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Trigeminal Nerve

Trigeminal Nerve

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Published by Mohit Dhawan

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Published by: Mohit Dhawan on Aug 26, 2010
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08/30/2014

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INTRODUCTION FUNCTION ORIGIN SEMILUNAR GANGLION THE OPTHALMIC NERVE THE CILIARY GANGLION THE MAXILLARY NERVE THE

MANDIBULAR NERVE THE OTIC GANGLION THE SUBMANDIBULAR GANGLION  TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA  WALLENBERG SYNDROME  REFERENCES 
        

CRANIAL NERVES
CN 1 CN2 CN3 CN4 CN5 CN6 CN7 CN8 CN9 CN10 CN11 CN12 OLFACTORY NERVE OPTIC NERVE OCULOMOTOR NERVE TROCHLEAR NERVE TRIGEMINAL NERVE ABDUCENS NERVE FACIAL NERVE VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE GLOSSOPHYRNGEAL NERVE VAGUS NERVE ACCESSORY NERVE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE

INTRODUCTION

TRIGEMINAL NERVE IS ALSO CALLED AS FIFTH NERVE OR SIMPLY CN5

IT IS PRIMARILY A SENSORY NERVE,BUT IT ALSO HAS CERTAIN MOTOR FUNCTIONS(BITING ,CHEWING AND SWALLOWING)

FUNCTIONS 
SENSORY-TO PROVIDE

TACTILE,PROPIOCEPTIVE AND NOCICEPTIVE AFFERENCE OF FACE AND MOUTH. IMP THE POSTERIOR SCALP AND THE NECK ARE INNERVATED BY C2-C3 , NOT BY THE TRIGEMINAL NERVE. 
MOTOR IT ACTIVATES THE

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION,TENSOR TYMPANI,TENSOR VELI PALATINI, MYLOHYOID AND THE ANTERIOR BELLY OF DIGASTRIC.

ORIGIN 

Word trigeminal means triplet with

common origin .  MOTOR the fibers arise from 2 nuclei,a superior and an inferior nucleus in upper part of pons.  The fibers from superior nucleus constitute the mesencephalic root.  SENSORY the fibres of sensory root arise from the cells of semilunar ganglion which lies in a cavity of dura mater near the apex of the petrous part of temporal bone. 

Spinal trigeminal

nucleus--pain/temperature  Main trigeminal nucleus-- touch/position  Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus--propioceptive and mechanoreceptor fibres from jaws and teeth.

Onion skin distribution of trigeminal nerve.

THE SEMILUNAR GANGLION

THE SEMILUNAR GANGLION 
ALSO KNOWN AS GASSERIAN

GANGLION, GANGLION SEMILUNARE  LIES IN THE DURA MATER COVERING THE TRIGEMINAL IMPRESSION NEAR THE APEX OF THE PETROUS PART OF THE TEMPORAL BONE.  THE MOTOR ROOT RUNS IN FRONT OF AND MEDIAL TO THE SENSORY ROOT, AND PASSES BENEATH THE GANGLION.

TRIGEMINAL GANGLION

1

THE OPTHALMIC NERVE THE MAXILLARY NERVE THE MANDIBULAR NERVE

2

3

SENSORY SUPPLY O TRIGEMINAL NERVE

THE OPTHALMIC NERVE

OPTHALMIC NERVE

THE FRONTAL NERVE 1 SUPRATROCHLEAR 2 SUPRAORBITAL THE NASOCILIARY NERVE 1 BRANCH TO CILIARY GANGLION. 2 2-3 LONG CILIARY NERVES 3 POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL 4 INFRATROCHLEAR 5 ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL LACRIMAL

THE OPTHALMIC NERVE

THE CILIARY GANGLION

THE CILIARY GANGLION

THE CILIARY GANGLION 

IT IS A PERIPHERAL

PARASYMAPATHETIC GANGLION PLACED IN THE COURSE OF OCCULOMOTOR NERVE  THE MOTOR ROOT ARISES FROM THE NERVE TO INFERIOR OBLIQUE.  THE SENSORY ROOT COMES FROM THE NASOCILIARY NERVE.IT CONTAINS SENSORY FIBRES FROM THE EYEBALL.

THE MAXILLARY NERVE

THE MAXILLARY NERVE

1 THE MIDDLE MENINGEAL 2 ZYGOMATIC NERVE 3 SPHENOPALATINE 4 POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR 5 ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR 6 INFERIOR PALPEBRAL 7 EXTERNAL NASAL 8 SUPERIOR LABIAL

COURSE OF MAXILLARY NERVE
IN THE CRANIUM--- MIDDLE MENINGEAL IN THE PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA--ZYGOMATIC SPHENOPALTAINE POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR IN THE INFRAORBITAL CANAL--ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR MIDDLE SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR INFERIOR PALPEBRAL EXTERNAL NASAL SUPERIOR LABIAL

ON THE FACE---

THE
MANDIBULAR

NERVE

DISTRIBUTION OF MANDIBULAR NERVE

THE MANDIBULAR NERVE 
FROM MAIN TRUNK---

MENINGEAL BRANCH NERVE TO MEDIAL PTERYGOID FROM ANT TRUNK --A SENSORY BRANCH BUCCAL NERVE MOTOR BRANCHES MASSETERIC DEEP TEMPORAL NERVE NERVE TO LATERAL PTERYGOID FROM POSTERIOR TRUNK--AURICULOTEMPORAL LINGUAL INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE

THE OTIC GANGLION

THE OTIC GANGLION 

IT IS A PERIPHERAL

PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLION WHICH RELAYS SECRETOMOTOR FIBRES TO THE PAROTID GLAND.  IT IS TOPOGRAPHICALLY RELATED TO MANDIBULAR NERVE BUT FUNCTIONALLY IT IS A PART OF THE GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.

THE
SUBMANDIBULAR

GANGLION

THE SUBMANDIBULAR GANGLION 
IT IS PERIPHERAL

PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLION THAT RELAYS ITS SECRETOMOTOR FIBRES TO SUBMANDIBULAR AND SUBLINGUAL SALIVARY GLANDS.  TOPOGRAPHICALLY IT IS RELATED TO LINGUAL NERVE BUT FUNCTIONALLY IT IS CONNECTED TO CHORDA TYMPANI BRANCH OF FACIAL NERVE

THE SUBMANDIBULAR GANGLION

TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA

TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA 

ALSO KNOWN AS TIC-

DOLOUREUX.,IS A PAIN SYNDROME RECOGNIZABLE BY PATIENT HISTORY ALONE.  TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA IN YOUNG PERSON SUGGESTS THE POSSIBILITY OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.HOWEVER IDIOPATHIC NEURALGIA CAN OCCUR AT ANY AGE.

SENSORY SUPPLY O TRIGEMINAL NERVE

WALLENBERG SYNDROME 
ALSO CALLED AS LATERAL

MEDULLARY SYNDROME.  IT IS THE CLASSICAL CLINICAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE ANATOMY OF THE FIFTH NERVE.  A STROKE USUALLY AFFECTS ONE SIDE OF BODY.HOWEVER IN WALLENBERG SYNDROME ONE SIDE OF FACE AND OPPOSITE SIDE OF BODY IS INVOLVED.  EXPLANATION ANATOMY OF BRAINSTEM.AS A RESULT PAIN/TEMPERATURE SENSATIONS ARE INVOLVED.

REFERENCES 

B.D CHAURASIA S HUMAN   



ANATOMY 4TH EDITION BRODAL P. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM---2004 RAYMOND J FONESCA ET AL: ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA EDITION 3 VOL 1 JEFFREY OKESON: OROFACIAL PAIN ED 6 WIKIPEDIA ,THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA.

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