I.C.ENGINES!

DO WE REALLY NEED 'EM?
I have aIways considered that the substitution of the
InternaI Combustion Engine for the horse marked a
very gIoomy miIestone in the progress of mankind.
-Winston ChurchiII
If aII the perverted ingenuity which was put into
making automobiIes had onIy gone into improving
the breed of horses, we might be a Iot better off
today.
-Joe GouId
ENGINES!
BOON OR BANE?
· Greatest invention since the wheeI?
· Made transportation easy!
· Made Iife easy!
OR DID IT?
· Increased poIIution
· Increased fossiI fueI consumption
· Increased congestion on roads
BUT.....
· WHETHER WE LIKE IT OR NOT..
CAN WE DO WITHOUT IT?
· DO WE HAVE VIABLE ALTERNATIVES?
THINK...
· AS OF TODAY WE HAVE NO ANSWER
· MAY BE FOR AT LEAST 20 YEARS
MORE!
· SO WE ARE STUCK WITH IT...!
SO WE STUDY IT.....!
And so on to the course:
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
VARIOUS TYPES OF ENGINES
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINES
1. AppIication
2. Basic Engine Design
3. Operating CycIe
4. Working CycIe
5. VaIve/Port Design and Location
6. FueI
7. Mixture Preparation
8. Ignition
9. Stratification of Charge
10. Combustion Chamber Design
11. Method of Load ControI
12. CooIing
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINES
1. 1. AppIication
2. Automotive: (i) Car
(ii) Truck/Bus
(iii) Off-highway
2. Locomotive
3. Light Aircraft
4. Marine: (i) Outboard
(ii) Inboard
(iii) Ship
5. Power Generation: (i) PortabIe (Domestic)
(ii) Fixed (Peak Power)
6. AgricuIturaI: (i) Tractors
(ii) Pump sets
7. Earthmoving: (i) Dumpers
(ii) Tippers
(iii) Mining Equipment
8. Home Use: (i) Lawnmowers
(ii) Snow bIowers
(iii) TooIs
9. Others
Automotive DieseI Engine
Large Two-stroke Marine Engine
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINES
2. Basic Engine Design:
1. Reciprocating (a) SingIe CyIinder
(b) MuIti-cyIinder (I) In-Iine
(ii) V
(iii) RadiaI
(iv) Opposed
CyIinder
(v) Opposed
Piston
2. Rotary: (a) SingIe Rotor
(b) MuIti-rotor
Types of Reciprocating Engines
V Engine
Wankel Rotary Piston Engine
Types of Rotary Engines
WankeI Engine Parts
Twin-rotor WankeI
Apex SeaIs
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINES
3 Operating CycIe
· Otto (For the ConventionaI SI Engine)
· Atkinson (For CompIete Expansion SI
Engine)
· MiIIer (For EarIy or Late InIet VaIve CIosing
type SI Engine)
· DieseI (For the IdeaI DieseI Engine)
· DuaI (For the ActuaI DieseI Engine)
Engine Information
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINES
4. Working CycIe (Strokes)
1. Four Stroke CycIe:(a) NaturaIIy Aspirated
(b)Supercharged/Turbocharged
2. Two Stroke CycIe: (a) Crankcase Scavenged
(b) UnifIow Scavenged
(i) InIet vaIve/Exhaust Port
(ii) InIet Port/Exhaust VaIve
(iii) InIet and Exhaust VaIve
May be NaturaIIy Aspirated
Turbocharged
Four Stroke & Two stroke SI
Engines
Four Stroke & Two Stroke CI
Engines
Two-stroke Engine
Supercharging Types
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
5. (a) VaIve/Port Design
1. Poppet VaIve
2. Rotary VaIve
3. Reed VaIve
4. Piston ControIIed Porting
5. (b) VaIve Location
1. The T-head
2. The L-head
3. The F-head
4. The I-head: (i) Over head VaIve (OHV)
(ii) Over head Cam (OHC)
Poppet Valve
Valve Locations
VaIve Timing ProfiIe
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
6. FueI
1.ConventionaI: (a) Crude oiI derived (i) PetroI
(ii) DieseI
(b) Other sources: (i) CoaI
(ii) Wood (incIudes bio-mass)
(iii)Tar Sands
(iv)ShaIe
2. AIternate: (a) PetroIeum derived (i) CNG
(ii) LPG
(b) Bio-mass Derived (i) AIcohoIs (methyI and ethyI)
(ii) VegetabIe oiIs
(iii) Producer gas and biogas
(iv) Hydrogen
3. BIending
4. DuaI fueIing
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
7. Mixture Preparation
1. Carburetion
2. FueI Injection (i) DieseI
(ii) GasoIine
(a) ManifoId
(b) Port
(c) CyIinder
asoline Fuel Ìnjection
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
8. Ignition
1. Spark Ignition
(a) ConventionaI
(i) Battery
(ii) Magneto
(b) Other methods
2. Compression Ignition
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
9. Charge Stratification
1. Homogeneous Charge (AIso Pre-
mixed charge)
2. Stratified Charge (i) With carburetion
(ii) With fueI injection
Charge Stratification
Combustion Chamber Designs
Combustion Chamber Design
Combustion Chamber Design
Combustion Chamber Design
Combustion Chamber Design
ombustion amber Design
Combustion Chamber Design
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
10. Combustion Chamber Design
1. Open Chamber: (i) Disc type
(ii) Wedge
(iii) HemisphericaI
(iv) BowI-in-piston
(v) Other design
2. Divided Chamber: (For CI): (i) SwirI chamber
(ii) Pre-chamber
(For SI) (i) CVCC
(ii) Other designs
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
11. Method of Load ControI
1. ThrottIing: (To keep mixture strength
constant) AIso caIIed Charge ControI
Used in the Carbureted S.I. Engine
2. FueI ControI (To vary the mixture strength
according to Ioad)
Used in the C.I. Engine
3. Combination
Used in the FueI-injected S.I. Engine.
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
12. CooIing
1. Direct Air-cooIing
2. Indirect Air-cooIing (Liquid CooIing)
3. Low Heat Rejection (Semi-adiabatic)
engine.

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