·+~aan ¬1n+a·n +«+ìoov+ax o¬ =nn+7+n¬xo o+~ 7+ns+n
= jx¬+a sav+ooc1s=ma ¬xx= «csa+¬+ .=~a .m++·ax o·¡
·++a·+ j¬oo+n= ¬xx= s+·¡¬=+¬a 0+n7nm++0 ±+~s+n= 7
+·moon~ «+·s= sav+ooc1s=ma
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121
¬1+na~+=+ +s¬xnaoo+·+~aa scna +cc«¬x+++~aa ¬¡+nx «csa+¬++¬a +c+=s+
·=a ¬1n+a·n +«+ìoov+ax +x¬+7onn ¬na sì++++n .moa+a·++ 7+nnocm. 7o·x «·ì ¬
sì+an ¬¡+nx .+·+¬a o¡v+cm+nnnì +x jcv+ax ¬c++¬a+ +sa++ ±+~+nnnì 1sy
+x jcv+ax ¬¡+·v+a 7+·cì«=a o+snx « aoo+n= ±+~+nnnì jn+=s. a+ anya 7a·a
· +n·n +yo·n¬a jnv+n+7++¡·+ +++na·n an+ ±·¬a+¬a+ +·xn+ a 1o·cm «++=s+z·c
·+ jca7oya 7o·x « o·¡oc++a 7o¬aa~+=+ +s¬xna+=a +·¡=n·=a 7o·=«xs·n «·m+a
x 7o=+n+7++¡·n =nn+7+nx+a ox+o7o¬+.aa1o·+xa. ¬sny+7++¡·+ «csa+¬++a 1an
7+·aaooms+x¬x 7o=+n+7++¡·n ¬¬+n·«na+ +¬+=+na. ¬=·++++ +«¬+sa+ +=1
=·ccv+na 7o·x «·ì scnv+¬ao o·¡oc+a·n+¬nnx ¬+n·ns+n= s¬+7+n+nnn
¬a++a. 0scnv+¬a s¬¡s·++ + ì+=a0 o¬ sa+¬nn·+o 7o·x «·ì « ++¬n+·¡·+ 7+·¬x+¬
a «+a+=s+·+ ¬+ì++.cma ++sx+a 7san·+nnn =nn+7+nx+a ¬xx= + aacc++x·n 1a·
+x+n+=+ + ì~+·ma s¬n++nn jxx·¬a +·¡=a·+o 7o·=a++a a+ +nx «noma ¬++·+=a
s¡++ «¬x+= ++v7+·m+=a 7o·x +·ì ¬aa·+ 1s1¡·ma o·=+·oq+ +s·x+n+= « ++7+nx+¬n
¬xa·++ + ì~+·ma 0s++n n+¬+0sc ¬c+¬a+ + ì+=++cms= +noo·n7+ny .=m+nnnì
¬c+¬a+ +cm++·sxx ¬s++¬+=a1s¬anx ¬sì+¬a+ +++¡s¬++=aa·+=s= o¡«+ ¬a
sx jca7oya o¬ scn7any 7o·=«xs·n ¬¬aoon ++x o¡·«+nv+axa¬«= +cma +¡aa
·n ¬n+¬++a 7+·soo= a+~a o +.cms+·=a
1a·+a·n 7o·x« +¬aoo·m+a +ao«+a·+o 7o·=a++an a+ ¬++a·n 7syoq anya «a·nna .
¬++··+a anya 1ax++··+a «¬n++s·y 1a·+a·n+¬nnx 7+nnoma 7o·x «+·¡ì+n+= sav=
a o·=+·oq+ +·¡=a·+ ¬sì+a a++n1xnoma +=c¬no onan¬a=n+++·=a j= o·+oon¬
a ±=ì~ anya o·=+·o ¬o.a +cc++n ¬c+++·n o·=+·o¬o.a sav++ +sya 1a·+a·n 7+
nx«¬n1snn+¬+ .x¬xnnn s+++x +++=+7+·as¬+ ±aac+=+nn= 7o·x «··n +¬aoo·m
+¬ao 7o¬aa~+= ¬c+7+ns= ¬¡+nx «¬n1sny ¬++·· .no¬+.a. ox «n·n·+++v+ax ¬
sn¬n 7«¬++a·++ +cmoom+=s= ¬s1¡ .no¬+.a ¬s+= 1«·+=a1o·= 0 +=c¬no ona
n¬a 7+·c¬s= +n7+nx·+ «nocc+xx7sno=a. ¬= 1s=m7an1n +ccacm sav+ooms=
.no=a qxn·+nnn
+cc++n=a. s¬+o7o·yoon=a o·¡=·¡a·n a nx+a .+s= mca saì++ooma ¬z+¡¬= ±
n~+a +·¡=a·+1sn·=a +«1+++=++cann. 7o·x «·¬+=+ 7+·a¬++ +¬+a·ì++7a·n¬n.a .
s=++¬a++oocc 7+nx«¬n1snna +ao«+a·n +¡«nav+¬a.a sav =s= oì ¬¡+·v++=+= ±
·++·n scna·=a .ss·n·nza. 7o·¬++a·n «¬n1sny+=¬n sa+·ccx+=a. 7+nno·cm sc
nv+ax 7o·¬++ann ¬¡+nx +¬xn m+n+=a¬cnx·n 1syo·m ¬a++a a¬n++ooms= +cc++
n ¬c++=o 7o¬«+ v= s¬asoo+·=a
7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a 1aaom+=+x
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»n«·n+ 1++v+n+=. »n«·n+· +n·n 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a ¬s+na·=a j= »n«·n+a anya «x
x·c+ +ao«+a·n 7o·=«xs·n s·+=y++= «¬c+¬n+·ì ¬ì+++¬+ sav=s1+·m. ¬= 7+xsa.
¬xx= «a¬a«¬x. 7o·n ¬xx= +nn. oxs¬+¬a ¬xx= o·n++n¬a 7+·=c+·n .«++ ¬a
¬a~+=a o¡1n·a·+++an+·=a
7o·=«xs·n «·m+a ox +ìs1+++ +ccv+¬a.a. +¡«nav+¬a.a «nnv+ +·+=aan j¬s »n«·n
+· +n·n 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+n++·n +cc++¬+ sav+.aa1o·+xa. «¬c+¬nnx 1++n ¬¡+nx¬
aoq+ +ccv+na. 7o·x « +ccv+na 1axa 7«¬++a·n+¬nnx 7o·x « ±++1n·+++ì+a anya
«ysnv+an 7+nno·m+1a·m j¬nqnn¬s ¬=a j+n +·¡=a·+. +ccs·++a j++ìs1++ «nav
+¬ao o¡+oxoo=a. ++«+¡v+¬a+ +¬c7+ns+n=o o+x·+ ¬sn¬no o·=+·oo+n=+ 1+¬s sa
v=a 7o·x « ¬¬ao ¬o «ysn¬aoo=a + ìa·n+¡a·n+·=a 7o·x « o¬cnn 1«·++a j«++ ++«
+¡v+¬ao o¡1n·+++++ans¬+nx·n o·=+·oo·n. o+v+·n ¬a7x·n¬n sav=s+·=a »n«·n+
7o·x « o¬c7n·ny a++an «ao+¬++a anya ¬sì+an j¬=+ 7+nno·cc·aì+a=n+1+·.
¬sì+an jn++v+a=n+1+·. ¬¡+ ++=s·ì+++=cn ¬sì+a j=v=s= =n+1+· +s¬xooms+
x¬x ¬¬s o¡+·na·+o o¡a·=v+¬a ¬+xom+=s= +ao«+a·+1s·. ¬++··+=ss·+ +cc¬a
+¬a ¬+xom+=s= +ao«+a·+1s· ¬++¬n +·=ooo+x¬x ¬+n=o o+x·+ o¬ »n«·n+ «·c
an 7o·x « o¬c o·=+·oo·n »n+¬+v+¬a 1axa 1o=oo·=+·++x. ++x a++n+=a =nnsnx
+cc+¬+o on1a· o++++·ì1o· jxx·+s¬+nx +aa·n+¬nnx o¡1n·+++x ¬+n¬s onn1n +s¡
a·n+¬nnx ¬++¬n +·=o++nn= (»++n «·m+a +ìs1++ 7o·x « o=+=+. iªª-,
7o·=«xs·na ¬1n+a·n +«+ìoov+ax j++¬+n a·nna +ao«+a·+ ¬¡ao++x ¬aa·n .+ìoq=
ì¬s+ +·=o++1o·+xa. jo7o·+= + ì+¬++a +ao«+a·n ±=ìscma ±+·¡=v+¬a+ 7+·=m
aa= ±+·¡=a·+. sc-¬nìx·«+x 1a·+x +a~+= s«+= o¬ oxs¬+¬an·n. oa~=c »n+
¬+++n «ao+¬+¬n «¬x1on·+o 7ony+7+·ana ¬nn¬x+7+·=c o¬ q+n s¬+nx·n 7o·x
« o¬c¬n a a sas¬a+=a o¬ +«+ìoo+¬+ sav+n= 7+nn·o·++·. +7n¡· x1n·n. anya ¬
«» ·n· 1o·nn 1++v+a .1+++·++·¡++x¬«= »n«·n++=++·n ¬++·n¬cma j¬ca·nnv+¬a «
nom++.aa1+·m. 7o·x « + ì+¬++a +ao«+a·n +x ¬aoo¬cn·n o·cv+¬a.a sav=aa~+=
+n1nn.aan
¬a¬a¬so7o·y+=. 7o·x « + ì+¬++7ano= +ccs·+++¬+o o¡=a·+ a a·n~7+n=. 7o·x « o
¬cnn o·++¡+¬+ a a s¬¡sx++=a 7+n+x. anya «ysn++n j¡·msana·+++¬+.a. ¬++·
¡ooa«¬xn¬ao¬o.a =¬n+=. +m+x·n ¬asx +¬+¬a+a ¬aoo¬cnx·n onn·+ a·nys=
+ao«+oocc+·+s¬«+= + ì+¬++a o+++7«nnnx anya o+++·ny scnv+ax 7o·x « o¬c
¬n ¬+n sa¬an·n 1+·c¬c anoo·n¬a¬n a·nn. ¬¬ns¬¡.a ±aac+=+x anya 1s=a
n 1«¡++x ¬s+na·n o+x «csa+¬+ .m++x .no¬s onn+ +«+++++an s+++x ¬+n ±a«
¬x ±o-+x·+·¡+¬+ a·nnn¬a++ +nnyaa= ¬c1+ìoq ¬¬ns¬¡.a o¡+«++=soom++++a
ns¬+nx 1aaom++oocmaa= onn+7nno= j¡·ms ¬=«¬c. ¬+++a ¬oon·+a .nosny+
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=aoo·x 7+ny. an+ ±·¬a+a=n++ ¬n~. +n+nn+¬n mcasaì++x. q+n +nn+¬a 1axa
+ì¬aoom+=+x. anya 7+·ax+·ì s1+c «¬x+¬a ±¬s·+=+x .nosn¬n.a jo7o·+= ±a
ac+=+nn= + ì+¬++a +·+·¡= 7o·x «+·¡ì+n++·n 1aao·mnn. 1+¬s «o«+¬n+a=n++ 1+¬
s+n+=+ + ì~+=maa= ¬+1+·m ¬z+¡¬=+=o o+x·+. +noo·n 7+nx«¬n1snn++n ¬aoo
¬cnx s·a+¬+oo= +n1nnn+=+=a +sna sav+.aa= ¬= 7+·ax+co +n1nnn++x¬«
= onn7oys=a. +¬c++++an «+ anya an+ sav+¬a a a+=oo m 7+ns=a. ¬¬¬an·++
+cma ¬xsav+ax¬«= ¬++m+x·n onn+¬ao 7ony+7+·anas¬+nx ±+++¬a sas¬a
+=+7+·as=a·n o¬ + ì+¬++a·=a ¬1+1s¬anx ¬= «+ +ao«+a·n 1«ì¬a++n¬n ±y+7
+n.as¬+nx +m¬an·n 1ano·ì¬s +¬n¬a¬n.a «nom+=s+·=a q+n +¬n¬a+a 7o·x «
o¬c¬n +cc«¬x+++snn 7san·ì +¬xn m+ax¬«= o·=+·+=a s¬+
nx ¬nn¬x saì+=+7+·as=a. ±++1n·+++ì+n+= +¬aoo·m+·ì +n+ ì
a·na. anya ¬¬n+=acv =a +noo·n 1+¬s+¬a sav=a ++·¬a+=
so 7o·yoq=ì¬s sav=+x .no¬s a+~a + ìa·n+¡a·n¬sn·=a j=
¬¡+nx ¬++··+n+=a. o·=+·oq ++sì «¬xnv+n+=a¬cnx o·++¡
1syo·c¬c+ +sna·+o o·++¬a+=+ 7+·as= +ao«++nn o¬ scna·
+1s j¬«=aa=
»n«·n+ 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a
+ ì+¬++a 0¬c++=+0 7o·x « +¬aoo·m +ax¬«= 0»n«·n+0 7o·x «
+¬aoo·m+n++·n o¬ «+ì¬s+ 1+··«n+nn= j= ooq¡~. +a+=sa.
s¬+o7o·yoq. oa~a¬nsn¬a. ov1+nq. oxs¬+¬a+= a·n·¬+. a·ny
+ +¬+=+= jcaa++x. +nan+ anya =+ ±·¬a+¬ao o·=+·++x. anya an+ +·++nsa+
¬+ m+=s++x ¬+n 1+·co·m+an ¬aoo¬cnx·n ¬m=+¬n +ao«+oocc scna·=a
o¬ »n«·n+ 7o·x « «ysna ons¬as¬+nx ¬¬a+x1s=ma
 ¬= +cc+=+= s¬+o7o·yoq +y+x1s=ma +cc+¬++ ¬+nx .m+=+7+·an+x ¬
+·= ¬= ±a«·cm anya +ìs1++ +ccv+an .x¬x+aza 7+nnom+x 1s=ma 7o·x
«··n «csa+¬++a .o7o·+=a « +ann++n +==·n~+= ±cocc¬sn·=a +cc+¬
+ a y1s·ì ±a«¬x o+++·ny +¬n¬a+a anya =nnsnx +cc++n s¬a~+¬a .+ì
1«·+=+x 1s=ma
 ¬= »n«·n+ ¬c++¬n+ +cc¬aoq+n+=a. »n+¬++=+=a s¬+o7o·yoq a+++·=a
7o·x « o¬c o¬ +nn·n ¬++·¡ ¬x++n·x ¬a~+=a n+ +cmoom++ooc·+¬oo¬+.a .
¬+1+·m jnv+·=ooc·+¬oo¬+.a ±y+oom+=as¬+nx ¬= ¬c+ +¬nnn ¬ny
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«¬x+a·+n «¬n1sny+=¬n. o·¡·nanna anya « +o·o·xna .nosny+=+ +n++n1
n o+x +y+x1s=m7ano1+·m. ¬= »n+¬++=+=a o+x+y+x 1s=ma
 ¬= +n= «csa+¬++ax oa~a¬nsnn+·+s¬++x 1s=ma ¬1n+a·n 7o·x « 7+nno
·m+a += =·n~+= jcaaoo+·+~a. 7san+ ¬¬aoq+n+=+ +¡aa·+ ¬n+¬+ncoom
s+·+~a j¬++x 1s=ma +noocc 7o·x « ±++1n·+++·n «c+¬+ anya 7o·x « o¬
cnn 7+nno·m+a ¬¬n+=1a 7o·=a++an += =·n~+= ±com+x 1s=ma
 7o·x « o¬c +n«oì+an=a. =+++an=a o·=+·oq anya ±·¬a+¬ao o·=+·oo+n=
±nìs·n 7+nno·cm +nz·¬a sav=+x 1s=ma ¬= +n«oì+an=a. =+++an=a
1+¬s+n+=·n o+x «csa+¬++¬a .moo1+·m. s1+ca·+ jx=sx o·+oqn++a1n·ì. o
¡v+ccooc1c·ì .n1o··n 1+¬s+¬a «¬n1sny+x 1s=ma oxs¬+¬an·n. oa~=c
+¬+v+ax 7o·x « «ysnv+a +¬+o o·s¬n+ 1+·m+n+= ¬oo·nocc s¬+nx o·=o·
ann .o7o·+=a ±·n +cc· +n·n a·ny «csa+¬+ .moo1+·m. ¬¬ns¬¡.a a·n·¬+n
·+~a «c+=+x 1s=ma
 ¬= an+ ±·¬a+¬ao o·=+·++x 1s=ma ¬= ¬¬ns·n=a ±nìs·+a ±·¬a an
ya s+oo+¬+o o·=+·oo1+·m. s1+ca·+ ¬sì+a 1o++·¬a. +ccv+ma ±·¬a. «ca·c
c ++«+¡a. +nn+¬+n·n ¬+=. +m+=¬s++x an ya «·m+c++ooms+x¬«= smoma +
+«+¡a .nosn¬no o¡1n·++=a1o·= ¬sì+¬ao o·=+·++x 1s=ma
 ¬= +¬++=+=+ 7+·ax+·ì 1+¬s+¬a sav=+x 1s=ma 7o·=a++a o··n «ao+¬+¬
n ¬s++¬+=a. o··n ¬++·¡v+¬a+ 7+·=c o¬ «ysna .nns¬+nx 7o·x « o¬c+=
o¬ sxs·n o+++7«n+1+·¬s.a. 7+·ax+·ì «c+¬+.a. ±nìs·n +¡as·n«+ 1+¬s¬n
sav=s+n+·n s¬+o7o·yoqa j¬++x 1s=ma
 ¬= +·n 1+¬s7+n.a »n+¬+v+¬ao o¡+«++=sa 7+ns+·+ j¬++x 1s=ma +·a 1
+¬s7+n.a a++c 7+·¬+nn¬¡ ±=¬anx o¡+«++=sa7+n.a 7o·x « o¬c+a ¬sì+
an «ao+¬+¬n.a. o+=¬ao¬o.a +m+x·+o 7ony+7+·as= +·++na·=a ¬sì+an
o·=+·oq a+~a ¬++a·++ 1+¬sooma jx=sx oxn·+++an anya o¬¡oom++oocc
=+++an «ao+¬+¬n 7sn7nmoo=a +·++na·=a
»n«·n+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a »n«·n+ «ysnv+¬ao o·=+·+=. »n«·n+a 7+aoo¬cs+n+·n
7+nno·m+a «¬n«+ ¬ax+= ¬+¡saoo= a·++¡ann. +n= 7+·«+ «ysn+ +cc¬aoq+axa.
7+nx+¬n+axa »n«·n+ s+anv+¬a .m+=++·cm+x 1s=ma

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s¬+o7o·yoq sa+¬nn¬aoq+a
»n«·n+ ¬c+ +¬n¬a+an o=¬o .m+=++·cma 7+s¬s o·ì++x+a anya +a«¬xoom++x
+n+= j=v=as¬+nx »n«·n+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+an «m«·n+a·++ +++s=. 7o·x « «ys
nv+¬a o¬ +x ¬++·¡ «xn+an om+=+¬n jn«+¡v+a·+ j¬oo+x¬«=. ¬sn¬n ¬¬ns
¬+=a·n o¬ 1+¬sn·+ «¬xa·nna 7+ns+n= ¬s+na·n on++ ¬m+=+¬a ±¬s·+=s+n+·
n 1+¬sn·=a ±a«¬xnx j= o+++a. o+++7«nnnx anya 7+nx «¬n1snn+¬++ ¬+n·na
scna·=a ¬1+1s¬anx 7san+ 1ano·ì¬s o·¡·nanna. « ++=¬n anya «¬n1sny+=¬n.
»n+¬+a .nosnnz·c·+ s«+·oqo 7ony+7+xxa o¬ scna·=a ¬= q+n. +n·+ na·n 7o·
=a++a 1ano·ì¬s sa+¬nn¬aoq+n+=a (an+ ±·¬a ¬¬=+=+++a. anya oaqc«an,
o¡«= 7+xs+·=a on¬n+ 7+·cì«= ony 7+nnoma s¬+nx j«+ sa+¬nn¬aoq+an ox+
a. o++++·ìon¬a.a 7o·x « o¬c+= sx¬s.a. «aq++¬s.a ±¬s·+=+nnn












¬¡+n ¬ny ¬v+v+n++·n s¬+o7o·yoq
an+ì+n+=o o·=+·o¬o ±y+7+ns= ¬¡+n ±n·n +c¬an·=a os7s·¬ 1+++a o¬ 1«ì¬a
n·n. onzy+.a s¬n++nz+aa 7o·x « 1+¬s¬n sav=a +coo·c¬c+ 7+·=c+·=a «¬n1
sny+ =¬n. o·¡·nanna anya « ++=¬n ¬+n ¬c++¬nnn ¬ny ¬v+v+a os7s·ny+=
a +noo·n 7o·x « «¬c+¬n+¬a ±y+7+ns+x o¬ =n+=¬¡oo·n. .m+=¬¡++oocc o·++¡a
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7+as·n 7+·a¬+ sa+·cc¬x sav+~a. 7o·x « +ccv+¬a+ +n··++~a. +¡«nav+¬a.a. 7+n
x«¬n1snn+ +·ca+¬a.a ±¬s·++~a. sxs·n s¬+o7o·yoq sa+¬nn¬aoq+¬a «ys~a
¬¡+·v++=+= ±·+=aa= .ss·n·nza. oì ¬¡+·v+++ca¬«= +¬c+=a 7o·¬++a·n ¬¡+n
x sa+·ccx+=a. 7o·x « 7+nno·cm «csa+¬++ax jca7oya 7o·¬++ann ¬¡+nx +¬xn m+
n+= a¬cnx·n 1syo·m +cc++xa. 7+·a¬+nxa. «¬c+¬nnxa +++na·n+·=a +cc++x
.m+=¬¡+ +ooccs·n·n. 7o·x «·+=a «¬n1sny+=¬n+=a¬cnx·n o·++¡v+a. 7o·yoq+a a
nya ±n~+a +ao«+a·n «¬xoo·m+a s¬+o7o·yo¬o «ì=na7+nn ±+~+nnn ¬= 7o·x «
+¬aoo·cm scnv+ax +¬cnnn +¬xn m+a jca7oya anya ¬snnna = 7+xs·+=+ 7+x+=
a +·++n+¬+ ¬+=¬ns·+=+nn= 7o·=«xs·n++x j¬=« =aa «·m+a +cc«¬x+++snn ¬
¡+nx +¬xn m+¬a+ +m+=a ox1sy «ysnv+a +ao«+a·+o o·1+·+¬n «csa+¬++ax +mocm
aan
1+¬s ¬¬=+=+++a 7o·x « ++sì «¬xnv+ax o+++·ny anya ++·¬a+=s scnv+¬a
1ano·ì¬s7+n.a +n·+ na·n ¬¡+·v+ ¬¬aoq+a·=a j¬s +·o++oocc= 7o·x « ±++1n·+++ì
+an 7+·~. o+s.nì~. jca·nna anya 1s¬x« ++ scnv+ax ¬¡+nx +¬xn m+a jca7oya
+·++nsa+¬+ acmoom+=a 1«·+=c1n1n ¬=a .ss·n·nza. «¬c+¬nnx. +·onn anya o
+o+ o¡1++v+axaa ox +nn ¬¡++a scn++x. ¬¡++ +¬xs·n ¬+++o o·++¡a ¬sì+n+=
¬¬=+=+ ¬v+++sì+an «nan scn++x ¬++·¡+ 7+xs·+¬+o onnom++ ¬za+++nn=
j+n·x ¬¡+nx ¬z+¡¬=+ +·++nsa+=++·n +«+ìooa «nom+n n= 1+¬s ¬¬=+=+++a +
ao«+a·n q+n ¬¬=+=+++n+=o o··n ¬++·¡v+a sav+oocmaan ±+·¡=a·+. ¬«» ·n 7o
·x « 1+¬s ¬¬=+=+ ±x+1x1n a+~a +++ s·n«+ q+n ¬¬=+=+++na onn·=a :ããij
x «ysoocc j«+ ¬¬=+=+sx an+ ±·¬ao o¡oq¬¡n·aì+a. 7o=+a. sn·o·¡+ 7+·ax=¬
nnnì. mc+o o¡+«++a .n1o·¬cn j¬aoo·nn ±nì « +ann « +n¡+ì o¬s¬a jca7onyaa·ì
+¬noo·m+a s+·¡¬=+ +¬=++a7a·n¬n «n om+=a «n+++cc+ +coo·cmcn. o¬ +n·+ n
¬¡+nx¬aoq «ysna .nns¬+nx j+n= ±++1n·+++ì+aa = o+++·ny. 1s¬x« ++ anya =
nnsnx sa+=+7+·c¡x+= scnv+¬a ¬nyoom+=a ¬++·¡a 1o·nn¬s ±aan j«+ ¬¬=
+=+ 7+·a¬+¬n s=++¬a+=. «¬c+¬no om+ +x·a :ããJ 7o·=+1+ì+x +an++x. j«+ ¬¬=
+=+ ¬«» ·n+ +cc ¬+x·++x +xs «¬xn+=cza. +n«+ +¬+ « + +n+nn+ ¬¬aoqcza
j¬=« = 7o·x « «c+¬+ +ao«+a·n sa+·ccx+¬a ¬os¬++7+n=. 7o·x « «c+¬+¬n+ +
=+·=oq+ 7+n+=
ox «·m+a. 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+ax «¬n1sny+=¬n+ +¬xn m+¬a ¬+=¬ns·+=as¬+nxa. 7
+·a¬+¬n ¬os¬++7+n.as¬+nxa 7o·x « +¬o+¬a.a. ¬++·¡+¬o+¬a.a ±¬s·++.aan
o¬ « =c+·x +¡=o·cm s¡x·y anya ¬+n+·n o¡+s¬a~+ 7+nno·m +·¡=a·+ «ysoocc
sc-¬nìx·«+n 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a +¬o j«+ s¬+nx·n a+~a +++s·n«+ oì ¬¬aoo·=a
¬= s¬n++nna++ o¬ 7o·x « 1+¬s¬n sav =s+n= a·++¡ann. 7o·x «·ì iªªs¬a ¬=a
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n an+ ±·¬a+a=n++ «n+++cc+ +coo·m+¬a.a «¬n1snyas¬+nx ¬sì+n+= ±+~as
¬+nx o=oo·¬= sav+oocc onn·=a ¬= +¬x¬a+ +·n«coan ¬za++c jxx·ax. 7o
·x « 7+nno·can .«+ ¬a+a=n+=a +n= 7+·«+ s+·¡¬=+¬a «c++++an=a. «¬nn +¬o
+ncn ooo c·+o o·ì+=ac+=. ¬+n= 1axa =aoo·n ++·¬a+=sa anya 1ano·ì¬s¬n sa
v+++an=a ¬=a
7+xs·+=+ 7+x++++an ¬¬=+=+++a j¬++++an jcv+axa. 7o·x « +¬xsì+¬a «nan
a7+n+x anya o+s sx+=+x +ao«+a·+ qnsn «csa+¬++¬n+1a· ¬a~1+·x+1a· jxx·+ j
cv+axa. anya onn·+=¬nn·n 1ano·ì¬s+ 7+nx+¬n+a ±aa jcv+axa .a++an 7o·¬+
+ann ¬z+x ±n~+a +·¡=a·+ o·¡=·¡a·n +cc anya s¬+o7o·yoq a nx+a jca7oy+nnn
±+·¡=a·+. »n«·n+ 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a «¬c+¬noom+=a 1++v+ax «nan+ 7+nx+¬n
1axa o+=¬aoq a+++·+~a. +sxnn 1ano·ì¬s ¬¬aoq+ax¬«= ±aa m+¬a 1s=a «no
¬sn·+~a ±aan ¬~«+1¡xn a·«xa·n =n n«x·«+x =nn+ 7+nx+a anya +sn·n «c+¬+
+a ¬¬=+=+sn ¬+n+ +s+·a·n +aa++=cn jca7oya o¬ s+«=¬¡oon ¬aoo¬cnx.
7o·x « ¬¬a++·n ¬v+ +·¡+=cn ¬n«¡·x ¬¬=n·a· «na++oom+nn··
«¬n1sny ¬++··+an 7+nno·m +·¡=a·+ o·¡·nann+ +ccv+na +·s1++ an+ ±·¬a +¡«na
v+1a·m j=v+ o+=s¬+.a +n1nnys¬+.a « +annv+a ±y+7+n+nnn ¬¬s an+ ±·
¬a a nx+a anya +cc a nx+ax +mom1s·¬+= .+¡·+ «csa+¬+ .moo+n¬x+a. o·+oqn1n·
¬+= 1o·+n «s·¡=v+¬a ±y+oom+=s+n¬x+a ¬¡+n=a ¬+n ++s·+an=a a+a¬+n
«csa+¬++ax¬«= =aa++¬ao o·=+·++nnn 7o·x« «csa+¬++n++·n s¬+o7o·yoq «n
y+7+·aa++an «c+¬+=n++ +¡«nav+¬a «nom++. +cca nx+n+=+ +=c¬n sav+. +x +«
+·oov+ax «¬n1sny «csa+¬++=+ +as·aamas¬+nx « ++=¬n «ny+7+·aa++an «c+¬
+ +ao«+a·n +¡«nav+¬a .m+=¬¡oo¬+.a. s=++¬aoo¬+na 1s=a«n+++ma +·n·n +·¡
=ann ¬xx= oasn·«= jnn jca7oya ¬+=+a. ooq+x s·+=¬xv+¬ao 7oys+n=o ox
s«+a o¡1n·+++x. +ccs1¡·+a·n 1+m+x «csa+¬++a anya 7o·¬c+¬a +sn·n+¬nnx a a
o7oy+x .no¬s ±aaccs¬+nx 7+·=ms¡ooma sa+=+¬a+ +anoa 7+ns+n¬x+a. «cs
a+¬++¬n =ayoa+a +·¡=a·++ =nn++ ·oq sav+ ayoo+n¬x+a « +o++a 7o·x« +¬aoo·
m+ax ±n·s·n +¡«nav+¬ao 1oms+n= ±+~+nnn· 7+·c·++n·n +sn·n «csa+¬+ jca7
oya scnv+ax ±·n 7+nx+¬n¬no o·=+·+=a s¬+nx « +o++a 7o·x+·¬++·n +a= 7+·«+
sa+·ccx+¬a.a «csa+¬++¬n+¬a.a «nom++x·a
o·¡·nann+a 7o·x+·¬a +sy+a =n+= sn· .+oqs+n=a. +¬n¬an·n +sy+¬a+ +¬+=s
+n=a. q+n +ccv+¬a +n1nnys+n=a. 7o·x«··n 7+nx«¬n1snna +ao«+a·+ sn·++¬a .
+oqsn=a. 7o·x« +c¬aoo·m+¬a «¬xn·+ 1ano··¬s 7+ns+n=a·n ox ¬++·¡v+¬a+ 7+·
=maa= 7o·x« ss+·¡v+¬a 1ano··¬s 7+ns+n+·n +«+·oov+a 1+as 1«¡a. ss·+v+a. +s
n +·oqo o1¡¡¬=+a. ¬1«+ +«+·oov+ax 1+·n+a++ooma +noocc ¬v+++sì +cc¬xv+a .n
osn¬n ±aac+=s1+·m. j¬s ss·+v+n+= sas=+=o q+= q¬n+x+¬a «nom+=+nnn
=noo·+. o·¡=·¡a·n +·+¬n scnv+¬a ¬n~7+ns+n= s1+c s+·¡¬= ¬¬=+=+++na «
128
128
na++oocx·a j«+ «no·m+a 7o·x« +¬aoo·m+an 1axa ¬++·n¬cma ¬a+v+n+= ¬sso1
o·= +sn+¬+ +·++1o·+xa. +¬=++a a a ¬n~+a. s¡~-7+x~++cc ¬a·~+a anya +=++
cm ¬n~+1a 7o·x« +¬aoo·m+a +ao«+a·+o o·+ x¬n 7+ns+n=·n +«+·oov+¬a sav=+nn
n ¬+1+·m. =+++ax jca7oya so¡a·n o=+na 1axa +n«+ o¬ 1+¬s¬n ±¬s·+=s+x
o·¡=·¡a·n +·+++¬+ «nom+=+nnn 7+nn·o·++·sx »n«·n+ ¬c+ +¬n++·n sas¬++a·
+ =+++an +++n+=sa «n= ¬v+ +·++oocmaa= +++noo¡a·=+1+·m .«+ «o¬¡n·s= +·c
+ +ys+n= ¬xx= ¬s=+¬+ sav=s+n= ¬¬a++x. az++¬ao 7ony+7+·an+x ¬xx=
.s¡·s= ¬++¬n.aa +¡oon·+aca¬«= +a·oo=v+¬ao 7ony+7+·an+x anya o+¡v+ s+·
¡¬=+¬a «c+=+x .nosny++·n ¬++·¡a j«++ =+++n+= ±aa=
±a«¬x s¬+o7o·yoq
7o·x«··ca¬«= sa++a1+·¬a ±·¬a ¬¡+·v+v +n+= ±aa= ¬1+1«¡++x o++++¬+ ±++
¡s·+oom++~a. 7+nx«¬n1snn+¬+.a ¬¬n+=acv=a 7o·x« +¬aoo·m+¬a.a ±y+7+ns+
n=a 7o·x«·· +·1a 7o·yoqaas·+a·s· ++x·s+·+ s¬s= o+++·ny+ ¬ax·=a j= +sn·n
«c+¬+¬n+ +=a+ =a s++¬nn·n «no·m+a anya j«+ ¬¬aoox .v=a o¡s.aa s++¬
nnnn +x·+·¡a .nosn¬n ±aac+=s+·=a j¡= c·s= scna jx+=+¬a «·=noo+n mc·+
o 7o·x«··n s¬n++n¬n+ +=oo m7+nn +nn++=a ooo cm· +nx q++·n 7+nx«¬n1snn ++
·¬a+=s 7+·ax+coa·=a
sas¬ao¬oo7o·y++s¬¡nx sa++a·+ ±a«¬x o+++·ny +¬n¬a+a +cc¬aooxa. 1«·+7+
x¬xnxa ¬¬n+=acv=o¬s n·=a ¬¬s +cc++x .m+=¬¡++oocmaas·ya. jnn¬+ « ++
1+·co·m+an o¡+·¡+a «¬c+¬noom++ooma·nn o¡++¬n+a a+~a =¬ns·+1s j¬+=a .
ss·n·nza. ¬++a·n «n·n·+++v+ax ±a«¬x s¬+o7o·yoq sa+¬n ¬¬aoq+ax 7o·x«
±++1n·+++·+1a·. 7o·=a++1a· «ao+¬+ ¬soo+x¬x 1a·+a·n «c+¬+ anya 1o·+·+ 7+nx «
¬n1snna .no¬s ¬a++a jca7oys= ±a«¬x+ +¡«nav+a «·=n+a an ya j=v+ 7n·
+=s+n+·n +¬n¬a+na 1a·+a·+ «¬c+¬noom++oom+nnn0 ¬xx= 1s=m7an1n ±+·+ n
a 7+nnoom+nnn .no¬++ +·cm+nn=
oa~a¬nsn¬a¬n s«+·oo= «aq++¬s+ +ca7n+oq+nn= ox 7o·=«xs·n «n·n·+++v+a
x 7o·x« ±++1n·+++¬+= .+¡·+ s¬c«1+·ya 7ony+7+·aaoomo¬s.a anya + ·~ +·=oom
¬s.a·n +¬noo·m+an .==+¬+ 7sancoom+nn= qaaso¡v+n+=a ¬oo·x7+ny +sn
·n «c+¬++n+= +·¡=a·n +¬++¬a 7saoom+=s= +¬x¬a+=sa +sn·n «c+¬+¬no o·
=+·++1s· ¬xx= +++=+7+·aa1s·a·cc·= .nn .==oo·c¬c sxoom+=s+·=a « =c+·
x1«·++x. ±a«¬x sa+¬n ¬¬aoq+an +n¬a anya ¬snnn o=s¬a~+¬ao o+¡v+oom
+=s= 7o·=a++a¬cnxa. 7o·x« o¬cnzana s+s·++¬++ +ca7n+oqs+·=a
+sn·n «c+¬+n·n o¬ 7+nno·can onn· ±a«¬x s¬+o7o·yoq sa+¬n ¬¬aoq+a 7+nno
c+7+·cv=+nnn o¬c+a .nn «¬xoo·cax¬«= 0s·a+¬+n·a·0 o¡¬» 1+¬s .nn «¬x+=
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o 7o·x« «ysnv+an +cc¬ao¬o a·nnn¬aoo+n=. +y+y o¡++¬n+n+=+ + ·~+·ma ¬m
=+¬n+=o o+x·+ ++o 7o·x« +¬n¬a+=a +¡aa·n +sna ¬s+na·=a
«s n 7o·x« +¬aoo·cm +¬n¬a+n+= «s n ++·¬a+=s +cc¬aoq+a ¬s+noom+nnn «
xx ++·¬a+=sa +noocc anya «ysn · +n·n «xx·c++¬n anya s¬+o7o·yoq 1+·co·m
+ax +v+«no+·=a s¬+o7o·yoq +ao«+a·n «s n +¬n¬a+a qn«¬x n+··++ ¬a~1+·a+¬a
o7o·y+= ¬¬as+·x ¬¬s +¬+¬a+=a 7+·ax+·· a++=s+=+=a 7s=a+ sav+. 7+nx «¬
n1snn+¬+ 7+·c·++n·+ a a o··¬s 7+n=. +sn·n «c+¬++= jcaxx·+ s¬+nx oxs nv+¬a
s¬¡s·++ 7+oonm+nn=
07+nx«¬n1snn ++·¬a+=sa0 .no= 7o
y1oy+¬a ¬s+=+ 7+·=m 7o·x« o¬c¬
n +=oo m 7+ns+n= qaaso¡v+¬ao onn
om+=+nn= ¬1«+a·n +«+·oov +ax ¬as
m 7+nnooma o= s¬a~+a 7o·x« onz
y+. =nnv+a +ao«+a·+ «csa+¬+ 7nm++x
anya 7o·=a++n++·n o·=+·oo·n ¬a¬x
±¬s·+=+x 1o·nn scnv+n+= 7o·x« s
av=a =noo·n ov+aoq .no¬sn·=a s¬+
.+·¡=a·n «csa+¬++a =nn+7+nx+a=n+
+ qaaso¡v+a ¬xx= 7o·x«··a = 7o·=a
++an «ao+¬+ +ao«+a·n ¬ooo¡·n s·+7+
moq+ +¡~+a .nosn¬n ±aac+=+nnn j
+n onn· j++¬+n +¡~+a j¡=m 1«·++v+
n++·+o onnom++oom+nnn ±a«¬xnx 7o
·x« +¬xs·+a 7+nx«¬x1snna 1a·+a·+~
aa scnoo¡oq+¬a 1aaom+=s+n= ¬s·+
n+= ±+~as¬+nx 0++·¬a+=s ++sx·+
0 ¬= onnocx·a0 ¬xx= 7sa«¬xnx 7o
·=a++n+= 7o·x« 7+nx«¬n1snn+¬+ s
a+=s+n+·n o¬ sas¬+n·+ onnom++ooc
x·a j¡=m1a +++s·n«+ s¬+o7o·yoq+ +
¬s+a·=a ony +n«o·+¬a.a. ¬x=+¬a
.a oooms+n¬x+a. 7+x7«n+¬a jnv+·
ms+n¬x+a (±-a 7o·x«·¬+= .+¡·n
+¬noo·m+ax, «ysn++za o¡++¬n+¬a .m+=++·cma o¬ san·+ onnom+nn= j¡=c·
s=. 7o·x«·· +ca+7+·ana 7oy1oy+¬a qn«¬x n+··++a·n+¬nnx 7sanma o¬ san·+o
nghyp]; mikg;Gf;fhd Ie;J tpOkpaq;fs;
 njspT – epWtdk; vij <l;bf;nfhs;s
KaYfpd;wJ kw;Wk; ,ij <l;bf; nfhs;tjpy;
xt;nthUtUk; tfpf;Fk; ghj;jpuk; vd;git
Fwpj;J xt;nthU nghyp]; cj;jpNahfj;jUk;
mwpe;Js;shh;.
 xopTkiwtpd;ik – nghUj;jkhd tifapYk;
mtrpakhapd; ntspahh; Ez; Ma;it
rhj;jpag;gLj;Jk; tifapYk; rpNu~;l
Kfhikahsh;fspd; jPh;khdq;fs;
gjtpapdUlDk; [dr%fj; JlDk;
fye;jhNyhridapd; gpd;dh; jpwe;j
Kiwapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd.
 Jyhk;gu epiy – nraw;ghl;L vy;iyfspDs;
nghyp]; gjtpapdhpd; nraw;ghLfis
rfghbfSk;> Nkyjpfhhp fSk;
[dr%fj;jpdUk; ghh;f;ff;$bajhf cs;sd.
 nghWg;Gzh;T – epWtdj;jpd; xt;nthU
mq;fj;jtUk; jdJ eltbf;iffSf;F
jdpg;gl;lKiwapy; nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk;.
,J ey;y elj;ijf;fhfTk; <l;lg;gl;l
ngWNgWfSf;fhfTk; epahakhdKiwapy;
rpe;jpj;J toq;fg; gLk; ntFkjpfs; kw;Wk;
Nkhrkhd elj;ij my;yJ nray;epiwNtw;wj;
Jf;fhf tpjpf;fg;gLk; jz;lidfisAk;
cs;slf;FtjhFk;.
 tYtspj;jy; - ,ad;wstpw;F Kd; epiyg;
gpuNjrj;jpw;F neUf;fkhd tifapy;
jPh;khdq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gLtij
rhj;jpakhf;Ftjw;F ,ad;w stpw;F
mbkl;lj;jpy; cs;sth;fSf;F nghWg;G
gfph;T nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.
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onnom+nn= onn· j= scnv+¬a .ss·y 1aaom++x·a .no==n++ +x«=¬¡n·cx+=
¬aoo¬cn·+o onnocx·a
+n·+ na·n +sxnn s¬+o7o·yoq ++s· «¬xnv+a
¬¡+·v+v+a ¬++·++s¬+nx »n«·n+ 7o·x« +¬aoo·m+a=n++ ++=s+¬+ «ny+7+·an¬+n
x 7o·x« «csa+¬++¬a 1axa oa~a¬nsnn+·+=+x. 7san·¬¡ +ao«+oom+=+x. 7o·=a++
a «ao+¬+¬n+ +ca7n+oq+x. o·=o·m+a +a o«+a·n o ++¬a oa++x. s+·¡¬=+ax o++++··o
n¬a¬n ±y+7+n+x. +¬no o·m+a 7+nnooms¬+ jx=s·+=+x. ¬++·¡ =+o¡1n·++¬+.a +
sn·n «c+¬+¬n.a =¬n++x. ±a«¬x +x·+·¡+¬+ a·nnn¬a++x anya 1axa +noo·n 7+nx
«¬n1snn+¬+ ±y+7+n+x .nosn¬n «nom+=a +nn++¬a 1an7+·=m s¬+nnn 7o·=«x
s·n «·m+a «¬nn 7san+ 7o·x« ¬xx·+ +sxnn 1ano··¬s sa+¬n ¬¬aoq+¬a+ 7+·=
m ¬¡+·v+ anya ±a«¬x s¬+o7o·yoq +¬n¬a+¬ao o+x m 7+ns+n= +nn+7+n+nnn· j
«+ +¬n¬a+a +n1o·=aa 7san+ sa+¬nn¬aoq+n+= =¬n «¡oqo¬sn·+ ¬¬a.7anya.
¬snycn j¬=«= s¬+o7o·yo¬o ±¬s·+=7anya .+·o··++oom+nn= j++¬+n s¬+o7
o·yoon +·¡=a·+ +sn·n 7o·x« «c+¬+ s¬a~+n+= ++v7+·m++·ax +oo+7+xs= 1axa
+ana·+ a·ns¬+nn=
ox1sy s¬+n·n 7on·+¬a.a sas¬aoq+¬a.a 7+·=c j++¬+n ¬¬aoq+a j¡=m o¡«+ s
¬+oo·~+a·++ +·=oom+nnn 7o·x« +ao«+a·n +¬noo·m+¬a s+·¡¬=7+n+x. a a·n~7+n+
x anya +=+·=++x .nosny+=+ +a¬a ++++ ++++ ¬·oo=++ ¬¬aoq+a. anya o¡«+
o=oo·¬=+¬a+7+·=c (sa++a·+ ¬¬=+=+++a, .ny ¬¬a++ooma oaqc«an anya 1
++n an+ ±·¬a+a 1o·nn ++s· «¬xnv+a on++ 1ano··¬s ++s· «¬xnv+a 7o·x« s¬+
o7o·yoq+= ov+aoq+ 7+n.a jcv+a. +ca¬=oq anya ¬nyo om++x+an +¬n¬a7n·ny
«n·n·++ +v+¬ao o·+=. 1an+s~. o= j¡caoq anya +¡=o·c·n s+«=¬¡oq+a .nosny
+= .+¡·n o·=+·o¬o sav =+nn= o¬ an+ ±·¬a+a ¬¬=+=+ anya o¬ +n·+ na·n 7o
·x« +¬no o·m+a ++s· «¬xna .nosn¬n+ 7+·=maa 7+nn·o·++·sn ¬¬=+=+ 7o·x
« +ao«++nn ++x +¬noo·m+¬a.a +¬noo·m+a ++s· «¬xn=+= ¬nyoom+=+nn=
+¬noo·cm ¬++·¡+¬o+na. oaqc«an ¬xsx+v+na. an+ ±·¬a+a ¬¬=+=+++na +a
= +¬aoo·m+¬a .ssa~ onzy+.cn «¬n1sny7ano= ¬¬s .ssa~ =·¡+=+=o 7o·x «
anya «¬n1sny+ =¬n+ 7+xs·++x¬«= ±= ¬anx +nn·+
sx+n¬++nnn .no¬+.a. ¬snnn ¬«+«= «·can +cc+
+cc¬aoox .ssa~ ±y+n·+ «¬x«·ccoocmaa= .no¬+.
a 7o·y+++·=a ¬snnn onzy+.a. ¬snnn o=oo·¬=nn
o¡«++n¬a anya o=oo·¬=nn 7+a~. ¬sì+an s+·¡¬=
¬++·¡v+an 1«·+7+x¬x. ¬snnn +¬x¬a+ =s++n=a. o+
snn¡=a ±aac++a anya 1+ì++0 anya «+naoon 1o·=a·
«+n¬a.a. ¬xv+na .nosn¬no 7o·y+++·=a o¬ o¡++1n+
cs;epiy tifg;nghWg;G
Kiwikfs; jw;NghJs;s
ntspepiy topKiw
aikg;GfSf;F ,izT KOikia
toq;FtNjhL> mit ,uz;Lk;
NrHe;J xU tifg;nghWg;G
tiyia cUthf;Ffpd;wd.
nghyprhhpd; jtwhd
elj;ijfs; jz;lidapd;wp
,jpypUe;J jg;gpf;nfhs;tJ
nkd;NkYk; fbdkhdjhFk;.
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a·n + ìa·n+¡a·n +·¡= s+«=¬¡oq+n+=o o=«= «c+++ =·= ma ¬nnxa. ¬snnn ¬n+
¬++na. 1+cx +a~+na ¬¡+·v+++ca¬«=a. 7o·x «ca¬«=a 7ony+ 7+·ana +sn+a. 7+
as·n ¬+¡~a·=a j«+ ¬+=¬ns·n «o«+¬n+ 1+¬soo·m+a 1++n an+ ±·¬a «ysnv+n
++·n o··« 1+·co·m+ax ¬v+ +·++oocm. ++¬aoom++oocmaa1o·+xa. ¬¬s +a ¬asx .«
+ 1ano·ì¬s ++sì «¬xn+=+=a 7o·¬«=sns·=a 7o·=«xs·n ¬¬aoq 1++n an+ ±·¬a
«ysnv+an a+++n«+ «¬c+¬n sa+·ccx+¬a.a 7+·=+ =aa= ¬nza. =¡+¬+cs+a·
+ 7o·=«xs·n++xaa ++x +sxnn 1ano·ì¬s ++sì «¬xnv+n1a j«+ ¬aoo¬c sa+·ccx
+ncn j=v+7n·++sms+x¬x
7o·=«xs·n «·m+a o¬ 7san+. +n·+ n. +s
xnn ++sì «¬xna·s= o¡+nn a·+s¬oo=
+·¡=a·+o 7o·x «·ì 7o·yoq++ya·y 1+c+
ooms·ì+a .nza 1++¬n ¬++·+=as¬+nx
¬a+=s¬+nnn 7o·x «· ¬+7++¡·n +¬
noo·m+ ¬a+ ¬+n·ns+n= ++++ ++++
¬ìoo=oq=ì~ 7+·=c +sxnn ++sì «¬
xnv+1a 7o·x«·¬¡o 7o·yoq++n¬soo+x
¬++ 7snn7onyaan o¬ +n n·n scn++
x +sna 7+x+=a ++sì «¬xnv +a =¬n
+1+ì++¬n.a. s+·¡¬= +cov+¬a.a. 7o·x
« «c+¬+o o·v= +¬ao o=oo·n ~ 7+n.a
¬nn¬x.a +ca7n+oo. 7+nx «¬n1snn+¬
+.a a+oo m 7+n+nnn .ss· n·nza. +n·+
na·n 1an o·ì¬s .ssa~+·n +cc ¬aoq+
7+nnooca¬«+ 1o·+xa. ¬¡+nx s¬oqy+.
a. 7o·x «··n=a. +n·+ na·n ¬¬aoq+an=
a sxs·n +¬x¬a+=s+a oì ±=¬an·n
s¬+o7o·yoqaa. o¡+s¬a~+ 7+nno·cm+ +
nns·n«+ 7o·x « +¬aoo·cm +¬n¬a¬n+
+ca7n+oqs+n= jnnn¬an·+¬sn·=a
»n+¬++=++·n s¬+o7o·yoq
jy+n·+. »n«·n+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a +·a
1+¬s7+n.a »n +¬++=++·n s¬+o7o·yo
¬o+ 1+··«n+nnn 1sy s·ì+¬+nx +ys+·
xU ntw;wpfukhd Nkw;ghHit mikg;Gf;fhd mjpFiwthd epge;jidj;
Njitg;ghLfs;
 Rje;jpuk;: epiwNtw;Wj;JiwapypUe;Jk;>
nghyP]pypUe;Jk; Rje;jpukhfTk;> ghuhSkd;wj;
Jf;F Neubahf mwpf;ifapLk; tYtspg;GlDk; ,Uj;jy;.
 Nghjpa mjpfhuq;fs;: Rje;jpukhd tprhuizfis
Nkw;nfhz;L> Njly; KbTfis mwptpf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ijf;
nfhz;bUj;jy;. ,jw;F tprhuizfis Nkw;nfhs;Sk;
,izTepiy mjpfhuq;fSk;> Mtzq;fis tutiog;gjw;Fk;>
nghyP]hH cs;spl;ltifapy; rhl;rpfspd;
gpurd;dk;Fwpj;Jf; fl;lisapLtjw;Fkhd mjpfhuq;fSk;
mtrpakhFk;. mJ nghyP]py; fhzg;gLk; epWtdg;
gpur;rpidfisAk; ,dq;fz;L> Kiwikahd rPHjpUj;jq;fis
Kd;itf;Fk; Mw;wiyAk; nfhz;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
 Nghjpa %ytsq;fs;: mjw;F Mw;Wg;gLj;jg;gLk;
ghuJ}ukhd Kiwg;ghLfisahtJ tprhuiz
nra;Ak;tifapy; Nghjpa epjpiaf; nfhz;bUj;jy;
Ntz;Lk;.
 tpje;Jiug;Gfs; rk;ge;jkhf gpd;njhlH
eltbf;iffspy; <LgLk; mjpfhuk;: mjd; Njly;
KbTfisAk;> tpjg;GiufisAk; nghJkf;fSf;F
mwptpf;Fk; mjpfhuk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,tw;Wf;Fg;
gpujptpisT eltbf;ifahfg; nghyP]; jiytH Nkw;nfhz;l
nraw;ghLfisg; gpd;njhlHtjw;Fk;> nraw;ghbd;ik
tplaj;jpy; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; ftdj;ij <Hg;gjw;Fk;
,aYik ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
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nn. ¬= +cmoom++ooma »n+¬+++n +aa++¬+.a. o+ =¬ao¬o.a 1+··«n+nn= 7«¬++a·
n 7+·cìo¬=oq+a 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a 1axa onzy+a++¬sn·+=+nnn 7o·x ¬« «aox·
7anya. 7o·x « +a= +·+¬n++s¬x+n+= +nz·¬a na++nn7+nya. ¬= +a¬a+ =+o¡
1n·++=+1+·. max+1+· ¬a·++a·cc·7+nya a+ +a ±=¡1s=an 1+¬s ±aa=
¬++·++ s¬+o7o·yo¬o sx.y+=a1o·= +x +sx +¬+o o¡+«++a 7o·x «·¬¡ j¬=+ =+7
+·=m o=n·nya ¬1+1s¬anx. +xì 1a·+x o·v +xa «c«=7+·an+nnnì +xì ¬a«¬x¬no
7o·y+= j¡=¬c.1a ¬+n·n+nnnì 7o·x « +¬aoo·cmo o¡++¬n+a +ao«+a·n ay+++an·
+ +·ny+¬a ¬s+=+7+·=m ¬++·¡++xaasì+ncn 1a·=s= jnnn¬an·+= .no¬+ ¬zo
sa +·ca.aa= j= ±y+oom++ooc·+ qaaso¡v+¬a.a. jx=sx «¡·+·++ooc++an 7+·«+
+ +¬++¬a.a +n¬s+= s·+ms¬+sc 1axa +noo·n+·=a 7o·x « =+o¡1n·+o o·v=+¬a
¬s=oom+=s+n¬xa +sx +¬++ =+++a a¡q· +n·+ s¬+o7o·yo¬o sx.y++s«=aan
¬¬s ¬++·+=as¬+nx +ìs1++ ¬¡v=+ax ¬c+an 7onì+¬a 7sancm. ¬sì+n+=+ +¬x
+=n¬s «nom++s¬+nnn j= ±a«·cax ¬sì+n+= ¬aa·n +ìa+v+c «¬x¬a+¬a «nom
++s¬+nn=
+ ì+¬+++=+=a. s¬+o7o·yoq+=a·n j¬csc·+ ¬+¡~ 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a +ao«+a·n o¡+
s¬a~+ 7+nno·cm ¬nnx anya s¬+o7o·yoq+=n++ .==++¬++¬a sav++7+·=m. ¬s
ny+= ¬+¡sa+=a oì ±a«·cm+ ¬ax j¬«+·x a·++¡1a +·++na·=a ¬+1s. ox =+++a ¬
¡+nx¬aoox ±++¡s·+a sav+oocc ++«+¡v+a. ¬+= 7+nnoom1s··n ±·¬a+a. +1++ a++a.
¬v+snì+a. +nnn+1+ì+¬+n·aì+a·+n ¬=+na. 7o=+na. anya 7o·x «·ì +a= ¬++·¡v+
¬a a n «c«=7+·ana1o·= .m++1s=an «csa+¬++a .no¬s ±aaccs¬+nx +cc· +n·
n saoq=ì¬s sav+. 7o·x «·¬+= ±=ì~++n¬n.a. 7o·= a++n+=+ +xs¬n.a sav+s
¬+nnn o·+oqnn =+++a s¬+o7o·yoonn 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+n+= o¬ an+ +++¬+ sav=
s1+·m. 7o·=a++a ¬ooo¡·n+¬+ ±¬s·+=s+x +++n m++n·+ sav+.aan 7o·=»n ¬ooo
¡·n+¬+ ¬os¬++7+ns+x mc+v+an o··n 7+xs·+= 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+an +++x·n +n¬a
+a=n+= mc+snx·a¬+=o onn+ sav=as¬+nx ox =+++n+= ±« =+¬x sav+.aa= 7
o·x «··n s¬+o7o·yoq .ss·y «¬x«·ccoocx·a .no= +ao«+a·n o=oo·n~ jxx·san. 7o
·=a++n+= ¬n~+·ì. +n1nnn+¡a·n ss·+a an ya o¡oq¬¡++·n ¬¡v= jxx·an1o·+nn=
¬¡+nx s¬oqy+¬n ±¬s·+=s+n= ±·n «oì+ncn 7+·cì++n·n +nn+ ¬s+na·=a +·x+1+
·m oca+ 7+nx·ny+x + ìa·n+¡a·n +·=a +«+ìoov+a ox ±aan 1+ì+x 1«¡++x ¬¡+nx s¬¬
·onv+na 7o·x « + ì+¬+++¬+ ±aac+=s+x¬«=0 7snnn·aì+¬a+ +a= s·+=y++¬a «
¬n1snya·y 1+·¬+x0 o·¡·nann+ =+++n+=+ +aìoo=v+¬a sav=+x0 +ccs·++ anya
+==·n~+ 7+nx+¬n+an ++x accv+axa. 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a anya 7+nx«¬n1snnv+a
=n+=+ +x«=¬¡n·cooma1s¬a+ax j¬cn m 7+n+xs¬¡ o¡oq¬¡n·aì+a +ìs1++ ±cnoa+
¬++an «n ov+ +·¡a. 1ano·ì¬s ¬¬aoq+an ±¬s·++a. ++sx+¬ao 7ony+7+·ana ±·¬a 1
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o·nn s¬+o7o·yo¬o.a. oa~ a¬nsn¬a¬n.a 1aaom+=a +ccs·++v+¬a «nom+=+x. a n
x+a =n++ ++sx sav=1s·¬¡o o·=+·++x. anya max .+ìoq «csa+¬++¬a+ 1+··.aanì
¬++=¬n«+ ¬asx. +sx +¬++ =+++a 7+·a¬++ 7+nx+¬n+a anya »n+¬+o o·=+·oq .
nosnnx ov1+n=a ±·¬a¬n+ 1+·¬+nnnì
o·+oon¬a anya o·=+·oq +ao«+a·n +·+¬n+ +s¬x+a +·¡=a·+ ¬¡+·v+v+a ±a÷ì »n+
¬+v+aza 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a ±y+n·+ a·nnn¬a+=a «csa+¬++n+=+ +aaoocmaan
¬++a ¬++a·n 1++v+a »n+¬+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬ao o·1+·+¬n 7+n=s¬+nnn 7+nn
·o·++·. »++n j¡·++na anya +nc· 1o·nn «·m+a jsn¬n+ +cc¬xa·+ ¬xx= sxscan «
¬c+¬n+a¬xa «ysnoom++.aa ¬1+1s¬anx. ¬1n+a·n «·m+a j+n onno·c¬co o· c+
+= s¬+nnn »n+¬+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a 7o·x «·¬+=a. »n+¬++=+=a¬cnx »n+¬+o
o¡++¬n+¬a jnv+=m. + ì~+·mas¬+nx·n o¬ +cm+ 7+nno·c¬c+ =n++nnn ox +·¡=
+a 7snn¬n+ + ìa·noo¬sn·+ sav=+nnn a¡q· +n·+ a++oom++oocc 7o·x « «ysnv+a + ì
a·na 1an7+·aa¬x.a. 7o·yo¬o.a + a1«·++ «+ì++. +nsn+++x¬«= 7onooma 7o·x « ±+
+1n·+++ì+a q+n »n+¬+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a 7snn+¡a·++ 7+nnoc¬s++x jca7oy+nn
= 7o·x «·¬a. 7o·=a++na +aa·nsì+a .nn· +nxa. o+¡ooma s+anv+ncza mc·cca7+
n+x 1s=ma ¬++·¡ ±n~+ax 1a·+a·n «nn++·a~+a +·=ooma +¬+v+ax »n+¬+o 7o·x «
+¬aoo·m+a oxs¬+¬a+= a+ooaoo1+·m. ¬++++ =+++a jsn¬n+ +a= «xn+¬ao o·=+
·+=as+++x ¬+n·cx7+ns¬++ +m++x 1s=ma jx¬x1nx. 7o·x «·¬+=a. ±a÷ì +x¬+7on
n =+++n+=a¬cnx «noma +cc= +·¡=a·+. «n7+n1s o¡v+ccoocc =+++a 1axa o·+
oqya ¬o·na ±aa=
7o·=«xs·n «·m+ax 7o·x « + ì+¬++ +n+nn++n+=+ +¬c+=a ox1sys+a·n s¡1snq+a
.ss·n¬«+1o·+xa. «ao+¬+s·++=+= jc+aa= =nn+7+nx+a anya o·=+·oq +ao«+a·+
±x+a·sn · +nx saì«=s¬a +·+¬n+ +s¬x+a 7o·x « 7+nx«¬n1snna anya s¬+o7o·yo
q +ao«+a·+ ¬aa·n. q+n ss·+v+a jca 7oys¬+ ¬s+na·+=a «¬x¬a+¬a «nom++.aa
n 1axa 1axa ¬++a·n a++a o·=+·oon¬a¬n ±=¬a1o·= ¬sì+a ¬¡+·v++a. 7o·x «·a
.ss·y ±nì+¬a.a. 7+·+=++¬a.a o·=+·oo+n=+ +ccam+nnnì .no¬+ ¬n«=7+·as+
x ¬ìsa +·cm+nnnì ¬¡+·v++=+=a. 7o·x « o¬c+=a. 7o·=a++n+=a¬cnx 1axa ¬aa·
n q·«==ì~+ 7+nno·m+n++·n 1+¬s=n+=a ¬sì+a ¬ìsa +·cm+nnnì

«¬n~7+n.as¬+nx·n s+«=¬¡oq+a



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mì+» ox1sy jx+=+ =+++n+= o¬ 7+·c¡·n +nz·¬a s+oq¬¡+¬a+ 7+n+nn=
7o·=«xs·n ¬¡+·v +v+an +¬xsì+a ons¬a scnv+¬a+ 7+n+x 1s=ma
+a= mì+q¬ ¬n+¬+nx
 s¬+o7o·yoq. oa~a¬nsn¬a. ov1+nq. +cc++n ¬c+.cn oca«nnx. anya oxs¬+¬
a anya »n«·n++ +¬aoo·m+n++·n a+oq +ao«+a·n 7o·=«xs·n+ 1+·co·m+a 7o·x « «
ysnv+a ±coccs¬+nx o·=+·oq anya « ++=¬n+=o o¡1n·+a·s¬+ ¬v+ +·++x
 »n«·n++¬+.a. ¬os¬++¬n.a +ca+7+·as+n= »n«·n+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a + ìa·n+¡
a·n¬s .no¬+ 7saoo¬cn·+ «ny+7+·an+x
 ¬+n ±a¬an+ 1+·co·m+ax¬«=a. +ìs1+++ +¡«nav+a x¬«=a 7ony+7+·aaooma 7o·
x « +¬aoo·m+a +ao«+a·n ¬+n 1+·co·m+¬a ¬os¬++ 7+n=7+·as+n= 7o·=«xs·n
¬¬aoq ¬ìoo=oq=ì¬s «nom+++7+·an+x
 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a +ao«+a·n j«++ 1+·co·m+¬a+ +a= 7+·«++ 1++v+ax o¡1n·+oo+n
=o 7o·yo1ony+7+·an+x
ons¬a «csa+¬++÷c·+. 1axa +noo·n 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a +n7nmoo+n=o 7o·=«xs·
n+ 7+nx++=+=o o=oo·¬= sav =+x
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 +cc+ + ì+¬+++=+=a. «ysn «no·m+n+=a ±+~as¬+nxa. =+o¡1n·+a anya ma¬x
oa+=. 1axa +noo·n s¬+o7o·yo¬o ±y+7+n .as¬+nxa ¬v++=s «·m+n+=+ 7+·a
x+co ±+s+¬a sav=+x
 an+ ±·¬a+ +¡«nav+ncn oca«n=as¬+nx 7o·x « «ysnv+ncn scnv+¬a+ ¬+n·
ns+n= ¬s+na·n 1o·+n ¬xsav+¬a an+ ±·¬a+a ¬x=+= sav=+x
 7o·=«xs·n «·m+a ¬¬n++xa 7o·x « ¬¬a++ì+n+=a. 7o·x « ¬a=nn¬+=a «q=ì+
n+=a. +sx +¬++=+=a »n«·n+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬ao o¡oqas¬+nx sas¬a++ooc
c o·sì++¬n «+a+++ +ccv+¬a «¬c+¬noom+=+x
 o¡«o¡a ±+s sav+. +¬+=+¬ao o+ì«=7+·anas¬+nx 7o·=«xs·no 7o·x « ±++1n·+
++ì+an +v+7a·n¬n «y~+x
j+n= 1ax++a·+. ¬¡+·v++ +¬xsì+a ons¬a scnv+¬a.a 7+n+x 1s=ma
«ì=n++oocc o¬ +·x .x¬xnza +ìs1++ an+ ±·¬a ±cnoa+¬++¬a «nnv+ +·oo+n= ±
=ì~oìsa·+ ±cnom+x +c«+ +·x ¬ìoo=oq s·+=y++a=n+= ¬n+¬+nms+n=a. +=+·
=o o+n=a. «¬c+¬noom+=s+n=a mì+q¬ sa+¬nn¬ao7o·n¬n ¬os¬++7+n+x
+ìs1++ ±·¬a+a +·+na. +cc+¬+ ¬+x«c+=a ¬++··+n++·n »«· o+++7«n+1+·¬s. oxs
«+a anya +m+xn+¬ao onnom+=s= +ao«+a·n »«·sn ¬aoo¬c+ 1+·co·m+a .nosny
cn j=v+7n·+=s¬+ ±y+oom+=+x

¬v++=s «·m+a ons¬a scnv+¬a+ 7+n+x 1s=ma
¬¡7+·nnn a+ +++na·n +c¬a a++an o·=+·o¬o ±y+oom++. ¬+n¬xa s¬n++nn. on
zy+ anya +cc++n ¬c++= a+oq .nosn¬n+7+·=c 7o·x « «ysn7a·n¬n sav=+x .
no¬+ «ny+7+·an+x
»n«·n+o 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a=n++ 1+·co·m+¬a ±aac++. +n7nm+=as+a·+. s1+ca·+ iª
ts ¬¬n+=x+ an+ ±·¬a+a o¡+cn+=+= +nnì «nom++oocc 7o·x « +ccv+a. s++a a
n ya o¡a·=v+¬a a a·n~7+n=. +¬++n¬a++x
+=c¬noonan¬a +·++n+¬+ ¬+=¬ns·+=as¬+nxa. 7o·x «··n +sy+n+7++¡·+ sa+=+
7+·c¬+x. o·+oqn1n·¬+= «+c+m. anya +sx +cc «csa+¬++n+= .+¡·n +¬c+¬a « +=
a s+++xa ±a«¬xo o·=+·oq+ +ccv+¬a a =ma o·+ x++x
+ccs·++a anya ¬+¡~ +¬n¬a+÷c·++ +sy+a anya a nx+a=n+=+ ++sx sav=1s·¬¡
+ + v+x¬«=a. oas·v+xx¬«=a o·=+·++x
a¡q· +n·+ «¬n1sny. +ccs·++ anya « ++=¬n+·ìs¬+nx 7o·x «·ì=n+= 1an7+·ana 1an o
·ì¬s¬n sxoom+=+xa. ¬+¡~ sav=a 1ax++. on++. +n·+ n. +sxnn 1ano·ì¬s sa+¬n
n¬aoq+¬a «nom+=+xa j¬s oaqc«an. an+ ±·¬a+a ¬¬=+=+. max+7++¡·n ¬¬
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aoq ¬xx= 7o·¬++a·ns¬+nx ¬ìoo=o q=ì~aa 7o·x « +¬noo·m+a ++sì «¬xna .n
o¬sn·=a
sxs·n. +n·+na·n 7o·x « 1+¬s+ +¬o+a. ¬¬=+=+++a anya ¬++·¡+¬o+a 1o·nn «ys
n «no·m+az·c·+. «¬n1sny+=¬nnn 1ano·ì¬s +cc«¬x+++snn+¬nnx 7o·x «··n 7+nn
o·cm+ ++«+¡++x +¬xn m 7+nn·+¬oo¬+ ±y+7+n+x
an+ ±·¬a+¬a a+++x. o=+=++·n 7oya+. 7+nx«¬n1snna anya »n+¬++ +¬o+ .no
sn¬no o+¡v+a·+ a+ooc++an s¬+nx s¬c·«++ 7+nx«¬n1snn jx+=+¬a.a. a+oo cm
¬as m+¬a.a o¡+·++x
+¬xsì+¬a.a. +·+·¡= ±++1n·+++ì+¬a.a o¡+«++=s. o·¡oc+ann +¬n+ax ¬c1+ìoq. 7+
·~ anya «nana7+n.a qnsna·n. o¡+++a·n ¬a~1+·x+an o¡+·¡a jca7oya oa~a¬nsn
n. +=+ ¬aoo¬cnx·n «csa+¬++¬n+¬a sas¬a++x
7o·x «·¬++·n +n«+ 1+¬s «o«+¬n+¬a.a. ++x¬+=a 7o·¬++a·n «n·na·n s¬+o7o·yoq
«csa+¬++¬n+¬a.a ±y+7+n+x
7o·x « «ysnv+ncn +cm «csa+¬+n·+. 7+·a¬+ ±¬s·++a. +nz·¬a+a + ìa·na. jx+=
+a «ì=na anya 7+nx«¬n1snn a+oo m .nosnnx +sx +¬++ =+++¬a.a. »n+¬++¬+.
a +mom+=as¬+nx «csa+¬++¬n+¬a.a. sa+¬nn¬aoq+¬a.a +n+nn+n·+ sas¬a+
+x
7o·x « «ysnv+ncn +cm «csa+¬+n·+ an+ ±·¬a+a saoq=ì¬s sxoom+=a onn+
scn ±aac++a. +¬nnnx anya «+a~++¡a o+v= .nosn¬n a ao·+ x¬n 7+n+x
7o·x « +¬xsì+na. 7o·x « «ysnv+na ons¬a scnv+¬a+ +=aoo·++ 7+n+x1s=ma
7o·x «··n jxc+nv+a. 7+·a¬++a anya «csa+¬++¬n+a onn¬=++oocm. onn++a¬xa
+ca·++oocm. ¬+n o=+ax .m+=++·ccoomo¬sn·n +cc++n ¬c+. an+ ±·¬a+a any
a »n«·n+ s+anv+an o·=+·oq .nosn¬n ±nìs·+ a+oo¬+ ±y+7+n+x
«ysn++n ±ana. 7sanxa ±aa ++x¬+=a ±nìs·n 7+·ax+·ì +¡«nav+¬a+7+·=c o¬
«ysna .nns¬+nx 7o·x « +n«+ 7+nx«¬n1snn+¬+ sav=a0 +n«+. ¬m+++an+¬nnx
7+nx·nya0 ¬++·¡ =+o¡1n·+a. max. +c¬anx ±+·+ na. +cc+¬+ s¬x+= s·v=+x. ¬xx
= «+·s= +sn·n «c+¬+¬n+ +++=+7+·aaa·cc·=. +sn·n 7+nno·m+¬ao o·=+·++~aa·c
c·= .nn sxs·n +a+¬¬¬n sav=+x
±a«¬x s¬+o7o·yoq sa+¬nn¬aoq+n+=o 1o·+n ¬xsav+a sav+ooms¬+.a. ¬¬s «n
·na·+~a. ±y+n·+~a «c«= 7+·as¬+.a. ¬sny+=o 7o·=a++an=a. 7o·x «n=a ¬+¡~a
. «ao+¬+.a +cms¬+.a ±y+oom+=+x
7san+ 1ano·ì¬s sa+¬nn¬aoq+ncn o+=¬a++x
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137
7o·x« «ysna +·n 1+¬s sav=a a++c 7+·¬+nn·n «xn+¬ao o¡+«++=sa 7+ns¬+.a.
s1+ca·++ +yo·n¬a+ =+++a. 7o=+an «xn+¬a.a. o¡+«++=s+¬+.a. o= s·noq+¬a
.a 1aaom+=s¬+.a . ¬sì+an =noo·n 1+¬s+n+=o 7o·¬++a·n o=+¬ax «x~s¬+.a.
++x¬+=a +aa·n s·a+¬+oo= s·noq+a +cms¬+.a ±y+oom++1s=ma
7o·x«a = 7o·=a++a «ao+¬+¬n+ +ca7n+oqa s+++xa. 7o·x « - »n+¬+ ±n~+ax s+
s·++¬+ «nom+=as¬+nxa ¬++m+x·n. +·++na·n oa~a¬nsn¬a¬n ±y+7+n+x
+sx +¬+a +cc·na·+o ons¬a scnv+¬a+ 7+n+x 1s=ma
7o·x « o¬c. ¬+n ¬ax. j¬nqaa +ccv+a. ¬xsav+a. 7o·yoq+a .nosn¬n.a. ¬¡+·v+++
n=a. 1ano·ì¬s ¬¬aoq+an=a ¬xsav+a. 7o·yoq+a .nosn¬n.a sav++ 7+·as+n¬x
a 7o·x « + ì+¬+++=+=a. s¬+o7o·yoq+=a·n jn+++¬+ «c+=s+n=+ +n··oq+ 7+n+x
1++n anya +ìs1+++ +¡«nav+an o¡+·¡a 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+¬a+ +=oo m7+n=. 7o·x +··n +
sy+a=n+= 7+·cì++n·+ sn·7s+oo. ¬sny+=+ +sn+¬+ +ì++x
o¬ »n«·n++ 7+·cì ±¬¡n·c¬x ±¬s·+=as¬+nxa. 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a=n++ ++sx+¬a+
1+·¬s=a. ¬sn¬no 7o·=a++a a++nx sav=s=a. 7o·x « +¬aoo·cmo o¡++¬n+a=n++
o+¡v+ ss·+v+axa. 7+·a¬++ 7+nx+¬n+axa ov1+no=a. 7o·x « +¬aoo·m+a + ¬¬c+¬a
¬=«+sì+a a·++¡1a +x«=¬¡n·ma o¬ 7+·ax+coo o¡++¬n7nnn .==+=+=+ +s·xs
moo=a
»n+¬+ +mo·c¬c «nom+=s+n=a. »n+¬+o o·=+·o¬o 1aaom+ =s+n=a 7o·x «·¬cn ov=
¬c¬an·++ 7+nnom+x
7+·¬cn·aì+a +cc·na·+o ons¬a scnv+¬a+ 7+n+x 1s=ma
7+·¬cn·aì ¬+¡¬so 7oya ++x 7o·x « + ì+¬++ «+a+++ +ccv+azana s¬+o7o·yoqa. a
n+ ±·¬a scnv+na onn¬=++ooc1s=m7any 1+·¬+x
7+·¬c+¬ao 7ony+7+·ana ¬¡+·v+v+a +sx ++«+¡v+¬a om+=s+n=o 7o·x « o¬c¬no o
nnom+=s¬+.a. 7+·cì++n·+ «¬c+¬nnx +ìs1++ an+ ±·¬a+ +¡«nav+¬a ±+·+ na 7+n
s¬+.a .+ì+=a s+++x ±y+n·n «csa+¬++¬a 1an7+·an+x




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(This is a consolidated response prepared by the International network to promote the rule of
law (INOROL) with constributions from Yolande Bouka, J.Oneil G. Pouliot, and Sermid D Al-
Sarraf.)
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gj;jpuj;ij jaTnra;J ghUq;fs;. vz;zf;fUtpd; xU vspa khjphpiaf;$l mq;Nf
fhzKbAk;.

gjpw;nraw;ghl;Lr; RUf;fk;
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtH vd;why; ahH?
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtHfs; vdg;gLgtH Ml;fs; my;yJ Ml;fspd; FOf;fs;> jk;
tPLfis my;yJ trpg;gplq;fis tpl;L> xU MAj Kuz;ghl;bd; jhf;fq;fis
jtpHg;gjw;fhfNth> nghJthd td;Kiw epiyikfspdhNyh> kdpj chpik
kPwy;fshNyh> ,aw;if my;yJ kdpjH tpistpj;j mopTfspy; jhf;fq;fspypUe;J
tpLgLk; Nehf;fhf> ,lk;ngau epHg;ge;jpf;fg;gl;l my;yJ flikg;ghl;Lld;
,lk;ngaHe;Jk;> rHtNjr hPjpapy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l mur vy;iyfisf; fle;J
nry;yhjtHfs;. (cs;ehl;L ,lk;ngaHT kP jhd topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffs;> mwpKfk;
ge;jp 2).

cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtH ahnud ,dk; fhZk; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf> kdjpy;
itj;jpUf;f Ntz;ba ,U Kf;fpakhd Nfs;tpfSs; 1) ,j; jdpeghpd; mirT
jd;dhHtkw;wjh my;yJ mr;rj;jhy; Mdjh vd;gJld;> 2) ,j; jdpegH rHtNjr
vy;iyiaf; fle;jhuh vd;gJk; MFk;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH jk;ghl;by; jk;
r%fj;ij tpl;Lr;nry;y tpUk;Gtjpy;iy. khwhf mtHfs; tpl;Lr;nry;y
epHg;ge;jpf;fg;gLfpwhHfs;. mtHfspd; efHT jd;dhHtkw;wNj. ,e;j tifapy;
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtHfis Ntiytha;g;Gj; Njb> Kd;Ndw;wfukhd tho;itj;
Njb> NtW ,lq;fSf;F nry;y tpUk;Gk; nghUspay; Gyk;ngaHNthhplkpUe;J
NtWgLj;jyhk;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH (c.,.ng) jkJ tPLfspypUe;Jk;>
rdr%fj;jplkpUe;Jk; gphpf;fg;gl;lhYk; mtHfs; jk; ehl;L vy;iyf;Fs;NsNa
tho;fpwhHfs;. mtHfs; ehl;il tpl;Lr; nry; tjpy;iy.

140
140
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhiu mfjpfSld; Fog;gf;$lhJ vd;gijf; ftdpg;gJ
Kf;fpakhdJ. mfjpfs; vd;gJ nfh^uj;jpypUe;J ghJfhg;Gj; Njb> rHtNjr hPjpapy;
mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l vy;iyfisf; fle;Jnry;Yk>; jdpegHfspd; chpikfisAk;
nghWg;Gf;fisAk; ,dk; fhz; gjw;fhf gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk;> gad;gLj;jg;gLk;> xU fiyr;
rl;lr; nrhy;yhFk;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe; NjhH tiutpyf;fzj;jpNyNa> jk; nrhe;j
ehl;bd; vy;iyfSf;Fs;Ns> Njrpa rl;lk; kw;Wk; Njrpa rl;lj;jpd; ePjpj;Jiwf;Fs;Ns>
nfhs;iffSf;Fs;NsNa> jq;fpapUf;fpwhHfs;. mfjpfisg; Nghyy;yhky; cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngaHe;NjhH gpuirfshf my;yJ jk; ehl;by; tjpgtHfshf ,Ue;J> mjd;
mbg;gilapy; ghJfhg;gpw;Fk; cjtpf;Fk; chpj;Jilatuha; cs;sdh;. cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpd; mDgtj;jpy; mfjp Nghd;w epiyikfspy; epidf;fg;gl;lhYk;
mbg;gilapy; mtHfs; xU NtWgl;l rdj;njhifapduhf NtWgl;l ghJfhg;GlDk;
NtWgl;l cjtpj; NjitfSlDk; cs;sdh;.

,tHfspd; Njitfisg; G+Hj;jp nra;tjw;Fk;> ghJfhg;ig cWjp nra;tjw;Fk;>
vy;iyfSf;Fs;Ns ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fspd; eyNdhk;Giff;Fk;> Njrpa
mjpfhuKilNahH jk; jiyaha nghWg;igf; nfhz;Ls;sdh; . MdhYk;
rpyNtisfspy; mtHfs; Kuz;ghl;L td;Kiw mdHj;jk; njhlUk; Neuq;fspy;
Fwpg;ghf jk; ,iwikg; nghWg;ig epiwNtw;w mjw;fhd ,aYik my;yJ tpUg;gk;
,y;yhJ ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,jd; tpisthf cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH rpyNtisfspy;
mtHfSila ghJfhg;gpw;F nghWg;ghd mur KftHfspd; iffspNyNa> ghJfhg;gw;w
jhf;fg;glf;$ba kdpj chpikfs; kPwg;gLk; epiyapy; tho;fpwhHfs;.

Mdhy; mfjpfs; ,jw;F khwhd tifapy; xg;gPl;lstpy; ghJfhg;ghf ,Ug;gJld;>
rHtNjr mfjpr; rl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk; (mfjpfs; rkthak; 1951) ghJfhg;igAk;
mDgtpf;fpwhHfs;. ,jd;gb guhkhpf;Fk; murhq;fkhdJ> mtHfis tuNtw;W>
mbg;gilj; Njitfis toq;fp> nfhs;ifg; gpufhuk; mtHfspd; tpUg;gkpd;wp mtH jk;
nrhe;j ehl;bw;F jpUg;gp mDg;gTk; khl;lhJ. mNjthNw mfjpfSk; rHtNjr mfjpfs;
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ghJfhg;igAk; kdpjNea cjtpfisAk>; rHtNjr kdpjNea epthuz
epWtdq;fshYk; I.eh KftHfshYk; toq;fg;gLk; czT> ciwtplk;> Rfhjhutrjp
vd;gtw;iwAk; ngwf;$batHfshf cs;sdh;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtHfs; mfjpfs;
tiutpyf;fzj;jpw;F nghUj;jkw;wtHfs; vd;gjhy; mtHfSf;F ,e;jg; ghJfhg;Gfs;
fpilg;gjpy;iy.

,lg;ngaHT cz;ikfSk; vz;zpf;iffSk;
cyfpNy ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fspd; nkhj;j vz;zpf;if Fwpj;j NtWghLfs;
khWglyhk;. MdhYk; kpf mjpfhuG+Ht %yq;fspd;gb 2007,y; Kuz;ghL fhuzkhf
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141
,lk;ngaHe;NjhHfspd; vz;zpf;if NkNyhl;lkhf 26 kpy;ypadhFk;. ,e;j vz;zpf;if
1990ia tpl 19 kpy;ypadhy; caHe;Js;sJld;> gdp Aj;jj;jp;d; ,Wjpapy; Vw;gl;l
cs;sf MAj Kuz;ghLfshYk;> ,j; jpLjpg;ghd mjpfhpg;G Vw;gl;lnjd XusTf;F
tpsf;fyhk;. jw;NghJ mjpf vz;zpf;ifapyhd cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH
Mgphpf;fhtpy; fhzg;gLfpd;wdh;. mq;Nf Mff; Fiwe;jJ 12 kpy;ypad; kf;fs; jk;
nrhe;j ehLfSf;Fs;NsNa ,lk;ngaHe;Js;sdh;. Mgphpf;fh kl;Lk;jhd; ,t;thW
ngUe;njhif ,lk;ngaHe;NjhHfis nfhz;bUg;gJ vd;wpy;iy. cyfk; G+uhfTk; 50f;F
Nkw;gl;l ehLfspy; vy;yhg; gpuNjrq;fspYk; ngUe;njhifahd ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH
fhzg;gLfpd;wdh;. kpfg; ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapyhd 5 kpy;ypad; cs;ehl;L
,lk;ngaHe;NjhH rdj;njhif #lhdpYk;> nfhyk;gpahtpy; (2.5–3 kpy;ypaDk;)> <uhf;fpy;
(2–2.5 kpy;ypaDk;) cfz;lhtpy; (1.5 kpy;ypaDk;) nfhq;Nfh rdehaf; Fbaurpy; (1–1.5
kpy;ypaDk;) cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH cs;sdh;. ,lk;ngaHit Vw;gLj;Jk;
fhuzpfSs; Kuz;ghL xd;W khj;jpuNk md;wp> ,aw;if kw;Wk; kdpjd; Vw;gLj;jpa
mopTfs; mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq;fs; vd;gtw;wpd; tpisthfTk;> ,lk;ngaHT Vw;gLfpd;wJ.
Rdhkp> G+kpajpHr;rp> ePz;lfhy tul;rp> mjPj nts;sk; vd;gd xU tUlj;jpy; 10
kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd Ml;fis ,lk;ngaur; nra;fpd;wJ. mz;ikapy; cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngaHe;Njhiu cUthf;fpa ,aw;if mopTfshf rPdhtpy; rpr;Rthd; G+kpajpHr;rp
(4.8 kpy;ypad;)> 2005 ,y; tl ghfp];jhd; G+kpajpHr;rp (3.5kpy;ypad;)> 2004 ,y; Mrpar;
Rdhkp (1.6 kpy;ypad;)> If;fpa mnkhpf;fhtpy; fj;jhpdh Roy;fhw;W (800>000)
vd;gtw;iw cs;slf;fyhk;. 2007 ,y; ,aw;if mopTfspd; fhuzkhf ,lk;ngaHe;j
Ml;fspd; vz;zpf;if 26 kpy;ypadhFk;. ,aw;if mopTfs;> MAj Kuz;ghL>
nghJg; gLj;jg;gl;l td;Kiw epiyikfs;> mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq;fs; vd;gtw;wpd;
fhuzkhf ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH cyf rdj;njhifapd; 1% ,w;F fp;l;bajhf cs;sdh;.
Fwpg;gplj;jf;f tifapy; cyf mfjpfs; rdj;njhif gy];jPdpa mfjpfs; cl;gl 16
kpy;ypad; vz;zpf;ifapdjhfNt mjhtJ cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpd; xl;Lnkhj;j
vz;zpf;ifahd 52 kpy;ypaid tpl kpfTk; FiwthfNt fhzg;gLfpd;wdh;.

jhf;fg;gL jd;ikAk; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpd; NjitfSk;
jdpg;gl;l ghJfhg;G> kdpj chpikfs;> tho;thjhuk; Nghd;w tplaq;fspy; cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngaHe;NjhH mjpf jhf;fg;gL epiyapy; cs;sdh;. mtHfs; mNdfkhf MAj
Kuz;ghl;bd; jhf;fq;fspypUe;J jg;g KbahjtHfshfTk; td;Kiwahy;
ghjpf;fg;glf;$batHfshfTk; cs;sdh;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpy;
ngUk;ghd;ikia Vw;gLj;Jk; ngz;fSk;> rpWtHfSk; ghypay; J\;gpuNahfk; kw;Wk;
Ruz;lYf;F cs;shFk; fLk; mghaj;ij vjpHnfhs;fpwhHfs;. mj;Jld;> mtHfs;
ghJfhg;G> cjtp> Nghjpa czT> ciwtplk;> kUj;Jtr rpfp;r;ir> Ntiytha;g;G
142
142
vd;gtw;iwf; fz;liltjpYk; cjtp Njitg;gLgtHfshf cs;sdh; . ,lk;ngaHe;j
fhuzj;jpdhy; mtHfs; ghugl;rj;ij vjpHnfhs;tNjhL> mur Nritfis
ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;> thf;fspf;Fk; chpik> nghJtho;tpy; gq;Fgw;Wjy; vd;gdTk;
kWf;fg;glyhk;. ,og;G> mopT> milahs ml;il kw;Wk; Vida Kf;fpa jdpg;gl;l
Mtzq;fs; gwpKjyhjy; vd;gd ,lk;ngaHT epiyikfspy; eilngWk; nghJthd
epfo;TfshFk;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH jk; tPL> nrhj;J> fhzp vd;gtw;wpd;
chpik nfhz;lhliy ,of;Fk; caH mghaj;ijAk; tpNrlkhf vjpHnfhs;fpwhHfs;.
,t; clik ,og;G tho;thjhuj;ijAk;> nghUshjhug; ghJfhg;igAk;> ngsjPfg;
ghJfhg;igAk; ,og;gjw;F ,l;Lr; nry;Yk;.

rHtNjr epakq;fSk; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH ghJfhg;GfSk;
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhiug; ghJfhg;gjw; nfd mikf;fg;gl;l rHtNjrf; flg;ghl;L
rl;lf; fUtpfs; vJTk; ,y;iy. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH rHtNjrr; rl;lj;jpd;
ve;j tpNrl epiyiaAk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s Kbtjpy;iy. MdhYk; mtHfs; rHtNjr
kdpj chpik kw;Wk; kdpjNear; rl;lq;fshy; jdpegHfSf;F cj;juthjkspf;fg;gl;l
chpikfisAk; Rje;jpuq;fisAk; mDgtpf;fpwhHfs;. Fwpg;ghf cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngah;e;j Ml;fSf;fhf njhFf;fg;gl;l cs;ehl;L ,lk;ngaHT kPjhd
If;fpaehLfs; topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffs; I.eh nghJr; rigahy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;L
2005 cyf cr;rp kfhehl;by; mq;fPfhpf; fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; ntspaPl;L MtzNk
cs;ehl;L ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH ghJfhg;Gf; fhd kpf Kf;fpakhd rHtNjr rl;lf
mikg;ghf cs;sJ.

topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffs; Gjpa rl;lq;fis cUthf;ftpy;iy. flg;ghl;Lf; fUtpfspy;
fhzg;gLk; chpikfisAk; Rje;jpuq;fisAk; mit kPs vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wd.
flg;ghl;Lf; fUtpfshf rptpy; kw;Wk; murpay; chpikfs; kPjhd rHtNjr rkthak;>
nghUshjhu r%f fyhrhu chpikfs; kPjhd rHtNjr rkthak;> rpj;jputijf;fhd
rkthak;> n[dpth rkthaq;fs;> kdpj chpikfs; kPjhd cyfshtpa gpufldk;>
toikahd rHtNjrr; rl;lq;fs;> kw;Wk; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpd; jhf;fg;gL
jd;ik ghJfhg; Gj; Njitfs; vd;gtw;wpd; #oiktpy; mtw;Wf;F nghUl;Nfhly;
vd;gtw;wpypUe;J vLf;fg;gl;litNa. ,e;j chpikfSk; Rje;jpuq;fSk; gpd;tUk;
ehd;F tiffshf
 ngsjPf ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; xd;whf ,Uj;jy; njhlHghd cz;ikfs; (cjhuzk;
tho;Thpik> xU kdpjdpd; NeHikAk; fz;zpaKk;@ VNjr;irahjpfhukhd
jLj;Jitg;G> rpj;jputij> ghypay; J\;gpuNahfk;> ghypay; Ruz;ly;
vd;gtw;wpypUe;J Rje;jpuk;).
143
143
 tho;tpd; mbg;gilj; NjitfSld; njhlHGila chpikfs; (cjhuzk; czT>
nfhz;L nry;Yk; eP H> Rfhjhuk;> ciwtplk; vd;gd)
 rptpy; kw;Wk; murpay; ghJfhg;G njhlHghd chpikfs; (cjhuzk; jdpg;gl;l
Mtzg;gLj;jy;> murpaypy; gq;Fgw;Wif> ePjpkd;wk; kw;Wk; ePjpiag; ngWjy;>
ghugl;rj;jpypUe;J tpLgly; vd;gtw;Wf;fhd chpikfs;)
 nghUshjhu> r%f> fyhrhu ghJfhg;G njhlHghd chpikfs; (cjhuzk;
Ntiytha;g;G> fy;tp> njhiye;jijg; ngWjy; kw;Wk; ,oe;j nrhj;jpw;fhd
el;l<l;ilg; ngwy; vd;gtw;Wf;fhd chpik)

xUtH ,lk;ngaHf;fg; gl;lhy; vt;thW ,t;Thpikfs; gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk; vdr;
nrhy;YtJld; ,t; topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffs; vNjr;rhjpfhukhd ,lk;ngaHTf;F vjpuhd
cj;juthjq;fis tpsf;FtJld;> mtHfs; jk;kplk; ,lk;ngaHTf;fhd kfj;Jtkhd
epiyj;J epw;ff;$ba jPHTfisf; fhzNtz;baijAk; mtHfspd; chpikfisAk;
tpsf;FfpwJ.

topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffs; rHtNjr r%fky;y> Njrpa murhq;fq;fNs cs;ehl;by;
,lk; ngaHe;j Ml;fspd; chpikfis> cs;ehl;L rl;lq;fs; nfhs;iffs; %ykhf
ghJfhj;J cj;juthjg;gLj;Jk; gpujhd flikiaf; nfhz;Ls;snjd
njspTgLj;Jfpd;wd. ,f; flikahdJ ,iwik nghWg;GzHtpypUe;J tUfpd;wJ
vd;w vz;zj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ. muRfSf;F jk; cs;ehl;L mYty;fis
jiyaPLfspd;wp elhj;j chpik ,Ue;jhYk; mtHfs; jk; rdj;njhifapd;
,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fs; cl;gl chpikfisg; ghJfhf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; mtw;iwr; nra;a
Ntz;Lk;. ,itfs; 1998 ,NyNa iff;nfhs;sg;gl;L tpl;ljhy;> lrpd; fzf;fhd
ehLfs; topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffisg; gad; gLj;jp ,lg;ngaHT kw;Wk; cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngaHe;NjhH chpikfisj; jPHg;gjw;fhd rl;lf Ntiyfis> rl;lk; kw;Wk;
nfhs;iffis tpUj;jp nra;Js;sd.

tPlikj;jy; fhzp kw;Wk; nrhj;Jhpikfs;
tPlikj;jy; fhzp kw;Wk; nrhj;J tplaq;fspy; nghJf; nfhs;iffs; vy;yhj;
jdpegHfspdJk;> nghJ chpikfs; mtHfis tP l;bypUe;J VNjr;rhjpfhukhf
,lk;ngaur; nra;tjpypUe;J ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij cWjp nra;fpwJ.
(topfhl;bf; nfhs;if 6) mjw;F Nkyhf ,f;nfhs;iffshdit Njrpa murhq;fk;>
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fs; jkJ tPLfSf;F jd;dhHtkhf jpUk;gpr; nry;y
my;yJ NtW VNjDk; ,lj;jpy; Fbaku Mjutspf;f Ntz;ba nrhj;Jhpik nghWg;ig
vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. ,e;j chpikfs; kPwg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH
144
144
fzprkhdsT el;l<l;ilg; ngWk; chpikia topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffs;
cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

topfhl;bf; nfhs;if 29 (2) ,d; gb ,lk;ngah;e;NjhH ,lg;ngaHtp;d;NghJ tpl;Lr;
nrd;w jk; cilikfs; nrhj;Jf;is KbAkhdstpw;F cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH
ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;gbahf my;yJ mtHfs; mq;F jpUk;gptu cjTk;gbahd
nghWg;igAk; flikiaAk; jFjptha;e;j mjpfhhpfs; nfhz;Ls;sdh; vdf;
Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. mr; nrhj;Jf;fis kw;Wk; cilikfis kPsf; ifaspg;gJ Kbahj
gl;rj;jpy; jFjptha;;e;j mjpfhhpfs; ,e;j Ml;fSf;F nghUj;jkhd el;l<l;il my;yJ
NtWtifapyhd gpujpaPl;il toq;f cjt Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW nra;Ak;NghJ ,t;
topfhl;bf; nfhs;iffshdit Kuz;ghl;bw;F gpe;jpa #oypy; ,lg;ngaHT njhlHghd
nrhj;J tplaq;fisj; jPHg;gjw;fhd xOq;FfisAk; ghpfhuq;fisAk; toq;Ffpd;wd.
,f; nfhs;iffs; Njrpa mjpfhhpfSk; VidNahUk; GdHepHkhzk; cWjpg;gLj;jy;
Nghd;w tplaq;fspy; Njrpa rl;lj;jpYk; nfhs;ifapYk; cs;s ,ilntspfis
epug;Gtjw;fhfTk; cjtpfisr; nra;Js;sJ. nrhj;Jf;fhd el;l<L kw;Wk; ghpfhu
chpikfs; ,jDs; mlq;Fk;.

vy;yh ,lk;ngaHe;NjhUf;Fkhd tPlikj;jy;> fhzp kw;Wk; nrhj;JhpikfSf;fhd
ghpfhuj;ijg; ngWtjw;fhd chpikfs; cl;gl midj;Jk;> If;fpa ehLfspd;
mfjpfSf;Fk; 2006 ,y; ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fSf;Fkhd tPlikj;jy; kw;Wk; nrhj;J
el;l<L kPjhd nfhs;iffs; %yk; NkYk; gyg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j MtzkhdJ
toikahf gpd;nfa;Nuh nfhs;iffshff; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wJ. ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fspd;
nrhj;J njhlHghd chpikfs; Fwpj;J gpuj;jpNafkhf ftdk; nrYj;jpa KjyhtJ
rHtNjr epakk; ,JthFk;. ,J vy;yh ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fSk; mDgtpf;f Ntz;ba
Kf;fpa chpikfis cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ. mjhtJ ghugl;rkpd;ik (nfhs;if 3)>
ghy;epiy rkj;Jtk; (nfhs;if 4)> ,lk; ngaHtpypUe;J ghJfhg;G (nfhs;if 5)>
me;juq;fKk; tPl;Lf;fhd kjpg;Gk; (nfhs;if 6)> cilikfspd; mikjpahd
mDgtpg;G (nfhs;if 7)> Nghjpastpyhd tPL (nfhs;if 8)> elkhl;lr; Rje;jpuk;
(nfhs;if 9)> RatpUg;gpy; jpUk;Gjy; (nfhs; if 10).

gpd;nfa;Nuh nfhs;iffs; vy;yh ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fspdJk; nrhj;J kw;Wk; tPl;ilj;
jpUg;gpf; nfhLj;jy; chpikia vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. (nfhs;if 2). ,f;nfhs;ifapd;
gpufhuk; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH kw;Wk; mfjpfs; jk;kplkpUe;J VNjr;rhjpfhukhf
my;yJ rl;lj;jpw;F khwhf gwpf;fg;gl;l tPl;bid fhzpia my;yJ nrhj;ij kPs
mile;J nfhs;sTk; xU RahjPdkhd eLepiyahd ePjpkd;wj;jhy;
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145
jPHkhdpf;fg;gl;lthwhf kPsg; ngw Kbahj tPl;bw;F> fhzpf;F> nrhj;jpw;F el;l<l;ilg;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; chpikiaAk; vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. (nfhs;if 2.1)

,oe;j nrhj;ij mjd; rl;lhPjpahd chpikahshplk; jpUg;gpf;nfhLf;Fk; chpikiaAk;
,J tpghpf;fpwJ. tPl;ilf;> fhzpia> nrhj;ij rl;lj;jpw;F khwhf my;yJ
VNjr;rhjpfhukhf nfhz;bUg; gjw;F gjpw;nraw;ghlhf ghpfhuk; tpUk;gg;gLtijAk; xU
caH chpikahf mJ fhl;LfpwJ. jpUg;gpf; nfhLj;jy; eilngw Kbahj
re;jHg;gq;fspy; Nghjpasthd kw;Wk; epahakhd el;l<L xU rl;lhPjpahd ghpfhukhf
njhopw;ghLfpwJ.

#oikTk; rthy;fSk;

Kuz;ghl;bd; %yk; ,lg;ngaHT Vw;gLk; #oy; njhlHghd tPL> fhzp nrhj;J
chpikfs; njhlHghf gytifg;gl;l rthy;fs; cs;sd. mitahtd fle;jfhy
nrhj;JhpikiaAk;> fhzpahl;rp toikiaAk; murpay; kag;gLj;jy;> ,d kag;gLj;jy;
vd;gtw;wpypUe;J khw;wpr; rhpnra;tjhf ,Ue;jJ. mitfshtd fhzp mUikia
ntw;wp nfhs;tjw;fhf ngz;fs; rpWghd;ikapdUf;fhd ghugl;rk;> kz; gOjiljy;> ePH
tpepNahf kw;Wk; kpd; tpepNahf tiyg;gpd;dy; Nghd;w nghJr; Nritfs; kw;Wk;
tPLfspy; ngUk; mopT Vw;gLjy; Nghd;wd. ngUk; ,lg;ngaHthd rpy re;jHg;gq;fspy;
tPl;Lf;F jpUk;g tu tpUk;Gk; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhH fsthf te;J FbNawp
,Ug;NghiuAk;> jhk; ,lk;ngaHe;j gpd;G tPl;by; te;J ,Ug;gtHfisAk; vOg;gp
mDg;g Ntz;bAs;sJ. mtHfspy; rpyH Nkhrbahd gpioahd tpw;gidf;
nfhLf;fy;thq;fy; %yk; njhpahj Kiwapy; nrhj;Jhpkq;fis ngw;wpUf;fyhk;. rpyH
jq;fspd; nrhj;Jhpikia tpw;wjhf my;yJ khw;wpajhf fLikahd mr;RWj;jy;
my;yJ gyhj;fhu #o;epiyapd; fPo; Nghl;bapl;L thjpl Ntz;Lk;.

rl;l kw;Wk; nfhs;if rl;lf mikg;Gk; rpwe;j toikfSk;
Kuz;ghl;bw;Fg; gpe;jpa GdHepHkhzk; kw;Wk; cWjp nra;jypy; cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpd; tPL> fhzp kw;Wk; nrhj;Jhpikiag; ghJfhj;jy; vd;gJ kpfTk;
rpf;fyhd nghWg;Ngw;ghfTk;> mjw;F rl;l kw;Wk; nfhs;if rl;lf mikg;gpd;
mgptpUj;jpAk; Njitg;gLfpwJ. Fiwe;j gl;rk; ,r; rl;lf mikg;Gfs; gpd;tUk;
mbg;gil tplaq;fis nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpd; tPL> fhzp nrhj;Jf;fis mopj;jy;> rl;lj;jpw;F
khwhfg; gad; gLj;jy;> FbNawy;> VNjr;rhjpfhukhf NjitfSf;fhf xJf;Fjy;
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vd;gtw;iwj; jilnra;tJld;> mtHfspd; ,lk;ngaHTf; fhyg; gFjp G+uhfTk;
mtw;iwg; ghJfhg; gjw;fhf mbg;gil Vw;ghLfisr; nra;jy;.
 cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;j Ml;fspd; nrhj;Jhpik Fwpj;J njspthf
vLj;Jiuj;jy;. jpUg;gpf; nfhLf;Fk; chpik> e\;l<L kw;Wk; Vida ghpfhu
topfs; cl;gl.
 gpzf;Ffis jPHg;gjw;fhdJk; kj;jpa];jk; nra;tjw;Fkhd rf;jp kpf;f
nghwpKiwia mikj;jy;> cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;Njhhpd; nrhj;Jhpikfis
epiyehl;ly; ,e;j chpikfs; kPwg;gLk;nghOJ chpa ghpfhuk; nra;jy;.

rhjhuz ePjpkd;wq;fisAk; ePjpaikg;Gf;fisAk; nrhj;Jg; gpzf;Ffis jPHf;f
gad;gLj;jf; $bajhf ,Ue;jhYk;> ngUk; ,lk;ngaHT epiyikfs; ,jw;fhf
jw;fhypfkhf nrhj;J Mizf;FOf;fis> ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapyhd chpik
Nfhuy;fis nraw;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpy; mikf;f Ntz;ba Njitia Vw;gLj;jyhk;.
gp;d;tUk; njhopy;El;gq;fSk; trjpaspf;fg;gl;l nray;KiwfSk; ,t;Thpik
Nfhuy;fis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;fhf gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;. tpNrlkhf nghJthd my;yJ
nghJg; gLj;jg;gl;l ,lk;ngaHe;j tbtikg;Gf;fs; fhzg; gLkplj;J ,tw;iwg;
gad;gLj;jyhk;.
 cz;ikiaf; fz;lwptjw;fhd tiuaWf;fg;gl;lJk; JhpjkhdJkhd
nrad;Kiwfs; mDkhdq;fis gad;gLj;Jjy; cl;gl.
 chpik ghuhl;Ljiy ep&gpg;gjw;fhd Kiwikaw;w kw;Wk; khw;W rhd;Wg;
gbtq;fis mDkjpg;gjd; %yk; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;J chpik
NfhUNthUf;F rhHghd rhd;W NjLjy; Rikiaf; Fiwj;jy;.
 nrhj;Jg; ngWkhdq;fis tpiuthfTk; xNukhjphpahfTk; epWTtjw;fhd
epakkhd el;l<l;L tha;g;ghLfis cUthf; fp gzj;ij ifg;gpujpAgfhuq;fis
jpUg;gpf; nfhLj;jy; eilngw Kbahj my;yJ rhj;jpakw;w Neuq;fspy;
toq;Fjy;.

,lk;ngaHitj; njhlHe;J tPL> fhzp nrhj;J gpur;rpidfis jPHg;gjw;F
gad;gLj;jf;$ba Vida Vw;ghLfSk; rpwe;j tpsf;fq;fSk; gpd;tUkhW.
 nrhj;J kw;Wk; guk;giu topr; rl;lq;fis kWrPuikj;J ngz;fisAk;
rpWghd;ikapdiuAk; tPL fhzp nrhj;J vd;gtw;wpy; vt;tifapYk;
ghugl;rkpd;wp nrhj;Jhpikia itj;jpUf;fr; nra;jy;.
 tPL> fhzp> nrhj;Jf;fis tpw;f my;yJ ghpkhw;w mr;rj;jpd; fPo; nra;j
nrhj;J khw;wq;fisAk;> xg;ge;jq;fisAk; nry;Ygbaw;wjhf;Fjy;.
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 nrhj;J gpzf;Ffisj; jPH;g;gJld; njhlHGila chpikfs;> ghpfhuq;fs;>
eilKiwfs; vd;gtw;iw tpghpf;Fk; cq;fspd; nrhj;Jhpikia mwpe;J
nfhs;Sq;fs; vd;w gpurhuq;fisAk; nghJf; fy;tpiaAk; Nkw;nfhs;sy;.
 gpzf;fpw;Fl;gl;l nrhj;jpd; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtUf;Fk; ,lk;ngaHe;j gpd;G
FbNawpatUf;Fkhd gpzf;Fj; jPHT nghwpKiwiaAk; Rygkhf kj;jpa];jk;
fpilf;ff;$ba topiaAk; fl;lzkpy;yhj my;yJ Fiwe;j fl;lzj;jpy; rl;l
cjtpiaAk; toq;Fjy;.
 toikapy; jq;fpapUj;jy; my;yJ Kiwrhuh gpzf;Fj; jPHT Kiwik>
Nghjpajw;w mur ,aYikf;F gjpw;nraw;ghlhf> chpa nrad;Kiwia
cWjpg;gLj;Jk; nrad;KiwahfTk; kw;Wk; kdpj chpikfs; epakkhfTk;
NrHj;Jf;nfhs;sg; gLjy;.
 ePjpkd;wj; jPHg;Gf;fis mKy;gLj;j> nrhj;J tplaq;fspy; nrhj;J
Mizf;FOtpd; jPHkhdq;fis mKy;gLj;j rl;l mKyhf;fy; kw;Wk; cs;SH
mjpfhhpfSf;F mjpfhukspj;jy;.
 cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;NjhUf;F mur fhzpfspy; jw;fhypf xJf;fPLfisr;
nra;jy;> kw;Wk; / my;yJ epue;jur; nrhj;J khw;wq;fisr; nra;jy;.

tsq;fisj; njhFj;jy;
,e;j cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l gjpw;nraw;ghL> gytpjkhd gpd;tUk; %yq;fspypUe;J
ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. nghyp]; gzpr; nraw;ghl;lhsHfSf;F gaDs;s vLj;jhsy;
fUtpfshf ,itfs; cs;sd. ,izg;igf; nfhz;l vy;yh epuy;gLj;jg;gl;l
Mtzq;fSk; INPROL vz;k E}yfj;jpw;F gjpNtw;wk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd.

Fwpg;G: ,e;j cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l gjpypy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l vy;yhf; fUj;Jf;fSk; jdpg;gl;l
,aYikapy; nra;ag;gl;litNa. ,J Fwpj;j epWtdj;jpd; fUj;ijg; gpujpgypf;f
Ntz;bajpy;iy. INPROL ntspg;gilahf nfhs;iffis gpurhuk; nra;tjpy;iy.












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148
Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;l ehLfspy; rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhj;jy;
Prepared by Leigh Toomey with contributions from Angela Krueger, Christina Storm, J. O’Neil G. Pouliot, Claudia
Baroni, Francis Bremson, Ilias Chatzis, Melinda Lord, Vivienne O’Connor, Charles Briefel, David Kerem, Mark
LaLonde, and Michael Hartmann for the Inernational Network of the rule of Law.

gpd;Gyk;
ePjpahdJk; ntw;wpfukhdJkhd Fw;wk; rhl;liy cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F
ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fs; kw;Wk; rhl;rpfspd; xj;Jiog;G ,d;wpaikahjJ. ,Ue;Jk;
Kuz;ghl;Lf;F gpe;jpa #o;epiyfspy; mNefkhf jdpegHfs; gaj;jpd; fhuzkhf
,t;tplaj;jpy; xj;Jiog;G ey;f Kd;tUtjpy;iy. MfNt rhl;rpfSf;F ghJfhg; G
toq;FtJ vd;gJ rl;l mKyhf;fj;Jf;Fk; mbg;gilahd rl;lf; flg;ghlhfTk; xU
,d;wpaikahjnjhd;whf cs;sJ. Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J ntspg;gl;l ehLfspy;
rf;jptha;e;j Fw;wkpioj;NjhH rl;lj;jpw;F tpyf;fspf;fg;gl;Nlhuhf murpay; hPjpahf> ,d
hPjpahf jpl;lkplg;gl;l Fw;wq;fisr; nra; NthH vd;NghUs;s> Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J
tpLg;gl;l ehLfspy; ,J xU Kf;fpa rthyhf cs;sJ. Kuz; ghl;bd; xU
gFjpapdUf;F tprhuizahsHfSk; Fw;wk; rhl;LgtHfSk; rhHGepiy nfhz;ltuhf
,Ug;gH my;yJ Fw;wtpay; murpay; mjpfhu fl;likg;Gld; rk;ge;jg;gl;ltuhf ,Ue;J
rhl;rpfspd; ghJfhg;gpy; Mgj;ij tpistpg;gH. fLikahd Fw;wq;fis Muk;g
fl;lj;jpNyNa tprhhpj;J Fw;wk; rhl;Lk; NjitAs;s mNjNtisapy;> rhl;rpfisg;
ghJfhg;gjw;fhd jhf;fKs;s nghwpKiwia epWTtjw;fhd rl;lthf;fq;fis
Nkw;nfhs;s tUlq;fs; vLf;fyhk;. ,e;jg; nghwpKiwfis eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd
xUikg;ghl;il cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd ,aYikiaf; fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;F ePz;l
fhyk; vLf;fyhk; .

Nfs;tp
ePz;lfhy rl;lthf;fj;; jPHTfSf;F gpujpaPlhf my;yJ khw;wPlhf Fw;wtpay;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;F vLf;ff;$ba cldb eltbf;iffs; kw;Wk;
FWq;fhy cghaq;fs; vd;d? rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg; gjw;F gad;gLj;jf;$ba ePz;lfhy
Vida jPHTfSk; vd;d?

RUf;fkhd gjpw;nraw;ghL
Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;l gy ehLfspy; fLikahd Fw;wtpay; eltbf;ifspd;
Fw;wk; rhl;LjyhdJ rhl;rpfs; tof;Ffspy; rhl;rpfs; jk; tho;Tf;Fk;> jk;
FLk;gj;jpw;Fk; Fw;wtpay; Fw;wkpiog;gtuhNyh my;yJ mtHfSila gpujpfspdhNyh
Mgj;J Vw;gl;LtpLk; vd;w gak; fhuzkhf jaq;Ftjhy; fLikahd tof;Ffs;
vy;yhk;; jilg;gl;Lg;NghAs;sd. rhl;rpfs; jkf;F ntspg;gilahd mr;RWj;jy;
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,y;yhtpbDk; jq;fSila capiuNah my;yJ jq;fsJ njhopiyNah my;yJ
jq;fsJ r%f epiyg;ghl;ilNah ,ilapy; khw;wp tpLthHfs; vd;w mr;rk; fhuzkhf>
jkf;Fj; jhNk tpjpj;Jf;nfhz;l xU jzpf;ifia ,e;jr; rhl;rpfs; itj;Jf;
nfhz;Ls;shHfs;. gyhj;fhuj;jhy; nra;tijtpl Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l Fw;wkpioj;jtH
kiwKfkhd my;yJ ntspg;gilahd tpUg;Gf;fis> fhRf; nfhLg;gdtpypUe;J
vjpHfhy epiyfSf;fhd cWjpnkhopfs; my;yJ gjtpAaHTfs; tiuf;Fkhdtw;iw
rhl;rpfSf;F toq;fyhk;. rhl;rpfis Kd;te;J rhl;rpgfUk;gb Jz;Ltjw;fhd
NjitahdJ xt;nthU fl;lj;jpYk; mjhtJ Muk;g fl;lj;jpyhd nghyp];
tprhizapypUe;J KiwrhH rptpy;rl;l tprhuiz> ePjpgjpahy; tprhuiz nra;Ak;
Fw;wk; rhl;Lgtuhy; my;yJ tof;fpdhNyNa eilngWk; tprhuiz tiuf;Fkhd
fl;lk; tiu vy;yhf;fl;lj;jpYk; rhl;rp rhl;rpak; gfUtjw;fhd> Njitiaj; J}z;l
Ntz;bAs;sJ. rhl;rpfspd; rhl;rpaj;jpw;fhd xU KOikahd ghJfhg;Gk; J}z;LjYk;
,Ue;jhYk;> nghyprhhpd; Fw;wk; rhl;Lgthpd; ePjpj;Jiw xUikj; njhopw;ghl;bd;
nghJkf;fs; ek;gfj; jd;ikapd; ,aYikiaf; fl;bnaOg;GtijAk; mNjNtisapy;
nra;aNtz;bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ. mj;Jld; ghJfhg;Gj; njhopw;ghl;bd; mgptpUj;jp kw;Wk;
Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;LtUk; ehLfspy; CoYf;F vjpuhd gykhd cghaq;fs;>
mghafukhd jhf;fkhd cghaq;fs; vd;gd jpl;lkplg;gl;l Fw;wq;fisAk;
gaq;futhjj;ijAk; vjpHnfhs;tjw;F Njitahf cs;sJ. ,J xU FWfpa
xd;wpizf;fg;gl;l ePjpj;Jiw cghakhfTk; mjpNy rhl;rpfspd; ghJfhg;G xU
Kf;fpakhd gFjpahfTk; cs;sJ.

gpd;dH Muhag;gLtJ Nghd;W rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg; gjw;fhd Njit rHtNjr
rkthaq;fspy; $l mjpfkhf mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. MdhYk; ,itfspd; Cfpg;G
vd;dntdpy; tsq;fs; kw;Wk; epWtd ,aYik vd;gd rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd
epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;j NghJkhdit vd;gjhFk;. Mdhy; fLikahd
cs;ehl;L Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J jg;gpg;gpiof;Fk; NghuhLk; r%fj;ijg; nghWj;jstpy; mJ
mt;thwpy;iy vd;gNj cz;ikahFk;. rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg;gij Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;F
vLf;ff;$ba rpy gbKiwfs; gpd;tUkhW. mitahtd:
 xU Misg; gw;wpf; fz;Lgpbj;jy;
 fz;fhzpj;jy; kw;Wk; nghyprhH> Fw;wk; rhl;LNthH> ePjpgjp vd;Nghiu
nghWg;Gs;Nshuhf;Fjy;> tprhuizapNy eLepiyahf rk;ge;jg;gLtij
Cf;Ftpg;gjw;fhf gz;l cjtpfisAk; gapw;rp trjpfisAk; mspj;jy;
 Fw;wk; rhl;LjYk; jPHg;G toq;FjYk;
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150
 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l Ml;fsplkpUe;J rhl;rpfis gpwpjhf itj;jpUf;ff;f$bajhf
ePjpkd;wq;fisAk;> rpiwr;rhiyfisAk;> nghyp]; epiyaq;fisAk; kPsf;
fl;Ljy;
 rl;lthf;fj;ij gyg;gLj;JtJld; rl;lthf;fq;fs;> xOq;Ffs;> topfhl;Ljy;fs;>
kunghOq;Ffs; vd;gtw;wpd; Clhf chpa ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfisr; nra;J
,aYikiag; gyg;gLj;Jjy;.

rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd FWq;fhy Vw;ghLfs;
tprhuizahsHfSk; Fw;wk; rhl;LgtHfSk; ftdkhf ahUf;F> ve;j rhl;rpf;F
ghJfhg;Gj; Njit vd;gij ghprPypf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,J tof;fpw;F Kd;Ngh> tof;fpw;F
gpd;Ngh mtHfs; vjpHnfhs;sSk; ,lH mgha kl;lj;ijg; nghWj;Nj mike;jpUf;f
Ntz;Lk;.

m. ahiug; ghJfhg;gJ
fLikahd Fw;wtpay; tof;Ffspy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfs;> gf;fj;jpNy epd;wtHfs;
Fw;wtpay; nraw;ghl;by; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jdpegHfs; vd;NghH rhl;rpaq;fshf ,Ug;ghHfs;.
mNjNtisapy; nghyprhNuhL xj;Jiog;NghH my;yJ Fw;wk; rhl;LNthhpy; ,Ue;J
ghJfhg;igg; ngw;Wf;nfhz;ltH my;yJ cz;ikj; jd;ikf;F gpujpAgfhukhf
jz;lid Fiwf;fg;gl;ltHfs; vd;Nghuhth;. ,t;tizahd vy;yhtifahd
rhl;rpfSf;Fk; ghJfhg;Gf; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mtHfs; ,dk; fhzg; gl;L>
ntspg;gLj;jg;gLtij ghJfhg;gjw;fhd rl;lG+Ht kw;Wk; xOq;fikg;G Vw;ghLfSk;
mtHfis jw;fhypfkhfNth> my;yJ epue;jukhdjhfNth epjpaPl;l
epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fSk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz; Lk;. mtHfspd; FLk;g cWg;gpdHfSf;Fk;
ghJfhg;G Njitahf cs;sJ.

M. vg;NghJ ghJfhg;gJ
nghyp]; tsq;fs; gw;whf;Fiwahdit. kpfTk; fLikahd caH mghaj;Jf;F
my;yJ jPq;Ff;F Mshff; $ba rhl;rpfSf;Nf mtHfshy; ghJfhg;G toq;f KbAk;.
gpd;tUk; fhuzpfis fzf;fpy; vLj;J rhl;rpaq;fs; ghJfhg;ig gad;jU Kiwapy;
ifahs;tjw;F tprhuizahsHfs; Fw;wk; rhl;LNthhpd; gf;fj;jpNy njhopy;thz;ik
hPjpahd jPHg;ghdJ xt;nthU tof;fpYk; Njitg;gLtjhf ,Uf;Fk;.

 rhl;lg;gl;l Fw;wj;jpd; ,ay;G (fLikahdjh> ghJfhg;G cj;juthjk;
Njitahdjh)
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151
 mr;RWj;jypd; ,ay;G (ghjpf;fg;gl;ltUf;F vjpuhf Vw;fdNt mr;RWj;jy;
nra;ag;gl;Ls;sjh> mr;RWj;jy; ntspg;gilahf nra;ag;gl;ljh> ek;gj;jFe;jjh)
 rhl;rpaj;Jf;Fk; nrhy;yg;gLk; Fw;wkpioj;jtUf;Fkpilapyhd cwTKiw (me;j
cwTKiwahdJ nrhy;yg;gLk; Fw;wkpioj;jtUf;F rhl;rp fpilf;ff;$batuhf
,Uf;fpwhuh? ,e;jf; Fw;wkpioj;jtH rhl;rpia ,izahspfs; my;yJ NtW
ifJ nra;ag;glhj NtW re;NjfegHfs; %yk; milaf;$batuhf ,Uf;fpwhuh?
)
 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gLk; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lthpd; epiy (mtH gpizapy; ,Uf;fpwhuh>
mtH gpizapy; tpLtpf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwhuh)
 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gLgthpd; Fw;wtpay; gjpNtL (mthp;lk; td;Kiw rk;ge;jkhd
tuyhW cs;sjh my;yJ vjpHg;G eltbf;if vLf;ff;$batuh)
 rhl;rpaj;jhy; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;ba rhl;rpg;gj;jpuj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; (,J xU
jdpegiug; gw;wpajh my;yJ xU nghpa xOq;fikf;fg;gl;l FOitg; gw;wpajh>
tof;fpd; xl;Lnkhj;j ntw;wpf;F me;j rhl;rp vt;tsT Kf;fpakhdjhf
,Uf;fpwJ? me;j rhl;rpg;gj;jpuk; ek;gf;$bajh> mNj rhl;rpaj;ij NtW xU
rhl;rpNah my;yJ NtW topapNyh ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAkh? tof;fpNy
rhl;rpahdtH rhl;rpakspj;jtUf;F vOj;J %yk; ,zq;fpapUf;fpd;wuh>
 rhl;rpapd; cstpay;epiy (mtNdh mtNsh mr;RWj;jy; %ykhf rhl;rpakspf;f
kWf;fyhkh? Nghijg;nghUs; gpuNahfk;> FbNghij> kNdhepiy ghjpg;G
my;yJ ghJfhg; Gj; Njitia Nghd;w Vw;f Kbahj jd;ik Nghd;w
gpur;rpidfs; mtNdh mtSf;Nfh cz;lh? rhl;rpahdJ Fw;wj;jpy;
rk;ge;jg;gl;lJld; mghaj;jpYk; ,Uf;fpwuh? jg;gpnahopf;Fk; mghaj;jpy;
,Uf;fpwuh?)

,. vg;gbg; ghJfhg;gJ
rhl;rpapd; ghJfhg;ig Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;F mtrukhfg; nghWg;Ngw;ff; $ba gy
Vw;ghLfs; cs;sd.

nghyp]; gzp cghaq;fs;
rhl;rpfspid mr;RWj;jf;$ba rhj;jpaj;ijf; Fiwf;Fk; jLg;Gj; jhf;Fjiy
Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhd cghaq;fis tprhuizf; fl;lj;jpy; Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F nghyp];
mjpfhhpfSf;F gapw;rp mspf;fg;glyhk;.

1. Kf;fpakhd rhl; rpfspd; milahsj;ij ghJfhg;gjw;fhd epahakhd tprhuiz
nray;Kiwfs; - mjpfhhpfs; tprhuizf;F Gwg;gLk;nghOJ nghyp]; thndhyp %yk;
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152
rhl;rpfspd; tpguq;fis xypgug;gg; glhj nfhs;if ,jpy; cs;slf;fg;glyhk;. Kf;fpa
rhl;rpfspd; tHj;jf ml;ilfis ntspaplhik> me;j ,lj;jpy; ,dpapy;iynad;W
NjitNaw;ghl;lhy; xopa me;j ,lj;jpy; itj;J NeHfhzy;fis elj;Jjiyj;
jtpHj;jy;> rhl;rpfis NeHfhzy; nra;jiy mtHfspd; tPL> nghyp]; epiyak;
vd;gtw;iwj; jtpHj;J gpe;jpa Neuj;jpy; elhj;Jjy;.

2. chpa ,df; FOf;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhf chpa ,dj;ijr; NrHe;j nghyp];
mjpfhhpfisg; gad;gLj;Jjy;. td;Kiwf;F cz;lhd rdr%fj;jpd; nry;thf;Fila
jiytHfSld; cwTfisg; gyg;gLj;Jjy;

3. rhl;rpfs; mr;RWj;jg;gl;Lj;jg;gl;ljd; mwpf;iffspd; tprhuizfspd; kPJ mOj;jk;
nfhLj;jy;. ,J nghyprhhplj;jpy; ek;gpf;ifia Vw;gLj;jp Vida Fw;wr;nray;fisAk;
mwpf;ifapLtij Cf;Ftpf;Fk;.

 neUq;fpa ghJfhg;G - xU rhl;rp Mgj;jpy; cs;sjhf> ,lhpy; cs;sjhf ,dk;
fhzg;gl;lhy;> mtH neUf;fkhd ghJfhg;gpy; itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,J
nghyprhhpdhNyh my;yJ ,uhZtg; gphptpdhNyh toq;fg;glyhk;. rhl;rpf;Nfh
mthpd; FLk;g cWg;gpdHfSf;Nfh clw; ghJfhg;ghdJ 24 kzpj;jpahyk;
toq;fg;glyhk;. ,jpy; rhl;rpiag; ghJfhg;ghd ,lj;jpy; itj;jy; my;yJ NtW
ghJfhg;ghd ,lj;jpy; itj;jy; my;yJ tof;fpd;nghONjh my;yJ tof;fpw;F
Kd;Ngh> tof;fpw;F gpd;Ngh rhl;rpia ,lH Mgj;Jf; Fiwe;j NtnwhU
efuj;Jf;Fg; Nghf;Ftuj;Jr; nra;jy; vd;gtw;iwnay;yhk; cs;slf;Fk;.

neUq;fpa ghJfhg;G nfhLf;Fk; FOtpd; gapw;rp kl;lKk; mjpy;
cs;slf;fg;gLgtHfSk;> mr;RWj;jypd; msitAk; ,ay;igAk; nghWj;J khWgLk;
,e;jf; FOtpNy ,Uf;Fk; cWg;gpdHfs; csT ghHg;gjw;F nghWg;ghdtHfs;>
Kf;fpakhd ,lq;fshd eP jpkd;wq;fs; tjptplq;fs; vd;gtw;Wf;F ghJfhg;G
mspg;gtHfs;> thfdq;fs; ghJfhg; ghf nry; tjw;F nghWg; ghdtHfs;> njhlHghlYf;F
nghWg;ghdtHfs;> kw;Wk; Vida cl;fl;likg;Gf;Fg; nghWg;ghdtHfs; vy;NyhUk;
,f;FOtpy; ,Ug;gH. gzpaplj;jpd; NjitfSld; kpfg; nghUj;jkhf FOtpdH
nghUj;jkhd Maj;jq;fSld; ,Ug;gH. cjhuzj;jpw;F nfhNrth Nghd;w xg;gPl;lstpy;
efug;gFjpfSf;F nghyprhH nghUj;jkhdtHfshf ,Uf;f ,uhZt mDgtKs;s
Ml;fs; Mg;fhdp];jhd; Nghd;w fpuhkpag; gFjpfSf;F ,uhZt tPuHfs;
nghUj;jkhdtHfshf ,Ug;gh;. FO cWg; gpdHfs; nfhiltoq;Fk; murhq;fq;fspdhy;
nfhLf;fg;glyhk; . rHtNjrg; gilfspypUe;J gzpapy; cs;s gilfs; my;yJ jdpahH
ghJfhg;G fk;gdpfsplj;jpypUe;J xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg; glyhk;.
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153

neUq;fpa ghJfhg;Gf;F nghJthf rl;lthf;f jpUj;jq;fs; Ntz;bajpy;iy. MdhYk;
,jw;F toikahf epakkhd nraw;ghl;Lr; nrad;Kiwfs; Njitg;gLk;. Vnddpy;
mg;NghJjhd; nghyprhNuh ,uhZj;jpd; myFfNsh tpiuthf mr;RWj;jypd; msitj;
jPhkhdpj;J ghJfhg;Gr; nraw;ghLfis xUq;fpizf;f $bajhf ,Uf;Fk;. xU
nghyp];gilapypUe;J xU jdpahd rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhf;Fk; myif epWtpf;
nfhs;syhk;. gy rhl;rpfSf;F Mgj;J ,Uf;Fkhapd; ,t;thW nra;J nfhs;syhk; .
2001 Mk; Mz;L nfhNrhthtpy; I. eh gzpapd;NghJ mtHfspd; mjpfhuj;jpd; fPNo
xU rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;G gphpnthd;W mikf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

 cl;fl;likg;Gfis khw;Wjy;
rhl;rpfSf;F rpwe;j ghJfhg;ig toq;Fk; cl;fl;likg;G - xg;gPl;lstpy; vspasthd
cl;fl;likg;G mjpfhpg;Gfisf; nfhz;L tUjw;fhf nfhiltoq;FdH cjtpfis ehl
KbAk;. cjhuzj;jpw;F nghyp]; epiyaq;fspYk; ePjpkd;wq;fspYk; rhl;rpfs;
fhj;jpUf;Fk;NghJk;;> NeHfhzy; trjpfspd;NghJk;> Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gLk; Fw;wkpioj;jtH
ePjpkd;w tprhuizapd; Kd;G my;yJ tof;fpd;nghOJ> Njitaw;w tpjj;jpy;
njhlHGfs; Vw;gLj;Jtijj; jLg;gjw;fhf> gFjpahf Kd;dNu mikf;fg;gl;l
nfhs;fyd;fis> rhl;rpfspd; ghtidf;F ,e;j ,lq;fspy;; jdpahf mtHfis
itj;jpUg;gjw;F gad;gLj;jyhk;. kpfTk; rpf;fyhd cl;fl;Lkhd khw;wq;fs; mjhtJ
fl;blq;fSf;F NtW thry;fis cUthf;Fjy; my;yJ GJ trjpfisf;
fl;bnaOg;Gjy; vd;gd ePz;l fhyg;Nghf;fpNyNa if$Lk;.

 tof;if mtjhdpj;jy;
rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg; gjw;fhd NtnwhU top ahnjdpy; tof;fpid RhajPd
fz;fhzpg;ghsiuf; nfhz;L mtjhdpf;fr; nra;tjhFk;. ,J tiuaiwahd
ghJfhg;igNa toq;Fk; Vnddpy; xU fz;fhzpg;ghsH ntWkNd cs;ehl;L kw;Wk;
ntspehl;L mjpfhhpfSf;F mwpf;if toq;fNt KbAk;. mj;Jld; Clfj;jpw;Fk;
tof;fpd; elj;ij> mr;RWj;jy;> gaKWj;jy;fs; gw;wp; mwpf;if toq;f KbAk;. Mdhy;
mtHfs; rhl;rpapd; ngsjPf ghJfhg;ig cWjpg;gLj;j KbahJ. jhf;fkhd xU
mtjhdpg;G rpy #o;epiyfspy;; Nghjpajhf ,Uf;Fk;. mr;RWj;jy; elj;ijfis
Jg;gwptjw;F jhf;fkhd mtjhdpg;G rpy rkaq;fspy; cjtpahf ,Uf;Fk;. xU ePjpgjp
,e;j tof;F fz;fhzpf;fg;gLfpwJ vd mwpthuhapd;> mtH; xU rhl;rpia gyKiw
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F tur; nra;Ak; Njitaw;w jhkjq;fisj; jtpHj;Jf; nfhs;thh;. MdhYk;
vy;yh tof;FfspYk; ,e;j tof;if mtjhdpg;G nra;Ak; Kiwik nghUj;jkhf
tuhJ. Fwpj;J rhl;rpia nghpa Mgj;jpy; Nghlf;$ba tplaq;fis Nehf;fp ftdk;
nrYj;Jtjw;F ftdkhd ghprPypg;G mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
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154

rhl;rpaq;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd ePz;lfhy Vw;ghLfs;;
m. eilKiwg; ghJfhg;G
eilKiwapyhd rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfshdit Fw;wr; nrad;Kiw rl;lq;fspd;
rl;lthf;fj; jpUj;jq;fspd; Clhf eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;ba NjitAs;sJ.
eilKiwg; ghJfhg;Gf;F nghUj;jkhdtHfs; ahnud;gijf; Fwpj;Jiuf;Fk;
fl;lisapy; tpNrbj;j rl;lthf;f Vw;ghLfs; NjitNaw;gLfpwJ. mg; ghJfhg;Gf;F
Fw;wk; rhl;LgtNuh my;yJ ghJfhg;gtNuh vt;thW tpz;zg;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;;> vd;d
#o;epiyfspy; xU ePjpgjpahdtH me;j tpz;zg;gk; Fwpj;J xU ePjpkd;wf; Nfl;igj;
jPHkhdpf;f Ntz;Lk;> vd;d ,ay; ghd ghJfhg;G fpilf;ff;$bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ
vd;gdtw;Wld; ,J rk;ge;jg;gLfpwJ. eilKiwg; ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfs; xU
ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F jPq;F Vw;gLtjpypUe;J ghJfhg;gpw;fhd rHr;irf;Fhpajhf ,Uf;Fk;.
(cjhuzj;jpw;F ghJfhg;ig kWg;gjd; %yk; xU rhl;rpaj;NjhL NkhJfpd;w ePjpkd;wk;
ghJfhg;G mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. mNefkhf Njitg;gLk; re;jHg;gj;jpy; khj;jpuNk ,J
gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jPHkhdk; vLg;gjw;F Kd;gjhf xU ePjpkd;wk; ghJfhg;G
mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. Vd; eilKiwg; ghJfhg;Gfs; nghUj;jkhdJ vd xU ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
Vw;ghLfspy; xU ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F mjpfhukspf;Fk; Vw;ghLfs;.


ePjpkd;wj;Jf;F mjpfhuq;fis mspf;Fk; Vw;ghLfs; cl;gl eilKiwg; ghJfhg;G
Vw;ghLfs;

 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l Fw;wkpioj;jthpd;thpd; jLj;J itg;Gj; jPHg;ig my;yJ
tof;fpw;F Kd;ghd jLj;J itg;ig mDkjpj;jy;
 ghjpf;fg;gl;ltUlDk; rhl;rpAlDk; njhlHG Vw; gLtjpypUe;J Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l
Fw;wkpioj;jtiuj; jLg;gjw;fhf mjid tiuaWf;Fk; rl;lq;fis
ntspapLjy;.
 Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltUf;Nfh my;yJ mtUila rl;lj;juzpf;Nfh tof;fpw;F
epahakhd fhyg;gFjp tiuf;Fk; rhl;rpia milahs fhZtjw;F
ve;jtpjkhd jFjpfisAk; ntspaplhJ tpLtjw; F fl;lisaply;. ,jw;fhf
rhl;rpf;F Gidg; ngaHfis ,Lk; mjpfhuj;ijAk; ,jpy; cs;slf;fyhk;. ,e;
eltbf;ifspd;NghJ ghJfhg;ig tpUk;Gk; rhl;rpaplkpUe;J $ba ,aYkhd
tiuapy; mtuJ thf;F%yj;ij gjpitg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;.
 rhl;rpia tof;fpd;NghJ kiwj;jy; cjhuzk; tof;fpw;F Kd;gjhf rhl;rpapd;;
tPbNah ehlh %ykhd ghpNrhjid> tof;fpd;NghJ rhl;rpia jpiuf;Fg; gpd;dhy;
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155
itj;jpUj;jy;. Fuiy khw;Wk; njhopy;El;gj;ijg; gad;gLj;jy; my;yJ ePjpgjp
miwapy; rhl;rpiag; ghpNrhjpj;jy; my;yJ njhiyf;fhl;rp Rw;Wf;fis nfhz;L
ghpNrhjpj;jy;)
 ePjpkd;w xOq;Ffspd;nghOJ rhl;rp kPjhd mr;RWj;jiyAk; njhe;juitAk;
jLg;gjw;fhf Nfs;tpfs; Nfl;gij fl;Lg;gLj;jy;.
 ePjpgjp mr;RWj;jy; eltbf;if> Kuz;ghL> jLj;Jitj;jy; my;yJ jz;lk;
tpjpj;jy; Nghd;w mr;RWj;jy; eltbf;iffs; %yk; ePjpgjpf;F mjpfhuk;
toq;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ.
 rpy fUj;J ntspg;ghLfspd;NghJ ePjpkd;wj;jpype;J Fw;wk;rhl;lg;gl;ltiu
jw;fhypfkhf mfw;Wjy;
 nghJkf;fSf;fhf ePjpkd;w eltbf;iffis %Ljy;.
 ePjpkd;w Mtzq;fspypUe;J G+uzkw;w jfty;fis ePf;fptpLjy;.
 rhl;rpapd; milahsk; fhzg;gLjiy nghJkf;fSf;F ntspg;gLj;jhky;
,Ug;gJk; nghJg; gjpTfspypUe;J ePjpkd;wj; jftypd; nghJg; gjpTfspypUe;J
rhl;rpia ,dk; fhzf;$ba jfty;fis mfw;wp tpLjy;.

eilKiwg; ghJfhg;gpd; cjhuzq;fis XrthtpYs;s UNMIK xOq;Ftpjpfs; 2002 20
,Yk; ngh];dpah kw;Wk; nfH];Nfhtpdh mr;RWj;jy; kw;Wk; jhf;fg;glf;$ba
epiyapd; fPOs;s rhl;rpfspd; ghJfhg;G kPjhd rl;lj;jpYk; fz;Lnfhs;syhk;.

Vida epHthf kw;Wk; rl;lhPjpahd Vw;ghLfSk; Ntz;lg;gLk;. cjhuzj;jpw;F %bg;
ghJfhf;fg;gl;l ePjpkd;w gjpTfisf; fsQ;rpag;gLj;Jtjw;fhd epHthf
nray;Kiwfis cUthf;Ftij ePjpkd;wk; nra;a Ntz;bAs;sJ. eilKiw
ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfs; Vw;gLj;jg;gLtJld;> mjDld; xOfpg;Nghfj; jtWtjw;fhd
Jiz Fw;wtpay; rl;lq;fSk; cUthf;fp nraw;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. rpiwr;rhiy
mjpfhhpfSk; rl;l mKyhf;f KftHfSk; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltUf;F my;yJ rhl;rpf;F
Fw;wkpioj;jtH jz;lidapypUe;J tpLgLk;nghOJ mtHfSf;F mwptpg;gJld;>
Nkyjpf njhlHr;rpahd ghJfhg;igAk; toq;Ftjw;Fj; Njitahd rl;lthf;fq;fs;
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;ig eilKiwg;gLtjw;F Ntz;lg;gLk; tsq;fis toq;Ftjw;F
ftdkhd ghprPyid nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz; Lk;. Fwpg;ghf Gjpa njhopy;El;gq;fs;
gad;gLj;Jk;NghNj ,J nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. nghyp];> Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;NlhH> ePjpgjp>
rl;lj;juzpfs;> vd;NghUf;F fzprkhd gapw;rpAk; rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;G eilKiw
kw;Wk; nraw;ghl;L tplaq;fspy; gapw;rpAk; mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; nryTfs;
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156
Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;L tUk; ehLfspy; nfhiltoq;Fdhpd; cjtpapd;wp
nraw;gLj;j Kbahky; Nghfyhk;.

KiwhrhH rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;G epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk;
rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;G epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lkhdJ toikahf nghyprhuhy;
xUq;fpizf;fg;gLfpwJ. tof;fpw;Fg; gpw;ghL ifjpfis NtW xU efuj;jpw;F
khw;Wjy;> mtHfSf;F GJ milahsk; toq; Fjy;> Vida cjtpfshd tPL
Ntiytha;g;G vd;gtw;iw tof;fpw;F gpd;G toq;Fjy;. KiwrhH rhl;rpg; ghJfhg;ghdJ
xU rhl;rpahf jifik ngWk; xUtUf;fhd rl;l epiyia Ntz;b epw;fpwJ.
mjd;gb mghaj;ij kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd nrad;Kiwfs; ngsjPf kw;Wk; jfty;
ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghd epfo;Tfs; rhl;rpahdtH xU epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpy;
gq;Fgw;Wk;nghOJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. 2000 Mk; Mz;lstpNy I.eh
mYtyfj;jpNy Nghijg;nghUs; fl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk; Fw;wj; jLg;gpw;fhd xU khjphp
rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;G rl;l %ykhdkhdJ tiuag;gl;lJ.

nfhNrhth Nghd;w rpy rk;gtq;fspy; rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;ghdJ> vy;iyfSf;F mg;ghy;
$l tp];jhpf;fg;gl;lJ rHtNjrj;jpw;Fs; ,lkhw;WtJ$l rhjhuzkhf kpfTk;
fLikahd tplaq;fspy; mjDila nryT nfhLf;fg;gl;L Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
gq;Fgw;Wdhpd; jhf;fKk; xj;Jiog;gpd; kl;lKk; muRfSf;fpilNa ,t;tplaj;jpy;
Ntz;lg;gLfpwJ. xU rhl;rpia NtW ehl;by; FbapUj;jNth KiwhrhH ghJfhg;G
epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; ehl;by; mtiu ,Uj;Jtjw;Nfh KbfpwJ.
epiykhw;w jpl;lkplg;gl;l Fw;wk; kw;Wk; nfhiyf;F vjpuhd I.eh rkthaj;jpd; 24 (3)
kw;Wk; CoYf;F vjpuhd I.eh rkthaj;jpd; 32(3) vd;gtw;wpYk;> mur jug;Gf;fs;
xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eioe;J rkthaq;fs; njhlHghd Fw;wq;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l rhl;rpaq;fisj;
je;j rhl;rpfis ehLfSf;fpilapy; NtW ,lq;fspy; mkHj;Jtjw;fhf ,zf;fk;
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
17
rHtNjr hPjpahf Ntwplj;jpw;F efHj;jyhdJ toikahf rhl;rpfs;
ghJfhg;G kPjhd ,Ugf;f $l;L xg;ge;jq;fspd; mbg;gilapNy my;yJ gpuhe;jpa
mbg;gilapNyNa Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ my;yJ rk;ge;jg;gLk; ehLfspYs;s KftHfs;

17
1 The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has developed a witness protection manual (“Good Practices for
the Protection of Witnesses in Criminal Proceedings Involving Organized Crime”), covering procedural witness
protection and the establishment of covert witness protection units. The manual discusses cross-border relocation at
greater length, including the common terms of cooperation in international relocation (such as disclosure of
information relating to the witness, reciprocity and compliance with immigration and asylum laws). The manual is
an important resource as it also discusses the experiences in witness protection from different geographical regions
and legal systems. It is available in the Compilation of Resources Section below. UNODC is also developing a model
witness protection law for Latin America and a model agreement on international cooperation in the area of witness
protection. In 2008, expert group meetings will be held to universalize the model law and finalize the model
agreement
157
157
my;yJ nghyp]; gilfSf;fpilapyhd Neubahd Kiwrhuh Ghpe;JzHT
xg;ge;jq;fspd; %ykhfTk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;ig eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjpy; Nkyjpfkhd ghprPyidfs;
Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;l ehLfspNy nghyp]; tprhuizfs;> rhl;rpfsplkpUe;J ngw;w
$w;Wf;fs; re;Njf egHfsplkpUe;J ngw;w xg; Gjy; thf;F%yq;fs; vd;gtw;wpy; nghyp];
tprhuizfs; Kiwaw;w hPjpapYk; rl;lj;jpw;F khwhd KiwapYk;
rk;ge;jg;gl;bUf;fyhk;. ,itfs; rHtNjr epakq;fSf;Fk; Njrpa rl;lq;fisAk;
kPWtjhfTk; mike;jpUf;fyhk;. nghyprhNuh my;yJ rpy ehLfspy; tprhuizahsNuh
Fw;wk; rhl;LgtNuh my;yJ ePjpgjpNah rhl;rpAilaJk; re;NjfegUilaJk;
$w;Wf;fis jphpj;jpUf;fyhk;. re;Njf egHfs; nghyprhUf;F gzk;
nrYj;Jtjw;fhfNth tpLtpg;gjw;fhd ,yQ;rj;ijf; Fw;wk; rhl;LgtUf;F
nfhLg;gjw;fhfNth xU nghpa fg;gj;jpl;lj;jpd; mq;fkhfNth my;yJ rhl;rp
toq;FgtH ghjpf;fg;gl;l rf;jp tha;e;j xUtUf;fhfNth re;NjfegH jLj;J
itf;fg;gl;L Fw;wk; rhl;lg;glyhk;. jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;NshUf;fhd ePjpia
toq;Ftjw;fhf Rje;jpukhd tprhuizfs; Kf;fpakhdit vd;gij ,J fhl;LfpwJ.
RahjPdkhdJk; Nghjpastpyhd njhopw;gLk; fhg;ghsHfspd; ,Uj;jnyd;gJ xU
mj;jpahtrpakhd Kd;epge;jidahf ,Uf;fpwJ. ghJfhf;Fk;; rl;lj;juzpfs;
Ngrf;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;nghOJ ghJfhg; ghsHfspdhy; Kd;itf;fg;gLk; rhl;rpfs;
fUj;Jfis Kd;itf;Fk;nghOJ Coy; eltbf;iffs;> gpioahd chpik Nfhuy;fs;>
Fiwghlhd tprhuizfs; vd;gd ntspg;gLj;jg;gLtjw;fhd rhj;jpaq;fs; mjpfkhf
cs;sd. fhg;Gr; rl;lj;juzpfs; fhg;G gFjpapduhy; jPHkhdpf;fg;gLk; rhl;rpaq;fs;
vd;gd mr;RWj;jiyAk; tho;Tf;fhd ,liuAk; mtHfspd; eyd; ghjpf;fg;gLtijAk;
vjpHnfhs;syhk; . Vnddpy; mtHfs; xU murhq;f tof;fpy; rthy; tpLj;J mur
nraw;ghl;lhsHfSf;F vjpuhfNth> nghyprhUf;F vjpuhfNth rhl;rp gfUfpwhHfs;.
ePjpia Kd;Ndw;Wtjpy; tpNrlkhf Kuz;ghl;bypUe;J tpLgl;L ePjpj;Jiwia
kPsf;fl;bnaOg;Gk; nrad;KiwAs;s xU ehl;by; ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfs; jhf;fkhdjh
vdj; jPHkhdpf;Fk;nghOJ ,e;j tplaq;fs; ghprPyidf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl
Ntz;baitahFk;.



rHtNjr epakq;fs;
rhl;rpfis mr;RWj;jy; gaKWj;jy; jPq;F vd;gtw;wpypUe;J ghJfhg;gjd; Njitia
mq;fPfhpj;j gy vz;zpf;ifahd rHtNjr fUtpfs; cs;sd. mitahtd
158
158
 Fw;wk; kw;Wk; mjpfhu J];gpuNahfj;jpd; ghw;gl;l ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;fhd
ePjpapd; mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffspd; gpufldk; ,J I.eh. nghJr;rigapdhy;
1985 ,y; iff;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,g; gpufldkhdJ ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;F
mnrsfhpaq;fisf; Fiwg;gJ mtHfspd; jdpg;gl;l jd;ikiag; ghJfhg;gJ
Njitg;gLk;nghOJ mtHfSila ghJfhg;ig cWjpg;gLj;JtJ mtHfsJ
FLk;gq;fspYk; ghJfhg;igAk; cWjpg;gLj;JtJ> mr;RWj;jy; kw;Wk; gopthq;fy;
vd;gtw;wpypUe;J mtHfs; rhHghf mtHfs; FLk;gj;ijAk; ghJfhg;gJ
vd;gtw;Wf;fhdtw;iw gpufldk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.
 epiykhw;w jpl;lkplg;gl;l Fw;wq;fSf;nfjpuhd rkthak; 2000. ,J 3
kunghOq;Ffisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. rkthaj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l gzefHj;jy;>
Coy;> Ml;fisf; flj;jy;> Gyk;ngaHNthiuf; flj;jy;> vd;gd rk;ge;jkhf
Fw;wq;fSf;fhd rhl;rpaq;fis toq;fpa rhl;rpfis mr;RWj;jy; gjpyb
nfhLj;jy; vd;gtw;wpypUe;J jhf;fkhd ghJfhg;ig toq;Fk; chpa Vw;ghLfis
vLf;Fk;gb mur jug;Gf;fis ,e;j rkthak; Nfl;fpd;wJ.
 CoYf;nfjpuhd 2003 Mk; Mz;L I.eh rkthak; mur jug;Gfs; jq;fSila
cs;SH rl;l KiwikfSf;Fk; cl;gl;ljhf rkthaj;jpy; nrhy;yg; gl;l
gzefHj;jy;> nghJ mjpfhhpfspd; ,yQ;rk;> mur mjpfhhpfspd; gpioahd epjp
xJf;fk;> njhopw;ghLfis J];gpuNahfk; nra;jy;> jkf;F neUf;fkhd
cwtpdHfis rl;lhPjpaw;w Kiwapy; tsg;gLj;jy;> vd;gd rk;ge;jkhd
tplaq;fspy; rhl;rp gfHe;j rhl;rpaq;fSf;F Vw;gLk; gopthq;fy; mr;RWj;jy;
vd;gw;wpypUe;J ghJfhg;ig mspj;jy;.
 2005 20 I.eh nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; r%f rig jPHkhdk; - ,J ghjpf;fg;gl;l
Foe;ijfs; kw;Wk; rhl;rpfspd; Fw;wq;fSld; njhlHGila ePjp kPjhd topfhl;b
Fwpg;Gfis ifahSfpd;wJ. ghjpf;fg;gl;ltuhfNth rhl;rpahfNth Fw;wtpay;
ePjp nrad;Kiwf;F cl;gl;l Foe;ijfspd; tplaq;fSf;fhd topfhl;bfis
,J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Foe;ijfis ey;yKiwapy; ftdpg;gJ> tpNrl ghJfhg;G>
gaKWj;jy;> mr;RWj;jy; vd;gtw;wpypUe;J mtHfSf;F ghJfhg;gJ mspg;gJ
Fwpj;J ,J Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

rHtNjr Fw;w ePjpkd;w tprhuiz
fLikahd kdpj chpik kPwy;fSf;fhd rHtNjr Fw;w ePjpkd;w tprhuiz
mDgtq;fshdJ ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;Fk; rhl;rpfSf;Fk; ghJfhg; G toq;Ftjw;fhd
tplaq;fis xOq;FgLj;Jtjw;fhd jpl;lj; Njitia kpfTk; caHj;jpf; fhl;b
epw;fpwJ. nghpa rHtNjr Fw;wtpay; tprhuizr; rigfspd; xt;nthU mikg;Gk;
159
159
rhl;rpaq;fisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd Vw;ghLfis nra;jpUf;fpd;wJ.
2
ePjpkd;wq;fs;
rpauhNyhd; tpNrl ePjpkd;wq;fs; rHtNjrr; rl;lq;fs;kPwg;gLtjhff; $wg;gLk;
ehLfspy; mike;jpUf;Fk;NghJ rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;ghdJ Fwpg;ghf fbdkhd tplakhd
xd;whf cs;sJ. rHtNjr tof;Ffspy; rhl;rpaq;fis ghJfhg; gJ vd;gJ kpfTk;
nrythd tplakhf ,Ug;gJld;> rpwe;j Kiwfshdit ,d;Dk; ePjpgjpfshNyNa
jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j rHtNjr Fw;w tprhuizfspy; jiyik jhq;Fk; me;j
ePjpgjpfshNy jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpwJ. MdhYk; Avd;Xbrp ifNalhd jpl;lkplg;gl;l
Fw;wq;fspy; rk;ge;jg;gl;;l Fw;wtpay; nrad;Kiwfspd; rhl;rpaq;fisg;
ghJfhg;gjw;fhd ey;y tsikfs; vd;w ifNal;bd; gpufhuk; rHtNjr Fw;wtpay;
ePjpkd;wj;jpd; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fisg; ghJfhg;gjd; Kf;fpa rf;jpfs; gy cs;sd.
Kd;dhs; A+Nfh];yhtpahTf;fhd rHtNjr Fw;w tprhuizr; rig> kw;Wk;
Wthz;lhTf;fhdJ ,d; gpufhuk; rHtNjr Fw;w tprhuizr; rig
 tpNrl rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;G gphpTfs; - rhl;rp ghJfhg;G mspg;gjw;fhf ePjpkd;w
gjpNtl;bd; mjpfhuj;Jtj;jpd; fPo; ,e;j tprhuizr;rigfs; gy tpNrl
myFfisf; nfhz;Ls;sd. ngsjPfg; ghJfhg;G> ghJfhg;G> cstsj;Jiz>
kUj;Jtk; cstsf; ftdk; jhq;fs; mspj;j rhl;rpaj;jpd; fhuzkhf
mghaj;ij vjpHnfhz;Ls;s rhl;rpfs; kw;Wk; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;fhd cjtp
vd;gd ,jpy; cs;slq;Ffpd;wJ.
 rhl;rpfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd Vw;ghLfSf;fhd nghWg;GzHT – gjpthshpd;
mjpfhuj;jpd; fPo; my;yJ rigapd; ePjpgjpapd; mjpfhuj;jpd; fPo; rhl;rpfisg;
ghJfhg;gjw;fhd Vw;ghLfis mKy;gLj;Jtjw;fhf tpNrl myFfs; nghWg;ghf
cs;sd. Kd;dhs; A+Nfh];yhtpah kw;Wk; &thz;lh tpy; rHtNjr Fw;wptpay;
tprhuizr; rigfspy; rhl;rpaq;fspd; NjitfSld; njhlHGgl;l RahjPdkhd
KbTfis ,e;j myFfs; Nkw;nfhs;tJld; Vw;ghLfisAk; nra;fpd;wd.
tof;fpy; fhg;ghw;Wk; mjpfhhpAldhd fye;jhNyhridAld; rHtNjr Fw;wtpay;
ePjpkd;wj;jpYs;s myF mjDila Nritfis toq;Ffpd;wJ. rhl;rpfspd;
ghJfhg;gpw;Fk; fhg;ghw;Wiff;Fk; ,e;j myFfspdhy; toq;fg;gLk; Nritfs;
rk mstpy; fpilf;ff;$bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.
 muRfspd; xj;Jiog;G – rHtNjr tprhuizr; rigfsplk; gpuhe;jpa
ePjpj;JiwNah jq;fSila nrhe;j mKyhf;fy; ,aYikNah ,y;iy. tof;fpd;

2
Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (Art. 22); Statute of the
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (Art. 21); Rome Statute of the International Criminal
Court (Arts. 43(6) and 68); Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone (Art. 16(4)), and the Law
on the Establishment of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia for the
Prosecution of Crimes Committed during the Period of Democratic Kampuchea (Art. 33).

160
160
Kd;Dk;> tof;fpd;NghJk;> tof;fpd; gpd;Gkhd eilKiwfis neUq;fpa
ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfis cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf mJ muRfspd; xj;Jiog;gpy;
jq;fpapUf;fpwJ. rhl;rpaq;fs; toq;fg;gl;l gpw;ghL ,e;j myFfs; rhl;rpfspd;
kPs;FbNaw;wj;ij NtW ehl;by; ,lkhw;wp FbapUj;jy; cl;gl Vida ehLfs;
rhl;rpaq;fisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s ,zq;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; NtW ehLfSf;F khw;wp
FbapUf;fTk; ,e;j myFfs; xOq;Fis Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wd.

tsq;fspd; njhFg;G
,e;j cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l gjpw; nraw;ghlhdJ gpd;tUk; tsq;fspypUe;J
ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. nghyp];gzp nraw;gLj;JdHfSf;F crhTtjw;F gaDs;s
fUtpfshf cs;sJ. epuy;gLj;jg;gl;l vy;yh Mtzq;fSk; ,iza
,izg;gpYs;sit ,itfis Ivd;gpMHXvy; vz;k E}yfj;jpw;F gjpNtw;wk; nra;J
nfhs;syhk;.

rhl;rpfs; ghJfhg;gpw;fhd epakq;fis toq;fy;
njhpT nra;ag;gl;l rHtNjr epakq;fs;
 Fw;wk; kw;Wk; mjpfhu J];gpuNahfk; vd;gtw;why; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;fhd
ePjpapd; mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffspd; I.eh gpufldk; - 1985
 rl; lj;jpw;F khwhd Nghijg;nghUs; kw;Wk; Nghijg; gz;lq;fis vLj;Jr;
nry;tjw;F vjpuhd I.eh rkthak; 1988
 1989 57 I.eh nghUshjhu kw;Wk; r%f rigj; jPHkhdk; 1989
 Fw;wk; kw;Wk; mjpfhu J\;gpuNahfj;jhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;fhd ePjp kw;Wk;
mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffspd; gpufldk; rHtNjr Fw;wtpay; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Nwhk;
mikg;G 1998
 epiykhw;w jpl;lkplg;gl;l Fw;wj;jpw;nfjpuhd I.eh rkthak; 2000
 rl;lhPjpaw;w Kiwapy; cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; MAjq;fis cw;gj;jp nra;jy;> vLj;Jr;
nry;Yjy;> mjDila gFjpfis cw;gj;jp nra;jy;> vLj;Jr; nry;Yjy;
vd;gtw;Wf;nfjpuhd I.eh rkthak; 2001
 rpahuhnyNahd; ePjpkd;w mikg;G 2002
 CoYf;nfjpuhd I.eh rkthak; 2003
 Ml;fisAk; tpNrlkhf ngz;fisAk; rpWtHfisAk; flj;jpr; nry;Yjy;
fPo;g;gLj;jpr; nry;yy; vd;gtw;Wf;fhd kunghOq;F> Gyk;ngaHNthiu epyk;>
fly;> Mfhak; %yk; flj;Jtjw;nfjpuhd kunghOq;F 2004
 2005 20 / 20 I.eh nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; r%f rigj; jPHkhdk; 2005
161
161
 Kd;dhs; A+Nfh];yhtpahtpd; rHtNjr Fw;wtpay; tprhuizr; rigapd;
,w;iwg;gLj;jg;gl;l mikg;G 2007
 &thz;lhtpd; rHtNjr Fw;wtpay; tprhuizr; rigapd; ,w;iwg;gLj;jg;gl;l
mikg;G 2007










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