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An English Learner's Source-book for Persuasive Speech (BETA ver. 1.0)
WORDS AND COMIC RE-MIX: Joshua Davies 2008 COMIC IMAGES: Doroth Gambrell (catandgirl.com) OTHER IMAGES:
Stock Exchange Photography,
Flickr Creative Commons Photography.
For a complete list please see the appendix.
SPEECHMADESIMPLE is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
What's that mean?
This book is 100% FREE- print it, share it, download it, remix it- but you cannot make any money off of it.
For my family & friends
STOP. Right now. This book is not magic. It is designed to be used with:
• Online resourcesspeechmadesimple.com • The help of your classmates
• Your teacher's guidance
• and A LOT of practice.
If you only read this book and don't practice, it is about as useful as thinking
that reading a KungFu manual is going to instantly
make you a K-I fighter.
It won't happen.
I. DON'T Run Away ... 6
2. FINDING YourVoice ... 14
3. BODY Language ... 26
4. VISUALS that Pop ... 36
5. CAPTURE the Audience ... 46
6. LOGIC & Argument ... 60
7. EN D with a Bang ... 78
All the great speakers were bad speakers at first. -Ralph Waldo Emerson
ARE YOU AFRAID OF PUBLIC SPEAKING*?
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF SPEAKERS:
THOSE THAT ARE NERVOUS ANO THOSE THAT ARE LIARS.
SO IF I SAY I AM NOT NERVOUS?
SWIMMING AND PRESENTING ARE BOTH LEARNED SKILLS
WHEN YOU WERE BORN
COUL£) YOU SWIM? I
AN[) JUST FOCUS ON FINISHING THEIR SPEECH. THEIR GOAL IS A CLEAN RACE FROM A TOB.
THEY SEE THE AUOIENCE ONL Y AS CRUEL JUOGES
SO WHY ARE YOU SO AFRAID?
NOT CARING ABOUT UNDERSTANDING I ONL Y ABOUT PERFECT PERFORMANCE.
A COMMUNICATION FOCUS SEES LISTENERS AS PEOPLE LIKE THEM
YOU WANT PEOPLE TO:
LISTEN, UNOERSTANO, AND BELIEVE YOU
HUNH? WHAT OOES THAT MEAN?
YOU HAVE AN OPINION:
YOUR GOAL IS
NOT FINISHING WITH A PERFECT PERFORMANCE,
YOUR GOAL IS TO CONNECT YOUR MESSAGE WITH
BUT ONLY THE 4-STAR CHEF CARES ABOUT THE CUSTOMER. THE CAFETERIA COOK JUST WANTS TO FINISH.
2. REFLECT: REAU Y THINK ABOUT THE HEART OF YOUR MESSAGE
3. ASSESS: LEARN TO IMPROVE BY FINOING PROBLEMS
ACT/VEL Y HELP YOUR GROUP £t GIVE 100tz,
FOLLOW THESE AND YOU'LL SUCCEED!
YOU WON A SPEECH TROPHY?
5. PRACTICE: IF YOU ONL Y WORK IN CLASS THEN YOU IMPROVE SLOWLY
"There are three things to aim at in public speaking: first, to get into your subject, then to get your subject into yourself, and lastly, to get your subject into the heart of your audience."
1.1 WAYS OF SEEING
I. Performance Focus:
• worried about failing.
• only wants to finish.
• focused on technical details.
• thinks the audience is judging.
• no heart in the speech.
2. Communication Focus:
• focused on the key message
• all energy in speaking
• loves the audience
• happy to fail
• doesn't worry about mistakes
You need to love failure.
If you start skiing today, can you compete in the Olympics tomorrow? NO. Today you will fall, a lot. You will be sore.
But you will get back up, and go down the mountain again, and you will LOVE it.
1.2 SPEAKING EXPERIENCE Interview Your Partner.
I. Can you name one great public speaker?
2. What makes a great speaker?
3. Have you given a public speech?
a. If yes, when and where?
b. Did it go well?
4. Are you afraid of public speaking in your language?
5. Are you afraid of public speaking in English?
6. What is the scariest thing about public speaking?
7. Do you need public speaking skills in your life now? Why?
8. Will you need to use public speaking in the future? When?
9. How will public speaking help your life? 10. Do you believe this class will help you be a better speaker?
I AMSO EXPERIENCED.
1.3 SETTING GOALS
What are 3 goals you have for this class? I .
Please copy and sign:
I am planning on practicing __ hours each week outside the class, and even though I know I will be busy and want to take a break I will never, ever stop. I will never give up. I will become a
Beginning- Get attention, introduce your topic, say your thesis.
1.5 HOW TO GET AN A+ Tasty Speech Tips
Do you ask questions when you don't understand?
Do you focus on the speaker or daydream?
Do you look the speaker in the eye, smile, and nod?
Do you summarize what the speaker has said before responding?
Do you really love your topic?
Can you summarize your whole idea in one sentence?
Have you thought about how to connect your topic to the audience?
End- Conclude your speech with energy and purpose.
Do you really care about improving your and your partner's speeches?
Do you give specific suggestions?
Do you look for good and bad points?
Do you carefully check the speech rubric?
Do you actively use the online resources? Do you try to be active even when tired? Do you do all homework to the best of your ability?
Do your practice speaking at home?
Do you listen to recordings of yourself?
"It takes one hour of preparation for each minute of presentation time."
- - Wayne Burgraff
Let thy speech be better than silence, or be silent. -Dionysius Of Ha/icarnassus
So Many Waysto Say Hello
, ... - ... ,
, HELLO ... ? ,
YOUR VOICE IS A POWERFUL TOOL.
OR GET THEM TO CON~UER THE WORLD
ZZZZ ... OUU .zZZZZ
Z .... BLAH .zZZZ
YOUR VOICE CAN PUT PEOPLE TO SLEEP
f. PACE: THE SPEEO YOU SPEAK
HIMYNAME ISCArANOI AMHAPPY/
TOO FAST ...
TALK LIKE A TURTLE COMBINED WITH A RABBIT?
BUT IN FORMAL SPEECH WE PANIC AND FORGET
IN NORMAL CONVERSATION WE PAUSE A LOT
2. PALJSE: JUST STOP
, .. -"'
I , HI. ,
YOUR VOICE NEEDS TO FILL THE ROOM OR PEOPLE CANNOT HEAR YOU
3. POWER: ENERGY ANO EMPHASIS IN OUR SPEECH
YOUR EAR IS NEXT TO YOUR MOUTH: YOU DON'T REALIZE HOW QUIET YOU REALL YARE.
YOU CAN PUNCH AND/OR S-T-R-E-T-C-H A WORD.
WHEN WE GIVE MORE POWER TO EMPHASIZE IMPORTANT WORDS IT IS CALLED STRESS.
lI. PRONUNCIATION: HOW CLEARLY WE SA Y EACH WORO
SAY IT :1 TIMES FAST:
SHE SELLS SEASHELLS BY THE SEASHORE.
PITCH IS THE MUSICALITY OF SPEECH. WE CAN HEAR IF SOMEONE IS SAO OR HAPPY.
5. PITCH: THE EMOTIONAL INTONATION OF SPEECH
This is a sad
A GOOf) VOICE MAY HAVE UP TO
NO PITCH= NO 25 TONES, A BORING VOICE-
EMOTION, ROBOT VOICE. ONLY 1. SHOW YOUR EMOTION.
Good speakers lower their voice to draw the audience in, and raise it to make a point.
2.1 REVIEW: THE 5 piS
Pace- How fast you speak. Like music, some parts we speak quickly, and some slowly. We usually slow down for important points.
Pausing- When we stop speaking.We use pauses to give the audience time to think, and to create a dramatic effect. Power- The energy and emphasis in our speech. We give more emphasis to important points.
Pitch- The musicality of our voice. The pitch reveals our emotions. We can say a word with a sad pitch or a happy pitch. Pronunciation- How clearly we say each word. We pronounce important words clearly, and other words we clip and smoosh together.
2.2 TONGUE TWISTERS
Take turns with your partner.
I. Freshly fried flying fish.
2. Which wristwatches are Swiss wristwatches?
3. A skunk sat on a stump and thunk the stump stunk, but the stump thunk the skunk stunk.
4. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? A woodchuck would chuck all the wood if a woodchuck could chuck wood.
s. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers? If Peter Piper Picked a peck of pickled peppers, where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
2.3 ASSESS THE SPEECH
Each member of the group has a role.
I. Pace/Pause/Pronunciation: -Is the speaker too fast? Too slow? OK?
-Does the speaker pause between
sentences? Please count the number of pauses. How many?
-Can you understand what the speaker is saying?
2. Power and Pitch: -Can you hear the speaker?
-Does his/her voice have energy?
-Does he/she emphasize important words?
-Does his/her voice have lots of emotion?
-What emotion can you feel in his/her
3. The AH Counter/Timer:
Your job is very different,
but also SUPER important.
You will count all unnecessary sounds- such as: ah, um, so
How do you feel when a man walks in front of you smoking? One day, I was walking on the street daydreaming, when suddenly a cloud of smoke appeared in front of me. The man making it walked so quickly that I couldn't pass him. I smelled his bad stink for several minutes without a break.
2.4 TODAY'S TIP: Notes
It is better to use as few notes as you can (none is best). If you must use notes, write them on notecards and remember: Look, Up, Pause, Speak.
Look: at your notes- remind yourself of what you will say.You don·t need to use the exact words you wrote.
Up: raise your head up and look at the audience.
Pause: stop a moment before you speak. It feels long, but makes you look natural.
Speak: of course, speak.
2.5 EMPHASISQUESTIONS & ANSWERS
When do we emphasize/stress a word? There are two types of words stress:
Grammatical and Emotional.
I. Grammatical stress is the same for every sentence and the rules for it (almost) never change.
2. Emotional stress varies in a sentences depending on the meaning we want to give.
Say these sentences and count how many seconds they take:
• The scary school sat ominously on the horizon.
• She can go on Tuesdays as long as she doesn't have to do any chores in the evening.
How long did they take to say?
If you say them in a boring textbook voice (without lots of emotion), then they should both take about 5 seconds.
What?! But the first sentence is shorter! What is happening?
They take the same time because English is a stress-timed language.
What does stress-timed mean?
Many languages are syllabic languages.
This means that the number of syllables decides how long it takes to speak the sentence. How many syllables were in the sentences before?
• Sentence I = 14 syllables.
• Sentence 2 = 22 syllables.
In a syllabic language of course sentence 2 would take longer to say. However in a stress-time language it is not the number of syllables that decides the time. It is the number of content words. Grammatical stress goes on content words.
What are content words?
• Regular nouns- Richard, tree, Seattle.
• Main Verbs- run, write, sleep, eat.
• Adjectives- beautiful, ugly, smelly.
• Adverbs- quickly, slowly, cautiously.
Other words are called function words. They do not receive grammatical stress. However, sometimes function words do have emotional stress.
Example Function words:
• Determiners- the, a, some, a few
• Helping verbs- don't, am, can, were
• Prepositions- before, next to
• Conjunctions (transitions)- but, while, as
• Pronouns- they, she, us
Look at the sentences again:
• The scary school sat ominously on the horizon.
• She can go on Tuesdays as long as she doesn't have to do any homework in the evening.
How many content words do they have? They both have 5 content words, so they both take the same amount of time if none of the words have emotional stress.
What is emotional stress?
Emotional Stress is the emphasis we put on words that are really important to our sentence.
How is that different than grammatical stress? There are 3 differences.
I . Emotional stress can appear on content or function words. In fact, function words such as negatives, transitions, and pronouns often have emotional stress. The words that use emotional stress change depending on what you want to mean.
For example, in the sentence:
"Do you love me?"
-the emphasis is on love because the meaning is- do you love me or like me. In this sentence love is a content word and also takes emotional stress.
However, in the sentence:
"Do you love me?"
-the emphasis is on me because the meaning is- do you love me or somebody else. In this sentence me is a function word and also takes emotional stress.
2. Emotional stress has more variety than content stress. Every content word is clearly pronounced (function words are not), but only emotional words get strong s-t-r-e-t-c-h-in-g, stress, or pitch (emotional) changes. You wouldn't use a specifically sad or happy voice to say a word that is just a content word.
3. Emotional stress is stronger than grammatical stress. Imagine an energy gauge that goes from 0 (no energy, silent) all the way up to 10 (super over-thetop exploding energy).
• Function words use almost no energy (unless emotionally stressed): just above 0- all the way up to 3.
• Content words a little more: from 3-5
• Emotional words use the whole top half of the scale: from 5 all the way to I O.
Only emotionally stress the most important words. If you emotionally stress every other word you'll sound like a really bad actor.
. " ... ~ ...
What happens in-between emphasized words?
Between power words the energy gauge quickly loses pressure and the voice slides down a staircase, with the power getting softer and softer until the next emphasized word. Words on the way down the staircase (function words) are smooshed together and not carefully pronounced.
SMOOSHED?! Like this:
Did you: becomes: Didja
CONTINUED (last time finally!) ... In summary:
I. Give your key emotional words lots of energy- stress, stretch, and put all your emotion into saying them.
2. Carefully pronounce all emotional and content words.
3. In-between emphasized words let your voice slide down the energy staircase until you jump up to the next emphasized word.
4. Don't worry about really pronouncing plain function words- you can slide over them and smoosh them together.
Let's see an example:
Function words are italic. Content words are bold. Emotional words are CAPITALIZED. So, if a word is bold and CAPITALIZED like this: RICHARD then it is an emotional content word. Got it?
Here are the sentences:
"Did you hear what Richard said? He said that he's getting married!"
Now we'll map them and place them on the energy stair-step-
ARE YOU OK?
The most precious things in speech are the pauses.
-Sir Ralph Richardson
2.5 ART OF PAUSING
Where do we pause in a speech?
We always pause:
• for 2 beats at a period,
• for I beat at a comma.
We often pause:
• after/before using transition words,
• before key emotional stress words,
• before saying a quote,
• between dependent and independent sentence clauses.
We do not:
• pause after every content word,
• breathe on every pause.
• say urn or ah when pausing
Some people prefer to pause more than others. Find what is comfortable for you.
2.6 SOUNDSCRIPTING What is a soundscript?
A soundscript shows content and emotional stress as well as all pauses. Why is it helpful?
If you learn using a soundscript you will sound more natural, because you will pause and emphasize at the correct time. If you don't then you will sound more like you are just reading.
Function: Regular font. Content: Bold Emotional: CAPITALIZED Pause: at line breaks
Try saying it:
How do you FEEL when a man walks in front of YOU SMOKING?
I was walking on the street daydreaming, when SUDDENLY a cloud of smoke appeared
in front of ME.
LEARN THESE TECHNIf;UES AND YOU'LL SOUND LIKE A PRO!
I speak two languages, Body and English. -Mae West
WE GATHER f7tz, OF INFO WITH THE EARS.
Sqtz, WITH THE EYES.
IF YOUR BOOY DOESN'T CONNECT WITH YOUR MESSAGE, THEY WILL NOT CARE WHAT YOU SAY.
IF YOUR FACE DOESN'T MATCH THE EMOTIONS OF YOUR WORDS, THEY WILL NOT BELIEVE YOU.
f. FACIAL EXPRESSION: THE EMOTIONS OUR FACE SHOWS. THE AUOIENCE FEELS THE FACE WE WEAR. EVEN CHEESY MOVIES MAKE US CRY.
THE 5 KEYS TO BOOY-LANGUAGE
00: SMILE. OFTEN.
2. MOVEMENT: HOW DO: WALK THE ROOM
YOU OWN YOUR SPACE
72~ THINK A SMILE = MORE CONFIDENT
3. EYE CONTACT:
HOW WE LOOK A T THE AUDIENCE
II. GESTLJRES:HOW WE MOVE OUR HANDS AND ARMS
00: USE YOUR OWN GESTURES
WE ALL NATURALLY GESTURE
00: LOOK AT ALL YOUR AUDIENCE.
JUST MAKE THEM BIGGER AND SLOWER.
DON'T: SPEAK TO YOUR NOTES OR YOUR SLIDES. LOOK A T THE CROWD.
FIDGET TOO MUCH AN!) YOU'LL CA TCH ON FIRE
7cm. GIVE THUMBS UP HERE
OON'T: TRY TO COpy GESTURES FROM A BOOK. IT LOOKS FAKE.
5. POISE: HOW WE STANO ANO PRESENT OURSELVES
YOU'LL LOOK MORE CONFIDENT ... AND NOT FALL DOWN.
DO: PRACTICE. THERE IS NO ~UICK MAGIC SOWTlON.
3.1 THE SCIENCE OF BODY LANGUAGE
"Researchers at UCLA found that cells in the human anterior cingulate, which normally fire when you poke the patient with a needle ("pain neurons"), will also fire when the patient watches another patient being poked. The mirror neurons, it would seem, dissolve the barrier between self and others:'
- V.S. Ramachandran
What does this mean? People will mirror the feelings you show with your body language. If you look sad they will feel sad. If you look bored ... they will be bored.
3.2 LET'S REVIEW:
BODY LANGUAGE Movement-
• When you are presenting, the room is yours! Do not be afraid to proudly walk around it.
• You can walk out into the audience to ask questions, and change your location to emphasize a main point.
• Don't be afraid to act out parts of your story if you need to- talk to yourself, take on a character, show action. Everything different you do helps your audience remember.
• Please do not: hide behind the podium, stay in one location only, or pace. What's pacing? It is where you walk quickly back-and-forth, back-and-forth, until your audience gets a headache.
• I know this is hard, but you need to
look at your audience. People believe you if they see your eyes.
• Look at one or two people at a time.
Keep your eyes on them while you say one idea or sentence, and then gently move your eyes to a new person.Again, do this slowly- not so fast your head falls off.
• Look at them- don't give a death stare. You want them to believe you, not fear you.
CONTINUED ... Gestures-
• You already gesture in your life, so don't change what you naturally do and try to copy gestures from a book.
• Just take your natural gestures and make them bigger and a little slower (because you want them to be easy to see and understand).
• Show us your hands. Don't hide them in pockets or behind your back, and don't keep them busy fidgeting.
• Match your gestures to the timing of your main points. This helps emphasize your ideas.
• Stand up straight with your shoulders back so you can breathe easy and look strong.
• Dress professionally- I know this may sounds silly, but first impressions do count.
• Don't use a wall or the podium to support yourself.
• Your face and eyes are the keys to showing your emotions. If your body has lots of energy and your voice is perfect, but your face is frozen, then the audience loses confidence in you.
• Smile and the audience will feel your confidence.
• Don't be afraid to exaggerate your facial expressions. Just like with gestures, bigger is better.
"The language of the body is the key that can unlock the soul." -Konstantin Stanislavsky
3.3 BECOME A MATADOR
When you walk into the room imagine you are a matador striding into a bullfight. The way they walk, and carry themselves- strong and confident- is how you should walk when you give a speech.
Yes- I know, if you combine this with our communication focus this means you are going to try to make friends with the bull. Sound strange? Exactly.
Don't worry; we won't be practicing our speeches before real bulls.We have a much safer practice environment in our classroom here. Maybe.
Complete the following sentences:
My name is _
My hobby is _
and I am a matador.
3.4 SAMPLE DIALOGUE
What is this for? You'll see ...
B: Doctor, before you performed the autopsy, did you check for a pulse?
B: Did you check for blood pressure? A: No.
B: Did you check for breathing? A: No.
B: So, then it is possible that the patient was alive when you began the autopsy? A: No.
B: How can you be so sure, Doctor? A: Because his brain was sitting on my desk in a jar.
B: But could the patient have still been alive nevertheless?
A: It is possible that he could have been alive and practicing law somewhere.
A SAILOR IS NOT A MATADOR
3.5 A GLOBAL LANGUAGE? What does this gesture mean?
In Canada: it means good job or OK. In Korea: it can also mean money.
In Brazil: it means something BAD.
As cultures globalize, body language is becoming more universal. However, the meaning of body language around the world can still vary a lot.You need to check carefully if you are speaking in a different culture.
Here are just a few of the hundreds of differences:
• How close should you stand to someone
Japan: 2 meters USA: I meter Italy: 0.5 meters
• How do you meet someone new?
In Korea: Bow and/or shake hands with two hands.
In the USA: shake hands
In Brazil: A kiss on both cheeks
• What does it mean when shake your head?
In Bulgaria: Yes In the USA: No
Not Everything is Different
Dr. Paul Eckman and his team found that there are 6 universal facial expressions in worldwide. Each place could identify the expression as having the same meaning in that culture. Some cultures may hide their facial expressions more quickly, but the expressions do exist everywhere. The 6 basic types are: anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust and surprise.
~~~~~1j~~ "How many speeches have you heard? How many of
~:;;,~~->;.,"1llii~J.il'" them can you remember? Words, words, words. In a song, we remember firstly the melody and then we learn the words. Instead of giving people the benefit of your wit and wisdom (words), try painting them a picture. The more strikingly visual your ~::t:i. presentation is, the more people will
f!:~~~Ii_'~~~~~e .. ~~ remember it. And more importantly, they will
tl!'t~i'!""'~~' ...,..,., . .,. ... remember you."
.-.,."._,.,. - Paul Arden (Creative Director, Saatchi & Saatchi)
IS THIS YOU?
I DON'T NEED V/SUALS- I ALONE AM ENOUGH!
DID YOU KNOW WE REMEMBER:
FOR EVERY 2 PEOPLE YOU CONVINCE,
THE USE OF THE POWERPO/NT PRESENTATION HAS BEEN A DISASTER. IT SHOULD BE DITCHED.
DR. JOHN SWELLER
-1./50 MILLION PPT USERS
-30 MILLION PPT'S A DAY
-MOST ARE TERRIBLE
WHY SHOUL[) WE LEARN TO USE IT?
IF YOUR FASHION IS A DISASTER 00 YOU BLAME THE CLOTHES?
BUT! IF YOU LOSE THE GAME, 00 YOU BLAME THE BAU?
YOUR SLIDES SPEAK TO THE RIGHT, YOUR WORDS TO THE LEFT.
KISS AN!) KILL
KEEP IT SHORT £t SIMPLE
KEEP IT LARGE £t LEGIBLE
NO: LONG TEXT.
MAXIMUM 6-8 WORDS
NO LONG TEXT? BUT THEN I'LL HAVE TO
Once Upon A Time
YOU CAN USE JUST TEXT TO HIGHLIGHT ONE KEY IDEA, GUOTE, OR EXAMPLE FROM YOUR SPEECH. KEEP IT SHORT.
2001 2002 2003 2004 2006 2006 2007
DATA CAN BE A GRAPH, CHART OR TIMELINE. KEEP IT CLEAN AND SIMPLE. YOUR DATA SHOULD TELL A STORY.
REALLY YOU HAVE 3 CHOICES FOR GOOD SLIDE TYPES
A SINGLE IMAGE
(AS BIG AS POSSIBLE), WITH OR WITHOUT A FEW WORDS THAT CREATES EMOTION.
DON'T OVERLOAD SLIDES
4.1 AM I ANNOYING?
What are the worst things we can do with slides?
A survey was done which found the most annoying things to be:
• The speaker read the slides to us 60.4%
• Text so small I couldn't read it 50.9%
• Slides hard to see because of color
choice 37.1 %
• Moving/flying text or graphics 24.5%
• Annoying use of sounds 22.0%
• Overly complex diagrams or charts 22.0%
4.3 THE PERFECT SLIDE
Remember: A speech is a conversation between you and the audience.Your slides should not be an annoying person who interrupts your dialogue. There is a VERY cheesy cliche "a picture is worth a thousand words." Make it true! Choose images that emotionally show what you are saying and fit the flow of your conversation. Sometimes we speak words, sometimes we speak pictures, but always we tell a story. Take inspiration from the picture books of your childhood! Why is it so easy for a children's book author to understand how to communicate when a CEO can't?
4.4 REVIEW: THE RULES Overall:
Fewer slides- it's about you not the slides. Keep it to 2 every minute max.
I. Size- 44+ (minimum
2. Style- Arial, Gills Sans
3. No underline, italics, or shadows
4. Bold is OK
S. Color- Black on white, white on black + one optional highlight color
6. No word art or text animation.
7. Maximum 6-8 words per page. Less is better.
8. If the words are hard to see- use a background color behind the words. 9. No bullet points.
I. No transitions other than a simple fade
2. No clip art
3. No Microsoft templates
4. No animation (again)
S. Make pictures as big as possible.
6. No image on the screen is OK
7. Choose pictures to fit your emotional ideas- not just because they are pretty. 8. Choose graphs which tell stories and support your evidence.
4.5 CHARTS & GRAPHS
When you show a chart or graph you need to explain how it connects with your story. What story is this slide trying to say?
"No one ever raved about a presentation because of the graph on slide 32."
C2C106. P,t"tFwlfC"llOU:om $10
2 ~ ~ i ~
" :; :;
N N $117
$10' .... "" ....... '""M"" •• J"'~' "."d.,
$I1lpr""II, 4.q1r lIIOY¥!g WQ,I
...... , Bill .... aif Il'InMlon, .. dJl.I~''-I1 P't'o,..~.
593 Oelon! Inle ..... a TII;o"" <I~r _ ... ng ",,,,
~ ~ g ~ C; ~
~ .. ~ '" :; Problems: small font, bad template, too many words and numbers. No easily visible story beneath the information. If I see this slide will I be more or less confused? Slides don't cost any moneydon't be afraid to put info onto more than one slide .... or cut out anything not key!
What about this one?
HOW CAN I MAKE NICE CHARTS & FIND GOOD IMAGES? Many people assume you need lots of time or money to get great visuals. This isn't true! Take a look at this chapter's online resources and you'll discover many free and easy solutions to making high-impact visuals!
The title (spoken) was "My ten closest friends." We can easily see the number of male and female friends as it changes year to year.The information is clear. The speaker then can explain those changes, what happened to cause them- and thus connect the graph closely to the story.
4.6 BEFORE & AFTER
The graph is too small. Crowded images are small and framed on the page. Too much text. Bad template.
Srurrrble Upon Stats
Bad template. Too much data on page. Statistic would be better shown as a graph to help visualize the story.
Move graph to other page. Stretch images to full screen. Simplify text.
Separate data sets (2 pages). Simplify text and clean up the background. The graph is more dramatic than just numbers.
Pilot Faculty of Law, live December 2005
• 1994 - 2005: 2200 pages produced • 2006: 7000 items produced
• 2005: on average 4.000 visits a day • 2007: on average 10.000 visits a day
4.7 ASSESSING AUDIENCE NEEDS
In the next chapter we will start learning how to write a better speech, but before we do, let's return to our communication focus. One of the best ways to really focus on the audience is to do an assessment after you've chosen your general topic, but before you write your specific thesis and speech. Ask yourself AND survey your audience.
I. Who is your audience?
2. What do they already know about your topic?
3. Why will they like this topic?
4. How does your topic affect their lives?
5. Are you showing them something new about this topic?
6. How can they use your ideas in the future (how will your ideas better their lives)?
7. What are the biggest concerns the audience has about this topic?
8. What is the audience's opinion about this topic? If you don't know: ask them!
9. Why should the audience listen to my ideas about the topic?
10. What can I tell the audience that will help them believe in me as an expert speaker on this topic?
AFTER you've got answers to all these questions, then you can think of a thesis.
Stories constitute the single most powerful weapon in a
leader's arsenal. -Dr. Howard Gardner, Harvard University
I HAVE AN OPINION! I HAVE AN OPINION!
WE NEEO TO TALK TO THEIR HEAOS (GET THEM THINKING)
AGAIN: THE BRAIN HAS TWO SlOES
LEFT: LOVES LOGIC, PROOF
HOW CAN WE MAKE A GOOf) HOOK?
TELL A STORY
TOBEA GOOO SPEAKER YOU NEE!) TO BEA GOOO STORYTELLER
THE BRAIN EASILY LOVES ANO LEARNS STORIES, NOT FACTS ANO NUMBERS.
THE BEST PET
EASY TO REMEMBER AND BE PASSIONATE ABOUT BECAUSE IT IS YOUR STORY.
SOMETIMES STORIES CAN BE TOO PERSONAL (AUDIENCE CANNOT CONNECT).
WHAT TYPES OF STORIES CAN WE USE TO HOOK INTEREST? ~11111111111...
NEWS GIVES CREDIBILITY.
NEED TO CHOOSE DRAMATIC NEWS,NOT ANY BORING ARTICLE.
DON'T NEED TO CREATE NEW EMOTION, JUST RE-HEAT PAST FEELINGS.
CAN REALLY MAKE THE AUDIENCE PART OF THE STORY AND SO THEY FEEL THEY ARE "ON YOUR TEAM."
MUST CHOOSE A MEMORY WHOLE AUDIENCE SHARES.
MUST BE CAREFUL TO CHOOSE A SITUATION THE AUDIENCE CAN REALLY IMAGINE.
CURIOSITY IS THE SAlT ON THE HOOK, THE CHEESE IN THE TRAP.'
, LIKE OOGS BEST.
GUESTIONS AIM FOR THE HEAl) (THINKING).
"ONE WORD ANSWER" GUESTIONS DON'T REGUIRE REAL THOUGHT.
A. ASK OPEN GUESTION.
S. GIVE A LITTLE BACKGROUND STORY (SO THE AUDIENCE HAS TIME TO THINK)
C. ANSWER THE GUESTION.
WHAT'S THAT MEAN?
IMAGINE I CANNOT SEE AND CREATE A MOVIE WITH YOUR WORDS.'
SHOW UsDON'T TELL US
REMEMBER "A TO B"?
THE AUDIENCE EXPECTS A NORMAL FLOW. IF YOU USE AN UNUSUAL QUOTE, A SHOCKING NEWS STORY OR (REALLY) ANY ANSWER THAT ISN'T 100% OBVIOUS YOU WILL WAKE UP LISTENERS. BE DIFFERENT!
A. DESCRIBE WITH ALL 5 SENSES:
THE AIR TASTES LIKE COCONUTS
DID IT RAIN OR POUR?
IS SHE WET OR SOAKE[)?
THE HOOK IS LIKE A MOVIE PREVIEW FOR YOUR SPEECH. IF IT IS GOOO IT WILL INTROOUCE YOUR IOEAS WITHOUT TELLING ALL THE PLOT.
THIS IS AN ANALOGY: IT MAKES THE IOEA EASIER TO UNOERSTANO ANO REMEMBER
-OON'T OVERUSE TECHNIQUES
-REALLY CONNECT YOUR HOOK TO THE THESIS
CAN I TELL MY OPINION NOW?
5.1 ONE MINUTE TO WIN IT
Within the first minute of your speech the audience will be in one of three modes- hole seeking, application seeking, or sleeping. Say what?
• Hole seeking: looking for problems with your ideas.
• Application seeking: looking for ways to use your ideas in their lives.
• Sleeping: sleeping.
A good intro will lead to the correct mode. Our goal is communication, to transfer our emotions and ideas. To do this, the audience must see how our ideas affect their lives. We want them to remember and act on our speech- but we must get their attention first. Don't open with your thesis- you already love and know about your opinion, but the audience does not. You need to warm them up with a hook to the head (get that brain going) and the heart (get those emotions moving).
Relax- the audience wants you to win!
"No one is all left or all right, that's why we use a combination. If you just use left hooks, you'll alienate all the people who want to feel the message. Using only right jabs leaves the left outside the ring because they want apply the instruction ..•. The head creates agreement, while the heart produces action."
5.2 TYPES OF PERSUASION There are three ways to persuade-
Ethos: I am an expert on this topic listen to me! How can we convince people we are an expert without PhD's? By showing good logic and by telling our personal stories that the listener can understand and relate to. We then become a "common sense" expert.
Logos: Look at this amazing logic- I am correct! To persuade using logos we need to provide good evidence in the supporting points of our speech.
Pathos: Don't you just feel I am right?
To persuade using pathos we need emotional stories that connect with the heart.
In our opening we focus on pathos and ethos.
5.3 TYPES OF TOPICS
There are 5 types of persuasive topics:
Personal, Local, National, Regional Global.
• Personal- topics about you and your life.
Examples: relationships, haircuts, dieting, studying.
• Local- topics about your school community, local neighborhood or even city.
Example: tuition, city traffic, bad weather, local restaurants.
• National- topics of importance to people of your country.
Example: the president/prime minister, cost inflation, sports teams.
• Regional- topics about your region of the world (Asia, Europe, etc.) Example: territory disputes, regional trade, student exchanges.
• Global- topics of worldwide importance.
Example: travel, war, global warming, the Olympics.
Remember: you need to connect with your audience. People respond more easily to familiar and close topics. For this reason national and local topics are often easier to choose.
CURIOSITY & FLOW
Creating curiosity and breaking the flow work together. Curiosity draws the audience closer and makes them think about what you will say, and the surprise of breaking the flow knocks them backwards. While they do not always appear together in the same paragraph, it is important to have both somewhere in your speech. When they are in balance attention is at its highest.
"One word answer" questions are bad because they don't require a lot of thinking.
Example: Do you like pollution?
We can change any "one word answer" question to an open one. Our bad example changes to:
How has pollution affected your life? After asking this question we can continue with a personal/news/shared memory/ imaginary situation story that expands on the idea.
It is hard to learn how to break expectations, but when you can it is a powerful tool for gaining attention. Look at this story opening:
"What is truly important to you in your lifesomething you realize you cannot live without? Five years ago, on a rainy afternoon I was driving home from my job at a bakery, with the smell of bread filling the car. Tired and just wanting to be home, my eyes didn't focus, but blinked slowly closed. In that moment, I took a corner too sharp and spun off the road. Out of control, clutching the wheel, possibly about to die, and aliI could think about was ... "
Before I finish, let's examine what we have: I started with an open question and followed with a story that vividly revealed my answer. It ends with: "and aliI could think about was ... "The audience expects me to say something like: my family, friends, future, etc., but what if I didn't?
What if instead I ended with, "and aliI could think about was .... ice cream."
I just broke the flow. Now, of course, I need explain next why I was thinking about ice cream (which makes the audience curious again), and how it matters to the audience, but hopefully this makes it clear: create curiosity, surprise the audience.
5.6 The FIVE SENSES
Why do we want to use al/ our senses?
When we give a speech, in our heads we see the things we talk about- but the audience is not in our heads. Can you imagine a speech about the "best restaurant" that doesn't mention smell or taste? To really involve people in our stories we need to create a visual movie with our words.
Topic: The Dangers of Smoking
• Sight: I could see from the dull yellowing that crept from the edges of his fingernails and gums, that he was a smoker. • Sound: Every morning I was woken up as the hacking cough of my neighbor shook the building.Y
• Taste: I had a girlfriend who used to smoke, and the first time we kissed it tasted like an ashtray.
• Touch: Breathe in deeply. Feel the air fill your lungs. Now hold it in as long as you can. We're going to see those who can hold it the longest, and those who smoke.
• Smell: Getting into the taxicab, I could smell the scent of cigarettes clinging to the seats like an extra, unwanted passenger.
You don't need to use all senses in each story, but do use at least 2 or 3.
5.7 BE SPECIFIC
The audience cannot connect or understand your story if you are. Details can also change the meaning and the feeling of what you say. Take a look, from vague, to specific:
• A man met a woman.
• Who? Bob met a woman.
• WHO!? Bob met his friend Don.
• Where? Bob met his friend Don in a park.
• WHERE!? Bob met his friend Don in Maronier Park.
• When? Bob met his friend Don in Maronier Park yesterday.
• WHEN!? Bob met his friend Don in Maronier Park yesterday afternoon. • Why? Bob met his friend Don in Maronier Park yesterday afternoon to go shopping.
• WHY!? Bob met his friend Don in Maronier Park yesterday afternoon to go shopping for a birthday present for their friend Joshua's birthday.
MUCH better. You don't need to answer all these questions, but when you are writing ask yourself: who, what, where, when, why, how, and which- are there any questions you could answer that would add to your story?
When we use comparisons we draw connections between two things in order to:
• Make the difficult easy to understand: "Niels Bohr famously said that the structure of an atom is like the solar system."
• Make ideas easier to connect by making them more day-to-day and personal: "Good speaking is like good cooking."
• Make interesting comparisons to create curiosity and surprise: "My plan is easy, unlike the homework I gave you. However, like the homework, it may never be completed on time."
The two main types of comparisons are similes (a type of analogy) and metaphors.
· Similes compare using like or as: "His nose was like a potato."
· Metaphors make comparisons more directly- they do not claim something is like something else, but that something is something else: "We didn't get to eat enough because Craig is a pig."
5.10 ME & SUMMARY
Ok.You've got their attention. They are thinking and feeling about your topic. What do you need to do before you reveal your thesis? You need to show how they need your ideas, how it directly affects their lives. Me me mel People are most interested when it connects to them. The easiest way to do this is to put your audience in the center of a problem, and set up a question to which your thesis is the solution.The problem doesn't have to be huge and super-serious- it just has to be something that needs to be solved.
I. Serious Topic: Energy Crisis Connect problem to people: You live in a city that is dependent on oil. Everything it requires this increasingly expensive fuel.As more and more of your salary goes to feeding your energy needs, and you have less left over for food and fun, what will you do?
2. Fun Topic: The best restaurant Connect problem to people:
You're on a first date with someone you really like and you only have one chance to impress.You know this person is known for being picky with food.Where will you eat?
After you've established need it's time to propose your solution in the thesis.
5.11 SAMPLE HOOK & THESIS
Try to remember the last time you went on a first date. What did you do? Perhaps you went for a walk in the park, or saw a movie. One of the most common responses is, "we went to a restaurant." That's what I did on my last first date. We ate pasta. The smell of spaghetti sauce filled the air and candles colored our conversation in warm light. Romantic, or boring? By the time I finished my fettuccini I knew nothing about her, and she nothing about me. I think this is because our meeting location was common and dull.What are your goals on a first date? We want to impress, but without scaring them away. This rules out bungee jumping or swimming with sharks. We want to learn about who they really are, not who they might pretend to be. How can we do this? The secret is to take a normal dating activity, like going to dinner, and turn it upside down. Go for food at a restaurant that is outside many people's day-to-day eating experience, in particular something spicy and with kick. On your next first date you should go to dinner at an Indian restaurant, as it will reveal equally much about you as it will your date.
Analysis: Here is what I did-
• started with an open question that tapped into shared memory.
• a story with vivid language that connected me to the topic.
• created a problem.
• connected it to the audience.
• suggested a solution.
The audience is now ready to hear my evidence.
I PREFER TO TAKE A LONG WALK ON THE BEACH FOR MY FIRST DATES, WHILE MY DATE GOES TO THE MOVIE.
"Logic is the beginning of wisdom, not the end" -Leonard Nimoy
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF AN ARGUMENT?
f. FIRST YOU NEED A STRONG OPINION.
CATS ARE BETTER PETS THAN DOGS FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS LIVING IN SEOUL.
TRY THESE: BECAUSE BECAUSE CA TS ARE
CA TS ARE MORE PLA YFUL MORE AFFECT/ONA TE
BECAUSE CA TS ARE BETTER COOKS o»
REASON # 3qq IS I SMELL
ONE LAST STEP!
3. WE NEED EVIDENCE THAT SHOWS EACH OF OUR REASONS IS TRUE. WHY?
IF YOU SA Y YOU CAN OANCE WITH A CAR ON YOUR HEAO ...
ACTION: YOU SHOULO/SHOUW NOT STOP SMOKING.
CATS ARE BETTER PETS THAN DOGS FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS LIVING IN SEOUL BECALJSE MY MOM SAYS SO.
BELIEF: RUNNING IS THE BEST EXERCISE FOR BUSY STUOENTS.
SO WHAT IS NEXT?
2. SECOND WE NEED THREE GOOD SPECIFIC REASONS THAT SUPPORT OUR OPINION.
ACTION- SHOULD, NEED, MUST, HAVE TO.
8ELIEF- BETTER, BEST, WORST (ALL COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE WORDS).
THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF PROOF.
CATS ARE 25~ OF THE WORL[)'S MASTER CHEFS.
VERY DANGEROUS TO TEASE THE ONE WHO MAKES YOUR DINNER.
I 00 LOVE YOUR SPAGHETTI. .. BUT IS IT BETTER THAN A DOG'S?
REMEMBER: USE HOOK TECHNIQUES WITH YOUR EVIOENCE!
IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE WE SHOUL[) KNOW ABOUT PROOF?
J f. REAL ARE YOU 1::::::=1 EXPERTS A REAL DOCTOR?
" DEFINE ' \ "REAL" .~
... __ ~~~
BUT SHE IS NOT AN EXPERT ON EVERY SUBJECT.
IF YOU WORK
FORA GROUP, ARE PART OF A GROUP, FRIENOS WITH THEM, ETC.- THEN ~"'111"'" YOU ARE A
WHAT IS YOUR EXACT, SOURCE?
HOW? BY USING TRANSITIONS!
TRANSITIONS ARE USED TO CONNECT YOUR IDEAS zu, TOGETHER. WITHOUT THEM YOUR SPEECH FEELS JUMPY.
THEY SHOW YOUR AUDIENCE WHERE YOUR SPEECH IS GOING, AND EXPLAIN HOW PART A IS RELATED TO PART B.
YOU NEED TRANSITIONS BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS AND BETWEEN SECTIONS IN YOUR PARAGRAPH.
JUSTA FEW EXAMPLE TRANSITIONS:
ALSO, LIKEWISE, SIMILARLY, BUT, HOWEVER, NEVERTHELESS, IN CONTRAST, sr.u, YET, FIRST, SECOND, NEXT, THEN, FINALLY, BEFORE, CURRENTLY, DURING, EARLIER, LATER, MEANWHILE, RECENTLY, FOR EXAMPLE ...
6.1 LET'S RECAP
We want to get the audience thinking and feeling so we can persuade them using ethos, pathos and logos. Connect with them emotionally and they will believe you, get them thinking logically and they will believe your evidence.We began this in the hook:
• Ethos- we established our personal connection to the topic which begins to create credibility.We must continue to reinforce this by using good evidence.
• Pathos- We connected the problem with the audience and emotionally involving them in our speechour evidence will make this stronger.
• Logos- We haven't used much logic yet- the middle of our speech will provide this, however we have gotten them thinking by arousing curiosity and looking at our problem- this will help them listen better to our logic.
"Trying to put too much into a speech is probably the single most frequent error made by speakers." - Vincent Ferraro
6.2 TEN WAYS TO BE STICKY
The test of a good speech is not how much they like it when they hear it, but how much they remember the next day. Many speeches are fun, but forgettable- and if people forget, they cannot act. If they remember then it shows we have really communicated, and not just performed.
How can we make ideas stick in their heads?
I. Simple- If people don't understand, then they won't remember. Don't use any words you needed to look up in a dictionary, unless you clearly explain the definition to the audience too.
2. Short- Which is more important- saying everything we want, or being remembered? Cut your message down to the heart of it.You may know more- but they cannot remember more.
3. Repeated- People will usually remember 3 things from your speech. Carefully choose them, reinforce them through repetition, emotion and logic.The brain looks for patterns-repetition make them. Also, repetition helps create internal reviewwe do this ourselves when reading, but in a speech it helps to do it for the audience.
4. Familiar- People need to understand and relate to your topic. Use their existing knowledge and emotions. Local and national topics are often best, as people can easily see how the ideas are connected and vital to them.
s. Appropriate- Think about your audience- you may have a brilliant speech on "why the Hadron Supercollider is the best supercollider," but is this topic appropriate for all?
6. Interactive- people remember more as active participants, not passive listeners. Give them a task- ask them questions, or have them turn to their neighbor and answer a questionanything that involves them.
7. Unique- The brain looks for things that stand out from the crowd. Any idea or comparison that is unusual or surprises the audience will aid memory. Not something they've heard about 100 times before.
8. Suspenseful- if a topic involves a lot of controversy, conflict or sense of urgency it is easier to recall.
9. Emotional- This has been already discussed- people connect better and remember better when the stories are emotionally charged.
10. Credible- If the evidence is not believable, then the mind dismisses it and forgets.
6.3 FASTER, STRONGER
To be a good thesis it needs to be:
• An opinion- it can't just be a fact.
Bad: Bananas are a fruit. Really? I didn't know
OK:Apples are the best fruit.
• One thesis- only have one opinion. Bad: Dogs and cats are the best pet. Which
one is it?
OK: Cats are the best pets.
• Debatable- needs to have two sides. Bad:We should eat food. Who will disagree? OK:AII students should study English in
• Specific- it needs to suggest a specific change in belief or action.
Bad:We should improve our country. How!? OK: In order to combat brain drain and increase global competitiveness, our government should provide free university education to all students. GREAT! It has a strong opinion connected with specific reasoning!
6.4 ACTION OR BELIEF
The two main types of persuasive speeches
focus on changing actions or beliefs. -------
• Action: changing what people do.
Example: You should buy a cat.
• Belief: changing what people think.
Example: Cats are the best pet.
Any topic can be written to change action or belief.
Example Topic: Smoking 00
Action- You should start smoking.
Belief- Smoking is a wonderful hobby.
6.5 REASON & EVIDENCE
What should I know about reasons?
I. Like your thesis- reasons should be strong and specific.
2. Reasons need to be directly in support of your thesis proposal- not just related to your topic.
My topic is: Pollution.
My thesis is:We should helps solve the pollution problem in our city by requiring drivers to only use their cars on alternate days.
Then my evidence needs to show and explain why my thesis is a good idea.
Bad Example: Water pollution is endangering our drinking water. True- but what does that have to do with my specific thesis?
Good example: Driving cars on alternate days has been used successfully in other cities to reduce overall air pollution by 30%.
3. Reasons are often revealed in a shortened form at the end of the hook in connection with the thesis.
My thesis again, with two connected reasons in italic: We should helps solve the pollution problem in our city by requiring drivers to only use their cars on alternate days, because it reduces air pollution, and allows us to redirect funds to alternative energy solutions.
You know the first reason in long form, now here is the second: By reducing wear on our roads we can save city funds and reinvest them in introducing alternative energy sources to our city.
What should I know about evidence?
Along with a strong thesis, evidence satisfies the audience that you are right, and that they are right to follow you. There are three main types of evidence.
Using the example reason: "Cats are the best pet for university students because they help students cope with stress."
• Expert Opinion- evidence from experts on a topic based on research or deep knowledge of a subject. This and statistics are where most logos persuasion comes from.
Example: In a 2008 study, Dr. Park discovered that students who own cats are more likely to report being satisfied with their lives.
• Statistic- A form of an expert opinion- evidence based specifically on scientific data collection (anything involving numbers or percents).
Example: A recent survey of college freshman reveals that 2 out of 3 report they'd be happier of they had a cat.
• Example- personal or well known stories, stories from the news.
Example: Before I had a cat I used to always be depressed, but now when I come hope and my cat Felix walks up to me purring all my daily stress disappears.
Remember: always use your story techniques when discussing evidence and be sure to use a wide variety of evidence types.
6.6 GOOD EVIDENCE True or false:
• Everything I read in a newspaper or on the Internet must be true.
• If I hear about something on the TV News it must be true.
Both false! You always need to dig and find out what is behind the evidence. There are many ways evidence can be bad. Here are a few:
I. Not an expert: Do they have to be a scientist to be an expert? Noif I use good logic I don't need data.
For example- I know traffic is bad in my city. Everyone can see that; it is common sense. Do I need to cite a traffic expert? Sure- it could help, but I can also use personal examples because the topic is inside my area of experience.
When do I need hard science? When something is outside the areas of my experience or common sense, or when I am making a statistical claim. For example- I don't know the best fuel for a space shuttle. Do you? If I suggested a fuel, that would be bad evidence. If I said the fuel was 3% more effective, then that would be even worse evidence because I have no expertise.
2. Biased: This means the source has personal involvement in your thesis and therefore cannot be fair in making a judgment. Everyone has bias.
For example, if my topic is: "you should stop smoking," I might cite a doctor who has studied the effects of tobacco on the body. As a doctor he/she is probably concerned about health and therefore has an antismoking bias, however his/her life is not dependent on my thesis so the bias is probably small.
However, if the person I cited was employed by a cigarette company then they would be too biased because they are not really independent- their livelihood is dependent on one side of the opinion.
The more dependent a sources is on your thesis being right or wrong, the more bias they have.
3. Not well cited (recent & reliable):
Your sources should be recent- if we are talking about the dangers of smoking, a medical study from the 1800's doesn't apply.
It should be re/iable- if you cite a statistic that was done as an informal survey by a magazine, how reliable is the data? Not very. This is connected with the idea of "being an expert" again. Is the source known for carefully researching its stories? Or is it just trying to entertain?
6.7 CITING EXPERTS
When using a news story, an expert opinion, or a statistic, it is always important to accurately tell where it comes from in order to persuade with logos and avoid plagiarism. Citations in a speech are less formal and detailed than in an academic paper- but they follow structure.
The two main ways to cite are: quoting or paraphrasing/summarizing.
· Quoting: When you quote you are using the exact words of someone else to express an idea.
· Summarizing/paraphrasing: There is a small difference between the two.
Paraphrasing: takes a section a text and rephrases it in your words, cutting away unneeded ideas and shortening the length, but usually not drastically- perhaps 100 words cut down to 50-60.
Summary: taking a section of a text or even a whole text and rephrasing it in your words by cutting the text down to just the very main ideas, drastically shortening it. 100 words (or more) cut down to 10.
While paraphrasing can be an excellent tool for paper writing, due to time constraints in a speech, summarizing is usually the better option. When you summarize read the text and ask yourself: who, what, where, when, why and how? Answer these questions and just pull out the main idea to say.
Do always you trust the experts?
"There are as many opinions as there are experts." -Franklin D. Roosevelt
When is it better to quote?
I. When the quote is by someone really famous: MLK famously said, "I have a dream." Do you really want to try and rephrase his words?
2. When the text is very unique and well said: if the quote is really well written and you cannot summarize it without destroying its power, then quote.
3. When the quote is really short: do you want to summarize one sentence? No.
What to include:
When citing a news story, expert opinion, or statistic (quote or summary)- include name, year, and either the publication or organization the source is affiliated with.
Example: In a 2007 study Dr. Bob of Harvard University discovered that cats could fly.
When citing for other purposes (a famous quote, or quote by someone you know)include the name and context.
Example: When I was slow to rise in the morning my father always used to say, "Wake up before I set the dogs on you."
6.8 QUICK NOTE: SPICE YOUR STATISTICS
Remember "show don't tell"? The same rule is true with statistics. The brain won't remember numbers for long, use comparisons to everyday situations to male things stick.
Which is easier to remember: "the microphone costs 2 dollars excluding taxes and this is within the budget of most of our customers between the ages of 18-23"? Or:"our microphone is cheaper than a coffee at Starbucks]"
6.9 EXAMPLE EVIDENCE
Eating Indian food will help you to learn your date's real personality. On first dates people often try to put their "best foot forward" by presenting themselves as a more perfect version of themselves. This is natural and very human, but it isn't very helpful. We don't date the idealized version; we end up dating the real person.When people eat something outside their normal routine they react with their real personalities. My friend Nick always portrayed himself as very brave, but the moment he ate a hot curry all that bravado was gone. If they wrinkle there nose at the food and dislike it, it may mean they are not very adventurous.Additionally, according to Dr. Carruthers, a raw food specialist from Cambridge, the spices in Indian food serve as a mood enhancer and cause the same release of endorphins you get from exercise. Have you felt the clarity of mind that comes after a workout? That same type of connection can occur on a date at an Indian restaurant.
Analysis: I provided two pieces of evidence-
• first I used a personal story and connected it to a more general audience experience
• second I used scientific evidence to establish credibility and logos.
INOIAN FOOO CAN CAUSE SOME OATE PROBLEMS
6.10 A GUIDE TO TRANSITIONS
What is happening in these pictures? Are they connected? Try this: "Cat and I were on the moon when suddenly I heard an explosion. Then I realized it was my alarm clock waking me. Before that, I was dreaming."
Without transitions it is not possible to understand that this is one complete story. The same is true with your speech. We have already talked about using a small number of simple, short, repeated ideas. Transitions are another way to make clear and memorable your speech.You need them to help tell people where you are going, and how everything connects.
There ore two types:
· Transitions within sections- these are transitions between different sentences, ideas or points within one section. They help to connect the thoughts together logically.
Look at these two sentences: a. He is an English teacher.
Because of this, I invited him to my party.
Means: I invited him to my party because I like that he teaches English teacher.
b. He is an English teacher. Even so,l invited him to my party.
Means: I don't like that he teaches English, but stilll invited him.
The transitions we choose to use can change the meaning of the relationship between sentences. To make good transitions within sections follow these steps:
I. Look at your sentences 2. Decide on the logical relationship
3. Insert a good transition.
· Transitions between sections: Moving between sections
is a little harder. There are two main ways, one relatively easy, and one more advanced-
I. Review and Preview:
This method really does help clarify points for the audience. Think about itwith a book, especially on an academic subject- do you read it without stopping? No, you stop and review to give yourself time to absorb the material. The audience doesn't have the ability to "pause" you, so it is good to give them these little reviews in order absorb the material.As Winston Churchill said, ""Tell them what you are going to tell them, tell them, then tell them what you told them."
How it works:At the end of a section, briefly review what you said by rephrasing the reason and make a bridge with a preview of the next section. Say what?
Look: "As I've now shown, buying a cat is financially the most practical solution for university students, and next I will turn to the topic of psychological benefits."
2. Curiosity and Surprise: This method takes reviewing and previewing, and spices it up. Remember learning about curiosity and breaking the flow last chapter? This is similar, but between sections.
How it works: Review the section in the form of a question.Answer the question with a surprising response at the beginning of the next section. Say what?
End of section /- "You've seen how practical is to buy a cat, but how do you think owning a cat affects your future?"
Beginning if section 2: "Some people want to live forever. Egyptians, who worshiped cats, believed they were one of the keys to immortality.While I can't show you how owning a cat can live forever- there is substantial evidence that owning a cat can add up to five years to your life."
SEE: this chapter's online resources for a full list of transitions words and phrases.
"Tell me and
Show me and
I remember, Involve me and I understand.··
THERE ARE TWO STEPS TO REFUTING:
OPPOSING OPINIONS ARE COMMON. WE NEEO TO RESPONO TO THEM.
I SEE YOUR POINT, BUT WHAT ABOUT ...
WHY? IF NOT, OUR AUDIENCE ASKS "YEAH ... BUT ... "
IF WE DON'T RESPOND, THEY THINK:
2. DESTROY IT.
- WE DIDN'T REALLY PREPARE,
- MAYBE THE OTHER SIDE IS STRONGER.
I WILL FIND THEIR WEAKNESS
CATS ARE BETTER THAN DOGS BECAlISE ...
... CATS CAN TALK TO FISH
- TRUE BUT NOT IMPORTANT:
A.NOT RELEVANT B.NOT SIGNIFICANT
C. EASY TO SOLVE
... MY MOM LIKES CATS
SAME AS YOU 010 IN UNIT G (ARGUMENTS)
IF YOU ~ON'T THEY WON'T ACT OR REMEMBER. ALL YOUR HARO WORK WILL BE FOR NOTHING.
AN ENDING IS NOT JUST A SUMMARY! YOU NEED TO GIVE YOUR LISTENER A NEW UNDERSTANDING.
YOU COUL[) ENO WITH A STORY ABOUT A GREAT MEAL
THERE ARE TWO TYPES:
SOMETHING GOOD THAT WIll- HAPPEN IF THEY LISTEN.
SOMETHING BAD THAT WIll- HAPPEN IF THEY DON'T.
LIKE IN MUSICRETURNING TO A CHORUS HELPS IMPROVE MEMORY 6 CREATES COMPLETION
IF YOU ELECT ME PRESIDENT THEN WE WILL HAVE WORLD PEACE ...
IF YOU STARTEO WITH A STORY ABOUT A BAO FOOO
WITH THESIS: YOU NEEO TO CAREFULL Y CHOOSE MEALS
2.MAKE A PREDICTION
GIVE ME TUNA OR THE WORLD WILL END
5.SIVE A CALL TO ACTION
WHAT IS IT?
A SPECIFIC TASK THE LISTENER CAN DO TO HELP SUPPORT YOUR THESIS
DO IT NOW!
COMBINE THESE IDEAS WITH YOUR HOOK TECHNIGUES
(SHOW DON'T TELL) AND YOU WILL HAVE A GREAT CONCWSION.
WHY DO YOU KEEP CHANGING COSTUMES?
THIS IS YOUR LAST CHANCE TO MAKE AN IMPRESSION
In order to completely convince the audience you are an expert, you need to imagine why some of the audience might reject your ideas and how to overcome this resistance. If you can do this you have finished satisfying them that you are correct. If you skip this they will question your solution's strength.
There are three simple steps to this:
I. Write the exact opposite of your thesis. If I say up, you say down. If I say should, you say shouldn't. Careful: you are not proposing an alternate counter-solution- you are proposing a negation of your own solution.
2. Think of a few strong reasons that support this counter-thesis.
3. Refute the counterreasons using good evidence.
7.2 REFUTING COUNTERS
Before we defeat a counter-argument with evidence we must decide what is wrong with its reasons:
• Not true: While logically possible, there is no good reason to propose a false counterreason. Skip this one.
• Not always true: This answer acknowledges that yes, the counter reason is sometimes true, but not in every situation.
• Not important: This is the most common refutation. In it you are acknowledging that while the counter-reason may have some truth to it, your reason is still much stronger. Why?
I. Not re/evant- With this you say, "yes, your reason is true, but it has no connection to my original thesis."
2. Not significant- With this you say, "yes you may be technically right, but the difference between our evidence is too small to be important."
3. Easy to solve- With this you say, "yes, your reason is true, but the problem you suggest can easily be solved, and that will allow my solution to continue."
After you say what is wrong with the counterreason then provide an example piece if evidence that supports your refutation. Do this in the same way you presented evidence in chapter 6.
7.3 EXAMPLE COUNTERS
My thesis: Cats are the best pets for university students in cities.
I. Counter-argument & Reason: Cats are not the best pets for university students because some students are allergic to cats. Notice- the counter-argument is directly opposed- it is not an alternative solution like "dogs are the best pet."
Refute & Evidence: While it's true some are allergic to cats, it is an easily solved problem because there are breeds of cat that have no hair and therefore do not disturb allergies.
2. Counter-argument & Reason: Cats are not the best pets for university students because they take up to much time each day.
Refute & Evidence: While it is true that cats do take some time, overall it is not significant. Unlike dogs, which require daily walks, cats are able to largely care for themselves and are happy playing alone.
7.4 FULL CIRCLE
By the time you get to the conclusion with your audience you have hopefully:
• gotten their attention
• connected a need to them
• proposed a specific solution
• used logic and emotion to convince them of your solution • refuted any objections
Now it is time to come full circle, to go back and remind them where you started. The goals of your conclusion, before you make a prediction and call to action are:
I. Summarize and remind of your main ideas
2. Create a sense of closure and understanding to these ideas to reinforce the audience's connection to the topic
What was your thesis? What were your three main ideas? You need to remind the audience of them. However, we don't want to bore them by just repeating the same thing. What can we do?
Closure and understanding:
To avoid just repeating it is good to come back to our original hook story, the one we first used to establish our connection to the topic, and show how the solution and reasons have changed our understanding. We should not be introducing new evidence, but using new understanding to again demonstrate why they audience should care and act on our solution. But how?
Here is an example return to the hook story we created in chapter 5:
My first date may have been a disaster, but I learned from my mistakes.At the end of the evening I asked her if we could try again. Thankfully, she said "yes." The next time we met at Delhi's Indian restaurant. Cumin and curry rushed into our noses and woke up or brains. Our minds opened with our senses. It was as though we were two entirely different people than those who met on the first date. Who knew a little spice could make such a difference? As I grabbed pieces of chicken with the hot garlic Naan bread I knew I would never again settle for a common meal when trying to get to know someone, and have them get to know me.
Analysis: I return to my reasons and main idea along with my first date story. This leads into my prediction for the audience.
7.5 MAKE A PREDICTION
Having explained the reasons in the here and now to support your solution it is important to have the audience visualize the future of your ideas. These "if/then" futures sentences are best during the closing because:
• create a sense of forward motion towards a call to action,
• signal positive closure and create urgency,
• and negatively: they can often create disagreement if used in the middle, because predictions are harder to prove with evidence- for this reason save them till after the counter-argument.
NOTf:,Your topic does not need to be serious for these strategies to work
Example Not-serious Thesis: You should go to Delhi's Indian restaurant on your first date because it reveals who you are as well as gauging what type of person your date is.
Prediction: Imagine if you don't go to Delhi's. Instead you choose something safe, a more traditional restaurant. Not only does your date think then that you are boring, but you have also learned nothing about her. You have missed an opportunity to see how she reacts to something as delicious and interesting as spicy Indian food.
7.6 CALL TO ACTION You need to end with passion. What happens to a good movie with a dull ending? It's forgotten.
What happens to a so-so movie with and incredible ending? People talk about it for weeks after.
Give them an ending to remember- an ending that makes them want to get out of their seats and conquer the world ... or at least go to the restaurant you suggest. The call to action is just that: a strong suggestion of what the audience should do next, assuming they have been persuaded by your logos, ethos and pathos.
Continuing my not-serious example:
After you go home today I want you to call and make a dinner reservation. What are you waiting for? For a first date with a new girlfriend, or a dinner with someone you've known for a long time, go tonight.With friends, with family, with colleagues, the experience of Delhi's Indian food is one to be shared and discussed. Our mouths are tired. We change restaurants but the flavors stay the same. The flavors of Delhi will surprise your taste buds and awaken your mind.Who knows what the simple act of eating food will lead to next?
7.7 PREP CHECKLIST
I. Choose your general topic.
2. Think about how it relates to your audience
3. Create an attention getting intro and thesis that fits you and your audience.
4. Outline your main points/reasons.
5. Brainstorm stories and research evidence that supports your points.
6. Tie it together with a dynamite conclusion that connects with the audience.
7. Create visuals that support your key emotional and thinking points.
8. Break your written speech it into pausing chunks.
9. Practice your speech with and without your script.
10. Bring 100% energy (body language and voice) when you speak.
7.8 OUTLINE CHECKLIST OPENING
• Got the audience's attention.
• Connected our hook with our thesis.
Pathos, ethos logos:
• Got them thinking and feeling.
• Connected ourselves to the story.
• Connected the audience to the story.
• Use storytelling techniques.
• Established the need for our solution.
• Presented a strong and specific solution.
• Convinced the audience that your solution is a good one.
Pathos, ethos, logos:
• Used logic to improve logos and
• Used examples to improve pathos.
• Used story techniques.
• Used strong and varied evidence.
• Overcame counterarguments.
• Summarized and restated your main
• Returned to your hook story.
• Visualized future scenarios.
• Called the audience to action.
"Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening."
- Dorothy Sarnoff
7.9 LOOKING BACK
Look back to your goals from section 1.3. How close have you come to achieving them?
Valentin Macias Donaleen Jolson Conya Blad Jisuk Lee
This book would not have been possible without the work of Seth Godin, Garr Reynolds, Nancy Duarte, Andrew Finch, Zoltan Dornyei, David Harrington, James Wolf, Paulette Dale, and Mark Powell.
ALL ORIGINAL COMICS: 26- http://www.sxc.hu/photo/989704
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