TOURISM CONCEPTS AND IMPACTS

WHAT IS TOURISM ?
Tourism is a socio-economic phenomenon Tourism accounts for the single largest peaceful movement of people across cultural boundaries of the world. Dictionary says: The activity of visiting places for pleasure is tourism

CONCEPT
Tourism as a phenomenon involves the movement of people within their own country or across the national borders. It is composed of three elements, namely, (S. Wahab) ² man (the human element as the creator of the act of tourism), ² space (the physical element to be necessarily covered by the
act itself), and ² time (the temporal element which is composed by the trip itself and the stay at the destination).

These elements constitute the essential conditions for the existence of the phenomenon of tourism. There could be no tourism act without them.

CONCEPT
Elements of Tourism ( Ray Youell) 
  

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Travel between a tourist home area and a destination Temporary and short term visit Use variety of tourist facilties Will undertake activities associated with toursm, including visit for business or VFR Results in positive or negative impacts.

WHY DEFINE TOURISM? 

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First, travel research requires a standard definition in order to establish parameters for research content Second, without standard definitions, there can be no agreement on the measurement of tourism as an economic activity or its impact on the local, state, national or world economy. It was found that there are forty- three definitions for the three terms ² TRAVELLER, TOURIST AND VISITOR. 

DEFINING TOURISM

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Etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin word TORNARE/ TORNUS and the Greek word TORNOS, meaning, to represent 'one's turn'. 

The suffix -ism is defined as an action or process While the suffix -ist denote 'one that performs a given action.¶ 

DEFINING TOURISM

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Two main groups or classifications of tourism definitions:  Technical Definitions: ² ² ² ²

to identify different types of tourist to identify different tourism activities, normally for statistical or legislative purposes as those put forward by League of Nations and then by the United Nations.

DEFINING TOURISM

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Two main groups or classifications of tourism definitions: Technical Definitions: ² ² ² ²

to identify different types of tourist to identify different tourism activities, normally for statistical or legislative purposes as those put forward by League of Nations and then by the United Nations. 

Conceptual
² ² ²

Definitions:

an essentially anthropologically perspective. to understand the meaning and role of tourism impacts

DEFINING TOURISM 

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1910, Herman V. Schullard, defined it as, "Tourism is the sum total of operators, mainly of an economic nature which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region".

DEFINING TOURISM 

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1910, Herman V. Schullard, defined it as, "Tourism is the sum total of operators, mainly of an economic nature which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region". 1936, the committee of Statistical Experts of the League of Nations, first proposed that a 'foreign tourist' is one who 'visits a country other than that in which he habitually lives for a period of at least twenty four hours'. 

DEFINING TOURISM 

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1942, Swiss Professors Hunziker and Krapf Conceptually, tourism is defined as "the sum of the phenomenon and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non residents in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity".

DEFINING TOURISM 

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1942, Swiss Professors Hunziker and Krapf Conceptually, tourism is defined as "the sum of the phenomenon and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non residents in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity". The International Union of Official Travel Organisation (IUOTO) broadened the concept to include various form of business and vocational travel as well. 

DEFINING TOURISM 

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In the year 1945, the United Nations (which had replaced League of Nations) endorsed the proposed definition of 1935, but added to it a maximum duration of stay of less than six months. 1963, Rome conference on Tourism recommended that a new word "visitor" be adopted which define a tourist as "any person visiting a country other than that in which he has his usual place of residence, for any reason other than following an occupation remunerated from within the country visited." 

DEFINING TOURISM 

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Jafari, who states "tourism is study of man away from his usual habitat, of the industry which responds to his needs and of the impacts that both he and the industry have on the host-socio cultural economic and physical environments.´

DEFINING TOURISM 

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Jafari, who states "tourism is study of man away from his usual habitat, of the industry which responds to his needs and of the impacts that both he and the industry have on the host-socio cultural economic and physical environments.´ 

Wanhill defines 'tourism' as the temporary, movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence and the activities undertaken during the time spent at those destinations.

DEFINING TOURISM 

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Leiper postulated that "there are three approaches in defining tourism: economic, technical, and holistic.   

Economic definitions view tourism as both a business and an industry. Technical definitions identify the tourist in order to provide as common basis by which to collect data. Holistic definitions attempt to include the entire essence of the subject".

DEFINING TOURISM 

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Leiper postulated that "there are three approaches in defining tourism: economic, technical, and holistic. 
 

Economic definitions view tourism as both a business and an industry. Technical definitions identify the tourist in order to provide as common basis by which to collect data. Holistic definitions attempt to include the entire essence of the subject". 

Smith, developed a more explicit reference to motivation, a tourist being a temporarily leisure person who voluntarily visits a place for the purpose of experiencing a change.

DEFINING TOURISM 

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According to WTO , tourism is the movement of people away from their normal place of residence and work for a period of not less than 24hrs and not more than 1 year and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the places visited.

TRAVELLOR TYPOLOGY
TRAVELLERS

VISITORS

OTHER TRAVELLERS

TOURISTS

SAME DAY VISITORS

TRAVELLERS

VISITORS

OTHER TRAVELLERS

TOURISTS (OVERNIGHT VISITORS)
RESIDENTS NON RESIDENTS

SAME DAY VISITORS (EXCURSIONST)
RESIDENTS NON RESIDENTS

LEISURE/RECREATION

BUSINESS/ PROFESSIONAL

OTHER

COMMUTERS MIGRANTS

NOMADS

TRANSIT PASSENGERS REFUGEES DIPLOMATS

ARMED FORCES DAILY/ ROUTINE TRIPS

TOURISM ± AN INDUSTRY? 

Robert Chirstie Mill states that 'Tourism is not an industry, although tourism gives rise to a variety of industries. Tourism is an activity engaged by people who travel". 

Wahab, states that "the appellation of the term 'industry' to tourism is justified because of the modern approach to the definition of industry as a group of firms producing identical goods, i.e., which the consumer regards as being substitutes for one another although they may be physically different.

TOURISM ± AN INDUSTRY? 

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According to Roger Doswell there are three levels of tourism which work together:
FIRST LEVEL SECOND LEVEL THIRD LEVEL Tourism policy and strategy framework, the Government Tourism Administration (GTA) Hotels, Accommodation, Catering, Attraction, Transportation Network of supporting services
LEVELS OF TOURISM 

Kaiser has advocated that "there is no such thing as Tourism Industry, but it is a collection of several industries that function separately with various types of links with tourists. These links can be both incidental as well as purposeful, direct or indirect.´

TOURISM ± AN INDUSTRY?

CONTD..

The UN source identified seven industrial areas, which could be regarded as belonging in different degrees to the tourist sector, although for the most part not concerned exclusively with tourism 
accommodation, attraction

management travel agents and tour operators, restaurants, passenger transport enterprises, manufacturers of handicraft and souvenirs designed for visitors and related outlets, agencies concerned with tourism.

TOURISM ± AN INDUSTRY?

CONTD..

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Tourism is not one single industry but an amalgamation of many industries and allied industries. Aviation Transportation (Surface - Rail and Road), Water Transport, Hospitality, Attraction Management (Theme Parks, Monuments) Communication (CRS, Internet, etc.) and Travel Facilitators (Travel Consultants, Guides, Escorts, etc.) come together to form the Tourism Sector.

Leisure The time available to an individual when work, sleep and other basic needs have been met

Recreation Pursuit engaged upon during leisure time

Home

Local Regional National The recreation activity continuum
Daily leisure Visiting theatres or restaurants, sports (as participant of speactator) socializing, etc Day trips Visiting attraction, picnicking, etc.

International

Home-based recreation Reading, gardening, watching, T.V., socializing etc.

Tourism Temporary movement to destinations outside normal home and workplace, the activities undertaken during the stay, and the facilities created to cater for their needs

HOME

TOURISM SYSTEM

Tourism System Source: Leiper, 1990

TOURISM SYSTEM
Regulatory Framework
DEMAND
Domestic and International Tourists

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SUPPLY

Influences on Demand

Tourist Destinations and Facilities

Tourism Impacts

Tourism Intermediaries

A simplified model of Tourist Activity Source: Ray Youell

SIMILARITY WITH CONSUMER GOODS 
 

Customer Satisfaction Profit Generation Service element

CHARACTERISTICS 
   

Intangibility Perishability Heterogeneity / variability Inseparability Lack of ownership

NATURE 
  

Fragile Risky Demand based Seasonal

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM 

Attraction or Tourism Patrimony 
 

Man made Natural Hybrid

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM 


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Attraction or Tourism Patrimony Accessibility 
  

Surface Water Air Space

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM 
 

CONTD..

Attraction or Tourism Patrimony Accessibility Accommodation 


Organised Unorganised

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM 

CONTD..

Accommodation 

Organised
²

Hotels 


Heritage Luxury

² ² ² ²

House boats Guest houses Resorts sPas Paying guest Charitable organisations Others 

Unorganised
² ² ²

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM 
  

CONTD..

Attraction or Tourism Patrimony Accessibility Accommodation Amenities

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM 
   

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Attraction or Tourism Patrimony Accessibility Accommodation Amenities Activities

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM 
    

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Attraction or Tourism Patrimony Accessibility Accommodation Amenities Activities Available packages

FORMS OF TOURISM
INTERNATIONAL
INTERNAL
D O M E S T I C

NATIONAL

INTERNATIONAL

Source: World Tourism Organisation

TYPES OF TOURISM
1. On the basis of Origin and Destination · Incoming tourism
· · Outgoing tourism Internal Tourism

2. On the basis of Movement Patterns · Residential Tourism
· · Seasonal tourism Roving tourism

3. On the basis of Seasonal Character of Tourism · Winter tourism
· · Summer tourism Circumstantial tourism

TYPES OF TOURISM
4.On the basis of the Incentives y Recreational tourism
y y y

Pleasure tourism of Leisure tourism Sporting tourism Business or Technical tourism

5.On the basis of Socio-economic aspects of demand y Self financing tourism
y y

Juvenile tourism Social tourism

6.On the basis of Range y Domestic tourism Or Internal tourism
y

International tourism

TYPES OF TOURISM
7.On the basis of Sociological Aspects

y
y y

Mass tourism Popular tourism Social tourism

8. On the basis of Purpose of Visit y Holiday tourism
y y

Business tourism Common Interest Tourism

TYPES OF TOURISM

PROPOSED BY THE UN (Based on purpose of travel)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Leisure recreation and holidays Visiting friends and relatives Business and profession Health treatment Religion/pilgrimage Other (sports, crews of public carrier)

PURPOSE OF TRAVEL
TRAVEL
BY OBLIGATION
VFR Health Religion Other BUSINESS AND ROFESSIONAL Pilgrimage

FOR PLEASURE

MAINSTREAM, SECIAL INTEREST, ALTERNATIVE TOURISM

TYPOLOGY OF TOURISTS
TOURIST TYPOLOGY

INSTITUTINALISED TOURISM

NON INSTITUTIONALISED TOURISM

ORGANISED MASS TOURIST 
Readymade tour Environmental

INDIVIDUAL MASS TOURIST ‡ Environmental bubble ‡Personal choice ‡Less real experience

EXLORER ‡Independent ‡Off beat track ‡Environmental bubble or safety

DRIFTER ‡Away from all things familiar ‡No fixed itinerary ‡Cultural experience ‡No connection with the industry

bubble Guided tour Little contact No adventure

ENVIRONMENTAL BUBBLE

TOUR OPERATORS E S C O R T

H O S P I T A L I T Y

TOURIST

PERSONAL BELIEFS

CLASSIFICATION OF TOURISTS 

PSYCHOCENTRIC
² ² ² ² ²

Concentrate on self Safe destination Conservative in travel pattern Small problem areas of life Return trip Varied in form Adventurous Travel or discover new places Rarely return to the same place SOMEWHERE IN BETWEEN 

ALLOCENTRIC
² ² ² ² 

MIDCENTRIC
²

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