French
Language Course
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Contents

004 - Lessons
• • • •

005 - Introductory lessons 039 - Level one lessons 081 - Level two lessons 129 - Level three lessons

• • •

170 - Grammar 209 - Appendices 244 - About this Wikibooks
• •

245 - Authors 246 - GNU Free Documentation License

Third Edition
Published: May 05, 2006

PDF created by Hagindaz

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The current version of this book can be found at

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LESSONS

Vue de Paris depuis la terrasse de la Samaritaine

Introductory French Logo officiel du gouvernement français Welcome to the course dedicated to teaching you the best and most beautiful language in the world*! * The views and opinions expressed do not necessarily state or reflect those of Wikibooks as a whole or any of its affiliates. .French Introductory Lessons Bonjour! .

01 Leçon 01 : L'introduction History of the French Language Extent of the French Language 007 Lesson 01 : Introduction 0. Names 017 Lesson 05 : Greetings 0.Introductory Level Contents 0.02 Leçon 02 : Apprendre le français Reasons To Learn French. Months of the Year 027 Lesson 09 : Dates 0.07 Leçon 07 : Ça va? Asking How One Is Doing 021 Lesson 07 : How are you? 0. Times of Day Asking for the time 029 Lesson 10 : Telling Time Aiguilles d'Arves.06 Leçon 06 : Le discours formel Vous vs.03 Leçon 03 : L'alphabet Letters Punctuation 011 Lesson 03 : The Alphabet 0.10 Leçon 10 : L'heure Numbers 30-60. Grave Accent Tonic Accent.04 Leçon 04 : Les accents Acute Accent. Seasons Days of the week. Book Organization 009 Lesson 02 : Learning French Advice on Studying French 0. France . Asking For One's Name 019 Lesson 06 : Formal Speech 0. Stress 015 Lesson 04 : Accents 0. tu.09 Leçon 09 : Les dates Numbers 01-31. Courtesy Titles.05 Leçon 05 : Les salutations Greetings Good-byes.08 Leçon 08 : Les numéros Cardinal Numbers Ordinal Numbers 024 Lesson 08 : Numbers 0.

most noticeably in the Norman Invasion of 1066. For this reason.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. although English is a Germanic language. at least a third of the English lexicon is derived from French. culture.01 • Introduction Introduction See also: French language French is a Romance language. and Romanian. royal courts across Europe and also in trade. it was often the language used in diplomacy. French-speaking people have made incursions upon the British Isles many times in the past. . descended from Latin and closely related to Portuguese. It is the native tongue of over 87 million people and has an additional 68 million non-native speakers. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question History Further information: History of the French language In medieval times and until the 19th century. administration. Spanish. Italian. thus appropriately becoming the lingua franca of its time.

It is the official language of 29 countries and is spoken in France. being an official language of the United Nations. which is the only bilingual province. Luxemburg. Mali. Djibouti. the Ivory Coast. Algeria. Burundi. Haiti. the Olympic Games. Gabon. the Seychelles.Extent of the Language French is spoken all around the world. Belgium. Switzerland. Madagascar. where it is the primary language.01 • Introduction live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Allons-y! Bonne chance! congratulations on completing Lesson 0. Main article: La Francophonie Main article: French colonial empires In modern terms. and Canada (mostly in the province of Québec. Chad. Mauritius. Rwanda. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English and French labels). it is still significantly used as a diplomatic language. Cameroon. the Congo. Morocco. Burkina Faso. Tunisia. and the European Union. Togo. Senegal. Niger. but it is also used in other parts of the country notably New Brunswick.

French is a complete language. most of us are unwilling to take that step. Rent or buy French-language movies. Listen. like any skill. If you are serious about learning French. The next best thing is immersion. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to the more complex. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus. The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. this is only half of the skills that make up fluency.02 • Learning French Reasons To Learn French As mentioned earlier. it may be noted that English is also considered to be 'difficult'. an excellent source is Google's news page. and practice. there exist dozens of famous French novels and nonfiction works in a variety of subjects. the French language can be learned in only ten months.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. In addition to societal reasons. and they will reinforce one another. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Advice on Studying French Main article: How to learn a language French tends to have a bad reputation amongst English speakers as hard to learn. If you can't travel to a French-speaking country. speak. You are bound to find speakers almost everywhere in the world. which links to French-language news stories. Most countries are in the relative vicinity of a French-speaking country. Again. . even if it's not daily. Read French newspapers and magazines. For listening and speaking. it is highly likely that you will begin to forget it. Learning any new language requires some commitment. and yet we learnt it without the benefit of already knowing a language. Grab a French speaker you meet and talk to him or her in French. at least make it regular. as babies do. While this course can teach you to read and write in French. Remember that you are learning a new skill. You must train all of these skills. the best way to go about reading these works is in the native language. then try listening to French-language programs on the radio. a period of immersion (where you go to live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you are moderately studied. or the Internet. While it is true that it poses certain difficulties to native English-speakers. Pay attention to pronunciation. it requires a certain amount of effort. finding a native speaker to help you once you have some skill will help you with these skills. A written document cannot teach much about listening to and speaking French. This allows you to start with a clean slate. which will enrich your vocabulary. In fact. Remember that. generally long-term. French is significantly used as a diplomatic language. Try to make it a part of your schedule. TV. And if you do not practice your French regularly. Because much can be lost in translation. However.

along with many other irregular verbs. including pronouns. congratulations on completing Lesson 0. see the lessons planning page. is given. the present indicative. In the third level. and information on how you can help improve this book. the most common past tense.02 • Learning French live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . most common present tense. and four increasingly complex lesson levels. The introductory lessons will teach you pronunciation and phrases. you will learn basic grammar. The fourth level (still in development). the page of which you are reading now. In the second level. In the first level. For more on course structure. you will learn several more tenses and complex grammar rules. and several irregularly-conjugated verbs.Book Organization This book is divided into one set of preliminary lessons. will be conducted in French and will focus on French literature and prose writing. the passé composé.

These are: à. . ï. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. ë. û. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ. î. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. ü. ö. ù. è.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. ô. ê.03 • Alphabet Introduction French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash Characters Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Pronunciation zhee kah el emm enn oh pay ku Characters Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Pronunciation ess tay oo vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ii ee Rr air In addition.

or u: like g in get aspirated h: see note below* Hh /aʃ/ non-aspirated h: not pronounced*** Ii like ea in team /i/ Jj like s in measure /ʒi/ Kk like k in kite /ka/ Ll like l in lemon /ɛl/ Mm like m in minute /ɛm/ Nn like n in note /ɛn/ closed: approx. like u in burp** /ə/ Ff like f in fog /ɛf/ before e and i: like s in measure Gg /ʒe/ before a. Uu /y/ but make your lips say "oo". Vv like v in violin /ve/ Depending on the derivation of the Ww word.Letters and Examples French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français name in French letter pronunciation (in IPA transcription) Aa like a in father /a/ Bb like b in baby* /be/ before e and i: like c in center Cc /se/ before a. or u: like c in cat Dd like d in dog /de/ Ee approx. like u in nut Oo /o/ open: like o in nose Pp like p in pen* /pe/ /ky/ see 'u' Qq like k in kite for details force air through the back of your throat Rr /ɛʀ/ just as if you were gargling like s in sister at begining Ss of word or with two s's /ɛs/ or like z in amazing if only one s Tt like t in top /te/ Say the English letter e. o. /dubləve/ like v as in violin. or w in water either /ks/ in socks. o. Xx /iks/ or /gz/ in exit Yy like ea in leak /igrək/ .

s (as in 'héros'). Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper. Did you notice the extra puff of air in the first word that doesn't come with the second? The 'p' in 'pit' is aspirated [pʰ]. Therefore. the 'p' in 'spit' is not (like the 'p' in any position in French). (h non aspiré). without making the piece of paper move. the result is le héros. héroïne is a non-aspirated h. the difference in the French 'b' and 'p' and their English counterparts is one of aspiration (this is not related to the similarly named concept of 'h' aspiré below. d (as in 'marchand). If the paper didn't move. little to no air should be expended from your mouth.: the word héros. If you're a native speaker. b and p Unlike English. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word by placing a (') before the pronunciation.'). Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section if the h is aspirated. the letter h can be aspirated. 4. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face.Zz like z in zebra /zɛd/ Final consonants and the liaison In French. but is a slight extra puff of air accompanies the stop). The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary. when you put the definite artcle in front of it. The letters p (as in 'coup'). certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. Concentrate. (the French equivalent of "Dad"). and puppy like you normally would in English. and both words must be pronounced separately. or not aspirated. say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in French. when you pronounce the letters 'b' and 'p' in French. it becomes l'héroïne. and papa. (hero) has an aspirated h. . non-aspirated h In French. Fortunately. the words must be memorized. and x (as in 'paresseux'). congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly! Aspirated vs. t (as in 'chat'). In short. Exercise 1. your pronunciation is slightly off. Say the words baby. in English both aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) actually exist. depending on which language the word was borrowed from. but only in specific environments. 2. are never pronounced at the end of a word. and is pronounced as one word. pronounced like the English 'bell. because when the definite article le is placed before it. (h aspiré). Now. 3. In terms of phonetics. the feminine form of héros. Notice how the paper moved when you said the 'b' and the 'p' respectively. However. What do these terms mean? • Ex. and try it again. say the word 'pit' and then the word 'spit' out loud. • • If the paper moved.

) harmonie. eight (le huit novembre) non-aspirated héroïne. point * astérisque point + plus ! « » guillemets d'exclamation # dièse barre oblique > supérieur à point \ ? inverse < inférieur à d'interrogation [ ] crochets moins. Grab an English-French-English dictionary. Look at it every day and memorize the columns. heroine (l'héroïne) habiter.. 3. tiret _ soulignement : deux points ( ) parenthèses / barre oblique .) huit.. virgule { } accolades ~ tilde & commercial = égal % pourcent arobase.03 • Alphabet live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . point virgule congratulations on completing Lesson 0. Make a column of the two categories of h-word. Punctuation French Vocabulary • Alphabet • audio (info •608 kb • help) Punctuation • La ponctuation esperluette. to hate (je hais or j'haïs. to live (j'habite. hero (le héros) haïr.Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated: aspirated héros. harmony (l'harmonie) Exercise 1.. arobe $ dollar . and ten nonaspirated h words 2.. et . a @ ' apostrophe commercial. and find at least ten aspirated h words.

there où: where gâteau: cake. Since this reform is relatively recent and not known in vulgar surrounding. être: to be. Acute Accent . ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem). loved regarder.04 • Accents Introduction There are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French. to watch regardé. the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not aiguë. most old town names : L'Haÿ-Les-Roses (Paris surburb). î. là. ambiguous). both spellings can be used interchangeably (you might even get a point knocked off if you write "aigüe" in a text. watched . They are: accent acute accent (accent aigu) grave accent (accent grave) letters used é only è. à. ï.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. conium. ü. it happened to me!) Note : The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words. île: island. ÿ** ç only Note : As of the spelling reform of 1990. Pronounced like ï. cigüe and not ciguë. (accent circonflexe) ô. maïs: corn. dû: past participle of devoir Noël: Christmas. ù éléphant: elephant fièvre: fever. û diaeresis (tréma) cedilla (cédille) ë. accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. aigüe: acute(fem)* français: French examples live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question circumflex â. One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle of regular -er verbs. chômage: unemployment. It is only used with the letter e and is always pronounced /ay/. ê. infinitive aimer.Accent aigu The acute accent (French. to love past participle aimé.

: • • • étable --> stable (for horses) école --> scole --> school il étudie --> il studie --> he studies • And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu. here is one last example: • étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangled NB: This will not work with every word that begins with é.) là (there) où (where) Unlike à and ù. and in rapid speech is sometimes not pronounced at all. However in French. Speech: Tonic Accent . the grave accent (Fr.04 • Accents live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . accent grave). sing of avoir. replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the English word. è is not used to distinguish words from one another.Accent grave • à and ù In the case of the letters à and ù. Grave Accent . The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet.Another thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French. In careful speech. or) • è with accent grave à (preposition.L’accent tonique In English. to. The è used for pronunciation. without accent grave a (3rd pers. you stress certain syllables more than others. you pronounce each syllable evenly. or an approximation thereof: • Ex. to have) la (definite article for feminine nouns) ou (conjunction. and the word begins with é. et al. is used to graphically distinguish one word from another. an unaccented e is pronounced /euh/. at. congratulations on completing Lesson 0.

Olivier et Luc Salut. Alors. me V: Greetings French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi. Quoi de neuf./Bye. no big-thing) . Luc ! 2. Salut. Bonjour. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. so. au revoir.05 • Greetings D: Greetings French Dialogue • Greetings Greetings • Les salutations Jacques et Marie Bonsoir. And you ? (informal) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier 1. Euh ? Tu t'appelles comment ? Moi[1].Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. Jacques ? Pas grand-chose. Et toi ?[3] Je suis Olivier. oui. je m'appelle Jacques. Ah. (lit. Ah. then 3. à demain. Alors[2]. Jacques. Marie. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grand-chose. Olivier. Marie. Tu t'appelles comment ? Luc. à bientôt. Not much. oui. À la prochaine.

it should only be used among friends. is used. or À tout à l'heure. and doesn't speak a word of English. ah byantoe Ciao Bye. See you soon. Hi. Again. V: Names Tu t'appelles comment ? is used to informally ask someone for his or her name. À demain. is used to say Good night. tomorrow. Bonne nuit. is used if you will be seeing the person the following day. Good-bye. you will learn more formal ways of asking someone for their name. You want to introduce yourself to him. In the next lesson. See you tomorrow. (informal) Au revoir. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. À bientôt.05 • Greetings live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. also means bye. Bonsoir. You respond to this with Je m'appelle [name]. à Bye.Good-byes In addition to being used as an informal greeting. If you will be meeting someone again soon. is used to say Good evening. It's English equivalents would be hi and hey. Check for understanding One of your good friends is introducing you to his younger cousin who is visiting on a trip from France. before going to bed.Greetings When talking to one's peers or to children. Bonjour. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain. an Italian word commonly used in France. Salut./Bye. chow (Italian) Formal Lesson . and ask "What's up?" congratulations on completing Lesson 0. literally meaning good day. À tout à l'heure. should be used for anyone else. Another informal greeting is ciao. Salut! is used as a greeting. tell him your name. V: Good-bye French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. see you demain. Au revoir is the only formal way to say Good-bye. Tomorrow) Au revoir.Formal Lesson .

It is used in occasions when talking to someone who is important. otherwise use "vous". je[1] suis Marc Bernard. I (I is not capitalized in French (unless. Lambert above as an example of this use. Et vous ? Monsieur Bernard Moi. "Vous" is a plural form of "you". Enchanté. enchanted) G: Vous vs. tu This is an important difference between French and English. someone who is older than you are. In French. except that it is much more formal than all but the last example. beginning a sentence)) 2. Bernard and M. of course. If it is used when speaking to a stranger. This is known as w:Vouvoiement. and also used between children or when addressing a child. "Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect. English doesn't have a singular and plural.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. Conversely. formal version of "you" (although "thou" used to be the informal (arguably archaic) singular version in the days of Shakespeare). or someone you are unfamiliar with. . "you guys". This is somewhat equivalent to "y'all". use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name. Note the conversation between M.06 • Formal speech live version discussion D: A Formal Conversation exercises French Dialogue • Formal speech • audio (info •65 kb • help) edit lesson A Formal Conversation • Une conversation formelle comment Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first report an error time: ask a question Monsieur Bernard Bonjour. This is known as w:Tutoiement. As a rule of thumb. "all of you". "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French. it signals disrespect. 1. Comment vous appelez-vous ? Monsieur Lambert Je m'appelle Jean-Paul Lambert. to be polite or to be neutral. Monsieur Lambert Enchanté[2]. French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu". "youse". Nice to meet you (lit. It is commonly used when referring to a friend and a family member. it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu".

V: Courtesy French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. without the last name of the person. employer. or generally someone older than you. When beginning to speak to a professor.. (Lit: Of nothing. . Pronunciation English.) Please S'il vous plaît. mehsyeu Gentlemen.Titles The titles monsieur. (formal). or mademoiselle.) You're welcome. it is polite to say monsieur. madame. Ma'am. De rien. Singular Madame mahdamn Mrs. Je t'en prie. madame. Young lady Mlle mehdmwahzell Young ladies Plural Mesdemoiselles Formal Lesson . (Lit: If you please. Plural Messieurs. Sir. problem. M. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle mahdmwahzell Miss. Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyeu Mr. Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) V: Titles French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. and mademoiselle are almost always used alone.) (Lit: Not of what..) (No Pas de quoi.

V: Asking For One's Name
French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •403 kb • help) Asking For One's Name • Demander le nom de quelqu'un Comment vous appelezHow do you call yourself? vous? (formal) Quel est votre nom? What is your name? What is your name? (informal) Tu t'appelles comment? (lit: You call yourself how?) Je m'appelle... My name is... (lit. I call myself...) Je suis... I am... congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.06 • Formal speech
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
D: A Simple Conversation
Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting:
• • • • • • •

Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ? Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ? Marie: Pas mal. Jean: Quoi de neuf ? Marie: Pas grand-chose. Marie: Au revoir Jean. Jean: Au revoir, à demain.

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • How are you? • audio (info •311 kb • help) How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal) Check for understanding
Write down as many ways to respond to Ça va? as you can think of off the top off your head. Then go back to the vocabulary and learn other ways.

E: 1.01 1 - Basic Phrases - Dialogue
French Exercise • How are you? • audio (info •266 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Expressions de base Exercise Put the following conversation in order: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques Au revoir bien. Ça va très bien! Et Désolé. vous? À demain. Allez-vous bien? Solution: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques. Comment ça va? bien. Ça va très bien! Et Salut, Michel! vous? Désolé. Allez-vous bien?

Fourth Comment ça va? Salut, Michel!

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Fourth Au revoir. À demain.

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Formal Lesson - Asking How One Is Doing
Ça va? is used to ask someone how they are doing. The phrase literally means It goes?, referring to the body and life. A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. You can respond by using ça va as a statement; Ça va. roughly means I'm fine. The adverb bien is used to say well, and is often said both alone and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well. Common phrases are assez bien, meaning rather well, très bien, meaning very well, and vraiment bien, meaning really well. The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal., meaning Not bad. Comme-ci, comme-ça., literally translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so. To be polite, add merci, meaning thank you to responses to questions. Check for understanding
Pretend to have (or actually have) a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.

congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
V: Cardinal Numbers
Main article: French/Appendices/Dates, time, and numbers#Les numéros live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

French Vocabulary • Numbers • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux - neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux - neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60

soixante-dix soixante-et-onze soixante-[douze - dix-neuf] quatre-vingts quatre-vingt-un quatre-vingt-[deux - neuf] quatre-vingt-dix quatre-vingt-[onze - dixneuf] cent [deux - neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard

70 71 72-79 80 81 82-89 90 91-99 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1.000 un millier (one thousand) 1.000.000 1.000.000.000

Things of note about numbers:
• • • •

For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21,31,41,51,etc) have "et un"; but past this it is simply both words consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, etc) For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number; this continues up to 1000 and onward. Many speakers of French outside of France refer to the numbers 70 to 99 in the same pattern as the other numbers. For instance, in Switzerland and Belgium, seventy is "septante," 71 is "septante et un," 72 "septante deux," and so on. Ninety is "nonante". In Switzerland, Eighty is "huitante" or "octante".

V: Mathematics Exercices
• • • • • • • • • •

huit plus cinq égal : (treize) cinq et un égal : (six) neuf plus huit égal (dix-sept) trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal (quatre-vingt-un) soixante plus vingt égal (quatre-vingts) cinquante-trois plus douze égal (soixante-cinq) dix-neuf plus cinquante égal (soixante-neuf) quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal (soixante-quatorze) Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-quinze) soixante plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-douze)

D: In School
Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est cancre à l'école. Il y a beaucoup d'histoires drôles sur Toto, un jour je vous en raconterai une ! Toto is an imaginary person that is a dunce at school. There are a lot of funny stories about Toto, one day I will tell you one of them! - L'instituteur : Bonjour, les enfants ! Aujourd'hui c'est mardi, nous allons réviser la table d'addition. Combien font huit plus six ? - Toto : Treize, monsieur ! - L'instituteur : Non Toto tu t'es trompé ! Huit plus six égal quatorze. Et combien font cinq plus neuf ? - Clément : Quatorze ! - L'instituteur : Très bien Clément. congratulations on finishing

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
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Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
V: The days of the week.
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. • Les jours de la semaine. # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun Notes:
• • • •

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What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., C'est... or On est... (last two are less formal). Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. The days of the week are not capitalized in French.

1a 1b 2a 2b

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •320 kb • help) Asking For The Day • Demander le jour Aujourd'hui on est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee on ay kell jzoor jour ? Aujourd'hui on est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour ? Duhman on ay kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day].

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •164 kb • help) Relative Days • Les jours relatifs avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujourd'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow le lendemain the day after tomorrow

V: The Months of the Year
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron. English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 décembre daysahmbruh December • The months of the year are not capitalized in French. • For phrases relating to the months of the year, see the phrasebook French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •99 kb • help) Asking For The Date • Demander la date Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (d'aujourd'hui) ? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. say leuh...

V: Seasons
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
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it is OK to say. in this case.10 • Time V: Asking for the time French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. It is [number] hours. Date. It is one o’clock. Time • Demander le jour/la date/le temps Asking for the time. though it would literally translate as “he is”.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. equivalent to “it is” (impersonal "il"). It is three o’clock. eelay [nombre] er live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Time In French. In English. Il est quatre heures et quart. It is five past four. Il est quatre heures moins le It is a quarter till 4.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure. Il est quatre heures trente. . It is four thirty. Il est midi. quart Il est quatre heures quinze. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. It is midnight. It is ten o’clock. Il est quatre heures quarante. “il est” is used to express the time. Il est quatre heures cinq. It is twenty to five. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. “It’s nine. Il est quatre heures et demie. Unlike in English. It is noon. It is four fifteen. Il est dix heures. it is actually. It is a quarter past four. 4a Quelle heure est-il ? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? 4b Quelle heure il est ? kell er eel ay 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). Il est trois heures. It is half past four. Il est minuit. It is four forty.

. midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening...du matin A.. lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon.10 • Time live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . le matin morning .du soir P.V: Times of Day French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •618 kb • help) Times of Day • L'heure relatif daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun.M.M. lit: of the evening la nuit night congratulations on completing Lesson 0.. in the evening .

salut hello (formal). what's new) pas grand-chose not much (lit. at tomorrow) Au revoir. quoi de neuf ? what's up (about you)? (lit. ô. à demain. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ V: Basic Phrases French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •353 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Les expressions de base bonjour. ü. Bye. hi (informal) Comment allez-vous? (formal). And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. These are: à. è.Introductory Lessons Introductory Level • Review G: The French alphabet French Grammar • Review • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee zhee kah el Characters Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy dubleePronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay eeks vay grehk live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Mm em Zz zedh In addition. comme ça so-so Désolé(e) I'm sorry. Comment vas-tu? (informal). akin to German auf au revoir Wiedersehen) à demain see you tomorrow (lit. ö. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. ù. û. no big-thing) bye (lit. ï. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. It's going (very) well) merci thank you et toi ? et vous ? and you? (informal) and you? (formal) pas mal not bad bien well pas si bien/pas très bien not so well comme ci. ë. î. ê. How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) ça va (très) bien I'm doing (very) well (lit. see you tomorrow . with reseeing.

neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux .dix-neuf] 72-79 quatre-vingts 80 quatre-vingt-un 81 quatre-vingt-[deux .neuf] 82-89 quatre-vingt-dix 90 quatre-vingt-[onze .neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60 soixante-dix 70 soixante-et-onze 71 soixante-[douze .dix91-99 neuf] .V: Numbers French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux .

V: Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day.neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1. eelay [nombre] er 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5 . etc) For 100-199. le temps Asking for the day. but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. Date.000. trente-trois.cent [deux . it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21. Tomorrow is [day].000 un millier (one thousand) 1. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour]. It's [month] [#]. Asking for the time. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s).000. this continues up to 1000 and onward. Asking for the date.31. It is [number] hours. Time • Demander le jour. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour].000. Today is [day].000 1. la date.000 Things of note about numbers: • • • For 70-79.etc) have "et un".51.41. it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number.

It is five past four. It is four forty. It is four thirty. It is one o’clock.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. Il est quatre heures trente. It is twenty to five. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. Unlike in English. it is actually. “It’s nine. It is half past four. In English. . it is OK to say. Il est quatre heures quinze. though it would literally translate as “he is”. Il est quatre heures et demie. Il est trois heures. Il est dix heures. It is a quarter past four. Il est minuit. It is midnight. in this case. Il est midi. Il est quatre heures quarante. Il est quatre heures cinq. It is noon. equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il").V: Time In French. It is four fifteen. Il est quatre heures et quart. “il est” is used to express the time. French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure. It is three o’clock. It is ten o’clock.

is not used with hier. • Les jours de la semaine... V: The Months of the Year French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron.. Nous sommes.. Notes: • • • What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. • For phrases relating to the day of the week. or demain... aujourd’hui.. see the phrasebook..V: The days of the week. or On est. # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French. (last two are less formal).. Les jours de la semaine [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. C'est. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes. English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 decembre daysahmbruh December . C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly.

. le matin morning . lit: of the evening la nuit night Relative Days avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujord'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow lendemain the day after tomorrow V: Seasons French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter .du soir P.. lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon.. in the evening . midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening.V: Relative Date and Time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •883 kb • help) Relative Date and Time • Date et heure relatives Times of Day daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun..du matin A.M..M.

You're having it at your place? Oui c'est chez moi. I'm good. Chez moi is used to say at my place. Since je vais. J'ai invité une vingtaine d'amis. good day. Daniel Yes. 3 chez.. In English.. one can say Do you want it? Est-ce que. 1 Bien is an adverb meaning well. C'est très gentil de m'inviter. thank you. It goes well. Hervé It's very nice to invite me. You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party.. other than signifying that a question follows. and is often used to start questions. Its adjective equivalent is bon(ne).1 thank you.. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. merci. it goes (fine)? 2 Daniel Ça va bien. the adjective bien is used. 2 Est-ce que. Est-ce que tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J'organise une petite fête. A demain. Daniel March 3rd at 08:00 PM. bonne journée. . uses an action verb. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place. meaning I go. merci. So long. agreed. C'est quand ? Hervé When is it? [lit: It is when?] Le 3 mars à 20h. Comment vas-tu ? Daniel Hello. is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. entendu. is a preposition meaning at the house of. it's at my place. I have invited (a set of) twenty friends. Et toi ça va ? Hervé I'm good. has no real meaning.. which means good..D: A Conversation Between Friends French Dialogue • Review A Coversation Between Friends • Une conversation entre amis Bonjour Hervé. which uses the linking verb am. Hervé. And you. On va danser toute la nuit. Tu fais ça chez toi ? March 3rd.. Daniel Until tomorrow. How are you? [lit: How go you?] Je vais bien. We4 are going to dance all night. 4 on can mean we or one.. literally means Is is that.. 3 Hervé Le 3 mars. Instead of You want it?.. A bientôt..

Et vous voulez l'organiser où ? And you want to organize it where? Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a party for my birthday. I'm well. Je veux vous demander s'il est possible d'organiser une fête pour mon anniversaire. monsieur le directeur.D: The Principal French Dialogue • Review • audio (info •505 kb • help) The Principal • Le directeur (frappe à la porte : toc toc toc) (knocks on the door: knock knock knock) Entrez ! Enter! Bonjour. thank you. We would need it until 04:00 PM. Director. Est-ce que vous allez bien ? Hello. Are you well? Je vais bien merci. how are you? Je vais bien. Et vous. In the large conference room on the second floor. Entendu! J'espère que je serais invité ? Agreed! I hope that I would be invited? Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup ! Of course! Thanks a lot! Au revoir ! Good-bye! Au revoir et encore merci ! Good-bye and thanks again. On en aurait besoin jusqu'à 16 h. the time of cleaning everything. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h. congratulations on completing Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Introductory Level • Review live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . And you. I would organize it the third of March around 02:00 PM. comment allez-vous ? I am well. le temps de tout nettoyer. Mr.

Once that's done.French Level One Lessons Allons! . you can move on to the next level. go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Neouvielle and lac d' aumar . you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this level. spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons. Finally.Basic French If you haven't done so already.

09 074 1. Contractions. Astronomy . le. Beau.06 062 1. Nouveau. Music. and les V: Family G: -er Verbs.02 047 1. and vous V: Household. Sports. and Vieux V: Museums. la. Adjectives V: Colors. Housework.03 051 1. Furniture G: Negation. Playing G: Faire. Possessive Adjectives V: Hotels.05 057 1. te. Être V: G: Conjugation.07 067 1. lui and leur V: Games. me.01 041 1. Directions G: -re Verbs. Places. Subject Pronouns V: People G: Conjugation.10 078 Leçon 01 : Grammaire de base Lesson 01 : Basic Grammar Leçon 02 : Être Lesson 02 : To Be Leçon 03 : La description Lesson 03 : Description Leçon 04 : La famille Lesson 04 : Family Leçon 05 : Récréation Lesson 05 : Recreation Leçon 06 : La maison Lesson 06 : The House Leçon 07 : Le temps Lesson 07 : Weather Leçon 08 : Les voyages Lesson 08 : Travel Leçon 09 : L'art Lesson 09 : Art Leçon 10 : La science Lesson 10 : Science G: Gender. nous. Articles. Être.04 054 1.Level One Contents 1. Numbers G: Avoir.08 072 1. Aller V: Weather G: -ir Verbs. Plays G: Prendre V: Elements.

is always feminine. for example. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. even if the person is male. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. and the word for teacher. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). The nouns that express entities without gender (e.01 • Basic grammar G: Gender of Nouns In French. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine..g. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . This form can be masculine or feminine. personne.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. professeur. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. the word for person. all nouns have a grammatical gender. is always masculine even if the teacher is female[1]. for example. that is. For example.

for example. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned.Examples French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval[2] the horse -age the cheese le professeur[1] le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian 1. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. Professeur can be shortened to prof. la foi is feminine and means a belief. . Unfortunately. (le prof . but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo.the (male) teacher) (la prof . un livre (m) means a book. is always masculine. and vice versa. (m) will follow a noun to denote a masculine gender and (f) will follow a noun to denote a feminine gender. even when referring to female teachers. whereas le foie means liver. There are even words that are spelled the same. While the long form. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. the definate article will come before a noun in vocabulary charts. In this book. prof can be either masculine or feminine. Then there are some that just don't make sense. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. professeur. If the definate article is l due to elision.the (female) teacher) '2.

the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. . Fils: Most singular nouns do not end in -s. It is the article that tells the listener whether the noun is singular or plural. and Exceptions The plural of most nouns is formed by adding an -s. Pronunciation. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. Whenever the singular form of a noun ends in -s. Fils (pronounced feece) is also an exception to this rule. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. the -s ending is not pronounced. Unlike English. In French. Fils is one exception. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular [3] masculine le le fils the son singular. However. the final consonant is almost always not pronounced unless followed by an -e (or another vowel). It is similar to english. Plurality 3. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Plurality. le fils les fils un fils des fils the son the sons a son (some) sons le cours les cours un cours des cours the course the courses a course (some) courses Secondly. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). the definite article is always “the”. there is no change in the plural form. 3.G: Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. "La" is used for feminine nouns. Gender 2. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). The -s is added for the plural form of the noun.

the student (la) heure .deszami (dayzahmee) .” also occurs before a silent h.the hour/the time This process.(some) (female) friends In this book. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality.leur . the vowel sound is dropped.a student un garçon (uh gairsoh) Compare the pronunciation to words without liaiison: • Une is unaffected by liaison.l'heure .lahmee .unnélève (uhnay lev) .Elision The definite articles le and la are shortened to l’ when they come before a noun that begins with a vowel. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French.l'ami .(some) (male) friends (des) amie . the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". This is a process called liaison.a (male) friend (un) élève . called “elision. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. . Liaison also occurs with des. When pronounced. • The Indefinite Article In English.the (male) friend (la) amie . When a vowel goes directly after un. Again.lahmee the (female) friend (le) élève . you will see liaison denoted with n or z between two words.lay lev .deszamie (dayzahmee) . • • (des) ami .l'élève .l'amie . the normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced. Well when a word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound. • • (un) ami . • • • (le) ami .unnami (uhnahmee) . French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une oon une fille a daughter singular masculine un uh un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des day des fils1 some sons 1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" (when pronounced like "fill") Liaison Remember that the last consonant of a word is typically not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. the consonant often becomes pronounced.

• Qu’est-ce que c’est? . looking at nothing in particular. Qu’est-ce que c’est? (pronounced kehss keuh say) is used." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article... • • C'est un livre. . "Je regarde photographies. you say C’est un(e) [nom]. To respond to this question. meaning It is a [noun]. • .What is it? Literally. .? at the beginning of sentences. Qu’est-ce que c’est? translates to What is it that it is? You will be using Qu'est-ce que. C'est un chien."Some" Note that des.") V: People French Vocabulary • Basic grammar People • Les personnes la personne person pehr son Gender and Age l'homme (m) man ohm la femme woman fehm le garçon boy gehrsoh la fille girl fee la fillette little girl fee let Friends l'ami (m) ahmee male friend le copain co pahn l'amie (f) ahmee female friend la copine co peen V: Expressions Qu’est-ce que c’est? To say What is it? or What is that? in French.. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. we would say "I am looking at photographs.It's a dog.? often to say What. "Je regarde des photographies. C'est une chemise. you would say "Je regarde les photographies.") If you were just flipping through the album. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. you would say.. you cannot say..It's a shirt." ("I am looking at some photographs. In English.It's a book. . Remember that the indefinate article (un or une) must agree with the noun it modifies. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures." In French." ("I am looking at the photographs.

.. You will see this phrase used in all French tenses.. voici and voilà are used. translates to here is. Il y a (pronounced eel ee ah) is used to say there is (or there's) and there are. literally translates to he has there.. il y a.. and that y is a pronoun meaning there. To say that. when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same. il y a does not change form.. . is not often used to point out an object in front of you.01 • Basic grammar live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .. The phrase il y a.Il y a. the article (and perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun) is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions. voilà means there is and there are. They are used to point out objects in front of you or in exclamatory sentences. • Il y a une pomme. Voici et Voilà Voici. . and here are. Unlike in English (is => are).There are (some) apples. The -s at the end of the most plural of most nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is. • Il y a des pommes. then.There is an apple. You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir. In spoken French. The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns. congratulations on completing Lesson 1. It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of be and not have.. Similarly. the verb meaing to have. Like in English.

Level One Lessons Lesson 1. on he. Léon aussi. and 3rd person plural. Quentin Merci. Quentin. elle est d’où? Elle est de Marseille. Léon. exactement. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. Quentin Et Marie. elles they (feminine) .02 • To Be D: Where are you from? French Dialogue • To be • audio (info •226 kb • help) Where are you from? • Tu es d’où? Quentin Bonjour. French Grammar • To be • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il. elle. Tu es d’où? Léon Je suis de Paris. she. Dis donc. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. Léon. 2nd. Quentin Alors. 2nd. tu es français? Léon Oui. Elle est française. Au revoir.

each of which express a unique feeling. are irregular. if a group of people consists of both males and females. instead of “nous”. For more. In the next section.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. which indicate the time when an action takes place. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. to express “we”. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. we will look at the conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned.When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. the male form is used. Also. Tenses and Moods French verbs can be formed in four moods. English verbs only have one conjugation. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. In everyday language. “on” is used. which means that they conjugate in the same way. we are. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. parler translates to to speak. The most common verbs. The same is true with elle and feminine nouns. they see). In French. Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. he/she is. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. see the Wikipedia entry. The pronoun it does not exist in French. even those that are not human. as discussed earlier. the infinitive form is to ___. Il replaces all masculine nouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings. however. when pronounced. “vous” must be used. and aller translates to to go. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. While in English.” (formal). . (thou art). French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. we see.). they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". they are. you see. the infinitive is one word. For example. Infinitives In this book. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. he/she sees. In English. that is the third person singular (I see. the infinitive form of the verb will be used to identify it. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. Also. more commonly called the present indicative. For example. Conjugation French verbs conjugate. However. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. Most verbs are regular. you are. Each mood has a varying number of tenses. see notes in the introductory lessons. finir translates to to finish. When referring to a single person. G: Introduction to Verbs A verb is a word that describes an action or mental or physical state. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. The only exception is the verb "to be" (I am.

To Be Être translates as to be in English.I get it! Vous y êtes? . or simply D'accord? is used informally to ask whether someone agrees with you. Formation French Verb • To be • audio (info •103 kb • help) être • to be Singular Plural first person je suis jeuh swee I am nous sommes noo sum we are second person tu es too ay you are vous êtes voozett you are il est eel ay he is they are ils sont eelsohn (masc. jzeuh swee ah voh cah You are at the Tu es à la banque. one would say Okay. Tu es d’accord? (lit: You are of agreement?). or mized) third person elle est ell ay she is on est ohn ay one is elles sont ellsohn they are (fem. when D'accord. je suis d'accord. too ay ah lah bahnk bank. . and is not conjugated like any other verb. Idioms • • • Ça y est! . I am (a) lawyer. Il est beau. It is an irregular verb. They will become very useful in forming tenses.Are you ready? Expressing Agreement Tu es d’accord ou pas?.I've done it! Finished! J'y suis! . eel ay boh Try to learn all these conjugations. is used in French.G: Être . He is handsome.) Examples French Grammar • To be • audio (info •87 kb • help) To Be Examples • Exemples d'Être Je suis avocat. In English. To respond poitevely. or simply D'accord. you say Oui.

for males and females respectively.I am Australian. Elle est de Rome. . and what city they are from. In the next lesson. • Je suis Australien(ne). • Il est de Paris. This is an exception to the normal rule.G: Cities and Nationalities To say what city you are from. . Elle est Australienne.02 • To Be live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Then say what city you are from and what nationality you are. Marie est italienne. . you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person. There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality .She is Australian. it is not necessary to include the article. Check for understanding Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French. Then say what nationality some of your friends are. • • Il est Australien. When stating your nationality or job. you use the preposition de. For example.He is Australian. congratulations on completing Lesson 1.

ends in -s. amusan. Exceptions and Irregularities Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender. so the adjective will sound exactly the same as the singular form.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. such as gros. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the feminine form. it does not change in the masculine plural form.03 • Description G: Adjectives . the -s ending is not pronounced. . len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. See French/Grammar/Adjectives for more. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. When an adjective. are affected by this rule. such as those above.Les adjectifs Main article: French/Grammar/Adjectives Just like articles. lent With plural adjectives. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Regular Formation Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. amusant. Most adjectives. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e.

Elle est brune. Il est moyen. gentle Difficulty strict(e)(s) strict facile(s) easy fort(e)(s) strong difficile(s) difficult . Elle est amusante. Elles sont petites. Elles sont intelligentes. Ils sont blonds. Elles sont amusantes. Ils sont amusants. Ils sont bruns. Il est amusant. Elles sont intéressantes. hair color Il est blond. intelligents'. V: Common Adjectives French Vocabulary • Description Common Adjectives • Les adjectifs communs Attitude and Personality Size and Weight sympa(thique)(s) nice gros(se)(ses) fat amusant(e)(s) funny petit(e)(s) small intelligent(e)(s) intelligent moyen(ne)(s) average intéressant(e)(s) interesting grand(e)(s) big patient(e)(s) patient sociable(s) sociable Actions timide(s) timid bon(ne(s) good mauvais(e)(s dynamique(s) outgoing bad ) gentil(le)(s) nice. Ils sont petits. Elles sont grosses. Elle est grande.V: Describing People French Grammar • Description • audio (info •1636 kb • help) Describing People • Décrire des personnes Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural size and weight Il est petit. attitude and personality Ils sont Il est intelligent. Elles sont blondes. Ils sont gros. Elle est intéressante. Elles sont brunes. Elles sont grandes. Elle est blonde. Ils sont grands. Elle est grosse. Elles sont moyennes. Elle est moyenne. Il est brun. Elle est intelligente. Il est intéressant. Elle est petite. Il est grand. Ils sont intéressants. Ils sont moyens. Il est gros.

. In this book. really • Il est vraiment intelligent. congratulations on finishing Lesson 1.rather. will will show that the sound is connected usung z.He is rather intelligent. . enough • Il est assez intelligent. z vraiment . très .03 • Description live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .V: Colors French Vocabulary • Description • audio (info •160 kb • help) Colors • Les couleurs Masculine Feminine English blanc blanche white gris grise gray noir noire black rouge rouge red orange orange orange jaune jaune yellow vert verte green bleu bleue blue violet violette violet marron marron brown (everything but hair) brun brune brown (hair .dark haired) rose rose pink safran safranne saffron G: Adverbs Expressing Degree • • • assez .He is very intelligent. Trèszin is pronounced trayzahn.He is really intelligent. . the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. This process is called liaison. ^ Often when a vowel sound comes after a consonant.truly.very [1] • Il est très intelligent.

There are books. or mized) they have (fem. Il y a des livres.I'm thirty (years old). • • Tu as quel âge? .There is a book. • • Il y a un livre.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. .How old are you? [lit: You have what age?] J'ai trente ans. . I have two pens. Tu as trois frères.04 • Family G: The verb avoir "Avoir" can be translated as "to have". You have three brothers.) elleszont ellzohnt Examples J'ai deux stylos. Il a une idée. . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (100 kb • help) avoir • to have Singular Plural first person j'ai zjay I have nouszavons noozahvohn we have second person tu as too ah you have il a eel ah he has third person elle a ell ah she has onna ohnah one has vouszavez voozahvay you have ilszont eelzohnt they have (masc. He has an idea. [lit: I have thirty years] There is/are . Expressing Age Avoir is used to express age. .Il y a The expression il y a means there is or there are.

V: The Family French Vocabulary • Family • audio (info •1245 kb • help) The Family • La Famille Immediate Family Extended Family ma famille ma famille my family my extended family éloignée les parents parents les grand-parents grandparents la mère mother le grand-père grandfather le père father la grand-mère grandmother la femme wife les petits-enfants grandchildren le mari husband le petit-fils grandson la soeur sister la petite-fille granddaughter le frère brother l'oncle. tati aunt f) les enfants children le neveu nephew la fille daughter la nièce niece le fils son le/la cousin(e) cousin (m or f) Step Family la belle-mère stepmother la demi-soeur half sister le beau-père stepfather le demi-frère half brother To speak about more complex family relations."le cousin de ma grandmère". . such as "my grandmother's cousin". you must use the de mon/ma/mes form . tonton uncle child (m or l'enfant la tante.

• • • • le . tu. Similary.. such as "la boule".He throws it. la. both masculine and feminine Il la jette. Lesson 1.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' .replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb.He throws the ball.replaces a masculine singular direct object la . . la. • • Le. . la.04 • Family live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . congratulations on completing The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. can be replaced by pronouns.replaces plural direct objects. Il les jette. and les are called direct object pronouns. . because they are pronouns that are.. direct objects. • Il jette la boule.G: Direct Object Pronouns le. you guessed it.He throws them. and les le. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. used as direct objects.).

.to play French Grammar • Recreation • audio (info •184 kb • help) -er Verb Formation • Formation de verbes en -er pronoun ending verb je -e joue tu -es joues il/elle -e joue nous -ons jouons vous -ez jouez ils/elles -ent jouent Elision and Liaison In all conjugations. je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel.05 • Recreation G: Regular -er Verbs Formation Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. Example: J'attends. To conjugate.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. as in J'habite. as a rule of thumb: h is considered a vowel. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense.. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question jouer . the s at the end of each subject pronoun. If a phrase is negative. normally unpronounced.. drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". In all plural forms.. Also. becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel. ne changes to n'.

Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. When negating a sentence. Nous détestons travailler. Je n'aime pas parler. Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. Michel : J'attends mon ami. The most common -er verbs used in this manner are aimer and détester. Literally translated.I don't like to speak. some verbs can be followed by infinitives. • • • • • • Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites ? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis. .We hate working. It is a type of pronominal verb (a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it) called a reflexive verb. . the verb means I amuse myself. • D: Recreation Here is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities. . which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject. Formation Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Like in English. • • J'aime parler.I like to speak. Pierre : Je vais au parc. Christophe : Je viens du stade. remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. .Common -er Verbs French Grammar • Recreation Formation of Common -er Verbs • Formation des verbes communs en -er Infinitive Stem Present Indicative Conjuagtion First Person Second Person Thrid Person parler parl Je parle Tu parles Il parle Singular to speak Nous parlons Vous parlez Ils parlent Plural habiter habit J'habite Tu habite Il habite Singular to live Nous habitons Vous habitez Ils habitent Plural écouter écout J'écoute Tu écoutes Il écoute Singular to listen Nous écoutons Vous écoutez Ils écoutent Plural S'amuser Main article: French/Grammar/Verbs/Pronominal The verb s'amuser means to have fun in English.

^ Tu rigoles! means You’re joking! or You don’t mean it! V: Places la bibliothèque library1 le parc la piscine la plage le restaurant le stade le théâtre 1Caution: park swimming pool beach restaurant stadium theater a librairie is a bookshop.V: Recreation Qu'est-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing? jouer to play finir[1] to finish attendre[1] to wait (for) aimer to like détester to hate rigoler to joke around[2] (mon/ma) ami(e) (my) friend ^ Finir and attendre are not regular -er verbs. salle de concert concert hall . You will learn their conjuagtion in a later lesson.

Il lui jette la boule. Also note that unlike le and la.He throws the ball to Jack. lui is never shortened . .He throws the ball to them. . Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. • • lui . "He throws him the ball" is also said. .replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. and les.G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. lui and leur come after those pronouns. . la. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects.He throws it to him. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. la. . Il jette la boule à Marie. In English. and means the same thing.replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur . When used with the direct object pronouns le. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. Il leur jette la boule. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. . .He throws the ball to Mary. An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. Note that while le.He throws the ball to him.He throws the ball to her. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques. • Il la lui jette.

... When referring to sports.. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments..V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. use jouer à. use jouer de.. jouer de. jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. but when referring to instruments. baseball de la clarinette clarinet basketball du piano piano soccer.05 • Recreation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . As always. French Vocabulary • Recreation Play • Jouer jouer à. football de la guitare guitar American football du violon violin au baseball au basket au football au football américain au golf au tennis au volley aux cartes aux dames aux échecs golf de la batterie drums tennis (singular in French) volleyball cards checkers/ draughts chess congratulations on completing Lesson 1.

le premier étage second floor (Habitations à low income housing le deuxième étage third floor Loyer Modéré) le troisième étage fourth floor Cities and Neigborhoods le quartier neigborhood le centre ville downtown l'arrondissement (m) district la ville city la banlieue the suburb le village town Rooms Parts of a Room la pièce room le plafond ceiling la chambre la salle de séjour family room le sol ground la cave basement la fenêtre window le grenier attic le toit roof la cuisine kitchen Entering and Exiting . home habiter en ville to live downtown la maisonnette small house habiter en banlieue to live in the suburb le pavillon individual house l’immeuble (appartment) building Floors l'appartement (m) flat/apartment l'étage (m) level le studio studio le rez-de-chaussée lobby. ground floor H.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. view rentrer (à la maison) to go back home quitter (la (tout) près (de) (very) close (to) to leave (home) maison)[2] (pas) (tout) loin (de) (not) (very) far (from) to leave (a room) quitter (une salle) at the house of donner sur la rue to overlook the street chez [person] [person] donner sur la cour to overlook the courtyard at [person]'s house Houses habiter to live (somewhere) la maison house.M.L.06 • The house V: The House live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • The house The House • La maison General Actions la rue[1] street arriver (à la maison) to arrive (home) la (belle) vue (beautiful) sight.

Il habite Rue de Rennes..He lives on Rennes Street.I live on Lecourbe Street.le mur wall l'escalier (m) stairs monter à pied to walk up stairs l'ascenseur (m) elevator monter en ascenseur to go up by elevator prendre l'ascenseur to take the elevator monter à pied to go up by foot la porte door l'entrée (f) entry(way) Furniture le rideau curtain la chaise chair la table table l'armoire (f) cupboard le lit bed le tapis carpet le fauteuil armchair ^ To express to live on ____ street. Partir is used in other phrases. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. . no bath) le bureau office Outside a House la voiture car la terrase patio le balcon balcony le jardin garden la fleur flower l'arbre (m) tree la cour courtyard le (la) voisin(e) neigbor J'habite Rue Lecourbe. ^ Quitter must be followed by a direct object. usually a room or building. restroom (f) (no singular) (only toliet. . . you say habiter rue ____ • • la salle à manger dining room la salle de bains bathroom la chambre à coucher bedroom le garage Garage les toilettes water-closet.

to pay attention faire connaissance . Related Words • • • défaire .I make/have the stove repaired.) Uses For Faire • • • • sports weather tasks le faire causatif • faire (conjugated) + infinitive .to have something done for oneself • Je fais réparer le fourneau.to remake Expressions with Faire • • • • • faire attention . or mized) they do (fem.to do badly refaire . .to demolish malfaire . to make Singular Plural first person je fais jzeuh fay I do nous faisons noo fezohn we do second person tu fais too fay il fait eel fay third person elle fait ell fay on fait oh fay you do vous faites voo feht he does ils font eel fohnt she does one does elles font ell fohnt you do they do (masc.G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make.to scold faire la queue .to wait in line s'en faire .to worry . It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb).to get acquainted faire la morale . Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (432 kb • help) faire • to do.

Il vous voit. nous. . te. .He sees me.V: Housework French Vocabulary • The house • audio (info •524 kb • help) Housework • Le ménage faire la cuisine to do the cooking faire la lessive/le linge to do the laundry faire le jardin to do the gardening faire le lit to make the bed faire le ménage to do the housework faire la vaiselle to do the dishes faire les carreaux to do the windows faire les courses to do the shopping/errands faire le repassage to do the ironing G: me. . Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. Il te voit. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • me . If a perfect tense is used. to you (singular.He sees you.He sees us. formal) Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois. . • Je t'ai vu.us. informal) nous . to you (plural.I saw you. to me te . to us vous ..I want to see you. • Je veux te voir. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. .you. Il nous voit. .me.you. .I see you.He sees you. .

He throws it to you.He throws it to you. Il te le jette. La cuisine est toute petite et nous y[6] mangeons[7] le soir. next to ^ y (ee) . Ma maison a 2 chambres : la première pour moi et ma femme avec un grand lit.to eat congratulations on completing Lesson 1. . Nous avons aussi un bureau avec 3 ordinateurs[4] : un par personne ! La salle de séjour est très grande et à coté. Il y a une petite table et 4 chaises. Il nous le jette. . Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs. Il vous le jette. il y a un petit salon. à coté de[3] Lyon en France. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary. La deuxième est plus petite : c'est la chambre de mon fils. . Nous aimons regarder[5] la télévision allongés dans le fauteuil.to like to watch computer ^ manger .there ^ l'ordinateur (m) ^ aimer regarder .He throws it to us. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do.Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. La maison est de plein pied et ne comporte pas d'étage. ^ à coté de . Chez moi J'habite une villa à Mornant.He calls to me.at the side of. Don't forget prepositions. .06 • The house live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

ne. • Je n'ai pas volé.. ne.pas wraps around the auxillary verb. Je joue du piano. Vous vendez votre voiture. . I play the piano. . We are not doing our homework. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation and Rules • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne. ..I have not stolen. In a perfect tense.I want to not steal. pas construction must be used. • Je ne vole pas. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. Il n'est pas avocat. We are doing our homework.pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb. He is [a] lawyer. the ne .I do not want to steal. • Je veux ne pas voler.07 • Weather G: Standard Negation In order to say that one did not do something. • Je ne le vole pas.I do not steal.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. You sell your car. He is not [a] lawyer. • Je ne veux pas voler. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together. . Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs.. Je ne joue pas du piano... Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture. while the pas is placed after.I did not steal it.pas around the verb. I do not play the piano. Examples French Grammar • Weather • audio (info •262 kb • help) Negation Formation Examples • Exemples de formation de négation Il est avocat.. not the participle. You do not sell your car. . The ne is placed before the verb. Nous faisons nos devoirs. ...

I don't have any book. . I eat a cherry. . Je n'ai pas de livre. Il n'est pas belge. We read a book. I do not eat a cherry. . J'ai des livres. Je ne mange pas de cerise.I don't have any books. Je n'ai pas de livres. We do not read a book. • • • • J'ai un livre. une. and des change to de (or d’) when negating a sentence. .I have some books. .Negation of Indefinate Articles The indefinite articles un. He is Belgian. Nous lisons un livre. He is not Belgian. Je mange une cerise. Nous ne lisons pas de livre.I have a book.. Examples Il est belge.

lit: There are some . It's raining. grêle. tempest lit: The weather is . une goutte de pluie a drop of rain Extreme weather un orage a storm la pluie rain orageux(-euse) stormy La pluie tombe. Le ciel se dégage. clouds. break (in clouds) Il fait beau It's nice. la tempête storm.V: Weather . The skiy is clearing up. It's windy. The skiy is clear. lit: covered Warm Weather l'éclaircie (f) clearing. . Il fait froid. le ciel sky nuageux(-euse) cloudy couvert(e)(s) overcast. le vent wind lit: The sky is freed. Le temps est pluvieux. la rafale gust of wind Rainy Weather Snowy Weather la brume fog. Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. The wind blows. Le vent souffle. The rain falls. Le soleil brille. l'éclairage (m) lightening Il va pleuvoir. lit: It falls of the hail. l'éclair (m) flash (of lightening) il a plu. la grêle hail Il tombe de la la bruine drizzle It's hailing. It's snowing. Il fait du vent. large black clouds agité(e)(s) stormy. rainy. The sun is shining. haze. agitated l'averse (f) downpour le tonnerre thunder ^ Le temps means both the weather and the time.Le temps[1] French Vocabulary • Weather Weather • Le temps General Cloudy Weather cloud le nuage It's cloudy. Le ciel est dégagé. It's cold. It's warm. It rained. It's going to rain. de gros nuages noirs. . Il y a un orage! There's a storm! Il pleut. mist l'hiver (m) winter la neige snow le brouillard fog Il neige. rainy pluvieux(-euse) It's raining. le soleil sun Il y a des nuages.

Formation In the present indicative. at. aller is conjugated as follows: French Verb • Weather • audio (info •327 kb • help) aller • to go Singular Plural nouszallons nouzah lohn we go first person je vais jeuh vay I go second person tu vas too vah you go vouszallez vouzah lay you go they go (masc. Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain. Tu y vas. or to. meaing in.I'm going to the stage. Remember that aller must be used with a place (there or a name) when indicating that you are going somewhere. meaning there. Il va faire froid. • Instead of a preposition and place. Remember that à le contracts to au and à les contracts to aux. • . Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone. • • Il va pleuvoir demain. .G: Aller The verb aller is translated to to go.You're going to school. . Y comes before the verb. . you can use the pronoun y.It's going to rain tomorrow. . Nous y allons. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb).You're going there. even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English.I'm going there. . Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going. .It's going to be cold. Futur Proche The strucure aller + infinitive is used to say that something is going to happen in the near future. or mized) they go (fem.) il va eel vah he goes ils vont eel vohn third person elle va ell vah she goes on va ohn vah one goes elles vont ell vohn Usage There is no present progressive tense in French. The preposition à.We're going there. • Tu vas a l'école? . . Je vais au stade. • • • J'y vais. is used.It's not going to rain tomorrow. followed by the place.

ons or .ahlonzee . allez à is pronounced ahlayzah. nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay.) However. In order to have a pleasing and clean sound..Should we go? Liaison Usually.ez. There is therefore no liaison in allons à when it comes right after nous and allez à when it comes after vous.Let's go! (impératif) Ça va? . whenever a vowel sound comes after .07 • Weather live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . • • In the phrase Vous allez à l'école?.How are you? (lit: It goes?) On y va! ..Let's get going! On y va? . vous allez à is pronounced vouzahlay ah. (This process is called liaison.. the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. congratulations on completing Lesson 1. In the phrase vous et Marie allez à l'école?".Idioms • • • • Allons-y . two liaisons should not go connsecultively.. since allons and allez begins with vowels.

comment report an error finir .08 • Travel live version discussion G: Regular -ir Verbs exercises The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. ses his. vos your their leurs . leur. To conjugate. notre. tes your son. her leur.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. ta. mes my ton.to finish ask a question French Grammar • Travel -ir Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -ir pronoun ending verb je -is finis tu -is finis il/elle -it finit nous -issons finissons vous -issez finissez ils/elles -issent finissent G: Possessive Adjectives Formation French Grammar • Travel Possessive Adjectives • Les adjectifs possessifs First Person Second Person Third Person Singular mon. sa. nos our votre. drop the -ir edit lesson to find the "stem" or "root". Plural notre. votre. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. ma.

08 • Travel live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify. Ils sont mesz . her brother). • Lesson 1. ton.Usage As you can probably tell from their name. . congratulations on completing Liaison also occurs with all plural forms. ton. Elle est monnamie. Il est tonnami. Il est sonnami. and son are followed by a vowel. . In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject (his sister.He is his/her friend. and son are used before a feminine singular noun. . . Ils sont nosz . or s') does not occur. But in French.He is my friend. Elision (to m'. possessive adjective are used to express possession of an object. . • • • Il est monnami. • C'est mon livre.It's my book. Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon. sa and ses are his or her is indicated by context.She reads her book.He is your friend. since they all end in s. • Elle lit son livre. t'.They are my friends.She is my friend. .They are our friends. • • Mon. French Grammar • Travel Possesive Adjective Usage • Utilisation des adjectifs possesive Masculine Noun Feminine Noun le livre la voiture le livre de Marc son livre la voiture de Marc sa voiture the book of Marc his book the car of Marc his car les livres de Marc ses livres les voitures de Marc ses voitures the books of Marc his books the cars of Marc his cars le livre de Marie son livre la voiture de Marie sa voiture the book of Marie her book the car of Marie her car les livres de Marie ses livres les voitures de Marie ses voitures the books of Marie her books the cars of Marie her cars Whether the third person singular possessive adjectives son.

as demonstrated below for the present tense. .Level One Lessons Lesson 1. Add endings to the root based on the subject and comment tense. drop the edit lesson -re to find the "stem" or "root". report an error ask a question Formation attendre – to wait French Grammar • Art -re Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -re pronoun ending verb je (j') -s attends tu -s attends il/elle attend nous -ons attendons vous -ez attendez ils/elles -ent attendent Vendre The verb vendre is a regular -re verb: French Verb • Present Indicative vendre • to sell Singular Plural je vends jzeuh vahn I sell nous vendons noo vahn dohn we sell too vahn eel vahn ell vahn oh vahn you sell vous vendez voo vahn day' he sells ils vendent eel vahnde she sells one sells elles vendent ell vahnde you sell they sell (masc.) first person second person tu vends il vend third person elle vend on vend Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs.09 • Art live version discussion G: Regular -re Verbs exercises The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs. -re verbs are not very common. To conjugate. or mized) they sell (fem. You will however see the following verbs fairly often.

V: Going to a Museum la portraitiste portraitist V: Music French Vocabulary • Art • audio (info •287 kb • help) Music • La musique écouter la musique to listen to music des paroles lurics (le parole = word) Composing le musicien musician le compositeur composer l’auteur (des paroles) (lyrics) writer Instruments l'instrument (m) instruement la clarinette clarient le violon violin la harpe harp la guitare guitar le piano piano V: French Museums. and Opera Houses The Louvre The Louvre Pyramid . Theaters.

a pretty car de jolies voitures .intelligent men une jolie voiture . • • un homme intelligent . and Vieux Formation French Grammar • Art The Adjectives Beautiful. Sing. .pretty cars However. some common French adjectives. nouveau. Nouveau. including beau. most adjectives come after the noun they modify in French. • Note that in informal speech. and vieux come before the noun. Nouveau. and Vieux Masc. • Des is replaced with de when an adjective comes before the noun. and Old • Beau. des in very often used in place of de. Vowel Fem. Consonant Masc. (all) Singular un beau garçon un bel individu une belle fillette Beau de beauxzindividus de belles fillettes Plural de beaux garçons Singular un nouveau camion Nouveau de nouveaux Plural camions Singular un vieux camion Vieux Plural de vieux camions un nouvel ordre une nouvelle idée de nouveauxzordres de nouvelles idées un vieil ordre de vieuxzordres une vieille idée de vieilles idées Sentences Placement As you have already learned. New.an intelligent man des hommes intelligents .G: Beau.

V: Plays French Vocabulary • Art Plays • Les pièces At the Theater Play Genres le théâtre theater le ballet ballet (theatrical) play la pièce (de théâtre) lit: (theatrical) la comédie comedy piece l'acte (f) act la comédie la scène scene musical comedy musicale l'entracte (m) intermission chanter to sing le (la) chanteur le drame drama singer (-euse) danser to dance la tragédie tragedy le (la) danseur (-euse) dancer V: French Artists and Entertainers • • • • • • • • • • Charles Aznavour Gilbert Becaud Jacques Brel Robert Charlebois Joe Dassin Raymond Devos Celine Dion Garou Juliette Greco Edith Piaf congratulations on completing Lesson 1.09 • Art live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

or mized) they take (fem.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. and is conjuagted differntly.to mistake .) third person ils prennent eel prehn elles prennent ell prehn Related Words • • • • prendre .to comprehend/understand méprendre .10 • Science G: Prendre Prendre is not a regular -re verb.to take apprendre . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation first person second person French Verb • Present Indicative prendre • to take Singular Plural noo prenn je jzeuh nous I take prends prahn prennons ohn tu too prahn prends eel il prend prahnn elle ell prend prahnn on oh prend prahnn you take he takes she takes one takes vous prenez voo prennay we take you take they take (masc.to learn comprendre .

La chimie la cellule a cell des microbes germs la chimie l’étude des éléments des bactéries baceria chemistry the study of elements des virus viri le chimiste chemist le microscope microscope .to start talking prendre le pas sur .La biologie le savant une personne qui expérimente la bio(logie) l’étude des organismes vivants scientist a person who experiments biology the study of living organisms observer to observe la botanique l’étude des plantes analyser to analyse botany the study of plants l’anatomie (f) l’étude du corps humain Physics .to become aware (of) prendre la correspondance .to take part (in) prendre la parole .to take.to gain weight prendre part (à) .to eat breakfast prendre rendez-vous .La physique anatomy the study of the human body l’étude de la matière et de la physique la zoologie l’étude des animaux l’énergie physics zoology the study of animals the study of matter and energy le physicien physicist le biologiste biologist Chemistry .to make a decision prendre des kilos .Les Sciences French Vocabulary • Science The Sciences and Scientists • Les sciences et les savants General Biology .Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • • prendre .to make an appointment V: The Sciences . to have something to eat prendre conscience (de) .to change trains prendre une décision .to surpass prendre le petit déjeuner .

V: Astronomy French Vocabulary • Science Astronomy The Planets Mercure Mercury Venus Mercury La (planete) terre Earth Mars Mars Jupiter Jupiter Saturne Saturn Uranus Uranus Neptune Neptune Pluton Pluto Other Obejcts Le soleil sun La lune moon congratulations on completing Lesson 1.10 • Science live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

you can move on to the next level.Slightly More Advanced French Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative. After you have completed this level. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. you will learn the passé composé. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced. you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course. and each lesson now gives much more information.French Level Two Lessons Toujours Là? . la Catedral de Notre Dame en París . the most common French past tense. Inside. and review the grammar you have already learned.

Partitive Article. Mettre V: Meat. Driving to Work. Connaître & Savoir.04 Leçon 04 : Sortir 098 Lesson 04 : Going Out 2. Écire V: School. -yer Verbs (Payer). -rir Verbs (Ouvrir). Computers . Dining at a Restaurant G: Dire. Y. Drinks. School Subjects G: Regular Verbs Review. Farm Animals G: Manger.01 Leçon 01 : L'école 083 Lesson 01 : School 2.05 Leçon 05 : Le transport 103 Lesson 05 : Transportation 2. Desserts G: -cer Verbs. Servir.03 Leçon 03 : Faire des courses 092 Lesson 03 : Shopping 2. Dairy Products. Waking up. Envoyer. Directions. Methods of transportation G: Devoir.10 124 Leçon 07 : La vie rurale Lesson 07 : Rural Life Leçon 08 : La nourriture Lesson 08 : Food and Drink Leçon 09 : Dîner Lesson 09 : Dining Leçon 10 : La communication Lesson 10 : Communication G: Passé Composé of Regular Verbs. Reflexive Verbs V: Employment. Bastille Day) G: exer Verbs (Acheter). Preparing for work. En. -enir Verbs (Venir). Places to go. Vivre. Clothing. Falloir. Vouloir & Pouvoir V: Meals. Naître.06 Leçon 06 : Le quotidien 108 Lesson 06 : Everyday Life 2. Passé Composé with Être V: Local Travelling. Shoes G: Sortir & Partir. -éxer Verbs V: Leisure Activities. Silverware.09 120 2. Recevoir V: Mail. Celebrations (Birthdays.07 111 2. Sleep G: Suivre. Passé Composé with Reflexive Verbs V: Pets.02 Leçon 02 : La culture 089 Lesson 02 : Culture 2. -aître Verbs. Movies G: -uire Verbs (Conduire). Calling Others.Level Two Contents 2. Religions. Croire & Voir V: Life. Holidays. How to Get to Places. Object Pronoun Review. Lire. Irregular Past Participles (so far) V: Shopping. Christmas. Boire.08 114 2.

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in. continue on to the school comment section.I have finished. for example. but if you would like a preview. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative. and if not. You will eventually learn everything that is covered in edit lesson it. Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. report an error ask a question Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Composed • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.replace -ir with i -re verbs .replace -re with u irregular verbs . read it. • J'ai fini.01 • School live version discussion G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses exercises The next section is optional.must be memorized . The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle. . Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs .replace -er with é -ir verbs .

. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. These are: 1.I have finished them. . . Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) Don't worry if you don't completely understand the perfect tenses.I have finished the game. . the auxillary verb is être. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. the auxillary verb is avoir.I have finished the games.no change • J'ai fini le jeu. .Past Participle Agreement • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb.add an es to the past participle. the auxillary verb becomes avoir.I have finished it. 4. Each tense and lists of irregular verb conjuagtions will be given later in this course.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. • Je l'ai fini.add an s to the past participle. 7.I have finished the tasks. . • the direct object is masculine singular . • the direct object is feminine singular . . • J'ai fini les jeux. • That is. • Je les ai finis. • Je l'ai finies. In the next lesson.I have finished the task. 6. • the direct object is masculine plural . . the passé composé is introduced. • the direct object is feminine plural .I have finished them. However. the subject of the verb is also its object. 2. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. • The verb is reflexive. 3. under certain situations. • Je l'ai finie. • J'ai fini les tâches. 5. .I have finished it. Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances.

During Classes 3rd Grade CE2 (CE=cours élémentaire) le tableau chalkboard 2nd Grade CE1 la craie chalk 1st Grade CP1 (CP = cours préparatoire) le pupitre desk Verbs passer l'examen (m) test to take a test un examen les devoirs homework étudier to study la classe class écrire[3] to write la cantine cafeteria lever (la main)[4] to raise (your hand) déjeuner to (eat) lunch la récré(ation) recess poser to ask (a question) la cour courtyard (une question) Schools and Students parler to speak l'école (f) school écouter to listen (to)[5] l'étudiant student (m) entendre to hear (of)[5] l'étudiante student (f) le collège jr. high school le collégien déjeuner to (have) lunch student le lycée high school (classes 6-4) (grades 10-12) le lycéen high school student Describing Teachers and Students intelligent(e) intelligent l'université (f) university la fac(ulté) nul(le) not good..] in [... 6th Grade) 5th Grade CM2 (CM = cours moyen) en cours de [. not bright higher education l'enseignement supérieur strict(e) strict graduate school . high school regarder to watch (classes 3-terminale) (grades 6-9) jr.] class 4th Grade CM1 Pendant les cours ..g.V: School French Vocabulary • School School • L'école General Classes / Grades[1] teacher 12th Grade Classe Terminale scholarship 11th Grade 1ère (la première classe) le professeur[2] la bourse le diplôme diploma 10th Grade 2ème (la deuxième classe) (professionnel) le bac(calauréat) high school exit exam 9th Grade 3ème (la troisième classe) la bibliothèque library 8th Grade 4ème (la quatrième classe) les notes grades (as on a test) 7th Grade 5ème (la cinquième classe) les cours classes or courses 6th Grade 6ème (la sixième classe) la classe grade (e.

you would say my hand or your hand.Des fournitures scolaires . you do not "own" body parts. such as répondre {à). It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb. meaning to respond (to). or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur". are almost always followed by a preposition. While in English. ^ The way that grades are numbered in France is opposite the way they are in the US. ^ Écrire is an irregular verb. even if the teacher is female. The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof".) .School Supllies la craie chalk cray le papier paper la feuille de pahpeeyay le tableau the board tahbloh sheet of paper papier le stylo(pen steeloh (bee) le bloc-notes (small) notepad block nut bille) le classeur three-ring binder le crayon pencil krayoh le sac à dos backpack sack ah doe la calculatrice calculator la gomme eraser gum le livre book leevr le bouquin le règle ruler rehgluh le cahier notebook kie ay le feutre marker feuhtr ^ The word professeur is considered masculine at all times.my hand la jambe . the definate article is always used in French. or mized) elles écrivent ell aycreeve they write (fem. they descend in France.my leg le bras . You will learn to conjugate it in the next section. Other verbs. ^ In French. • • • la main .my arm ^ To and of are built into the verbs écouter and entendre respectively. G: Écire & Lire French Verb • School écrire • to write past participle: écrit first person j' écris second person tu écris il écrit third person elle écrit on écrit Singular jay cree too aycree eel aycree ell aycree ohn aycree I write you write he writes she writes one writes Plural nous écrivons newzay creevohn we write vous écrivez voozay creevay you write they write ils écrivent eel aycreeve (masc. Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year.

and is therefore composed of an auxiliary verb and a past participle. .) V: School Subjects French Vocabulary • School School Subjects • Les matières d'enseignement les mathématiques les langues languages mathematics les maths l'anglais English l'algèbre (f) algebra le français French le calcul calculus l'espagnol Spanish la géométrie geometry les sciences social l'allemand German sociales sciences le russe Russian l'économie economics l'italien Italian la géo(graphie) geography l'histoire (f) history les sciences natural d'autres other subjects naturelles sciences matières la biologie biology le dessin drawing la bio la chimie chemistry l'informatique (f) computer science la technologie engineering la littérature literature la physique physics la musique music G: Passé Composé with Regular Verbs Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Present perfect The passé composé is a perfect tense. With most verbs. that auxililary verb is avoir.first person je lis second person tu lis il lit third person elle lit on lit French Verb • School lire • to read past participle: lu Singular jeuh lee I read nous lisons too lee you read vous lisez eel dee he reads ils lisent ell lee she reads ohn dee one reads elles lisent Plural noo leezohn we read voo leezay you read they read eel leez (masc. or mized) ell leez they read (fem.

is conjugated in the present indicative and the past participle is then added. I have played Nous avons joué. While there is a simple past tense in French.Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. but also means spoke. literally mean has/have spoken. the passé composé form of parler (to speak). [avoir] parlé. Auxiliary Verb . Tu as joué.01 • School live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . congratulations on completing Lesson 2. Il a joué. Vous avez joué. They have played. the helping verb. j'ai I have nous avons we have tu as you have vous avez you have il a he has ils ont they have Past Participle • • • -er verbs . usually avoir.replace -ir with i -re verbs . so verbs conjugated in the passé composé can also be used to mean the English simple tense. Ils ont joué. We have played. You have played.replace -er with é -ir verbs . You have played. Basic Formation To conjugate a verb in the passé composé.Meaning In English.replace -re with u Formation of the Past Participle Verb Group Infinitive Stem Past Participle -er verbs jouer jou joué -ir verbs finir fin fini -re verbs répondre répond répondu Avoir + Past Participle J'ai joué. verbs comjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed. it is only used in formal writing. He has played. • For example.

.. Also. Formation French Grammar • Culture Regular Verbs • Les verbes réguliers -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs parl.. try and discussion reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture. reflecting live version regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. Ending Example Ending Verb Ending Example -e parle -is finis -s vends -es parle -is finis -s vends -e parle -it finit vend -ons parlons -issons finissons -ons vendons -ez parlez -issez finissez -ez vendez -e parlent -issent finissent -ent vendent Stem: Subject Je Tu Il Nous Vous Ils Irregular Verbs Ending in -er aller Irregular Verbs Ending in -ir acquérir | avoir | s'asseoir | devoir | dormir | falloir | ouvrir | partir | pleuvoir | pouvoir | recevoir | savoir | servir | venir | voir | vouloir Common -re Verbs attendre . Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are ask a question simply irregular.. vend. fin.to wait (for) | répondre ..02 • Culture This lesson is on the culture of France. exercises edit lesson comment G: General Verbs Review report an error Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.. The culture of France is diverse.to answer Irregular Verbs Ending in -re boire | conduire | connaître | croire | dire | écrire | être | faire | lire | mettre | prendre | rire | suivre | vivre .

French Verb • Present Indicative croire • to believe (past participle .G: Croire & Voir Croire is not a regular -re verb. French Verb • Present Indicative voir • to see (past participle . or mized) they believe (fem. and is conjugated irregularly.cru) Singular Plural jzeuh crah I believe nous croyons noo croy oh too crah you believe vous croyez voo croy ay eel crah he believes ils croient eel crah ell crah she believes oh crah one believes elles croient ell crah first person je crois second person tu crois il croit third person elle croit on croit we believe you believe they believe (masc. or mized) they see (fem.) athiest Le Père noël Santa Clause le 14 juillet Bastille Day .) V: Religion la religion Chrétien L'Islam religion Christian Islam le musulman Muslim l'athée (m.) Voir is not a regular -ir verb.vu) Singular Plural jzeuh vwah I see nous voyons noo vwahyoh too vwah you see vous voyez voo vwah ay eel vwah he sees ils voient eel vwah ell vwah she sees oh vwah one sees elles voient ell vwah first person je vois second person tu vois il voit third person elle voit on voit we see you see they see (masc. and is conjugated irregularly.

Yule le Nouvel An La Fête du Travail l'Armistice la Fête Nationale le Reveillon Noel congratulations on completing Lesson 2.02 • Culture live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . [lit: I have ___ years. J'ai ____ ans.] le gâteau cake le cadeau gift la bougie candle la fête party inviter to invite donner une fête to throw a party V: Holidays Les jours fériés New Year's Day Labor Day Memorial Day . Armistice Day Independance Day Christmas Eve Christmas .V: Birthday Birthdays l'anniversaire (m) birthday Tu as quel âge? How old are you? I am ____ years old.

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. pâtisserie seafood store.to ask for the price payer to pay cash register la caisse payer à la caisse to pay at the counter checkout counter vendre to sell coûter to cost How much is it? acheter to buy C’est combien? [lit: It's how much?] Ça coûte combien? [lit:It costs how much?] How much does [noun] cost? Combien coûte [nom]? [lit: How much costs [noun]?] General Goods Stores Foods Stores le magasin shop. to carry en solde on sale demander to ask (for) le prix price demander le prix . big supermarket commercial le grand magasin department store la boucherie butcher shop 1 le rayon la boutique la pharmacie le marché department small store pharmacy. store le supermarché supermarket le centre mall. chemist outdoor market la boulangerie le dépôt de pain la charcuterie la crémerie la pâtisserie la poissonnerie l'épicerie (f) bakery 2 a place that sells bread 2 delicatessen 3 dairy store pastry shop. shopping centre le hypermarché hypermarket. fishmonger grocery 4 .03 • Shopping V: Shopping live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • Shopping Shopping • Les achats To Go Shopping Buying Goods faire des courses le(la) vendeur(euse) salesperson to go shopping faire du shopping le(la) cassier(-ière) cashier faire le marché to go grocery shopping (plus/moins) cher(ère) (more/less) expensive faire du lècheto go window la vitrine display window vitrine shopping porter to wear.

t' le. 2. For example. to you. and to you respectively. For these products. to us.. go to a charcuterie. Pierre le vois. Pierre sees him.?. cold meats. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. l' nous vous les her. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action.1. French butchers do not sell pork. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. salads. nous. was referring to a masculine object. G: Object Pronouns Review Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. the bread is baked on site. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.g. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. les. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: French me. He gives bread to him. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. m' te.. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. 3. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. bakeries only sell fresh bread. pork products. Pierre. Il lui donne du pain.. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. te. e. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them . and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense.? or From whom. m' te. or I had them. 4. Pierre sees the burglar. a tense that uses a past participle. In France. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre. l' him. in te phrase Je les ai eus. including pâte. Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.. salami. quiches and pizzas. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). it us1 you1 them 1 me. nor horsemeat.

When me. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. or mized) they buy (fem. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. G: -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs.to raise . te. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. The bread is given by the man (direct). nous.to weigh mener .to overwork lever . The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. te.) first person second person tu achètes too ahshet you buy il achète eel ahshet he buys ilszachètent eelzahshet elle achète ell ahshet she buys third person onnachète ohnahshet one buys elleszachètent ellzahshet Other -exer Verbs • • • • • • • peser . and you respectively. you. and vous are used in a perfect tense. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns.acheté) Singular Plural nouszachetons noozashtoh we buy j'achète jzah shet I buy vouszachetez voozahshtay you buy they buy (masc.to carry out emmener . but also are stem changing.• • • • 1 me. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). nous.to raise soulever .to take along amener . The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. Formation French Verb • Present Indicative acheter • to buy (past participle .to bring surmener . us.

shoes clothes clothes la chemise button down shirt la casquestte cap les chaussures shoes la paire de la cravate tie le tee-shirt t-shirt pair of shoes chaussures basketball le pantalon pants le polo polo shirt les baskets shoes trainers le complet suit le pull(over) a sweater les tennis tennis shoes le costume le manteau coat le sweat-shirt sweatshirt les sandales sandals le blouson le tailleur women's suit jacket la veste la robe dress le jean jeans le chemisier blouse les chaussettes socks la jupe skirt G: -yer verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs.V: Clothing French Vocabulary • Shopping Clothing • Habillement les vêtements habillés . this affects all forms except nous and vous. Formation In the present indicative. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. when y is part of the last syllable. In the present indicative of -yer verbs.casual les chaussures .dress les vêtements sport . Payer The verb payer translates to to pay. payer (and all other -yer verbs) is conjuagted as follows: . However.

fait voir . • • • • • avoir .to address as tu. s'il vous plaît Bernard : C'est tout ? Camille : Non.to clean tutoyer . je voudrais deux croissants aussi Bernard : Très bien . À la boulangerie (At the bakery) Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madame Camille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieur Bernard : Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ? Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette.) Other -yer Verbs • • • • • • appuyer .cru être .to try essuyer . s'il vous plaît Camille : Merci beaucoup .ça fait deux euros. or mized) they pay (fem.to support employer .to wipe nettoyer .été faire .to employ essayer . to call someone informally G: Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles.payé) Singular Plural jzeuh pay I pay nous payons noo pay oh too pay you pay vous payez voo pay yay eel pay he pays ils paient eel ell pay she pays ou payent elles paient oh pay one pays ell ou payent we pay you pay they pay (masc.eu croire .first person je paie second person tu paies il paie elle paie third person on paie French Verb • Present Indicative payer • to pay (past participle .vu D: Practice Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: 1.

monsieur. je voudrais trois kilos." .A large range "Des cerises" ..That'll be two euros Remember your verb . ?" .Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" . "C'est tout ?" .Some cherries "Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" . We use mostly "Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirezvous ?". Same for "C'est tout ?".What would you like? "Je voudrais..One must/You need to Remember your verbs . elles coûtent deux euros le kilo Clément : Bon. s'il vous plaît. s'il vous plaît Marie : Très bien. . Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ? Marie : Oui. congratulations on completing Lesson 2..They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo "Il faut" .Is that all? "Ça fait deux euros" . .acheter (to buy). Alors. Au marché (At the market) Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieur Clément (le client) : Bonjour madame Clément : Qu'est-ce que vous avez à vendre ? Marie : J'ai un grand choix de fruits et légumes Clément : Très bien. Note of a frenchman : "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" is a little abrupt. pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros. we use most of the time "Ce sera tout ?" (future tense) or "Et avec ceci ?" (and with this?). 2.I would like .vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay).What do you have? "Un grand choix" . Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez...03 • Shopping live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question ..

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. and several other things which will be covered later. cause. a location.04 • Going out G: À and De The preposition à can indicate a destination. a characteristic. à and les combine into aux. measurement. When le follows de. possession. Similarly. de and les combine into des. The preposition de can indicate an origin. the de and le combine into du. manner. purpose. contents. a point in time. Similarly. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Leisure Activites Les loisirs le cinéma la musique le baladeur une sortie un spectacle le théâtre le repos le vacancier la danse allumer/éteindre la télévision le(la) téléspectateur(trice) le sport cinema music walkman going out a show the theater rest a vacationer dance to turn on/turn off television television viewer sport . When le follows à. and several other things which will be covered later. the à and le combine into au.

or mized) they leave (fem.) first person je sors second person tu sors il sort third person elle sort on sort French Verb • Present Indicative sortir • to go out.to set out again répartir . • • repartir . or mized) ell sore she goes out oh sore one goes out elles sortent ell sort they go out (fem.parti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh pahr I leave nous partons noo partoh too pahr you leave vous partez voo pahrtay eel pahr he leaves ils partent eel part ell pahr she leaves oh pahr one leaves elles partent ell part first person je pars second person tu pars il part third person elle part on part we leave you leave they leave (masc.to distribute . to take out (past participle .G: Partir & Sortir French Verb • Present Indicative partir • to leave (past participle .) Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems.sorti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh sore I go out nous sortons noo sortoh we go out too sore you go out vous sortez voo sortay you go out eel sore he goes out they go out ils sortent eel sort (masc.

• Prenez la place! . (Version unaltered vidéo) video) originale) sub-titles le film (étranger) (en DVD) (foreign) movie (on DVD) les sous-titres l'acteur (m) actor la vidéo video l'actrice (f) actrice le DVD DVD louer to rent The Movie Theater Film Genres le cinéma the (movie) theater le dessin animé cartoon theater showing room la salle du cinéma le documentaire documentary lit: room of the the theater la séance showing le film d’amour love story le guichet ticket window le film d’aventures adventure movie seat/place to sit la place le film d’horreur horror film le fauteuil chair1 coûter to cost le film policier police film le film de sciencejouer to play sci-fi film fiction 1Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on. Quel est votre genre de film préféré? Vous louez les vidéos? les DVDs? . On achète les places au guichet.Take a seat! Les films sont fascinants! Vous allez au cinéma? Pourquoi? Vous aimez les films? On parle Qu’est-ce qu’on joue au cinéma? pour démander les films qui jouent. On entre la salle du cinéma pour regarder un film.O.V: Movies French Vocabulary • Going out Movies • Les films General le film (domestique) (en (domestic) movie (on V. One would normally use "une place" • whenever "a seat" is used in English. où l'employé(e) vous les vend.

The verb venir is translated to to come.) Other -enir Verbs • • revenir .to remember soutenir .to become appartenir . to detain retenir . **Je viens de finir mes devoirs (I've just finished my homework).to keep.to support tenir . When it means to come from. • Nous venons du stade.venu(e)(s)) Singular jzeuh vee ehn I come nous venons too vee ehn you come vous venez eel vee ehn he comes ils viennent ell vee ehn she comes oh vee ehn one comes elles viennent first person je viens second person tu viens il vient third person elle vient on vient Plural noo venn oh we come voo vennay you come they come eel vee ehn (masc.G: -enir verbs • -enir verbs are irregularly conjugated (they does not count as regular -ir verbs).to hold • • • • • • • . to return devenir .to come back. or mized) ell vee ehn they come (fem. venir (and all other -enir verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Present Indicative venir • to come (past participle .to contain détenir . You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action.to belong contenir . venir is used with the preposition de. Formation In the present indicative. Venir • • • • The most common -enir verb is venir.to retain se souvenir .

to dry congratulations on completing Lesson 2.) Other -éxer Verbs • • • • • • accélérer .to celebrate espérer .suggéré) Singular Plural jzeuh soo nous noo soo first person je suggère I suggest zjair suggérons zjairoh second voo soo tu suggères too soo zjair you suggest vous suggérez person zjairay il suggère eel soo zjair he suggests ils suggèrent eel soo zjair she elle suggère ell soo zjair third person suggests one on suggère oh soo zjair elles suggèrent ell soo zjair suggests we suggest you suggest they suggest (masc.G: -éxer Verbs -éxer verbs are regular -er verbs. but are also stem changing.to obliterate préférer .to hope oblitérer . or mized) they suggest (fem.to prefer sécher .04 • Going out live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .to accelerate célébrer . Formation French Verb • Present Indicative suggérer • to suggest (past participle .

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative conduire • to drive (past participle .to produce V: Driving ouvrir to open fermer to close .conduit) Singular Plural jzeuh I drive nous noo cohndwee conduisons cohndweezoh too you vous voo cohndwee drive conduisez cohndweezay eel he ils eel cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent ell she cohndwee drives oh one elles ell cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent first person second person third person je conduis tu conduis il conduit elle conduit on conduit we drive you drive they drive (masc. or mized) they drive (fem.05 • Transportation G: -uire Verbs -uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.) Other -uire Verbs • produire .

A common -rir verb is ouvrir.to offer souffrir .G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly.to discover offrir . -rir is replaced with -ert for these verbs.to suffer -rir Verb Exceptions Courir . following the -er conjugation scheme.To Die • • • • • • • je meurs tu meurs il meurt nous mourons vous mourez ils meurent past participle: mort(e)(s)1 . Formation • • • • • • • j'ouvre tu ouvres il ouvre nous ouvrons vous ouvrez ils ouvrent past participle: ouvert Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form.to cover découvrir . • • • • couvrir .To Run • • • • • • • je cours tu cours il court nous courons vous courez ils courent past participle: couru Mourir .

He returned to the restaurant. I went to the cinema. I went out with my friends. List of Verbs French Grammar • Transportation Perfect Past with Être • Passé composé avec être Verb Example aller Je suis allé au cinéma. I climbed to the top. Je suis entré dans ma entrer I entered my room. tomber Je suis tombé dans la piscine. It happened in front of the passer Il est passé devant la maison. partir Elle est partie travailler. naître Je suis né en octobre. chambre. Acquérir . He died in 1917. He came back early from school. rentre Il est rentré tôt de l'école. She left to go to work. however there are a small number of verbs that are always conjugated with être. retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. rester Je suis resté à la maison. . sortir Je suis sorti avec mes amies. I stayed home. I fell into the pool.To Acquire • • • • • • • j'acquiers tu acquiers il acquiert nous acquérons vous acquérez ils acquièrent past participle: acquis G: Passé Composé with Être Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir. I was born in october. house. He got out of the train. descendre Il est descendu du train. mourir Il est mort en 1917. I came to France. The train has arrived. monter Je suis monté au sommet. arriver Le train est arrivé. venir Je suis venu en france.1Mourir is the only -rir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in a perfect tense).

Nous sommes allé(e)s. an -e is added to the past participle.The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the acronym MRS. Vous êtes allé(e)(s). If the subject is masculine plural. an -es is added to the past participle. RD VANDERTRAMP: M R S R D monté resté sorti revenu devenu V A N D E R T R A M P venu arrivé né descendu entré rentré tombé retourné allé mort parti Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object • For Example: • Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai descendu mes baggages. Another example: • Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai monté mes baggages. Ils sont allés. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. an -s is added to the past participle. Tu es allé(e). • • • • If the subject is masculine singular. . • • Subject-Past Participle Agreement The past participles of the above verbs must agree with the the subject of a sentence in gender and plurality. Yet another example but with ils instead of Je: • Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passport" • becomes: • Ils ont sorti leur passport. J suis allé(e). there is no change in the past participle. Il est allé. If the subject is masculine singular. Elles sont allées. If the subject is feminine singular. Elle est allés.

and not y. Replacement of Places . to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de.I respond to them. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons.It's Done! J'y suis! .there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used).J' y réponds. Idioms • • Ça y est! . .I get it! congratulations on completing Lesson 2. • • Je réponds à les questions.05 • Transportation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . . • • Les hommes vont en France.The men go there. Note that en.Les hommes y vont. I respond to the questions. . The men go to France .G: The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun . Note that lui and leur.to it.

or mized) they sleep (fem. • • Je m'habille: I get (myself) dressed. instead the reflexive pronoun becomes a direct object. the verb is no longer reflexive. the verbs are reflexive. Je t'habille: I get you dressed. if the subject were to act on someone else. However.dormi) Singular Plural first person je dors jzeuh I sleep nous noo door dormons doormoh second tu dors too door you vous voo person sleep dormez doormay third il dort eel door he sleeps ils dorment eel dorm person elle ell door she dort sleeps on oh door one elles ell dorm dort sleeps dorment live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we sleep you sleep they sleep (masc.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.06 • Everyday life G: Dormir French Verb • Present Indicative dormir • to sleep (past participle .) V: Waking up and Getting Yourself Ready • • • • • • • • se lever: to get up se laver: to wash (oneself) se raser : to shave se doucher: to shower se baigner: to bathe (oneself) se brosser les cheveux/les dents: to brush one's hair/teeth se peigner les cheveux: to comb one's hair s'habiller: to dress (oneself) If the subject is performing the action on him or herself. .

. • • Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.I'm going to wash myself. Lisette et Rose se sont habillées. nous.I wash myself. Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. .You remember? V: At Work travailler: to work travailler pour: to work for (somebody) . . and naturally pronominal verbs. put simply. Nous nous lavons.I'm going to not wash myself. depending on the verb that they modify. Jean et Paul. Je m'appelle Lucie. Je vais ne pas me laver. . . Marc et Claire se sont habillés. et je me suis levée à six heures.We like each other. Ils se lavent. . the participle must agree in gender and number with the subject. se. reciprocal verbs. te. include pronouns. • • • • • • • Pierre s'est habillé. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs.We wash ourselves. These pronouns are me. vous vous avez levés assez tard.They wash themselves. Tu te souviens? . people perform actions to each other. Alice s'est habillée.In the passé composé. Georges et Martin se sont habillés. G: Pronominal Verbs Pronominal verbs are verbs that. • Nous nous aimons. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. • • • Je me lave. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. Je vais me laver.

it will be necessary il faudrait .it was necessary (passé composé) il fallait . "I want to pass my French test.it is necessary il a fallu . "I need to study for my test. owe). one must conjugate verbs correctly. it's tomorrow". Falloir expresses general necessities. one must eat" or "To speak French well.it was necessary (imparfait) il faudra . whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses.it would be necessary The verb falloir differs from similar verbs such as avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] (to need [to do something]) and devoir (must. duty." Avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] expresses need. to owe past participle: dû Singular Plural jeuh dwah I have to nous devons noo dehvohn too dwah you have to vous devez voo dehvay eel dwah he has to ils doivent eel dwahve ell dwah she has to ohn dwah one has to elles doivent ell dwahve first person je dois second person tu dois il doit third person elle doit on doit we have to you have to they have to (masc.to be necessary il faut . or mized) they have to (fem." Devoir expresses more personally what someone must do. Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular. so I must study verb conjugations. congratulations on completing Lesson 2.06 • Everyday life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .G: Devoir French Verb • Everyday life devoir • to have to.) G: Falloir • • • • • • falloir . such as "To live.

) .07 • Rural life G: Suivre French Verb • Rural life suivre • to follow past participle: suivi Singular Plural jeuh nous noo first person je suis I follow swee suivons sweevohn second too you voo tu suis vous suivez person swee follow sweevay il suit eel dee he follows ils suivent eel sweeve elle she third ell swee suit follows person ohn one elles on suit ell sweeve swee follows suivent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we follow you follow they follow (masc. or mized) they live (fem. or mized) they follow (fem.) G: Vivre French Verb • Rural life vivre • to live past participle: vécu [vaycoo] Singular Plural jeuh vee I live nous vivons noo veevohn too vee you live vous vivez voo veevay eel vee he lives ils vivent eel veeve ell vee she lives ohn vee one lives elles vivent ell veeve first person je vis second person tu vis il vit third person elle vit on vit we live you live they live (masc.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.

) 1 Naître is the only -aître verb that takes être as its helping verb (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in perfect tenses).G: Naître French Verb • Rural life naître • to be born past participle: né(e)(s)1 Singular Plural first person je nais jeuh nay I am born nous naissons noo nehssohn we are born second person tu nais too nay you are born vous naissez voo nehssay you are born il naît eel nay he is born they are born ils naissent eel nesse (masc. or mized) third person elle naît ell nay she is born on naît ohn nay one is born elles naissent ell nesse they are born (fem. .

the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs • • • In perfect tenses. . Nous nous sommes parlé.We liked each other. but not the indirect object pronoun. Elles se sont téléphoné.She was herself. does not change in the masculine plural form. Elle s'est lavé les mains. . congratulations on completing Lesson 2. Reciprocal Verbs • • Like reflexive verbs. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. être is used as the auxiliary verb. Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? .The dog lies down. Le chien se couche. Otherwise. • • • • Elle s'est lavée.We wash ourselves. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.We spoke to each other. Elle s'est souvenue. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object.We washed our hands. .They called to one another. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. the past participle of s'asseoir (to sit). . the past participle agrees with the subject.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.07 • Rural life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .G: Reflexive Verbs with Perfect Tenses When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. . . . . It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects.She remembered. . Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.She washed her hands. the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. in gender and plurality. Note that assis(e)(es).

the stem change is comment adding an e after the g. In this case.to require nager . the change report an error is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be ask a question present if the e were not included. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs.mangé Singular Plural jeuh mahnge I eat nous mangeons noo vmahnge ohn too mahnge you eat vous mangez voo mahngay eel mahnge he eats ils mangent eel mahnge ell mahnge she eats ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge first person je mange second person tu manges il mange third person elle mange on mange we eat you eat they eat (masc. The most common -ger edit lesson verb is manger.) Other -ger Verbs • • • • • changer .to relieve voyager .to change exiger .08 • Food and drink live version discussion G: -ger Verbs exercises -ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. Formation French Verb • Food and drink manger • to eat past participle . or mized) they eat (fem. This only applies in the nous form.to swim soulager .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.to travel .

shellfish.vegetables la banane banana la carotte carrot la cerise cherry les épinards (m pl) spinach le citron lemon l'oignon (m) onion la fraise strawberry les petits pois (m pl) peas l'orange (f) orange la pomme de terre potato la pomme apple la tomate tomato le raisin grape les asperges (f pl) asparagus le pamplemousse grapefruit les haricots (m pl) beans la viande .fruits les légumes .fish le poulet chicken les anchois (m pl) anchovies le boeuf beef le saumon salmon la saucisse sausage l'anguille (f) eel les produits laitiers .dairy products Other Foods le beurre butter le croissant crescent roll le fromage cheese les frites (f pl) "French fries" le lait milk la crêpe crepe le yaourt/le yoghurt yogurt la mayonnaise mayonnaise le dessert .V: Food French Vocabulary • Food and drink Food • La nourriture les fruits .meat les fruits de mer (m pl) . seafood La coquille Saint-Jacques l'agneau (m) lamb scallop (f) la dinde turkey le crabe crab le jambon ham le porc pork le poisson .dessert la moutarde mustard le bonbon candy le pain bread le chocolat chocolate le beurre butter le gâteau cake la tartine de pain beurré slice of buttered bread la glace ice cream le poivre pepper la mousse mousse le riz rice la tarte (aux (apple) pie le sel salt pommes) (chocolate) ice la glace (au chocolat) le sucre sugar cream la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream la confiture jam .

It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows: French Verb • Food and drink boire • to drink past participle .G: Boire The verb boire is translated to to drink. or mized) they drink (fem.bu Singular Plural jeuh bwah I drink nous buvons noo boovohn too bwah you drink vous buvez voo boovay eel bwah he drinks ils boivent eel bwahve ell bwah she drinks ohn bwah one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve first person je bois second person tu bois il boit third person elle boit on boit we drink you drink they drink (masc.) V: Drinks les boissons drinks la bière beer le café coffee le chocolat chaud hot chocolate le coca soda la limonade lemon soda le citron pressé lemonade l'eau (f) water le jus juice le jus d'orange orange juice le jus de pomme apple juice le jus de raisin grape juice le jus de tomate tomato juice le thé tea le vin wine .

there are specific situations for the use of each article. "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?) . de l' is used in front of vowels. I ate a pie. and the indefinite article (un. art. art. instead of du or de la. du. As one has learnt in a previous lesson. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. As learnt earlier. I like ice cream. art.G: Partitive Article The partitive article de indicates. When speaking about preferences. use the definite article: J'aime la glace. Similarly. J'ai mangé de la tarte. une) in yet another set of situations. In general "de" refers to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in general)). When speaking about eating or drinking an item.. de and le contract (combine) into du. as de and les contract into des. among other things. de la. any) in a negative construction. In the negative construction. J'ai mangé la tarte. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(what's new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed. Nous préférons le steak. known quantity unknown quantity J'ai mangé une tarte. les) is used at other times. the word some. We ate some pie. in this context. Ind. certain rules apply. Part. specific/whole items I ate the (whole) pie. We ate a pie. We prefer steak. Def. la. Nous avons mangé de la tarte. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. or des change to de in negative constructions. the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le. Also. The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie).. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie. un or une changes to de (meaning. Nous avons mangé une tarte. Vous aimez les frites You like French fries. I ate some pie. When speaking about food.

to allow remettre . we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'.to recover from an illness se remettre en route . 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. I don't play it.to put on. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. Are you having fish? Yes. Did you order some water? Yes. This is because what en does is replace du. Like with 'me'.to put back remettre en place .G: En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. nous en avons commandé. Tu joue du piano? Non. j'en prends. 'te' and other pronouns.) Related Words • • • • • • • mettre . je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui.to get back on the road .mis Singular Plural jeuh may I put nous mettons noo mettohn too may you put vous mettez voo mettay eel may he puts ils mettent eel met ell may she puts ohn may one puts elles mettent ell met first person je mets second person tu mets il met third person elle met on met we put you put they put (masc. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. to place permettre .to set back into place soumettre . to turn on. de la or des when there is nothing after it. G: Mettre Formation French Verb • Food and drink mettre • to put past participle . I'm having some. For more detailed information. or mized) they put (fem. we ordered some. we use the pronoun 'en'.to submit se remettre . Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. see French Pronouns Do you play piano? No. For instance. if the idea of money has already been raised. As well.

to put an end to mettre la main à la pâte .to pitch in mettre le contact .to start the car mettre le couvert .to sit down to eat se mettre d'accord .to bring to light mettre de l'argent de coté .Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • mettre au jour .08 • Food and drink live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .to agree se mettre en forme .to get in shape congratulations on completing Lesson 2.to put money aside mettre fin à .to set the table se mettre à table .

cold meats. 1.09 • Dining V: General Dining French Vocabulary • Dining Dining • Diner Places Actions and Feelings kitchen avoir faim to be hungry dining room avoir soif to be thirsty live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question la cuisine la salle à manger le restaurant restaurant Meals le repas the meal le petit-déjeuner breakfast le déjeuner lunch le dîner dinner le goûter snack Food Stores la boucherie butcher shop 1 la boulangerie 2 manger to eat boire to drink prendre to take vouloir to want mettre le couvert to set the table préparer un repas to prepare a meal Quantity gram le gramme le kilo(gramme) kilogran bakery a place that sells bread le dépôt de pain 2 le litre liter la charcuterie l'épicerie (f) delicatessen 3 la bouteille la boîte la livre le paquet le pot grocery 4 la crémerie dairy store la poissonnerie seafood store le marché outdoor market la pâtisserie pastry shop bottle 5 can pack 6 packet pot Canadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner. French butchers do not sell pork. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). salads. 2. In France. -eille is pronounced ay 6. bakeries only sell fresh bread. pork products. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. . go to a charcuterie. Do not confuse with le livre (book). including pâte. 3. nor horsemeat. lunch is called dîner and dinner is souper. 5. salami. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. quiches and pizzas. 4. For these products.

) il peut elle third person peut on peut .pu first person je peux second person tu peux Singular jeuh nous I can/am able to peuh pouvons you can/are able too peuh vous pouvez to eel peuh he can/is able to ils peuvent she can/is able ell peuh to one can/is able ohn peuh elles peuvent to Plural noo poovohn we can/are able to voo poovay you can/are able to eel peuhve ell peuhve they can/are able to (masc. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -ir verb) as follows: French Verb • Dining vouloir • to want past participle . or mized) they can/are able to (fem.G: Vouloir & Pouvoir The verb vouloir is translated to to want.) Pouvoir is conjugated in a similar manner: French Verb • Dining pouvoir • to be able to past participle . or mized) ell veuhl they want (fem.voulu Singular jeuh veuh I want nous voulons too veuh you want vous voulez eel veuh he wants ils veulent ell veuh she wants ohn veuh one wants elles veulent first person je veux second person tu veux il veut third person elle veut on veut Plural noo voolohn we want voo voolay you want they want eel veuhl (masc.

but are also stem changing. to arrive an occupied table a free table to find to order to eat lunch to dine to eat dinner to desire waiter waitresse menu check tip to leave I would like.. The most common -cer verb is commencer.. .. G: Servir French Verb • Dining servir • to serve past participle: servi Singular jeuh sair I serve nous servons too sair you serve vous servez eel sair he serves ils servent ell sair she serves ohn sair one serves elles servent first person je sers second person tu sers il sert third person elle sert on sert Plural noo sairvohn we serve voo sairvay you serve they serve eel sairve (masc.) G: -cer Verbs -cer verbs are ragular -er verbs.V: Dining at a Restaurant arriver la table occupée la table libre trouver commander déjeuner dîner désirer le serveur la serveuse la carte l'addition le pourboire laisser je voudrais. or mized) ell sairve they serve (fem.

09 • Dining live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . or mized) they begin (fem. Etc. le couvert le bol le couteau la cuillère la serviette la nappe la tasse le verre cover bowl knife spoon napkin tablecloth cup glass congratulations on completing l'assiette (f) plate la soucoupe saucer la fourchette fork Lesson 2.to erase V: Silverware.) Other -cer Verbs • effacer .commencé Singular Plural jeuh coe nous noo coe first person je commence I begin mahnce commençons mahnsohn second tu too coe you voo coe vous commencez person commences mahnce begin mahnsay eel coe il commence he begins mahnce ils commencent eel coe mahnce third elle ell coe she person commence mahnce begins ohn coe one elles on commence ell coe mahnce mahnce begins commencent we begin you begin they begin (masc.Formation French Verb • Dining commencer • to begin past participle .

to know disparaître .to be born1 has an irregular past participle (né) and takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses.to disappear naître . or mized) they know (fem.) third person Other -aître verbs • • • • apparaître .to appear connaître .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.10 • Communication G: -aître Verbs Formation French Verb • Communication connaître • to know (personally) past participle: connu Singular Plural je jeuh nous noo I know connais cohnay connaissons cohnehssohn tu too you vous voo connais cohnay know connaissez cohnehssay eel he il connaît cohnay knows ils eel cohnesse connaissent elle ell she connaît cohnay knows on ohn one elles ell cohnesse connaît cohnay knows connaissent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question first person second person we know you know they know (masc. 1Naître .

as you may have noticed.. In the present indicative.) V: Calling Others Téléphoner (à) is used to say that you are calling (to) someone.I'm calling Jacques. and not direct. so the verb is used with indirect. literally means I call myself. you call to someone. objects. Savoir is used to say that you know someone by reputation or that you know a fact or piece of information. or mized) they call (fem. • Je téléphone à Jacques.) .. G: Appeler Appeler is used to say what your name is. but. French Verb • Communication savoir • to know (as a fact) past participle: su Singular Plural jeuh say I know nous savons noo sahvohn too say you know vous savez voo sahvay eel say he knows ils savent eel sahve ell say she knows ohn say one knows elles savent ell sahve first person je sais second person tu sais il sait third person elle sait on sait we know you know they know (masc. or mized) they know (fem.. it is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Communication appeler • to call past participle: appelé Singular Plural first person j' appelle jahhpell I call nous appelons newzahh pell ohn second person tu appelles too ahhpell you call vous appelez voozahh pellay il appelle eel ahhpell he calls ils appellent eel ahhpell third person elle appelle ell ahhpell she calls on appelle ohn ahhpell one calls elles appellent ell ahhpell we call you call they call (masc. but in English you would say My name is. In French. Je m'appelle...G: Connaître & Savoir Connaître is used to say that you know someone personally. Appeler is a regular -er verb.. . is also stem changing.

G: Dire French Verb • Communication dire • to say past participle: dit Singular Plural jeuh dee I say nous disons noo deezohn too dee you say vous dites voo deet eel dee he says ils disent eel deez ell dee she says ohn dee one says elles disent ell deez first person je dis second person tu dis il dit third person elle dit on dit we say you say they say (masc. or mized) they say (fem.) V: Mail • • • • • • le poste le courier le lettre le boîte des lettres envoyer recevoir .

or mized) they send (fem.) .) first person second person French Verb • Communication recevoir • to receive past participle: reçu Singular Plural jeuh nous newzay first person je reçois I receive rehswah recevons rehsevohn second tu reçois too rehswah you receive vous recevez voo resehvay person il reçoit eel rehswah he receives ils reçoivent eel rehswahve elle she ell rehswah third person reçoit receives one elles on reçoit ohn rehswah ell rehswahve receives reçoivent we receive you receive they receive (masc.G: Envoyer & Recevoir French Verb • Communication envoyer • to send past participle: envoyé Singular Plural nous j' envoie jahnvwah I send newzahnvwahyohn we send envoyons tu envoies too ahnvwah you send vous envoyons voozahnvwahyay you send il envoie eel aycree third person elle envoie ell aycree on envoie ohn ahnvwah he sends she sends one sends ils envoient eelzahnvwah elles envoient ellzahnvwah they send (masc. or mized) they receive (fem.

congratulations on completing Lesson 2.V: Computers & the Internet French Vocabulary • Communication Technology • La technologie la technologie technology Computer Hardware Computer Software le hardware hardware le software software l'ordinateur (m) computer l’information information l'écran (m) monitor le logiciel software (program) le programme program le clavier keyboard programmation programming (adj) le document document la souris mouse le fichier file l'imprimante (f) printer le CD-ROM CD-ROM The Internet la disquette floppy disk aller sur Internet to go on the Internet Computer Use le modem modem utiliser to use la connexion connection connecter to connect taper (un texte) to type (a text) être connecté to be connected sauvegarder (un to save (a file) le site site fichier) to run.10 • Communication live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . carry exécuter l'e-mail (m) e-mail out naviguer (sur stocker (des données) to store (data) to navigate (the Internet) Internet) cliquer to click télécharger to download allumer to turn on transmettre to transmit to turn off éteindre (to extinguish) French fact: the name of the company Logitech comes from the French term logiciel technolgie.

Drapeau de la France . such as Jean de La Fontaine's Fables. go to the lessons planning page. you can move on to the next level. After you have completed this level. and there will now be more vocabulary sections in each lesson. But we didn't decide to stop there! This level will include longer lectures about a lesson's subject and will introduce you to real French literary works and news articles.Intermediate French After having completed the second level of the Wikibooks French language course. Also remember that if you would like to help develop this course. you can graduate to the third level. Several verb tenses will be introduced in this level.French Level Three Lessons Formidable! . This is a much more rigorous presentation of the French language.

V: News.. Adverbs. Handling Money. Noble Life. the Dentist. Office Supplies Leçon 03 : La santé G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs. Lesson 08 : Revolution! Post-Napoleon France.07 160 3. Emergencies. Present Conditional. Songs.. Napoleonic Era. Part-Time Jobs Leçon 07 : L'histoire Antique G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs. Lesson 10 : Current Events Social Problems.08 162 3. Que.05 153 3. Pronouns with Commands Lesson 04 : Money V: Forms of Money. Dont) V: Enlightenment. White-collar. Medecine.. Simple Future of Regular Verbs Lesson 01 : Vacations V: General Travelling. Leçon 09 : La France moderne G: Past Conditional. Blue-collar.04 149 3.10 166 G: Geography Prepositions.01 Leçon 01 : Les vacances 131 3. French Rev. Stating If. Lesson 03 : Health Healthcare Leçon 04 : L'argent G: Personal Pronouns Review. Perfect Tenses Introduction. Interrogative Pronouns V: Farming and Peasant Life. Government. Pronominal Verbs Review. The King.06 157 3. Commands V: Visiting the Doctor. The Reformation Leçon 08 : Révolution! G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs. Service. France's Role in Global Politics. Demonstrative Pronouns.Level Three Contents 3. European Union. Comparative & Superlative. Asking Questions Review Lesson 09 : Modern France V: The 20th Century. Going to a Bank Leçon 05 : Jeunesse G: Imparfait. Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review (Futur Proche. Payment.09 165 3.03 143 3. Possesive Pronouns. Politics . Mass Media. Lesson 02 : Work The Office. Nationalities Leçon 02 : Le travail G: Irregular Past Participles Review. The Lesson 07 : Ancient History Rennaissance. French Children's Poems. Democracy. Plus-Que-Parfait Lesson 06 : Adolescence V: Pop Culture. Faire Causitif) V: Companies. Industrial Rev.02 141 3. Stem Changing Verbs Review V: Children's Games and Toys. 20th Century Advancements and Changes. Modern War Leçon 10 : L'actualité G: Future Perfect. Lesson 05 : Life as a Child and Stories Leçon 06 : L'adolescence G: Imparfait vs. Government. Relative Pronouns (Qui. Passé Composé. International Travelling.

. there are l’aéroport (m. airplane) le métro subway. airplane les bagages baggage le billet ticket (for train.. underground la poste post office le taxi taxi le ticket ticket (for bus.) aircraft.01 • Vacations V: General Traveling Audio: Ogg French native speaker General il y a there is. (d') I am from.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .) airport l’autobus (m..) bus l’avion (m.. métro) le train train la valise suitcase la voiture car Audio : French native speaker Visiting Other Cities 1a Tu es d'où? (informal) Where are you from? D'où êtes-vous? 1b (formal) 1c Je suis de.

• le Caire . • la Nouvelle-Orléans . . . • Je reviens de Paris. .V: Geography Audio : French native speaker Geography the world le monde Political Geography a city une ville a village un village a country un pays a state un état Natural Geography river le fleuve mountain la montagne lake le lac ocean l'océan (m) Cardinal Directions north le nord south le sud east l'est west l'ouest G: Geography Prepositions Cities French native speaker • • • à is used to say in. .Je vais au Havre.I return from Paris.Je reviens du Havre.Je reviens du Caire. at. . to • Je vais à Paris.I'm going to Paris de is used to say from. . • le Havre .Je reviens de la NouvelleOrléans.Je vais au Caire. cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine.Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans.

.I return from the United States.I go to France. . to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je vais au Portugal.I'm going to Limousin. and Continents • • • Most geographical areas are feminine Every French geographical area. . a contraction of de + les. provinces.Feminine Regions. Audio : French native speaker • • • Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant • • all countries that do not end in a silent e are mascuiline le Cambodge and le Mexique are masculine au is used to say in. Countries. (pronounced aytahzoohnee) des. a contraction of à + les. . • Je vais en Espagne.I return from France. . en is used to say in. to for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je vais en France. du. . with one or two exceptions. • du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je reviens du Portugal. de is contracted to d' when followed by a vowel. to. de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je reviens de France. at. .Je reviens du Texas. au is used instead of dans le • Je vais au Québec. . as if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je vais aux Êtats-Unis. If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state.I return from Limousin. is used to say in. .Je reviens d' Espagne • • • Masculine Regions • all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline dans le is used to say in. .I return from Portugal.I'm going to Portugal. is used to say from for most regions. • Je vais au Texas. . and states • Je reviens du Limousin. at. . • Plural Countries Audio : French native speaker • • aux.Je reviens du Québec.I'm going to the United States. to for most masculine regions. Every continent is feminine. a contraction of de + le. at. is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je reviens des Êtats-Unis. and states • Je vais dans le Limousin. provinces. that ends in -e is feminine.

to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je vais en Israël. at. Check For Understanding • • • • Are all French countries ending in e feminine? What geographical areas use the preposition dans le? What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use? What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? . machine.I'm going to Israel.I return from Israel. .. d' is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je reviens d' Israël.. (body) la compagnie (aérienne) a(n airline) company l'appareil (m) system le billet (plane/one-way/round trip) décoller to take off (d'avion/simple/aller-retour) ticket le décollage take-off la classe tourisme coach le vol flight (also theft) la première classe first class passer à la douane to go through customs le pilote pilot le contrôleur security officer l'hôtesse (de l'air) (f) flight attendant le contrôle de sécurité security check la porte gate (also door) le passager passenger atterrir to land embarquer to board l'atterrissage (m) landing .Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel • • en is used to say in.the province of Quebec? V: Airports and Airplanes French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two (258 + 205 kb • help) Airports and Airplanes • Les aéroports et les avions The Airport Baggage airport (pronounced l'aéroport (m) les bagages (f pl) baggage ahehrohpor) le passeport passport les bagages à main carry-on bagage la livraison des un chariot a (shopping/baggage) cart baggage claim bagages enregistrer (ses to check in (one's les arrivées (f pl) arrivals bagages) baggage) les départs (m pl) departures arriver (en avance/en to arrive (early/late) retard) The Terminal The Airplane l'aérogare terminal l'avion (m) plane plane. .

Caen Bourgogne .Dijon Bretagne .Rennes Continents l'Afrique (f) l'Amérique du nord (f) l'Amérique du sud (f) l'Antarctique (f) l'Asie (f) l'Australie (f) l'Europe (f) Oceans l'Océan atlantique (m) l'Océan glacial arctique (m) l'Océan indien (m) l'Océan pacifique (m) Audio : French native speaker Audio : French native speaker European Countries la France France * Paris * Paris la Belgique Belgium * Bruxelles * Bruxelles le Portugal Portugal * Lisbonne * Lisbon l'Espagne Spain * Madrid * Madrid l'Italie Italy * Rome * Rome la Grande-Bretagne Great Britain * Londres * London l'Irlande Ireland * Dublin * Dublin .Paris Basse-Normandie .V: Places Audio : French native speaker French Regions Île-de-France .

le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg * Luxembourg les Pays-Bas * Amsterdam l'Allemagne * Berlin l'Autriche * Vienne la Suisse * berne La principauté de Monaco * Monaco la Pologne * Varsovie la République Tchèque * Prague la Slovaquie * Bratislava la Hongrie * Budapest la Roumanie * Bucarest la Grèce * Athènes La principauté d'Andorre * Andorre-la-Vieille la Moldavie * Chisinau la Biélorussie * Minsk la Lituanie * Vilnius la Lettonie * Riga l'Estonie * Tallinn la Finlande * Helsinki la Suède * Stockholm la Norvège * Oslo la Russie Luxemburg * Luxemburg Netherlands * Amsterdam Germany * Berlin Austria * Vienna Switzerland * Bern Monaco * Moncao Poland * Warsaw Czech Republic * Slovakia * Hungary * Romania * Greece * Athens Andorra * Moldavia * Belarus * Lithuania * Latvia * Estonia * Finland * Helsinki Sweden * Stockholm Norway * Oslo Russia .

V: Nationalities French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two • Three (v2 300kb) (250 + 234 +186 kb • help) Nationalities • Les nationalités Masculine Feminine English allemand allemande German américain américaine American anglais anglaise English australien australienne Australian belge belge Belgian birman birmane Burmese cambodgien cambodgienne Cambodian canadien canadienne Canadian chinois chinoise Chinese coréen coréenne Korean espagnol espagnole Spanish français française French indien indienne Indian indonésien indonésienne Indonesian italien italienne Italian japonais japonaise Japanese malaisien malaisienne Malaysian mauricien mauricienne Mauritian néerlandais néerlandaise Dutch philippin philippine Filipino portugais portugaise Portuguese singapourien singapourienne Singaporean suédois suédoise Swedish suisse suisse Swiss thaïlandais thaïlandaise Thai vénézuélien vénézuéliene Venezuelan vietnamien vietnamienne Vietnamese .* Moscou * Moscow l'Ukraine Ukraine * Kiev * Kiev • Nations of the World • More audio pronunciation: here.

. if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language.Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in. un livre chinois. However. This time. un tapis arabe.replace -er with é -ir verbs . le chinois.no change • J'ai fini le jeu. . for example.I have finished. as in an Arab person or a Chinese person. the French would not capitalize: l'arabe. • Je l'ai fini. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative.I have finished it. .I have finished them.replace -re with u irregular verbs . . • Je les ai finies.I have finished the tasks.replace -ir with i -re verbs . • Je l'ai finie.I have finished it. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. . • the direct object is feminine plural . • the direct object is feminine singular . • the direct object is masculine plural . • Je les ai finis. . make sure you know all the rules. . Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. If the nationality is used as an adjective. it is normally left uncapitalized.I have finished the game. . • J'ai fini les jeux.add an s to the past participle.must be memorized Past Participle Agreement Audio: French native speaker • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle.I have finished the games. • J'ai fini les tâches. • J'ai fini. • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche.I have finished the task. the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois. If you are referring to a person. Review the grammar behind them. . .add an es to the past participle.I have finished them. • the direct object is masculine singular . G: Perfect Tenses You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level.

2. However. The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the infinitive.g. e. Le pssé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs There are three versions of the futur tense in French. • The verb is reflexive. one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez. the auxillary verb becomes avoir. • That is. under certain situations. 7. 3. 5. elle va réussir (she will pass.Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. These are: 1. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. 6. the subject of the verb is also its object. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit To conjugate a verb in the futur simple. the auxillary verb is être. the futur simple the futur composé. and the futur antérieur(future perfect). as according to the table: Audio: French native speaker Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ai réussirai Tu -as réussiras Il / Elle / On -a réussira Nous -ons réussirons Vous -ez réussirez Ils / Elles -ont Réussiront Subject . 4. the auxillary verb is avoir.

Les vacances Audio: French native speaker Cet été.01 • Vacations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d'attractions. Vivement les vacances ! congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Nous nous baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils. nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud. L'après-midi. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l'autoroute. Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte d'Azur.

reçu (to receive) rire .mis (to put (on)) (and all words adding prefixes to mettre) ouvrir .conduit (to drive) (and all other -uire verbs) connaître .pris (to take) recevoir .cru (to believe) dire .été (to be) faire .voulu (to want) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .lu (to read) mettre .dit (to say) devoir .fait (to do.eu (to have) boire .vu (to see) vouloir .su (to know (as a fact)) sourire .ri (to laugh) savoir .dû (to have to.02 • Work G: Irregular Past Participles Review Audio : french native speaker Audio : french native speaker • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • avoir .plu (to rain) prendre . to make) falloir .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.suivi (to follow) vivre .bu (to drink) conduire .connu (to know (personally)) courir .pu (to be able to) pleuvoir .souri (to smile) suivre . to owe) être .vécu (to live) voir .ouvert (to open) (and most other -rir verbs) pouvoir .couru (to run) croire .fallu (to be necessary) lire .

I have it fixed. j'ai obtenu un entretien d'embauche.I don't like to run. . . Pronouns Pronouns come before the verb they modify. Mais aujourd'hui. Je lis les petites annonces et j'envoie des lettres de candidature. J'aime ne pas marcher..I'm going to see it. Je n'ai plus de travail et j'en cherche tous les jours.02 • Work live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .. Je n'ai pas souvent une réponse. Le chomage Audio : french native speaker Avant j'avais un travail : je travaillais dans une banque. Futur Proche The future proche tense is formed by conjugating aller in the present indicative and adding an infinitive • Je vais aller. • Je le fais fixer. Mais la banque a fermé et je me suis retrouvé au chomage. each meaning slightly different things.I'm going to go.G: Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review Faire Causitif Audio : french native speaker The faire causitif is formed by conjugating faire and adding an infinitive. Avec un peu de chance. • • Je n'aime pas marcher. . congratulations on completing Lesson 3.I like to not run. j'obtiendrais le travail. . . which is not necessarily the first verb in a sentence • Je vais le voir. Negation Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated.

Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.... Formation Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table.03 • Health live version discussion V: Illness exercises French Vocabulary • Health • audio (115 kb • help) edit lesson Illness • La maladie comment To ache report an error to have a .ache. to have an earache l'oreille cœur nauseaus avoir mal aux to have a toothache Actions dents Sickness and Pain éternuer to sneeze être malade to be sick s'évanouir to faint avoir la grippe to have the flu saigner to bleed avoir de la fièvre to have a fever tousser to cough être enrhumé to have a cold vomir to throw up G: Issuing Commands in French .". French Grammar • Health • audio (info •104 kb • help) The Imperative • L'impératif -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs Subject Ending Verb Ending Verb Ending Verb Tu -e Parle! -is Finis! -s Vends! Nous -ons Parlons! -issons Finissons! -ons Vendons! Vous -ez Parlez! -issez Finissez! -ez Vendez! ... avoir mal au ventre to have a bellyache ask a question hurt avoir mal à la to have a headache avoir mal partout to ache all over tête avoir mal â avoir des maux de to feel sick. The subject is not used when giving a command. to avoir mal à..l'impératif • • The nous form commands are used to say "Let's.

nor any characteristics of what they modify. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment.G: Adverbs French adverbs. similarly. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. For example. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. as in English. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). as in English. other adverbs. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. like their English counterparts. Formation In French. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. that is. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. however. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: Audio : Native French Speaker • • • If the adjective ends in an i. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . They do not display any inflection. In most cases. As in English. most adverbs are derived from adjectives.

(I am ill). (I am fevrish) J'ai mal au ventre. Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin. Audio : Native French Speaker An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. this is true even of negative adverbs: • D: Visiting the Doctor Audio : Native French Speaker Le patient : • • • • • • Je suis malade. (I cough) Comment allez-vous ? Prenez de l'aspirine. such as pas ("not"). Je vomis. J'ai mal à la tête. Je tousse. Je vais vous prescrire un médicament. J'ai de la fièvre. or before the clause: • Note that. midi et soir Il faut passer un "scanner" Il faut passer des radios. plus ("not any more"). Il faut vous opérer. and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. Le docteur • • • • • • • . he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). (I have a headache).Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. unlike in English. Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs.

Ahhhhhhhhhh ! D: Emergencies Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • Je vais à l'hôpital. Je vais utiliser la roulette. C'est grave ! Je vais aux urgences. (Il va enlever la dent) J'ai un appareil dentaire. J'ai eu un accident de voiture. . Je dois procéder à une extraction.D: Visiting the Dentist Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • J'ai mal aux dents. SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d'Urgence En cas d'accident grave. Vous avez une carie. il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112.

belly button .V: Body parts Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts : (Audio : One (Native French Speaker) Two French English La tête Head Le corps Body Le bras Arm La jambe Leg La poitrine Chest Le ventre Belly L'épaule (f) Shoulder Le coude Elbow Le poignet Wrist La main Hand Le doigt Finger Le genou Knee Le pied Foot L'orteil (m) Toe L'oeil (m) Eye (pl. les yeux) La bouche Mouth La dent Tooth Le nez Nose L'oreille (f) Ear Le cou Neck La langue Tongue Les cheveux Hair L'ongle (m) Nail Le poumon Lung L'estomac (m) Stomach Le coeur Heart Le foie Liver L'instestin (m) Intestine L'os (m) Bone Le crâne Skull Le muscle Muscle Le cerveau Brain La rate Spleen L'utérus (m) Womb Le nombril Navel.

03 1 .03 • Health live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Example: J'ai mal à la tete. E: 3.. J'ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt).".V: Body position And here is the vocabulary for body positions : French Debout Assis Couché À genoux Accroupi English Standing Seating Laying down Kneeling Squatted V: Common sentencies When you 'catch a cold' you 'attrapes un rhume'.Visual Memorization • Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur. (I have a headache). When you're sick.Body Parts . you say "J'ai mal à [body part] .. tu es malade. When you wish to say that parts of your body are sore.

to you. les. Pierre sees him. For example. it us1 you1 them 1 me. . the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. Pierre le vois. or I had them. te. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. l' him. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. a tense that uses a past participle. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. was referring to a masculine object. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. t' le. to us. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. Pierre sees the burglar. nous. l' nous vous les her. and to you respectively. in te phrase Je les ai eus. m' te. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur.04 • Money G: Personal Pronouns Review Main article: French personal pronouns live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb).

and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • • • French me. Idioms • • Ça y est! .. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à Pierre. nous.?. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. nous. Replacement of Places . • • Les hommes vont en France. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. Note that en. te.Les hommes y vont.I get it! .there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. and you respectively. us.to it. Note that lui and leur. Il lui donne du pain.J' y réponds. He gives bread to him.. te. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. . t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me. • • Je réponds à les questions. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.? or From whom. . The man gives some bread to Pierre. and vous are used in a perfect tense. and not y. The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun . The men go to France . When me. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons.The men go there. m' te. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect).I respond to them.Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom.It's Done! J'y suis! .. . you. The bread is given by the man (direct). I respond to the questions.

Give it to me. Me and Te become moi and toi. . la. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. . Did you order some water? Yes.En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. nous en avons commandé. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. As well. and les precede all other object pronouns. This is because what en does is replace du. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. Like with 'me'. 'te' and other pronouns.Give me the videos. Tu joues du piano? Non.Find it. For instance. j'en prends. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. G: Commands with Pronouns . .L'impératif When expressing positive commands. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. we use the pronoun 'en'. Do you play piano? No. de la or des when there is nothing after it. 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. . • Donnez-le-moi. I don't play it. we ordered some. • Retrouve-la. if the idea of money has already been raised. Are you having fish? Yes. I'm having some. Le. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui.

04 • Money live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . as according to the table: Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ais réussirais Tu -ais réussirais Il / Elle / On -ait réussirait Nous -ions réussirions Vous -iez réussiriez Ils / Elles -aient réussiraient Subject congratulations on completing Lesson 3. one takes the infinitive and appends the same endings as when using the imparfait.G: Present Conditional To conjugate a verb in the Conditional.

05 • Youth live version discussion G: Imperfect .Imparfait exercises The imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation. In French. Every other verb uses the nous form of the present indicative as its root. the above example would be: "Nous report an error chantions quand papa est rentré.to play singular plural first person je joue nous jouons second person tu joues vous jouez third person il joue ils jouent • Remove the -ons ending to find the stem. . The imperfect ending are added to ét___. An example in English edit lesson being: "We were singing when Dad came home. and add these endings: French Grammar • Youth • audio (info •181 kb • help) The Imperfect • L'imparfait jouer finir attendre subject ending (nous jouons) (nous finissons) (nous attendons) je -ais jouais finissais attendais tu -ais jouais finissais attendais il/elle/on -ait jouait finissait attendait nous -ions jouions finissions attendions vous -iez jouiez finissiez attendiez ils/elles -aient jouaient finissaient attendaient • Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present idicative) is être." ask a question In order to conjugate the imperfect." It tells what was going on when a comment particular action or event occured.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. • take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate: jouer .

G: Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.Yes. it is mine. This usually occurs in sentences with être.You have your car? • Oui. À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. . . we have ours.Yes. . French Grammar • Youth • audio: One • Two (238 + 232 kb • help) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre le leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre la leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs • Vous avez votre voiture? .Is that your car? Oui. • • Elle est ta voiture? . nous avons la nôtre. elle est à moi.

it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. -ger Verbs An e is added after the g in the nous form. this affects all forms except nous and vous. when y is part of the last syllable. la bonne paye des "transformers" . une gameboy. le cluedo. the accent aigu above the e ( é ) changes to an accent grave ( è ). -yer Verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. but also are stem changing. -éxer Verbs Like -exer verbs. une ps2) des jeux de société : le monopoly. V: Children's Games and Toys • • • • • • • • • • un hochet un cheval de bois une poupée une dinette un train électrique des légos un ours en peluche une console de jeu (une nintendo. -cer Verbs The last c in the verb changes to ç in the nous form. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. However. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. In the present indicative of -yer verbs. Appeler All forms except nous and vous have the l doubled.G: Stem Changing Verbs Review -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs.

. Songs. and Stories Petit Papa Noël Petit Papa Noël Quand tu descendras du ciel Avec des jouets par milliers N'oublies pas mes petits souliers Mais avant de partir Il faudra bien te couvrir Dehors tu vas avoir si froid C'est un peu à cause de moi ..V: French Children's Poems. congratulations on completing Lesson 3.05 • Youth live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

. Ils se lavent. There are three types of ask a question pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs.She was herself. te. • • • • Elle s'est lavée.I'm going to wash myself.I'm not going to wash myself. • In perfect tenses. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives.They wash themselves. Je ne vais pas me laver. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.She washed her hands.06 • Adolescence live version discussion G: Pronominal Verbs Review exercises Pronominal verbs are verbs that. . Je vais me laver.We wash ourselves. . Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. Elle s'est lavé les mains. • Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. nous. but not the indirect object pronoun. • • • Je me lave. . comment depending on the verb that they modify. . se. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. . Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. être is used as the auxiliary verb. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in report an error perfect tenses. reciprocal verbs. in gender and plurality. . the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun.I wash myself. and naturally pronominal verbs. Nous nous lavons. . These pronouns are edit lesson me.We washed our hands. include pronouns. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. put simply. . .We wash ourselves.

. • • • Nous nous aimons. . Otherwise. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Tu te souvenu? .We liked each other.to return.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. people perform actions to each other.Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. . Elles se sont téléphoné. Nous nous sommes parlé. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects.You remember? • • In perfect tenses. Elle s'est souvenue. . • • .We spoke to each other. to give back se rendre (à) . • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action.We like each other.They called to one another. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . . the past participle agrees with the subject.She remembered. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. rendre .to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. Like reflexive verbs.

I had eaten. He was my friend when . Nous avons réussi We passed the test. but they occur at different times. He came the day after. In English. . Examples J'ai parlé français. It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses. one finds the appropriate auxiliary verb (avoir). not just the plusque-parfait. the past before the past. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait. The plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other." In this example. Il est venu. Essentially. He came/used to come every day. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. He had already come. In French. there are two past tenses. Il a été mon ami.. So. Il venait tous les jours. the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and adding the past participle. and I don't speak French any more). . Ils ont fait leurs devoirs. conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé).06 • Adolescence live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . in English. Il était déjà venu. this is used in a phrase like "I had given him the toy before he went to sleep. the conjugation of Je mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes j'avais mangé or. They did their homework. I spoke French (during a period of time.G: Plus-Que-Parfait The plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolise that one occurrence happened before the other.. He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more) Il était mon ami lorsque. Je parlais français. I spoke French (on one particular occasion). l'examen. He came (and I don't need to say when) Il vint le lendemain.

It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense: for report an error every occurrence of the passé composé in conversational French. He danced. Ils -èrent Ils dansèrent. You danced. used when writing formally. You danced. We danced Vous -âtes Vous dansâtes.07 • History live version discussion exercises G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs edit lesson comment Unlike English. Formation To conjugate in this tense. Il -a Il dansa. Tu -as Tu dansas. L'histoire de la France jusqu'en 1700. one finds the stem and appends the following. I danced. . This past tense is the passé simple. and therefore does not have an auxiliary verb like the passé composé does. Note that the passé simple is not a composed tense. as according to the table: French Grammar • History The Simple Past • Le passé simple Subject Edning Conjugated Verb English Je -ai Je dansai.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. one simply uses ask a question the passé simple in literary French. Nous -âmes Nous dansâmes. They danced. there is a literary past tense.

Stem Je..Regular Normally-Irregular Verbs The following verbs are irregular in the present indicative. -ir verbs dormir dorm dormis partir part partis sentir sent sentis servir serv servis sortir sort sortis -rir Verbs couvrir couvr couvris découvrir décrouvr découvris offrir offr offris ouvrir ouvr ouvris souffrir souffr souffris -re Verbs combattre combatt combattis rompre romp rompis suivre suiv suivis Infinitive congratulations on completing Lesson 3.. put are regular in their passé simple stems.07 • History live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Others must be memorized. G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs Some passé simple stems are based off the past participle.08 • Revolution! Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ending Formation je -is je -in_ Endings -ins je -u_ Endings -us -i_ Endings tu -is tu -ins tu -us il -it il -int il -ut nous -îmes nous -înmes nous -ûmes vous -îtes vous -întes vous -ûtes ils irent ils inrent ils urent Irregular Verb List French Grammar • Revolution! Simple Past Irregular Verbs • Des verbes irréguliers du passé simple Past Stem Passé simple Part.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. je tu il nous vous -i_ Endings assis ass m'assis t'assis s'assit nous assîmes vous assîtes conduis conduisis conduisis conduisit conduisîmes conduisîtes conquis conqu conquis conquis conquit conquîmes conquîtes contruis construisis construisis construisit construisîmes construisîtes craign craignis craignis craignit craignîmes craignîtes dit d dis dis dit dîmes dîtes f fis fis fit fîmes fîtes écriv écrivis écrivis écrivit écrivîmes écrivîtes mis m mis mis mit mîmes mîtes naqu naquis naquis naquit naquîmes naquîtes peign peignis peignis peignit peignîmes peignîtes pris pr pris pris prit prîmes prîtes rejoin rejoignis rejoignis rejoignit rejoignîmes rejoignîtes Infinitive ils s'assirent conduisirent conquirent construisirent craignirent dirent firent écrivirent mirent naquirent peignirent prirent rejoignirent s'asseoir conduire conquérir construire craindre dire faire écrire mettre naître peindre prendre rejoindre .Historical Text for this lesson.

rire sourire vaincre devenir tenir venir ri souri avoir eu boire bu connaître connus courir couru croire cru devoir dû être falloir fallu lire lut mourir plaire plu pleuvoir plu pouvoir p recevoir reçu savoir su valoir valu vivre vécu vouloir voulu r ris ris sour souris souris vainqu vainquis vainquis -in_ Endings dev devins devins t tins tins v vins vins -u_ Endings e eus eus b bus bus conn connus connus cour courus courus cr crus crus d dus dus f fus fus fall fallus fallus l lus lus mour mourus mourus pl plus plus pl plus plus pus pus put reç reçus reçus s sus sus val valus valus véc vécus vécus voul voulus voulus rit sourit vainquit devin tint vint eut but connut courut crut dut fut fallut lut mourut plut plut pûmes reçut sut valut vécut voulut rîmes sourîmes vainquîmes devînmes tînmes vînmes eûmes bûmes connûmes courûmes crûmes dûmes fûmes fallûmes lûmes mourûmes plûmes plûmes pûtes reçûmes suûmes valûmes vécûmes voulûmes rîtes sourîtes vainquîtes devîntes tîntes vîntes eûtes bûtes connûtes courûtes crûtes dûtes fûtes fallûtes lûtes mourûtes plûtes plûtes purent reçûtes sûtes valûtes vécûtes voulûtes rirent sourirent vainquirent devinrent tinrent vinrent eurent burent connurent coururent crurent durent furent fallurent lurent moururent plurent plurent reçurent surent valurent vécurent voulurent .

.08 • Revolution! live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . que is the direct object of the clause it introduces • Il est l'homme que j'ai vu.He is the man that he has seen.I see the man that did it. which literally mean that which. .I see the car that is broken. . If que is folled by a vowel. even when followed by a vowel qui and que can modify both people and things • Je vois la voiture qui est cassé. • L'homme qui l'a fait est ici. remember that in perfect tenses.G: Relative Pronouns Qui and Que Les pronoms relatifs qui et que • • • • • • • • • • relative pronouns begin adjective clauses • the man that was here • the man that I saw qui is the subject of the clause it introduces • Je vois l'homme qui l'a fait. but more naturally mean what.They are the women that I have seen.The man that did it is here. • Il est l'homme qu'il a vu. . qui is never shortened. . it is shortened to qu'. the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and plurality if the direct object comes before the verb • Elles sont les femmes que j'ai vues. qui and que can modify both masculine and feminine nouns qui and que can modify both singular and plural nouns in the phrases ce qui and ce que. . ce is the noun congratulations on completing Lesson 3.He is the man that I have seen.

you toi. Lesson 3. you toi. + Verb Comparative Adverb Comparative Je vois plus/aussi/moins clairement que more than I see as clearly as less than Verbs Sub.09 • Modern France G: Comparative French Grammar • Modern France The Comparative • Le Comparatif Adjectives Sub. you.09 • Modern France live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . you. + Verb Comparative Adjective Comparative Je suis plus intelligent que I am more intelligent than Je suis moins intelligent que I am less intelligent than Je suis aussi intelligent que I am as intelligent as Adverbs Sub.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. Verb Comparative Comparative Je joue plus/autant/moins que more than I play as much as less than Nouns Sub. + Verb Comparative Noun Comparative plus de Je joue à autant de jeux que moins de more than I play as many games as less than live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Object toi. Object toi. you. Object toi toi. Object toi.

is conjugated in the future tense. French Grammar • Current events The Future Perfect • Le futur antérieur parler passer Subject Avoir Conj. something else "will have" occured by that time. Subject Être Conj. The auxiliary verb.10 • Current events G: Future Perfect In French. appy to the future perfect as well. avoir or être.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. such as certain verbs using être as an auxiliary verb. and therefore consists of an auxiliary verb and a past perfect. Past Part. Past Part. All rules that apply to the passé composé and other perfect tenses. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation The future perfect is a perfect tense. j' aurai parlé je serai passé(e) tu auras parlé tu seras passé(e) il aura parlé il sera passé elle aura parlé elle sera passée nous aurons parlé nous serons passé(e)s vous aurez parlé vous serez passé(e)(s) ils auront parlé ils seront passés elles auront parlé elles seront passées Use Phrases constructed in the future perfect tense mean "will have ___ed" in both French and English. This construction is used to say that before an event occurs. the future perfect tense is called the futur antérieur. .

) le vandalisme l'acte de terrorisme (m.V: News un quotidien l'actualité les nouvelles les faits divers la une a daily newspaper news.) or un attentat la criminalité burglar a thief fire vandalism terrorism crime . current events news local news items the frontpage un hebdomadaire a weekly magazine se tenir informé(e) to stay informed V: French Social Problems le cambrioleur un voleur l'incendie (f.

Il existe aussi de nombreux candidats soutenus par aucun parti. • En 2002. • Le Président de la République est le chef des armées et il désigne le Premier Ministre. il y a un candidat du PS et un candidat de l'UMP au deuxième tour. Il y a souvent entre 10 et 15 candidats au premier tour. . Le sénat : • Il est élu au suffrage indirect : seul les maires et les autres élus peuvent voter pour les sénateurs. Le Premier Ministre doit alors démissionner. Jean-Marie Lepen (FN) est arrivé deuxième au premier tour devant Lionel Jospin (PS). petits ou grands. Les sénateurs peuvent modifier certaines lois mais ont assez peu de pouvoir. • L'Assemblée Nationale vote les lois proposées par le gouvernement.V: French Government • • L'élection présidentielle : • Le président de la république est élu pour 5 ans au suffrage universel direct. à la surprise générale. • Les députés peuvent renversé le gouvernement si la politique qu'il conduit ne leur convient pas. Jacques Chirac l'a largement emporté avec 80% des voix. En général. proposent un candidat. Le second tour a donc opposé Jacques Chirac (UMP) et Jean-Marie Lepen (FN). L'élection comporte 2 tours : au premier tour la plupart des partis. L'Assemblée Nationale : • Les députés sont élus au suffrage universel direct à 2 tours. Le Président de la République est donc obligé de choisir un Premier Ministre ayant la majorité des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale. Les 2 candidats arrivant en tête au premier tour s'affrontent lors du deuxième tour.

L'UMP et l'UDF refusent tout contact avec le FN. L'UMP : Jacques Chirac (Président de la République). Dominique de Villepin (Premier ministre). Nicolas Sarkozy L'UDF : François Bayrou. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Lutte Ouvrière(LO) : Arlette Laguiller. le gouvernement est soutenu par l'UMP. l'UDF et le Front National (FN). de quelques membres du PCF et des Verts. la LCR et LO. les Verts. • à droite : l'UMP. En 2005. Le FN est un parti souvent classé à l'extrême-droite et certains l'accusent de racisme. le PCF. Ségolène Royal. François Hollande.10 • Current events live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question ... Jack Lang. La LCR et LO sont souvent classés à l'extrême gauche et refusent de participer à tout gouvernement. Le Parti Communiste Français (PCF) : MarieGeorges Buffet Les Verts : Dominique Voynet Front national (FN) : Jean-Marie Lepen (extrême droite) La ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (LCR) : Olivier Besancenot.. Les gouvernements de gauche sont composés de membres du Parti Socialiste. les partis politiques sont de droite ou de gauche. • • • • • • • • La politique en France • • En france. • à gauche : le PS.V: French Politics Quelques hommes politiques Le Parti Socialiste (PS) : Lionel jospin.. L'UDF et l'UMP sont actuellement fachés mais ils ont souvent gouverné ensemble.

GRA M R M A une fleuve au pont de Sainte-Marguerite .

Pronominal .Negation 183 .Adverbs 177 .Gender 181 .Grammar Contents • • • • • • • • • 172 .Prepositions 185 – Pronouns 191 – Sentences 192.Tenses 195 – Verbs • • 196 .Irregular Conjugations 205 .Adjectives 175 .

len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. Regular Formation Spelling Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. Most adjectives. are affected by this rule. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e.Grammar Adjectives Just like articles. lent . such as those above. amusant. amusan. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan.

un pou (des poux. pneu (pneus) Exceptions:bal. sarrau (sarraus) Exceptions:bleu (bleus). récital et régal take an 's' Notes:While most -ou adjectives have an s added in the plural form. un hibou (des hiboux. cal. jewel). un genou (des genoux. Masc.M. seven are the exception. carnaval. un caillou (des cailloux. cabbage).Irregular Formation Irregular Plural Formation Katy Leeanne Jones Examples M -. chacal. pal. owl). un joujou (des joujoux. Singular > -s un plafond bas des plafonds -s un gros porc bas -x des gros porcs un homme généreux des hommes No -x un garçon généreux change furieux des garçons -z furieux un gaz -z des gaz dangereux dangereux -au -aux un journal des journaux -eu -eux un pieu -eau -eaux un château des pieux -al -aux un journal des châteaux des journaux __x -ou -oux un bijou des bijoux Notes Exceptions:landau (landaus). louse). These are: un bijou (des bijoux. stone)). > Pl. festival. Plural Sing. toy ). knee) . -Masc. un chou (des choux.

notre. ma. ses First person plural . Plural de belles fillettes de nouvelles idées de vieilles idées Possessive Adjectives In English.mon. when it goes after the noun. and Vieux Masc. leurs Grammar Adjectives live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . However. Vowel Beau un beau garçon un bel individu un nouveau Nouveau un nouvel ordre camion Vieux un vieux camion un vieil ordre Masc. "pauvre" can mean "financially poor" even when used before the nouns. First person singular .Special Rules Adjectives That Precede Nouns Adjectives that are used frequently go before nouns. vos Third person plural .son. when pauvre goes before a noun. Sing Cons. (all) une belle fillette une nouvelle idée une vieille idée Fem. Sing. it means tall. Sing. This rule works most of the time. In French. ta. leur. it means unfortunate. sa. votre. Nouveau. It is not the owner who determines the gender of the possessive adjective but the object owned. tes Third person singular . we say "her car" when the owner of the car is a woman and "his car" when the owner is a man. it means great.leur. nos Second person plural (and polite form) .votre. When it comes after the noun. These are: • • • beau nouveau vieux bon mauvais petit grand long joli jeune gros Changes in Meaning When grand goes before a noun. but be careful.ton. mes Second person singular (informal) . Beau. notre. Likewise. it means financially poor. they say "sa voiture" even if the owner is a male. Masc. Plural de beaux garçons de nouveaux ordres de vieux camions Fem.

similarly. discussion They do not display any inflection. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions.Grammar Adverbs French adverbs. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. For example. edit lesson comment report an error Formation ask a question In French. like their English counterparts. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: • • • If the adjective ends in an i. In most cases. that is. however. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). their form does not change to reflect exercises their precise role. are used to modify live version French/Grammar/Adjectives. as in English. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. nor any characteristics of what they modify. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. as in English. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. As in English. other adverbs.

Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. unlike in English. An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. also a preposition Grammar Adverbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). or before the clause: • Note that. afterwards On va au cinéma après We'll go the cinema afterwards 2. such as pas ("not"). this is true even of negative adverbs: • List of Common Adverbs • après 1. plus ("not any more"). and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb.Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs.

la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. This form can be masculine or feminine. For example.. for example. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. is always feminine. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. personne. that is. for example. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f).Grammar Gender Gender of Nouns In French. the word for person. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . professeur. all nouns have a grammatical gender.g. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. and the word for teacher. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. is always masculine even if the teacher is female. even if the person is male.

Examples French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval the horse -age the cheese le professeur le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian Unfortunately. and vice versa. for example. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. la foi is feminine and means a belief. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. There are even words that are spelled the same. Then there are some that just don't make sense. whereas le foie means liver. . but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. un livre (m) means a book.

"Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine).Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular le le fils the son singular. the definite article is always “the”. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une une fille a daughter singular masculine un un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des des fils1 some sons . the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". Again. "La" is used for feminine nouns. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Note: Unlike English. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. Gender 2. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. Plurality 3. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. The Indefinite Article In English. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). In French. It is similar to english.

" you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. Also. When referring to a single person.") If you were just flipping through the album. The French third person "on" has several meanings. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable." ("I am looking at the photographs. However. In everyday language.") Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. "Je regarde photographies. elle. see the Wikipedia entry. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. as discussed in lesson 1. “on” is used.1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. For example. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. Also. In English. see notes in lesson 1.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il. the male form is used. we would say "I am looking at photographs. Grammar Gender live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. “vous” must be used. when pronounced. you cannot say. elles they (feminine) When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". 2nd. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. instead of “nous”. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". you would say "Je regarde les photographies.” (formal). she. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English." In French. While in English. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures." ("I am looking at some photographs. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". looking at nothing in particular. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. 2nd. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. to express “we”. if a group of people consists of both males and females. and 3rd person plural. For more. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. "Je regard des photographies. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. on he. you would say.

. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together. • Je ne vole pas.pas • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne. • Je n'ai pas volé. In a perfect tense. • Je ne le vole pas.. .pas wraps around the auxillary verb..I want to not steal.. ne.Grammar Negation ne.I do not steal. .pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb.I do not want to steal.I have never stolen.. not the participle. ne.. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. .I did not steal it.. • Je veux ne pas voler. . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .pas around the verb. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. • Je ne veux pas voler. .

He has no sheet of paper.guère ne. .. .. ne. .I gave it neither to my brother nor my sister.. Aucune. None..I am not able to see neither my brother nor my sister.He has only one piece of paper. • Je ne peux voir ni mon frère ni ma sœur.plus ne.....I did not give it too anyone.. it is always used in written French and in formal conversations. .nor ne..pas du tout not at all ne. • Il n'a aucun ami.ni.. In ne. However. • Il n'a aucune feuille de papier. • Je ne l'ai donné ni à mon frère...ni not any. . no never neither. Spoken French Now.. aucun(e) goes before an object..jamais ne.pas encore not yet ne. .. • Je ne l'ai donné à personne.aucun(e) ne.I do not want to give it to anybody.personne ne.ni requires two objects.. ni à ma sœur. Il Je ne peux guère voir mon frère et ma sœur . None.personne wraps around the entire verb set. Il n'a qu'une feuille de papier.... Aucun..I can hardly see my brother and sister. • Je ne veux le donner à personne. and comes before them.. • • Je l'ai donné à personne (I didn't give it to anyone) Je sais pas (I don't know) Grammar Negation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks.Other Negative Expressions ne.aucun(e).que • nobody no longer hardly only • • • • ne...He has no friend..ni..... none.. . either direct or indirect.

Alternative: dedans (rarely used as a preposition) On mange après avoir bu We eat after we drink Also an adverb. in Example Je vais à Paris. -. C'est la voiture à John. manner. Also a pronoun. Je pars à cinq heures. -. besides inside after beyond with at the home of against in 1. at 3. -.Introduced a complement of indirect object or a complement of attribution. about outside behind in front of in between here far Used mostly to indicate distance in time or space. Prepostion Translation à 1.I am going to Paris. of. à côté de à l'intérieur de après au-dela avec chez contre dans de dehors derrière devant en entre ici loin de next to. of 4. price. Contractions: du.Grammar Prepositions Common Prepositions live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Notes -Expresses a report/ratio of place (to). -This is John's car. . a complement of the name or adjective.I am leaving at five C'est un ami à moi. from 2. Also a conjugation of the verb entrer. possession (of or 's). time (at). des IPA: /də/ . means. to 2.This is a friend of mine. La paille est contre la maison the straw is against the house Synonym: en Also an indefinite artcle.

through 2.(golf) par IPA: /pur/ sous Related term: dessous Also a noun: m pl of sou . au-dessous-de (below) Also an adjective: m sing. above 5.penny. on 2. sept sur dix (seven out of ten) Grammar Also a noun: le par . peanuts Synonyms: au-dessus de (above) Antonyms: sous (below. meaning sure IPA: /syr/ (audio) sur Prepositions live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . on top of 4. upon 3. wothless thing. for near for without 1. under 1. according to 2. out of 6. by. in accordance with below.par près de pour sans selon 1. under) Antonyms: dessous.

not on. In this case. soi. Tu (informal.e. It has a number of uses: • • • • It is used in the same ways as the English personal pronoun one: • It is used in expressing generalities: « C'est en forgeant qu'on devient forgeur. note that the other forms of nous (direct object. » ("It is by blacksmithing that one becomes a blacksmith. indirect object. and disjunctive) are not replaced by forms of on unless on is the subject as well. Elle (female). » ("[On] gave it to me" or "I was given it" or "It was given to me. moi edit lesson • Second person singular (you) .Ils (male). Because of French's limited passive voice. Elles (female) The pronoun on The subject pronoun on is analogous to the English personal pronoun one." but « On se l'est donné ». and is more common. its disjunctive-pronoun form.Vous (polite). (Hence." In French as in English. numbers can be used as pronouns — « Deux sont entrés et un est ressorti ». it takes plural adjectives (« On est américains ». only the reflexive pronoun se.Grammar Pronouns live version discussion Subject Pronouns exercises • First person singular (I. The pronoun quelqu'un ("someone") can fill some of the roles of on.and indirect-object pronouns.Je. me) . and therefore is not used to mean "one of them.Vous • Third person plural (them) . well-known comment acquaintances only) report an error • Third person singular (he. On does not have ordinary direct. "Two went in and one came back out" — but the number 1 is un(e). "to think oneself right").") • It is the implicit subject for an infinitive that has no other implicit subject: « penser qu'on a raison » ("to think that one is right. it is often used as an empty subject when the agent is unknown or unimportant: « On me l'a donné." i.") It is used as a less formal substitute for the subject pronoun nous (we). note that even though on always takes a third-person singular verb. « Ils nous l'ont donné ». "We gave it to ourselves. "They gave it to us. On (indeterminate) ask a question • First person plural (we) . Also. is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity.Nous • Second person plural (you) . "We're American").") It is not the number 1. she) . . in the same way that one and someone are sometimes interchangeable in English. Similarly.Il (male). except that it is not so formal.

to me te . . because they are pronouns that are. • Je veux te voir. . .I see you. Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle.me.us. • Je t'ai vu.He throws it to us. informal) lui . and les are called direct object pronouns. . and les le. used as direct object. Il te le jette. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. to you (singular. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. If a perfect tense is used. .you. Il vous voit.He sees us.to him nous .He throws the ball. to us vous . you guessed it. .He throws it to you.He sees me. . .He calls to me. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • • • me .He sees you.I saw you. A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.He sees you.I want to see you.you. • Il jette la boule. . Il nous le jette. la. Il nous voit. formal) leurs . .to them Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois. la. Il te voit. Il vous le jette. . le. te. to you (plural. . .me. nous.He throws it to you. Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit.

. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. When used with the direct object pronouns le.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . . lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. la.He throws it. The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. . lui and leur come after those pronouns. . . Il jette la boule à Marie. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects. Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. and means the same thing.to it. Il lui jette la boule. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns.replaces a masculine singular direct object la .. An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. and les.He throws the ball to him. • • lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. direct objects. both masculine and feminine Il la jette. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. tu.replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur .He throws the ball to them. "He throws him the ball" is also said.He throws the ball to Jack. In English. Il leur jette la boule. • Il la lui jette. ..replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule.He throws the ball to Mary.He throws the ball to her. • • • • le .He throws the ball to Jack and Mary.You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je.). such as "la boule". la.replaces plural direct objects. Note that while le. can be replaced by pronouns. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques. . lui is never shortened y Indirect Object Pronoun . .He throws them. . Il les jette. • • lui .replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . Also note that unlike le and la. . Similary.He throws it to him. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.

I respond to them.• • Je réponds aux questions. The men go to France . and not y.I get it! en Replacement of a Partitive Construction Replacement of Quantified Nouns Replacement of Phrases with de • • The pronoun en replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de if the object of the preposition is referring to a thing or place. . Replacement of Places . Pronoun Order Order Chart If a sentence uses no infinitive. Note that lui and leur. and not en are used if the object refers to a person or persons. • J' en viens.It's Done! J'y suis! .I come from Paris. Note that stress pronouns.Les hommes y vont. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. Note that en. • Je viens de Paris. • • Les hommes vont en France. . Idioms • • Ça y est! . . are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. .I come from it. the pronouns are embedded as follows: . I respond to the questions.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de (for which en is used). .The men go there.J' y réponds.

• Il m'emmène à Paris.. te. la. la. When y is used in the same sentence as other pronouns. the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le pas te il (elle) conjugated past la lui ne plus nous y en infinitive nous verb participle l' leur etc. and les. . and les. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. and vous go first. . there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. y goes after all of them with the exception of en. .There exist several ones. . • Il le lui donne. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. When there are two pronouns in a sentence. and les go first. . Me and Te become moi and toi.. . • Retrouve-la.Give me the videos. .He takes me to Paris. la. • Il m'y emmène.. la. le.Give it to me. nous.. • Donnez-le-moi. me. . • Il me le donne. • Il y en a. en always go last.He gave it to him/her. Le. and vous with the direct object pronouns le.Find it. Y in conjunction with en is only used in a few cases. .He gave it to me. vous vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) Order Rules • • • • • When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns me. L'impératif When expressing positive commands. nous. te. vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) If a sentence uses an infinitive.Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le te pas il (elle) la lui conjugated past ne nous y en plus nous l' leur verb participle vous etc.He takes me there. and les precede all other object pronouns. When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns lui and leur with the direct object pronouns le.

Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets. nous avons la nôtre. French Grammar • Pronouns Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours • Vous avez votre voiture? .Is that your car? Oui. we have ours. .Yes.Yes. • • Elle est ta voiture? .You have your car? • Oui. Grammar Pronouns live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . leur copain their friend le leur theirs leurs copains their friends les leurs theirs leurs copine their friend la leur theirs leurs copines their friends les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. This usually occurs in sentences with être. . elle est à moi. it is mine.

How? Quel/Quels/Quelle/Quelles? .Why? Comment? .What? Qui? .When? Pourquoi? .Grammar Sentences Interrogation Question Words • • • • • • Où? .Who? live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Commands Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Imperative Grammar Sentences live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Where? Quand? .

Grammar Tenses Verb Tenses Sorted by Mood Non-finite Forms • • • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le Verbe Auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) L'infinitif (The Infinitive) L'infinitif passé (The Past Infinitive) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question L'indicatif (The Indicative Mood) Simple Tenses • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Perfect Tenses • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Other Tenses • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) • • • • Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Le subjonctif passé (The Past Subjunctive) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) .

L'impératif (The Imperative Mood) • • L'impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Le conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) • • • Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The Second Form of the Past Conditional) Verb Tenses Sorted by Type Simple Tenses • • • • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le présent du subjonctif (The Present Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Perfect Tenses • • • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect of the Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Conditional Past) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Perfect Tense Components • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le verbe auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) .

Other Tenses • • • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) L'Impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Grammar Tenses live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

The general uses of a particular mood will be covered in the page linkd to by the section heading. are in italics. Literary tenses. an accent mark is shown without a letter below it indicates that the accent mark is placed above the last letter of the stem.Grammar Verbs • • • • Irregular Verb Conjugations Verb Negations Pronominal verbs Verb Tenses live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question General Notes • • • • • The masculine form and feminine form of the third person are conjugated in exactly the same manner. Instead of mentioning both. it is assumed that the reader will know that derivative verbs are similarly conjugated. In this appendix. Grammar Verbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Derivatives of a verb are conjugated in the same manner as that verb. when the conjugation of the root verb is given. In tables showing the endings or conjugations of verbs. For instance. only the masculine form will be used for the sake of brevity. One may assume that il includes elle and ils includes elles unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. The verb tenses here are organized by mood. devenir and revenir follow the same patterns as venir. which are only used in formal writing.

[aj-] all.[iR-] aill. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question aller indicatif présent je vais [vE] tu vas [va] il va [va] j'allai [alE] tu allas [ala] il alla [ala] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous allons [alO~] vous allez [ale] ils vont [vO~] passé simple nous allâmes [alAm] vous allâtes [alAt] ils allèrent [alER] impératif va [va] allons [alO~] allez [ale] participes allé1 [ale] allant [alA~] radicaux ir.Grammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations You spend a lot of time in French learning the grammatical rules . and they are listed below.[al-] imparfait 1 The verb aller uses the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé.there are some words which break these rules. Also see wiktionary:Category:French verbs and wiktionary:fr:Catégorie:Verbes français. . with what they do.

[akeR-] acquér.[akjER-] acquér.acquérir indicatif présent j'acquiers [akjER] tu acquiers [akjER] il acquiert [akjER] j'acquis [aki] tu acquis [aki] il acquit [aki] tu nous vous passé conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous acquérons [akerO~] vous acquérez [akeRe] ils acquièrent [akjER] passé simple nous acquîmes [akim] vous acquîtes [akit] ils acquirent [akiR] impératif acquiers [akjER] acquérons [akeRO~] acquérez [akeRe] participes acquis [aki] radicaux acquerr.[akER-] acquièr.[akeR-] .

[Or-] av.[av-] .avoir indicatif présent j'ai [e] ou [E] tu as [a] il a [a] j'eus [y] tu eus [y] il eut [y] que j'aie [E] que tu aies [E] qu'il ait [E] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait nous avons [avO~] vous avez [ave] ils ont [O~] passé simple nous eûmes [ym] vous eûtes [yt] ils eurent [yR] subjonctif que nous ayons [EjO~] que vous ayez [eje] qu'ils aient [E] impératif aie [E] ayons [EjO~] ayez [eje] participes eu [y] ayant [ajA~] radicaux aur.

to sit participe présent: s'asseyant participe passé: assis(e)(es) présent je m'assieds nous nous asseyons tu t'assieds vous vous asseyez il s'assied ils s'asseyent impératif asseyons-nous assieds-toi asseyez-vous passé simple je m'assis tu t'assis il s'assit nous nous assîmes vous vous assîtes ils s'assirent être indicatif présent je suis [sHi] tu es [E] il est [E] je fus [fy] tu fus [fy] il fut [fy] nous sommes [sOm] vous êtes [Et] ils sont [sO~] passé simple nous fûmes [fym] vous fûtes [fyt] ils furent [fyR] subjonctif que je sois [swa] que tu sois [swa] qu'il soit [swa] tu nous vous que nous soyons [swajO~] que vous soyez [swaje] qu'ils soient [swa] impératif sois [swa] soyons [swajO~] soyez [swaje] .s'asseoir .

participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait été [ete] étant [etA~] radicaux ser.[et-] faire indicatif présent je fais [fE] tu fais [fE] il fait [fE] je fis [fi] tu fis [fi] il fit [fi] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait nous faisons [f(@)zO~] vous faites [fEt] ils font [fO~] passé simple nous fîmes [fim] vous fîtes [fit] ils firent [fiR] impératif fais [fE] faisons [f(@)zO~] faites [fEt] participes fait [fE] faisant [f(@)zA~] radicaux fer.[fER-] fass.[fas-] fais.[fEz-] .[s(@)r-] ét.

[sOR-] .[faj-] fall.[fOdR-] faill.[fal-] savoir indicatif présent je sais [sE] tu sais [sE] il sait [sE] je sus [sy] tu sus [sy] il sut [sy] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple nous savons [savO~] vous savez [save] ils savent [sav] passé simple nous sûmes [sym] vous sûtes [syt] ils surent [syR] impératif sache [saS] sachons [saSO~] sachez [saSe] participes su [sy] sachant [saSA~] radicaux saur.falloir indicatif présent il faut [fo] passé simple il fallut [faly] participe passé fallu [faly] radicaux conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait faudr.

.[sav-] venir The verb tenir and verbs ending in -tenir and -venir also follow this pattern.[v(@)n-] imparfait 1 The verbs venir.[saS-] sav.subjonctif imparfait sach. devenir.[vjEn-] ven. and revenir use the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé.[vjE~dR-] vienn. indicatif présent je viens [vjE~] tu viens [vjE~] il vient [vjE~] je vins [vE~] tu vins [vE~] il vint [vE~] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous venons [v(@)nO~] vous venez [v(@)ne] ils viennent [vjEn] passé simple nous vînmes [vE~m] vous vîntes [vE~t] ils vinrent [vE~R] impératif viens [vyE~] venons [v(@)nO~] venez [v(@)ne] participes venu1 [v(@)ny] venant [v(@)nA~] radicaux viendr.

g. voulons. "Veuillez suivre les instructions ci-dessous.vouloir indicatif présent je veux [v2] tu veux [v2] il veut [v2] je voulus [vuly] tu voulus [vuly] il voulut [vuly] nous voulons [vulO~] vous voulez [vule] ils veulent [v9l] passé simple nous voulûmes [vulym] vous voulûtes [vulyt] ils voulurent [vulyR] impératif tu nous vous veux1 [v2] or veuille [v9j] voulons1 [vulO~] voulez1 [vule] or veuillez2 [v9je] participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) voulu [vuly] voulant [vulA~] radicaux voudr.[vul-] imparfait 1 The imperative forms veux. 2 The imperative form veuillez is used to make very polite requests.[v9j-] voul. and voulez are rare. (e.") .[vudR-] veuill. It is most often used on signs and in impersonal writing.

devoir indicatif présent je dois tu dois il doit je dus tu dus il dut tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous devons vous devez ils doivent passé simple nous dûmes vous dûtes ils durent impératif dois devons devez participes dû1 devant radicaux devrdoive devGrammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

I'm not going to wash myself. . • • • Je me lave. and naturally pronominal verbs. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. . but not the indirect object pronoun. in gender and plurality. se.They wash themselves. nous. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. .We washed our hands. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. . . reciprocal verbs. • Je vais me laver. .She was herself. In perfect tenses. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. . These pronouns are me. Nous nous lavons. être is used as the auxiliary verb. Elle s'est lavé les mains. Ils se lavent. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains.We wash ourselves.She washed her hands.I'm going to wash myself. depending on the verb that they modify.Grammar Verbs Pronominal Pronominal verbs are verbs that. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object.We wash ourselves. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. . put simply.I wash myself. include pronouns. . . the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. te. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. • Je ne vais pas me laver. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs.

• • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . Elle s'est souvenue. Like reflexive verbs. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. . Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s.You remember? • • In perfect tenses. to give back se rendre (à) .She remembered.We spoke to each other. . Elles se sont téléphoné.to return. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. rendre . . • • . Otherwise.We like each other.Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.They called to one another. the past participle agrees with the subject.to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. people perform actions to each other. • • • Nous nous aimons. Tu te souvenu? . It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. .We liked each other. Nous nous sommes parlé. .

When conjugating a reflexive verb you must use the correct reflexive pronoun. imperfect.Reflexive Verbs Details Reflexive Verbs in French are actions that one does to oneself. . They can be recognised because their infinitive form has the pronoun se in front of it or s' before a vowel. The following tables show which reflexive pronoun to use with each form of the verb: Subject je tu il nous vous ils Reflexive Pronoun me te se nous vous se Here is an example conjugation of a reflexive verb: Se coucher .to go to bed Present Je me couche Tu te couches Il se couche Elle se couche Nous nous couchons Vous cous couchez Ils se couchent Elles se couchent NB The futur simple. passé simple. conditional and subjuntive are all conjugated with the reflexive pronoun in this position.

g.. Grammar Verbs Pronominal live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . aller. vouloir..) it still takes the appropriate reflexive pronoun. pouvoir. Futur Proche Je vais me coucher Tu vas te coucher Il va se coucher Elle va se coucher Nous allons nous coucher Vous allez vous coucher Ils vont se coucher Elles vont se coucher NB When a reflexive verb is put as an infinitive behind any other verb (e.Passé Composé Je me suis couché Tu t'es couché(e) Il s'est couché Elle s'est couchée Nous nous sommes couché(e)s Vous vous êtes couché(e)(s) Ils se sont couchés Elles se sone couchées NB All reflexive verbs are take être in the passé composé and therefore have an e added to the past participle for females and an s for plural.

Appendices Le midi d'ossau dans les pyrénées .

211 . 215 . 213 .Slang 6. 229 . Time.Typing Characters 7. 240 .French Authors 3. 242 . 226 .Nations of the World 4.Phrasebook 5.Appendices Contents 1.Web Resources .Dates. and Numbers 2.

time. see the phrasebook. time. and numbers Les jours de la semaine • The days of the week.01 • Dates. • Les jours de la semaine.Appendices Appendix A. French Pronunciation English Origin lundi luhndee Monday Moon mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • • The days of the week are not capitalized in French. and numbers • audio (info •420 kb • help) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Days of the Week. For phrases relating to the day of the week. . [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Dates.

and numbers • audio (info •561 kb • # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 • • The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année French Pron.Les mois de l'année • The months of the year. and numbers live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .01 • Dates. time. and numbers • audio (info •142 kb • help) la saison le printemps l'été (m) l'automne (m) l'hiver (m) Seasons • Les Saisons season Spring Summer Autumn Winter Appendices Appendix A. [lay mwah duh lahnay] help) French Vocabulary • Dates. English janvier jzahnveeyay January février fayvreeyay February mars mahrse March avril ahvrill April mai maye May juin jzwan Juin juillet jzooeeyay July août oot/oo August septembre septahmbruh September octobre oktuhbruh October novembre novahmbruh November decembre daysahmbruh December The months of the year are not capitalized in French. see the phrasebook Les Saisons French Vocabulary • Dates. time. For phrases relating to the months of the year. time.

1799) .1526 .a.1565) 17th century • • • • • • • René Descartes (1596 .02 • List of authors Middle Age • Chrétien de Troyes (around 1135 .1650) Pierre Corneille (1606–1684) Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695) Molière (1622–1673) Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Charles Perrault (1628–1703) Jean Racine (1639–1699) 18th century • • • • • • Marivaux (1688–1763) Montesquieu (1689–1755) Voltaire (1694–1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 .1778) Denis Diderot (1713 .around 1183) 16th century • • • live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Francois Rabelais (around 1483 or 1494 – 1553) Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585) Louise Labé (a.1784) Beaumarchais (1732 .Appendices Appendix A.

1974) André Breton (1896 .1880) Jules Verne (1828 .1918) 20th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paul Claudel (1868 .1998) Georges Perec (1936 .1902) Paul Verlaine (1844 .1896) Henri Bergson (1859 .1976) Raymond Queneau (1903 .1970) Marcel Pagnol (1895 .1955) Marcel Proust (1871 .1848) Honoré de Balzac (1799 .1885) Alexandre Dumas (1802 .1850) Victor Hugo (1802 .1918) Jean Cocteau (1892 .1941) Edmond Rostand (1868 .1876) Alfred de Musset (1810 .1897) Emile Zola (1840 .02 • List of authors live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .1922) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 .1980) Robert Merle (1908 .1976) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 .19th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • François-René de Chateaubriand (1768 .1963) Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894 .1977) André Malraux (1901 .1905) Alphonse Daudet (1840 .1857) Charles Baudelaire (1821 .1961) Jean Giono (1895 .1867) Gustave Flaubert (1821 .1966) Jacques Prévert (1900 . Appendices Appendix A.1982) Links List of French authors in the French Wikipedia.2004) Nicolas Bouvier (1929 .1870) Prosper Mérimée (1803 .1870) George Sand (1804 .

03 • Nations of the world Les pays du monde (Nations of the World) A French l'Afghanistan (m) l'Afrique du Sud (f) l'Albanie (f) l'Algérie (f) l'Allemagne (f) Andorre (f) l'Angleterre (f) l'Angola (f) l'Arabie saoudite (f) l'Argentine (f) l'Arménie (f) Aruba l'Australie (f) l'Autriche (f) l'Azerbaïdjan (f) English Afghanistan South Africa Albania Algeria Germany Andorra England Angola Saudi Arabia Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Antigua-et-Barbuda (m) Antigua and Barbuda .Appendices Appendix A.

B French le Bahreïn le Bangladesh la Barbade la Belgique le Belize le Bénin le Bhoutan la Biélorussie la Birmanie la Bolivie le Botswana le Brésil le Brunéi la Bulgarie le Burundi English Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Belarus Burma Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burundi les Bahamas (f) The Bahamas le Burkina-Faso Burkina Faso .

C French le Cambodge le Cameroun le Canada le Cap-Vert le Chili la Chine Chypre (f) la Colombie les Comores (f) le Congo English Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chile China Cyprus Columbia Comores Congo la Corée du Nord North Korea la Corée du Sud South Korea le Costa Rica la Côte d'Ivoire la Croatie Cuba Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba D French Djibouti English Djibouti le Danemark Denmark la Dominique Dominica .

E French l'Écosse (f) l'Égypte (f) les Émirats arabes unis (m) l'Équateur (m) l'Érythrée (f) l'Espagne (f) l'Estonie (f) les Étas-Unis (m) l'Éthiopie (f) Scotland Egypt The United Arab Emirates Equador Eritrea Spain Estonia The United States Ethiopia English F French English les Fidji (f) Fiji la Finlande Finland la France France G French le Gabon la Gambie la Géorgie le Ghana la Grèce la Grenade le Guatemala la Guinée la Guinée-Bissao la Guyana English Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guniea Guinea-Bissau Guyana la Guinée-équatoriale Equatorial Guinea .

H French Haïti la Hongrie English Haiti Hungary le Honduras Honduras I French l'Île Maurice (f) les Îles Cook (f) les Îles Marshall (f) les Îles Salomon (f) l'Inde (f) l'Indonésie (f) l'Iran (m) l'Iraq/l'Irak (m) l'Irlande (f) l'Islande (f) Israël (m) l'Italie (f) English Mauritius Cook Islands Marshall Islands Solomon Islands India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Iceland Israel Italy J French le Japon English Japan la Jamaïque Jamaica la Jordanie Jordan .

K French le Kenya Kiribati (f) le Koweït English Kenya Kiribati Kuwait le Kazakhstan Kazakhstan le Kirghizstan Kyrgyzstan L French le Laos le Lesotho la Lettonie le Liban le Libéria la Libye la Lituanie English Laos Lesotho Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein le Luxembourg Luxembourg .

M French la Macédoine la Malaisie le Malawi le Mali Malte le Maroc la Mauritanie le Mexique la Micronésie la Moldavie Monaco la Mongolie English Macedonia Malaysia Malawi Mali Malta Morocco Mauritania Mexico Micronesia Moldavia Monaco Mongolia Madagascar (f) Madagascar les Maldives (f) The Maldives le Mozambique Mozambique N French la Namibie la Nauru le Népal le Nicaragua le Niger le Nigeria la Norvège English Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway la Nouvelle-Zélande New Zealand .

O French l'Oman (m) English Oman l'Ouganda (m) Uganda l'Ouzbékistan Uzbekistan P French le Pakistan le Panama le Paraguay les Pays-Bas (m) le Pays de Galles (m) le Pérou les Philippines (f) la Pologne la Polynésie français le Portugal English Pakistan Panama Paraguay The Netherlands Wales Peru The Philippines Poland French Polynesia Portugal la Papouaise-Nouvelle-Guinée Papua New Guinea Q French English le Qatar Qatar R .

French English la République centrafricaine Central African Republic la République dominicaine Dominican Republic la République tchèque la Roumanie le Royaume-Uni la Russie le Rwanda Czech Republic Romania The United Kingdom Russia Rwanda S French Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès (m) Sainte-Lucie (f) Saint-Marin (m) le Saint-Siège (le Vatican) Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines (m) le Salvador les Samoa (f) Sao Tomé et Principe (m) le Sénégal les Seychelles (f) la Sierra Leone Singapour la Slovaquie la Slovénie la Somalie le Soudan le Sri Lanka la Suède la Suisse le Surinam le Swaziland la Syrie Saint Lucia San Marino The Holy See (The Vatican) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines El Salvador Samoa Sao Tomé and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Somalia Sudan Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Surinam Swaziland Syria English Saint Kitts and Nevis .

T
French la Tanzanie le Tchad la Thaïlande le Togo les Tonga (f) la Tunisie le Turkménistan la Turquie Tuvalu English Tanzania Chad Thailand Togo Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Tuvalu le Tadjikistan (m) Tajikistan

Trinité-et-Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

U
French l'Ukraine (f) English Ukraine

l'Uruguay (m) Uruguay

V
French Vanuatu le Vatican English Vanuatu The Vatican

le Venezuela Venezuela le Viêt-Nam Vietnam

W
[None]

X
[None]

Y
le Yémen la Yougoslavie (m) Yemen Yugoslavia

Z
French la Zambie English Zambia Appendices

le Zimbabwe Zimbabwe

Appendix A.03 • Nations of the world
live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question

Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
TravelWiki phrase book

V: Greetings
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi./Bye. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grandNot much. (lit. no big-thing) chose.

live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •311 kb •
help)

How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal)

Titles
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. Pronunciation English, Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyur Mr., Sir. M. Plural Messieurs. mehsyur Gentlemen. Singular Madame mahdahmn Mrs., Ma'am. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle mahdmwoizell Miss, Young lady Plural Mesdemoiselles M maydmwahzell Young ladies

V: Courtesy
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. (Lit: If you please.) Please S'il vous plaît. (formal). Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). De rien. (Lit: Of nothing.) (Lit: Not of what.) (No Pas de quoi. problem.) You're welcome. Je t'en prie. shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal)

V: Good-bye
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. Hi./Bye. (informal) Au revoir. Good-bye. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain. See you tomorrow. Tomorrow) Au revoir, à Bye, see you demain. tomorrow. À tout à l'heure. See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. See you soon. ah byantoe Ciao Bye. chow (Italian)

V: Asking for the day/date/time
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day, Date, Time • Demander le jour, la date, le temps Asking for the day. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day]. Asking for the date. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. Asking for the time. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s). It is [number] hours. eelay [nombre] er

1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5

Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
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Appendices

Appendix A.05 • Slang
Notes on how to use slang
Foreign speakers
It is important to note that, as a foreigner, your use of slang will often be received as cute or funny, depending greatly upon your overall fluency in spoken French. To understand this, think on how it would sound to you if a foreigner—with a strong accent and odd rythym of speech—came up to you and said "Dude, what a sketchyass hater that bizz-natch was, I totally was just like 'fuck off o-sheezy'". Therefore, no matter how much slang you use in your native language, limiting your use of slang in French (proportionally to your level of fluency) will also limit how much you are patronized and giggled at by native listeners. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question

Slang: consistency & style
To use slang effeciently, it is important to maintain a consistency of style. Mixing styles might sound like saying: "Thy face, it is quite finely rawkin'".
• •

Avoid vous unless a plural is necessary. Avoid subject-verb inversion in questions. Use rather question formations where there is no inversion or 'est-ce que', only the raised tone at the end of the sentence. When doing this with interrogatives (qui, quand, comment, etc.), place them at the end of the sentence; i.e. "On va bouffer quand?"

Translating 'Fuck'
The English term 'fuck' is exceptional as it can serve as noun, verb, adjective, exclamation, and others. There is no such equivalent usage of any word in the French language. Therefore the translation of 'fuck' into french depends on the corresponding part of speech. Examples noun "He's a great fuck" = "Il est bien baisable" (although 'baisable' = fuckable) "He is such a fuck(er)" = "C'est un enfoiré/enculé/connard/salaud" (insert any insult) "He's such a fuck-up" = "C'est un pauvre con/un raté" verb sexual: baiser, niquer, coucher avec ; insulting: foutre, enculer "I fucked up on my French test" = "J'ai raté/niqué mon examen de français" "I fucked (up) my car" = "J'ai niqué ma bagnole" "He fucked me over" = "Il m'a trahi" "I fucked your mom" = "J'ai baisé/niqué ta mère" "Fuck off" = "Fous-moi la paix", "Fous le camp" (see the verb 'Foutre') "Fuck you"/"Go fuck yourself" = "Va te faire foutre/enculer" adjective "This is fucking awful" = "Putain, ça craint"/"C'est bordelique"/"C'est de la merde" "I am so fucked-up" = "Ça va pas du tout" (mental state); "J'suis totalement bourré(e)" (drunk) adverb "I am trying to fucking work here" = "Putain, là, j'essaie de bosser" exclamation "Fuck!" = "Merde !" ; "Putain !" ; "Bordel !" n.b.: these can also be compounded in French, i.e., "Putain de merde !" "Putain de bordel de merde" (for stringing these together, see the scene in the film Matrix Reloaded with the Frenchman in the restaurant)

Glossary
Notes on Pronunciation: *To feel how R should be pronounced, gargle with water, then try gargling without water. That is what your throat should be doing when pronouncing the R. *The U is hardest for English speakers. The back of the throat should be stretched out as if you see a mouse and are saying "eee!", but the lips should be in a tight circle as if you are saying "ooo".

Look up Category:fr:Slang on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Abruti(e) n., A retard, an idiot ah-BROO-tee Accro n., addict ack-RO Ado n., teenager; short for 'adolescent' AH-doh Apero n., Short for apéritif. ah-PAIR-roh Appart n., flat or apartment; short for 'appartement' ah-PARR Aprèm n., Short for après-midi. ah-PRIm Bagnole n., Slang for 'car' ban-YOLE Bahut n., Slang for 'high school' (formerly for 'factory') Barj' or Barjot

.. the boondocks blED Boule n. to work boss-SAY Boulot n. i. crazy n. and followed by "ouais" or "non" Baañ ('baa' like the sound a sheep makes with a nasalized sound at the end) Bite n. 'ball'.. dick bEEt Blaireau n. food BOOF-fay Bosser v. to eat n.. job bOOL-oh Se Branler v.....e. to become erect. Synonym for 'tête'. to get a hard-on BAHN-day Ben interj. for 'well'..: "Ta boule me manque" = "I miss seeing your sweet face" bOOL Bouffer v. la bouffe. to wobble) suh BRAhn-lay . a rough equivalent in English would be 'face' rather than 'head'. Loser bl-AIR-roh Le Bled n.adj. or 'head' in its slang usage. a crazy person BARge BAHR-joe Bander v... often used at the beginning of a phrase.. to masturbate (lit. litt.

stupid. "go get fucked in the ass") which stands for "fuck off". As in "Je suis crevé(e)" = "I'm exhausted" n. stupid "J'ai été con quand j'ai décidé de sortir" = "I was dumb when I decided to go out" n. exp. hot rabbit) show lah-PAÑ Cinoche n. dear-loh Enculer v. Widely used under the form "va te faire enculer" (litt. Equivalent to "fuck in the ass" ("cul"="ass").Ça a été exp. 'cunt' (as used in UK English).. "to fuck flies in the ass") means "to nit-pick".. To fuck.. ça a été ?" = "How'd your presentation go?" ... A night at the movies SEE-noh-sh La Cité n. creh-vay lah crehve Débile n. Colloquial word meaning 'headmaster'. "enculé" is the participle turned into a substantive.. or adj. eñ-CU-lay .. to burst or explode. : "enculer des mouches" (litt. ça a été" (Yes. crevé(e). exp. Sex maniac (lit.: "J'ai la crève". exhausted. "J'ai cet examen à la con" = "I have this stupid test" cohÑ Crever v. "à la con". la crève. Also. to die. to bugger. 'to kick the bucket' adj. a cold. litt.. it went well. "Quel con" = "What an idiot" exp. the flu. ghetto see-TAY Con adj. it went well) / "Pas du tout" (Not at all) saw ah AY-TAY Chaud Lapin n. in a stupid way. Answers to this question: "Ouais. also a question "Ta présentation. and means "bastard" or "asshole". slang for "stupid" DAY-beel Dirlo n..

La Fac n.g "il est débile grave. slang. Vulgar equivalent of the verb 'faire'. "great". college or university fack Faire la tête exp. litt..g "mes parents sont graves" (my parents are stupid) adv. Synonyms: 'bouder'(to brood). fer lah tet Foutre n. oñ-guh-lay . e. slang for 'to reprimand'. to do or to make. Colloquial word from arabic meaning 'to like'. 'really' . gull Gueuler v.. Exists also engueuler. guh-lay . "severe". Means 'to shout'. avec toi)" = "I have nothing to do (here. slang for 'mouth' or 'face'. lui!" (he's really stupid) grah-ve Gueule n. "Je suis hyper triste" = "I'm really sad" EE-pair Kiffer v. It can be used in "Ta gueule!" which can be translated into 'Shut up!'.. 'Arrête de me gueuler dessus' could be translated into 'Stop shouting at me'. it can be placed before or after it. Sometimes used under the form faire kiffer. "brilliant". When used with a predicate.g. roughly meaning "a lot" or "really" e. roughly means "stupid" e.. e. with you)" FOO-truh Hyper adj. lui!" or "il est grave débile. "sensational" or "awesome" j-knee-al Grave adj. Sperm. "faire la gueule".g Tu me fais trop kiffer. to pout. Colloquial word meaning "genius" (as used in UK English).g "je la kiffe grave!" (I really like her). 'very'. keef-ay Génial adj.. e. v. Commonly employed in vulgar/familiar expressions such as: "Va te faire foutre" = "Go get fucked" "J'en ai rien à foutre (ici.

Roughly equivalent to 'merde' when used as an exclamation. excl. excl. c'est de la merde'. It can also mean 'rubbish'. an exact transcribed meaning of the English phase "four-letter word".. adults use it often.' (This door is out of order. pew-tAÑ Super adj..' (This game is great. as well as the youth. old form for 'pute' (whore). maRed / with emphasis or in exclamation: mare-DUH N'importe quoi exp. Stuff trew-uhk Tronche . or 'The meal is crap' This word has produced the phrase «le mot de cinq lettres». job. work.. That is to say. 'really' . ce qu'il dit" nahm-poRt-UH-kwah Niquer v. "Je suis super content" = "I'm really happy" soup-air Taff n.Macdo Short for MacDonald's.. translated as 'shit'. 'Cette porte est niquée. merde is not seen as vulgar as 'shit'. As a name. Often used in insults such as 'Nique ta mère' (Fuck your mother). 'Je vais te niquer ta gueule (vulgaire)' : je vais me battre contre toi ! e.g.) NEEK-ay Ouais 'yeah' (as opposed to "oui" = "yes") waay Putain n.) 'Ce jeu nique tout. Metaphorically. task taff Truc n. slang for 'to break' or 'to be great'. sometimes reduced to 'Ta mère!'. mack-doh Merde n. 'very'. 'whatever' n. bullshit as in "C'est du n'importe quoi. for example 'Ce repas. Slang for 'to have sexual intercourse'.. 'Putain' is the closest equivalent to the English 'fuck' (see note on 'fuck')..

as an exclamation. TRon-shuh Vachement adj. It can however be used sometimes as an exclamation of surprise or amazement 'la vache! c'est genial ce truc' vah-shuh. Colloquial word meaning 'face'.'tu as perdu!' could be greeted with 'la vache!' or 'mince!' or other such expressions of discontent. For instance . and can be translated in some cases for the English adjective 'quite'. a popular French phrase is 'la vache!' which. vachement is a synonym for "very". slang..n. Colloquial word meaning 'crazy'. For example . . France. vah-shuh-MAWÑ Zinzin n. Literally "cowly". Whilst on the subject of 'vache'.'Il est vachement idiot' could be translated as 'He is quite stupid'. means 'damn!' or 'darn!'.

Fishy. Venère adj. ridiculous." Meuf n. Ouf adj. something that sucks... Woman. difficult. Ripou adj. angry.. shady. from arabe. from louche. Keuf Policeman (not polite) from flic "Il est chelou ce mec ! j'vais le balancer aux keufs.. aggravated. Used commonly in the expression "c'est un truc de ouf" ("that is some crazy shit").. and the two componenents switch positions. from enervé(e). Verlan is. 'reub'). from pourri Ripou = un policier qui commet des actes graves illégaux pl : des ripoux Teuf n. awful. unlike Pig Latin. The word verlan is in itself an example of this.Verlan Verlan is roughly similar to English Pig Latin. girl.. For example. (the d is dropped in Verlan because the final d does not pronounce in lourd). from lourd. A person of Arab descent. gross. chick. pissed off. suspicious. from femme. heavy.. Common verlan expressions include: Beur ou rebeu n. Chelou adj. it comes from the word l'envers (meaning 'backwards'). quite commonly used among young adults and even adults. Not funny. in verlan it will become [2-1]. . if you have word [12]. from fête. Crazy. Party. from fou.. ('Beur' is so commonly used that it now has its own Verlan form. in that certain words are split in half. but do not necessarily retain all letters (due to French pronunciation patterns). Rotten. Relou adj.

quoi. donc. "therefore. also seen in pourkoi. words that end in a silent -s commonly drop this s: such as pas (pa). "that". pour. c'est. dsl adj. pr prep. que.Common Chat Abbreviations There are two general guidelines: • • é can be susbstituted for all homophonic equivalents including "-ais".. and rel. "sorry". koi interrogative. biz c subj+verb. (equivalent of lol. the conjunction "et" (and). laughing out loud). ct subj+verb. ki interr. stronger than mdr. imparfait (past) conjugation of c'est. "laughing myself to death". (equivalent of lol. "it is". "-ait".. pron.. mais. laughing out loud).. mort(e) de rire. c'était. n. . "why". and the verb "est" (third person sing. "-es" (such as in the articles les and des). bisous. ptdr exp.. mé conj. ke interr. conjugation of être. and relative pronoun. so". "it was". "for". "to be").. mdr exp. "bursting with laughter". qui. désolé(e). peté(e) de rire. il faut que. "kisses". dc conj. "what"... "but". fok exp. "that" or "which". "it is necessary". and vois (voi)..

"all". tout(e). also seen in the expression tout le monde.tt adj. from the Verlan form of enervé(e).05 • Slang live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . vnr adj. Appendices Appendix A... angry. aggravated. pissed off.

Under Keyboard layout/IME. however. option option option option + + + + "`" "e" "i" "u" = = = = ` ´ ˆ ¨ Copy & Paste This method can be useful if you are just writing a short text (for example an e-mail) and don't have a computer where you can/want change language settings. è. 6. you prefix the letter with either ` ' " ~ or ^ So. One can change their keyboard configuration from their previous setting to a US (Qwerty) International setting. 4.. To get Ë. ò..Appendices Appendix A. . or ù. this can become quite tedious..06 • Typing characters International Keyboard Configuration Commonly one memorises the alt-number code for inserting non-English characters (below). Start -> Settings -> Control Panel Regional and Language Options Languages -> Details . Just try to pull up a web page or a document that contains the special characters and paste them into your text. but there is a much better method. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Now to form accents. Click Add. ì. 2. to get è. one types " and then E. ù Alt+151 or Alt+0249 û Alt+150 or Alt+0251 ü Alt+129 or Alt+0252 In Mac OS X You could change your keyboard layout in System Preferences->International->Input Menu or with the default qwerty keyboard layout you can use meta keys to create the accents. choose United States-International. See http://www. 5..starr. 3. In Windows XP: 1. The keystrokes for the diffent accents are. choose your native language. For longer texts.net/kbh for more information. one types ` and then e. For instance if you want to create an "`" accent you would press option+` then press the vowel you want to appear under the letter to create à. Under Input language.

Combinations useful for typing in French follow: à Compose + a + ` â Compose + a + ^ ä Compose + a + " ç Compose + c + . press and release the Compose key. for example typing ~a when you mean à. This feature can be used to 'type' special characters. but the point is that you only have to do it once for the whole text and not for every single à that you want to type. then type two characters. Unix and the Compose key If you are using Unix or a derivative operating system (such as Linux) with XFree86. you can define a compose key by opening a terminal window and typing: To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key: "keysym Menu = Multi_key" right Windows key: "keysym R_Meta = Multi_key" right Alt key: "keysym Alt_Gr = Multi_key" To use the Compose key. è é ê ë É Compose Compose Compose Compose Compose + + + + + e e e e E + + + + + ` ' ^ " ' î Compose + i + ^ ï Compose + i + " ô Compose + o + ^ ö Compose + o + " ù Compose + u + ` û Compose + u + ^ ü Compose + u + " Appendices Appendix A.Search & Replace If you are working with a text editor you have the option to search for text and replace it with other text. After you have written your text you replace marked characters (the ~a) with special characters (the à).06 • Typing characters live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . Of course you have to either type in the Alt number code or paste the character. The idea is to mark a character for becoming a special character.

tv5.automatic translate on mouseover of a word (English to French only) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Learning french • • • • • • • • • • • • • About.org) Dictionnaire de langue francaise.Dozens of valuable links. Dictionnaire de synonymes. Translators • • • Google Translator Babelfish Translation : A translation website Google Toolbar . and lots more! French grammar Wikipedia has more about this subject: French language French grammar • • • • • Portail lettres Clo7 French grammar lessons Exercises on French grammar (Dr. Dictionnaire anglais/francais.Appendices Appendix A.07 • Web resources Wikipedia French language external links . Meul Etienne) Online verb conjugator . Dictionnaire francais/anglais. Australia French Language Learning Software Free Online French Tutorial BBC Bitesize grammar TravelWiki Phrasebook Orbis Latinus French MIT French I Assignments MIT French II Assignments Useful information on the French language can be found on the site of tv5 (www. Conjugaisons.com French Language Anne Fox BBC Jump-Gate University of Adelaide.

07 • Web resources live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .Dictionaries • • Lexilogos : all online French dictionaries French dictionary French Culture • • • Le portail de la culture Cortland Ambassade de France en Nouvelle-Zélande Travel in France • • Ministère des Affaires Etrangères français TravelWiki French Administration • Le portail de l'administration Appendices Appendix A.

About the Book Plouhinec .Bucht von Pors Poulhan .

2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. 3. edited several errors. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Permission is granted to copy. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". Lessons: Lessons planning page.Created Intro page.Current Development • • General: the main talk page. 2006 • 2. Version 1.5MB • Previous Editions: • First Lessons Edition (February 18. Hagindaz License and Distrubtion Copyright (c) 2006 Wikibooks. and no Back-Cover Texts. no FrontCover Texts. Downloadable and Print Versions • • • Complete Print Version Complete PDF Version • Description Page • Third Edition • May 05. with no Invariant Sections. 2006) Specific/Detailed Book Versions: • Lessons Print Version • Grammar Print Version • contains tenses and minor pages not included in the general print version • Texts Print Version • contains texts too long for the general print version Authors 1. 2006) • Second Edition (March 18.Created this book! 2. Traroth . Hashar . .

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