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By Charles L. Riggs,'Ph.D.
and Joseph C. Sherrill, Ph.D.


a 199OTextileRentalServices Association ofAmer-

ica. All Rights Reserved.No pa^ of this book may
be copied or reproduced in any form or by any
meanswithoutwritten permissionfrom the Textile 1130 E. Beach Blvd.
Rental Serv~cesAssociation of America. Hallandale, FL 33009

The authors dedicate this edition of Textile Laundering Technology to LIST O F TABLES AND FIGURES ........................................... 5
Everett E . Harris in appreciation for his guidance and assistance not only
during the preparation of this edition but also the first edition in 1979. Ev ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................... 7
has been a constant source of enthusiasm. inspiration. and personal INTRODlJCTION .............................................................. 9
assurance for both of the authors during these and other TRSA-sponsored l/LAUNDRY CHEMISTRY
projects for many years . Thanks Ev!! An Introduction to Basic Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Chemical Processes in Laundering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Tests of Chemical Concentrations in Laundering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Decergency Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Washroom Test Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Washreom Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Wash Test Piece Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Source? of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25.
Water Impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Water Softening for Laundering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Surfactants ..................................................................35
Alkalies ..................................................................... 42
Other Washing Chemicals .................................................50
Stain Removal .............................................................. 53
Bleach Types and How They Remove Stains .............................. 54
Sterilizing with Bleach ..................................................... 54
How Chlorine Bleach Affects Textile Strength Loss in Cotton ........... 55
Recommended Use of Liquid Chlorine Bleach ............................. 55
Bleach Management in the Laundry ...................................... 57
Antichlor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 .
Sours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Fabric Softeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 .
Chemicals T h a t Control Mildew and Bacteria .......................... 65
Sizing ...................................................................... 68
Soil-release Finishes ......................................................70
Proprietary Finishing Chemicals ........................................ 70
Classification of Textile Fibers ...........................................71
Fiber Names .............................................................. 71
Natural Fibers ............................................................ 72
Textile Labels ............................................................. 73
Common Fibers Encountered in Professional Laundries ................73 LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Structure of Fibers. Yarns. a n d Fabrics ................................. 81
Textile Dyeing. Printing. and Finishing ................................. 86
Prewash Steps .............................................................89 TABLES:
Wash Steps ................................................................ 92 T a b l e 2-1:Degree to which water can be softened-
General Laundry Formulas ............................................... 98 minimum hardness attainable. ppm a s CaC03.......................... 3 0
Item Classifications ...................................................... 104 T a b l e 3-1:Comparison of surfactant types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 0
Chemical Supplies ........................................................ 114 T a b l e 3-2:Common alkaline builders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5
Chemical Selection .......................................................114 T a b l e 3-3:Solid alkaline silicate ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7
Dyeing Textiles in the Plant ............................................. 119 T a b l e 4-1:Effect of chlorine bleach on general soil removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
8/SAFE HANDLING O F WASHROOM CHEMICALS T a b l e 4-2:Effect of available chlorine solutions on cotton fabric .......... 55
Chemical Handling ....................................................... 121 T a b l e 4-3:Chlorine bleaches ................................................58
Chemical Storage ......................................................... 122 T a b l e 4-4:Oxygen bleaches .................................................6 0
Hazard Communication Standard .......................................122 T a b l e 5-1:Common laundry sours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3
T a b l e 7-1:Soil classification by item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 .
T a b l e 7-2:Ratio of soiled to clean weight
Troubleshooting Typical Operating Problems ............................127
for various textile classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Causes of Textile Damage .................................................130
Tests for Damage .......................................................... 136 T a b l e 7-3:Sour guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 7
T a b l e 7-4:Very-light-soil formula ..........................................100
Tests for Bacteriological Growth ..........................................138
T a b l e 7-5:Light-soil formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Stain Removal Methods ...................................................139
T a b l e 7-6:Medium-soil formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 .
lO/LAUNDRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT T a b l e 7-7:Heavy-soil formula .............................................-102
Water Pollution ............................................................145 T a b l e 7-8:Very-heavy-soil formula ........................................ 103
Water and Energy Conservation ..........................................147 T a b l e 7-9: Industrial shirt formula ......................................... 107
Air Pollution ............................................................... 149 T a b l e 7-10:Industrial pants formula ...................................... 108
ll/WASHING AND FINISHING EQUIPMENT T a b l e 7-11:Mat formula .................................................... 110
Conventional Washing and Finishing Equipment .......................151 T a b l e 7-12:Shop towel formula ............................................112
Tunnel Washing ...........................................................156 T a b l e 7-13:Printer towel formula .......................................... 113
T a b l e 7-14:Chemical makeup of selected detergent powders ............. 115
GLOSSARY .................................................................. 163 T a b l e 7-15:Liquid sodium silicate formulas ............................... 117
APPENDIX ...................................................................183 T a b l e 7-16:Liquid potassium silicate formulas ........................... 118
T a b l e 9-1:Chemical damage to cotton caused by common medicines .... 131
INDEX ....................................................................... -203 T a b l e 9-2:pH values of foodstuffs ..........................................132
T a b l e 9-3:Stain removal procedure for unknown stains ..................141
T a b l e 9-4:Stain removal procedure for reducible stains .................. 142
What You Should Know About Laundering and Textiles written by P. Eugene
Smith and Pauline Beery Mack. Much of the material in these two texts,
prepared under the direction of the Texas Woman's University, was identical
or based on the same studies a s used to prepare editions of Textile Laundering
Technology. The first edition of Textile Laundering Technology written by
Charles L. Riggs and Joseph C. Sherrill was published in 1979. The first edition
was reprinted in 1982 and 1987.
This second edition represents a complete rewriting and update. This text
incorporates still-valid material t h a t appeared in the previous editions.
The authors have relied heavily on manufacturers, distributors, and suppli- LAUNDRY CHEMISTRY
ers for information on the most recent developments in the textile and laundry
TRSA's Production and Engineering Committee is grateful to Dr. Charles
Riggs and Dr. Joseph Sherrill for their efforts in preparing this volume, thereby

recognizing our industry's need for a comprehensive text on textile laundering he trend toward increased scientific analysis, application, and control h a s
technology. made a n impact on the textile maintenance industry.
Industry members are urged to acquaint themselves with the contents of this Very careful analysis and control of all phases of the washing process
book and to make certain that their washroom supervisors and managers use it have become necessary because of the increasing cost of energy, water, a n d
regularly. chemicals.
New developments in detergents, textile fibers and blends, and textile fin-
Mark Dmlet ishes, a s well a s improvements in laundering techniques, reemphasize the need
Chairman for textile rental business owners and managers to become more familiar w i t h
TRSA Production and Engineering Committee the fundamental principles and applications of laundry chemistry.
This chapter explains basic tests commonly used in the washroom to deter-
mine chemical concentrations of wash formulas and how soils are removed
from textiles.


Chemistry deals with the composition of materials and the processes that b r i n g
about changes in their composition. The most basic materials we ordinarily
deal with are known a s chemical elements. Iron, copper, sulfur, and carbon a r e
examples. The atoms of two or more different elements may be combined i n
various ways to form molecules or chemical compounds.
An atom is sometimes defined a s the smallest particle t h a t can enter into
combination with another atom to form a molecule or a compound. A molecule
is the smallest particle that can exist free and alone and still possess the prop-
erties of the c o m ~ o u n d .
Chemical elements are commonly represented by a capital letter and in some
cases a n additional lowercase letter. This abbreviated form is called a symbol.
A compound is represented by a group of element symbols called a formula.
Examining the formula of a compound reveals not only the elements compos-
ing the compound, but also the ratio of atoms in the elements combined in t h e
For example, sodium orthosilicate, a n alkaline salt commonly used t o
enhance detergency in laundry practice, is represented by the formula
Na,SiO,. This formula shows t h a t the compound is made up of the elements
laundry industry and other industries because of their solubility in water
sodium (Na),silicon (Si), a n d oxygen (0)combined in the ratio of four atoms of and their low cost relative to other metal salts.
sodium to one atom of silicon and four atoms of oxygen. IS u l f u r (S)-sulfuric acid or H,SO,. This important compound is used i n
Laundering chemistry requires frequent reference to chemical elements and
titration a n d laundry washroom control tests. Even small amounts of t h i s
compounds. Symbols and formulas may be regarded a s chemical shorthand.
substance can cause serious damage to cotton and other fibers containing
Some examples of elements a n d their symbols, plus compounds and their for- cellulose.
mulas occurring in substances commonly encountered in laundering are: Sodium hydrosulfite dihydrate or Na,S20,.2H,0. A chemical agent used
ICalcium (Ca)-calcium bicarbonate or Ca(HCOJ,. This compound is found
in hard water. It destroys the action of soap through the formation of calcium a s a n antichlor and a s a dye stripper.
soaps (lime soaps) that are relatively insoluble in water and cause soap
specks (insoluble precipitates), a rancid odor, a n d fabric discoloration. Most CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN LAUNDERING
The chemical processes involved in laundering are measured and described
synthetic surfactants are less effective in hard water but may not form insol-
using terms such a s alkali (base) or alkalinity, acid or acidity, neutralization,
uble precipitates.
pH, and titration. These terms describe properties of water that contain acid o r
IC a r b o n (C)-cellulose or (C,,H,,O,Jx. A material found widely in many
natural products. Cotton, linen, a n d rayon fibers are made up almost alkali.
entirelv of this comvound. The subscript x may have a value of up to 12,000
--- -
When a n acid, a n alkali (base), or a salt is dissolved in water, its molecules
and indicates t h a t this combination of atoms is joined end to end to create a divide in part or completely into simpler particles called ions. These ions a r e
long molecule called a polymer. electrically charged. Ions with a negative (-) electrical charge are called anions
while ions with a positive (+) electrical charge are called cations.
IC h l o r i n e (C1)-sodium hypochlorite or NaOC1. This is the active element
of chlorine bleach solution. The chemist defines a n alkaline substance, or a n alkali, a s one t h a t in a
water solution yields negatively charged hydroxide (OH) anions. Alkaline
W F l u o r i n e (F)-sodium acid fluoride or NaHF,, sodium silicofluoride or
substances, when dissolved in water, produce a slick feel to the touch, turn red
Na,SiF,, a n d ammonium silicofluoride or (NHJ2SiF6. These compounds are
litmus paper blue, and give solutions a pH value greater than 7.0.
used in laundering a s sours. Sours are used in the final step of the laundering
Alkalies react with acids to form salts. Sometimes the term "base'' is used
process to neutralize the last traces of alkali from soaps and builders left in
interchangeably with "alkali."
textiles from previous steps in the laundry procedure and from alkalinity
Sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, caustic
occurring naturally in raw or softened water. soda, sodium tripolyphosphate, and ammonia are alkalies. Some of these com-
W H y d r o g e n (H)-water or H,O. Water is the single most important material
pounds, such a s caustic soda (NaOM), actually contain the hydroxide (OH)
used in the laundry industry.
anion. Alkaline salts, such a s sodium metasilicate, produce solutions contain-
Acetic acid or CHJOOH. All acids contain hydrogen. This acid some-
ing OH anions through a n interaction with water, described a s hydrolysis.
times is used a s a laundry sour.
An acid substance is one t h a t yields hydrogen (H+) cations in water solu-
W I r o n (Fe)-ferric oxide or Fe,O,. One of the constituents of rust stain.
tion. The ions in this case are positively charged. These substances character-
Ferric hydroxide or Fe(OH),. This compound is a n ingredient of rust
istically impart a sour taste to water and produce water solutions that turn blue
found in water.
litmus paper red and have a pH value of less than 7.0.
W Magnesium (Mg)-magnesium bicarbonate or Mg(HCOJ,. This substance
often is present in hard water. Like the corresponding calcium compound, it The two general types of acids are mineral (inorganic) acids and organic
acids. Under the inorganic or mineral group are sulfuric, hydrochloric (muria-
destroys the usefulness of laundry soap and reduces the effectiveness of
many surfactants. tic), nitric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric acids. Under the organic group are
O x y g e n (0)-hydrogen peroxide or H,O,. An agent frequently used in the acids such a s acetic (component of vinegar), formic, oxalic, and many others.
The organic acids mentioned above a t one time or another were widely used
laundry a n d in the textile industry a s a n oxidizing bleach.
W P h o s p h o r o u s (P)-sodium tripolyphosphate or Na,P,O,,. This substance
a s souring agents. Some compounds, such a s sodium silicofluoride and ammo-
is used often a s a sequestering agent t h a t chemically combines with other nium silicofluoride, are not actually acids since they don't yield hydrogen ions
agents to inhibit a n undesirable reaction. directly. When these materials are dissolved in water, they produce hydrogen
W Silicon (Si)-sodium metasilicate or Na,SiO, and sodium orthosilicate or
cations and form solutions with distinctly acid characteristics that are useful
Na,SiO,. Both of these compounds are alkaline salts and are used a s for laundry souring.
builders in the laundry formula. Neutralization is a chemical reaction in which a given quantity of a n acid,
S o d i u m (Na)-sodium hydroxide or NaOH. This compound, also known a s either mineral or organic, reacts with a chemically equivalent amount of alkall
caustic soda, is used in some laundry formulas where concentrated alkalin- to form water and a salt.
ity is required. Compounds containing sodium are used widely in the Every laundry makes use of the process of neutralization in the sour bath. In
Figure 1-2: pH of increasing alkaline solutions
this portion of the laundering formula, a definite quantity of sour (acid sub-
stance) is added to neutralize the alkalinity naturally occurring in the raw or
softened water and any residual alkali from soap or alkaline builder used in the - 10.000 times the alkalinity of pH 7
laundering operation.
pHis the term applied to a scale of values designating the degree of acidity or
alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale runs from zero to 14.
The middle point on the pH scale, 7.0, represents the neutral point. At this
neutral point the number of hydrogen (H+) cations and hydroxide (OH-) anions
is equal. A substance with a pH of 7.0 is considered neutral, since it is neither
acid nor alkaline.
As the pH value of a substance drops below 7.0, the concentration of hydrogen
cations increases. The greater the number of hydrogen cations, the lower the
DHvalue. Conversely, a s a substance increases in hydroxide anions, the higher
the pH value.
pH scales are logarithmic in character. For example, a solution a t pH 11is
ten times more alkaline than a pH 10 solution and 10,000 times more alkaline
than a pH 7 neutral solution a s illustrated in Figures 1-1 and 1-2.

- 1,000 times the alkalinity of pH 7

Figure 4-4: Acidity and alkalinity of water solutions

- 100 times the alkalinity of p H 7

0 Alkalinity - Neutral solution
B Pure Water
El Acidity


Historically, laundering chemical use has been based on the amount of supp-
lies needed to launder 100 pounds of textiles. Supplies are added a t recom-
mended lev& by sing calibrztcd measuring scoops, premeasured packages,
or controlled injection.
To determine if the proper supplies have been added, samples of the water
drained from a bath are titrated to test the amount of a chemical present in per-
cent or parts per ndlion (ppm) of the total water present in the bath.
It's important to note that inconsistent results are often seen from one ma-
chine to another. Two factors are responsible for these inconsistencies:
1. The amount of water (pounds) used to launder 100 pounds of textiles, or the
fabric-to-liquor ratio, changes based on the design of the washer (e.g.,
amount of clearance between cylinder and shell), water level setting, fiber
content of the textiles, and mechanical problems (e.g., leaking fill or dump
2. Some chemicals are consumed during the bath, and titration values change
pH value
with the,consumption. In many cases, the consumption amount will change
with time and/or temperature.
Titration and pH tests are used to describe alkaline solutions. A simple expla-
nation for both is that the titration value indicates the total amount of alkali B Neutralizing. Most soils are acidic in nature. The action of alkalies neg-
present while t h e p H valueindicates the intensity of the alkaline solution. The tralizes these acids.
two values are related to each other only when the chemical elements of the H Dissolving. Soluble soils are removed by the solvent action of water. T h e
alkali are known. This concept is explained in more detail in Chapter 3. solubility of many soils is increased by high temperature, high pH, and t h e
Titrationis an analytical procedure used to determine the amount of acertain presence of washing compounds.
chemical substance in a solution. H Saponifying. Organic fats and oils can react with the alkalies used in
The amount of the substance is determined by measuring the volume of a washing. This reaction-saponification-forms soaps that are more water
standard solution (a solution containing an accurately known amount of soluble than are the fats and oils. The soaps formed by saponification also
chemicals) required for complete reaction. help remove other soils from textiles.
Titrations are rapid and convenient. They can be used in the laundry wash- Emulsifying. Mineral oils and greases can't be saponified. These soils
room to determine: must be removed through the action of the alkali and/or surfactant which
H the active and total alkalinity (sodium oxide) in the suds and rinse waters. breaks the globules of mineral oil into very small particles that are sur-
H the hardness and bicarbonate alkalinity of the incoming water and of sof- rounded by the emulsifying agent. Once emulsified and dispersed in t h e
tened water, and water, mineral oils are removed by dilution.
Ithe percentage of available chlorine in chlorine bleach solutions. Deflocculating. Solid soils such as carbon, dust, earth, and clay must b e
The pHof a solution can be determined in a number of ways. The most com- broken down into smaller particles-deflocculated or peptized-dispersed,
mon way is with a n acid-base indicator, which is an organic dye exhibiting a and removed. Surfactants and complex phosphates shorten the amount of
certain color through one range of pH (either acid or alkaline) and another time necessary to release solid soil from textiles.
color through another range. H Suspending a n d p r e v e n t i n g redeposition. Once soils are removed a n d
Acid-base indicators such a s phenolphthalein, methyl orange, and methyl dispersed, they must remain so until rinsed away. Alkali and/or surfactants
purple show rather distinct and abrupt changes of color a t a certain pH value keep the soil suspended in the water. Poor suspending power allows the soil
and are commonly used for acid-alkali titrations in general laundry practice. to redeposit on textiles, frequently in the form of specks or overall graying.
Phenolphthalein is colorless below pH 8.3 and becomes a reddish violet color The effectiveness of these eight processes is controlled by varying four fac-
at higher pH values. Methyl orange is rose red below pH 3.0 and turns a yellow tors of the washing process:
color from pH 4.6 upward. Methyl purple is purple below pH 4.8 and turns green 1. mechanical action,
at pH 5.4 and above. 2. chemical type and concentration,
With other acid-base indicators, the color of the indicator in a solution of un- 3. temperature, and
known pH is compared with the colors of a set of standards. The pH of the solu- 4. time.
tion can be found by matching the color of the solution of unknown pH with one Detergency doesn't work without mechanical action. Regardless of time,
of the colors in the set of standards. washing temperature, and detergent composition and concentration, soil won't
Other methods for measuring pH values-electronic pH meters and paper be removed from the fabric until mechanical action is applied in the presence of
pH testers-will be discussed in later sections. water, allowing loosened soil to be removed by dilution.
Mechanical action provides the movement of the textiles in the washing
THE DETERGENCY FUNCTION cylinder and the flow of water through them. For any given piece of equipment,
Eight physical chemistry functions are frequently used to define the detergency the principles governing mechanical action, such a s cylinder and rib design,
function: diluting, wetting, neutralizing, dissolving, saponifying, emulsifying, are usually fixed. Therefore, variations in mechanical action are primarily
deflocculating, and suspending (prevention of redeposition). controlled by thelength of cycle time, proper machine loads, and correct water
fl Diluting. Dilution removes suspended soil from the washer by lowering the levels. Some machines offer variable-speed rotation.
concentration of soil in each bath. Dilution occurs with each drain and fill A second factor is the composition and concentration of chemicals used in
and is frequently monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of rinsing. With the process. These have a key role in penetrating the oil-waterinterface, allow-
conventional washers, when the water is dumped, soil is removed. The water ing mechanical action to free the loosened soil particles. The chemical action of
in the next bath has less soil to suspend. Dilution depends on the total washing chemicals is described in more detail in Chapter 3.
amount of water in the washer for each batch and the amount of water A third factor is laundering temperature. Generally, the higher the tempera-
retained by the load after draining. ture, the greater the detergency. Increased temperature promotes mobility of'
IWetting. Wettingis the penetration of water into the fabric structure. Pene- washing compounds and soil particles by lowering the surface and intcrfhcial
tration is enhanced by surfactants and high temperatures. Wetting action tension and the viscosity of the water. Increased temperature also increases
provides the contact between washing chemicals and soil.
the activity of the chemicals, making them faster acting and more efficient.
Most of the chemical reactions involved in laundering will double in reaction
speed for each increase of 18°F.
The following equipment and chemicals should be included in a washroom test kit. The fourth factor is time,which can be regulated by adjusting the minutes
each cycle runs.
1. T M o n and other testing equipment
W Titration containers, marked at 25 ml
These four factors work together. Their role is thought to be interrelated in
Titration containers, calibrated at 1. 2. 5. 10. 15, 20 and 25 ml the form of a pie. The four factors share the total pie; if any one factor is reduced,
W Pipets, calibrated 0.5 ml one or more of the others must be increased in order to maintain the whole.
W Plastic dropping bottles1,60 ml, containing reagents listed below In addition, total detergency can be increased by increasing any one or all of
W Plastic bottle, 30 ml, wide mouth the individual factors. Excessively reducing any of the four factors can harm
W Plastic spoon, 0.05 g capacity detergency, but increasing a factor beyond the optimum range won't produce
2. General
the expected improvement.
W Long-handleddipper
W Maximum registering thermometer (to 220°F) WASHROOM TEST KIT
W Tape measure A washroom test kit is essential for properly controlling the use of laundry
chemical supplies. The test kit should contain hardware and chemicals needed
3. Reagents'
W Sulfuric acid, 1.0 N ( ~ 1 1(standardized)
to perform titrations, determine pH, and detect residual chemicals in textiles.
W Sulfuric acid, 0.1 N (N/10) (standardized) Available washroom test kits have the accuracy and ruggedness to withstand
IPhenolphthalein indicator. 0.5%solution in 50%ethanol: pH range 8.3 to 10.0 everyday use in the washroom. One such test kit can be procured from the Tex-
W Methyl orange indicator. 0.1%solution; pH range 3.2 to 4.4 tile Rental Services Association of America (TRSA). Subassemblies of the
I Sodium thiosulfate, 0.28 N (standardized) complete kit are also available and can be replaced inexpensively if used up or
W Hydrochloric acid. 10%solution damaged or lost in the plant.
W Potassium iodide. 10%solution
W Potassium thiocyanate, 10%solution
W EDTA (sodium (di) ethylenediamine tetraacetate). standardized hardness
titrantJ1 mg CaC03/ml
Determining water hardness
Ericchrome Black T. 0.5%in sodium chloride (dry) Water hardness is tested by accurately measuring 5 milliliters of water into a
IHardness buffer solution. pH 10.0 graduated vial. Add two drops of hardness buffer solution. Add one spoonful of
Orthotolidine, 0.1%solution in 10%hydrochloric acid Ericchrome Black T. If the solution is blue, stop; the water contains no hard-
W Universal indicator solution, pH range 4 to 10 ness. If hardness minerals are present, the solution will develop a wine red
color. If wine red, add hardness titrant, counting the drops, until the color turns
4. pH measurement methods
W Universal indicator (pH 4 to 10) used primarily for sour determinations
blue. Add the titrant slowly, since this reaction isn't instantaneous. Each drop
W pH test papers of hardness titrant is equivalent to 10 parts per million of hardness expressed
a. Wide range, pH 1O . to 12.0 a s calcium carbonate (CaCO,).
b. Shortrange.pH3.9to5.4.5.0to6.6.6.1 to7.4.7.2to8.8.8.4to9.4.9.1 to10.4, Water hardness in grains per gallon may be determined by dividing parts per
10.1 to 12.0 million by 17.1.
c. Electronic pH meter with standard buffer solutions: pH 4, 7, 10. Example:
30 drops of EDTA titrant are required to titrate 5 ml of water
'The calculations shown on the following pagesassumea delivery rate of 20 drops per
30 (10 ppm CaCO, hardnesddrop) = 300 ppm hardness
milliliter.Note: Not all dropping bottles deliver at 20 drops per milliliter.The dropper 300 ppm divided by 17.1 = 17.5 grains per U.S. gallon
bottles in theTRSATest Kit are standardizedand the reagent is adjustedto compen-
sate for expected variances. Determining water alkalinity
2Manyof the tests require accurately standardized solutions obtainable from TRSA. Alkalinity of water is determined by titrating with standardized acid using
test kit manufacturers, or chemical supply houses.
Tor water hardness determinations, a standard soap solution may be used as an methyl orange indicator.
alternative. Periodic standardization is required to correct for evaporation. Accurately measure 25 milliliters of the water to be tested into a titration con-
tainer. Add four drops of methyl orange indicator and agitate. If the solution is
yellow, add N/10 acid drop by drop while stirring until the color changes to
pink. Each drop of acid is equivalent to 12.2 parts per million of bicarbonate
Example: acid, and 10 drops of 10 percent potassium iodide. The solution will turn brown,
15 drops of N/10 acid are required to titrate 25 ml of water indicating the presence of available chlorine. Add 0.28 N sodium thiosulfate b y
15 (12.2 pprn (HCO; drop) = 183 pprn HCO; alkalinity drops until the solution becomes and remains colorless. Each drop is equivalen t
to 0.1 percent available chlorine.
Determining break and suds alkalinity
Both alkalinity and pH can be measured a t the break (the first wash cycle in
11 drops of 0.28 N sodium thiosulfate are required to titrate 0.5 ml of bleach
which supplies are added). The alkalinity is measured by titrating with N/1 11 (0.1% Cl/drop) = 1.1% or 11,000 pprn available chlorine
(1.0 N) acid and calculated a s sodium oxide (Na20)content.
Either phenolphthalein or methyl orange (or both) may be used a s the indica- To test concentrated liquid bleach, use a calibrated dropper to transfer 0.5 mil-
tor. The methyl orange titration measures total alkalinity, and the phenolph- liliter of concentrated bleach to a calibrated titration container. Fill with water
thalein titration measures active alkalinity (available above pH 8.3). The sig- to the five milliliter mark and agitate. Transfer 0.5 milliliter of this mixture i n t o
nificance of active and total alkalinity is described in Chapter 3. a second titration flask a n d analyze a s described in the preceding paragraph.
Accurately measure 25 milliliters of break or suds water to be tested into a Each drop of sodium thiosulfate is equivalent to one percent available chlorine
calibrated titration vial. Add four drops of phenolphthalein; red color results. in the concentrated liquid.
Add N/1 acid, counting the drops, while agitating, until the indicator changes Example:
from red to colorless. Each drop of N/1 acid is equivalent to 62 parts per million 10 drops are required for the titration
of sodium oxide (Na,O) active alkalinity. Record this result. 10 (1.0% Cl/drop) = 10% available chlorine
Add four drops of methyl indicator; solution becomes yellow. Continue To test dry bleach, accurately weigh and thoroughly dissolve one ounce of d r y
adding N/1 acid until the color changes to pink. Record this result. bleach in exactly one pint of water. Any undissolved material may be disre-
Example: garded since all of the available chlorine will be dissolved. Analyze 0.5 milliliter
12 drops of N/1 acid are required to titrate 25 ml of suds water to the phenol- of this mixture a s described in the first procedure above. Each drop of 0.28 N
phthalein endpoint. An additional seven drops are required to reach the sodium thiosulfate is equivalent to 1.67 percent available chlorine in the d r y
methyl orange endpoint. bleach.
Calculation: Example: 12 drops are required for titration
12 (62 ppm/drop) = 744 pprn active alkali 12 (1.67% Cl/drop) = 20% available chlorine
7 (62 ppm/drop) = 434 pprn inactive alkali
Measuring pH
19 (62 ppm/drop) = 1,178 pprn total alkali The pH of the bleach bath can be measured in the following ways:
pHmeters are relatively inexpensive, fairly rugged, and portable. They may
Determining the alkalinity of the final rinse be direct dial reading, but most frequently are digital. They mav be battery
The alkalinity of the final rinse is determined by titrating a s described above. or line ( 1 1 0 ~operated
) a n d are supplied with chemical buffer solutions for
Titrating the first and second rinses with N/1 acid is usually appropriate. Any quick and continuous standardization.
additional rinses are titrated with N/10 acid. The final clear rinse should yield Aclean probe is immersed into a buffer solution (pH 4,7, or lo), standard-
a titration no more t h a n 120 parts per million alkalinity (10 drops of N/10 acid) ized according to manufacturer's instructions, rinsed with t a p or softened
higher than the plant supply. water, a n d then placed into the bath to be tested. Many of the pH probes are
temperature sensitive a n d require an appropriate adjustment. The pH is
Determining the available chlorine in bleach read directly.
The strength of a bleaching agent must be controlled carefully to achieve opti- pHpapers are the most portable and inexpensive testing method available,
mum stain removal with minimal damage to the textiles. but also the least reliable. A set of pH test papers usually consists of a roll of
Dry organic chlorine bleach is very stable and needs to be checked only peri- wide-range indicator paper (pH 1 to 12) and several rolls of narrow-range pH
odically. However, liquid bleach is unstable in storage a n d should be checked papers.
daily before using or, if this isn't practical, a t least twice a week. To use the paper method, place a drop of the solution to be tested on the
Bleach strength is measured by titration, which can be conducted on the wide-range paper. Compare the color of the paper to the color standards on
dilute stock solution, on the concentrated carboy solution, or on dry bleach a s the paper dispenser to obtain a n approximate pH value.
received. From this approximate value, select the short-range paper t h a t covers the
To test a dilute stock solution (1.0 percent available chlorine recommended), range of the approximate pH. Place a drop of the solution on the short-range
use a calibrated dropper to transfer 0.5 milliliter of the bleach solution into the paper a n d compare the resultant color of the paper to the short-range stand-
titration flask. Add 25 milliliters of water, 10 drops of 10 percent hydrochloric ard for a more precise pH measurement.
The exact ranges of pH test papers may vary with manufacturers. Sample Some textiles retain chlorine even though the test on the rinse water is nega-
tive. Use the same orthotolidine test on textiles; but because of the acidic nature
ranges for pH test papers are indicated below:
of the test, be sure to thoroughly rinse the orthotolidine from the textiles imme-
diately after testing.
Depending on the pH, orthotolidine may also yield a yellow color with oxy-
pH range Standard readabllHy When used gen bleaches. Operators should note that false positive results may occur in the
1 to 12 Nearest whole pH To determine approximate pH presence of certain metals and algae.
I 10.7 to 14.0 Nearest 0.3 pH Break bath (alkaline formulation) Estimating sour pH
10.1to 12.0 Nearest 0.3 pH Break bath (low alkaline The pH of the soured goods determines whether they are ready for finishing.
formulation) and bleach bath This is conveniently measured by dropping Universal Indicator on a section of
I 9.1 to 10.4 Nearest 0.3 pH Bleach bath
the moist fabric. The dropper should not come in contact with the fabric. Com-
pare the color observed on the fabric to a standard color chart.
I 8.4 to 9.4 Nearest 0.3 pH Water testing
1 7.2 to 8.8 Nearest 0.3 p H Water testing
Determining iron accumulation in textiles
The presence of iron in textiles usually results in fabric discoloration and/or
I 6.1 to 7.4 Nearest 0.3 pH Sour bath tensile strength loss.
I 5.0 to 6.6 Nearest 0.3 pH Sour bath
To determ&e the presence of iron, moisten the fabric with a drop of 10percent
hydrochloric acid. To the wet spot, add a drop of 10 percent ammonium thio-
3.9 to 5.4 Nearest 0.3 pH Sour both cyanate. A pink discoloration indicates the presence of iron in the fabric. The
darker the color, the more iron.
Estimatina bleach pH. by- titration
If pH meters and papers aren't available, bleach pH can be estimated. Use the
This test is very sensitive and produces positive results with iron levels lower
than needed to produce iron staining. It requires experience to judge whether
procedure outlined for determining break and suds alkalinity with the phenol- the iron concentration is high enough to be a problem. The test chemicals
phthalein indicator only. Interpretation is based on the fact that when the should be rinsed from the fabric to avoid damage.
titration falls between one and five drops, the pH of the bath is between 10.2
Results with this method depend on the nature and strength of the alkali Washroom test pieces are designed to measure overall performance of the wash-
being used. Orthosilicate and metasilicate range from 10.5to about 11.1for one ing formula. Different types of test pieces are available from several organiza-
to five drops N/1 acid. Milder alkalies, those containing significant quantities tions serving the textile maintenance industry.
of soda ash, will fall between 10.2 and 10.8for the one to five drops of N/1 acid. TRSAl offers a one- and a five-wash test piece. Both test pieces use dyed
While this method doesn't provide a direct reading, it gives a good estimate of swatches that produce color changes or disintegrate, depending on the amount
the pH of the bleach bath. When the phenolphthalein indicator colors the solu- of heat, alkali, or bleach the sample has been exposed to.
tion red, the pH is a t least 10, since the red color begins to disappear below this The one-wash self-evaluating test reveals the effects of bleach, alkali, heat,
level. and mechanical action and is a fast way to evaluate formulas, supplies, or
Evaluating bleach in rinses The five-wash test piece is returned for laboratory analysis, which includes
All of the bleach added to the washer a t the bleach bath must be removed or ex- inspecting and evaluating the dye swatches plus instrumental measurements
hausted in order to avoid chemical damage to fabrics. Tests with orthotolidine of tensile strength loss, whiteness, and grayness.
provide a rapid way to detect bleach carryover. The International Fabricare Institute (IFI)' offers a one-wash test piece that,
Add four drops of orthotolidine solution to a water sample from the rinse cycle Textile Rental Sewices Association of America
immediately preceding the sour bath. A yellow to brown color indicates the 1130 E. Hallandale Beach Blvd., Suite B
presence of chlorine. Higher levels of bleach carryover cause a darker color. P.O. Box 1283
The amount of chlorine added by municipal treatment plants frequently Hallandale,FL 33008-1283
yields a yellow color when tested with orthotolidine. For this reason, all tests of International Fobricare Institute
rinse water should be compared with the color of the supply water test because Laboratory and Research Center
the rinse water can't be expected to exceed the quality of the supply water. 12251Tech Rd.
Silver Spring, MD 20904
after laundering, i s returned to the institute for analysis. The analysis pro-
vides instrumental measurements of tensile strength loss and whiteness reten-
tion, a s well a s soil and stain removal.
The Department of Fashion and Textiles of Texas Woman's University3 offers
a 20-wash test piece for cotton and cotton/polyester formulas that is returned to
the university for analysis. The test piece is analyzed for soil removal (based
upon standard artificial soil), whiteness retention, and tensile strength loss.
Results are compared to performance goals based on soil classification.
Test pieces designed to measure mechanical action are available through
Testfabricst These are self-evaluated pieces and help determine optimum
mechanical washing conditions such a s proper loading. Testfabrics also pro-
vides a wide variety of artificial soil swatches that are useful in evaluating
chemical and mechanical action.

lthough it's commonly accepted t h a t soiled laundry gets clean by a
combination of time, temperature, chemical action, and mechanical
action, t h e truth i s t h a t water is the single most important chemical
used in laundering.
Its role is to remove soil from the textiles by the processes of dissolving and
dilution. Time, temperature, chemical action, and mechanical action serve to
enhance t h e role of water in removing soil.
Water's ability to dissolve a wide variety of substances makes it a n effective
cleaning agent for a large percentage of soils. Most substances are more soluble
in water than in any other solvent.
Detergents and "builders" (described in detail in Chapter 3) have been deve-
loped to enhance the cleansing action provided by water in the presence of
mechanical action.
Water allows the action of the washer to be distributed throughout the soiled
load. It acts a s a wetting agent penetrating the soil/fiber interfaces and remov-
ing the soil from the fabric. Water also carries chemical supplies to and from
the textiles and c a m e s away suspended soil.
Water i s used in large quantities in all laundries. Water consumption per
pound of work processed varies from less t h a n one gallon per pound for light
soils to more than four gallons per pound for very heavy soils.
This chapter describes sources of water a n d the impurities launderers have
to contend with in the laundering process.

Pure water is the logical choice for cleaning because of its universal solvent
action. Pure water freezes a t 32OF (O°C) and boils a t 212OF (lOO°C).
Absolutely pure water is very rare and expensive to produce. It's soft; abso-
3 Deportment of Fashion and Textiles
Texas Woman's University lutely colorless, odorless, and tasteless; and is neutral with a pH value of 7.0.
P.O.Box 22509, TvVU Station Water found in nature is always contaminated with dissolved or suspended
Denton, TX 76204 gases, liquids, and solids.
Vestfabrics. Inc.
Water follows a never-ending cycle. A vast amount of water from oceans,
P.O. Drawer 0 lakes, and waterways evaporates into the air. I t then condenses and returns to
200 Blackford Ave. the earth's surface a s rain, snow, or some other form of precipitation. It runs
Middlesex. NJ 08846
over or under the surface of the earth and finally finds its way back to a n origi- Chlorine
nal source - a lake, ocean, or waterway. Chlorine, especially in bleaches, is a very common ingredient in laundering,
Water evaporates in a relatively pure form, but it immediately begins to pick but it's regarded a s an impurity in the water supply. To meet federal, state, and
up impurities a s it flows through the cycle. Water falling a s precipitation is local requirements for safe drinking water, most municipalities add chlorine to
fairly soft; however, it contains dissolved gases and suspended particles. The the water distributed to homes and businesses. The required chlorine content
level of air pollution directly affects the quality of water falling a s a t the most distant point in the distribution system is from 0.5 to 2.5 ppm. If the
precipitation. laundry is near the treatment plant, the added level of chlorine can measure
Once water reaches the earth, it begins to collect soluble impurities and, in several parts per million. Chlorine content higher than 0.5 ppm degrades many
many cases, exchanges one type of impurity for another. Air pollution in the types of water-softening resins. The level of residual chlorine may need to be
form of oxides of sulfur or nitrogen lower the pH of water falling a s precipita- lowered by a reducing agent such a s sodium sulfite before the water passes
tion - a condition referred to a s acid rain. The acidity makes water corrosive through the water softener.
and able to dissolve a large number of substances such a s iron, developing Iron
higher levels of dissolved impurities. Water containing a s little a s 0.2 ppm iron can discolor laundry. Iron can enter
Water can be temporarily diverted from the cycle and used for drinking, cook- the water a t the source or be picked up from rusty water lines and tanks. Iron is
ing, laundering, or industrial purposes. Water is present in a n almost constant usually a soluble, colorless form called ferrous iron. When exposed to air, fer-
amount, and it's very doubtful we'll ever run out of it. However, water quality rous iron rapidly converts to insoluble ferric iron, which can vary in color from
and location are of immediate concern. yellow to reddish brown.
Water is diverted from its original cycle as either ground water or surface Since the allowable level of iron in drinking water is much higher than for
water. Surface water includes reservoirs, lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, or laundry use, treating for iron in the laundry with water pretreatment or rust
creeks. Surface water is generally replaced more rapidly by water's natural removing sour may be needed. In addition to staining problems, iron can accel-
cycle than is ground water. Ground water falls to earth a s precipitation and erate the action of some chemicals such a s bleach, damaging textiles.
then seeps into the ground and later appears a s springs or remains in under-
ground lakes and rivers. Alkalinity
The amount and kind of impurities in a water supply depend on many fac- Alkalinity isn't a problem during laundry suds steps, but high levels of bicar-
tors, including temperature of the water, turbidity and turbulence of flow, solu- bonate alkalinity can adversely affect rinsing.
bility of the matter it comes in contact with, the size and density of particles it If the water used for rinsing and souring is alkaline, the rinse steps won't
encounters, and the chemical nature of other impurities in the water. neutralize the alkalinity sufficiently and sour (acid) amounts will need to be
Problems created by impurities depend on the type of industry using the water. Acidity
Only impurities of concern to the laundry industry will be discussed in this For proper laundering, the water should be neutral or slightly alkaline. In some
chapter. Water impurities can have a major impact on the quality of textiles parts of the country, water supplies are acidic because of acidic industrial and
washed by a laundry. Since the amount and kind of water impurities vary domestic wastes and, occasionally, seepage into ground water of acidic depos-
greatly, each laundry operator must evaluate treatment needs on an individual its i n deep mine shafts. Some energy recovery devices t h a t introduce combus-
basis. The following impurities must be reduced or avoided by laundries. tion gases into the water can also create acidic water conditions. Small
amounts of acidity can be neutralized a t or near the water source with a suita-
Hardness ble alkali such a s soda ash.
Hard water contains dissolved calcium and magnesium salts. Water hardness
is reported in terms of grains per U S . gallon or parts per million (ppm) of cal- Carbon dioxide
cium carbonate equivalents (CaCOJ. One grain per gallon equals 17.1 ppm. Most natural water supplies contain dissolved carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide
Soap loses its effectiveness i n hard water because hard water turns soap into comes from a number of sources such a s the atmosphere, decaying organic
insoluble curds t h a t have no surfactant properties to remove and suspend soil. matter, a n d underground sources. While dissolved carbon dioxide is corrosive
Most synthetic surfactants don't produceinsoluble curds in hard water, but the in itself, it also accelerates the corrosive action of dissolved oxygen and reduces
efficiency of most surfactants is reduced by water hardness. alkalinity of water. Water with little or no alkalinity can become acidic from
Water softening treatment is usually less expensive than using larger dissolved carbon dioxide.
amounts of detergents. Some municipal water treatment plants reduce the
level of hardness of the processed water a s a service to their users. Some treat- Color
ment plants increase the hardness of the water by adding coagulating agents. Deep well and spring waters are usually colorless. Occasionally, water from
shallow wells will contain significant amounts of color. Color is very common produce poor quality textiles coupled with poor economy, regardless of the type
in surface water and is usually caused by organic compounds from decaying of surfactant used.
plant and animal matter. The chemicals responsible for water hardness are calcium and magnesium
Colored water will discolor all textile products if used for laundering. Colored salts and other less abundant alkaline elements. They're troublesome because
matter is usually removed by coagulation, settling, and filtering -the normal they form insoluble compounds with soaps or reduce the effectiveness of syn-
function of municipal water treatment plants. thetic detergents. The insoluble soaps formed tend to trap soil particles in the
fabric, causing grayness. Also, they tend to oxidize, causing rancid odors on
Organic growihs fabrics. Some types of water hardness cause scale in boilers, water heaters, and
Any water supply t h a t has been exposed to the atmosphere before use can be pipes, resultingin poor efficiency, increased maintenance and repair costs, and
expected to contain organic growths, mainly algae and bacteria (both patho- excessive fuel consumption.
genic and nonpathogenic), that cause clogging, slimy deposits, color, bad taste, Free fatty acids contained in body soil or certain other fatty soils can react
and odors. They may also constitute a health hazard. Bacteria growths are with water hardness, making these soils less soluble and more difficult to
usually controlled by chlorination, while algae growth is reduced by storing remove. Some clay soils exchange sodium ions for hardness ions in hard water,
the water in covered tanks. making the clay much more difficult to remove.
Several types of chemical water treatments are used in reducing water hard-
owgen ness. The most important methods are described below.
Oxygen, which is present in all water, is chemically very active and, therefore,
corrosive. This corrosive action is particularly apparent in water heaters and Lime-soda treatment
hot water lines, leading to iron in the water system and, eventually, equipment This method, used in community water treatment plants, involves adding cal-
and plumbing replacement. Processing water can be treated with oxygen sca- cium hydroxide and sodium carbonate to the water, and then allowing the
vengers such a s sodium sulfite to counteract this corrosion. insoluble material formed to settle out. This treatment method doesn't lower
Suspended matter
hardness sufficiently for laundry use and works only where enormous quanti-
Suspended matter is rarely found in ground water because water is naturally ties of partially softened water exist, such a s in a municipal water treatment
filtered a s it seeps from the surface to the water table. However, following plant. The treatment does help laundry operators somewhat, however, because
heavy rains, shallow wells may contain suspended matter because rapid seep- it decreases the amount of hardness they have to contend with.
age rates allow for little filtration. Phosphate treatment
Suspended matter is very common in surface water - the calmer the water, This treatment involves adding some of the commonly available complex
the less suspended matter present. For example, a lake may have very little phosphates, such a s sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, or
suspended matter on a calm day; however, high winds can greatly increase the tetrasodium pyrophosphate, to the wash load. However, phosphate use is re-
amount of suspended matter. The amount of suspended matter in rapidly mov- stricted or banned in some areas.
ing rivers is usually very high. These phosphates may be a n ingredient in formulated soaps or detergents.
Suspended matter can be classified into two categories: They tie up or "sequester" the calcium and magnesium ions in such a way that
1. sediment, consisting of large particles that rapidly settle out in calm water; the ions are not available to react, rendering the hardness components incapa-
and ble of forming insoluble compounds with or "precipitating" soap.
2. turbidity, consisting of small particles that may remain suspended for sev- Complex phosphates frequently are used in washing formulas a s an aid to
eral days even in calm water. the rinse baths. Adding complex phosphates to the bleach or first rinse helps
Frequently, both types are referred to a s turbidity. Turbidity is the more dif- strip the soap from the textiles and regenerates insoluble soaps t h a t may have
ficult to remove, and sediment is removed in all processes that remove turbid- accumulated in prior laundering.
ity. Turbidity is removed by coagulation - adding chemicals to make the small Complex phosphates also can be used in the first flush bath in diaper
particles floc to sediment-sized particles-followed by settling and filtration. laundering.
WATER SOFTENING F O R LAUNDERING These compounds, acting a s separating agents, prevent formation of lime
The dissolved minerals in water are responsible for hardness. A relatively soaps in the diapers during the suds baths. Lime soaps are likely to form
small amount of hardness won't interfere with good laundering, but most because fecal matter is very rich in calcium salts.
laundries soften water having more than two grains per gallon (34.2 ppm) of Chelate treatment
hardness. Chelates are chemical compounds that tie up hardness components, rendering
The water in most sections of the country, however, has a high degree of them incapable of precipitating soap. Chelates may also be used with other
hardness. Unless hardness is removed or reduced to a minimum, the water will
metallic ions, such a s iron, and are frequently used in textile mill operations a s The useful softening capacity of the resin is expressed in kilograins of hard-
separating agents. ness per cubic foot of resin (kgr). This capacity depends on the amount of salt
used for regeneration and may vary from 20 to 30 kgr per cubic foot. Salt dosage
Demineralization usually ranges from 5.5 to 15 or more pounds per cubic foot of resin. Table 2-1
This method depends on removing mineral salts from water by special syn- shows the minimum hardness obtainable a s a function of raw water hardness
thetic organic resins, simultaneously using two ion-exchange reactions. and salt dosage.
One reaction removes positively charged cations, such a s calcium, magne- The figures in Table 2-1 are based on single-stage softeners. Improved results
sium, and sodium; while another removes negative anions, such a s sulfate, can be obtained by using two softeners in series.
bicarbonate, and chloride. Table 2-1 and Equation 2-1 provide a simple description of the base-ion
Often demineralized water h a s a mineral content equal to distilled water exchange bath process. Table 2-1 illustrates the softening cycle, and Equation
produced from the same source. 2-1 shows how the resin radical is represented a s Re.
Distillation is widely accepted by industries needing water with a very low As the hardness cations in the water exchange places with the sodium
content of dissolved solids, but laundries don't need such pure water and can't cations in the resin material, the elements causing hardness (calcium and
justify the higher costs. magnesium) are taken from the water into the resin bed.
Baseion exchange (zeolite or resin) Resin material h a s a specific capacity for exchanging ions with the calcium
This method is based on the absorption of hardness components, such a s cal- or magnesium in the hard water. When this capacity has been reached, the
cium and magnesium ions, by certain natural minerals or by synthetic resins, material is said to be exhausted; i t no longer h a s the ability to remove hardness
leaving the effluent water free of hardness. ingredients in the water supply. Before it's completely exhausted, the resin
Since this treatment is widely used for laundry purposes, i t is the only material should be restored to its original form a s follows:
method of water softening t h a t will be discussed in detail. 1. Backwash the resin bed a s illustrated in Figure 2-2. This is done by passing
The base exchange process softens water by exchanging the sodium ions of a vigorous current of water upwards through the softener. This procedure
certain natural greensands (glauconite) or synthetic mineral resins with the loosens and regrades the resin bed, holds it in a semi-suspended condition,
calcium and magnesium hardness in water. Synthetic resins are used widely a n d removes any dirt t h a t collected on top of the resin bed during the soften-
because they have excellent softening capacity and are longer lasting. i n g part of the bath. Make sure the water pressureisn't too high or channels
Ion exchange resins are available in a number of forms - natural zeolites, will form t h a t allow the water to pass through without cleaning the resin
synthetic gel-types, carbonaceous minerals manufactured from coal, and syn- bed.
thetic resins produced by copolymerization of styrene with divinylbenzene.
Nearly all of the cation exchangers sold today are of this last type. Figure 2-1: Base-ion exchange (zeolite or resin)

Table 2-1: Degree to which water can be softened - minimum hardness attaina- @
Q- Softening cycle
ble, ppm as CaCO,
(Courtesy of Permutit Co.,Inc.)

Total cation content of influent - ppm as CaCO,

Salt &coming hard water
Ib./cu.fl. 200 400 800 1200

Equation 2-4
+ Ca*'or Mg'.
- CaRe or MgRe
+ 2Nai
Compacted zeolite
-.. . .. . ...
Outgoing soft water
wrth sodium ions
Figure 2-2: Backwashing of base-ion exchange water softener 2. Brine the exhausted resin a s illustrated in Figure 2-3. This is done by intro-
ducing a predetermined amount of concentrated sodium chloride (salt or
cycle brine) solution into the softener. The concentrated salt solution is distrib-
uted over the top of the bed and passes through it. The salt reacts with the
resin, removing the calcium and magnesium in the form of soluble chlorides,
and restoring the resin to its original active or sodium condition. The regen-
eration process is shown in Equation 2-2.
3. Rinse the resin bed to remove the released calcium and magnesium salts as
well a s the residue of unused sodium chloride solution. After these salts have
&??+++-0utgolng dirty water been rinsed out, return the softener to service.

Bound hardness
Equation 2-2
CaRe or MgRe
+ 2NaCI
- Na,Re
+ CaCI, or MgCI,

Zeolite loosened

-coming backwash water

Figure 2-3: Regenerationof resin (zeolite) with brine


. .
.. . . .. ' . . . .
. Incoming brine with
- . 4.
00 . . ' .- 0 . sodium ions
. a 0

...- ..... .. 90:

Available sodium ions
.. 0
'. 0 -
. . .. .
.. . . '.O

Zeolite loosened . ,, F:
and regraded
. . .. . .. . . . b
a .

Outgoing very hard water

everal different chemicals are used in washing or sudsing. These chemi-
cals may be added a s separate ingredients or a s a formulated combina-
In proper chemical terms, d e t e r g e n t s are a subclass of chemical compounds
known broadly as s u r f a c e - a c t i v e a g e n t s or s u r f a c t a n t s . All detergents are sur-
face-active agents, but not all surfactants are detergents.
In the laundry industry the term "detergent" is usually used incorrectly to
describe a manufactured product containing a surfactant and possibly other
additives to aid in cleaning.
Very simply, detergency involves removing foreign substances (soil*) from
any surface. In laundering, the detergent function involves removing soil from
textile fibers.
This chapter describes how surfactants and additives remove soil from
While some soils can be removed from fiber surfaces with mechanical action
and water alone, most can't be. This is where surfactants play a role.
The process of soil removal involves loosening and lifting soils from a fiber's
surface and holding these soils in suspension until they can be removed by
dilution. All laundering baths are a form of dilution.
The main function of a surfactant or surface-active agent is to s u s p e n d soil,
although it also plays a key role in loosening soil.
In addition, surfactants act a s w e t t i n g a g e n t s . Reducing water's surface ten-
sion enhances its ability to penetrate the textile fibers.
How surfactants work
As the name implies, surfactants work a t all exposed surfaces in the washing
zone -the solution surface, fiber surfaces, and interior surfaces of the washing

*In this chapter, the term "soi1"refers to the normal insoluble soils that can be removed
using conventional wash formulas. Soil that can't be removed and discolors the fabric
is referred to a s a "stain."Stains aregenerally removed b y bleaching, which is covered
in Chapter 4.
Every surfactant molecule is made up of two parts, a s shown in Figure 3-1. loving) part of many surfactant molecules plus molecules of oil. The exterior is
One part - drawn a s a rectangular tail in Figure 3-1 -is hydrophobic (water made up of the hydrophilic (water-loving) part of the surfactant molecules,
hating), also called oleophilic (oil loving). The other part - drawn a s a circular which allows the oil to disperse into the water.
head in Figure3-1 -is hydrophilic (water loving), also oleophobic (oil hating).
Figure 33: Oily surfactant complex
Figure 3-1: Surfactant molecule schematic

Surfactants do their main job of suspending soils a s follows.

Without agitation, oil and water mixtures usually separate into two liquid
layers with the oil normally on top. When a surfactant is added to this two-layer
system, the hydrophylic or water-loving portion of the surfactant molecule tries
to enter the water, while the hydrophobic or water-hating part of the surfac-
tant molecule tries to move away from the water and attach to the oil, a s shown
in Figure 3-2.
The other main job of surfactants is to loosen soil from fibers. Mechanical
Figure 32: Orientation of surfactants in oil and water action alone, represented by the tumbling action of a washing cylinder, can't
loosen all soil particles from fiber surfaces because the particles often are sur-
rounded by a film of grease or oil. This film repels water and imprisons the par-
ticles on the fiber's surface (see Figure 3-4).

Figure 3-4: Dirt and oil imprisoned in $extile



Moderate agitation will then disperse the oil into the water a s small globules
surrounded by surfactant molecules, a s shown in Figure 3-3. The interior of
these oil/surfactant formations contains the hydrophobic (water-hatingor oil-
To free these trapped particles so they can be removed, surfactants penetrate Figure 3-7: Oily soil lifted from textile
the oil or grease film. Surfactant molecules a t the oil/water interface surround-
ing the soil particle lower the tension or force separating the oil from the water,
allowing mechanical action to lift the soil particle from the fiber surface, a s
shown in Figure 3-7.

Figure 3-5: Surfactant penetrating oily soil

When the soil particle is free from the fiber, it moves through the washing
solution, where it is affected by gravity and turbulence. Free soil particles tend
to attract each other, causing them to draw together or agglomerate. This
makes them larger and more susceptible to gravity forces, which could make
them redeposit on the fabric.
Figure 36:Surfactant dispersing oily soil It's here that the surfactant's soil suspension properties become important.
After mechanical action frees soil from the fiber, surfactant molecules hold it in
suspension in the washing solution, a s shown in Figure 3-3.
SoiVsurfactant formations such a s the one shown in Figure 3-3are limited in
size by the nature of the hydrophilic part of the surfactant. The formations are
small enough to remain in suspension until removed from the water by the
dilution effect of each successive bath in the washing/rinsing process.
Surfactant classifications
Surfactants are organic chemicals t h a t contain a s their principal parts the
elements carbon a n d hydrogen, along with oxygen a n d nitrogen, and minor
amounts of sulfur. Surfactants are classified based on how they ionize in solu-
tion; t h a t is, how the active portion of a surfactant molecule is charged:
cationic - the active portion i s a cation or a charge;
R anionic - the active portion is a n anion or - charge; and
nonionic - the active portion isn't electrically charged, meaning no
- -

Cationic surfactants are usually ammonia derivatives (nitrogen com-

pounds) t h a t are rarely used a s surfactants for cleaning. However, they provide
the basis for many fabric softeners a n d antibacterials. Cationic surfactants
are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.
Anionic surfactants historically have been themost widely used surfactants Synthetic anionic surfactants
for cleansing; however, nonionic surfactants are the most widely used today. At the close of World War 11, synthetic anionic surfactants came into general
Both of these classes of surfactants are discussed below and a summary of this use because most home laundries lacked water-softening equipment. They
information is presented in Table 3-1. immediately topped the list of detergents used in the U S .
Anionic synthetic detergents are similar to soap in that they are high suds-
Table 3-1: Comparison of surfactant types
ing and excellent wetting agents and can often overcome some of the draw-
backs of soap.
Anionic Nonlonic Calionlc S u l f a t e d f a t t y alcohols. Sulfated fatty alcohols were among the first
widely used syntheticsurfactants. They aremade by reducingfatty acids to the
Solubility Increases with Decreases with corresponding alcohols, followed by sulfation and neutralization. Sulfated
temperature temperature fatty alcohols are excellent surfactants, high sudsing, but poor lime soap
Sudsing Voluminous Low to medium dispersers.
Good to excellent Poor to good
Sulfonated amides. This is a very important class of surfactants formed by
Suds stability
the reaction of the acid chloride of a fatty acid with an amine. These surfac-
Detergency tants are chemically outstanding in acid stability and are very stable in alka-
Particulate soils Excellent Fair
line solutions and in the presence of bleach. They are also good lime soap dis-
Oily soils Good Excellent
persers. In addition, sulfonated amides are effective in the presence of salt and
Emulsifying Fair to very good Excellent are used in seawater detergents.
Soil suspension Fair to good Fair A l k y l a r y l s u l f o n a t e s o r a l k y l b e n z e n e sulfonates. These are very good
Softening Poor to good Excellent surfactants. They were first known a s the "keryl" benzene sulfonates because
they're made from kerosene in reaction with alkylbenzene, followed by sulfo-
Bacteriostatic Very good nation. Comparing detergency capabilities, alkylbenzene sulfonates are a s
Antistatic Fair to excellent Very good effective a s sulfated fatty alcohols and only slightly less effective than soap.
These compounds are stable in acid and alkaline solution and in the presence
of bleach.
Anionic surfactants Once called ABS compounds - for sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate - they
-P are now referred to a s U S , linear alkylate sulfonate. Chemically, the com-
Soap is a natural surfactant t h a t is produced by mixing animal fats (tallow) or pounds have the same composition, but U S has a straight, unbranched alkyl
vegetable fats with caustic soda or caustic potash. The use of tallow soap spans chain, where ABS has a highly branched alkyl group. This change was made
some 25 centuries. in the mid-1960s to improve biodegradability. LAS biodegrades very rapidly
To this day, soap remains a n important surfactant in the laundering indus- while ABS does so much more slowly. Detergency performance of both pro-
try. Sodium stearate, represented in Figure 3-8, is a common soap used. ducts is the same.
Sulfated nonionics. Ethylene oxide condensate-type nonionics, which
Figure 3-8: Soap (sodium stearate) are discussed in the next section, are excellent surfactants, but they produce
unstable foams and often cause turbidity in the cleaning solution. To increase
foaming power and solubility, nonionics are often sulfated. This sulfation fol-
lowed by neutralization converts these compounds into anionic surfactants.
As a surfactant, soap performs very well in soft water. Its good suspending Often sulfation is limited, producing a compound that's a mixture of nonio-
capability produces excellent whiteness in cotton textiles. Also, soap has a nic (the nonsulfated molecule) and anionic (the sulfated molecule) surfactants.
built-in cost-control feature. If too much is used. suds overflow the machine.
Soap has some drawbacks, limiting its use. Acid soils, in the absence of Nonlonic surfactants
added alkali, convert soap to a fatty acid. This insoluble, gelatinous material This class of surfactants differs from anionics and cationics in that no ions are
has no detergent value. It can also trap soil on fabric surfaces, causing graying. produced in solution. Widely used, nonionic surfactants are excellent emulsifi-
Consequently, soap must be protected by a sufficiently alkaline wash bath. ers of oil soils, better generally than soap and the anionic detergents. Another
The detergent action of soap is also reduced or destroyed by hardness in the plus is the tendency of nonionics to be attracted to and coat polyester fibers,
water supply and/or in the soil being removed. Hardness forms insoluble lime which tends to shield the fibers from soil and dye particles. This is an impor-
soaps - gelatinous masses that trap soil on the fabric and cause graying a s tant benefit in the light of polyester's scavenger nature. A drawback of nonio-
well as odors.
nics is that they don't have the soil-suspendingpower of anionic synthetic sur- combining animal fat and alkali) reverts to a fatty acid and loses its detergent
factants and soap. properties unless it's used i n a n alkaline medium. The same problem can occur
The classes of nonionic surfactants important to the laundering industry with synthetic detergents, especially in a heavy-soil formula.
T h e condensate of e t h y l e n e oxide o r propylene oxide w i t h a f a t t y Alkali chemistry
alcohol. The structure of this type of compound made with ethylene oxide is Broadly speaking, an alkali is a substance that neutralizes an acid. Elemen-
shown in Figure 3-9.The value "n" in Figure 3-9is the number of times the for- tary chemistry textbooks define it a s a compound that, in water solution, fur-
mula unit is repeated. In general, optimum detergency occurs with "n" in the nishes hydroxide (OH-) ions.
range of 7 to 15. However, some molecules with large Rs (long fatty chains A solution is alkaline if its pH measures 7.1 and above. Two other tests: Lit-
such as CIBHs7) have "n" values greater than 20, making them excellent surfac- mus paper turns from red to blue and methyl orange indicator turns orange if a
tants but less biodegradable than other types. solution is alkaline.
These compounds are widely used in proprietary products, frequently in The most common alkalies are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium
combination with other surfactants. hydroxide (KOH),and ammonium hydroxide (NH,OH). All of these substances
produce hydroxide anions in soIution, as shown in Equation 3-1.
Figure 3-9: Nonionic, condensate of ethylene oxide with a fath/ alcohol
R(-0-CH2 -CHll),-0 -H Equation 3-f
NaOH ____+ No+ + OH-
F a t t y acid condensates w i t h e t h y l e n e oxide. These compounds also can
be made by the esterification of a polyethylene glycol with a fatty acid. sodium sodium ion hydroxide ion
In acidic solution, these surfactants break down to form fatty acids (a reac- In laundering, alkalies are used to neutralize acids forming water and a salt.
tion similar to that of soap). In highly alkaline solutions, they break down to
form soaps and are no better than the corresponding soap used by itself. Equation 3-2 illustrates this process.
C o n d e n s a t e of e t h y l e n e oxide w i t h a n a m i n e o r amide. These surfac- Equation 3-2
tants are nonionic in neutral and alkaline solutions but can exhibit cationic
behavior in acid solutions.
C o n d e n s a t e of a l k y l p h e n o l s w i t h e t h y l e n e oxide. This is a high-foam- sodium hydr~chloric sodium water
ing nonionic surfactant that is stable in acid and alkaline solutions and has hydroxide acid chloride
excellent hard-water resistance. The structure of this class of compounds is
shown in Figure 3-10. Salts formed when an acid is neutralized by an alkali may be neutral, acid, o r
alkaline in nature a s illustrated below:
Figure 3-40:Nonionic, condensate of alkyl phenols with ethylepe oxide A salt formed by the reaction of a strong alkali and a strong acid is neutral

- 0 I
a s shown in Equation 3-3.
Equation 3-3
NaCl + H20 -+ N ~ + + CI-
Often called ethylene oxide adducts of alkyl phenol, this is the most impor- + H70
tant single class of surfactant in the laundry. General laundry use is when the sodium wafer sodium ch1oricYe
chlon'de cations anions
"n" value equals 9 or 10 and temperatures range from 100' to 180°F. (salt)
ALKALIES A salt formed by the reaction of a strong acid and a weak alkali is acid, a s
While soaps and synthetic surfactants are organic chemicals, alkalies, in con-
shown in Equation 3-4.
trast, are inorganic chemicals derived almost entirely from the earth's crust.
Alkalies and alkaline salts are added to surfactants to assist in soil removal Equation 3-4
and soil suspension. For this reason, they are frequently referred to as builders + 3H,O --b AI(OH), + 3H7 + 3Ci-
or alkaline builders.
Textile detergency is most effective in an alkaline medium rather than acid. Chloride water alumirium acid chlonde
While some detergent processes use an acid medium, practically speaking, tex- (salt) hydroxide anions
tile cleaning normally occurs in an alkaline medium.
This statement is especially true for tallow soap. Tallow soap (produced by
percent for sodium metasilicate pentahydrate. Another good choiceis anhy-

A salt formed by the reaction of a weak acid and a strong alkali is alkaline,
a s shown in Equation 3-5. drous metasilicate, but only where the absence of water provides a concen-
trated product.
Equation 3-5
Na2C03 + H20 2Na' + OH- + HCO; Table 3-2: Common alkaline builders
sodium water sodium hydroxide bicorbonde
carbonate cations anions anions Percent Na,O pH d water solulions
(%concentrationsas sham)
Bullder Fonnula Active' Total*'
1.0% 0.5% 0.1%
Compounds referred to a s alkalies in the laundering industry usually aren't
true alkalies but salts of a weak acid and a strong alkali. In solution, these salts Sodium hydroxide
produce the hydroxide anion (OH-), a s shown in Equations 3-5,3-6, and 3-7. (caustic soda) NaOH 75.5% 76.0% 77.5% 13.1 129 122
Equation 3.6 Potassium
hydroxide KOH - - 55.3 13.1 12.9 12.3
Na2Si03 + H20 -------,
2Na+ + OH- + HSiO;
sodium water &;urn hydroxide any one of orthosilicate KAsioA - - 50.0 13.0 12.7 12.1
metas;licate cations anions several
silcate Sodium
anions orthosilicate NaASio4 59.0 60.8 67.4 13.0 12.7 11.9
Equation 3-7 Sodium
metasilicate Na2Si0, 49.0 50.8 50.8 12.6 12.3 11.6
Na3mA + H20 ------b 3Na' + H2FQ + 20H- (anhydrous)
tisodium water sodium dihydrogen hydroxide Sodium
phosphate cations phosphate anions orthosilicate Na~Sio4.5~~0 440 4.8 45.3 12.9 12.6 11.8
anions (pentahydrate)
metasilicate NazSi03.5~~0 28.2 29.2 29.2 12.4 12.0 11.4
Table 3-2 lists common alkaline builders used in the laundering industry. (pentahydrate)
This group contains alkalies and alkaline salts.
The terms "active" and "inactive" alkali have been used by laundry technol- carbonate Na2C0, 28.7 57.4 57.4 11.3 11.2 10 7
ogists and operators for many years. Broadly speaking, active alkali is the per- (soda ash)
centage of total sodium oxide content available a t a pH greater than 8.3. Sodium
Except for sodium hydroxide, the alkaline silicates appear to have the high- bicarbonate NaHC03 0.0 36.9 36.9 8.4 8.3 8.3
est active and total sodium oxide (Na,O) levels a s well as the highest pH values. Sodium
Both of these factors - pH and sodium oxide content - measure the building tripolyphosphate Na3P3010 4.3 16.9 43.0 9.4 9.6 9.9
strength of a n alkali and reflect the concentration of hydroxide anions (OH-) in Trisodium
solution. phosphate Na3POp12H20 10.0 18.8 24.1 12.1 11.8 11.0
The role of sodium oxide content and/or solution pH in a n alkali's ability to
build or enhance a detergent is very complex. In general, alkalis are ranked by
'Titratable with phenolphthalein
their percentage of active sodium oxide content, which correlates with their
"Titratable with methyl orange
solution pH, as shown in Table 3-2.This measure of alkalinity is often referred
to as alkaline pressure.
Note the sodium metasilicate and sodium bicarbonate listings in Table 3-2. The alkaline silicates
The total sodium oxide content of sodium bicarbonate a t 36.9 percent is signifi- Generally, the surfactant is considered the principal agent in soil suspension,
cantly greater than that of sodium metasilicate pentahydrate at 29.2 percent. but studies show that alkalies help in this role.
Yet no experienced laundry operator would choose sodium bicarbonate over Alkaline silicates, in particular, have excellent soil-suspendingpower and
sodium metasilicate pentahydrate for laundering items such a s aprons work hand in hand with surfactants.
because the active alkalinity of bicarbonate is 0.0 percent compared with 28.2 In addition to helping in soil suspension, alkaline silicates help maintain pH
levels, or buffer a solution. Buffers are ingredients that help a solution main- The solid silicates
tain a stable pH when acid or alkali is added. Some alkaline silicates are available in dry form a s listed in Table 3-3.
True buffers are usually a mixture of a weak acid salt, or a mixtureof a weak Table 33: Solid alkaline silicate ratios
alkali and a weak alkali salt. Laundry alkalies are not true buffers, but they do
provide some resistance to pH change from added acids a s shown in Figure 3-
11. On the chart, caustic soda and silicated alkalies show strong buffering Molecular percent sodium
action; that is, they do not change much in pH a s they're neutralized. Name formula oxlda (total)'
Sodium metasilicate
(pentahydrate) Na20. SIO, 5H20
Figure 3-4 4: Bufferingeffect of alkali, solutionsof industrialalkaliescontaining 0.02%
Sodium orthosilicate
Na20(Courtesy of pQ Cop.) (pentahydrate)
. NaOH -- -.- - -- -. (Caustic soda)
2Na20 SIO, 5H20

~ ..- -.--.-
Sodium metasilicate
3 ~20a. . 2 -.~ .- (Sodium sesquisilicate) (anhydrous) Na,O SIO,
Na2Si03- . - .- . - (Sodium metasilicate)
Na3pQ --- - - --- - - (Trisodium phosphate) Sodium orthosilicate 2Na20 SIO, 67.4'

12 I Na2C03 (Sodium carbonate) Theoretical valuesbasedupon anhydroussolid. Thecompletely hydroussolidmay not be

stable, and significant amounts of moisture may be present.

As stated before, the level of sodium oxide (Na,O) content is an indication of

the building power of the alkali. Equation 3-8 is the chemical breakdown for
anhydrous sodium metasilicate:

Equation 3-8
Na2Si03 -- Na20 + Si02 >- Na20 Si02

The molecular weight of the sodium oxide unit is (2x23) 16 = 62; for t h e+
-- -:-=
silica unit it's 28 (2X 16) = 60. The proportion of sodium oxide in the anhy-
drous compound Na,O SiO, is 62/(62 + 60) = 50.8 percent. This is referred to
as the total sodium oxide content of sodium metasilicate. In the pentahydrate,
+ +
I the total sodium oxide content is 62/[(62 60 (5 X 18)] = 29.2 percent.
I 2 3 While sodium nietasilicate has a one-to-oneratio of sodium oxide to silica,
ML N/5 HCL PER I00 ML sodium orthosilicate has a two-to-oneratio of sodium oxide to silica. The total
sodium oxide content of sodium orthosilicate(2 X 62)/[(2 X 62) 601is 67.4 per- +
cent. As Equation 3-9 indicates, sodium orthosilicate is manufactured by
mechanically combining proportionate amounts of caustic soda with sodium
Caustic soda is also an active builder for soap or synthetic detergent if prop- metasilicate.
erly handled and controlled in the washer. Prior to about 1950, many plants
used straight caustic soda, but this practice has completely disappeared Equation 3-9
because: 2NaOH
Caustic soda is hazardous to handle. Na2Si03 + (Na20+ H20) >-- 2Na20. Si02 + H20
Caustic soda is concentrated and difficult to control i n the laundering sodium caustic sodium water
process. It's easy to over or under use. metasilicate soda metasilicate
To offset these problems but maintain the benefits of caustic soda, chemical
The finished compound, though called anhydrous in the trade, actually con-
companies combine i t with silicates, carbonates, and to a lesser extent, phos-
tains moisture. Taking this into account, the total sodium oxide content of
phates and alkaline silicates. Silicates are available in either liquid or pow-
dered form. Each has its uses, a s described on the following pages.
commercial sodium orthosilicate is not 67.4 percent but about 60.5 percent. Alkaline damage to fabrics
Although i t would seem that all silicated alkalies should produce the same Washing with alkaline builders declined in the 1980s because of a decrease in
results as long a s the break and subsequent baths achieve proper alkalinity, cotton fabrics and a n increase in polyester fabrics.
there's reason to believe that all alkalies don't perform alike. Cotton is more resistant to damage from strong alkaline solutions. In fact,
For some time, operators have used orthosilicate for linen supply operations cotton fabric strength is often increased by alkaline solutions. For maximum
and metasilicate for industrial laundering. soil removal, strong alkaline detergent solutions are usually used to launder
Linen supply processing generally involves oily soils of animal and vegeta- cottons.
ble fat. These soils are best removed by the strong saponification action of the Polyester, on the other hand, can be damaged in strong alkaline solutions.
active sodium oxide portion of an alkali. Therefore, a n alkali with a relatively The fiber surface becomes pitted and/or the fabric loses strength - a chemical
high proportion of active sodium oxide such as orthosilicate is needed. process termed alkaline hydrolysis. All the conditions that lead to alkaline
For the mineral oil-based soils found on industrial uniforms, shop towels, hydrolysis haven't been firmly established, but a combination of higher pH
and similiar classifications, the better emulsifying action of metasilicate plays and temperature causes the greatest damage and, in some cases, can destroy
a significant role in soil removal. For example, studies indicate that shop tow- the polyester fiber.
els laundered with metasilicate show greater absorbency and less redeposition Quaternary ammonium surfactants (quats), which are used to formulate
than those laundered with orthosilicate when both alkalies are added to an many types of fabric softeners, dramatically increase the severity of alkaline
equal titration level. hydrolysis. Some manufacturers of polyester fabric recommend not using
quarternary ammonium fabric softeners on their fabrics. In addition, polyes-
The liquid silicates ter's resistance to alkaline hydrolysis depends on the type of polyester and the
The alkaline silicates listed in Table 3-3 can be made in the laundry plant by treatments the fibers may have received during manufacturing.
combining liquid causticsoda with liquid silicate. Liquid caustic soda X 50per- The best practice is to avoid pH values above pH 11 and temperatures above
cent by weight is a common item, as is liquid silicate. 160°F.
Liquid silicate comes in many forms. The type used in laundries, 8.9 percent Many detergent manufacturers offer formulated detergents that produce
Na,O and 28.7 percent SiO,, is known as 1:3.22 (the ratio of Na,O to SiOJ. only moderately alkaline solutions. These detergents provide excellent surfac-
Liquid caustic soda and silicate can be purchased in tanker quantities and tant action to make up for the work done by alkaline builders in more tradi-
stored. They then can be combined in the proper proportions to produce the tional detergent formulations.
aforementioned silicates or, for that matter, any other molecular ratio required.
For example, 7.2 gallons of liquid caustic combined with 14.7 gallons of liquid Phosphates
silicate and enough water to bring the volume up to 100 gallons produces iden- Phosphorous forms many compounds with sodium and oxygen, all of which
tically the same mixture as one 100-pound bag of anhydrous sodium metasili- are alkaline. These alkaline salts are very useful in laundering and other clean-
cate added to a 100-gallon tank of water. ing procedures, but many areas of the U.S.have banned or restricted phos-
While the mixtureis identical, the cost isn't. Orthosilicate made by combining phate use, resulting in lower levels of soil removal and fabric whiteness.
11.6 gallons of liquid caustic with 9.7 gallons of liquid silicate, a practice fol- The complex phosphates - including sodium tripolyphosphate ("tripoly")
lowed by many plants, is about 45 to 50 percent below the cost of bagged alkali. (Na,P,O,,J, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium hexametaphosphate -
Commercially available potassium orthosilicate is a highly concentrated are used most frequently as builders for industrial and consumer laundry
liquid silicate. Potassium salts are alwaysmore soluble than sodium salts and detergents.
prices range from the same to about 1.7 times as much as their sodium counter- Phosphates sequester the hardness in water, leaving the detergent free t o
parts. Potassium orthosilicate is a very effective alkaline builder. remove and suspend soil. They render calcium and magnesium ions incapable
Potassium silicates can be prepared in water solutions a s concentrated a s 4.2 of forming insoluble soaps, but don't precipitate these hardness elements. T h e
pounds per gallon. Potassium silicate solutions are far more resistant to freez- advantage of this sequestering action is that soil can't be occluded or trapped
ing than sodium silicate solutions of the same strength. For this reason, potas- in the fabric by precipitates if no precipitates are formed. So the whiteness of
sium orthosilicate solutions can be transported, stored, and used a t higher con- whites and the brightness of colors are preserved. Sodium tripolyphosphate
centrations than can sodium orthosilicate solutions. also sequesters a large number of metallic ions.
In order to achieve equal results from potassium- and sodium-based alkalies, For many years, plants using tallow soap have added complex phosphates i n
1.1to 1.5 times (depending on Na,O to SiO, ratio) a s much potassium silicate as the bleach bath to regenerate soluble soap from its precipitated form. This
sodium silicate must be used. This produces a solution with equal alkalinity enhances the whiteness and brightness of the finished product. Even relatively
and SiO, amounts. small amounts of precipitated soap that have become lodged in fabrics because
of minute amounts (1 to 10 ppm) of water hardness in softened water can b e
regenerated by adding small amounts of complex phosphate.
Complex phosphate use is certainly not limited to soap formulas; it also ironing if bicarbonates haven't been properly removed in rinsing or neutralized
enhances the performance of synthetic detergents, suspending soil and help- by souring. The yellowing is caused by the action of carbonates formed when
ing to preserve the whiteness of white and the brightness of colors. the bicarbonates begin to decompose.
On an equal-weight basis, the most effective phosphate is sodium hexameta- Optical brighteners, also known a s fluorescent whitening agents, are essen-
phosphate, and trisodium phosphate is the least effective. tially colorless dyes that, when applied to textiles, papers, plastics, and other
Trisodium phosphate (Na,PO,) is a simple phosphate in the form of an alka- substances, absorb ultraviolet radiation and emit light of various hues. Blue i s
line salt. Its pH is 11.8(at a 0.1 percent concentration), and total sodium oxide the preferred hue for white textiles becauseit complements or counterbalances
content is 24.1 percent. Although its structure suggests it could function as a the yellow tint already present in off-white substances, imparting a greater
detergent builder, its low available sodium oxide content excludes it from apparent whiteness to the materials treated.
general use. Trisodium phosphate, technically sodium orthophosphate, Manufacturers add brighteners to practically all proprietary washroom
softens water by precipitating the calcium and magnesium ions in the form of supplies to gain a marketing advantage. Certain brighteners can produce sig-
calcium and magnesium phosphate. In this respect, it resembles sodium car- nificantly brighter finished textiles than might ordinarily be the case, even
bonate. Trisodium phosphate is widely used in non-textile applications where after a single wash, if added in sufficient quantities.
its mild alkalinity provides a wide spectrum of soil- and stain-removal action. Brighteners generally are absorbed only by cellulosic fibers, such a s cotton.
A few respond to nylon, while others are absorbed by wool and acetates. Cur-
Phosphate-freesequestering agents rently, no brighteners have an affinity for polyester fibers, so most producers of
Organic sequestering agents have replaced phosphates in certain parts of the polyester fiber incorporate brighteners within the fiber during manufacturing.
country where phos'phate use h a s been restricted. These materials aren't a s A brightener's effect is decreased as the fiber ages, which explains w h y
effective a s phosphates, but they're stronger sequestering agents for a wider laundered fabrics differ so markedly in whiteness. This is particularly evident
range of substances. when all-cotton items such a s bath towels are compared with sheets and pil-
Some of these organic compounds are derived from the sodium salts of ethy- lowcases that may have been washed in the same load. The bath towel fibers.
lenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). These phosphate-free compounds are generally all-cotton, have a far greater capacity to absorb brighteners in t h e
very stable under all conditions. Some EDTA derivatives maintain their struc- washing process than the fibers of the sheets and pillowcases, which generally
ture and sequestering power under extreme conditions of heat and alkalinity, are 50/50 polyester/cotton.
conditions that cause complex phosphates to revert to the basic trisodium Operators who purchase generic or raw chemicals can get the benefits of a
phosphate and lose sequestering power. brightener by adding one proprietary chemical to the generic mix, by making a
They are also quite effective in sequestering soluble iron. A number of these stock solution of a water-soluble brightener, or by including a water-soluble
compounds, sometimes referred to a s chelating agents, have similar chemical brightener in the stock solution of one of the other washroom supplies.
structures. The correct point in the wash process to add a brightener is determined by t h e
While chelating agents are very efficient sequestering agents, their main solubility and bleach resistance of the brightener. Most brighteners are best
function in the laundry is to control impurities such a s iron and manganese, absorbed in a high-temperature surfactant bath. Therefore, manufacturers
which cause problems in very low concentrations. EDTAs can sequester (or commonly add brighteners to detergent formulations.
chelate) iron in almost any concentration. The specific EDTA compound The effectiveness of some types of brighteners is reduced by bleach.
selected to do the job depends on the pH of the application - for example, the To avoid this problem, certain warm- and cold-water-solublebrighteners c a n
EDTA best suited for pretreating incoming water is different from the one best be used in a sour bath, protecting the chemical structure of the brightener from
suited for the sour bath. bleach used earlier in the formula.
Consult suppliers for information on the proper concentration of these
sequestering agents, since the amounts needed depend on the concentration of Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)
the contaminant. Soap or synthetic detergent's job in thelaundering process is to wet, penetrate,
deflocculate, and suspend soil. Tallow soap used in soft water can perform a l l
OTHER WASHING CHEMICALS four functions well. Synthetic detergents alone don't suspend soil a s well as
Surfactants, alkalies, and phosphates constitute the bulk of chemicals used in soap does.
the washing process. Other chemicals may be used in small amounts to Early research on soil-suspending products found that certain colloidal sub-
increase quality. stances, notably sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a versatile cellulose
derivative, have the unique ability to enhance the soil-suspending power of a l l
Optical brighteners synthetic detergents. As a result, CMC is widely used as an additive in most
Cotton, in its natural state, is cream white to beige. Even after bleaching, cot- laundry detergents containing anionic and nonionic surfactants.
ton tends to revert to its natural color. Moreover, cottons can turn yellow during Modern laundry detergents are complex mixtures of many substances for-
mulated to provide balanced washing action. By adding from 0.5 to 1.5percent
of CMC to the detergent, synthetic formulations gain soil-suspending power
about equal to tallow soap. CMC alternatives include various long-chain
polymers such as the polyacrylates.
Proprietary products
Some proprietary alkalies combine caustic soda with soda ash in formulations
balanced to provide the same alkaline pressure (sodium oxide content) as the
alkaline silicates. These products may also combine phosphates and other
chemical specialties for a wide spectrum of building performance.
Many laundries use proprietary built soaps and syntheticdetergents instead
of buying basic supplies. These products are compounded using all the ingre-
dients necessary for laundering a wide variety of classifications. Considerable
research time and money have been spent to develop these formulas, so manu-
facturers often protect them by patents.
These proprietary products usually consist of the following:

leach has three roles in the laundering process: removing stains, steriliz-
a surfactant or surfactants, ing linens, and maintaining whiteness.
an alkali or a blend of alkalies, Of the three roles, bleach is most effective in removing stains and kill-
water softeners, ing bacteria and other microorganisms. It does have a whitening effect on cot-
suds stabilizers, ton, but whiteness retention is best accomplished by proper washing proce-
soil-suspending agents, and dures. The whitening action of bleach is simply a fortunate byproduct.
brighteners. This chapter discusses the reasons and methods for using bleach.
The more alkaline products range in pH from pH 11.5to 12.5 and have active/
total alkalinity ratios that compare favorably to metasilicate and orthosili- STAlN REMOVAL
cate. These products rely on alkaline chemistry to break down and remove soils Most soils encountered in a laundry can be removed by a good, bleach-free
from the textiles. washing formula. Bleach has no place in general soil removal because it
The less alkaline products range in pH from pH 9.5 to 11.0and are especially doesn't effectively remove inert dirt that's been bound onto fabric by animal
suited for polyester fabrics to avoid alkaline damage. These products use the and vegetable fats or mineral oils.
most current surfactant technology to emulsify and remove soil and may con- In fact, bleach only removes inert soil when it's used in such high concentra-
sist of a blend of several surfactants. They perform on a comparable level with tions and temperatures and a t such unfavorable pH conditions that it com-
the more alkaline products. Low-alkaline products generally cost more than pletely removes the surface of cotton fibers and severely reduces textile strength
high-alkaline products, but the costs may be offset by prolonged fabric life, (see Table4-1).Even under those conditions, the small amount of soil removed is
color retention, and/or reduced water and energy consumption. probably the result of mechanical action and the bleach's alkali content.
Table 4-1: Effect of chlorine bleach on general soil removal
(Soil removal measured on cotton standard soil cloth produced at
Texas Woman's University)
Bleach Concentrdon Strength Soil
strength (quartsper Ternpercrhrre loss removal
(%Cln) 100 pounds) pprn (OF) PH

1.O 2 100 120 9.6 3.9 7.9

1.O 8 400 160 7.5 100.0' 7.4

'Strength of bleached sample was too small to measure.

Sometimes, however, small amounts of certain tenacious soils remain in the

fabric. These soils are classified a s stains and are most often caused by certain
foods, mildew, some medicines, and dyes. Bleaching is the most effective and HOW CHLORlNE BLEACH AFFECTS TEXTILE STRENGTH LOSS IN COTTON
economical way to remove these stains. Proper control of bleaching is one of the most important factors in minimizing
tensile strength loss in cotton fabrics.
BLEACH TYPES AND HOW THEY REMOVE STAINS Table 4-2 summarizes the relationship between textile strength loss and
There are two types of bleaches: oxidizing and reducing. Both types eliminate exposure to chlorine bleach. These figures have been drawn from a large
stains by removing the stain's color, making it invisible, or solubilizing the amount of data accumulated over many years of studying the role and action of
stain so it can be rinsed away. chlorine bleach in laundering.
However, the two types of bleaches operate by opposite methods. Oxidizing
bleaches take electrons from the stain, while reducing bleaches add electrons to Table 4-2: Effect of available chlorine solutions on cotton fabric
the stain. (Conditions: Textles subjected to 50 bleaching treatments; bleach
Oxidizable stains, which include organic substances, far outnumber reduc- used assayed 1.0percent available chlorine.)
ible stains, which include dyes and metals.
Oxidizing bleaches include: Concentration Fabric
I chlorine bleach, Quarts Temperature sirength loss
I hydrogen peroxide, per 100 Ibs ibpm pH (OF) (%)
I sodium perborate, 2 100 9.6 80 0.0
I sodium percarbonate,
I sodium peroxide, a n d
I potassium permanganate.
Reducing bleaches include:
I sodium hydrosulfite,
sodium bisulfite,
I titanous chloride (stripping salt),
Isodium thiosulfate, and
oxalic acid.
Of all the bleaches, chlorine is the most commonly used in the laundry.
Bleaches destroy bacteria and other microorganisms even when they're used
under less than ideal laundering conditions.
Of all the bleaches, chlorine bleach is the most effective sterilizing agent
available to the launderer. As much a s 99.8 percent of the viable micro-
organisms in soiled textiles are eliminated by a s little a s 25 ppm of chlorine The first and third sets of values in Table 4-2 show the effect of temperature
(one pint of one percent bleach per 100 pounds of fabric). a t two bleach concentrations. The effect of temperature, even a t a moderate
Four other factors help kill or remove microorganisms from textiles during bleach level (100 ppm or two quarts of one percent bleach per 100 pounds), is
laundering: quite pronounced. Strength losses increase from 4.5 to 68 percent a s tempera-
1. chemical action-for example, the cauterizing action of alkali; ture increases from 120' to 200°F.
2. temperature-especially a t 160°F or higher; The effect of pH on fabric strength is also quite dramatic. Lower pH increases
3. dilution-from repeated suds and rinse baths; and chlorine bleach activity.
4. time-of the wash/rinse process.
These four factors cumulatively work to lower total counts of all micro- RECOMMENDED USE OF LIQUID CHLORINE BLEACH
organisms. Textiles laundered in a formula using no chlorine bleach show tensile strength
Textiles are essentially free of microorganisms immediately following pro- loss about two percentage points lower than textiles laundered in the same
cessing in any of the bleach-containing laundering formulas listed in Chapter formula with bleach according to conditions recommended in Chapter 7.
7. However, microorganisms can again contaminate textiles during extraction The type of laundering equipment and the brand of laundry supplies, a s long
and subsequent handling. Methods to deal with recontamination arediscussed a s the supplies are of good quality, appear to have little effect on strength loss.
in Chapter 5. Chlorine bleach, when used properly, will not cause a significant increasein
the amount of tensile strength loss. However, several factors must be carefully
Iquantity and concentration of bleach solution,
hoppers or injectors on many present-day machines are too small to accommo-
Itemperature of the bleach bath, date diluted bleach, forcing operators to use bleach concentrations greater
IpH of the bleach bath, and t h a n one percent. Therefore, all automatic supply systems must be set to prop-
Itime of the bleach bath. erly dilute the bleach before it comes into contact with the fabric. Supply
These four factors must be balanced properly to achieve maximum stain equipment must be well maintained to ensure proper bleach dilutions.
removal with minimal loss of fabric strength. Any change in one factor must be Temperature of the first rinse
accompanied by compensating changes in one or more of the other factors to The factors operating in the bleach bath also operate in the rinses. If all of the
maintain comparable stain removal and control fabric strength. When making bleach decomposed in the bleach bath, the first rinse wouldn't need to be con-
changes, keep in mind that bleaching activity increases when: trolled. But this rarely happens.
Ithe quantity or concentration of the bleach solution increases, In practically every case, bleach remains in the fabric and is carried over
Ithe pH is lowered, or from the bleach bath to the rinses. For this reason, the temperature of the first
Ithe time and temperature of the bleach bath is increased. Each 18°F increase rinse should never exceed the temperature of the bleach bath-160°F maxi-
in temperature doubles bleaching activity. mum. Higher temperatures can accelerate chemical decomposition and dam-
Guidelines for using chlorine bleach in processing historically have been age the fabric, depending on the amount of residual bleach. In subsequent
based on 100 ppm bleach (two quarts of one percent bleach per 100 pounds of rinses, bleach dissipates by mechanical dilution a n d by accelerated chemical
textiles) a t a pH of 10.2 to 10.8 for a period of six to eight minutes a t a tempera- decomposition caused by lower pH and higher temperature.
ture between 140' to 160°F.
This procedure is widely used in theU.S. a n d i s referred to as bleaching in the BLEACH MANAGEMENT IN THE LAUNDRY
clear with no residual soil present. Any residual soil and/or certain other con- As mentioned, the most commonly used bleach in the laundry is a n oxidizing
taminants present in the bleach bath may react with the bleach first and there- bleach t h a t releases free (available) chlorine in the bleach bath. Available
by neutralize it. This reduces the concentration of chlorine actually available chlorine may be prepared in the laundry washroom in the following ways.
to remove stains or sterilize textiles.
Some laundry operators add additional bleach solution to the bleach bath to Sodium hypochlorite
Chlorine bleach is most often made by diluting a liquid sodium hypochlorite
compensate for residual soil. The effects of this practice on textile strength
have not been firmly established. solution. Concentrated liquid sodium hypochlorite, also known a s "raw
bleach," is simply diluted with water to the desired strength.
Overnight soak Concentrated liquid sodium hypochlorite is available in five-gallon contain-
An overnight soak is a n effective modification of the historical bleach use ers; in 15-,30-, and 55-gallon drums; and in bulk. Currently, concentrated bleach
guidelines. is labelled and sold a t strengths ranging from 10 to 17 percent available chlorine.
Bleach is used a t the rate of 400 ppm (eight quarts of one percent bleach per Liquid chlorine bleach is quite unstable. Generally, it isn't wise to store the
100 pounds) or more a t a pH of 8 to 9 for a period of four to 16 hours a t a tempera- bleach in the plant for more t h a n 30 days; storing i t no more t h a n two weeks is
ture below 85°F. even better. Check bleach strength to be sure t h a t each batch received mea-
The increased bleach quantity and time and lower pH are compensated for sures up to desired specifications. Refer to Chapter l for determining bleach
by the lower temperature. When increasing the quantity of bleach for lower strength.
temperature bleaching, use a n antichlor to ensure t h a t the bleach solution is Liquid sodium hypochlorite varies a great deal in strength a s received from
completely exhausted prior to souring. the distributor. In warm weather, bleach supplies frequently don't correspond
to strength (available chlorine) on the container label. For a safe dilution, a
Diluting the bleach one-to-12 ratio is a good rule of thumb.
As previously mentioned, historical guidelines are two quarts of a one percent For a n y dilution strength, the large number is the total units of volume that
bleach solution per 100 pounds of textiles, depending on oxidizable stain con- includes one unit volume of the concentrate.
tent. For a washer loaded with 600 pounds of fabric, the recommended amount When the product is labelled 10 or 10.5 percent available chlorine, make a
is 12 quarts of one percent bleach. one-to-10 dilution. A one-to-10 dilution is made by taking one volume of raw
Since one quart of 12 percent bleach is equivalent to 12 quarts of one percent bleach and combining it with nine volumes of t a p or softened water to make a
bleach, is using the undiluted bleach concentration acceptable? No, because a total of 10 volumes of finished solution.
concentrated bleach solution added directly into the washer causes serious
localized damage to textiles, even during the brief time required to bring about Lithium hypochlorite
dilution. Lithium hypochlorite (LiOCI) is available a s a dry powder assaying 35 percent
Using diluted bleach saves textiles in the long run, especially if the bleach available chlorine. Lithium hypochlorite is readily soluble and provides the
stock solution is being poured through the supply door. However, the supply
same type of bieaching action as sodium hypochlorite liquid bleach. The effective than are the hypochlorite bleaches.
powder is hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from air) and loses strength when In routine laundry operations, organic bleaches are added to the washer in
exposed to humidity. dry form a t the bleach bath. Usually one or two ounces are used per 100 pounds
of load at the same pH and temperature a s recommended for hypochlorite-type
Organic chlorine bleaches inorganic bleaches.
Organic bleaches are relatively recent additions a s laundry bleaches. They're The chlorine bleaches currently used for laundering are listed in Table 4-3.
sold in a stable dry form, making them convenient to store and simple to use. The table also indicates the physical form and percentage of available chlorine.
The most widely used compounds are derived from either hydantoin or cya- Hydrogen peroxide bleaching
nuric acid. Hydrogen peroxide (H202) was used a s a bleaching agent in many laundries
A number of chlorinated hydantoin compounds have been prepared and during World War I1 when chlorine bleaches were not readily available. It's
studied. In general, they have low solubility in water but are very effective still used in textile mills for bleaching fabrics made of various types of natural
bleaching agents once dissolved. The most popular is 1,3-dichloro-5,5dimethyl and synthetic fibers.
hydantoin. Commercially available chlorinated hydantoin is blended with Compared to chlorine bleach, hydrogen peroxide bleach is more effective on
alkalies (frequently phosphates and carbonates) to provide the desired level of some stains and less effective on others. (Recommendation: Compare the two
available chlorine, usually less than 15 percent. on actual stains in the plant.) Hydrogen peroxide is less likely to cause loss of
Four cyanuric acid derivatives are used a s bleaching agents: trichloroiso- color in colored fabric and yellowing. Theseconditions are the result of chlorine
cyanuric acid (TCCA), dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCCA), sodium dichloroiso- retention and subsequent reaction on certain synthetic fibers and textile
cyanurate (NaDCC), and potassium dichloroisocyanurate (KDCC). TCCA is finishes.
the least soluble of the four and is used the least often. Hydrogen peroxide is not as effective as chlorine products in destroying
When dry organic bleaches are dissolved in water, hypochlorous acid is
formed. If the bleach bath contains alkaline compounds, the hypochlorous acid Hydrogen peroxide, like sodium hypochlorite, bleaches by oxidation. Hydro-
is converted by neutralization to hypochlorite, the oxidizing agent found in gen peroxide has an advantage over other types of bleaches in that the only
other chlorine bleaches. The hypochlorite is formed gradually a s the organic residue formed by its action is water. Therefore, there are no salts or other
bleach decomposes. waste materials to be removed by rinsing. Hydrogen peroxide causes less
Potentially, the hypochlorites formed from organic bleaches have the same fabric damage in the souring bath if it isn'trinsed thoroughly from the textiles.
oxidizing action, weight for weight, a s the hypochlorites found in other chlo- Experimental studies on hydrogen peroxide bleaches conducted in the
rine bleach solutions. Because they are formed slowly, however, they do not laboratory and in laundry operations have revealed the following:
produce a s high a level of bleaching activity as do the immediately available H Effect of concentration. When all other factors are kept constant,
hypochlorites found in the ordinary chlorine bleach solutions. increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide in relation to the weight of tex-
In some ways, this is a n advantage. Under the same operating conditions, tiles processed does not bring about markedly increased strength loss as do
organic bleaches cause less strength loss in cotton fabrics than do the inor- chlorine bleaches.
ganic hypochlorite type bleaches. They tend not to be as effective as inorganic H Effect of temperature. The activity of hydrogen peroxide bleach
hypochlorite bleaches in removing the more tenacious types of stains when increases a s the temperature increases, and there is a corresponding
both kinds are used a t comparable concentrations of available chlorine. In increase in textile strength loss. As with chlorine bleach, the strength loss is
treating unbleached cotton goods, the organic bleaches are markedly less
low a t temperatures below 150°F, but it becomes more pronounced a s the
temperature increases above 160°F. In general, hydrogen peroxide bleach is
Table 4-3: Chlorine bleaches
less damaging than chlorine bleach a t the same temperature. In low-
Compound Physical form Available chlorlne (%) temperature washing, hydrogen peroxide is not very effective unless an
activating agent such as tetraacetyl ethylenediamine (TAED) is added to
1. Sodium hypochlorite Liquid 5 to 15 the bath.
2. Calcium hypochlorite Powder 70 to 75 H Effect of pH. With hydrogen peroxide bleach, an increase in pH increases
3. Lithium hypochlorite Powder 35 bleaching activity, with a corresponding increase in tensile strength loss.
4. Chlorinated trisodium phosphate Powder 3.5 to 4.5 This is the reverse of that encountered with chlorine bleaches, where a n
Organic: increase in pH brings about a decrease in bleaching activity (lower strength
5. 1.3~ichloro-5.5-dimethylhydantoin Powder 36 losses).
6. Trichloroiwyanuric acid Powder 90
7. Sodium diisocyanurate dihydrate Powder 56to M) Hydrogen peroxide is.available in 35-, 50-, and 70-percent weight solutions.
In practice, the equivalent of two quarts of hydrogen peroxide stock solution
assaying 1.0 percent of active oxygen should be used per 100pounds of dry tex-
tiles. This corresponds to a bleaching solution concentration of 100 ppm of
The temperature should be approximately 160°F, and the pH level of the
bleach bath should be in the range of 10 to 11.5,depending on the type of alkali
Sodium percarbonate
Sodium percarbonate is a combination of sodium carbonate and hydrogen
peroxide, with the hydrogen peroxide readily released in solution.
The percarbonate powder is shipped in dry form and may be added dry to the
washer or dissolved in a stock solution. Sodium percarbonate should be used
with the same guidelines a s hydrogen peroxide and is more soluble than
sodium perborate.
Sodium perborate
Sodiumperborate is more easily used than hydrogen peroxide since it is avail-
able in solid form and, therefore, can be added directly to the washer a t the
bleach bath. Sodium perborate also may be used a s a bleach with results sim-
F inishing chemicals are used after the bleaching process. This chapter
describes chemicals used in the rinsing, souring, and starching baths.
ilar to those obtained with hydrogen peroxide. Antichlors are chemically known a s reducing agents. They neutralize chlorine
In solution, sodium perborate undergoes chemical change, forming sodium and other oxidizing agents (bleach) on textiles and can also effectively remove
borate and hydrcgen peroxide. This reaction is slow and produces hydrogen some dyes and stains. Of the common antichlors-sodium hydrosulfite,
peroxide over a more extended period of time than does an equivalent amount sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, and sodium thiosulfate-sodium thiosulfate is
of liquid hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide formed decomposes, act- the best and safest to use in laundry operations.
ing as an oxidizing agent for bleaching purposes. In the laundering process, antichlor is applied during one of the rinse baths
Sodium perborate should be used under the same conditions described for following bleaching to "strip" the last traces of chlorine bleach from the fabric.
hydrogen peroxide, except longer bleach times and a minimum temperature of Low-temperature bleaching operations, in particular, may require an applica-
160°F are recommended. tion of antichlor if tests show the presence of chlorine.
The oxygen bleaches currently used for laundering applications are listed in The normal use rate is one-half to two ounces of product per 100 pounds of
Table 4-4. The table also indicates the percentage of active oxygen for each of textiles. For process water containing high levels of chlorine, antichlor is used
the bleaches. in the sour bath. In fact, some laundry sours contain small amounts of
Table , -
- 44: Oxvaen bleaches Antichlor in the sour bath also corrects problems created by textiles with
Compound Active oxygen (%) chlorine-retentive finishes. If the retained chlorine is not neutralized by anti-
chlor, the heat of drying or ironing converts the chlorine to a n acid form that is
Liquid: very damaging to textiles-especially cotton.
Hydrogen peroxide
30%(by weight) SOURS
35%(by weight) The main purpose of the souring operation is to neutralize residual alkalinity
50%(by weight) with a mild acid or acid salt. Residual alkalinity in textiles is caused by the
70% (by weight) alkalinity in tap water, carryover from alkalies and detergents, and/or
Powder: hydrolysis of soap.
Sodium perborate monohydrate This residual alkalinity can cause:
Sodium perborate tetrahydrate yellowing of white fabrics,
Sodium percarbonate
Potassium monopersulfate
fading or dulling of colors,
skin irritation, and/or
Another purpose of the souring operation is to retard iron accumulation in tex- Table 5-4: Common laundry sours
tiles laundered in rust-contaminated water. The souring operation also can Ounces of sodium
help: bicarbonate Solubility in Rust.
Iremove some metallic stains, reacting with ounces per removing
destroy some species of bacteria, Sour Formula one ounce of sour gallon of water propedies
set some classes of dyes, and Citric acid CaHsO7 1.86 170.2 None
Imaintain whiteness. Ammonium silicofluoride (NHa)?SiFa 1.83 28.8 Poor
Sours are some of the most hazardous chemicals commonly used in the wash- Sodium silicofluoride Na?SiFa 1.78 0.85 Poor
room. Personnel must be properly trained i n the safe handling and storage Phosphoric acid (75%) HsPO4 1 68 Liquld Poor
procedures specified on the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the particu- Formic acid HCOOH 1.64 Liquid None
lar sour being used. Zinc silicofluoride ZnSiFae5H20 1.62 640 Poor
A proprietary sour can be a single acidic substance or a mixture of several Ammonium acid fluoride NHaHFz 1.47 33.8 Good
Sodium acid fluoride NaHF2 1.35 3.7 Good
such substances. Souring agents are available a s dry powders or crystals and Oxalic acid (COOH)2.2H>O 1.33 0.64 Excellent
a s liquids. Hydroxyacetlc acid (70%) HOCHLOOH 1.19 Liquid None
Several factors must be considered when selecting a n appropriate laundry Acetic acid (56%) CHjCOOH 0.78 Liquid None
sour. Most important are: Fluosilicic acid (24%) H?SiFb 0.54 Liauid Poor
neutralizing value,
Isolubility, and
cost per ounce of bicarbonate neutralizers. handling of a powder. This procedure for dry sours is a must for washers
Other considerations include: equipped with automated liquid supply injectors.
type of detergent used, Ammonium a n d sodium silicofluoride are the most widely used dry sours.
type of washer used, They have high neutralizing values and are sometimes blended with their acid
method of dispensing, fluoride counterparts to improve rust-removing properties. Zinc silicofluoride is
rust or iron content of the water, sold in dry form but is sometimes used in liquid systems because of its high sol-
alkalinity of the water, and ubility in water.
efficiency of the rinsing operation. Other potential sours have their drawbacks. Formic acid and glacial acetic
Neutralizing value is important because the higher the neutralizing value, acid are not used a s sours because of their odor and skin-irritating properties.
the smaller the amount of product required to perform a n y given souring task. Formic acid may cause a n allergic reaction in people with bee sting allergies.
The cost and neutralizing value are closely related. The neutralizing values of Acetic acid was once widely used a s a laundry sour, but the bad odor it often
some commonly used sours appear in Table 5-1. produces during ironing h a s caused i t to lose favor. Hydrofluoric acid (not
The neutralizing value of each sour included in the table is expressed in included in Table 5-1) is not recommended a s a laundry sour. Although it's a n
terms of the number of ounces of sodium bicarbonate required to neutralize one effective neutralizer and h a s excellent rust-removing properties, i t is extremely
ounce of the sour. Some sours have rust-removing (reducing agent) properties, dangerous and skin contact can be fatal. Commercial rust-removing agents
a desirable trait if the fabric or water contains rust. may contain hydrofluoric acid and special buffering agents.
The solubility of a sour is critical. Low solubility can result in poor distribu- Oxalic acid also is used a s a rust-removing agent. Oxalic acid must be tho-
tion in the washer and can cause a buildup on textiles. This gives textiles a poor roughly rinsed because any residuecan damage cotton, rayon, and other forms of
hand or feel and may result in rolling (tendency of the leading edge of textiles to cellulose.
tightly roll in front of the ironer rolls) in the flatwork ironer. Fluosilicic acid is a fair neutralizing agent and is sometimes used in liquid-
Dry sours are convenient to use but must be weighed or measured with a supply systems.
calibrated scoop to ensure proper quantities. Some dry sours do not dissolve The acid fluorides have good rust-removing properties, but ammonium acid
readily in water and, consequently, may cause uneven souring. fluoride, if overused, can cause irritating fumes during ironing.
Liquid sours aren't a s convenient to store or to handle a s dry sours, but they All proprietary laundry sours contain a t least one of the generic chemicals
have the advantage of being easier to measure. Since they are already in solu- listed in Table 5-1.Other ingredients frequently found in laundry sours include:
tion, liquid sours are distributed uniformly and rapidly throughout the textiles salt-occasionally added to laundry sours to cut costs. However, this gener-
when added to the washer. ally is a more expensive alternative than buying nondiluted sour because
To gain the benefits of both dry and liquid sours, some laundry operators use the laundry operator must use more of the diluted product plus incur addi-
easily soluble dry sours. By making the solution prior to use, they get the accu- tional expense for transporting and blending.
rate measurement and good distribution of a liquid with the ease of storage and
Ioptical brighteners-sometimes added to sour in minutequantities. They Since fabric softeners are humectants-substances that absorb moisture
add little cost but significantly increase textile brightness. from the surrounding environment-they cause the textiles to contain
lubricants-added to some laundry sours to help keep washer doors from enough moisture to discharge any accumulated surface electricity, reducing
sticking when synthetic detergents are used. Lubricant additives range static electricity.
from expensive carbowaxes to simple tallow soap.
Instructionsfor use
FABRIC SOFTENERS Fabric softeners should be used under the following conditions:
Fabric softeners have been used in textile manufacturing and finishing for application point-sour bath
many years to improve feel-or hand-and suppleness, and to reduce harsh- Itemperature-90" to 115°F
ness of fabrics. IP H - ~to 7
At one time, about the only textile maintenance operators to take advantage Iwater level-low (supply level)
of these obvious benefits were diaper services. Now most launderers use soften- Itime-4 to 6 minutes.
ers because they also act a s lubricants, speeding extraction and conditioning, Fabric softeners are added during or after the sour bath. They are easily
improving shake-out prior to ironing, reducing or eliminating ironer static, and absorbed by cotton from water and remain in the fabric until laundered again.
generally increasing fabric and zipper life. Laboratory studies show absorption is completed in six minutes or less under
normal conditions.
Structure However, fabric softeners can be overused. Overuse causes fabric to lose its
Softeners used in the textile rental industry are available a s concentrates in water absorption capabilities. Using cationic softeners on polyester can result
paste, liquid, and dry form. They also can be purchased in ready-to-use liquid in alkaline hydrolysis even without overuse (see Chapter 3).
form (diluted with water or alcohol) or dry (diluted with urea or salt). Normally, water absorption isn't lowered noticeably when softeners are
Commercial products are usually cationic surfactants, while consumer prod- addedto the point a t which they lubricate. However, a t levels in which softening
ucts rely increasingly on nonionic softeners. occurs, water absorption can be affected-sometimes dramatically.
Cationic surfactants are better softeners for the textile rental industry than Two quick and easy tests-the sink test and the drop test-are used to check
are nonionic products because their positively charged ions create high sub- for water-absorption problems.
stantivity-ability to be attracted to the textile surface-with cotton. This is The sink test works a s follows:
due to the fact that cotton, when wet, becomes negatively charged, attracting 1. Fold the treated fabric into a packet and drop it onto the surface of cold water.
and holding the cationic softener on its surface. 2. Note the amount of time the packet takes to completely submerge.
Most fabric softeners are prepared from fatty acids found in tallow, mainly Clean, untreated cotton textiles normally will sink in seven to 15seconds. As
stearic acid, because the tallow-based compounds are the most effective softener is added, sinking time increases. Sinking time up to 45 seconds is
softeners. acceptable for general use.
The chemical structure of these quaternary compounds is two long-chain For the drop test:
units [CHs (CH&7] attached to the central nitrogen atom and two methyl (CH3) 1. Drop a drop of water onto the surface of a flat piece of softened fabric.
groups. (Quaternary germicides, on the other hand, contain only one fatty 2. Note the amount of time the water takes to disperse.
derivative of shorter chain length.) For general use, the drop of water should dispersein less than three seconds.
Many variations of this chemical structure-involving different raw mate- Caution: Residual detergent will cause faulty test results. Detergent de-
rials and different anion combinations-are used in the textile manufacturing creases both the sink and drop penetration times.
and maintenance industries. However, all cationic textile softeners are fun-
damentally similar in that they: CHEMICALS THAT CONTROL MILDEW AND BACTERIA
Iare quaternary nitrogen compounds, Good laundry practices produce clean textiles, meaning textiles free from soil
Ipossess two long-chain fatty substituent fragments, and and stains. Another function of laundering is to substantially reduce bacteria,
Iprimarily are derived from tallow fatty acids. fungi, and other microorganisms, both pathogenic(capab1e of causing disease)
and nonpathogenic, to help control the spread of infection and disease.
How softenerswork However, since textiles can be recontaminated after laundering, antimicro-
Two explanations of how fabric softeners/lubricants work are: bial agents are sometimes added to the washer. These agents are absorbed by
1. The cation moves toward the interior of the fiber, leaving the two long the textiles and kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms that might recon-
chains (tails) exposed, which causes a smooth and soft feel and bulking. taminate the textiles.
Three broad classes of microorganisms must be dealt with in laundering:
1. Gram-positive bacteria. In general, gram positives areindigenous to the
upper respiratory system and skin of humans; Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial active ingredient must be changed once or twice a year.
("staph") are one example. Bleaches, while not true anti-bacterials, are effective in mildew control.
2. G r a m - n e g a t i v e b a c t e r i a . These are sometimes referred to a s soil bacteria Chlorine bleach removes the color pigment from mildewed areas. Oxygen
and are associated with human intestinal waste; e.g., Escherichia coli (E. bleaches also seem to be able to remove the mildew pigment color but are not a s
colil are found in large numbers in fecal matter. effective a s chlorine in destroying the mildew organism.
3. Fungi. These microorganisms are responsible for mildew formation in tex- The classes of chemical compounds currently used a s antimicrobials are
tiles. They're very troublesome, especially during the warm summer months limited by environmental a n d safety considerations. For example, tin a n d
and in warm, humid climates. mercury compounds effectively control or kill many organisms, but they are
Antimicrobials fall into two categories: bactericides or mildewcides are cap- hazardous to humans.
able of killing microorganisms; bacteriostats or mildistats disrupt the repro- The major types of chemicals available for laundry use are described below.
duction of microorganisms and prevent rapid increase. For laundry use, the
ideal antimicrobial agent should: Quaternaw ammonium C O ~ D O U ~ ~ S
W be broad spectrum (able to kill or control a wide range of microorganisms- ~ u a t e r n aammonium
i~ bactkriostats are simliar in chemical structure to qua-
gram positive, gram negative, fungi, and spore formers), ternary ammonium fabric softeners with two key differences: they contain
W not be easily neutralized by soil (e.g., body waste and excrement), only one fat-derived group attached to the nitrogen atom, in contrast with the
W have minimal toxicity to humans, two fat-derived groups found in fabric softeners, a n d the fat-derived group h a s
W not produce undesirable side effects (not weaken or stain fabrics, irritate a shorter carbon chain length.
skin, or discolor fixtures, tile, etc.), and Quaternary bacteriostat agents share basic chemical properties. They:
I have a low cost-per-use index. are quaternary nitrogen compounds,
While antimicrobial agents tend to be selective in their activity, they all are have one long-chain fatty substituent, and
somewhat effective if applied a t a high enough concentration. General guide- are primarily derived from coconut fatty acids [CH~(CHZ)II].
lines are t h a t less microbial is needed to control Staphylococcus aureus (gram Quaternary bacteriostats are applied in the sour bath. The bacteriostat is
positive) t h a n to control Escherichia coli (gram negative), while more antimi- absorbed from the sour bath and remains with the textiles until subsequent
crobial is required to suppress the activity of mildew-producing micro- laundering. They are neutralized by tallow soap and anionic detergents but
organisms t h a n gram-positive or gram-negative organisms. are not affected by nonionic detergents or alkalies.
The amount of antimicrobial needed depends on: Quaternary bacteriostats should be used under the following conditions:
W the concentration of the product, application point-sour bath
W the length of time protection is needed, and temperature-90" to 115OF
W the type of microorganism to be controlled. pH-5 to 7
Antimicrobial products sold to the laundry industry are registered with the water level-low (supply level)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and must carry evidence of this time-4 to 6 minutes.
registration on all product labels. In addition, label content for a n y antimicro- Labels for these compounds indicate the chemical structure of the active
bial sold in interstate commerce is controlled by regulations promulgated in ingredient. For example, a label stating, "active ingredients: n-alkyl(68%C12,
the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). 32%C14) dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride," refers to a quaternary
The Act mandates that labels show: ammonium component in which two methyl groups, one ethylbenzyl group,
W the supplier's EPA registration number, and one n-alkyl (fatty group) are attached to the nitrogen atom. The n-alkyl
W the chemical composition and concentration of all active ingredients, and group is composed of a mixture of Clz and C14 chain lengths.
W the proper dose rate and treating procedures for controlling specific lsothiazolone derivatives
microorganisms. I n studies conducted a t the University of South Carolina in Spartanburg to
The activity of any antimicrobial varies with the chemical nature of each evaluate the effectiveness of mildew control agents, one class of compounds
~ r o d u c tand with the concentration of active ingredients. so the directions was found to be more effective t h a n quaternary ammonium compounds in con-
printed on the label must be followed. Using the amount specified is very trolling mildew-forming organisms.
important because underdosing may allow certain organisms to mutate and The study included five agents based on various forms of quaternary ammo-
develop a resistance to even higher levels of the antimicrobial product.
nium compounds, two based on octhilinone (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one),
This resistant behavior of mildew organisms h a s been confirmed in research and one based on methylene bis-thiocyanate. Only the two agents containing
studies. Once the mutating cycle begins, it can be broken only by using chlorine 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-onewere ranked a s excellent for mildew control
bleach. To lessen the likelihood t h a t mutated resistant strains will develop, the (other forms of isothiazolone were not included in the study).
For best results, octhilinone mildewcide (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one)is used ture of wheat and corn starch. Many operators prefer rice starch for a very
in the final rinse water operation. This minimizes the chance that it will be high-quality finish because it doesn't congeal after cooking and, therefore,
rendered inactive by other chemical additives, such as antichlor or chlorine. doesn't require rewarming to use.
Mildew organisms can occur on both natural and man-made fibers. But cellu- Thick-boiling starch contains a large proportion of corn starch and must be
losic fibers such a s cotton provide the greatest nutrient source for mildew and, kept warm after cooking until used.
therefore, are the most likely to attract mildew and suffer the greatest textile The formula for thin-boiling starch is eight to 10 ounces per gallon of water
strength loss. in the stock mixture. The formula for thick-boiling starch is four to six ounces of
Soils and sizings on synthetic fibers such a s polyester may attract mildew starch per gallon of water.
and promote its growth. However, a mildew stain doesn't automatically indi- The amount of starch added to the washer depends on the nature of the items
cate fiber damage. being starched and on the desired hand on the finished fabric.
Starch should be used under the following conditions:
SIZING application point-last washer operation while the washer is running
Sizings give body to fabric, improve hand or feel, and impede soil and stain temperature-90° to 120°F
penetration. water level-cooked starch: very low water level; dry (raw) starch: regular
Sizings are: low level
starch, time-6 to 10 minutes
I synthetic polymers, For best results, starch is added during the last washer operation to a low
or a combination of these. water level while the washer is running. In many plants, the starch operation
Most starches are made from wheat, corn, or rice. Practically all proprietary is combined with the sour step and may also include mildistats, softener, and
laundry starches also contain a small percentage of waxes, sulfonated oils, or antichlor.
other additives that aid starch penetration and increase the pliability of the Be sure to allow adequate dispersion time, otherwise starching will be uneven
finish. and will cause starch accumulation on ironers and presses.
The most commonly used synthetic polymer is polyvinyl acetate, although When thestarching operation is complete, drain the solution with the washer
new synthetic fiber sizings are appearing on the market. running.
Polyester and cotton are the most commonly used fibers in the textile rental When preparing and using a conventional starch in the laundry, pay special
industry. Since cotton is a hydrophilic fiber, it readily accepts starch. Polyester attention to these guidelines:
is usually sized with synthetic polymers or mixtures of starch and polymers. Starch should always be prepared according to a standard procedure. Mea-
Polyester fibers that have been modified to increase the wettability of the fiber sure the required amount of starch carefully so that the amount of starch per
most readily accept sizing. finished gallon always is the same.
Regardless of the type of starch or sizing used, both cotton and polyester per- Cook starch for a t least 20 minutes after active boiling has begun to ensure
form better if the fibers are thoroughly clean before the sizing is applied. complete breakdown of the starch granules.
Do not add freshly prepared staich to an old batch of starch. This is a poor
Raw and cooked starch attempt a t economy.
Cooked starch generally i s preferred to raw or uncooked starch because it can Keep the starch cooker clean and free from rust to prevent discoloration of
be applied more uniformly, penetrates the fabric better, and gives a better hand the starch, avoid decomposition, and prevent bacteria growth. Clean the
and finish to fabrics. cooker thoroughly before each use.
Raw starch exhibits unusual behavior when mixed with water and heated Be sure containers used to transfer the starch from the stock supply to the
(cooked). The tiny starch granules swell until they are many times their origi- washer area are clean and free from rust.
nal size. As the swelling continues, the granules distend and their outer layers Maintain starch loads a t uniform weights to obtain consistent results.
finally break. This releases very small particles of starch material that become Do not overload washers or individual nets; this leads to poor distribution
suspended in the water to form a smooth, creamy mixture. and uneven starching.
If starch isn't cooked sufficiently or is used raw, only a portion of these gran- Watch for mildew. Starch provides a good nutrient source for micro-
ules disintegrate, resulting in a sticky, viscous mass that doesn't coat fibers organisms and may increase the rate of mildew formation.
evenly. This uneven coating can cause difficulty in ironing, resulting in high-
lights and sticking on ironer and press. Modified starch
Uncooked starch is used by plants that do not have cooking facilities. It is Many companies offer corn and wheat starches in a form that can be added
also used with cooked starch to give more body and added stiffness to fabrics. "dry to the wheel." These products have been chemically modified orpregela-
Thin-boiling starch, which is used on shirts and uniforms, usually is a mix: tinized for rapid dispersion in water.
Although modified products offer a more convenient method of starch man-
agement and application, in general, they produce a lower quality finished
Synthetic polymer sizings
Some polymer sizings are water emulsions of polyvinyl acetate polymer. The
products vary in the concentration and the molecular weight of the polymer.
Polyvinyl acetate is more difficult to remove from fabrics in subsequent
washing than is starch. For this reason, polyvinyl acetate h a s a tendency to
accumulate and develop a harsh feel on the fabric. Polyvinyl acetate also can
cause fabrics to discolor and to retain soil and odor; polyvinyl acetate also can AND FINISHES
accumulate on press and ironer surfaces.
To offset some of these problems, many proprietary formulations consist of
modified polyvinyl acetate and blends of polyvinyl acetate with other poly-
mers or starches.

Many of these problems have been addressed by a new generation of syn- he purpose of this chapter is to summarize the nature of textile fibers t h a t
thetic sizings. However, additional information on thesenew synthetic sizings may be encountered in a textile rental plant or related operation plus their
wasn't available for this edition. chemical and physical characteristics, uses, and limitations.
Many of the fibers included in this chapter are not frequently found in t h e
SOIL-RELEASE FINISHES professional laundry but are included to provide a complete list of fibers
Soil-release finishes are classified a s durable or nondurable. available.
The durable types of soil-release finishes are applied during fabric manufac-
turing. These finishes are intended to function for the useful life of the fabric. CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE FIBERS
The nondurable soil-release finishes usually are applied in the washing pro- Although fibers may be classified in several ways, a logical division is natural
cess. Nondurable finishes coat the fiber during a rinse or sour operation, and fibers and man-made fibers.
the fabric retains this coating until the next washing. Natural fibers used to make textiles occur in nature in fibrous form. Cotton,
As the fabric becomes soiled, the soil does not bind a s strongly with the fiber probably the most common natural fiber, is composed of cellulose (C,2H20010)X.
because of the film between soil and fiber surfaces. Film and soil are then Cotton fibers and other forms of cellulose can be dissolved chemically a n d
removed more easily during the next washing. regenerated to produce rayon. Both cotton and rayon have many properties i n
Several materials including starch, polyvinyl acetate, and polyvinyl alcohol common. Natural fibers also may be treated with a finish to alter characteris-
have the ability to function a s nondurable soil-release finishes if properly tics such a s crease resistance, flammability, and luster.
applied. Man-madeor synthetic fibers are made synthetically by chemically combin-
ing elements or compounds (simple or complex) such a s petroleum products;
PROPRIETARY FINISHING CHEMICALS they're also made from chemically regenerated natural fibers.
Proprietary sours, softeners, sizing, and other products are based on one or With a few exceptions, textile fibers are composed of molecules called poly-
more of the generic materials described in this chapter. In general, proprietary mers. A polymer is a very long molecule formed when several smaller mole-
products also contain optical fabric brighteners. cules link together in a regular, repeating manner that defines the combination
Some proprietary products combine different products. For example, one
of elements and determines many fiber proportions. The number of repeating
product may combine softener and bacteriostat or softener and sour. Multi-
units making up the polymer is termed the degree of polymerization.
functional products offer the following advantages and disadvantages:
Advantages- FIBER NAMES
Only one product instead of several must be purchased and stored. One of the provisions of the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (TFPIA)
Chance of washroom personnel forgetting one of the chemicals is reduced. requires t h a t fibers be identified using "generic" names for man-made fibers
Amount of required dispensing equipment may be reduced. and "commonly accepted terms" for natural fibers. The generic terms for m a n -
Disadvantages- made fibers are based on the structure of the polymer repeating unit only. As of
ICould be more costly. 1988,23 generic names for man-made fibers existed under Rule 7 of the TFPIA:
Recommended use may cause underuse or overuse of one of the chemicals.
acetate modacrylic rubber wool (sheep),alpaca, camel, cnshmerc, guanaco, llama, mohair (Angora goat),
acrylic novoloid saran vicuna, mink, muskrat, and Angora rabbit.
anidex nylon spandex In 1939, Congress passed the Wool Products Labeling Act (amendedin 1980)
aramid nytril sulfar "to protect producers, manufacturers, distributors, and consumers from t h e
azlon olefin triacetate concealed presence of substitutes and mixtures in spun, woven, knit, felted, o r
glass PBI vinal otherwise manufactured wool products." This act requires products containing
lastrile polyester vinyon wool to be labeled a s to whether the wool is new or recycled.
metallic rayon The term "wool" as defined by the Act, is a fiber grown naturally as the coat
of a living animal. Since the Act does not specify sheep as the sole source of
In addition to the 23 classes above, several new fibers have not yet been clas- wool, any fibers classified a s animal hair fibers can legally be labeled a s wool.
sified. To establish a new generic name, manufacturers must apply in writing However, most products labeled a s wool are derived from sheep. Manufactur-
to the Federal Trade Commission. New generic names are added to the list a s ers have the option, and usually prefer, to specify the animal of origin if other
the commission approves them. than sheep.
Man-made fibers formed by combining two or more generic classes of poly- Protein fibers made from animal secretions include all varieties of silk from
mers a s the fiber is made are classified according to how the polymers are com- cultivated or wild silk caterpillars or spiders.
bined. These are called:
bicomponent, A wide variety of labels are attached to textile products, especially wearing
biconstituent, or apparel. Many of these labels are required by federal legislation.
W matrix fibers. A brief summary of the major labels required for the textile rental industry
Manufacturers of these fibers must indicate the generic name of the compo- follows:
nents used to make the fiber. For example, fabric made from a matrix fiber H The Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (amended in 1980) requires labels
composed of 50 percent vinyon and 50 percent vinal must be labeled: 100 per- for wool or part-wool products to indicate whether the wool content is new
cent matrix fiber (50 percent vinyon/50 percent vinal). wool (called wool, virgin wool, or lambs wool) or recycled.
H The TFPIA requires most textile products to be stamped, tagged, or labeled
Natural fibers are not classified by any universal method, so a logical choice 1. the fiber or combination of fibers used in the item identified by generic
is to classify them according to their origin. This system includes three broad name (man-made fibers) or common name (natural fibers). All fibers
categories of fibers: must be designated with equal prominence.
Icellulosic, 2. the percentage by weight of each fiber present, excluding ornamentation
H protein, and and fibers not exceeding five percent by weight of the total fiber content.
W mineral. Percentages must be accurate within a tolerance of three percent of t h e
Cellulosic fibers 3. for upholstered products, information on whether the stuffing has been
Cellulose is the primary solid substance in most plants. However, only certain used a s stuffing in another upholstered product.
sections of some plants provide fibers that are suitable for making textiles. 4. the name or other identifying mark of the product's manufacturer.
Fibers that grow from the plant seed are called seed hairs. In the case of cot- 5. if the item is imported, the name of the country of origin.
ton, the seeds and seed hairs are combined in a boll. Other suitable seed hairs 6. other items of information, such a s fiber trade names, a s long a s they
come from milkweed, kapok, and cattail. Fibers that are found in the stalk of don't violate the Act.
the plant are called bast fibers. These include flax, ramie, hemp, jute, and U Fabric flammability standards currently are in effect for entrance mats,
urena. Leaf fibers suitable for textile use are obtained from abaca, pineapple, carpets and rugs, mattresses and mattress pads, and some clothing. Labels
agave, palm, and yucca plants. Fibers found between the husk and the nut of must specify how much flammability protection can be expected from t h e
the coconut, referred to as nut husk fibers, also have been used for textile items. item. Since laws and regulations may change, operators must consult cur-
rent requirements to ensure compliance.
Protein fibers
Protein fibers are obtained from animal hair, fur, or secretions. COMMON FIBERS ENCOUNTERED IN PROFESSIONAL LAUNDRIES
The largest category of protein fibers come from animal hair and include Not all of the fibers mentioned so far are used in products processed by the pro-
fessional launderer. The ones most often encountered are listed on the follow-
ing pages in alphabetical order. Figure 64:Nonmercerized cotton' Figure 62: Mercerized cotton
Acetate Cross-section 5OOX Cross-section500X
Acetateis used in blends with cotton or rayon a s well a s with other fibers. When
blended with nylon or acrylic, it imparts a softer hand to the fabric.
Acetate has many excellent characteristics. It resists shrinking, spotting,
and staining. I t dries quickly, h a s a soft, natural feel, isn't attacked by moths,
and is mildew resistant.
On the other hand, acetate is thermoplastic, meaning it softens or melts
when exposed to heat above 350°F and must be pressed or ironed with extreme
care. Acetate burns readily and melts while burning, leaving a blackened
residue. In addition, temperatures from 194' to 225OF cause acetate to lose
Acetate decomposes when exposed to strong acids and weak organic acids
such a s acetic acid and perspiration. Strong alkalies cause swelling and loss of
fiber strength, while acetone and solvents used in fingernail polish removers
and lacquers dissolve acetate.
Aramid was first introduced as a type of nylon but has properties very different
from most nylons - it's very strong and highly heat resistant.
In 1974, the generic definition for nylon changed, and the generic term
aramid was added to the TFPIA. The most common trade names for aramid are
Nomex and Kevlar (duPont trade names).
Aramid is used in applications requiring high strength and/or heat resist-
ance. Nomex is used in covers for laundry presses and ironers, fire fighters'
apparel, and flame-retardant furnishings for aircraft. Kevlar is used to rein-
force radial tires and to manufacture cables, body armor, and gaskets.
Cotton fibers usually vary in length from three-quarters of an inch to one and Longitudinalview 5OOX Longitudlnaiview 500X
one-half inches. In general, the longer the fiber (staple length), the better the
quality of the textiles. Water a t the boiling temperature or below has no effect on cotton fiber other
While cotton fiber has very little tendency to shrink, cotton fabrics do. Shrin- than to soften it and cause it to swell.
kage occurs when cotton fabric "relaxes" from beingstressed. The fiber can be The action of hypochlorite on cotton varies according to the concentration
stressed - stretched or elongated - up to about seven percent, usually in and temperature. Hypochlorites are used extensively for bleaching cotton.
manufacturing. The shrinkage caused by this relaxation commonly occurs When properly controlled, they are also effective for sterilizing and for remov-
during the first washing cycle and may be a s great a s 15percent. Once the fiber ing oxidizable stains. Hypochlorite solutions will damage cotton if the concen-
has relaxed, no more shrinkage should occur. tration (with respect to the amount of available chlorine) is used a t too high a
Mercerized cotton has undergone a strong caustic solution treatment to temperature or a t too low a pH. Cellulose converts rapidly to oxycellulose with
cause permanent swelling of the fiber. The swollen fiber has a high luster and a n accompanying weakening or even destruction of the fiber. In addition,
increased strength. hypochlorite solutions should be used judiciously on colored cottons because
Mercerizing and relaxation shrinking offabric increase the number of yarns they can damage dyes.
per inch, causing the fabric to seem to gain in strength. Alkali solutions, even a t boiling temperatures, do not weaken cotton fibers.
Cotton material, especially when coated by foreign organic matter such as However, fibers can be damaged during high-temperature drying and ironing
starches and gums and when stored in a warm moist atmosphere, is likely to be
attacked by certain low-order plant organisms, known a s mildew. Mildew dis- *Figures 6-1 through 6-8 are copyrighted by the American Association of Textile Chem-
colors and decreases the strength of cotton. ists and Colorists.
if strong residuals of alkali are left in the fabric. Proper souring prevents this The color of unbleached flax varies from cream to gray, depending on pre-
damage. vious treatment of the fiber. Bleaching may make linen snow white, but t h i s
In general, concentrated mineral acids damage cotton severely and, in many tends to weaken the fiber. Consequently, linen often is used at various stages of
cases, destroy it completely. Cold dilute mineral acids have less action on cot- bleaching, such a s half-bleached, quarter-bleached, or unbleached.
ton if the last traces are washed out. Hot dilute acids, such a s sulfuric acid, Linen fibers have a high cellulose content and are uniform in thickness - 12
weaken cotton if left in contact with it for any length of time. to 25 microns or millionths of a meter. They may vary in length from a few
Volatile organic acids, such a s acetic and formic acids, have less effect on inches to nearly five feet, depending on the manufacturing process.
cotton a t o r d i ~ a r ytemperatures; but a t high temperatures, they may damage Like cotton, linen is decomposed by hot solutions of strong acids and by oxid-
the fiber. These two acids were widely used a s neutralizing or souring agents izing bleaches. The first action of the acid or bleach i s to weaken the fiber.
but have been discontinued because they have unpleasant odors. Strong alkaline solutions do not cause much weakening of the linen fiber
Excessive use of some types of sours can lead to acid damage during high- unless the solution is hot.
temperature drying and ironing. Linen, when subjected to a temperature of 300°F or more for any length of
time, gradually turns brown and weakens. At 500°F, linen fibers decompose
Flax (linen) rapidly.
The flax plant, which normally has a single stalk with a few branches, gmws to
a height of several feet. The fiber itself occurs in the inner bark of the plant. As Nylon
would be expected, the quality of the fiber depends on the type of flax grown Nylon was the first truly synthetic textile fiber to find practical use. The aver-
(coarse or fine), seasonal conditions, and the time and manner of harvesting.
Figure 6-4: Bright nylon Figure 6-5: Low-modificationratio trilobal nylon.
Figure 6-3:Flax (linen) 15 denier per filament, bright luster

Longitudinal view 50OX Longitudinal vlew 500X Longitudinalvlew 250X

76 77
Figure 6-6: Low-modificationratio trilobal polyester, 1.4 denier perfilament, semi-
age diameter of nylon filaments is 18.5 microns. It can, however, be madeinto a
dull luster
wide range of diameters varying from less than 10 microns up to the size of
brush bristles.
Nylon is inert to practically all organic acids. However, mineral acids, such.
as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, tend to degradenylon fibers. A boiling solu-
tion of five percent hydrochloric acid makes nylon brittle and ultimately
causes complete disintegration. Cold, concentrated nitric acid rapidly decom-
poses nylon.
The various alkalies have no effect on nylon because it is very resistant to
alkaline substances a t all concentrations. Soaking nylon in a three percent
concentration of hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite a t room tempera-
ture for 10 hours has no effect on the fiber.
The generic term olefin includes several polymer structures, the most common
being polyethylene and polypropylene.
A wide variety of properties a n d products belong to the olefin category of fib-
ers. Olefin fibers have the lowest specific gravity of the textile fibers. The fibers
are not absorbent but do have the ability to wick (move) moisture. Olefin can be
used in apparel fabrics (underwear, socks, sweaters), home furnishing fabrics
(carpets, draperies, upholstery), andindustrial fabrics (dye nets, laundry bags,
Polyester is currently the most commonly encountered man-made fiber in the
professional laundry. Textiles c a n be constructed of 100 percent polyester or
polyester in blends with cotton, wool, or other fibers. Polyester fibers are manu-
factured in both filament and staple length and in a variety of textured shapes.
Yarns made from staple textured polyester look very similiar to natural fibers.
The widespread use of polyester fibers h a s generated many revisions in
equipment and formulas used by professional laundries.
Polyester fibers are durable, resilient, hydrophobic (have no attraction for
water), and strong. They are very resistant to most chemicals, including strong Longlfudlnal view 250X
sour and bleach solutions; but they can be damaged by strong alkalies, espe-
cially a t high temperatures a n d in the presence of quaternary ammonium a s rhea or China grass. Ramie h a s a higher luster a n d absorbency t h a n cotton,
compounds, such a s some fabric softeners. but the fiber is stiffer and may rupture if repeatedly folded in the same place.
Polyester and polyester blends are unusually resistant to wrinkling. Poly- The fiber h a s a naturally high resistance to insects a n d microorganisms,
ester h a s high crease-retention properties, a n d so-called "permanent" creases including mildew, and h a s been used with some success in butcher's aprons.
and pleats can be pressed into polyester fabrics. Rayon
Although polyester fibers aren't attacked by moths or mildew, they can be Rayon refers to filaments made from solutions of chemically treated cellulose.
stained by mildew. I n addition, unmodified polyester tends to attract and hold The cellulose solution is forced through a tiny opening or orifice and is solidi-
oily soils, frequently resulting in discoloration and odors. fied to form a filament. Rayon fibers are made a s a continuous filament and a s
Polyester fibers are constantly being modified to improve moisture absor- a staple fiber.
bency, release of oily soil, and texture in order to provide the textile industry Rayon fibers are made in three grades of luster: bright, semi-dull, and dull.
with a wide variety of properties and uses for the fabric. The degree of luster obtained depends on the amount of pigments added while
the rayon is in solution. The most common pigment added to control luster i s
titanium oxide.
Ramie is a natural fiber obtained from the stalk of the ramie plant, also known
light, weathering, and temperatures up to 500°F.
- 6-7:Cuprammoniumrayon. 1.3 Figure 6-8:tenacity,
Figure Viscose rayon, regular
bright - The fiber is used in industrial felts, filter fabrics, packing materials, gaskets,
denier(0.14 tex) per filament,
bright luster garment press covers, and some protective fibers. Some barrier fabrics contain
a thin film of polytetrafluoroethylene for liquid and particulate protective
Fibers are produced i n either staple (short fiber suitable for spinning) or fila-
ment (long, continuous fiber) lengths. Cotton, wool, flax, and most natural
I fibers are available only in staple form. Silk and most man-made fibers are
! available a s filaments. It is common practice to cut or break filament-length
fibers into staple-length fibers for spinning into fabrics.
Man-made fibers are produced by wet spinning, dry spinning, or melt spin-
ning. All three processes use a spinneret, a corrosion-resistant disc containing
from one to thousands of tiny holes.
Rayon is produced by wet spinning. Purified cellulose is chemically trans-
formed into a solution that is pumped or extruded through a spinneret. As the
I rayon filaments emerge from the spinneret, they pass directly into a chemical
bath where they are solidified or "regenerated."
Acetate and triacetate are produced by dry spinning. As acetate and triace-
tatefilaments exit the spinneret, they are solidified by being dried in warm air.
Polyester and nylon are produced by melt spinning; the polymer material
that forms the fiber is melted for extrusion and solidified by cool air.
Man-made staple fibers are produced by first extruding many continuous fil-
aments from the spinneret in a large rope-like bundle called tow. The spinneret
often has as many a s 200,000 holes. These tows are crimped and mechanically
cut into staple lengths, which are used as is or blended with other staple fibers,
either natural or man-made.
At the spinneret stage, fibers can be extruded in different shapes such a s
round, trilobal, and octagonal.
With man-made fibers, different materials are blended or combined. During
the extrusion step, two different polymers can be laid side by side in a single
Longltudlnal view 250X Longitudinal view 500X fiber to create a bicomponent fiber. During or prior to extrusion, polymers can
be mixed together to form a biconstituent or matrix fiber. In addition, other
At 300°F, rayon yarn loses strength; it decomposes a t 350' to 400°F. Rayon ingredients t h a t give the fibers specihl characteristics - anti-static, flame-
does not melt, but it ignites rapidly, giving off little odor and leaving only a retardant, or color - can be added to the polymers prior tc? extrusion.
small amount of ash. After they're produced, fibers are converted into yarns for weaving or knit-
As with cotton, rayon tends to disintegrate when exposed to either hot or cold ting. Some types of yarns are:
1 spun (staple fibers),
mineral acids. However, while strong solutions of alkalies have no effect on
cotton, they will cause rayon to swell and lose strength. Strong oxidizing monofilament (one filament),
agents attack the fiber and cause degradation. multifilament (two or more filaments twisted together), or
Solutions of hypochlorite or peroxide do not damage rayon unless used core spun (staple fibers twisted around a multifilament).
improperly. The yarns may contain only one fiber type or a blend of two or more fibers
(both natural and man-made).
Polytetrafluoroethylene Man-made yarns are frequently texturized to give them more bulk. Many
Polytetrafluoroethyleneis not currently defined by theTFPIA. Under the trade means can be employed to texturize yarns, including using stiffer boxes, crimp-
name Teflon, the polymer is commonly used for non-textile applications. As a ing edges, and increasing heat or moisture sensitivity of bicomponent fibers.
fiber, the polymer is heavy; tan to white in color; and resists chemicals, sun-
Figure 69:Fiber shapes from the spinneret (courtesy of Samina Khan) Figure 6-10: Blending of cotton and polyester fibers*

As the polyester and cotton fibers are blended during the finisher drawing operation, the
blend becomes more uniform. This illustration, taken with ultroviolet light, clearly shows the
Yarns are usually converted into fabrics either by weaving or knitting. presence of the fwo fiben and the resulting blend as the drawing operation proceeds from
Weavinginterlaces two ormoresets of yarns, oneof which is always atright the feeding of the individual fiber slivers to the final blended sliver and to the roving.
angles to the other sets. The set of yarns that runs the long dimension of a roll
or bolt of fabric forms the warp, and theindividual warp yarns are called ends.
A second set of yarns interlaced a t right angles to the warp in a predetermined
pattern is referred to a s filling, weft, or woof. Individual filling yarns areidenti- double and plain or patterned. In warp knitting, loops made from each warp
fied a s picks. yarn are formed along the length of the fabric. Warp knits are usually formed
Enlarged views of basic weaves are shown in Figure 6-11 through 14. Elabo- i n a flat, single layer and can be plain or patterned. The essential elements of
rate designs can be produced in woven fabrics by combining these basic knitted fabrics are described in Figures 6-15 and 16.
Knitting forms a fabric by interlocking loops of yarn. The two basic types of
knitting machines are weft and warp. Weft knitting forms fabric by interlock-
ing loops of yarns across the width of the fabric. Weft knits may be single or *Figures 6-10 through 6-16 copyrighted by Spring Mills, Inc.
Figure 6-4 4: Plain weave fabric

Wisucrl dr'rngonal changes direction to form patfern

Figure 6-42: Right-handtwill weave fabric (2x2) Fiaure &14: Satin weave fabric

Warp yarns 'Yloat"over several filling yarns to produce gloss or sheen.

Visual diagonal moves from upper right to lower leff
Figure 646: Types of stitches and structures
Figure 6-45: Comparison of weft and warp knit stitches

Wen knit stitch components: REGULAR KNIT STITCH

Jersey structure Rib structure

Weft knit back face face back

Wen and warp knit stitches:

Weft knit Warp knit

loop lap Tuck stitch miss st~tch

Textile items can be dyed in various stages of manufacture and by many

methods (washroom dyeing methods are described in Chapter 7). One method
is to dye yarn in pressure becks or vats where dye is forced through the yarn by
Kniffedfabric construction begins with the formation of a series of Imps from the yam. The high pressure. Depending on the sizeof the beck, from 140 to 180 yarn packages
loop is, therefore, the fundamentalelementof all knlffed fabric.Loops are of two fypes - the can be dyed. Each yarn package holds 20,000 to 40,000 yards of yarn.
needle Ioop and the sinker Imp. Sinker loops connect adjacent needle loops. In weft knitting, Fabric frequently is dyed in atmospheric dye becks, J scrays, or by padding.
needle loops are drawn through needle loops in the row below. In warp knitfing, the needle In these procedures, the dye penetrates the fabric by wicking, which is less
loops are drawn through Ioops below and to the side. effective than the pressure method.
Theloop in a warpknit differs somewhat in its configuration from the loop in a weft knit. The
difference in the interlooping can be seen clearly in this diagram.
In another method, color is applied to fabrics by printing it onto the surface.
Loops can also be identifiedasopen or closed.An open loop is one in which the yarns do The most common commercial method of printing uses rollers; each roller usu-
not cross at the neck or botfom. Open Imps are used in weft knitfing. A closed Ioop is one ally adds a different color to the design.
where the yarns cross at the base. Warp knit loops are examples of closed loops. Finishing treatments cause fabrics to resist wrinkling, creasing, or crushing.
Special finishing treatments make possible what are known a s "durable press"
or "permanent press" fabrics.
TEXTILE DYEING, PRINTING, AND FINISHING Resin-type finishes are often used to add durable-press, flame-retardance,
As fabrics exit the weaving or knitting machine, they are dyed, printed, or and water-repellency features. Resins are "set" into fabric during a curing
finished. operation that can be done before the fabric is converted into a n item such a s
Dyeing and printing contribute to the beauty of fabrics. Finishing makes garments (pre-cure)or after the items are constructed (post-cure).Permanent-
them better suited to the purposes for which they're intended. However, poor- press resins that set permanent creases and pleats are best applied as a post-
quality material can't be made good through dyeing, printing, or finishing. cure operation.
Here, a s in weaving or knitting, the quality of the fabric begins with the quality A summary of garment finishing methods is shown in Figure 6-17.
of the fiber or yarn. Soil-release finishes may be either durable or nondurable. Nondurable soil-
White fabrics (especially cotton and cotton blends) are blended to obtain release finishes applied in the washer are described in Chapter 5. The nondur-
maximum whiteness. Cottons are commonly mercerized - a finish that adds
luster, eases dyeing, and adds strength. able soil-release finishes coat the fibers and prevent soil penetration. This coat-
ing along with the soil is removed in the next laundering process.
Figure 6 1 7: Basic garment finishes for permanent press
(Courtesy of Harry Cohen Assmiates)

Flnishlng Garment plant

range manufacturer processing

PRESS Wash or
Pntcure dryclean.


Conventional Home wash 120'
postcunr or dryclean

his chapter deals with all phases of laundry operations: soil separation
and washer loading, processing steps, general formulas based on soil con-
Low-temperature tent, applying the general formulas to item classifications, and chemical
phase wash or dryclean handling in the washroom.
Soil sorting
Textiles should be sorted according to soil classifications such as light,
medium, and heavy because not all items require the same laundering process
Durable soil-release finishes are applied during fabric manufacturing. or intensity. Proper soil sorting allows the load to be matched to the best for-
Durable finishes are either a soil-resistant or soil-release type. Soil-resistant fin- mula for soil removal, resulting in the most economical use of chemicals, water,
ishes are designed to resist penetration by either waterbornestains or oilborne
stains. Finishes that resist penetration by waterborne stains are very similar --
and enerav.
Proper sorting also reduces textile damage and extends the life cycle for
to water-repellant finishes and are usually based on silicone or fluorochemi- lightly soiled items, which otherwise would be exposed to excessively intense
cals. Other fluorochemicals can be used to produce resistance to oilborne soils. laundering procedures. Hotel and motel sheets, for example, require less laun-
Soil-release finishes function by attracting water and allowing the water to dering supplies, water, time, and energy for processing than do kitchen and bar
remove the soil. Acrylic-based soil-release finishes may increase the stiffness towels. Pillowcases usually require heavier laundering procedures than do
of the fabric. sheets from the same hotel or motel to remove hair and body oils, lipstick and
cosmetic stains.
The finishing method also governs how textiles are sorted. Laundry opera-
tors should separate items to be fully dried from items to be conditioned. Items
to be finished on different types of equipment, a t different speeds on the same
equipment, or with different crewing on the same equipment need to be sorted.
Fiber content also influences soil sorting. Polyester/cotton blends should be
separated from cotton items. Polyester blends must be handled differently from
cotton because the thermoplastic nature of polyester requires lighter load
weights, gradual cooling during rinsing, and very light extraction.
Items of 100 percent polyester should be separated from polyester/cotton
blends. Polyester/cotton blends require more extraction than does 100 percent
polyester to remove the moisture held by the fabric.
The system of soil classification by item suggested in Table 7-1allows for dif-
ferences in individual plants and is widely used.
The weight of water and soil in soiled fabric can vary from almost none to a
Table 7-1: Soil classification by item
sizable percentage of the fabric weight. In order to provide consistent stand-
Vew Vey shop ards, loading factors normally are based on the weight of clean, dry fabric pro-
Item ligk Light Medlum Hecnry hecnry towels cessed.
Hotel/motel Load sizes have increased over the years. In the 1930s, commercial laundry
Sheets practice in the U.S. was to load wooden washers a t about 3 pounds per cubic
Pillowcases foot and metal washers a t about 4.5 pounds per cubic foot. British Launderers
Bath towels, mats Research Association standards in 1945 specified 3.5 pounds per cubic foot
Heatthcare loading for cottons.
Spreads Following World War 11, load sizes began increasing. In the 1960s, it became
Hospital linen virtually universal practice to load a 42- by 84-inch washer a t 350 pounds, cor-
Operating room linen responding to a load capacity of 5.2 pounds per cubic foot. Larger diameter
Pediatrics washers permit somewhat higher loading factors.
Nursing home linen Tunnel washers have a load range from about 1.2 to 1.9pounds per cubic foot
General linen supply w/o of compartment volume.
Dehairing Dehairing The volume in cubic feet of a washing cylinder can be computed from Equa-
Barber towels
Hair cloths tion 7-1:
Continuous towels
Dental/doctor towels Equation 7-1:
Hand towels v = d2z/2200
Massage towels Where:
Roller towels v = volume in cubic feet
Diapers d = diameter in inches
Food sewice z = length in inches
Table tops
Napkins Overloading leads to poor laundering performance. Supplies can't be distrib-
Colored table linen uted properly throughout the load, and the tightly packed condition of the tex-
Garments tiles impedes dilution, lowers soil removal, and results in poor mechanical
Aprons action. Additional rinses may be required to remove loose soil and supplies
Kitchen/bor towels remaining in the load; or frequently, loads must be rewashed.
Indudrial Underloading also can result in poor performance due to less mechanical
Garments action and can lead to excessive costs if water levels and chemical concentra-
Dust control tions are not adjusted accordingly.
Entrance mats Some fabrics must be underloaded because of their bulk a s compared to their
Sweeping cloths weight. Garments containing polyester blends.usually are loaded a t 65 to 85
Dust mops percent of calculated capacity to minimize wrinkling and provide easier subse-
Wet mops quent finishing.
W~pingcloths Loading figures should be based on equivalent clean, dry textile weight.
Printer wipers Operators who want to load on the basis of soiled weight must use a reliablesys-
Shop towels tem for converting clean, dry weight to soiled weight for each individual plant
classification. Data collected in the plant is used to determine the ratio of soiled
to clean weight to establish proper load sizes. Approximate figures for these
Guidelines for loading ratios are given in Table 7-2.
Washer loading is expressed a s pounds of fabric per cubic foot of cylinder To use Table 7-2, multiply the weight of the textiles desired on a clean, dry
volume. Loading: weight basis by the ratio forthat item given in the table. The resultingfigure is
varies with fabric and machine type; the weight of soiled textiles that corresponds to the required weight of clean
affects soil removal, fabric strength, and, in certain fabric types, the ten- textiles. For example, if a washer has a rated capacity of 350 pounds of textiles
dency of blended fabrics to wrinkle; and on a clean weight basis and the load consists of bib aprons, then 350 pounds x
influences the costs for chemicals, water, and energy.
Table 7-2: Ratio of soiled to clean weight Brecrk
for various textile classifications (examples only) The word "break" is used to describe the first wash-chemical bath. In light- and
medium-soil formulas, all of the surfactant and alkali to be used i n the entire
m o : Soiled weight formula generally is added to the washer in the break bath.
Ifem Clean weight The break is the single most important step in the laundering process from
the standpoint of soil removal. It is a crucial checkpoint for chemical control.
Sheets, pillowcases. continuous towels. For optimum soil removal in medium-soil classifications, the total sodium
hand towels, family work 1.O
oxide content of the break solution must be between 500 and 1,000 ppm. For
Table linen 1.O
Bib aprons 1.15 heavier soil classifications, higher concentrations of sodium oxide are required.
Garments 1.0 up For surfactant-based products, the surfactant, not the alkali, h a s the major
Kitchen and bar towels 1.3 cleaning role, which means that high alkali concentrations may not be
Infant diapers 1.45 necessary.
Shop towels (industrials) 1.5 up The break bath is monitored by titrating with phenolphthalein to measure
active alkalinity. The total or methyl-orange alkalinity also may be measured
1.15 = 402.5 pounds or approximately 400 pounds of soiled aprons is the correct
load size. by titration. Titration procedures are explained in Chapter 1.
The figures i n Table 7-2 are merely guidelines; the ratios will vary with indi- Some alkalies have much of their titration value below the phenolphthalein
vidual plant conditions. Consequently, each plant must determine these ratios limit; for example, 50 percent of the titratable alkalinity of sodium carbonate
by weighing soiled loads and comparing the soiled weight to the clean weight (soda ash) lies above pH 8.3, with the remainder lying below this value. Alkali
for the same load after processing. If proper soil sorting is practiced, the ratio of that titrates below pH 8.3 is considered inactive.
soiled weight to clean weight should be consistent and will need to be deter- In general, most of the alkalinity of the silicated alkalies (sodium metasili-
mined only pericdically. cate, sodium sesquisilicate, and sodium orthosilicate) is available above pH 8.3.
Counting is another method of sizing washer loads. Operators determine the
number of clean, dry aprons, towels, garments, or other items needed for a Suds and carryover suds
proper load size and make up soil loads by counting out that number of items Any number of suds and flush baths may occur between the break and bleach
kach time. baths, depending on the nature and intensity of the load's soil content.
Suds baths are carried out a t low water levels, usually with hot or tempered
WASH STEPS water. The temperature of the water is thermostatically controlled. Suds baths
Flushes are referred to a s carryover suds; no alkali or detergent is added. Their function
The word "flush" is used to describe a fairly quick, high-level bath prior to the is to:
break or the bleach bath. (The word "rinse" is usually reserved for high-level Iincrease soil removal by lengthening thecontact time between alkali/deter-
baths following the bleach bath.) gent and fabrics a t a n elevated temperature,
Flushes generally are used to condition textiles before subsequent baths and Ilower the soil content of the water in the washer and textiles prior to bleach-
to remove debris and loose soil. ing, and
Hospital work is sometimes given a n opening flush or flushes a t a low W reduce pH and total alkalinity to the level a t which bleaching can be carried
temperature-below llO°F-so a s not to set blood a n d albuminous stains out most effectively.
(blood, serum, and many proteinaceous stains are set a t temperatures above
llO°F). Bleach suds
Many operators also add some alkali to this initial flush to prevent setting of The bleach suds bath is the last point a t which detergency-promoting agents
blood stains. This reasoning is valid only if the alkali is distributed throughout are added to the laundry formula.
the load before blood stains are set; however, some alkali or a surfactant in a In the past, this step has been referred to a s the "bleach suds" because a light,
low-temperature flush can be beneficial in removing blood stains. running suds was the visual indicator that the pH was correct. But the advent
Flushes also are used to: of low-sudsingsynthetic detergents and the practice of adding flushes between
W raise washing temperatures from low to high, brcak and bleach to lower alkalinity have made pH testing a necessity to deter-
lower temperatures from high to low, mine that the pH is correct for bleaching.
Ilower alkalinity prior to bleaching, The key measurement of the bleach bath is pH, although titration values can
W lower the soil concentration, and more. also have meaning, especially when the chemical composition of the alkali is
known. The pH of the bleach bath a t 150°F should fall within 10.2 to 10.8 for
Other special applications of flushes are discussed in the formula section chlorine bleach. A pH below 10.2 results in accelerated bleach action, with its
starting on page 98.
accompanying fabric damage, while a pH above 10.8retards bleaching action, It is good practice to check for residual chlorine bleach in the last rinse by
which lessens stain removal and causes trailing of unspent bleach into the sub- adding a few drops of a 0.1 percent solution of orthotolidine reagent as described
sequent bath. in Chapter 1.The reagent can be added to a sample of the rinse solution or can
Bleach pH values may be lower provided water temperatures are also lower. be dropped onto the fabric itself. If fabric is used, it must be thoroughly rinsed
and rewashed.
Rinsing A yellow color indicates the presence of chlorine. However, tap and softened
Rinsing i s the term used for baths following the bleach and preceding the sour waters used in rinsing also may contain sufficient available chlorine to be
or finishing bath. detected with orthotolidine reagent, plus some water impurities may produce
Duringrinsing the final portions of loosened soil are removed along with the false-positive results.
bulk of the washing compounds used in laundering. The temperature of the Dilution. Rinsing also accomplishes dilution, a key function in the overall
.-- also is gradually reduced to the point a t which textiles can- be .
. washing process. The degree of dilution depends on the type of fabric being
from the washer. ~ i i s e are
s always carried out a t a high water level and usu- processed and whether high or low water levels are used. Cotton retains more
ally with no additional chemicals except for antichlors. water than polyester.
The number of baths required to complete the washing cycle is determined by The cost of water has risen dramatically in recent years, a s have the costs of
the amount of dilution needed to remove the soil and lower the alkalinity and softening, heating, and disposing of it. For these reasons, less rinsing is done
chlorine content. Titration measurements help determine the proper number of today than was thought necessary in past years. A minimum of four rinses, two
rinses. The following paragraphs deal with the controllable factors in rinsing, hot and two split, was the rule a generation ago. Today, three rinses or two
which have a bearing on the minimum rinsing requirements. rinses and a n intermediate extraction are common.
Tem~erature.Rinsing lowers temperature a s well a s soil content, alkalin- The following mathematical model illustrates the magnitude of dilution in a
ity, and chlorine content. rinsing process. Under ideal conditions, the amount of soil remaining after any
Usuallv the temperature of the wash load is between 130' and 150°F.when . - number of baths in a washer can be calculated a s shown in Equation 7-2.
the bleaclh bath is dumped. The optimum temperature for handling a wash load
with bare hands is in the range of 95' to 105OF.This means that rinsing reduces Equation 7-2 :
temperature by about 35 to 45 degrees if the load will be removed by hand
(pulled). If the washroom has self-dumping equipment or washer/extractors, s, = % (VfNtY
the linen can be dumped from the equipment at 130' to 140°F. x = number of baths
Number of rinse baths. The function of the rinse baths is to remove loos- S, = concentration of soil after x baths
ened soil (most of which has been eliminatedprior to the bleach step) and the Si = amount of soil present before washing/rinsing begins
chemicals used in laundering (alkali, detergent, and bleach). All of the chemi-
-- Vf= amount of water held by the fabric after draining
cals are highly soluble and are easily removed a t a water temperature of from Vt = total amount of water to achieve the set water level
110° to 140°F. with the washer loaded (includes Vf)
The best way to check rinsing adequacy or completeness is to titrate for the Assume the titration of the bleach bath is three drops 1.0 N (N/l) acid. This
amount of residual alkalinity. Each rinse must be titrated and compared with alkalinity is expressed a s a concentration of 186 pprn sodium oxide (Si)A 42-by
that of the tap or softened water being used in the rinse. This procedure is de- 84-inch washer loaded with 350 pounds of cotton fabric will retain 105 gallons
scribed in detail in Chapter 1.The final rinse titration should be in the range of of water (Vf) after draining. To reach a 12-inch rinse level requires an addi-
50 to 125 pprn bicarbonate above the tap-water titration. tional 116 gallons of water, producing a total rinse water volume of 221 gallons
For many years, experts said that the differential should not exceed 50 pprn
bicarbonate. This was true when all-cotton textiles, which are highly sensitive
(Vt=Vf+ water to produce 12-inchlevel or 221 = 105 116). Equation 7-2 is ap-
plied below to show the dilution of the concentration of 186 pprn sodium oxide.
to yellowing from alkaline scorch in tumblers and on presses, constituted 95 to
99 percent of the fabrics used by textile rental operators. However, currently a Concentration after first rinse: (SI) = 186 pprn (105/221)' = 186 (.475) = 88 pprn
125 pprn bicarbonate differential between tap and the last rinse is sometimes Concentration after second rinse: (52) = 186 pprn (105/221)2 = 186 (.475)"
acceptable because of the increased use of polyester/cotton textiles and fabric = 186 (.226) = 42 pprn
concentration after third rinse: (S3) = 186 pprn (105/221 )3 = 186 (.475)3
brighteners in many laundering supplies, a s well a s the need to conserve water
= 186 (.107) = 20 pprn
and heat. If titration shows that alkalinity is reduced sufficiently, usually the
other laundry chemicals are reduced enough for the textiles to proceed to sour- The chemical concentration after the third rinse is approximately equivalent
ing and finishing. to three drops of N/1 acid. This rinse bath would consume a total of 348 gallons
(116 gallons for each of three rinses), which is considered adequate rinsing by
current standards.
Different concentrations are obtained for 50/50 polyester cotton, which sour or acid bath is to neutralize the alkalinity of the water in the textiles before
holds about 55 percent as much water as cotton after draining (Vf= 58 gallons). finishing. The function of the sour and its role in the process have been de-
To reach a 12-inch rinse level, a rinse volume of 174 gallons (Vt) is needed. scribed in Chapter 5.
Concentrationafter first rinse: (Si) = 186 (581174)' = 186 (.333) = 62 pprn
Souring is done a t a low water level, generally a t the temperature desired for
concentrationafter second rinse:( S 2 ) = 186(58/1 74)2= 186(.333)== 186(.111)= 21 pprn extracting and finishing the textiles. Higher souring temperatures improve
extraction and reduce drying time. Souring time varies depending upon
To achieve the same dilution effect on poly/cotton a s with all cotton (20 pprn conditions.
or three drops of N/10), only two rinses consuming a total of 232 gallons [2 x In this bath, other finishing supplies such a s fabric softeners, antibacterial
(174-58)]of water are needed since poly/cotton rinses more rapidly than 100 agents, brighteners-even starch-may be added along with the sour. Starch
percent cotton and requires fewer rinses. use general1y requires lengthening the bath time.
Another factor t h a t governs the number of rinses needed is the type of equip- Proper souring is determined by monitoring the pH ofthe finished work. This
ment used. Washer/extractors allow an intermediate extract. One of the rinses can be done in two ways:
may be followed by 30 to 60 seconds of extraction, which spins off some of the The pH of the sour solution can be checked in the same way described for the
water from the textiles, reducing soil, alkali, detergent, and bleach content, and bleach bath, using a pH meter, slide colorimeter, or pH papers on a sample of
allowing the machine to take on more water on the subsequent filling. In the sour bath.
cotton example, the dilution produced by following the first rinse with an inter- By far the most commonly used technique is to drop Universal Indicator
mediate extraction is increased because Vf is reduced to 53 gallons from 105 and onto an item in the washer. Universal Indicator is a pH-sensitive formula-
an additional 168gallons (instead of 116) must be added to achievethe 12-inch tion of dyestuffs that indicates pH by color.
rinse level: Recommended souring guidelines are given in Table 7-3.
Concentration after first rinse and intermediate extract: Table 7-3: Sour guidelines*
(S,) = 186 p p r n (53/221) = 45 pprn
concentration after second rinse: (S2) = 45 pprn (1051221) = 21 pprn sour color pH range lndlcafes
Bluegreen to blue above 7.5 Not soured
The total water consumed is 116 gallons to fill the first rinse plus 168 gallons Green 6.5-7.5 OK for flatwork
to fill the second rinse for a total of 284 gallons. A general guideline is that the Yellow 6.0-6.5 Mid-range
dilution effect of a n intermediate extraction is equivalent to one rinse. This Orange 5.5-6.0 OK for towels
procedure is particularly suited to loads containing all-cotton goods. With one Red 4.5-5.5 OK for diapers
less rinse operation, water savings result despite the fact that the water
removed during extraction must be replaced on the next fill to reach the desired 'Using Universal Indicator as supplied in the TRSA Washroom Test Kit.
rinse level. Extraction
I n the cotton example, two rinses and a n intermediate extraction using 284 Extraction is used to lower moisture.
gallons of water yield the same dilution effect a s the 348 gallons needed for Laundering begins by saturating the textiles; no free water will accumulate
three rinses and no intermediate extraction. The actual production time may be in the cylinder until the textiles have first absorbed water up to the saturation
the same for both procedures because some machines require additional time to point. For cotton, this is approximately 0.3 gallons per pound or 2.5 pounds of
start and stop a n intermediate extraction. water per pound of cotton. For 100 percent polyester, the waterretained between
Antichlors. Antichlors are added to rinses to help remove residual chlorine. the fibers is about 0.1 gallons per pound or 0.8 pounds of water per pound of
They are generally added to the first or second rinse following the bleach and polyester. Thus, a 350-pound load of cotton will hold about 105 gallons (875
also may be combined in the sour bath. Common antichlors are sodium bisul- pounds) of water when saturated. A 350-pound load of polyester will hold
fite, sodium thiosulfate, or proprietary products; usage is usually a t the rate of approximately 35 gallons (292 pounds).
0.5 to 2.0 ounces per 100 pounds of textiles. The water consumption of laundering formulas is determined by adding the
Antichlors can help conserve water by reducing thenumber of rinses. They're amount of water required for saturation to the amount of free water in the
often added if there is danger t h a t fabrics will retain available chlorine even washing cylinders. Extraction reduces water content in textiles to 25 to 70 per-
though the rinse water sampled a t the dump shows n6 residual chlorine present. cent moisture retention, depending on the type of fabric and equipment.
For example, certain resin finishes such a s some permanent-press finishes are Moisture retention is a n expression of the ratio of the weight of the retained
chlorine-retentive. This is why antichlors usually are added if chlorine bleach moisture to the weight of the clean, dry textile. Clean, dry weight is most con-
is used in laundering resin-finished garments. sistently determined in the plant by weighing textiles after full drying. A
Sour bath pound of cotton textile holds 0.3 gallons of water (2.5 pounds) or 250 percent of
Souring is normally the final step in the launderingprocess. The purpose of the the dry weight.
Extraction reduces retained moisture to 50 percent, removing two pounds of these measurements are outlined in Chapter 1.
water per pound of fabric. Since 50/50 polyester/cotton retains only 1.7 pounds Titrations for active and total alkalinity are conducted using phenolphtha-
of water per pound of fabric, only 1.2 pounds mut be removed to reach the 50- lein and methyl orange indicators, respectively. The relationship between the
percent moisture-retention level. However, polyester/cotton textiles come out phenolphthalein (active alkali) and methyl orange (total alkali) endpoints
drier than cotton for the same extraction effort. depends on the chemical constitution of the alkali, that is, the ratio of active
Extraction takes place automatically in washer/extractors; controls shift and total alkali, a s described in Chapter 1.
the washer into high-speed rotation following the laundering cycle. Early research on removing soil from fabric pointed to a distinct correlation
With conventional and tunnel washers, however, the work must be removed between the efficiency of particulate soil removal and the amount of sodium
from the washer and loaded into a separate extractor. There are two types of oxide (Na20) contained in the detergent solutions. Based on their findings,
extractors: centrifugal and hydraulic. washroom chemists suggest maintaining total alkalinity (Na20)limits a t 250
In centrifugal extraction, the centrifugal force spins the water out of the to 500 ppm for light soil, 500 to 1,000 ppm for medium soil, and 1,250 to 3,000
fabric. I n one type of hydraulic extractor, the water is squeezed from fabrics by ppm for heavy and extra-heavy soil.
means of fluid pressure exerted against a flexible diaphragm i n which the tex- These guidelines are not appropriate for surfactant-based products that rely
tiles rest. I n another type of hydraulic extractor, fabrics are placed between a on the surfactant content rather t h a n alkaline content for cleaning. For these
piston and a bulkhead. The piston is forced toward the bulkhead, thus squeez- products, titrations are used only to measure detergent concentration. Appro-
ing water from the textiles. A hydraulic press is usually used with tunnel priate titrations vary from product to product.
washers. The following formulas represent guidelines based on many years of
Each method of extraction h a s advantages a n d disadvantages, but regard- research a n d in-plant experience. They may be used a s written for alkaline
less, extraction is a more cost-effective method of removing water than dryers, products or modified to suit the characteristics of soil classification, type of
washer, or other variables in a n y given laundry.
ironers, and presses.
The extraction process is most efficient a t high temperatures and if fiber lub- The authors, task force committee, and publishers present these formulas a s
procedures for producing clean textile products a t reasonable consumption
- - -- ..- such a s fabric softeners have been added to the sour bath. In general,

the warmer the fabric extracted, the better the moisture removal. levels of water, energy, and chemicals. No consideration h a s been given to
modifications t h a t may be necessary to meet wastewater requirements or to
GENERAL LAUNDRY FORMULAS protect laundry workers from exposure to hazardous soils. Each operator is
Sorting by soil content and item classification h a s been described earlier in responsible for ensuring that plant procedures are in compliance with all envi-
this chapter. In this section, basic formulas are described for five levels of soil ronmental and safety requirements.
Operators must obtain Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) from customers
for hazardous soils that are likely to be on the soiled textiles a n d consult with
Ivery light soil,
Ilight soil,
water treatment facilities and other appropriate agencies to ensure all proce-
Imedium soil,
dures are in compliance.
Iheavy soil, Very light soil
Ivery heavy soil. Table 7-4 is a formula for very lightly soiled items such a s hotel sheets. The
Beginning - on page
- 104 of this chapter, these formulas are applied to the formula suggested here i s a one-suds procedure with a six- to eighbminute
com&on item' classifications listed in Table 7-1: break suds. One quart of 1.0 percent chlorine bleach per 100 pounds of textiles is
Ihotel/motel, included along with alkali and detergent. This is followed by two rinses using
Ihealthcare, tempered water to cool t h e load to the desired finishing temperature. The sour
Igeneral linen supply, including food service a n d other items,
bath, which may include fabric softener, antibacterial agent, antichlor, and
Iindustrial garments, brightener, follows rinsing.
dust control, and If the hot water tank i s set a t about 165OF,expect a break temperature of l3s0
Iwiping cloths.
to 145OF, which is well within the limits for proper use of bleach.
The last three classifications-industrial, dust control, and wiping towels-
vary enough from the general soil-content formulas to warrant specific formu- Light soil
las of their own. The formula for light soil in Table 7-5 is a two-suds procedure with t w o five- to
For each formula, supply usage i s based on pH and titration values. Meas- seven-minute steps followed by three rinses and a sour. Formulas for very light
uring and closely controlling pH is essential for bleaching and souring baths; soil and light soil differ in two ways:
titrations normally are confined to sudsing and rinsing baths. Procedures for IVery-light-soilforn~ulasadd bleach to the break; in the light-soil formula, the
bleach step follows the break.
Table 7 6 : Very-light-soil formula The light-soil formula calls for three rinses, whereas only two are suggested
in the very-light-soil formula.
Supply usage The break titration for the light-soil sequence is higher t h a n for very light soil
Water Temperature Tlme Supply
Operatlon level (OF) (min.) type PH Titratlon because the light-soil formula requires more alkali a t the break t h a n does the
very-light-soil formula. Because time and washing compounds increase, deter-
Break suds Low 135-145 6-8 Alkali, swp/ 9.8 60 to 180 pprn gency increases with the light-soil formula.
detergent, to Na,O ( I to 3
Preliminary flushing is used for blood and albuminous stains. When there
bleach 10.8 drops N/l with
phenolphthalein) are no blood stains, the formula can begin with the break suds bath.

Rinse Hiah 120-130 1-2 Antichlor Medium soil

Rinse -
Hiah 105-115 1-2 50 to 120 ppm
HCOj (4 to 10
Table 7-6 i s a medium-soil formula t h a t provides for a break suds of six to eight
minutes, a suds or carryover of a somewhat shorter time, and a bleach bath of
drops N/10 with six to eight minutes. This is followed by the same rinsing pattern shown for
methyl orange) light soil.
over tap The formula extends the cleansing action by adding a suds between the
Finish LOW 105-115 4-6 Sour. softener. 5.5 break suds a n d bleach. This step is now referred to a s a carryover rather than a
bacteriostat to suds because in many instances no supplies are added. The carryover becomes
7.0 just that, a renewal of water a t a low level which serves to lengthen the time of
contact between textiles and washing solution a t a n elevated temperature.

Table 7-5: Light-soil formula Table 76: Medium-soil formula

Supply usage
Water Temperature Time Supply Water Temperature Time Supply Supply usage
Operation level (OF) (min.) type PH Titration Operation level (OF) (min.) type PH Tllratlon
Flush High 100-110 2-5 Break suds Low 140-150 6-8 Alkali, soap/ 11.0 500-900 pprn
Flush High 135-145 1-2 detergent to NapO(8 to 15
12.0 drops N/l with
Break suds Low 135-145 5-7 Alkali, soap/ 10.5 250-375 pprn phenolphthalein)
detergent to Na,O (4 to 6
11.5 drops N/l with Carryover Low 135-145 4-6 (Soap/
phenolphthalein) or (suds) detergent)
9.8 9.8
Bleach LOW 135-145 5-7 Bleach to Bleach Low 135-145 6-8 Bleach to
10.8 10.8

Rinse High 120-140 1-2 Antichlor Rinse Hiah 120-130 1-2 Antichlor

Rinse High 105-115 1-2 Rinse High 105-115 1-2

Rinse High 105-115 1-2 50 to 120 pprn Rinse High 105-115 1-2 50 to 120 ppm
HCOj (4 to 10 HCOj (4 to 10
drops N/10 with drops N/10 with
methyl orange) methyl orange)
over tap
Finish Low 105-115 4-6 Sour, softener. 5.5
bacteriostat to Finish Low 105-115 4-6 Sour, softener, 5.5
7.0 bacteriostat to
Heavy soil Table 7-8: Very-heavy-soil formula
This classification represents a departure from previous formulas. Heavy soil
removal requires a high water temperature, 165' to 180°F, and greater alka- Supply usage
Water Temperature Tlme Supply
linity than for medium soil. To remove the added alkali, the formula calls for a Operation level (OF) Win.) tVpe
flush or flushes following the carryover. The flushing reduces bleach bath pH pH Thotion
below 10.8, assuring proper bleaching. Flush' High 100-110 2-5
Another significant difference is t h a t the time devoted to the break a n d Flush High 140-160 1-2
bleach baths is longer t h a n in previous formulas. For proper cleansing action,
Break suds Low 165-180 15-20 Alkal~.soap/ 11.8 1,800-2.150 ppm
soil and stain levels in this classification need longer contact with laundering
detergent to Na,O (30 to 35
12.6 drops N/l with
Table 7-7: Heavysoil formula
Break suds Low 165-180 10-12 Alkali. soap/ 11.5 1.250-1.550 ppm
detergent to Na,O (20 to 25
Supply usage
Water Temperdun, Tlme Supply 12.5 drops N/l with
Operation level (OF) (mln.) type pH Tltrdon phenolphthalein)
Flush' High 100-110 25 Suds LOW 165-180 5-8 h p /
Flush -
Hiah 140-160 1-2
Flush High 140-160 1-2
Break suds Low 165-180 10-12 Alkali, soap/ 11.5 1,250-1.550 ppm
" to Na,O (20 to 25 Flush High 140-160 1-2
12.5 dr&s N/I with
phenolphthalein) 9.8
Bleach Low 135-145 8-10 Bleach to
Carryover Low 165-180 10-12 (Soap/ 10.8
~ ~~

or (suds) detergent) Rinse High 120-140 1-2 Antichlor

Flush High 140-160 1-2 Rinse High 105-115 1-2
Rinse High 105-115 1-2 50 to 120 ppm
Bleach Low 135-145 8-10 Bleach to
HCOj (4 to 10
drops N/10 with
Rinse H~gh 120-130 1-2 Antichlor methyl orange)
over tap
R~nse H~gh 105-115 1-2
Finish Low 105-115 4-6 Sour, softener, 5.5
R~nse High 105-115 1-2 50 to 120 ppm mildistat, to
HCO; (4 to 10 antichlor 6.5
drops N/10 with I
methyl orange) 'Anopening low-temperatureflush is used topreventsetting foodstains that might bepres-
over tap ent in this classification.
Finish Low 105-115 4-6 Sour, softener, 5.5
mildistat to If using soap on this soil classification, alkalinity levels must be closely con-
7.0 trolled to prevent laundered textiles from being soap-specked. This occurs
'An opening low-temperatureflush is used topreventsetting food stains that might bepres- when the acid content of greasy soils is so great t h a t i t converts the soap to free
ent in this classification. fatty acid, which results in soap specks. Increasing the alkali content stops this
Some operators deal with this problem by using only a nonionic synthetic
Very heavy soil detergent for very heavy soil or by using anonionic detergent on the first break,
This formula is similar to the one for heavy soil except that it includes two high- followed by alkali and soap on the second break and carryover.
temperature breaks, each with alkali and soap or detergent. Both breaks run Bleach recommendations for this soil classification range from two to three
for longer periods of time than in the heavy-soil formula.
mally a s medium soil with extra initial flushes and extra rinses to remove urine
quarts per 100 pounds of textiles. While the authors traditionally have held to odor and feces.
a n upper limit of two quarts of 1.0 percent bleach per 100 pounds, they recog- I n f a n t a n d a d u l t d i a p e r s . Infant and adult diapers and pads used in a n
nize that the stain removal achieved a t three quarts may reduce rewash to such institution are laundered frequently enough to keep stains from aging to t h e
a n extent that the higher level is justified. point where heavier soil formulas are needed. On the other hand, infant diapers
The additional bleach isn't used for added whiteness but for stain removal. served by professional diaper services become heavily stained because diaper
The effects of bleach usage above two quarts of 1.0 percent bleach per 100 services operate almost exclusively on weekly service, allowing stains to age to
pounds are tested by running test pieces a t two- and three-quart mixtures and a point that requires a heavy-soil formula.
assessing the rewash percentages a t each level.
Adult incontinence pads and diapers are complex assemblies of textiles con-
Increasing bleach usage above two quarts of 1.0 percent bleach per 100
taining filler fibers attached to a nonwoven backing. Since they're quite sensi-
pounds-long recognized a s the upper limit-will most certainly increase ten-
tive to the action of bleach and drying temperature, both processes must be
sile strength loss. This factor must be included when considering the cost of
carefully controlled to maximize the life of these items.
such a n increase. The elevated tensile strength loss must be balanced against
G e t t i n g h e a l t h c a r e t e x t i l e s hygienically c l e a n . The professional
the amount of rewash a t a lower bleach level. laundry process is capable of producing hygienically clean linens. I t may also
With the exception of light a n d very light soil, all laundering formulas are
produce sterile linen, but sterility can be guaranteed only by autoclaving.
identical from the bleach bath onward. This is because the washer contents
Decades of work have been devoted to identifying laundry processes that de-
reach the same alkalinity and soil content levels a t the bleach bath, no matter
stroy or remove microorganisms from textiles. Studies confirm t h a t a number
what the soil level is. I t follows, then, t h a t each classification requires the same of interrelated factors contribute to the amount of microorganisms removed
rinsing, from fabric:
Hotel/motel action of chlorine bleach,
This classification is the lightest soil encounteredin the textile rental industry. washing temperature,
With few exceptions, it's one-day soil and presents minor problems. action of repeated changes of water (dilution), and
Usually, the very-light-soil formula shown in Table 7-4 is sufficient, although drying temperature in dryers or on ironers and presses.
some plants often classify pillowcases a s slightly heavier soil than sheets. Sim- Attempts have been made to rank the importance of each of these factors in
ilarly, bath towels, mats, and washcloths may or may not be classified on the eliminating bacterial contamination, but no definitive studies are known.
same soil level a s sheets. In general, these items are very lightly soiled, with Studies conducted a t the Pennsylvania State University in the 1930s
stains confined almost entirely to cosmetics. reported t h a t a water temperature of 160°F destroyed all bacteria present on
The souring step on sheets a n d pillowcases is very important. These items linen. Consequently, for years many states required t h a t healthcare linens be
are usually finished on high-speed equipment such a s flatwork ironers and processed a t water temperatures of 160°F.
folders and must be soured to a pH of about 6.5 to 7.0 to enhance fiber lubrica- Research studies carried out in hospital laundry plants in recent years have
tion and promote peak ironer speeds. Fabric softeners also increase fiber lubri- demonstrated that fabrics can be washed hygienically clean a t temperatures
cation and aid in ironing. below 160°F, a s long a s suitable washroom chemicals (alkalies, detergents,
Bath towels are washed separately and should be soured down to a pH of 5.5 bactericides, sours, etc.) are used, bleaching conditions are maintained, and
to 6.0 to reduce a n y tendency to yellow in tumbler drying. repeated changes of water occur. In addition, linens must be finished over flat-
work ironers or fully dried in tumblers. In fact, studies reported in 1984 revealed
Healthcare t h a t hospital linens processed a t temperatures a s low a s 71°F were a s hygieni-
Healthcare items include hospital, clinic, and nursing home linens, which are cally clean a s those processed a t 160°F under the same conditions.
further broken down into ward, operating room, and incontinence care linens. The term "hygienically clean" h a s no precise definition but implies t h a t
Ward linen is classified a s either light or medium soil, depending on the qual- items are free of microorganisms in quantities capable of causing illness. One
ity requirements or care in sorting a t the institution or in the plant. laboratory procedure widely used to evaluate the microbiological content of
Operating room linens may be classified a s light or medium soil. textiles involves culturing a four-inch-square section (103.2 square centimeters)
Pediatrics work usually i s classified a s medium soil because of the stains in of fabric and counting aerobic spores. An empirical rating system classifies
baby clothes from medication and formula food stains. results:
Number of spores Rating
Nursing home linens are generally classified a s medium soil-occasionally
heavy soil - depending on housekeeping practices a n d the quality of care in 0 to 5 100
individual institutions. 6 t o 50 95
Incontinence pads and adult diapers are always processed separately, nor- 51 t o 1 0 0 90
100 to 200 85
This purely arbitrary rating reflects the character of the atmosphere in Table 7-9: Industrial shirt formula
which the linen is processed and stored.
Spores are bacteria that have encapsulated themselves for their self-preser- Water Ternperdure Time Supply Supply usage
vation. They are not pathogens. Of course, the presence of a single bacterium Operalion level (OF) (min.) iype
results in a failed test, since this indicates the possible presence of pathogens. Break Low 130-160 18 Alkali, 10.0 375 to 500 ppm
The need to control the spread of infection influences the design of plants
surfactont. to No20 (6 to 8
processing healthcare linens. For example, plants may:
phosphate. 11.0 drops N / l with
maintain a physical separation between soiled and clean linens; CMC phenolphthalein)
Iuse washing equipment designed to load on the soil side and unload on the
Carryover Lw 130-160 9
clean side;
W have a n air-flow system t h a t moves air in the opposite direction from linen Suds' LOW 130-160 9 Alkali.
flow, minimizing the chance for lint- and dust-laden air to pick up micro- surfactont,
organisms from soiled linen and transport them into clean linen areas. phos~hate.
Stains in hospital textiles. Healthcare work is likely to generate more CMC
stain rejects t h a n general linen supply classifications because of the high stain- Rinse High 115-145 2 (Antichlor
ing potential of medicines coupled with a low-intensity washing formula. Stain if bleach
reject percentages for general linen supply normally run two to four percent is used',
- -

excluding table linen. Hospital stain rejects usually range from four to seven Rinse High 100-125 2
Rinse High Cold-100 2 50 to 120 Darn
Color transfer. Color transfer on healthcare linens occurs when hospital
greens, blues, and whites are laundered together. The colors transfer from HCO; (4 ~O'IO
colored to white fabrics, producing a tinting on white. This tinting is perman- drops N/10 with
methyl orange)
ent because polyester does not release color. Although dyed polyester fibers are over tap
fast to laundering, the migration of loose dye contained on new fabrics is suffi-
cient to produce this tinting effect. 5.5
Sour Low Cold 4 Sour to
This problem can be avoided by simply separating whites and colors.
General linen supply 'Bleach is added here for white classifications.
General linen supply covers textile items such a s aprons, the many types of
towels used in commerce and industry, table linens, and wearing apparel not or tunnel.
soiled with mineral greases.
- (The "general linen supply" and "food service" Industrial garments are usually heavily soiled with mineral soils and
items in Table 7-1.) greases, and a few operators elect to dryclean them. Drycleaning prevents the
The soil content of these items ranges from medium (white and colored table problem of wrinkling, since solvent temperature a n d moisture levels are nor-
linen) to heavy (continuous towels a n d the many types of hand towels used in mally low a n d loading is light. Garments can be easily dried wrinkle-free. Also,
clubs and in dentists' and doctors' offices) to very heavy (aprons and kitchen the solvent h a s a powerful degreasing impact on the oily soil.
and bar towels). The trade-off, however, is that water-soluble soils such a s perspiration and
These items primarily contain animal and vegetable greases that can either many food stains tend to accumulate and detract from the wearing quality of
be saponified using alkalies or emulsified with surfactants. Refer to Tables 7-6 drycleaned garments. To solve this problem, some operators launder the gar-
through 7-8 for appropriate washing formulas. ments every third or fourth cycle to keep water-soluble stains a t a minimum.
Others use specially designed drycleaning machines capable of handling both
Industrial garments water a n d solvent. Environmental concerns and regulations have affected the
Industrial garments are most frequently made of polyester/cotton blends. Cot- number of rental operators using drycleaning a s opposed to laundering.
ton provides comfort while polyester offers strength and wrinkle resistance Washing formulas for industrial garments require certain modifications.
that can eliminate pressing. Typical washing formulas for industrial shirts and pants are shown in Tables
Poly/cotton garments are often simply placed on hangers and passed 7-9 and 7-10.
through a warm-air or steam cabinet, which relaxes the wrinkles. On the other The rinse temperature should decrease gradually in order to minimize the
hand, polyester can "remember" wrinkles, so it's important not to overload possibility of wrinkling due to thermal shock. Rinse-to-rinse temperature
washers and set wrinkles. These wrinkles don't relax in the finishing cabinet
Table 7-40: Industrial pants formula a surfactant-usually nonionic or a blend of nonionics with other organic
Supply usage carboxymethylcellulose, and
Water Temwroture Time Suppb
Opercrtion level (OF)' (min.) lype pH Titration fabric brightener.
Bleach is used to removestains and maintain whiteness on whitework, such
Break Low 130-160 18 Alkali. 10.0 375 to 500 ppm a s lab coats, smocks, and shirts. Bleach can pose problems, however. Industrial
surfactant. to Na20(6 to 8
phosphate. 11.0 drops N/l with garments frequently are produced from resin-finished fabrics that provide
CMC phenolphthalein) wrinkle resistance and easy care. These resins may be chlorine retentive.
This retained chlorine will cause permanent yellowing a n d degradation of
Canyover Low 130-160 9 the fabric if i t isn't neutralized. To counter this, antichlors (bleach neutralizers)
Rinse High 115-145 2 are added to the rinses following bleaching.
Using oxygen bleach i s a n alternative, although the bleaching action is
Rinse High 100-125 2
milder t h a n sodium hypochlorite on some stains.
Rinse High Cold-100 2 50 to 120 ppm Extraction, drying, a n d finishing of industrial garments must be carefully
HCO; (4 to 10 controlled to minimize wrinkling. Since polyester fiber absorbs virtually no
drops N/lO with
methyl orange)
water, extraction usually is minimal, ranging from merely bringing the basket
wer top up to speed to extracting for two, three, or four minutes. For compression-type
extractors, lower pressures are used.
5.5 Garments can be finished and dryed by pressing or by being passed through
Sour Low Cold 4 Sour to hot-air/steam cabinets or tunnels. Some operators tumble dry garments before
6.5 using a cabinet or tunnel, while other plants pull the garments directly from
the extractor and hang them wet for cabinet or tunnel finishing. The latter,
obviously, requires a much longer time in the finishing system than do fabrics
decreases of about 15°Fare best until the solution reaches about 110°F. t h a t are fully dried. Wet-to-dry tunnel finishing produces a better flat finish
Pants are frequently loaded a t full capacity and shirts a t about 65 to 80 per- than does dry-to-dry.
cent of full capacity if tunnel or cabinet finished (3..5 to 4.0 pounds per cubic While these finishing methods differ, the basic principle of dealing with a
foot) and 100 percent if pressed. thermoplastic fiber such a s polyester is to ensure that wrinkles aren't set into
Washing supplies used in industrial garment washing are different from the fabric during processing. Following these precautions will avoid wrinkle-
those used in other fabric classifications for two reasons: setting:
High alkalinity, like high temperature, is harmful to polyester fiber, which Scale back load weights from normal machine standards.
predominates in industrial garment fabrics. Minimize drain times between washer baths to avoid setting sleeve wrinkles.
Mineral greases must be emulsified since they aren't saponifiable by high al- Reduce temperature gradually during rinsing.
kalinity. Therefore, detergents designed for industrial garments contain Minimize extraction.
mild alkalies; are high in complex phosphates; a n d are very rich in surfac- Finish garments by either pressing or drying in a cabinet or tunnel a s soon
tants, which have a key role in penetrating a n d emulsifying mineral a s possible following extraction or full-drying.
greases. Do not overload hampers holding fabrics in process.
Of course. all fabrics become soiled with body oils, especially wearing
apparel a t cbllars and cuffs. Alkali is needed to clean the entire garment. Dust control
Nonionic surfactants play a key role in industrial detergents, which may The term dust control refers to textiles used by industry for floor care: mats,
contain several different nonionics, making them effective in degreasing a s dust mops, wet mops, dusting cloths, and sweeping cloths.
well a s in removing water-soluble soil. Another important ingredient in indus- Mats. Mats are widely used in shops and markets, restaurants, offices, and
trial formulations i s sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a cellulose deriva- industrial plants. They can be constructed of anylon pile with rubber backing,
tive that promotes particulate soil suspension, minimizing soil redeposition. cotton pile with rubber backing, cotton pile with latex backing, or polyester pile
Therefore, a n effective industrial detergent will combine most of the follow- with vinyl backing.
ing elements: Mats are quite durable. By virtue of their chemical composition, the syn-
a n alkali-usually low pH (less than 11.0), thetic-pile types are relatively resistant to soil and moisture retention, although
a complex phosphate-sodium tripolyphosphate or tetrasodium pyrophos- vinyl mats are quite sensitive to heat. Therefore, for best results, mats
phate, shouldn't be processed above 120°F.
Figure 7-1:Closed-oil mop washing system
Table 7-1I:Mat formula

Suppty usage
Water Temperature Tlme SUPP~~ Phenolphthalein
operation level (OF) (min.) bP PH tthation
Rush High 110-120' 2
Rrwk Hiah 110-120' 6-10 Alkal~,soap/ 10.5 60 to 180 ppm
detergent to Na,O ( ?to 3
. .,
11.5 dro~sN/1'1""
Carryover" High 110-120' 6
Rinse"' High 110-120 2
Rinse High Cold 2
'130-140°F for cotton pile mats
"Only for heovily soiled cotton and nylon pile mats
"'Two or more split rinses for heavily soiled cotton and nylon pile mats
""Up to 960ppm (16 drops N/1 acid using phenolphthalein indicator) for heovily soiled
cotton and nylon pile mats

Mats can be processed in conventional equipment or, where volume war-

rants, in specially designed mat machines capable of processing 1,000 mats or They may be dyed permanently before being placed in service or with each
more per day. Mat machines use a scrubbing and beating action and apply processing a s a regular part of the maintenance program, a s is the practice
detergents and hot water jet sprays to loosen a n d remove soil. Some machines with shop towels.
feed mats pile side down so that soil falls downward in the machine as it is Mops are processed using a shop-towel formula (Table 7-12)and some plants
loosened. process both items in the same load when oil treatment isn't applied in the
Most plants process mats in conventional washers or washer/extractors. washer. The oil treatment i s applied either in the washer, a s stated, or in a
Mats are normally classified a s light soil, since little soil adheres to synthetic separate process outside the washer and consists of specially formulated or
fiber. A typical wash formula for mats is shown in Table 7-11. chemically modified petroleum products that coat the fibers.
Formulas may specify either tempered or split (hot a n d cold) water through- Where volume warrants, mops may be processed in a closed-oil system,
out. Two flushes instead of one will remove excess sand and clay. which consists of a washer connected in a closed loop with a pressure filter so
Mat formulas normally call for modest amounts of alkali and detergent. that the treating fluid-generally aliphatic (straight-chain) hydrocarbon oil-
Entrance mats of 100 percent cotton pile require a much heavier wash formula circulates continuously from washer to filter and back a s shown in Figure 7-1.
than synthetic mats because they get much dirtier. Cotton mats larger than
The filter generally is made up of a series of hoops or rings covered with
three by five feet may need to be treated or sprayed with flame-retardant sub- fabric through which the hot oil is pumped. In appearance i t is much like a
stances per Federal regulations DOC-FF-1-70 a n d DOC-FF-2-70.
stack of dinner plates. The plates are coated with diatomaceous earth, which is
Mops. Mops are a very significant part of dust control. Mops may be wet or
added to the oil in the system. This system traps soil particles removed from the
dry, but by far the biggest part of this classification consists of oil-treated mops
fabricin the washer, a n d the oil carriers them from the washer to the filter. The
used dry on floors. They are constructed in such a way that they can be drawn
over a metal holder attached to a handle to produce what is referred to in build- oil supply is heated to process temperature in a separate holding tank and
ing maintenance a s a sweeping tool. added to the closed loop with each load.
Mops generally are made from cotton or blends of cotton with polyester or A typical washer/extractor requires about 1,000 gallons of oil and diato-
acrylic. The synthetic fiber significantly extends the life of the mop, but a n all- maceous earth.
The soil load then is processed with continuous flow and filtration for
synthetic mop will not pick up soil. Acrylic is favored over polyester in blends approximately 25 minutes a t a n oil temperature of 100' to 140°F. This is fol-
with cotton because acrylic fiber picks up oil in the treatment process whereas
lowed by five to seven minutes of extraction, leaving t h e mops a t 10 to 30 per-
polyester doesn't.
Mops frequently are dyed for identification a s well a s for esthetic reasons.
Table 7-12: Shop towel formula' Table 7-13: Printer towel formula'

supply u=ge Supply usage

Wcrter Tempercrhrre Time Supply Phenolphthalein Water Tempercrhrre Time Supply Phenolphthalein
Operutton level (OF) (min.) type PH M o n Operation level (OF) (min.) type PH M o n
Flush" High 140-160 1-2 Flush" High 100 or less 1-2

Flush" High 140-160 1-2 Flush" High 100 or less 1-2

Break suds Low 165-180 12-20 Alkali. Grater 2.000-3.1 00 ppm Break suds Low 165-180 12-20 Alkali, Greater 2.000-3.100 ppm
detergent than Na,O (32 to 50 detergent than Na,O (32 to 50
11.5 drops N i l ) 11.5 drops N/1)
Carryover Low 165-180 5-8 Flush High 160-170 1-2

Rinse High 160-170 1-2 Break Low 160-170 8-12 Alkali,

detergent 1,800-2.150 ppm
Rinse High 160-170 1-2 Na,O (30 to 35
Rinse High 160-170 1-2 Dye"' drops N i l )

Rinse High 120-140 1-2 Rinse High 160-170 1-2

Rinse High 105-115 1-2 Rinse High 160-170 1-2

Rinse High 160-170 1-2
'Operatorsmust ensure thatprocessingproceduresfor this classificationcomply with envi-
ronmental and worker safety regulations. Rinse High 160-170 1-2 Dye"'
"To avoid combustlon. cold-water flushes are required if laundering highly flammable
Rinse High 120-140 1-2
"'Dye is sometimes added on the break if time is available for leveling and setting. Rinse High 105-115 1-2
Common salt up to 20percent of fabric weight may be addedaffer the dye has been
'Operatorsmust ensure that processing procedures for thb classificationcomply with envi-
ronmental and worker safety regulations.
"To avoid combustion additional cold water flushesare required if laundering highly flam-
cent oil retention (20 pounds of oil per 100 pounds of dry mops). mable Iwds.
Another type of mechanism called a rotary vacuum filter is becoming more "'Dye is sometimes added on the break if time is available for leveling and setting.
widely used for mop processing. This filter uses a vacuum pump to suck the oil Common salt up to 20percent of fabric weight may be addedaffer the dye has been
through the filter cake. A blade shaves off a thin layer of soil-filled diatomite introduced.
with each rotation of the filter. This type of filter takes up only 20 percent of the
space of the standard plate-and-frame pressure filter and uses 50 percent less
diatomaceous earth. about the possibility of hazardous materials in thesoiled shopor printertowels
A mop oil additive containing a detergent to hold soluble soil in suspension and provide the appropriate MSDSs.
and a bactericide to prevent odor in the reused oil is commonly added to the sys- Solvents also may beused to remove soil from shop and printer towels. How-
tem a t the rate of 1.5 gallons per 100 gallons of oil. If processing damp mops, ever, flammability, toxicity, and disposal problems must be considered when
mop oil additive is a must. using solvents.
The formula for shop towels generally calls for a long break suds bath (up to
Shop and printer towel formulas 20 minutes) a t a temperature of 160' to 190°F. A carryover and a t least three
Table 7-12 is a suggested formula for laundering shop towels, which usually are rinse baths, all above 160°F, continue to draw off the grease t h a t h a s been loos-
heavily soiled with mineral grease. ened and suspended by alkali, solvent, and detergent. This is followed by a t
Mineral grease can't be saponified; it must be emulsified. Emulsification least two additional rinse baths, with a gradual temperature reduction down to
requires higher ratios of SiO, to Na,O than are contained in sodium orthosili- the point a t which the load is pulled.
cate, so sodium metasilicate is generally used for laundering shop towels. The printer towel formula in Table 7-13includes two breaks and many rinses.
Nonionic synthetic surfactant is the preferred detergent for shop towels. Cold water flushes are essential if there is any possibility of the towels contain-
Operators processing shop towels or printer towels must ensure plant com- ing flammable soils. Some printers' solvents can cause explosions in standard
pliance with wastewater restrictions. In addition, customers must be asked washers if warm or hot water is added before the solvent is removed.
The effectiveness of the laundry formula is measured by a break titration or Table 7-14: Chemical makeup of selected detergent powders
by testing the absorbency of the finished towels.
One in-plant check for absorbency is the sink test. Ten towels are selected Products
randomly from a load. Each towel is folded twice (like a handkerchief), rolled Component A B C D E F G
into a cylinder, a n d secured with a rubber band. Each towel is timed to deter-
Caustic soda - - 25 14 15 - -
mine how long it takes to sink completely beneath the surface of cold tap or soft-
Anhydroussodiummetasilicate 75 42 40 32 30 50 82
ened water. T h e sinking time of the 10 towels is averaged; a n average sinking Soda ash - 44 13 23 15 38 10
time of 60 seconds or less is acceptable. Sodium tripolyphosphate 8 - 11 8 - - -
Some customers, however, m a y require better absorbency, which translates S ~ P - - - - 17 - -
into a n average sinking time of 30 seconds or less. This test is not reliable if Anionic surfactant - - - 8 - - -
residual surfactants a r e present. More precise absorbency tests such a s hexane Nonionic surfactant 12 9 9 6 - 10 6
extractables can be performed by a testing laboratory. CMC 2 2 1 2 - 2 1
Brightener +. + + + + + T

CHEMICAL SUPPLIES Unidentifiable 3 3 1 7 23 - 1

Dispensing methods
' + = present
Washroom chemical supplies are purchased either a s dry powders in drums or
bags, or a s liquids in drums a n d crocks. While dry powders have long been the
staple of washrooms, the wide use of tunnel washers h a s led to a n increased use
of automatic liquid supply systems. These "liquid" supplies can be purchased Alkali can be purchased dry or a s a liquid. For t h e past 25 years, the most
commonly used dry alkalines have been sodium orthosilicate a n d sodium meta-
a s liquids or made by adding water to dry supplies.
Chemicals a r e added to washers manually, semiautomatically, or automati- silicate. Laundry chemical suppliers offer these basic chemicals under their
cally. Manual control, a s implied, means t h a t dry or liquid chemicals are added own packaging labels or a s the generic product. Liquid alkali generally is pur-
to washers by individuals who determine t h e correct quantities, usually using chased in bulk.
different sized scoops. I n semiautomatic washrooms, operators simply fill sup- Built detergents are available from virtually every chemical supplier in
powder form. These products generally are complete detergents needing no
ply hoppers or receivers on t h e washer with powder or liquid products. T h e
supplements, but their chemical makeup varies depending on the supplier.
washer automatically calls for t h e supplies a t the right point in t h e cycle. The
operator still m a y determine the quantities added. These built detergents contain alkalies, detergents, phosphates, surfactants,
CMC, a n d a brightener. All except one in Table 7-14 are based on a synthetic
Fully automatic bulk chemical delivery systems automatically inject wash-
surfactant, with the nonionic type dominating. T h e alkali/surfactant ratio
ing supplies from a central liquid source. These systems a r e the only method
used to add supplies to tunnel washers. runs from about 5:l to 15:l.
Washroom supplies for semiautomaticor completely automatic systems a r e Table 7-14 suggests t h a t there is a limit to thecombinations from which built
stored in either permanently installed or portable tanks. Delivery lines are products can be formulated. This table provides excellent guidelines for plant
either rigid pipe or flexible tubing; black iron or stainless i s recommended for owners who prefer to proportion and feed washers from basic chemicals.
heated supplies. T h e common practice of determining how much of a built detergent to use by
Measured quantities of supplies are injected into washers from containers titrating alkalinity presumes t h a t the proportion of alkali to other components
that have been prefilled manually or electronically to a fixed volume, or by a in Table 7-14 is correct. This m a y not always be the case. Thesedry powders are
timed flow of fluid from the central source. Positive displacement pumps of var- manufactured by spraying the liquid nonionic surfactant onto the dry ingre-
ious designs are widely used with automatic equipment. dients. However, alkali's ability to absorb t h e liquid nonionic surfactant is
The trend is toward automatingsupply delivery to washers usingmicroproc- limited, a n d to achieve the levels shown in Table 7-14, manufacturers usually
essors to meter supplies; display operation functions; a n d record loads pro- must add soda a s h to facilitate absorption. Soda a s h i s a relatively mild alkali,
cessed, times of operation, a n d other statistical data. a n d caustic soda is often added with soda ash in order to boost the pH of the fin-
ished material.
CHEMICAL SELECTION I n liquid systems, chemical supplies usually are grouped by compatibility
While dry powders traditionally have dominated the market for washroom sup- a n d dispensing point in the formula. Alkali normally i s kept separate from
plies, liquids have taken a n increasingly larger share a s the industry h a s other supplies. Surfactant can be stored alone or, a s i s frequently done, com-
moved to automatic supply delivery. As previously mentioned, these liquids bined with phosphate, CMC, a n d brightener. These formulations can be pur-
can be made in the plant by dissolving powdered supplies in water or purchased chased ready to use or combined in the plant from individual components. T h e
a s liquids t h a t a r e used directly from drums a s supplied. Some operators pur- mixtures often must be agitated to keep components dispersed.
chase in bulk,taking full and partial tankwagon quantities into on-site t a n k s .
Tallow soap is added in its neutral or unbuilt form dry, from a stock solution, Table 7-15: Liquid sodium silicate formulas
or purchased a s a built product. However, using tallow soap in a liquid system - -
is complicated. The solution must be kept heated so that it will flow. Unless Caustic Sillcafe
the solution is constantly circulated, the supply lines must be heated during the k (ratio of Na20: S i 0 ~ ) Formula (gallons') (gallons')

shift and drained a t the close of each operating day to prevent congealing. 1 (Sodium metasilicate) NazO.Si02 7.2 14.7
Finishing chemicals can be purchased in several forms and combinations. 2 (Sodium orthosilicate") 2Na2OOSiO2 11.6 9.7
Dry sours and antichlors are available from all chemical suppliers. Specialty 3(3 to 1") 3Na200Si02 13.7 73
products such a s rust-removing sours and formulations containing sour and 5(5 t o l " ) 5Na200SiO~ 15.9 4.8
fabric softener or a softener and a bacteriostatic agent are widely used. Add to
this the fact that these finishing agents usually contain a fabric brightener, 'Figures are gallons of caustic soda and sodium silicate needed to produce 7OOpounds of
and it becomes apparent that there are many products to choose from. alkali in 100 gallons of stock solution.
"Liquid system provides solutions equal to the theoretical values obtained from anhydrous
For liquid systems, sour may becombined with a fabricsoftener and a bacte- solids. Due to moisture in the "dry" solids, the liquid-produced systems are slightly more
riostatic agent. This mixture also needs to be agitated, since softeners have concentrated.
some tendency to salt out or be thrown out of solution by the high ion activity of
the sour. If antichlor is incorporated in the finish mix, the softener, bacterio-
stat, and antichlor can be combined, but the sour must be maintained separ- Table 7-15 shows examples of some alkaline silicate formulations. For
ately since some sours-notably fluosilicic acid (nfs)-will drive sulfur dioxide example, combining 7.2 gallons of liquid caustic soda, 14.7 gallons of liquid
out of the antichlor, producing noxious odors. A successful combination of sour, sodium silicate, and enough water to bring the volume up to 100 gallons pro-
softener, bacteriostat, and antichlor can be made using ammonium silicofluo- vides the same product a s one 100-pound bag of anhydrous sodium metasili-
ride a s the sour. cate (k=l) dissolved in 100 gallons of water. The results are the same, but com-
Starch usually is maintained a s a separate supply, or it can be combined with bining- the generic
- liauids costs less.
polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate for sizing polyester and its blends. While The proportions of each component necessary to produce 100 gallons ( a t a
starch is most commonly added dry to the washer, it works best if first concentration of 1.0 pound of alkali per gallon of solution) of other k ratios
dispersed in water by cooking in a starch cooker. (Na,O:SiO,) can be calculated using the following proportions:
W gallons of sodium silicate = 1791 (62k 60) +
Formulating liquid alkali W gallons of caustic soda = (1252k - 376)/(62k 60) +
Alkali stock solutions can be prepared by dissolving 100 pounds of dry silicated W enough water to provide a total volume of 100 gallons
alkali in 100 gallons of stock solution. Each gallon of this solution will contain To take maximum advantage of this system, a laundry needs about 5,000
one pound of alkali. gallons of storage-tank capacity for each component to hold tankwagon quan-
Equivalent solutions of sodium silicates can be prepared in the laundry by tities, and personnel who are knowledgeable in the safe handling and mixing
combining liquid caustic soda (50.0 percent NaOH or 38.8 percent Na,O) and of these types of chemicals.
liquid sodium silicate (8.9 percent Na,O, 28.7 percent SiO,; 1:3.22 Na,O:SiO,). Potassium silicates also can be formulated. A whole range of potassium sili-
These chemicals, common to many industries, can be purchased in tankwagon cates are formed by combining liquid caustic potash with liquid potassium
quantities and held underground or in the plant in storage tanks. However, silicate.
they must be stored a t or above the temperatures shown in the following chart There are three distinct advantages to using potassium metasilicate, ortho-
to keep them from solidifying. silicate, or other potassium ratios instead of sodium silicates:
The properties of these materials are listed below: W The alkaline potassium silicates can be produced in concentrates up to 4.5
pounds per gallon. This allows the producer to combine the caustic potash
Liquid caustic Liquid sodium and potassium silicate before shipping so that the product is ready to use a t
soda silicate (4:3.22) the plant without mixing and/or dilution. Sodium silicate concentrations,
Density, lb./gal. 12.76 on the other hand, are limited to about 1.25 pounds per gallon.
Percent Nan0 38.8 W Potassium orthosilicates solidify below -20°F, making them suitable for use
Percent SiOn 0.0 in any climate.
Solidifcation temperature 52°F W Potassium silicates are superior alkaline builders because of their very high
Combined in the proper proportions, liquid caustic soda and sodium silicate The trade-off comes in terms of cost. Potassium salts cost the same as or up to
produce alkaline silicates of any molecular ratio (k value, where k is the ratio of 1.7 times more than their sodium counterparts, and up to 1.1 to 1.5 times
Na,O to SiO,) up to a maximum solution concentration of about 1.25 pounds
per gallon.
Table 7-16: Liquid potassium silicate formulas
To remove mineral oil-based soils found in industrial uniforms, shop towels,
and similar classifications, the emulsifying action of metasilicate works b e s t
Caustic potash Potassium silicate In addition, shop towels laundered with metasilicate show greater absorbency
k ( m o of KzO: SiOi) Formula (gallons') (gallons') than those laundered with orthosilicate when both alkalies are added to a n
equal titration level.
1 (Potassium metasilicate) KQsSi02 9.2 72.7
2 (Potassium orthosilicate) 2K20.Si02 14.1 8.0 DYEING TEXTILES IN THE PIANT
3 (31) 3KD&i02 16.2 5.8
Using stain-treatment formulas on heavily stained textiles shortens their life.
'figures are gallons of caustic potash and potassium silicate needed to produce 100 An alternative is to redye heavily soiled items to a darker shade. Some plants
pounds of alkali in 100 gallons of stock solution. also dye new textiles to customize certain services such a s continuous towels,
mops, shop towels, and other specialty items.
(depending on Na,O to SiO, ratio) a s much of the potassium silicate is required The dyeing process can be carried out in the plant or by a dye specialist.
to obtain the same alkalinity.
The chemicals used for producing liquid potassium silicates are: Direct dyeing
Many operators direct dye wiping cloths a s part of the regular formula. Also,
Liquid caustic Liquid potassium plants offering colored table linens can use a touch-up procedure to prevent a
potash silicate ( 1 3 . 2 9 )
rainbow-of-hues effect caused by a mixing of new and used inventories.
Denslty, Ib./gal. 12.09 Wiping cloths may be purchased either a s greige (unbleached) goods or white
Percent I40 37.8 fabrics. Many operators initially offer white wiping cloths and then dye them
Percent SiO, 0.0 when they become too stained to serve.
Soiidiflcation temperature -20°F Direct cotton dyes are sufficiently washfast for wiping cloths and can be ap-
plied to fabrics being washed during the rinse bath or the break, or applied a s a
Potassium silicates are produced a t a concentration of one pound per gal- separate procedure. The dye generally comes in pouches, each containing suf-
lon of solution by combining these chemicals in the proportions given in ficient dye for the contents of the washer.
Table 7-16. When the dye is added to the third hot rinse, the rinse is extended to five or
As previously stated, potassium silicates can be produced in highly concen- more minutes, followed by the usual split and cold rinses. However, this proc-
trated solutions. For example, 14.1 gallons of caustic potash and 8.0 gallons of ess is time-consuming, adds measurably to formula expense, and the dye
potassium silicate will mix together without dilution. This solution contains doesn't penetrate the fabric well. Adding the dye packet a t the break improves
100 pounds of K,SiO, (potassium orthosilicate) or 100/22.1, which equals 4.5 the process; it has a long time to exhaust before the bath is drained. The dyestuff
pounds per gallon. works independently of the detergent to accomplish its task.
Solutions of the same strength and concentration but a t significantly lower The most effective method of'direct dyeing in the washer relies on additional
cost can be produced by substituting sodium silicate (1:3.22)for potassium sil- time and steps to achieve a washfast color. This is the procedure:
icate (l:3.29) in equal volumes. The chemical species produced by this substitu- load the textiles and draw a high level of hot water;
tion is about 85 percent potassium orthosilicate and 15percent sodium orthosil- add the dye and increasethe water temperature to 200°F by direct admission
icate. Except for slight crystallization a t extremely low temperatures, little of steam;
efficiency is lost with this substitution. agitate the load for 15 minutes to thoroughly distribute the dye;
add rock or tablesalt, usually 10 to 20 pounds per 100 pounds of textiles (the
Choosing an alkali salt lowers the solubility of the dye in water and forces it into the fibers); and
The selection of silicated alkali depends on the type of soil being removed. A t B rinse the textiles four to six times.
first thought, it would seem that all silicated alkalies (orthosilicates, metasil-
Vat dyeing
icates) should produce the same results a s long a s the proper alkalinity is
achieved in the break and subsequent baths. However, silicated alkalies Textiles used in food service or wearing apparel must be vat dyed in order to
may not all perform alike. resist fading during heavy-soil washing and/or bleaching. Vat dyeing also can
For some time, operators have selected orthosilicate for linen supply opera- be done in a regular laundry washer.
tions and metasilicate for industrial laundering. The contention is that the oily Here's a n example based on a 42- by 84-inch open-pocket machine loaded
with no more than 200 pounds of merchandise:
soils present in linen supply items are primarily derived from animal fat,
draw eight inches of hot water into the empty machine a t a temperature of
which needs the strong saponification action of the sodium oxide portion of the
170" to 190°F, adding about six ounces of nonionic synthetic detergent and a
alkali to be removed.
weighed amount of anthraquinone (vat) dye;
Irun the washer for about a minute, add 10 pounds of caustic soda, and allow
several minutes of mixing;
Iadd the load of merchandise to be dyed;
Irun the load for at least five minutes, then add sodium hydrosulfite, 2.5
pounds a t a time, up to 12.5 pounds;
Irun the machine an additional 30 minutes and add one quart of 1.0 percent
chlorine bleach;
Irun the machine an additional 10 minutes; SAFE HANDLING OF
Igive the contents of the washer three high-level rinses, all hot, followed by a
regular light-soil washing formula. WASHROOM CHEMICALS
Although this procedure has been used for many years, it's complicated and
time-consuming, and it involves chemicals not commonly used in the profes-
sional laundry, notably sodium hydrosulfite. An easier alternativeis to use pre-
mixed vat dye kits from chemical and textile distributors.

ormal operating procedures in a laundry create several safety issues for
Dye specialists the employees. The very nature of the work being performed i n a laun-
Some companies specialize in vat dyeing textiles, saving operators from the dry environment exposes employees to slippery floors, moving equip-
tedious procedure of dyeing textiles in the washer. These dye specialists color ment parts, hot water, high-temperature metal surfaces, live steam, hazardous
merchandise to the desired shade and convert stained goods to useful life. chemicals, microorganisms, soils, and extremes in both air temperature and
Employers can control the risk to employees by providing appropriate safety
equipment, training, and first-aid information and materials. This chapter
deals primarily with hazards from chemicals used in the washroom and is not
intended to be all-encompassing. Employers must continually review current
publications to obtain the most up-to-date legal requirements.

Chemicals used in the washroom can be classified into the following broad
Ialkalies and alkaline builders,
Isurfactants and detergents,
Isours and acids,
Ibleaches (oxidizing type),
Isolvents, and
Ispecialty chemicals.
The potential for danger when using the above compounds depends a great
deal on their strength. Most of the chemicals are hazardous in their concen-
trated forms. Although makeup solutions and stock solutions are less hazard-
ous than the concentrated form, they must be handled properly.
All employees and supervisors who handle any washroom chemical must
read the product label and the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) supplied by
the manufacturer. In addition, everyone handling these chemicals must have
access to and use all appropriate protective devices such a s protective clothing,
breathing devices, gloves, goggles, ventilation systems, eye-wash stations,
and safetv showers.
Each employer is responsible for providing proper facilities and training in
required procedures and use of safety devices. Management is responsible for
Figure 8-1: NFPA hazardous material code with numerical scale
ensuring that employees follow established procedures.

Many of the classes of compounds available in the washroom are capable of HEALTH HAZARD
4 Deadly
reacting with each other and must be stored separately. 3 Extreme danger 4 Below 73°F
In general, alkaline materials must be stored separately from acid materials 2 Hazardous
such a s sour, and chlorine bleaches must be stored separately from acids. The hazardous (Boiling pt. atfabove 1 0 0 ~ ~
same precautions apply to transporting washroom chemicals - do not move 0 Normal material andfor atfabove 73'F-not
incompatible items together on the same pallet.


OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard, sometimes referred to as the
Right-to-Know Law, establishes uniform requirements to make sure that the
hazards of all chemicals produced in, imported into, or used in U.S. workplaces X Yellow
are evaluated, and that this information is transmitted to the people who use
the chemicals. Among the rights the law grants to employees is theright to cer-
tain kinds of information about specific health and safety aspects of chemicals
the employee handles or is exposed to in the workplace.
All employers using hazardous chemicals must develop and implement a
written hazard communication program that includes labels on containers,
4 May detonate
MSDSs, and training to give this information to their employees. The training SPECIFIC 3 Shock and heat
can be in written or oral form but should be generally nontechnical and easily HAz4RD may detonate
understood by employees. Oxidizer / 2 Wolent
Acid .ACID / chemical

Container labels
o v
&R" f
1 V
1 Unstable if
A chemical container label provides the following information: Rodiwctive f' 0 Stable
Ihazard rating,
Ihazardous ingredients, I
precautions of use, and mended System for the Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials," (NFPA
Ifirst-aid instructions. i No. 704M).
In addition, the container label may contain information about a chemical's
4 Very flammable gases, very volatile flammable liquids, and mate-
flammability, health, and reactivity rating as defined by the National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA). The NFPA codes are an approved method of rials that in the form of dusts or mists readily form explosive mix-
rating the hazard level of chemicals. They provide an easy way to identify the tures when dispersed in air. Shut off flow of gas or liquid and keep
hazardous properties of the chemical under normal and emergency situations. cooling water streams on exposed tanks or containers. Use water
NFPA uses a four-color, diamond-shaped symbol. Each color has a special spray carefully in the vicinity of dusts so as not to create dust clouds.
hazard meaning: red a t the top (fire),yellow (reactivity), white (specific hazard), 3 Liquids which can be ignited under almost all normal temperature
and blue (health). The level of the hazard, indicated by a number from zero to conditions. Water may be ineffective on these liquids because of
four, or specific hazard identification abbreviations are printed in the color their low flash points. Solids which form coarse dusts, solids in
box referring to the type of hazard. (See Figure 8-1.) shredded or fibrous form that create flash fires, solids that burn
The numerical values mean: rapidly, usually because they contain their own oxygen, and any
4-Severe hazard material that ignites spontaneously a t normal temperatures in air.
I3-Serious hazard 2 Liquids which must be moderately heated before ignition will occur,
I2-Moderate hazard and solids that readily give off flammable vapors. Water spray may
I1-Slight hazard be used to extinguish the fire because the material can be cooled to
I0-Minimal hazard below its flash point.
The following explanation of the numerical values is taken from "Recom- 1 Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur. Water
may cause frothing of liquids with this flammability rating number
if it gets below the surface of the liquid and turns to steam. However, 1 Materials which in themselves are normally stable but which may
water spray gently applied to the surface will cause a frothing which become unstable a t elevated temperatures and pressures or which
will extinguish the fire. may react with water with some release of energy but not violently.
0 Materials that will not burn. Caution must be used in approaching the fire and applying water.
0 Materials which are normally stable even under fire exposure condi-
W Health tions and which are not reactive with water. Normal fire fighting
4 A few whiffs of the gas or vapor could cause death; or the gas vapor or procedures may be used.
liquid could be fatal on penetrating the fire fighters' normal full pro-
tective clothing, which is designed for resistance to heat. For most Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
chemicals having a Health 4 rating, the normal full-protective cloth- Under the provisions of OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard, employees
ing available to the average fire department will not provide ade- have the right to examine any Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) upon writ-
quate protection against skin contact with these materials. Only spe- ten request. Employers must maintain MSDSs for all hazardous chemicals in
cial protective clothing designed to protect against the specific use in the workplace and must make them available for employee review. In
hazard should be worn. addition, MSDSs must be readily available to emergency personnel in the
3 Materials extremely hazardous to health, but areas may be entered event of fire or other emergency.
with extreme care. Full-protective clothing, including self-contained The MSDS contains more detailed information than the product label and
breathing apparatus, rubber gloves, boots a n d bands around legs, should always be consulted during a n emergency.
arms, and waist should be provided. No skin surface should be A typical MSDS is divided into sections of required information. The infor-
exposed. mation may appear in a different order, but it will always be labeled for easy
2 Materials hazardous to health, but areas may be entered freely with identification. The sections are:
self-contained breathing apparatus. W P r o d u c t identification. Gives both the name and chemical family of the
1 Materials only slightly hazardous to health. I t may be desirable to product.
wear self-contained breathing apparatus. H a z a r d o u s components. Identifies the components of the product consi-
0 Materials which on exposure under fire conditions would offer no dered to be hazardous by EPA or OSHA standards. This information is
health hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. based on the hazardous nature of the component in its pure and concentrated
W Reactivity state, and includes exposure limits for the concentrated material. In general,
4 Materials which in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of exposure to a formulation of the material represents a lesser hazard than
explosive decomposition or explosive reaction a t normal tempera- what's indicated by the MSDS because the material is diluted with water
tures and pressures. Includes materials which are sensitive to and/or other chemicals.
mechanical or localized thermal shock. If a chemical with this hazard W P h y s i c a l d a t a . Lists the chemical and physical properties of the substance.
rating is in a n advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated. W F i r e a n d e x p l o s i o n d a t a . Contains essential information in the event of a
3 Materials which in themselves are capable of detonation or of explo- fire or other emergency, including proper fire fighting techniques in the
sive decomposition or of explosive reaction but which require a presence of the material.
strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement R e a c t i v i t y d a t a . Describes hazardous conditions to avoid and hazardous
before initiation. Includes materials which are sensitive to thermal products that can form if the material chemically decomposes.
or mechanical shock a t elevated temperatures and pressures or H e a l t h h a z a r d d a t a . Describes chronic or acute effects of exposure and
which react explosively with water without requiring heat or confine- provides first-aid information. Anyone handling the product must tho-
ment. Fire fighting should be done from a n explosion-resistant loca- roughly understand emergency and first-aid procedures and must make cer-
tion. tain t h a t the required items for first-aid treatment are readily available. For
2 Materials which in themselves are normally unstable and readily washroom chemicals, the normal first-aid procedure is to thoroughly flush
undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. Includes mate- the affected body area with water, either in a safety shower or eye wash
rials which can undergo chemical change with rapid release of station.
energy a t normal temperatures and pressures or which can undergo W P r e c a u t i o n s f o r s a f e h a n d l i n g a n d use. Describes precautions for han-
violent chemical change a t elevated temperatures and pressures. dling a spill or disposing of the product and precautions to be taken in
Also includes those materials which may react violently with water general handling and storage.
or which may form potentially explosive mixtures with water. I n W C o n t r o l m e a s u r e s . Describes protective devices for safe handling of the
advanced or massive fires, fire fighting should be done from a pro- product.
tected location.
The best source of information on handling washroom chemicals is the
MSDS for the product in question.
Employee fraining
Every employer is responsible for providing a safe working environment and
training all employees required to work with or be exposed to any hazardous or
toxic substance. The training includes proper safety procedures and hazard
information on the substance.
This chapter only highlights the major provisions on laws relating to safe PROBLEM SOLVING
handling of chemicals. Operators must consult the most recent edition of
national, state, and local regulations to ensure compliance.

iagnosing problems in the washroom involves analyzing both t h e
mechanical and chemical processes necessary to producegood quality.
This chapter presents information and procedures for troubleshooting
mechanical and chemical problems a s well a s tests operators can perform in
the plant to maintain consistent quality in day-to-day operations. While it con-
centrates on washroom chemistry, it nevertheless touches on many phases of
Machine maintenance is not covered in this chapter. However, properly
maintained equipmentis a prerequisite for using the procedures described here.
For example, leaking fill and/or dump valves can lead to wrong titration
values i n the same manner a s improper chemical use can.
Plant and production managers are constantly faced with quality problems.
Here are some typical problems and possible causes.
P o o r s o i l removal:
- Suds bath was too low.
- Suds time was too short.
- Washing temperature was too low.
- Not enough detergent was added.
- Washer was overloaded.
- Water levels were too high/low.
- Water was too hard.
- Soil loads were mixed.
- Wrong formula was used.
Poor color (redeposition):
- Water was too hard.
- Washers were overloaded.
- Not enough detergent was used.
- Detergent ingredients were poorly balanced.
- Formula didn't call for enough rinses.
- Rinse times were too short.
P o o r color (not redeposition):
- Mechanical action was excessive because of:
- Dye transfer occurred. Wtoo lengthy formulas
- Bleach was used incorrectly. Wtoo much time between filling and draining
- Washing temperature was too high. Wlow water levels
- Alkalinity was too high. - Highly alkaline builders were used excessively in the presence of steam and
- Textiles lacked colorfastness. high water temperatures on fabrics containing polyester.
W P o o r color, w h i t e s ( o t h e r t h a n redeposition): - Wrong souring agents were used.
- A yellow or brown color indicates: - Souring agents were used improperly (too much/too little).
W iron
W Linting/pilling:
W poor rinsing - Mechanical action was excessive because of:
W undersouring Wunderloading
W unneutralized bleach
Wtoo lengthy formulas
- Yellowing indicates chlorine-retentive resins.
Wtoo much time between filling and draining
- Pink indicates an iron/bleach/brightener complex. Wwater levels too low
- Green indicates:
Wleaky washers (dump valves, shell, etc.)
W metallic salts
- Textile fibers are too short.
W dye bleeding
- A dull appearance indicates: - Textiles contain low-twist yarns.
W not enough bleach
- Washers, conditioners, tumblers, or flatwork ironers have rough surfaces.
W weak bleach
- Too much bleach was used.
W short bleaching time
- Textiles were exposed to excessive heat in tumblers.
W not enough flushes
- The pH of bleach was too low.
W not enough rinses
- Bleaching temperature was higher than 155°F.
W short rinses
- Strong alkalies weren't rinsed out of polyester in fabrics before finishing.
W poor soil removal
- Souring agents were improperly used.
W P o o r s t a i n removal: W O d o r i n textiles:
- Temperatures weren't controlled in preliminary flushing. - Hard water reacted with soap.
- Not enough bleach was added. - Poorly soured loads have fermented.
- Bleach stock solution was too weak. - Too much sour was used.
- Bleach pH was incorrect. - Soil remains in the textiles.
- Washing temperature was too low for the detergent. - Rinsing was incomplete.
- Water level in bleach bath was too high. - Boiler treatment chemicals have contaminated the load.
- Washer was overloaded. - Resin-treated fabrics have retained soil and chemicals.
- Bleach bath contained too much soil. W F l a t w o r k r o l l i n g o n ironer:
- Bleach time was too short. - Rinsing was incomplete.
- Improper bleach for stain type was used. - Too much sour was used.
- Alkalinity was too low. - Souring time was too short.
- Not enough soap/detergent was used. - Sour was added improperly.
- Sudsing time was insufficient. - Wrong type of sour Mias used.
- Sudsing temperature was too low. - The work was too damp.
- Merchandise was abused in customer locations. - Ironer chests were dirty.
W H i g h tensile s t r e n g t h loss: - Chest was lubricated improperly.
- Bleach wasn't diluted to one percent. - Starch or other substance such as wax has accumulated on chests.
- Too much bleach was used. - Rust is present on chest surfaces.
- Bleach pH was too low. - Ironer chests have been assembled in the wrong machine sequence.
- Bleach temperature was higher than 155OF
- Steam had escaped into the bleach bath.
- Chests were cold because of: Also, operators handling doctors' and nurses' uniforms, towels from medical
Iimproperly sized steam lines or dental offices, and hospital linens have to contend with holes caused by:
Itoo low steam pressure Imedicines;
Iimproperly operating traps Initric acid;
Iair-bound chests Isilver nitrate;
- Chests were warped. Ialum;
- Static electricity was present. Iferric chloride;
- Goods were improperly feeding. Idisinfectants and antiseptics such as hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites,
- Fabrics lacked lubrication. -
potassium permanganate, merthiolate, mercurochrome, carbolic acid, cres-
- Apron covers, padding, ribbons, and guide strings were poorly maintained. ols, and iodine; and
Iastringents such a s zinc sulfate, zinc chloride, and aluminum chloride.
IGarment wrinkling:
- Washers were overloaded. Much of the chemical damage from these corrosive substances occurs when
- Cool down in rinsing was too rapid. the solutions dry on the textiles. During drying the solutions evaporate and
- Time between washer reversals was too long. become increasingly concentrated. If the chemicals remain on the textile for
- Drain times were too long. any length of time, they cause serious degradation, which in most cases does
- Cylinder rotation speed was too slow. not become apparent until the textile has been laundered once or twice.
- Intermediate extraction was used. This damage occurs after laundering because chemically treated cotton loses
- Extraction time was too long. its wet strength more rapidly than its dry strength. Degraded cotton textiles
- Extraction speed was too high. often retain sufficient dry strength to remain intact during use, but fail, devel-
- Basketloads awaiting hanging were overloaded. oping holes and tears, during laundering or while the textile is wet.
Textile strength measurements on unused cotton indicate wet strength is
- Delay before hanging was too long. 1.2 to 1.3 times dry strength. Chemically degraded cotton, on the other hand,
- Steam has leaked. has lower wet strength than dry strength; severely damaged textiles can have
CAUSES OF TEXTILE DAMAGE a wet strength less than half the dry strength.
Textile damage is a source of concern to all laundry plant operators. Textile Numerous studies have been conducted on the effect of various chemical
degradation is expected in normal use from physical abrasion and flexing dur- agents on the strength of cotton textiles. One study revealed strength loss
ing wear and laundering, chemicals used in laundering, and oxidizing agents ranging from 16.6 to 65 percent when certain common medicines were allowed
in the environment. This relatively long-term deterioration is an anticipated to remain on cotton textiles for three weeks. Findings from this study appear in
part of the cost of operation. Table 9-1.
On the other hand, abnormal textile damage that becomes apparent after
items have been laundered only a few times or suddenly and unexpectedly after
many launderings signals problems in the plant or a t the customer's, or indi- Table 9-1: Chemical damage to cotton caused by common medicines
cates a n inherent weakness in materials received from the mill due to imperfec- (3-week exposure)
tions in the manufacturing process. Chemical and physical laboratory tests
often must be conducted by experienced analysts to determine the true extent Percent loss in
and nature of the damage. Textile damage usually can be classified into a few Staining substance bursting strenglh
major categories. The most common ones are described here.
Tincture of ferric chloride .............................................. 65.0
Chemical damage during use Picric acid solution (2%) .............................................. 55.8
Tannic acid (5%) ..................................................... 30.1
Chemical damage occurs when the chemical makeup of fibers i s altered in a Tincture of merthiolate ................................................ 21.7
way that causes a decrease in tensile strength. Silver nitrate solution (12%). ........................................... 19.4
Chemical damage results when textiles are exposed to: Iodine (7%) ointment ................................................. 19.4
U acids, lcyfhyol(10%) ointment.. ............................................. 18.6
I alkalies, Syrup of phosphate. .................................................. 17.1
oxidizing agents, Zinc chloride solution ................................................. 17.1
I certain atmospheric gases that have a degrading effect, Mercurochrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16.6
I light and other types of radiation, and
I high temperatures in drying or pressing.
Foodstuffs also cause appreciable damage to textiles. Frequently acidic sub- The acids found in fruits and vegetables, with the exception of oxalic acid,
stances in foods are responsible for much of this damage, although other sub- are weak acids t h a t ordinarily would not be considered corrosive materials.
stances also can degrade textiles. However, when foodstuffs containing these substances are spilled on textiles
Table linens and napkins, a s well a s shirts and other wearing apparel, often a n d permitted to remain and evaporate, a relatively concentrated amount of
develop holes because of the corrosive effect of foods. Even spinach, when acid crystals results. With the aid of moisture from the air, the action of the acid
spilled on cotton textiles and allowed to age for a s short a time a s two weeks, eventually breaks down the cellulose.
will cause sufficient deterioration to produce holes t h e first or second time the
textile is laundered. I
Damage tom fungi
Textile soiled with medicines or foods t h a t have been allowed to dry and age ! Certain microorganisms, especially molds, cause significant textile damage.
plainly show some damage when examined under a n ultraviolet lamp; this Molds or fungi are found practically everywhere, and the varieties that can
damage may not be visible to the unaided eye. damage textiles are numerous. The coating or discoloration on cotton, linen, or
Table 9-2 gives pH values for a number of common foodstuffs. All of these other materials that results from fungi growth is called mildew.
foods are strongly acidic. Most fungi grow best in humid conditions a t temperatures ranging from 70°
to 90°F. Many fungi can withstand freezing for months or years, but their
Chemical studies of the composition of fruits and vegetables show that
growth is slowed a n d they eventually die when exposed to higher tempera-
oranges, grapefruit, a n d lemons are rich in citric acid. Grapes contain potas-
tures. Temperatures of 160°F or higher will kill fungi, usually in a few minutes.
sium hydrogen tartrate, a n acid salt. Cranberries, plums, and prunes contain
Fungi can use a large variety of materials a s food sources. They're able to do
benzoic acid. Oxalic acid is present in spinach, beet greens, and pineapple. The
so by secreting a number of different digestive enzymes t h a t chemically
oxalic acid content of spinach varies from about 0.5 to 1.2 percent, depending I
change the materials into simple-soluble materials t h a t the organisms use for
on the variety of spinach.
Practically all materials, with the exception of metals, are considered food
Table 9-2: pH value of foodstuffs sources by fungi. In addition to some types of textiles, leather, paper, paint and
wood are subject to attack. Fungi have been known to corrode lenses of micro-
Food pH values scopes and other optical instruments under the proper growth conditions.
Ordinarily, the cellulose fibers of cotton and linen have little or no nutritive
Apples. ............................................................. .2.9-3.3 value for higher organisms. Fungi, however, through the action of the specific
Apricots ............................................................ .3.&4.0 enzymes they produce, are capable of decomposing cellulose for food.
Blackberries ......................................................... .3.2-3.6 The extent of decomposition ranges from slight discolorations to extensive
Cherries ............................................................ .3.2-4.0 weakening of the fibers t h a t results in holes in the textiles. Molds also produce
Cider ............................................................... .2.9-3.3 grey or grey-brown stains on fabrics. These stains may not appear until the
Gooseberries ........................................................ .2.8-3.0
affected textileis laundered and subjected to the heat of the tumbler or ironer.
Grapefruit .......................................................... .3.0-3.3
Jellies (fruit) ......................................................... .2.8-3.4
Table a n d kitchen linens are most often subject to mold damage. The
Lemons ............................................................. .2.2-2.4 damage occurs when the linens have been stored in dark, humid, warm places
Limes ............................................................... .I .8-2.0 for a period of several days or longer before being picked up for laundering.
Olives .............................................................. ,363.8 Under these conditions, the almost universally present mold spores develop
Oranges ............................................................ .3.0-4.0 into mold plants, which grow prolifically. They attack the textiles and certain
Peaches ............................................................ .3.4-3.6 types of soils, specifically foodstuffs, in their quest for food. The longer the
Pears ............................................................... .3.6-4.0 molds are left on the linen, the more damage they'll do.
Pickles (dill) ......................................................... .3.2-3.6 Methods for treating textiles to prevent mildew are presented in Chapter 5 .
Pickles (sour). ....................................................... .3.0-3.4
Plums. .............................................................. .2.8-3.0
Rhubarb.. .......................................................... .3.1-3.2
Mechanical damage
Sauerkraut .......................................................... .3.4-3.6 Mechanical damage to textiles is characterized by the abrading, cutting, or
Soft drinks.. ......................................................... .2.0-4.0 breaking of textile fibers and yarns. Mechanical damage results from:
Strawberries ......................................................... .3.0-3.5 W normal wear;
Tomatoes ........................................................... .4.0-4.4 mechanical action during laundering;
Vinegar. ............................................................ .2,4-3.4 W cuts or snags made by sharp instruments;
Wines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.8-3.8 W abrasions;
cutting oftextiles by insects such a s moths or silverfish (Although they don't from the same lots were also tested and showed evidence of chemical break-
ordinarily attack cellulose, insects may use certain types of soil on textiles down. Items that have been chemically damaged during manufacturing often
a s food. In consuming the food, they may cause damage to the fibers.); show satisfactory strength before laundering; but during laundering the
cuts from foodstuffs; and damaged yarns and fibers pull apart, leaving holes and tears.
defective manufacturing procedures (These failures can be distinguised
Damage in the laundry
from mechanical damage of similar appearance only by careful
Apart from the mechanical damage due to careless handling and to defective
equipment, the main source of damageto textiles in the laundry is improper use
Mechanical damage resulting from abrasion is common. For example, of chemical agents, especially bleaches.
sheets and pillowcases may be dragged across hard, rough surfaces such a s The conditions necessary for proper bleach usage have been discussed in
bed frames and sometimes even concrete floors and truck beds. detail i n Chapter 4. But to reiterate, damage from bleach is most often caused
Snags and cuts from sharp instruments also arecommon. For example, hand by:
towels can be damaged by razor cuts; the results may not appear until after using excessive amounts;
laundering when the weakened fibers give way under the stresses of the laund- failure to maintain the proper conditions of time, temperature, and pH; and
ering process. Tablecloths frequently receive knife cuts. Yarn failures that leaving residual bleach in the textiles because of inadequate rinsing.
occur a t a n angle to the warp and filling yarns are almost certainly from knife Another source of chemical damage in the laundry is caused by leaving mer-
cuts because tears in textiles always occur parallel to the warp or filling yarns. chandise for extended periods in laundry baskets t h a t are made from two or
Mechanical damage also can be caused from materials imbedded in or over- more dissimilar metals or alloys, such a s brass and stainless steel. These
laid on the textile. For example, when foods containing dissolved acids, salts, metals provide the necessary conditions for electrolytic action when they come
or even sugar evaporate on cloth, they form crystals or hard deposits of a non- in contact with textiles containing moisture and salts from laundering.
crystalline nature in the spaces between the fibers. Crystals are well-defined Electrolytic action produces corrosive chemicals in sufficient concentration
structures with angular, often sharp edges that can abrade or actually cut tex- to cause discoloration and permanent damage to the textiles. The damage isn't
tile fibers. Some foodstuffs such a s maple sugar or egg white beaten with sugar noticeable until the affected textiles are exposed to the heat of tumbling or iron-
are relatively harmless to textiles from the chemical standpoint, but do form ing. Then the damaged areas appear a s brown spots, which often disintegrate
crystalline coatings that can cause mechanical damage. and leave pinholes during use.
Damage to table linens, bedspreads, and the poorer grades of sheeting fre- A common mechanical problem t h a t causes damage to textiles in the
quently can be traced to manufacturing imperfections or to impractical design. laundry is overheated tumblers. Excessively high temperatures cause scorch-
For example, some table linens and bedspreads, particularly items with special ing. In addition, laundries that use perchloroethylene may encounter acid
designs, are constructed to have many floats (yarns running over the top of the damage to textiles from overheated tumblers. When exposed to flames or red-
woven yarns without interlacing). Yarns that arenot interwoven usually have hot metal higher than 900°F, perchloroethylene can decompose to produce
a very low twist and aren't very durable. The filaments are very easily broken strong corrosive acids that can damage cotton textiles. This problem may be
by slight abrasion and by stresses encountered during wear or in the washer. corrected by proper maintenance and operation of tumblers.
Poorly constructed table linens and bedspreads often sustain physical dam-
age during laundering. For example, some tablecloths made of cotton and
rayon with jacquard designs contain many floated yarns of loosely twisted Damage to polyester/cotton blends
rayon filaments. This particular type of construction sacrifices durability for While the cotton portion of a blended textile is subject to the same types of
a n attractive appearance. Consequently, during laundering and even general damage a s items of 100 percent cotton, the polyester portion has a higher
use the loose floating yarns have a great susceptibility to wear a n d a tendency resistance to chemical (other than alkali) and mechanical damage than does
to snag, leading to increased possibilities of damage. the cotton portion.
A common occurrence in blended textiles is the almost complete removal of
Chemical damage during manufacture the cotton portion due to either chemical damage, a s described earlier, or
During manufacture, textile damage can also occur in the finishing process. mechanical damage. This mechanical damage is caused by a n abrasive action
Chemical agents, particularly bleach, are usually responsible. As in launder- of the polyester on the cotton during use and laundering. The flexing of the
ing, bleach used in high concentrations or a t excessively high temperatures blended fabric causes the polyester fibers to cut or abrade the cotton fibers into
during manufacture causes marked degradation of fibers. short lengths. These short cotton fibers are removed in laundering, usually
Tests of many samples of cotton tablecloths t h a t have developed holes or appearing a s lint. Many laundries observe more lint from blends than from all-
even fallen apart during laundering have proven t h a t the damage was caused cotton items due to this action.
by overbleaching during manufacture. To check results, unlaundered items The polyester portion of blended fabrics most often is damaged by strong
alkaline solutions. This damage, called alkaline hydrolysis, is greatest a t high
temperatures or in the presence of quaternary ammonium compounds (some Turnbull's b l u e t e s t
softeners and some bacteriostats). Chemicals:
Polyester fabrics are thermoplastic and become "relaxed" a t high tempera- 1. Solution A - 10 grams of ferrous sulfate per liter of water.
tures. This relaxed state allows the fiber to free itself of wrinkles and return to 2. Solution R - 10 grams of potassium ferricyanide per liter of water.
the desired shape. However, wrinkles are believed to be set into polyester by
too-rapid cooling from a relaxed state. This problem usually occurs during rins- Procedure:
ing as the water temperature is lowered and is often referred to a s thermal 1. Immerse the sample in Solution A.
shock. Overloading increases the amount of wrinkling because of increased 2. Rinse in warm water (55"C, 131°F).
compression of the load and erratic cool down. 3. Immerse in Solution B for five minutes.
4. Rinse in hot water (70°C, 158°F).
TESTS F O R DAMAGE Obseruation: A deep blue color shows the presence of carboxyl groups, indi-
A number of tests can be used to evaluate the nature a n d extent of damage to cating cellulose damage.
fibers a n d textiles. The procedures listed here are for analyzing some of the
types of damage typically found in a professional laundry. For a comprehensive R e s i s t d y e i n g test
listing of test methods, refer to more specialized sources such a s Analytical Chemicals: A solution of 5 grams of Chlorazol Sky Blue F F (C.I. Direct Blue
Methods for a Textile Laboratory, Third Edition, American Association of 1) per liter of water.
Textile Chemists and Colorists, 1984. Procedure:
Chemicals referred to in the following tests may be purchased from local 1. Immerse the sample in the dye solution a n d boil for five minutes.
chemical supply companies. 2. Rinse in hot water (70°C, 158°F).
Teds for chemical damage to cellulosic fibers (coffon, linen) Observation: Light spots show the presence of carboxyl groups, indicating
Fehling's solution cellulose damage.
1. Solution A - 60 grams of copper sulfate per liter of water. Muller's t e s t
2. Solution B - 346 grams of potassium sodium tartrate and 100 grams of Chemicals:
sodium hydroxide per liter of water. 1. Solution A - 10 grams of phenylhydrazine-p-sulfonic acid per liter of
Procedure: 2. Solution B - 2 grams of Fast Blue Salt (C.I. Azoic Diazo Component 48)
1. Mix equal parts of solutions A and B. and 1 gram of sodium bicarbonate per liter of water.
2. Immerse the sample i n the mixture and boil for 10 minutes.
3. Rinse in hot water (70°C, 158°F). Procedure:
1. Immerse two samples in Solution A (boiling).
Observation: Pink or red deposits (cuprous oxide) indicate the presence of 2. Remove one sample after 30 seconds, the other after one hour.
reducing groups, which damage cellulose. 3. Rinse both samples thoroughly in warm water (55OC, 131°F).
Harrison's test 4. Immerse both samples in Solution B (room temperature) for 20 minutes.
Chemicals: 5. Rinse in hot water (70°C, 158°F).
1. Solution A - 80 grams of silver nitrate per liter of water. Obseruations:
2. Solution B - 200 grams of sodium thiosulfate and 200 grams of sodium 1. Sample 1(30 seconds in Solution A, 20 minutes in Solution B) - a brown-
hydroxide per liter of water. red stain indicates oxycellulose (bleach/alkali damage).
Procedure: 2. Sample 2 (one hour in Solution A, 20 minutes in Solution B)-a red-violet
1. Dilute Solution A 1:20 with water and diluteSolution B 1:10 with water. stain indicates hydrocellulose (mineral acid damage).
2. Mix equal volumes of the diluted solutions. Tests for chemical damage to nylon (and other polyamide) fibers
3. Immerse sample and boil for five minutes. Ninhydrin test
4. Rinse in Solution B dilution (1:lO). Chemicals: 5 grams of ninhydrin per liter of water.
5. Rinse i n hot water (70°C, 158°F).
Observation: A gray or black deposit of silver indicates the presence of 1. Place a sample of damaged fabric and a sample of undamaged fabric in
reducing (aldehyde) groups, which damage cellulose. the test solution and bofi for five minutes.
2. Rinse and allow to dry. bacteria are able to grow. Effective bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents pre-
vent growth of the bacteria species toward the fabric. The greater the distance
Observation: If the damaged sample absorbs less dye and is a different between the bacteria growth and the fabric, the more effective the finishing
shade than the undamaged sample, damage from light is indicated. Sam- treatment.
ples damaged by acid or alkali absorb more dye than the undamaged
Most of the stains encountered in the professional laundry are removed in the
Test for damage to polyester regular washing process. The stains remaining after washing are generally of
W N,N-dimethylparaphenylenediaminehydrochloride test unknown origin, although long experience usually allows operators to judge
Chemicals: A solution of 0.2 grams of N,N-dimethylparaphenylenediamine the basic character of the stain - grease- or oil-based, rust, and so forth.
hydrochloride, 5 milliliters of 0.4 N potassium hydroxide, 95 milliliters of Many methods have been developed to deal with the large number and var-
methyl alcohol, and 100milliliters of benzene. (Dissolvethe 0.2 grams in the iety of stains encountered on textiles. In professional drycleaning, stains are
potassium hydroxide, then add the methyl alcohol, followed by the benzene.) dealt with on an individual basis, and highly skilled spotters employ specific
stain-removal procedures for known and unknown stains.
Procedure: Immerse the sample in the test solution and shake it for two However, the professional launderer, working with largevolumes of textiles,
hours. simply cannot treat stains on a n individual basis. Stains must be treated in
Observation: A yellow-brown stain indicates damage from weathering. bulk.
This approach is presented in this section on stain removal. The stain remo-
TESTS K)R BACTERIOLOGICALGROWTH val procedures discussed here have been reduced to a few basic treatments,
A number of bacteriological tests designed to monitor the presence and/or type each of which can be applied to large volumes of stained fabrics in the washer.
of bacteriological species on equipment and/or fabric are available to the (Detailed formulas a m e a r in Tables 9-3 and 9-4.)

laundry operator. Stains are grouped broadly into four basic categories:
Specialized training and equipment are needed to perform culture-type 1. grease- and oil-based (animal or vegetable derived),
evaluations. 2. oxidizable (many foods and medicines),
Hard surfaces such as laundry carts, washing machines, and trucks are 3. reducible (dye), and
normally evaluated. A trained technologist collects samples fromvarious loca- 4. metallic (aluminum and rust).
tions. The samples are cultured to encourage bacterial growth, and the colonies The proper approach to dealing with these stains is to remove each of them
of bacteria are identified and counted to determine the type and level of con- sequentially in the washer by the shortest, simplest, and least costly procedure
tamination. Culture testing i s especially appropriate in healthcare that preserves the color and strength of the fabrics being treated.
Textile surfaces such a s ironer covers and press covers are not normally Grease and oil-based stalns
evaluated using the above procedure. The porous and rough texture of these Grease- and oil-based stains come from a number of sources. Body oils and
surfaces makes obtaining accurate samples for evaluation difficult. greases, either exuded or applied, stain wearing apparel. The numerous fatty
Researchers have had success using impression plates, a method in which substances contained and used in food are found on restaurant linen and
fabric surfaces are pressedinto a growth medium and later cultured, identified, garments.
and counted. However, research indicates that the transfer to impression plate On cotton, these stains usually yield to high temperature and high alkalinity
i s not always complete, leaving some organisms undetected because they for extended periods of time. One treatment is a n alkaline boil (boil out):
didn't transfer to the medium. Draw a low water level.
A more accurate procedure for evaluating bacteriological species on fabric is W Add about three pounds of anhydrous sodium orthosilicate per 100 pounds
to cut a specimen of the fabric, pulverize the specimen in a blender, and sample of textiles and sufficient soap or synthetic detergent to produce a heavy suds
the resulting solution. a t temperatures ranging from 195O to 205OF.
Some tests are designed to monitor the performance of bacteriostatic or bac- Agitate for 30 minutes to three hours.
tericidal finishes, either permanent or laundry applied. Rinse.
The standard test used to evaluate the effectiveness of a finish is the zones of This treatment does have drawbacks. It consumes large amounts of time,
inhibition test. The technologist takes samples of the fabric, places them in a supplies, and energy. It also affects tensile strength because the textiles are pro-
bacteriological media, adds bacteria species to the media, and allows them to cessed a t high temperatures in oxygenated water of very high alkalinity.
grow. After a specified period of time, the technologist evaluates the samples in An alternative treatment is to use a surfactant-based formula with less alka-
terms of zones of inhibition, which measure how close to the fabric sample the linity and lower temperature. Surfactant-based products are also more effec-
tive than alkaline products on mineral-oil stains. The recommended formula is: oxalic acid treatment generally is the first used in any sequential stain removal
H Draw a low water level a t 180°F. procedure; it can be removed or neutralized by subsequent treatments in the
H Add about four pounds of product per 100 pounds of textiles. cvcle.
H Agitate for 20 minutes. The process is:
H Rinse. H Draw a low water level a t 150' to 160°F.
I Add oxalic acid a t the rate of 8 to 16 ounces per 100 pounds of textiles being
Oxidizable stains processed.
These stains are from the color-based materials found in foods, medicines, and I Agitate for about 20 minutes.
cosmetic preparations. They yield to the action of an oxidizing bleach, such a s I Rinse three or four times.
chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, or even sodium perborate.
These stains require strong bleaching action, much more intense t h a n the The stain-removalsequence in the washer
bleaching action encountered in the regular washing process t h a t they may The common stain-removal procedure in the washer combines the boil out,
have already undergone. However, a n intensified bleaching process leads to a bleach treatment, and oxalic treatment into a single formula. The reducing
decrease in tensile strength. To minimize this problem, the formula calls for a bleach treatment is used only in special instances.
low temperature. By reducing the bleaching temperature from 160' to 88OF,
bleach activity is reduced sixteen fold (six percent of the activity a t 160°F),allow- Table 9-3: Stain-removal procedure for unknown stains
ing for corresponding increases in bleach-bath strength. An overnight soak is
the most effective way to bleach out oxidizable stains: Water Temperature Time Supply usage
H Draw a high level of water a t a temperature not exceeding 80°F. Operation level ("F) (min.) Supply type per I00 Ibs.
H Add 5 to 15 quarts of one percent bleach per 100 pounds of fabric.
I Soak the textiles for four hours to overnight. Bleach soak High 80 Overnight Bleach 5 to 15 quarts
I Add antichlor to the rinse water to deactivate the heavy concentration of of 1%bleach
bleach. Rinse High 110 3 M u m b~suif~te 2 ounces
Reducible stains Rinse High 110 1
Reducible stains generally are dyes, most commonly hair preparations, but Rinse High 110 1
also other fugitive dyes encountered in the professional laundry. They require
the action of reducing bleaches; the most common one used is sodium hydrosul- Fabrics still stained should be set aside and treated as follows:
fite with an alkali such a s soda ash. Reducing sour Low 150 15-20 Oxal~cacid 8 to 16 ounces
The process is:
H Draw a low water level a t 160°F. Rinse High 150-160 1
H Add sodium hydrosulfite a t the rate of 2 pounds per 100 pounds of fabric. Rinse High 150-160 1
I Agitate for about 20 minutes.
H Rinse. Boil out Low 195-205 60-180 Sodium 4 pounds
Metallic stains silicate
Iron rust i s the most common stain in this group. Rust stains are removed by a
reducing agent such a s oxalic acid, sodium or ammonium bifluoride, sodium Soop or To suds
trisulfate, or hydrofluoric acid. detergent
The bifluorides and hydrofluoric acid are relatively safe for fabrics because Rinse High 150-170 1
they can be left in textiles in lower concentrations without danger of tendering
Rinse High 130-150 1
or weakening the fabric.
The fluoride compounds are hazardous and must be used carefully. Hydro- Rinse High 100-120 1
fluoric acid, in particular, can be fatal to humans and must be used only with
Rinse High 110 1
extreme caution.
Oxalic acid is a reducing sour, and its reducing action also is effective Rinse High 110 1
against other reducible stains in the load. However, it's very damaging to cot- Sour Low 110 4 Sour To des~redpH
ton if allowed to remain in the textile following treatment. For this reason, the
Experience shows that the overnight bleach soak (top portion of Table 9-3) For example, most linen supply classifications average about three percent,
normally removes between 70 a n d 85 percent of all stains encountered in the but bib aprons are likely to average much higher in stain rejection. This reflects
professional laundry. This procedure does not take time out of the productive the severe use and abuse aprons receive. Similarly, diapers t h a t are exposed
day and frequently is carried out a s a single step. The 15to 30 percent of stained to food and medicines are very stain-prone.
textiles that don't respond to the treatment are set aside for oxalic treatment Stain reject averages should be used a s a guide to washing intensity. For
and boil out (bottom portion of Table 9-3), which must be done during produc- example, a washing formula that holds stain reject percentages in diapers
tion hours. below five percent may be taking a n inordinate toll on textile strength. Test
A plant processing 100,000 pounds per week with three percent stain reject pieces can help determine if washing intensity is too great. Similarly, hospital
has a weekly stain load of 3,000 pounds. This represents four 800-pound over- linens showing 10 percent stain reject may need a more intensive washing
night loads a week, but only one load needs to be treated with oxalic acid and formula (greater concentration of alkali, detergent, bleach, higher tempera-
boiled out. tures, and longer washing time) to reduce stain rejects.
The reducing bleach treatment (Table 9-4) is used only in special instances Removing silver nitrate stains
in which stains are known to be reducible. These stain-removal procedures Silver nitrate stains pose special problems in hospital and medical work. The
(Tables 9-3 and 9-4) are intended only a s guides to problems currently being above formulas don't work on these stains, but the following will:
experienced in the industry. Various segments of the textile rental industry To spot stains:
encounter high or low stain percentages depending upon the soil classification Make a cold 1percent alcoholic solution of iodine crystals and apply to the
and the severity of washing. stained area.
After a few minutes, decolorize the iodine-moistened area with a 3 percent
Table 96: Stain-removal procedure for reducible stains sodium thiosulfate solution.
Follow with regular laundry processing.
Water Temperature Time Supply usage To soak linens in bulk, two solutions are needed:
Operation level ("F) (min.) Supply type per 400 Ibs. To immerse garments, prepare a solution containing 11 ounces per gallon
each of citric acid and thiourea.
Flush High Hot 2 To soak garments overnight, use this solution diluted 30:l.
- -

Reducing sour Low 150 15-20 Oxalic acid 8 to 16 ounces Launder fabrics lightly following immersion or soaking.

Rinse High 150-160 1

Rinse High 150-160 1
Boil out Low 195-205 60-180 Sodium 4 pounds

Soap or To suds
Rinse High 170-180 1
Rinse High 150-160 1

Rinse High 150-160 1

Bleach Low 150-160 20-30 Bleach 6 to 8 quarts
of 1%bleach
Rinse High 120-130 3 Sodium 2 ounces
Rinse High 100-120 1
Rinse High 100-120 1
- - - -

Sour Low 100-120 4 Sour To desired pH


he professional laundry plant uses water and energy to process linen
supply and industrial textiles. In the process, it discharges chemicals and
soils a s wastewater and stack emissions.
This chapter identifies water and air pollution considerations and how
launderers can conserve energy.
For more complete information on wastewater processes, refer to publica-
tions by TRSA and other sources. The material presented in this chapter pro-
vides a n introduction and historical perspective only.
In the years following World War 11, the sudden rise in industrial and home
construction forced many municipalities to enlarge their sewage disposal facil-
ities and build new treatment plants to handle the increasing amounts of
To get the funds to build new plants and expand existing facilities, local
governments had to find new revenues. Many decided to impose surcharges for
handling industrial sewage rather than add to the residential tax burden.
However, even the enlarged publicly owned treatment works (POTWs)
couldn't keep up with two problems caused in part by laundry products used by
both consumers and professional launderers:
nonbiodegradable detergents were producing large amounts of stable foam
in lakes, rivers, and streams.
phosphates were enriching the water, causing rapid plant growth that
accelerated aging of slow-moving bodies of water.
Nonbiodegradable detergents
POTWs use both chemical and natural processes to remove pollutants from
wastewater effluent. Bacterial action is a key factor in water purification. Bac-
teria and other microorganisms in water, with the assistance of sunlight and
dissolved oxygen, decompose many natural and synthetic substances. This
phenomenon is referred to a s biodegradation, and substances acted upon by
bacteria are said to be biodegradable.
Most soils and chemical washing agents are completely biodegradable.
However, synthetic detergents produced from petroleum sources prior to 1963 als such a s cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc.
were not easily biodegraded, and their wide use in consumer laundry deter- Normally, BOD and SS (suspended solids) are considered compatible to a
gents in the 1950s and early 1960s led to severe problems of foaming in streams POTW. However. POTWs have been setting limitations on the acceptable con-
and waterways. Standing suds on streams and sewage treatment ponds were a centration of these compatibles and assessing a user charge for excess
common sight a t that time. On Mondays and Tuesdays, traditional consumer amounts discharged. POTWs also have been setting maximum discharge lirn-
wash days, foam heights often reached six or seven feet. its for oils, greases, and heavy metals. Limits on heavy metal concentrations
Manufacturers of laundry detergents reacted by reformulating consumer can be particularly troublesome for some professional laundries.
products to combat this problem. Beginning on July 1,1963,nonbiodegradable The cost of discharging water into a POTW probably will continue to
detergents were gradually replaced by products meeting rigid standards for increase a s municipalities charge higher industrial recovery costs and user
biodegradation established cooperatively by the government and the Soap and fees or ad valorem taxes. Municipal sewer districts assess industrial recovery
Detergent Association. costs against most industrial dischargers to repay money loaned to the POTW
to expand and upgrade its facilities. User charges or ad valorem taxes a r e
Phosphates in detergents assessed against users of a municipal sewer system depending on the amount
In the late 1960s,consumer groups expressed much concern about the presence of contaminants they discharge into the system.
of algae and slime in lakes, ponds, and waterways. This growth of algae and But perhaps even more of a concern to professional launderers is the fact
slime is termed eutrophication - the process by which aquatic vegetation that their ability to discharge many substances into municipal sewer systems
grows to such a n extent that it clogs lakes and waterways, making them unfit is likely to be severely limited, if not banned, as the list of potentially toxic a n d
for industrial use, navigation, and recreation. hazardous substances is expanded by the federal Environmental Protection
Research indicated that phosphorus compounds were causing eutrophica- Agency (EPA).
tion because of their nutrient qualities for plant life. Whether phosphorus in
detergents is a principal cause of eutrophication is debatable. Both human WATER AND ENERGY CONSERVATION
excrement from sewage disposal plants and fertilizer contained in runoff from The cost of water for laundry processing has risen sharply in the past decade.
farm lands constitute major sources of phosphorus pollution. The cost increase is attributable to the increased cost of water itself, to t h e
Chemists have tested and evaluated many possible replacements for phos- added charge for sewage disposal, and to special user charges for discharging
phates in detergents, including carbonates, zeolites, citrates, and complex certain pollutants in sewage.
organic sequestering agents. An even more compelling reason for conserving water than its cost alone i s
None of these has proven to be as effective in the detergency process a s phos- the fact that 40 to 60 percent of all water usedin the professional laundry must
phates. In fact, some of these phosphate replacements have created new envir- be heated. Obviously, the less water used, theless energy is required forheating.
onmental concerns because they can resuspend heavy metal contaminants. The rapid risein energy costs has given added impetus to the search for ways
This issue is not yet completely resolved. Certain localities ban the use of to reduce water consumption.
phosphorus and its compounds in laundry detergents. However, many other Water can be conserved in a t least two ways:
areas allow the use of phosphates in commercial laundry detergents figuring 1. Rinse waters can be recycled with no treatment.
that the detergency benefits outweigh the small contribution to overall phos- 2. Water can be recycled through a water reclamation system.
phorus levels. By using the formulas listed in Chapter 7, laundry operators can reduce
water use about 20 to 50 percent below traditional formulas without using a
Wastewater regulations water reclamation system.
The professional laundry can expect to see higher costs to purchase water, Washer/extractors eliminate one rinse cycle by adding an intermediate
higher costs to discharge polluted water, and severe limitations on the dis- extraction step between rinses. Obviously, because less rinse water is used o n
charge of toxic or hazardous substances into municipal sewer systems. equipment with intermediate extraction, less water is saved by reuse.
With the emergence of environmental protection agencies at every level of Continuous washing systems can reduce water consumption to as low as one
government from local to federal, industrial establishments are coming under gallon per pound of merchandise. By design, continuous washing systems
increasingly stringent regulations governing sewer discharges. As substantial reuse a substantial portion of water and energy, which in part accounts for
users of water, professional laundries have come under close scrutiny. their increasing popularity.
Many municipalities now assess fees for industrial discharge based on the The cost of gas or oil required to heat water, generate steam, and run condi-
volume and characteristics of the wastewater. Pollutants normally measured tioning and drying equipment adds up to about 50 percent of total nonlabor
as characteristics of wastewater are materials that consume dissolved oxygen, variable laundry processing costs. For this reason, many operators closely
biological oxygen demand (BOD),and chemical oxygen demand (COD);mate- monitor and control steam and hot water consumption and the use of gas i n
rials (mineral-basedoiland grease) soluble in Freon or hexane; and heavy met-
conditioning and drying. stantial. Two methods of conserving dryer heat are:
However, a total energy and water conservation plan requires vigilance 1. using a heat pipe (or wheel) unit, which warms incoming air by running it
throughout the operation: through a finned bank of tubes set in the dryer exhaust, and
2. recirculating air from the dryer.
Physical plant and maintenance The first method is commonly used in heavy industry and has been adapted
Energy conservation in the plant starts with insulating hot water and steam to the professional laundry. For the second method, factors such a s lint filter-
pipes and tanks, inspecting steam traps, repairing steam and condensate ing and the moisture level and re-entry point of recirculated air must be consi-
leaks, repairing water leaks, and using low-energy light bulbs in all light dered when selecting, sizing, and installing air recirculating units.
Boiler operation and heat recovery AIR POLLUTION
For maximum savings, boilers must be maintained a t peak operating effi- Increasingly stringent local regulations in various parts of the country control
ciency. More importantly, an efficient wastewater heat reclaimer can reduce atmospheric pollution.
energy consumption by a s much a s 40 percent over a-system with no reclaimer. Two emission standards that come under the jurisdiction of the EPA and
that are being regulated a t federal, state, and local levels are particularly
Processing important to linen supply and industrial rental plants:
Processing procedures offer many opportunities to conserve energy. 1. discharges of pollutants from boiler stacks, primarily from coal-fired and
Reduce h o t w a t e r temperatures. Many plants maintain hot water high-sulfur, fuel-oil-fired boilers, and
temperatures of 180°F.While this temperature may be needed for breaks, suds, 2. perchloroethylene (perc) emissions from drycleaning operations.
and carryovers, it's often higher than needed for rinsing and souring. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also is impos-
An energy-saving procedure here is to lower water tank temperature to 160°F ing strict standards on the use of perchloroethylene.
or less and use a thermal control that adds steam to the wheel to boost water Usually, local agencies have the authority to enforce regulations that are
temperature as high as needed for the break. While some may argue that using more strict than federal government regulations. Therefore, each operator
steam in the hot water heating tank is more efficient than in the washer, a must exercise close vigilance over actions being taken, or considered, by state
lower hot water tank temperature probably results in lower overall energy use. and local regulatory bodies.
One reason for this is that light- and medium-soil formulas perform satisfactor-
ily at a top temperature of 130" to 145OF.
L o w e r w a t e r levels. Reducing water levels reduces the liquid/fabric ratio
in each bath, which in turn reduces the efficiency of the dilution process.
Many operators have attempted to reduce energy consumption by lowering
suds levels by one inch and rinse levels by two inches. However, to offset the
reduced dilution effect, they've had to add processing steps. For example, in
many cases, lowering the rinse levels by two inches requires an additional
rinse. In this situation, total water consumption actually increases rather than
Substitute a n i n t e r m e d i a t e e x t r a c t f o r a rinse. This is frequent practice
with washer/extractors. In general, a one-minute intermediate extract elimi-
nates one rinse. This practice also represents a n efficient means of managing
washing temperatures by reducing the amount of water requiring temperature
change. Intermediate extraction decreases the amount of moisture retained in
the fabric by approximately one-half of what is retained after a simple drain
step. For example, 100 percent cotton retains 0.3 gallons of water per pound fol-
lowing a drain operation and only 0.15 gallons per pound following an inter-
mediate extraction. Although this lost water must be made up in the next cycle
after the intermediate extraction, the subsequent fill uses less water than does
an extra rinse step. The intermediate extraction also provides the benefit of
chemical consistency of the rinsing bath.
Recover d r y e r heat. For many years, operators paid no attention to the
energy lost in dryer and conditioner exhaust. However, the waste can be sub-

M any considerations must be taken into account when selecting equip-

ment for a laundry, including:
machine capacity,
physical space,
capital costs
return on investment,
projected maintenance costs,
availability and cost of utilities,
quality level,
production capacity, and
labor costs.
One function of washing equipment and related material-handling devices i s
to minimize the number of times an item is handled during processing. Of
course, the main function of washing equipment is to provide mechanical
action necessary to dilute, suspend, and remove soil. The main function of fin-
ishing equipment is to aid in presenting an attractive product to the customer.
This chapter reviews the washing and finishing equipment available to meet
these goals.


Conventional washing equipment is designed only to wash textiles. Extraction
takes place in a separate piece of equipment. Washers are horizontal cylinders
of either conventional design (dual cylinder, one rotating, one stationary) or
shelless (single rotating cylinder) that are manufactured to be loaded either a t
the end or on the side. Conventional washer operation can be manual, semi-
automatic, or automatic. A semi-automatic machine automatically controls
inlet and dump valves, regulates water levels, and controls the time of each
bath. A fully automatic washer also has automatic supply injection and, with
auxiliary equipment, can be mechanically loaded and unloaded.
The three configurations of washing cylinders are:
open-pocket (Figure 11-I),
split-pocket or Pullman (Figure 11-2),and
Y-pocket (Figure 11-3).
and design of ribs, and desired action. The rotational speed a t the cylinder
Figure 11-1:Open-pocket washwheel Figure 44-2: Split-pocket (Pullman)
washwheel (cutaway e n d view)
determines the G force developed by Equation 11-1.
(cutaway e n d view)
Equation 4 4-4:
G force = dR2/704I 4
G force = force at the inner edge of the cylmder circumference
d = inside diarneter of cylinder in inches
R = rotation rpm of cylinder
Low G-force washers tend to rotate the load in the lower part of the washer.
High G-force (almost 1 G) machines push the fabric against the washing
cylinder. Most conventional washers have a G force of 0.6 to 0.7 G to allow for
lift, fall, and rotation of the textiles.
The proper rotation speed in a n open-pocket machine lifts the load to a point
above the midpoint of the cylinder a n d then allows i t to fall into the cleaning
solution. This lift and fall provides the necessary mechanical action for clean-
ing. If rotation speed i s too slow, there is no lifting action. If rotation is too fast,
the load will not fall.
Figure 11-3: Y-Pocket washwheel Load size and water requirements are determined by the diameter and length
(cutaway e n d view) of the cylinder a n d shell, and space between the inner cylinder and outer shell.
At least two water levels are needed for proper laundering and rinsing action.
Low levels provide the least dilution of chemicals and are used for break, suds,
carry over, bleach, and sour baths. High water levels provide maximum dilu-
tion of soil and chemicals and are used for flushing and rinsing baths.
The high and low water levels are determined by the ratio of water to fabric.
Suggested levels vary, depending on machine design features such a s the clear-
ance between the shell and washing cylinder, but general recommendations
low water levels provide a ratio of four pounds of water (% gallon) for each
p m n d of textiles,
high water levels provide a ratio of six pounds of water (% gallon) for each
pound of textiles.
Many operators standardize suds and rinse levels a t 6 and 12 inches respec-
tively a s measured from the bottom of the washing cylinder. For all-cotton
loads, these levels correspond to a total quantity of water, both absorbed and
Open-pocket machines are generally considered to provide the best mechani- free, of about 4:l for suds and 6:l for rinse levels. For 50/50 polyester/cotton
cal action for cleaning. However, unless the machines are equipped with tilt- loads, the levels are about 3:l for suds and 5:l for rinses because polyester
ing, cylinder elevation, or other unloading aids, the labor costs for unloading absorbs less water.
may be higher than for the other two cylinder designs, depending on the size of Here's a n example of how to convert ratios of total weight of fabric,/total
the washer. weight of water to gallons of water and water levels: 1,600 pounds of water is
Mechanical action for washing and rinsing occurs when thecylinder rotates. required to achieve the 4:l suds level in a washer rated a t 400 pounds for cotton
For large-piece processing, the direction of rotation may be reversed a t regular fabric; one gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds; and 1/3 gallon of water is
intervals to prevent tangling and to better distribute washing chemicals. For retained per pound of cotton. Therefore:
small-piece processing in which tangling isn't a problem, many operators 8.34 pounds x 113 gallons = 2.5 pounds of water reta~ned per pound of cotton
prefer to use washers that have been manufactured, modified, or programmed 1,600 pounds of water/ 8 34 pounds per gallon = 192 gallons required
to rotate continuously in one direction. This results in significant electrical 400 poundsof cotton goodsx 1/3 gallonsof water per pound of cotton = 133 gallons of water
savings and 15 percent more mechanical action. to saturate
The rotational speed of washers is determined by cylinder diameter, height 192 gallons required - 133 gallons to saturate = 59 gallons of water to achieve desired level
and suds ratio
The remaining 59 gallons of water produces the desired level in the machine. Tumblers
However, equipment differs among manufacturers, so specifications must be Tumblers or dryers consist of rotating cylinders through which heated a i r
consulted to determine the proper level setting to yield a volume of 59 gallons passes to remove moisture from clean textiles.
taking into consideration the volume displaced by the saturated load. For most The heated air is provided by steam or hot-oil coils; electrically heated coils;
equipment, the level is five or six inches. or a n open fire of natural gas, propane, or oil. The amount of drying that textiles
receive in a tumbler depends on the type of finishing needed. Turkish towels,
Extractors diapers, and other items are fully dried since the tumbler is the last and only
Extractors are designed to remove a large percentage of water from a washed . . piece of finishing equipment. Garments and linens are often only precondi-
load before further processing. Separate extractors are needed for conventional tioned for other finishing processes. Two key elements of efficient drying a r e
and batch washers only. the volume of the basket and the quantity of air passing through the load.
There are two types:
centrifugal units and Ironers and presses
hydraulic presses. Many of the textile items processed by a professional laundry require ironing
Centrifugal or rotary extractors spin the water out of textiles a t high speeds. or pressing a s a final finishing step. Flat items such a s sheets and pillowcases
The extraction cycle of a washer/extractor operates in the same way. The load are routinely finished on roll-type flatwork ironers, and contoured items s u c h
must be evenly distributed around the circumference of the extractor so t h a t it a s cotton wearing apparel are typically finished on presses.
doesn't become unbalanced and cause the extractor to "walk." Normal flatwork ironer design consists of from one to 12 padded rollers i n
Speed and extraction time are determined by the temperature and fiber con- contact with heated metal chests.
tent of the load. Cool loads require longer extraction t h a n warm loads, that Ironer pads are made of metal, aramid, or high-temperature nylon. The con-
is, the hotter the bath prior to extraction, the more water removed during dition of the ironer pads is critical to obtaining a quality finish. Pads and cov-
extraction. ers must be replaced periodically to maintain the proper roll diameter and chest
Hydraulic press extractors use either a diaphragm or a piston to squeeze contact for optimum ironer performance and ironing speeds.
water out of a fabric. The load i s reduced to a compressed "cake" for finishing. The most common heat source for flatwork ironers is steam, although g a s
Diaphragm extractors can exert pressure of up to 600 psi (pounds per square and heated synthetic fluids are also used. T h e degree of dryness obtained from
inch) to the textiles. In one type of diaphragm extractor, up to 225 pounds of a flatwork ironer is determined by:
textiles are loaded into its flexible, one-piece molded diaphragm liner, which the temperature of the chest,
squeezes the load from all sides with hydraulic pressure. the pressure of the rollers against the chest,
In one type of piston extractor, a 200-pound capacity tubis rolled into position the speed a t which items pass through the ironer,
over the piston. Hydraulic pressure forces the piston upward against the wet the number of rolls on the ironer,
textiles, squeezing the water from the load. the degree of contact between the rollers and the chest, and
the nature and moisture content of the fabric being ironed.
WasherJextractors Utility presses used to finish wearing apparel and small flat pieces consist of
Washer/extractors are, a s the name implies, a combination washer and a n upper unit called the head and a lower unit called the buck. The operator
extractor. The cylinders are designed basically the same a s in conventional places the garment on the buck and closes the head.
washers a s open-, split-, or Y-pockets. Multispeed motors or additional motors The head can be a polished metal surface or padded. Both buck and head a r e
provide the high-speed cylinder rotation needed to extract a large percentage of heated either by steam or electricity.
the moisture that would otherwise be retained.
A washer/extractor provides a number of advantages over a conventional Steam tunnels
washer: Steam tunnels consist of a conveyor system t h a t transports garments o n
It eliminates the need for a separate extractor, which reduces requirements hangers through a cabinet or tunnel equipped with steam and air jets. T h e
for floor space and labor. steam tunnel's main function is to remove wrinkles while drying the garment.
The extraction process markedly reduces the weight of the load, making For maximum performance, the tunnel's temperature, humidity, and con-
manual unloading easier. veyor speed must be properly adjusted. Then, after leaving the tunnel, gar-
The ability to use intermediate extractions during washing can reduce time, ments must be allowed to h a n g free until cool.
energy, and water requirements. For example, an intermediate extract be- Steam tunnels provide high-production finishing of durable-press garments
tween a cold or warm flush and a hot suds reduces the amount of energy a t a low per-piece cost. However, they can't do a quality job unless processing
needed to raise the water temperature, or a n intermediate extract during the guidelines designed to eliminate wrinkling in permanent-press items are fol-
rinse baths can eliminate a minimum of one rinse. lowed throughout the entire laundry operation. The tunnel or cabinet may n o t
be able to remove wrinkles set into garments by a n overloaded washer or a n Textile handling systems for tunnel washers
overnight stay in a cart. Generally, tunnel washers are loaded automatically, either by a compartmen-
talized loading conveyor t h a t advances the compartments of textiles one a t a
Steam air finishers and specialized presses time on command from the tunnel, or from bags on a n overhead rail that open
Garments such a s pants and shirts are frequently finished on specialized on command.
presses, equipment called pants and shirt presses. These pieces of equipment Compartmentalized conveyors are normally available with up to 12 com-
use metal forms or inflated bags to hold the garment in the desired shape dur- partments. The operator loads the textiles into the lowest compartment of the
ing drying to achieve the final finish. conveyor a n d enters the classification into the tunnel's control system. The
With body-form equipment, the operator places the garment over a form that control system tracks the load a s i t progresses through the tunnel, adding
i s inflated by a mixture of air and steam. chemicals a n d controlling temperatures a s needed in each chamber.
In another method, polished, heated metal surfaces close on the garment, Some loading conveyors include a weighing device to assure t h a t the man-
which h a s been placed on a metal form. This specialized equipment can make agement-mandated quantity for each soil classification is added to the con-
sharp creases a n d smooth waistlines a t a higher rate of production t h a n can veyor each time. The controller is programmed with specific soiled load
universal presses. weights for each soil classification. Operators simply enter the classification
into the controller, which automatically accesses a n d displays pertinent
TUNNEL WASHING information on the system's control panel. The weighing systems often include
- -- about the mid-1950s, laundering was entirely a batch process in which
audible and/or visual signals to guide the operator i n putting the right quan-
soiled goods were sudsed with alkalies and surfactants, bleached, rinsed, tity in each compartment of the conveyor.
soured, and finished in a series of baths drawn and dumped from the same Advantages claimed for compartmentalized loading conveyors over bag-on-
machine. rail systems include lower initial cost and lower ceiling height requirements.
Then the need to conserve water, labor, a n d energy led to a search for a more Automatically opened bags on rails are also popular. With this system, soiled
efficient laundry process. I n Europe, where water and personnel needs were goods generally are loaded into bags in the sorting area. The bags are stored on
critical, the concept of the tunnel washer evolved. This concept h a s developed one of several rails, usually according to the washing and/or finishing classi-
a t a rapid pace. fication.
The advantages claimed for bag systems are that they can store large quan-
The development of continuous batch tunnel washers tities of prepared, separated soiled linen and they are more automatic t h a n
The idea of producing linen in distinct batches or lots continuously and without conveyor systems.
pause for loading and unloading presented formidable engineering problems.
The biggest problems were how to create distinct washing zones and provide Types of tunnel washers
efficient moisture extraction. Tunnel washers are classified according to their method of moving water and
The first attempts a t a continuous washing system evolved from the concept textiles. Tunnel washers are either bottom-transfer or top-transfer machines.
of water reuse. Engineers reasoned that the final rinse water in conventional Both types of machines use the principle of counterflow. Counterflow means
batch processing should be suitable for the early stages of the washing for- t h a t the textiles being processed and the water used for processing move in
mula. The high detergent concentration of rinse water is capable of suspending opposite directions. Soiled textiles enter one end of the machine. Fresh water
considerable amounts of soil. This principle is still employed i n plants t h a t enters the rinse zone a t a steady rate from the opposite end.
reuse rinse water i n conventional equipment. The system reduces water con- I n bottom-transfer machines, the screw action of the cylinder design moves
sumption without extensive capital outlay. or transfers textiles from one chamber to thenext along the bottom of the wash-
This notion t h a t rinse water could be reused in subsequent breaks led to the ing cylinder. I n top-transfer machines, textiles from one chamber are lifted out
development of the first continuous water use arrangement. Engineers con- of the water to the top part of the washing cylinder where they slide down into
nected a series of conventional machines so that water counterflowed from t h e the next chamber.
final rinse toward the washing zone. The goods remained in batches, but the By nature of design, top-transfer tunnel washers always have double shells.
fluid flowed continuously through the goods from clean to soiled. I n these machines, the outer shell i s always stationary a n d contains the water
Today's tunnel washers represent the culmination of more than a quarter and washing chemicals. The rotating inner cylinder contains the textiles and
century of constant improvement. They are sophisticated material-handling provides the mechanical action and transfer mechanism.
devices that accomplish all of the steps in laundering a s merchandise flows Bottom-transfer machines can have either single or double shells.
into and out of the machine, virtually without operator intervention.
Load sizes
A significant difference between conventional and tunnel washers is in the
load factor. Conventional washer loads range from 5.2 to about 6.8 pounds per Soil classifications must be carefully scheduled to achieve the maximum
cubic foot of free space. Tunnel washer loads typically range from 1.2 to about economies inherent in tunnel washing. In fact, processing all classifications
1.9 pounds per cubic foot. from very light soil to very heavy soil in a tunnel may not be cost effective. One
Much of the free space in the tunnel washer is located above the textiles and way to handle different soil classifications is to alter transfer times so that the
solution. The space is needed to accommodate the mechanics of transferring machine processes lighter soils in a shorter overall time. Another solution is to
textiles from one washing chamber to the next. However, this low textile-to-cy- maintain transfer time and raise or lower chemical levels, water temperatures,
linder volume ratio allows textile surfaces much greater exposure to the and/or water flow rates to meet the needs of each soil level.
dynamics of the washing process and improves washing over conventional If different transfer times are used for different soil classifications, the tun-
washing equipment. nel will transfer a t the slowest rate dictated by the heaviest soil in the machine.
For example, a tunnel washer transferring loads on a two-minute cycle for light
Mechanical action soil and a three-minute cycle for heavy soil will transfer every three minutes if
Mechanical action in the tunnel washer differs from conventional washers and classifications are mixed, slowing production. A solution is to schedule produc-
washer/extractors. tion so that heavy soil is concentrated into contiguous loads and not scattered
Bottom-transfer tunnels rotate through a n angle typically 300 to 450 degrees. throughout the production period. If there is excess tunnel washer capacity,
The rotation causes textile items to slide and roll over each other, providing a using the excess capacity for heavy soil classifications might be cost effective.
squeezing action that forces the washing liquid through the textiles. The cham- Otherwise, washing heavy soil in conventional equipment is probably the best
bers in a bottom-transfer machine are in the form of an Archimedean screw. solution.
When it's time to transfer a load, the cylinder, which has been rotating back
and forth, now makes a further 360-degreerevolution. This forces the merchan- Extractorsfor tunnel systems
dise forward, discharging a load from the final chamber. Immediately after Two basic types of extractors are used in tunnel systems: pressure and
transfer, a new soiled load enters a t the feed end. centrifugal.
In most top-transfer machines, the washing cylinder rotates 300 degrees (150 Pressure extractors or presses. Most pressure extractors have a flexible
degrees in each direction). During transfer, the machine reverses, and the scoop diaphragm or "membrane" that, when pressurized against the textiles, con-
side of the lifter picks up the load and drops it into the next chamber. At least forms to all thickness irregularities and applies a uniform pressure. Unit pres-
one top transfer machine rotates constantly through 360 degrees and transfers sure applied to the textiles ranges from about 20 bar (290 psi) to 36 bar (522 psi).
the textiles by a sequential reversal of 360 degrees. As of this writing, a t least one press employs a perforated, flat, rubber pres-
Bottom-transfer tunnels must transfer all of the water with the goods. The sure plate that may not fully conform to irregular cakes but has the capacity to
dilution effect in these machines is accomplished entirely by counterflow. Top- blow compressed air through the textiles during extraction to enhance mois-
transfer tunnels pick the goods out of the water as they are transferred, leaving ture removal. The cost and availability of compressed air for this type of sys-
up to approximately half of the total water in the chamber. tem must be considered.
Since top-transfer tunnels also use counterflow, their manufacturers claim a The amount of moisture retained in textiles after pressing depends on these
dilution effect greater than that for bottom-transfer tunnels. This leads to factors:
claims that fewer top-transfer chambers are required for the same output and Itextile type and its water-retaining characteristics,
quality. Itotal quantity of water that must be pressed out of the textiles,
Iresidual chemical content in the water retained by the textiles,
Sizing a funnel washer and scheduling loads Iwater temperature,
Two factors determine the size of a tunnel washer: Iunit pressure applied to the textiles, and
the production requirements in pounds per hour and Itotal time a t full pressure.
the number of chambers required to remove soil. Presses able to exert high pressures will extract more efficiently, although
Production capacity is determined by plant requirements or throughput. For easy-care or resin-finished fabrics may require low pressures to prevent wrin-
example, to produce 2,000 pounds per hour in 100-pound batches, a plant kles. Most presses offer a multiple-pressure option that lowers pressures auto-
needs to load, wash, extract, and dry 20 loads per hour or one load every three matically for these fabrics.
minutes. Since the amount of time a t full pressure is also significant, another fre-
The number of chambers required in a tunnel washer is dictated by the heav- quently offered option increases the rate at which the membrane can be pres-
iest soil classification to be processed. For example, in a tunnel washer with 11 surized so full pressure is achieved more rapidly, thus increasing the time at
chambers, three-minute loads yield a total formula time of 33 minutes. This full pressure. However, the time required to achieve full pressure also depends
time may be fine for processing heavier soil classifications but too long for on the quantity of water that must be pressed out of the textiles. With all other
lighter soil classifications. factors equal, full pressure is achieved faster with polyester/cotton textiles
than with cotton because less water needs to be removed from the textiles. Most pre-sort plants, where the textiles are presorted into washing/finishing
Presses are subdivided into two basic classes: single-stage and two-stage classifications, use an automatic shuttle handling system to deliver the textiles
versions. to the appropriate dryer or no-dry destination.
Single-stagepresses have a single pressing station into which all textiles are Although single-cake dryers are popular in Europe, dryers capable of proc-
transferred from the tunnel. All the water transferred with the textiles must be essing two cakes are usual in the U S . Two-cake dryers require a double-cake
pressed out in the single stage. shuttle. Thecontrol system also must be able to recognize when two successive
Two-stagepresses have two pressing stations, pre-press and main press. The cakes are incompatible so that incompatible goods aren't intermixed in the
tunnel transfers the textiles into a perforated pre-press shaping basket in same dryer.
which most of the water is pressed out and the goods are pressed into a cake. Also available are material handling systems that automatically deliver the
The cake then passes to themain press, whereit receives maximum pressure. textiles by belt conveyors or in bags-on-railsfrom the dryers and/or no-dry sta-
Two-stage presses are further subdivided into two classes: stationary pre- tions to the appropriate finishing stations. Optional ticket printers and/or
press shaping basket and moving pre-press shaping basket. CRT screens display customer, goods, and similar data a s each load arrives a t
In the stationary pre-press shaping basket design, the pressed cake is its destination. These systems have the advantage of providing production
removed from the shaping basket and transported, unsupported, by a belt con- data for management.
veyor to its position under the main press.
In the mouingpre-press shaping basket, the pressed cake is transported by Drvers
the shaping basket to its position under the main press. The doors of the mov- Dryers must be capable of drying or conditioning merchandise without hold-
ing shaping basket then open to deposit the cake. Since the cake remains sup- ing up the continuous wash cycle. The vast majority of tunnel washer installa-
ported during transport, the manufacturers claim that this style leads to fewer tions are coupled with dryers capable of handling the flow of laundered mer-
press faults. chandise coming to them with a minimum of delay. Automatic systems
Centrifugal-type extractors. Centrifugal-type extractors are most often communicate specific drying cycle information to the appropriate dryer based
used with small, short, low-production tunnels, generally 25 to 35 kilograms or on the goods classification and/or the size of the load.
55 to 77 pounds of capacity. These tunnels use relatively longer transfer times A system that has 25 transfers per hour of 100-pound loads produces 2,500
of six to nine minutes per transfer or 6% to 10 transfers per hour. pounds per hour. Slightly more than four 200-pound dryers are needed to full
Centrifugal extractors require longer transfer cycles to receive the goods, dry all loads a t a full-dry cycle time of 20 minutes including loading, drying,
accelerate, decelerate, and then eventually unstick and discharge the goods. To cooldown, and unloading. However, for this setup to work, all loads must be
limit vibration, some centrifugals use vibration sensors that reduce rpms (and processed in double batches and the batches must be allowed to unload without
extraction effect) when unbalanced loads occur. delay.
When processing goods with a high percentage of polyester, centrifugals can 0; the other hand, only one dryer is needed to maintain system balance if all
remove more moisture than presses; but this advantage diminishes and may loads are to be conditioned only in double batches for four minutes including
even reverse when processing goods with a high percentage of cotton. loading and unloading.
Resulting moisture retention in centrifugals is affected by: Of course, sequencing identical class loads such as all conditioned or full
textile type and its water-retaining characteristics, dried consecutively for long periods of time may not be practical. In this case,
W total quantity of water to be removed from the textiles, loads must be scheduled taking into account conditioned versus full-dry work
W residual chemical content in the water retained by the textiles, and the subsequent finishing station, unless post-drying sorting is used. Care-
W water temperature, ful scheduling maintains the proper balance between tunnel and dryers so that
G force exerted at full extraction speed, and both pieces of equipment are fully utilized a t all times.
w total time a t full extraction speed.
Textile handling afler extraction
Most tunnel systems use an automated material handling system to convey the
extracted work to dryers or to "no-dry" or bypass stations if the extracted tex-
tiles don't need drying or conditioning.
In post-sort plants, all the work generally is routed through a single dryer.
Most post-sort plants are located in Europe. All goods are cycled through the
tumbler a t the same rate and batch size a s the tunnel. The goods arepre-condi-
tioned only a t this time, then sorted and sent to the appropriate full-dry or fin-
ishing area.

Abrasion resistance - Degree to which a fabric is able to withstand surface

1I wear a n d rubbing.
Absorption -Ability of a porous solid to hold, within its body, gases or liquids.
1 Acid dye - A type of dye requiring a n acid environment during application;
ii used for dyeing animal fibers.
i Acid number (acid value) - The measure of the amount of free acid in a sub-
stance; expressed a s the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide
required to neutralize one gram of substance.
Activated carbon - Carbon specially treated to give i t the ability to attract and
hold dissolved substances in drycleaning solvent.

I' Adsorption -Taking up of a substance by a solid or liquid surface.

Affinity- The attraction of one substance for another, a s a textile fiber for a dye.
Agglomerate - To coagulate or bunch particles into larger masses.
Air permeability - Ability of a fabric to allow air to pass through it a s deter-
( mined by its porosity. Air permeability is a factor in the warmth of blankets,
for example.

iI Alkali -A substance that yields negatively charged hydroxide (OH-) anions in

a water solution. Alkaline substances, when dissolved in water, produce a
slick feel, turn red litmus paper blue, and give solutions a pH value greater
than 7.
Alkaline hydrolysis- A chemical process that uses alkaline materials to break

down other molecular units. The term is often applied to chemical damage to
polyester fibers caused by contact with a strong alkaline solution.
Alkaline pressure-A measure of the alkalinity of a solution a s expressed by its
percentage of sodium oxide content.
Amine -A compound t h a t may be regarded a s a derivative of NH3 (ammonia)

in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms h a s been replaced by hydrocar-
bon radicals.
Anhydrous - Free from water, a s in anhydrous metasilicate.
Aniline dye - A type of dye derived chemically from aniline or other coal t a r
ii derivatives.
Anionic - A class of surfactants t h a t ~ r o d u c e snegatively charged active
Antibacterial - A chemical agent t h a t is able to kill or retard the growth of a Boiling polnr - The temperature a t which a substance passes from the liquid to
bacteria. the vaDor state.
Antichlor - Reducing chemicals used in rinse or sour baths to facilitate com- Bolt - roll or length of fabric.
plete removal of residualchlorine. They includesodium bisulfite, sodium thio- Bonding - A process of pressing fibers into thin sheets or webs held together
sulfate, and proprietary antichlors. by adhesive chemicals.
Antirnycotlc - Having the property to minimize thegrowth of mold or mildew. Borax - A weak and sparingly soluble alkali, known chemically a s sodium
Antiseptic - A substance, generally applied to living tissue, that prevents or tetraborate.
arrests the growth of microorganisms either by inhibiting their activity or Break (breaksuds) - T h e first wash chemical bath. In light- and medium-soil
destroying them. formulas, all of the surfactantldetergent and alkali to be used in the entire
Anti-static - Able todisperseelectrostatic charges on a fabric and prevent build- formula is generally added to the washer in the break bath. The break is the
up of static electricity. single most important step in the laundering process from the standpoint of
Aseptic - Free of microorganisms capable of causing infection. soil removal.
Aspergillusniger- A type of fungus responsible for thedevelopment of mildew Break compound - Any washroom supply used in the break or initial opera-
in fabrics. tion in the washing formula.
Atmospheric fading (gas or fume fading) - Fading of some dyestuffs through Broadcloth-A fine, rich-looking. closely woven cotton fabric, usually mercer-
exposure to certain gases given off during the burning of fuels. ized. Most dress shirts are broadcloth.
Basic dye - A type of dye capable of coloring silk a n d wool directly but requir- Brownian movement - A ceaseless movement of ultra-microscopic particles of
ing a n assistant on cotton. Although they produce a very bright color, such colloidal nature, first observed by a n investigator named Brown. This
dyes are little used because of their poor fastness. movement is important in detergent processes a n d is exhibited by soap and
Bentonite - A colloidal clay capable ofadsorbing largequantities ofan oily soil. other colloidal substances.
Bichloride of mercury - Sometimes referred to a s bichloride or corrosive subli- Brush - To finish knitted or woven fabrics by raising a n a p on them with circu-
mate. A poisonous, corrosive salt of mercury used chiefly in pharmaceuticals lar brushes.
and antiseptics. I t frequently attacks and tenders cottons a n d linens, and the Buffer -Substance or mixture of substances that in solution maintains a con.
damage does not appear until the textiles are laundered. s t a n t hydrogen ion concentration despite addition of comparatively large
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) - A measure of the amount of oxygen amounts of acid or alkali.
consumed in the biologicc: ,oce;s that breaks down organic matter in Building - The use of an alkali to enhance thedetergcnt efficiency of a soap.('
water. Large amounts of organic waste use up large amounts of dissolved detergent solution.
oxygen, thus the greater the degree of pollution, the greater the BOD. Bursting strength - The pressure required to rupt,ure a fabric.
Biodegradable - A substance subject to the process of biodegradation. Calico - A coarse, printed cotton fabric, usually made from low-grade cotton
Biodegradation - The decomposition of a natural or synthetic substance and heavily sized.
through t h e action of bacteria a n d other microorganisms in water with the Carbonate - An alkaline chemical salt in which carbonic acid is the neutral-
assistance of sunlight and dissolved oxygen. ized acid.
Bleachbath (bleach suds) -The bath in which bleach is added a s the last deter- Carboxyrnethylcellulose(CsH701(OH)10CH~COOHJn - Used a s a surface-active
gency-promoting agent incorporated into the laundry formula. I n the past, agent. (See surfactant.)
this step h a s been referred to a s t h e bleach suds because a light running suds Carboy - A container often encased in a protective covering and usually used
was taken a s the visual indicator t h a t the pH was correct. With the advent of to hold from 5 to 15 gallons of a corrosive liquid.
low-sudsing synthetic detergents and the placement of flushes between Carryover (carryover suds) -Acleaningstepin a laundry formula in which no
break and bleach to lower alkalinity for correct pH a t the bleach, testing for supplies a r e added, but supplies previously added a r e retained for use.
bleach pH rather than using the visual presence.of suds is a necessity. Catalyst - A substance capable of speeding up a chemical reaction. I t can be
Bleaching in the clear - Bleaching under conditions where minimal amounts recovered practically unchanged a t the end of the reaction.
of soil, chemicals, and other materials remain in solution. Cationic - A class of surfactants that produces positively charged active
Bleaching intensity - The quantity, concentration, time, and temperature of ingredients when dissolved in water.
bleaching. Caustic potash - See potassium hydroxide.
Bleed - To lose dye from a colored fabric during laundering or drycleaning; Caustic soda - See sodium hydroxide.
can be caused by improper cleaning methods, dye application, or excess sur- Causticity- The amount of free alkali or hydroxyl ions liberated when alkaline
face dye. salts are dissolved in water.
Body - The compact, solid. or firm feel of a fabric.
Celsius Referring to a temperature scale in which the interval between the Color buildup - Accumulation of loose or nonfast dies a n d other coloring mat-
freezing poirit and the boiling point of water, under standard pressurecondi- ter from fabrics in a cleaning solvent.
tions, is divided into 100 equal parts or degrees, so t h a t 0°C corresponds to Calorimeter - An optical instrument for measuring color intensity; used to
32OF and 100°C to 212°F. Indicated by the letter C after the stated temper- evaluate and standardize a colored solution.
ature. Combed yarn - 11 cotton yarn t h a t h a s been subjected to a special combing
Centigrade See celsius. operation to remove short fibers and impurities remaining after the carding
Centrifugal force - The force t h a t tends to propel a thing or its parts outward operations. This added process produces finer, smoother, and stronger yarns.
from a center of rotation. Compatible - Capable of being used in conjunction with other materials
Choelomium globosurn - A microorganism responsible for the development without loss of essential properties.
of mildew in textile fabrics. Condensate - The purified substance, usually water or solvent, formed a s a
Charged system - A method of cleaning, employing drycleaning solvent to
result of a condensing or distilling action.
which a quantity of detergent h a s been added for improved cleaning.
Condense -To reduce from one state to another s t a t e with a denser form, a s
Chelate To tie up or render certain substances inactive.
steam to water. Also, to compress or compact.
Chelating agent A substance t h a t h a s the ability to tie up and render certain
Condition - To prepare goods for ironing, pressing, or other finishing opera-
substances, such a s hardness salts and iron, inactive in water. tions by running in a tumbler until desired moisture retention is reached.
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) - A measure of the amount of oxygen Construction-Thenumber of yarns per inch in warp a n d filling in a fabric; for
required to oxidize organic and oxidizable inorganic compounds in water. example, 60 x 52 means 60 yarns per inch of warp and 52 yarns per inch of
The COD test, like the BOD test, is used to determine the degree of pollution filling.
in a n effluent. Contact stain - A stain acquired by a textile touching a staining surface or
Chino - A particular type of all-cotton, khaki-colored army twill made of another textile and picking up color.
combed two-ply cotton yarns. Corduroy - A coarse, durable fabric having a piled surface raised in cords,
Chintz - A glazed cotton fabric often printed with figures a n d large flower ridges, or ribs.
designs. Count - See yarn count.
Chloride of lime A low grade of calcium hypochlorite assaying 35 percent Counterflow- A concept in which textiles being processed in a tunnel washer
available chlorine. and the water used for processing them move through the machine in oppo-
Chlorite 'l'he bleaching agent sodium chlorite. site directions.
Chrome dye - A type of dye t h a t uses a chromium compound a s a mordant or Coupling agent -- A substance soluble in both water and in material to be
assistant. emulsified; improves the stability of a n emulsion.
Clarify- To remove foreign matter and soluble impurities from a solvent usu- Crease resistant - Refers to fabrics with high resistance to wrinkling or creas-
ally by distillation or filtration. ing and good recovery from wrinkling. Often obtained by chemical finishing
Classify- To separate goods according to degree of soil and resistance of fabric a s in durable press.
and color to physical and chemical attack. Cretonne - A drapery or slipcover fabric, usually printed, similar to chintz, but
Cleaning cycle -The total time consumed from the beginning to the end of a
without the glaze.
complete round of cleaning operations. -
CRF Abbreviation for crease-resistant finish.
Clearing agent A material added to lower the cloud point of a liquid deter- Crimp -To apply a wavy appearance to a fiber or yarn by means of a twist or
gent product. mechanical application.
Cloud point - The temperature a t which a nonionic detergent or wetting Crock - To rub loose dye off one fabric onto another. May also be a container
agent, in solution, tends to become cloudy with consequent decreased solubil- for chemicals.
ity and effectiveness.
CMC See rarboxymeihy~ce~lulose.
Cross-infection An infection t h a t is acquired from a contaminated environ-
Coagulate -To clot or consolidate into a mass. The solidification of egg white Crowsfeet - Indistinct wrinkles in a fabric.
by boiling is an example. Crystal - A physical shape or form of matter, always conforming to a definite
Coalesce - T h e tendency for smaller droplets of a liquid to form one larger geometric pattern.
drop. In a good e m ~ ~ l s i ocoalescence
n, does not occur. Crystalline- Being in the form of crystals. A material t h a t is not crystalline is
COG - See NOG. Customer-owned goods. amorphous.
Colloidal - State of subdivision of matter in which particles of 100 mu Culture - A growth of microorganisms on a nutrient medium; to grow micro-
(microns) are dispersed in a continuous medium. organisms on such a medium.
Cure - To set a resin finish in treated fabric by converting it to the insoluble Disinfectant detergent - A chemical compound formulated to disinfect while
form by heat. it cleans.
Cut pile - Fabrics such a s velvets, plush, or corduroy in which pile surface is Disperse - To scatter finely divided particles in such a manner t h a t the indi-
produced by cutting yarns,either warp or filling, t h a t were originally woven vidual particles are not visible to the naked eye.
in loop form. Distill - To purify a liquid. such a s contaminated drycleaning solvent, by
Damask- A type of fabric in which the figures are formed by contrast between boiling, condensing, and collecting its vapors.
warp and filling yarns. The figures appear reversed on the wrong side. D.P. - Abbreviation for durable press.
Decompose - To break up into similar component parts by heat or chemical Drill - A stout twilled cotton fabric.
action; for example. the decomposition by heat of sodium bicarbonate into Drip dry - See wash-and-wear.
soda ash and carbonic acid. Dry side - Pertaining to cleaning or spotting agents t h a t dissolve in
Degrease - To remove greases and oils from garments prior to laundering or drycleaning solvents but not in water.
drycleaning with detergent a n d water. Duck- A dense, heavy cotton fabric usually having two warp yarns woven a s
Deleterious - Harmful or destructive, a s the action of strong acids on fabrics. one. Lighter weights used for service coats and uniforms, the heavier for
Deliquesce - The a c t of a solid turning to a liquid due to the absorption of tents, awnings, tarpaulins, aprons, and wherever unusual strength is
atmospheric moisture. required.
Denier - The weight in grams of 9,000 meters of fiber or yarn. The lower the Durable press - A long-lasting finish applied to textile fabrics to improve their
denier number, the finer the yarn. crease and wrinkle resistance. Synthetic resins are normally used for this
Density - A substance's weight per unit of volume. With dry products, it is purpose and are usually applied to cotton fabrics or blends of cotton and
generally expressed a s ~ o u n d per
s cubic foot; with liquid products, a s pounds polyester.
per gallon. Dye - Complex chemical coloring matter having a n affinity for textile fibers.
Deodorize - T o destroy or mask odor. Elasticity -The ability of fibers, yarns, or woven and knit fabrics to return to
Deposit - To settle upon, a s lime soap on a washwheel. their original shape after being stretched.
ksiccate -To remove moisture; to dry. Electrolysls - A decomposition caused by a n electrical current.
Desize -To remove the sizing from textile fabric. Electrolyte - A solution t h a t easily conducts electricity.
Desizingagent- A compound t h a t h a s the capability of removing sizing from Elongation - Lengthening or stretching of a textile fiber, yarn, or thread by a
textile fabric. Some enzymes are excellent desizing agents. force applied to it. It is expressed a s a percentage of the original length.
Detergent - A surface-active agent or a blend of chemicals containing surface- Emulsification - Method of dispersing one immiscible liquid in another.
active agents t h a t concentrates a t all the surfaces in the washing zone and Enzymatic action - The splitting up of fats, oils, proteins, and sugars by
aids in the removal of insoluble foreign substances or soil from textile fibers. enzymes.
Dlafomaceous earth - The hard skeletal remains of microscopic plants called Enzyme - One of many complex proteins formed by living organisms t h a t are
diatoms. Used in filter powder. capable of increasing the speed of some decomposition reactions.
Diffuse- To spread or penetrate rapidly throughout. Esterilication- A process of producing a n ester (-C-O-)by reaction of a n alcohol
Dilution - A process using water to remove suspended soil from the washer by with a n acid.
lowering the concentration of soil in each successive bath. Dilution occurs Eufrophicatlon-The process by which a body of water, such a s a lake, becomes
with each drain and fill and is frequently monitored to evaluate the effec- rich i n dissolved n u t r i e n t s with consequent oxygen deficiency.
tiveness of rinsing. For conventional washers, a s the water from each bath is Eutrophication may occur by natural means or by artificial means such a s
dumped from the washer, soil is removed so t h a t the water in t h e next bath contamination by fertilizers.
h a s to suspend less soil. Dilution depends upon the total amount of water in Extensibility- Length gained by stretching a fiber, yarn, or thread to the break-
the washer for each bath a n d the amount of water retained by the load after ing point. It is expressed a s a percentage of the original length.
draining. Fabric - A system of textile fibers produced first by building yarns a n d then
Dimensionalstability- Ahility of fabric to retain its shape and size after being weaving or knitting these yarns.
subjected to wear, washing, and drycleaning. Fabric softener - A chemical added to the washer duringor after thcsour bath
Direct dye - A typeof dye used primarily to dye cotton and rayon, for which i t for t h e purpose of improving the feel or hand a n d suppleness and reducing
h a s good affinity. harshness of fabrics.
Dirt - Foreign matter out of place such a s soil or stains. Fadeometer - A standard laboratory device for testing the iastness of a
Disinfect (disinfectant) - To free from infection, usually with a chemical agent colored fabric to sunlight.
that destroys disease germs or other harmful microorganisms.
Greige (gray) - Pertaining to fabric produced by weaving or knitting prior to
Fahrenheit Referring to a temperature scale on which the interval between
dyeing, bleaching, or finishing. It usually contains sizing or other finishes
the freezing point of water a t 32'F and the boiling point a t 21Z°F,under
standard pressure conditions, is divided into 180 equal parts or degrees. that are subsequently removed.
Indicated by the letter F after the stated temperature. Grelge goods - Unbleached fabric, such a s unbleached muslin or sheeting.
Fast color A color t h a t when applied to a fiber will not fade or change shade Gum - A sticky, viscous, water-soluble substance exuded from various trees
by exposure to sunlight, washing processes, or body wastes. and plants. The substance hardens when exposed to air.
Felt - To shrink wool fabrics with accompanying interlocking of the fibers. Hand - The feel of fabrics such a s soft, harsh, or hoardy.
Fllament A fine, continuous fiber, such a s silk, rayon, polyester, or nylon. Heat-set - The stabilization of synthetic fabrics to prevent change in size or
Filler A material added to soap or other detergent t h a t does not improve its sha~e.
Hemoglobin - The pigment of blood. I t contains 0.4 percent iron and is a
effectiveness under the conditions of use.
Film - A thin coating, layer, or membrane. Colloidal films have a n important common source of staining.
part in emulsification and adsorption. High tenacify - Referring to yarn of high strength.
Flame retardant (flame resistant) Pertaining to fabric treated or impregnated -
Highlight A lustrous or shiny area appearing on the surface of a starched
to resist burning. Also a chemical compound capable of imparting flame fabric.
resistance to fabrics. -
Humidify The amount of moisture in the atmosphere.
Flammable Capable of being easily ignited a n d burned. Humidify (relative) -The percentage of moisture in the a i r a s compared with
Flash point -The lowest temperature a t which the vapors of a liquid decompose the total amount of moisture t h a t the air can hold a t the same temperature.
Hydrate -To combine with water. Also, a chemical compound formed by the
to a gaseous mixture t h a t can be ignited.
union of water with some other substance.
Flatwork ironer rolling The rolling t h a t occurs, under certain conditions, to
Hydrogen - A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; flammable and lighter than
the edges of flatwork when they pass through a chest-type ironer.
Fluorocarbon A hiehlv volatile solvent similar to verchloroethylene except any other known substance.
that it contains fluorine atoms in place of chlorine in its chemical makeup. Hydrogenation - A process in which hydrogen is added to the unsaturated
Flush A high-level bath for a short period of time prior to the break or the
portion of fats or oils t,o make them more solid and resistant to oxidation.
Hydrotrope - Substances t h a t act a s solubilizers and coupling agents for
bleach bath. Flushes generally are used for conditioning textiles before sub-
sequent baths and for removing debris and loose soil. otherwise incompatible materials. They help overcome turbidity or stratifi-
Foam/fwmlng agent - A colloidal hen omen on involving a n air-liquid cation in aqueous solutions containing a sparingly soluble oil or solid. They
also act a s cloud point depressors for light-duty liquids. Examples are
colloidal system. A material that increases the stability of this colloidal
phenomenon. sodium or potassium toluene sulfonate.
Hygienic - Pertaining to the preservation of health. I t requires sanitary
Fray To wear out due to rubbing or friction.
Fugifive (color) -
A color t h a t h a s poor affinity for the fiber to which it is
Hygienicallyclean -Although not a precise definition, one t h a t h a s received
applied and h a s a tendency to bleed, run, or be washed away entirely.
Fused fabric -
A resilient two-layer collar or cuff bonded together by a n acceptance i s merchandise free of microorganisms in quantities capable of
intervening solid film of binder. causing disease.
Hygroscopic - Capable of absorbit:$ atmospheric moisture readily.
Gas fade- To fade or to change color because of contact with g a s fumes in the
air. Hymolal salt - The sulfated fatty alcohols derived from the higher chain
Germicide - Anything t h a t destroys germs (microorganisms); applied alcohols and having soap-like properties.
In vitro - Refemng to the testing of antibacterial properties "in glass," a s in
especially to agents t h a t kill disease germs.
Gingham A yarn-dyed cotton fabric usually woven in checks or stripes. test tubes, with no interfering material present.
In vivo - Testing of antibacterial properties a s "in life" usage, in which
Globule A small drop of a liquid or particle of solid.
Glyceride - A chemical compound composed of fatty acids and glycerine. practical contaminants and denaturants are present.
Industrial clothing (fabrics)- Clothing for wear in industry rather than for
When reacted with strong, hot caustic, it forms soap and glycerine.
GO-back -An improperly laundered or drycleaned piece sent back for apparel and household use.
Infection - Invasion by pathogenic organisms t h a t multiply and cause
Gravity (specltic)- The relative weight of a certain volume of a solid or liquid disease.
compared with t.he weight of the same volume of water.
Infectioncontrol chemicals Any chemicals used to prevent cross-infection.
Gray Dull appearance of fabric color due to redeposition of soil or dye from Infectious - Having the ability to transmit disease.
wash water br solvent. Insoluble - Incapable of being dissolved.
Grease A general name for oily solids.
Interfacialtension - The surface tension existing betwcen two liquids or a solid Mordant - A chemical agent applied t o a tcxtilefiber to improve the affinity of
and liquid t h a t keeps the liquids from mixing or a liquid from spreading on a a certain dye for the fiber and make the color fast.
solid. Soap lowers the interfacial tension between water and some soils and Mote - A small impurity that may occur in cotton yarn, such a s a spcck of
thus allows the soil to be flushed away. cotton seed or other impurity from the cotton plant.
Iridescent - Pertaining to fabrics having contrasting colored warp and filling Moth repellent - Chemically treated to resist moth damage. Also, a chemical
rams. compound for treating fabric, usually wool, to render it moth repellent.
Keratin - Principal constituent of cuticle, hair, hoofs, and feathers. Very rich in Muck (filter) - The combination of insoluble soil, used solvent, and filter
sulfur. powder t h a t i s removed from the bags, screens, or tubes of a filter. Also called
Kier - A mechanical device i n which cotton fiber or fabrics a r e boiled out to sludge.
remove the natural impurities. Muriatic acid - The commercial name for hydrochloric acid.
Kier boil - A treatment for t h e removal of deap-seated stains. T h e fabrics are -
Muslin A firm, plain, white cotton fabric used largely for sheeting.
boiled in a solution of alkalinedetergent a n d soap in a n open tank, preferably Nap - Fiber ends lifted from the body of a fabric to produce a soft, downy
provided with a steam injector for continuous circulation. surface.
Laminated - Pertaining to fabrics composed of layers of cloth joined together Net - A porous bag, usually constructed of cotton or nylon, to contain
with resin. garments during the cleaning process.
Latent alkalinify - Alkalinity present in t h e water supply. Neutralization - A chemical reaction in which a given quantity of a n acid,
Lecithin - An organic fatty material containing nitrogen and phosphorous either mineral or organic, reacts with a chemically equivalent amount of
found in practically all animal tissues and in somevegetable matter, chiefly alkali to form water and a salt.
the seeds. NOG - See COG. Not our goods.
Level -The heightof the water or solvent inside thecylinder ofthe washwheel Nonlonic - A class of surfactants that produce no charged active ingredients
when the machine is loaded and in motion. when dissolved in water.
Liberate - To set free, a s to liberate chlorine or oxygen in bleaching. Nonpathogenic - Not capable of producing disease.
Lime - Calcium oxide or hydroxide. Nontoxic - Not poisonous; not capable of produciug injury or disease.
Llnt - Short fiber produced a n d loosened by mechanical action or the action of Nonwoven - A fabric produced directly from fibers matted together instead of
chemicals in the cleaning process. being spun or woven.
Lipase A fat-splitting enzyme. Nutrient - A nutritious chemical element or compound; a s a n example,
Lubricant - A material added to some laundry products to help keep washer phosphate or nitrate absorbed by plants to promote growth.
doors from sticking and/or to make fabrics easier to process during ironing. Onebath system -A drycleaning procedure employing a low concentration of
Luster -The shine occurring on or imparted to fibers, yarns, or finished fabrics. detergent in which garments receive a single wash with no rinse.This is also
Mercerizing - A process in which cotton yarns are held under tension while referred to a s a single-bath system.
being passed through a caustic soda solution. The resulting yarn is strong One-shot - A built soap or built synthetic detergent t h a t is added to the
and lustrous. washwheel, usually in a single dosage.
Micelle- A special grouping of a number of molecules of a chemical substance, Opaclfier - A substance t h a t imparts a white, uniform creaminess or lotion
such as detergent, held loosely together by chemical bonds. effect to a liquid detergent mixture.
Mil - A unit, 1/1000 inch, used for measuring the diameter of textile fibers. Optical brightener - A type of dye t h a t enhances the brightness of ccrtain
Mild charge - L o w concentration of detergent in drycleaningsolvent; usually fibers by converting invisible ultraviolet light to visible light. Common
one-half to two percent. ingredients in almost all manufactured or compounded laundry products.
Mildewcide - A chemical agent t h a t is able to kill mildew-forming organisms. Frequently added to some fibers during manufacture.
Mileage (solvent) -The number of pounds of clothing t h a t can be cleaned with Ozone - A highly active form of oxygen containing three atoms per molecule
one gallon of solvent. instead of the usual two. I t i s usually formed by a silent electrical discharge
Mineral spirits - Petroleum solvent. in the air a n d is used as a n oxidizing a n d deodorizing agent in the
Moire - Fabrics having a grain or wood effect produced during finishing. purification of water.
Moistureretention- Amount of moisture, usually expressed a s a percentage of -
Package dye To dye yarn wound on perforated spools or tubes p l a c ~ din a
textile dry weight, t h a t a load of laundry retains before or after a processing special dyeing machine containing the dye liquor. Also a small contamer uf
operation. concentrated dye.
Monofilament - A single-filament yarn. Packageplant- A plant doing a complete cleaning service with all work done
on the premises.
Pad - To impregnate fabric with dye liquor or other liquid by squeezing Pineoil - A byproduct of the steam distillation of pine stumps in the manufac-
between rolls. Also, to impregnate with liquid for a special purpose, a s to pad ture of turpentine and rosin. It is used a s a solvent and deodorant.
mops with a dust control oil. Ply- Yarn formed by twisting together twoor more single strands or threads.
Pad dye - To dye fabric by first passing i t through a trough containing the dye Polyethylene - A ~ l a s t i film
c of high molecular weight; polymerized ethyline
and then squeezing it between rollers to remove the excess. produced by polymerization a t high pressure. I t is translucent, is the lightest
Pastel -Pertaining to light shades of color. of all plastics, and remains tough and flexible even a t low temperatures.
Pathogen - Microorganisms capable of causing disease. Polymer - The molecular chain-like structure from which resins a n d synthetic
pearl ash -Common name for potassium carbonate. I t is a n alkali t h a t absorbs fibers are produced by the linking together of molecular units called
moisture from t h e a i r readily a n d h a s approximately 77 percent of the neu- monomers.
tralizing power of soda ash, which it resembles. Palymerize- To link molecules together to form a polymer.
Penetrate/penetrating agent To wet out a fiber completely. A surfactant can -
Pony washer Any small washwheel. Usually used for special pieces or s ~ n a I I
be considered a penetrating agent. l o t . needing careful treatment.
Percale - A closely woven fabric, either white or colored, principally used for Poplin - A ribbed fabric, usually cotton.
dresses, shirts, and sheets. Pore - The opening or space between yarns in a fabric t h a t produces
Perchloroethylene - Tetrachloroethylene (C12CC12).Popular drycleaning sol- "breathing" properties. Also may refer to spaces between fibers in yarns.
vent. Porous (porosity) - Having minute openings t h a t permit t h e passage of air or
Permanent linish -A finish applied to fabric t h a t retains its specific properties liquid through a material.
throughout the normal period of wear and maintenance. -
Post-cure The application of heat to set permanent press resins after the
Permanganate (potassium) - A strong oxidizing agent frequently used in garment h a s been completely manufactured.
stain removal. Potash - Common term for potassium and its compounds.
Permeable - Able to be penetrated by fluids or gases. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) - A strongly alkaline chemical used chiefly for
Perspiration - A body excretion containing salt, albumin, fatty acids, and making soap and a s a reagent in chemical titrations.
other constituents. It may be acid or alkaline depending upon varying Precipitate - To separate, a s a solid from a liquid. Also refers to a s o l ~ d
conditions. substance separated from a liquid.
Petri dish - A round glass or plastic dish with a cover used for growing bacteria. Pre-shrunk - Term used to describe fabrics or garments that have becn
Petroleum solvent - Flammable drycleaning solvent derived from petroleum subjected to a shrinking process before being placed on the market.
products. Two main types are in use: 140°F,and Stoddard solvent with a Pre-spot- To apply a cleaning or spotting compound to fabric spots or stains
flash point of a t least 100°F. before cleaning.
pH -The term applied to a scale of values designating the degree of acidity or Pressure (detergent or alkaline) - The total amount of alkali present for
alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 representing a detergent use.
neutral state. Values greater t h a n 7 a r e alkaline. Values less t h a n 7 are Primary treatment - First stage of sewage treatment t h a t involves settling out
acidic. larger suspended solids by screening and sedimentation before discharge for
Pharmaceutical - Pertaining to drug o r medicinal uses. A pharmaceutical further treatment.
grade of chemical is suited to ~ h a r m a c e u t i c a use.
l -
Print A general term for fabric with designs from dyes applied by engraved
Photometer - An optical instrument for measuring the light reflectancy of rollers, wood block, or screens.
surfaces. Used in determining whiteness, soil removal, and color fading for Pure finish - Finish in which no sizing or treatment is added to the fabric.
laboratory control of cleaning formulas. Quality control - Testing a n d inspecting materials during manufacture or
Physical - Pertaining to a n y properties or forces not chemical. processing to assure conformance to quality standards.
Pick One filling thread on the loom or in the finished fabric. Quat (quaternary ammonium compound) - Derivative of ammonium
Pigment - Coloring matter that, in general, h a s no affinity for a surface. For hydroxide or its salts in which nitrogen is bound to four replaceable groups
example, t h e pigments in paint have n o affinity for wood. but they have a n (usually organic mdicals).
affinity for oil. Dyes, on the other hand, have a n affinity for fibers. -
Reagent Any substance used in a chemical reaction to detect, measure,
Pile - A fabric made with y a r n s or fibers t h a t stand upright from the main examine, or produce other substances.
body of the material, such a s velvet. These may be looped a s in terry. Reclaim -To recover for further use, a s stained fabrics in a laundry. Also, to
Pill - A small ball of fibers on the surface of a fabric caused by abrasion and recover solvent from drycleaning garments by condensing the vapors driven
wear. off during drying. Also, recovering wash water for treatment and/or subse-
quent reuse.
Relative humidity (solvent) - The amount of rnoislure present in drycleaning Silica - A substance known chemically as silicon dioxide; sand is reprcsenta.
solvent expressed a s a percentage of the maximum amount t h a t the solvent tive of silica.
could contain a t the same temperature and pressure. Silt - A very fine suspension of mineral matter, usually found in water.
Repel - To force away from or prevent from mixing with or adhering to a s a Silver nitrate - A corrosive chemical t h a t causes black silver stains on textiles.
chemical agent to repel soil from fabrics. -
Sizing Starch or synthetic polymer added to fabric to increase the firmness or
Repellent - A chemical or substance that repels. crispness of the fabric.
Residue - The nondistillable matter remaining behind after solvent Slippage - A form of textile damage that results when one set of threads slips
distillation. over the opposite set. Smooth natural fibers, yarns possessing little twist,
Resllient - Referring to the ability of fabrics to withstand crushing or creasing fancy weaves (floats), and wear are common causes of slippage.
without objectionable change in appearance or shape. Slub-A thick placein a yarn thatproducesan irregularity in the fabric. Filling
Rlnse - High water-level bath or baths following the bleach and preceding the yarns are sometimes dubbed purposely to give a n irregular ribbed effect to
sour or finishing bath. During rinsing the final portions of loosened soil are the fabric.
removed along with the bulk of the washing compounds used in laundering. Sludge - See muck. Also a concentrate in the form of a semi-liquid mass
Except for antichlors, chemicals are usually not added to rinse. deposited a s a result of the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes.
Rinse solvent - Solvent used for rinsing garments. -
Snap The quality of a finished fabric when it possesses luster, uniformity,
Rosin - An acidic material obtained from coniferous or pine trees; sometimes and unimpaired whiteness.
used to extend soap. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) - A strongly alkaline compound used in making
Rosin soap - A soap made from rosin-containing material. soaps and alkaline builders.
Salt - Chemically, the product of thereaction between a n acid and a base. Also, Soil release - A finish applied to textiles designed to provide easy removal of
sodium chloride (common table salt, brine). subsequently applied soil.
Sanforizing - T h e trademark for a patented process for pre-shrinking cotton -
Soil repellent See soil retardant.
fabrics by controlled compression during manufacture. Articles made from Soil retardant -Treated to resist soiling. Also, achemical substance that, when
properly Sanforized cloth are not subject to appreciable shrinkage. applied to fabric, will enable it to resist soiling.
Saponification- Alkaline hydrolysis of a n oil or fat, or the neutralization of a Soluble - Capable of being dissolved in water or solvent.
fatty acid to form a soap. Solvent - A substance, usually liquid, capable of dissolving other suhstances.
Saturate - To charge or furnish with something to the point a t which no more I t is the name usually given to the liquid used for drycleaning garments.
can be absorbed, dissolved, or retained. Solvent (140°F) - See petroleum solvent.
Scour -To clean fibers or fabric to remove such impurities a s sizing, oil, and Solvent retention - Amount of solvent that a load of drycleaning retains after
dirt in preparation for dyeing or bleaching. cleaning and extraction.
Secondary infection - A super-imposed infection occurring in a host who is Sour - An acidic agent used in the final bath of the laundering process to neu-
already suffering from a n earlier infection. tralize the last traces of alkali from soaps and builders left in fal~ricsfrom
Secondary treatment - The biological treatment of sewage wastes following previous steps in the process.
primary treatment by sedimentat~on. Sour bath - Normally the final bath in the laundering process. The purpose of
Selvage - The natural edge of a woven fabric finished so t h a t it will not ravel. the sour (or acid) bath is to neutralize the alkalinity of the water in the tex-
I t always runs parallel to the warp threads. tiles before removing them from the machine for finishing.
Semicolloid - A particle having only partial colloidal characteristics. Specific gravity - The ratio of the weight of a definite volume of a given sub-
Sepsis - Poisoning caused by absorption into the blood of pathogen~c stance to the weight of a n equal volume of water. Temperature must be
microorganisms. specified.
Septic Causing sepsis or putrefaction; infective. Split rinse - A rinse of moderate temperature obtained by complrtely opening
Sequester - A chemical process in which a soluble complex is formed that pre- both hot and cold water supply valves a t the same time.
vents the normal react~onof certain chemical species, for example, the action Spot - To treat by hand a spot or stain with a chemical for the purposeof remov-
of water hardness ions i s sequestered by complex phosphates. ing it. To ~ o s i t i o nthe washwheel for openingAoading.
Shakeout - To straighten out cleaned goods prior to finishing. Squeeze roll - A mechanical device for applying pressure to squeeze out
Shrinkage -The contraction and increase in density of fibers and yarns caus- liquid.
ing a change in shape and size of textile fabrics. Moisture, sudden tempera-
ture changes, fabric design, and mechanical and chemical actions promote
Staple-Theaveragelength of a raw textile fiber t h a t is twisted into a yarn. I t Surface tension - T h a t property of all liquids in which the ex1,osed surface
may vary from one-half inch as in the case of cheaper cottons to many miles tends to contract to the smallest possible area, namely a sphere. This ten-
in length a s in the case of rayon filaments. I n general, when comparing nat- dency is greatly reduced by detergents, which aid i n t h e wetting a n d removal
ural fibers of the same type, the longer staple is of higher quality a n d is of soil from fabrics.
stronger. Surfactant (surfaceactive agent) - A substance t h a t alters energy relation-
Starch lubricant - An oily o r w a x y m a t e r i a l added t o s t a r c h t o i n c r e a s e ships a t interfaces, such a s wetting agents and foaming agents.
flexibility. Suspended solids (SS) - Small particles of solid pollutants in sewage t h a t
Sfatic electricity - An electrical charge generated by rubbing unlike bodies contribute to turbidity and t h a t resist separation by conventional means.
together. The examination of suspended solids and the BOD test constitute the two
Sfeam sweep -The injection of wet steam to the still, just above the liquid sol- main determinations for water quality performed a t wastewater treatment
vent level, to help flush out the solvent vapors. facilities.
Stearine - A glyceride composed of a stearic acid and glycerine. When tallow W a l e - A stain t h a t exhibits a wavy outline.
cools from a melted condition, stearine is the first material to solidify. Syndet - Shortened form of synthetic detergent.
Sterile - Free of living organisms. Synthetic detergent - A surface-active material made from synthetic organic
Stocksolution - A solution of laundry or drycleaning supplies prepared in con- compounds that h a s cleansing action similar to soap. These detergents may
centrated form for later convenient use. be anionic, cationic, or nonionic, depending on their constitution.
Stop spot - To spray, splash, or pour a soil-spotting compound on apparently Synthetic solvent - A nonflammable chlorinated or fluorinated drycleaning
heavy or tenacious soil stains prior to cleaning. solvent such a s perchloroethylene.
Straight s o a p - Commercially pure soap containing a t least 88 percent anhy- Tenderize (tender) - To lower the fiber strength of fabric by chemical or
drous soap. mechanical me:ms.
Streak- A stain taking the form of a line on a drycleaned garment caused by Tenslle strength - The measure of the ability of a yarn or fabric to resist
the nonvolatile residue in highly contaminated solvent. breaking.
Strength, breaking - See tensile strength. The force required to cause fabric Tertiarytreatment - A phase of wastewater treatment beyond the 85 to 95 per-
breakage. cent BOD removal of the secondary stage by such processes a s carbon
Strip - To remove dyes or stains from fabric by use of a chemical reducing adsorption, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and demineralieation.
agent. Tetrachloroethyiene - See perchloroethylene.
Stripper (stripping agent) -The agent used to strip dyes or stains from fabrics. Texfile-The construction of yarns or knitted or woven fabrics.
Strong c h a r g e - High concentration of detergent in drycleaning solvent, usu- Thermoplastic - Having the property of becoming soft under application of
ally about four percent. heat, specifically referring to certain synthetic resins and textile fibers.
Substantive - Self-combining or adhering tenaciously, a s a dye substantive to Thermosetting - Having the property of hardening or setting with heat a s do
cotton. certain plastics or synthetic resins.
Suds - A bath occurring between the break and bleach bath. Suds baths are Thixotropy -The property of a substance decreasing in viscosity upon agitation
carried out a t low water levels, usually with hot or tempered water. If alkali or and increasing in viscosity on standing after agitati0n.Thi.s term is encoun-
detergent isn't added on these additional suds baths, they are referred to a s tered mostly in soap stock tanks.
carryover suds. Titanium stripper - A chemical reducing agent containing a compound of tita-
Suds carryover - See suds. nium used for dye or stain removal.
Sulfur black - A black dye t h a t is f a s t to washing but very sensitive tochlorine Titanous chloride (Tic!,) - A compound of titanium a n d chloride t h a t is a n
bleach. active reducing agent. I t is strong enough to remove m a n y dyes and is used
Sulfur dioxide- An irritating, gaseous compound of sulfur found frequently in a s a stain remover.
the atmosphere. I t is capable of causing dye fading and fabric tendering Titration - A process used to measure the concentration o r amount of a chemi-
when in contact with moisture. cal present in a solution.
Sulfur dye - A type of dye having sulfur in its basic structure; h a s poor bleach Tolerance - Ability to withstand or endure without ill effects.
resistance. Top dye - To add color to a fabric t h a t h a s already been dyed to produce a
Sunfast- Fabrics colored with dyes t h a t will not fade under normal exposure to greater depth or a change of shade to match the desired standard.
sunlight. Total fatly acid (T.FA) - The total amount of fatty material t h a t is obtained
Supersafurafe -To cause to contain more dissolved matter in a solution than is when a sample of f a t or fatty acid i s completely saponified and, after acidula-
normally possible. Such solutions are unstable and readily return to t h e sat- tion, extracted with petroleum ether or ethyl ether.
urated state.
Translucent - Allowing passage of light, but diffusing it so that objects beyond Yarncount-Thenurnber ofyarns per inch used in the construction of a fabric.
cannot be clearly seen; in between transparency and opacity. Zeolite - A hydrous aluminum-sodium silicate capable of exchanging sodium
Two-bath system - A drycleaning system utilizing two distinct cycles in the for calcium magnesium a n d other metal. It also h a s the capability of regen-
cleaning process, one with solvent containingdetergent, the other with clear erating (reversing) itself when treated with brine(concentrated sodium chlo-
rinse solvent. ride solution).
Vapor- A gas, especially from a substance t h a t is a solid or liquid a t ordinary Zero son water - Sometimes called "zero hardness? This refers to water tha t is
temperature. free from hardness salts.
Vat dye - An extremely light and wash-fast type of dye applied to fibers in a
soluble form by reducing action and then permanently set by oxidizing to its
original insoluble form. Used primarily on cotton yarns and fabrics.
Verdigris - A greenish or bluish deposit of copper soap or salts formed on
copper, brass, or bronze surfaces.
Viscosity - The resistance to flow exhibited by a liquid product. Viscosity in
detergent practice is measured in centipoises, water a t room temperature
having a viscosity of 1 centipoise. The higher the viscosity, the thicker (less
fluid) the product.
Viscous - Possessing or characterized by viscosity.
Volatile - Readily evaporated.
Volatile matter - T h a t portion of a chemical substance t h a t vaporizes below a
specified temperature within a specified length of time.
Warp - The h e ~ v yyarns running lengthwise (parallel to the selvage) in a
fabric and upon which the cross yarns or filling yarns are built.
Wash-and-wear - Fabrics or garments treated with a wrinkle-resistant finish
allowing them to be washed and used without pressing.
Washing s o d a - A form of soda a s h containing crystallized water within its
molecular structure.
Washwheel - A washing machine.
Water conditioning -The treatment of water prior to washing to remove unde-
sirable, suspended, or dissolved matter.
Water repellent - Referring to fabric or garments treated to resist wetting by
water without closing the fabric pores. Also, a chemical used to impart water
repellency to fabrics.
Waterproof - Referring to fabrics t h a t have been treated in such a manner a s
to make them impervious to penetration by water. Rubber, oil, or plastic-
coated fabrics are typical.
Weight - T o apply a finish to fabric to give increased weight.
Wet - To cover or saturate with water or solvent.
Wet clean - To clean by washing in water.
Wet-dry - Pertaining to spotting agents that are soluble or miscible and rinse-
able in both water and drycleaning solvents.
Wet-side- Pertaining to detergents orspotting agents that aresoluble and rin-
seable in water.
Wetting agentlwetting - A material that increases the spreading of a liquid
medium on a surface.
Whiteness retention - The whiteness reflectance of a laundered or drycleaned
fabric expressed a s a percentage of the original reflectance.
Yarn - The continuous thread-like strand resulting from the spinning opera-
tion and used for weaving, knitting, or crocheting.

For production scheduling a n d control, particularly in washroom a n d drying

operations, it is important to know unit weights of items processed.
T h e TRSA Weight C h a r t lists weights of most items served by textile rental
companies. T h e chart is to be used a s a guide. Each plant should develop its
own weight c h a r t because of variations of fabric type a n d weight, item size,
styling, a n d different item mix a n d process loads.
T h e average weight reported is a "weighted average" from all of the surveyed
textile rental companies. T h i s means t h a t t h e average could move to the higher
weights or lower weights reported, depending upon the number of items a t t h a t
A s a n example, suppose five plants ( A , B, C, D, a n d E) each weighed a
different number of the s a m e sized towel.Thcy might h a v e reported a s follows:

Number T&l Weight per WelgM per

Planf weiahed weiaM towel 100 towels

Toobtain t h e weighted average, the total weight (86)would be divided by the

total number of towels weighed (100) a n d then multiplied h y 100. I n t h i s case,
t h e answer would be 86 pounds per 100 towels. T h e weighted average falls
between P l a n t A a n d P l a n t B because P l a n t A accounted for 50 percent of the
towels weighed.
T h e average weight is arrived a t by dividing the total welght per towel (3.73)
by the number of additions (5) a n d then multiplying by 100 t o a r r i v e a t average
weight per 100 towels - 74.6 pounds per 100 towels T h i s average i s almost
den tical with the weight per 100 towels of t h e middle plant reporting (C).
TRSA uses the "weighted average" instead of the average weight because it
' more accurately represents the influence of each towel weighed.
F i g u r e 1-1: Acidity and alkalinity of water solutions ...................... 14
F i g u r e 1-2: pH of increasing alkaline solutions ............................ 15
F i g u r e 2-1: Base-ion exchange (zeolite or resin) ............................ 31
F i g u r e 2-2: Backwashing of base-ion exchange water softener.. .......... 32
F i g u r e 2-3: Regeneration of resin (zeolite) with brine ...................... 32
F i g u r e 3-1: Surfactant molecule schematic ................................. 36
F i g u r e 3-2: Orientation of surfactants in oil a n d water ................... . 3 6
F i g u r e 3-3: Oily surfactant complex ........................................ 37
F i g u r e 3-4: Dirt and oil imprisoned in textile.. ............................. 37
F i g u r e 3-5: Surfactant penetrating oily soil ................................ 38 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
F i g u r e 3-6: Surfactant dispersing oily soil.. ............................... . 3 8
F i g u r e 3-7: Oily soil lifted from textile.. ................................... . 3 9
F i g u r e 3-8: Soap (sodium stearate). ......................................... 40
F i g u r e 3-9: Nonionic, condensate of ethylene oxide with a fatty alcohol . . 42
F i g u r e 3-10: Nonionic, condensate of alkyl phenols The authors gratefully acknowledge the Production and Engineering Commit-
with ethylene oxide .......................................................42 tee of the Textile Rental Services Association of America for sponsoring t h e
F i g u r e 3-11: Buffering effect of alkali, solutions preparation of this text. The time and guidance provided by the members of t h e
of industrial alkalies containing 0.2% N a z O . . ........................... 46 Textile Laundering Technology Task Force proved to be a n invaluable contri-
F i g u r e 6-1: Nonmercerized cotton.. .........................................75 bution to the accuracy of the manuscript for this book.
F i g u r e 6-2: Mercerized cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 The authors also acknowledge Lucie Chapman, Tin York, and Frances
F i g u r e 6-3: Flax (linen) ...................................................... 76 Romero for their expert technical assistance in the preparation of this book
F i g u r e 6-4: Bright nylon.. ................................................... 77 manuscript.
F i g u r e 6-5: Low-modification ratio trilobal nylon,
15 denier per filament, bright luster ..................................... 77
F i g u r e 6-6: Low modification ratio trilobal polyester, The Textile Rental Services Association of America gratefully acknowledges
1.4 denier per filament, semi-dull luster.. ................................ 79
the contribution of each of the following committee members:
F i g u r e 6-7: Cuprammonium rayon, 1.3 denier (0.14 tex) M a r c Drolet,* chairman, Crystal Laundry, Manchester, N.H.;
per filament, bright luster ................................................80
S a m B a n k h a l t e r , G & K Services, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.;
F i g u r e 6-8: Viscose rayon, regular tenacity, bright ........................ 80
F i g u r e 6-9: Fiber shapes from the spinneret ................................ 82 B a r b a r a B a r n e s , Diversey Wyandotte Corp., Wyandotte, Mich.;
F i g u r e 6-10: Blending of cotton and polyester fibers.. ..................... 83 K r i s Bloniarz, Federated Linen & Uniform, Brooklyn, N.Y.;
F i g u r e 6-11: Plain weave fabric.. ...........................................84 R i c h a r d W. Borgmeier,* Steiner Corp., Salt Lake City, Utah;
F i g u r e 6-12: Right-hand twill weave fabric (2x2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 R o b e r t Brill, Republic Linen Supply, Los Angeles, Calif.;
F i g u r e 6-13: Herringbone twill weave fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 D o n a l d H. B r o w n l e e , Ellis Corp., Itasca, Ill.;
F i g u r e 6-14: Satin weave fabric.. ........................................... 85 B e r n a r d C. Bulgrin, Morgan Services, Inc., Chicago, Ill.;
F i g u r e 6-15: Comparison of weft and warp knit stitches.. ................ 86 R o b e r t Capece, Val-Chem Co., Inc., Sayre, Penn.;
F i g u r e 6-16: Types of stitches and structures .............................. 87 J o h n P. Ciambrone, Allied Management Consultants, Inc., Long
F i g u r e 6-17: Basic garment finishes for permanent press ................. 8 8 Branch, N.J.;
F i g u r e 7-1: Closed-oil mop washing system .............................. . I 1 1 R o g e r F. Cocivera,* Penn Linen & Uniform Service, Inc., Allentown,
F i g u r e 8-1: NFPA hazardous material code with numerical scale.. ..... .123 Penn.;
F i g u r e 11-1: Open-pocket washwheel.. ................................... .152 C h a r l e s T. Cooper, Cooper Laundry Machinery Co., Denver, Colo.;
W B e r n a r d P. C r a m e r , Forest City Linen Supply, London, Ontario,
F i g u r e 11-2: Split-pocket (Pullman) washwheel .......................... .I52
F i g u r e 11-3: Y-pocket washwheel ..........................................152 Canada;
IEd Curran, C & W Equipment Co., Cincinnati, Ohio;
IHenry J. Dokter,* Aratex Services, Inc., Schaumburg, 111.;
Jody S. Edwards, Domestic Textile Services, Inc., Wichita, Kas.;
IJoe Eubanks, Unitog Rental System, Minneapolis, Minn.;
IYork Feitel, Milliken & Co., Spartanburg, S.C.;
IRaymond Goding, Federated Linen & Uniform Supply, Brooklyn, N.Y.;
IJim Haried, Energenics, Inc., Naples, Fla.;
IRoger D. Harris, Metro Linen Services, McKinney, Texas;
IJ a n Hennekes, Brim Laundry Machinery Co., Dallas, Texas;;
IDaniel M. Hertig, G.A. Braun, Inc., Syracuse, N.Y.;
8 Richard Johnson, White Rose, Inc., Memphis, Tenn.;
8 Robert 0. Kaloustian, Morgan Services, Inc., Chicago, Ill.;
ICharles P. Keith, Jr.,* Keith Associates, Acworth, Ga.;
8 Lee R. Kemberling, Kemco Systems, Inc., St. Petersburg, Fla.;
IKenneth L. Koski, Initial USA, Atlanta, Ga.;
IGregory J. Kramer, Textile Care Div. of Ecolab Inc., St. Paul, Minn.;
This book was written by Charles L. Riggs, Ph.D., professor and director of
IRoger K. McMillan, Colmac Industries, Inc., Colville, Wash.;
detergency research a t Texas Woman's University, and Joseph C. Sherrill,
IRudolph A. Maglin,* Diversey Wyandotte Corp., El Toro, Calif.;
Ph.D., consulting chemist and engineer. I t explains the roles played by t h e
IJ o s e f Mayer, United Service Co., Youngstown, Ohio;
different types of chemicals used in thelaunderingprocess and their effects on
IEdward K. Murphy, EKM Mangement Services, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.;
the textiles being laundered.
Woody Ostrow, Clean Textile Systems, Pittsburgh, Pa.; The book can be used in two ways: a s a text for the student of laundering
August J. Palmieri, Associated Textile Rental Services, Utica, N.Y.; operations or as a reference book. Material is arranged for easy use by those
ID. J a m e s Paradee, Shared Hospital Services, Portsmouth, Va.; looking for answers and solutions to both technical and nontechnical ques-
INorvin L. Pellerin,* Pellerin Milnor Corp., Kenner, La.; tions and problems.
IJ o h n Potts, Milliken & Co., Spartanburg, S.C.; The material begins with an explanation of the basics of the laundering
IDonald L. Proudman, Automatic Control Systems, Inc., Taunton, Mass.; operation, laundry chemistry, and water characteristics. Chapters cover sur-
ILeonard Reino, Reino Linen Services, Inc., Gibsonburg, Ohio; factants; the chemistry of alkalies, bleaches, and sanitizers; sours and soften-
i IMu1 Rigby,* Milliken & Co., Spartanburg, S.C.;
IBradley Shames, Republic Linen Supply, Los Angeles, Calif.;
ers; mildistats and bacteriostats; and other washroom compounds. Steps in
washing are described from soil sorting through extraction. Operational
IJ o s e p h C. Sherrill,* Sherrill Associates, Homewood, 111.; guides for each step in the process are followed by laundry formulas for various
IRoger C. Simpson,* National Linen Service, Atlanta, Ga.; levels of soil.
IMike Spence, Faultless Linen Supply, Kansas City, Mo.; Various types of washing and finishing equipment currently available a r e
ILouis J. Spirio, American Service Corp., Miami, Fla.; described as well as textile fibers, fabrics, and finishes. Building on the pre-
ITed C. Stephens,* Largo, Fla.; viously presented material on chemistry and textiles is a chapter on textile
damage. Another chapter discusses the ecological aspects of laundering a n d
IThomas D. Storm,* Fabrilife Chemicals, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio;
IDonald L. Struminger,* Virginia Linen Service, Petersburg, Va.; the need for conserving water and energy. The sections in the appendix a r e
comprehensive and may become one of the most widely used portions of t h e

1 IJ a m e s H. Surridge, Fabrilife Chemicals, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio;

IWilliam J. Tingue, Tingue, Brown & Co., Englewood, N.J.;
8 Timothy E. P. Topper, Topper Linen Supply Limited, Toronto, Ontario,
IWilliam T. Twitty, Jensen Corp., Fort Lauderdale, Fla.;
8 H a r r y C. Ward, Wardco Systems USA, Pipersville, Penn.;
The text can be used by plant managers, washroom supervisors, and laundry
technicians interested in achieving effective laundering operations while, a t
the same time, striking the necessary balance between minimum costs and a
desired quality level. Technical material has been included only when neces-
8 David Wayne, Wayne Towel & Linen Supply Co., Kansas City, Mo.; sary to enhance the reader's understanding of the practical aspects of launder-
IA.D. Wilson, 11, Uwanta Linen Supply, Inc., Wheeling, W. Va.; ing and its effect on textiles.
IPeter Wolfe, Jensen Corp., Fort Lauderdale, Fla.; This volume represents the fourth text published by the Textile Rental Serv-
IClyde E. Blaco, Staff Liaison, Textile Rental Services Association, Hal- ices Association of America (TRSA) on the subject of textiles and laundering
landale, Fla. chemistry. In 1952,TRSA (then LSAA) published Laundering Chemistry wri t-
ten by Pauline Beery Mack and Joseph C. Sherrill. In 1962, TRSA published
'denotes members of Textile Laundering Technology Task Force

TRSA weigh1 chart Weight in pounds of 100
clean, dry pieces
Weight In pounds of 100
clean, dry plseas Weighted Range of weight
average reported
WeigMed Range of wdgM
average reported Law High
Law Hlgh
DUST CONTROL - 100%cotton
DUST MOPS - 65% polyester/35%cotton
100%cotton - 50%polyester/50%cotton
50% polyester/50%cotton FOUR-WAY
100%cotton - 65% polyester/35% cotton
50% polyester/50% cotton - 50% polyester/50% cotton
100%cotton MECHANICS
50% polyester/50%cotton - 100%cotton
100%cotfon SHOP, DENIM
50% polyester/50%cotton - 100%cotton
100%cotton - 50%polyester/50%cotton


2'xJ' - cotton/lotex - 100%cotton
- synthetic/nrbber
3'x4' - syntheticlrubber MISCELLANEOUS FLAT GOODS
3'xS - cotton/lotex HAIR CLOTHS
- syntheticlrubber - 100%cotton
J'xlO' - cotton/lotex - 50% polyester/N% cotton
- syntheticlrubber
4'xb' - cotton/lotex DIAPERS
- syntheticlrubber - 10096 cotfon
4 x 8 ' - cottonllotex
- syntheticlrubber LAUNDRY BAGS
9x6' - cotton/lotex 3OWx45"- 65% polyester/35%cotton


f B"x24" - 100%cotton
18"x18" - 100%cotton
M"x36" -- 100%cotton NAPKINS. MOMlE
18"x18" - 100%cotton
20nx20" - 100%cotton
LINEN SUPPLY FLATWORK/Aprons and miscellaneous flat goods 22"x22" - 100%cotton
- 50%polyester/50%cotton
- 100%cotton 32 31 43 ZO"x20" - 100%cotton
- 65% poIyester/35%cotton 33 30 36 - 100%polyester
- 50% polyesier/50% cotton 33 30 38
WelgM In pounds of 100 Welght In pounds of 100
clean, d y pieces clean, dly p l o w s
Weighted Range of weight

Law Hlgh Low Hlah

45"x45" - 100%cotton
- 100%cotton
54"x54" - 100%cotton
63"x6Jn - 100%cotton
- 100%cotfon
72"x72" - 100%cotton
8Ivx81" - 100%cotton
54"x54" - 100%cotton 14"x21" - 100%cotton
- 100%polyester 14"x25" -
63"x63" - 100%polyester
72"x72" - 100%cotton
- 100%polyester BARBER/BEAUTY
81"x81" - 100%polyesfer W x 2 7 " - 100%cotton


6feet - 100%cotton 107 106 110
36"x24" - 100%cotton
8 feet - 100%cotton 136 180 3Vx30n -100%cotton
10 feet - 100%cotton 167 149 191
LINEN SUPPLY FlA1WORK/Beddlng 15"x27" - 100%cotton
63"~100"- 50% polyester/50%cotton 91 63 118 HAND TOWELS
66"xI 15" - 65% polyester/35%cotton 116 115 125 46x30" - 100%cotton
- 50% polyester/50%cotton 134 130 134 16"x32" - 100%cotton


72"x40OU - 65%polyester/3595 conon 118 105 124 45"x26" - 100%cotton
- 50% polyester/50%cotton 118 115 118 - 50%polyesfer/50% cotton
8f"XfOO" - 65% polyester/35%cotton 134 105 148 20Mx17" - 100%cotton
- 50%polyester/50%cotton 142 131 143
81 "X104" - 50% poh/ester/50% cotton 144 125 150 CONTINUOUS TOWELS
81"~108"- 65% polyester/35%cotton 127 120 153 4050 yds. - 100%cotton
- 80%polyester/20% cotton
SHEETS, QUEEN - 71%polyester/ZQ%cotton
90"x108" - 50% polyester/X% cotton 170 158 173 - 50% polyester/50% cotton

42"x33" - 100%cotton 26 23 30 BATH MATS
- 65% polyester/35%cotton 23 19 25 18"x24" - 100%cotton
- 50%~olyester/50%cotton 24 21 33 20"x30" - 100%cotton
42"x36" - 50% polyester/50%cotton 25 24 27
Weight In pounds of I00 WelgM In pounds of I00
clean, dry pieces clean, dry pieces
Welghted Range of weight Weighted Range of weight
average repor)ed average reported
Low Hlah Low Hlgh
BATH TOWELS Jackels, Bus Boy, long
20"x4OU - 100%cott on Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton
20"xM" - 100%cotton Jackets, Lapel, Long
22"xM" - 100%cotton Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cotton
Vests, No
MASSAGE/HAND Sleeve - 65% pobpster/35% cotton
15"x25" - 100%cotton
16"x26" - 100%cotton DRESSES
Belted, Short
WASHCLOTHS, FACE Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cotton
12"x12" - 100%cotton Rlncess. long
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton
Rlncess, Short
LINEN SUPPLY GARMENTS Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton
- 100%cotton Not-fitted,Long
- 65% polyester/35%cotton Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cotton
Seml-tltted, Long
COATS. LONG Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton
Frocks, Long Seml-fltted, 314
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cotton 123 100 133 Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton
Frocks, 314
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cotton 143 120 150 SHIRTS
Lugger, Meat/ Kltchen. Short
Butcher- 50% polyester/50% cotton 124 110 126 Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cottohn
Coat - 65% polyester/35%cotton 135 107 156 PANTS SUITS
Wraparound. Long Tops. Short
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton 74 74 81 Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% coilon 58 40 75
Wraparound, 314 Slacks - 65% polyester/35% cotton 89 75 100
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton 87 75 105
COATS. SHORT Chefs - 65% polvester/35% cotton 101 78 105
Chef. Long Cook's - 65%polyester/35% cotton 102 79 108
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cotton 94 80 105
Chef, Short I

Sleeve - 65% polyester/35% cotton 87 70 105 5

Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton 98 63 104 SHOP TOWELS
Doctor (Slde Button), Long 1B"xiB" - 100%cotton
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton 52 50 84 - blend
Doctor (Side Button), Short 18"x30" - 100%cotton
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton 61 58 63
Jackets, Bartender, Long
Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton 91 73 loo
WelgM In pounds of 100 Weight In pounds of 100
clean, dry pleces clean, dry pleces
Welghted Range of w l g h t Weighted Range of weight
average repow average repocted
Low Hlah Low Hlgh
3b"xbO" - 100%cotton 82 79 88 BEDDING
- 50% polyester/50%cotton 66 60 81
- 100%polyester 80 80 80 BEDSPREADS, SINGLE
7 0 ~ x 9 0-~ 100%cotton
SEAT COVERS 72"x99" - 100%cotton
bO"x72" - 50% polyester/50%cotton 153 140 180
3OWx40"- 100%cotton
Jb"x40" - 100%cotton
WORK APPAREL 70~x90"- 100%cotton
Heayweighl - 65%polyester/35% cotton bb"x90" - 100%cotton
Lightweight - 65% polyester/35%cotton
JACKETS 2dnx36" - 100%cotton
Eisenhower - 65% polyester/35%cotton 34"x3bU - 100%cotton
Hlp Length - 65% polyester/35%cotton
Wolst length - 65% polyester/35%cotton MATTRESS PAD
39"x76" - 100%cotton
Long Sleeve - 65% polyesfer/35% cotton PILLOWCASES
Short Sleeve - 65% polyesfer/35%cotton 42"x3JV - 65% polyester/35%cotton
- 5096 polyester/50%cotton
PANTS/TROUSERS 42"x3bM- 65%polyester/35%cotton
- 65% polyester/35%cotton - 50% polyester/50%cotton
Long Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton S''x84 " - 65% polyester/35%cotton
Short Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton
EXECUTIVL APPAREL 66"x404"- 50%polyester/50%cotton
SHIRTS bbnx145" - 65% polyester/35%cotlon
Long Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotfon - 5D% polyester/50%cotfon
Short Sleeve - 65% polyester/35%cotton
- 65% polyester/35%cotton 20"x3OW - 100%cotton
- 100% polyester
20nx40" - 100% cotton
WelgM In pounds of 100
clean. dw DI-s
Welghbd Range of welgM
average repow
Low Hlah

Wx26" - 100% cotton
12"x12" - 100% cotton


VerHcal cylinders
24"x24" - 100%cotton 20 20 25 Tank dlameier U.S. gallons Tank dlarneter U.S. gallons
Wx36" - 1M3% cotton 53 52 57 In feel p e r loot of depth In f e d per foot d depth
54"x54" - 1CQ%cotton 90 55 138 1 5.87 13 992 9
1.5 13.22 14 1.152
2 23.50 15 1.322
2.5 36.72 16 7.504
HEALTHCARE GARMENTS 3 52.88 17 1.698
3.5 71.97 18 1.934
ADUM PATIENT APPAREL 4 94.00 19 2.121
GOWNS 4.5 119.0 20 2.350
Bathrobe 65% polyester/35% cotton 5 146.9 21 2.591
Isolation 50% polyester/50% cotton 5.5 177.7 22 2.844
O.R. 50% ~olyester/50%cotton 6 21 1.5 23 3.108
100%cotton 6.5 248.2 24 3.384
65% polyester/35% cotton 7 287.9 25 3.672
50% polyester/50% cotton 7.5 330.5 26 3.972
100%cotton 8 3 76.0 27 4.283
50% polyesler/50% cotton 8.5 424.5 28 4.606
9 475.9 29 4.981
INFANT PATIENT APPAREL 10 587.5 30 5.288
11 710.9 31 5.M6
Shirt - 100% cotton 12 846.0 32 6.016
SURGlCAL/OPERATlNG ROOM GARMENTS Abstracted from The Permutit Water and Waste Treatment Data Book
- 50% polyester/50%cotton
- 100%cotton
- 50%polyester/SO% cotton



This table converts temperatures from degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit
or from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius. T h e number to be converted is
located in Column A. To convert from OF to OC, read to the left of Column A. 'I'o
convert from "C to O F , read to the right of Column A. Degrees Celsius are
identical to degrees Centigrade; however, the word Celsius is preferred. Values
not included in the table can be calculated by one of the following two

Temperature conversion table

"C <- OF or OC -> OF OC <-OF or "C -> OF

-1 7.8 0 32 35 95 203
-15 5 aI 37.8 100 212
-12.2 10 50 40.6 105 22 1
- 9.4 15 59 43.3 110 230
- 6.7 20 68 46.1 115 239
- 3.9 25 77 48.9 120 248
- 1.1 %
. 86 51.7 125 257
1.7 35 95 54.4 130 266
4.4 40 104 57.2 135 275
7.2 45 113 60 140 284
10 50 122 62.8 145 293
12.8 55 131 65 6 150 302
15.6 60 Ido 68 3 155 31 1
18.3 65 149 71 1 160 320
21.1 70 158 73.9 165 329
23.9 75 167 76 7 170 338
26.7 80 176 79.4 175 34 7
29.4 85 185 82 2 180 356
32.2 Q3 194 85 185 365

Conversion factors
TO convert trom To MuRpfy by
Acres Square feet (ft?)
Square meters (rnl) 43560
4046 8
Btu Calorie
Foot pounds
Kilowott hours
Calories Btu
b t pounds
Centigrams Grams
Centimeters Feet
Metric units used in this table are based upon the following units: Inches
QuanMy Name SVmbOl Millimeters
Meter rn Yards
Mass Gram Q Cubic centimeters (cc) Gallons (US, fluid)
Time Second s Liten
Electric current Ampere A Ounces (U.S,fluid)
Frequency Hertz Hz (57) Pints (U.S . fluid)
Force Newion N (rn.K~.s-~) Quarts (U.S., fluid)
Pressure Pascal Pa (N/m2)
Cubic feet Cubic centimeters
Energy, work, heot Joule J (N-m)
Gallon (U S.. fluid)
The metric system uses prefixes (see below) in conjunction with unit names. Cubic yards Gallons (U.S.. dry)
For example, a kilometer (km) is equal to 1,000 meters (m) (kilo = lo3= 1,000). Gallons (U.S.,fluid)
Factor ~retlx SVmbOl Feet Centimeters
10'2 or (1.OM).000.000.000) tera T Meters
109or (I ,OM).M)O.OOO) g w G
I @or (1.OOO.OM)) mega M
103 or (1.000) kilo k
lo7or (100) hecto h
10' or (10) deka do
lo-' or (0 1) deci d Gallons (U.S., d v ) Cubic feet
10-2 or (0 01) cent1 c Gallons (U.S.. fluid)
10-3 or (0 001) m~lli rn Liters
10-~or(0000001) micro IJ

10-Qor (0 000000001) nano n Gallons (US. fluid) Cubic feet

lo-" or (0 000000000001) pic0 P Gollons (US. dry)
Ounces (U.S.. fluid)
Conversion factors
Conversion factors -
To convert trom To MuMply b y
To convert from TO MU~PW

Carats (metric) Liters Ounces (U.S..flu~d)

Dynes Quarts (US. dry)
Grains Quarts (US.. fluid)
Ounces (0vdp.l Litersfminute Cubic feetlminute
Pounds (avdp.) Gallon (U.S., fluid)/minute
Grams/cubic centimeter ~rams/milliliter Meters Centimeters
Poundsfcubic feet Feet
pounds/gallon(US. fluid) lnches
Horsepower (mechanical) Horsepower (boiler) Yards
Horsepower (electric)
Horsepower (metric) Miles Feet
~ o u lJsecond
e Furlongs
lnches Centimeters Rods
Meters Yards
Milliliters Cubic centimeters (cc)
Ounces (avdp.) Liters
Pounds (avdp.) Ounces (US. fluid)
Poundsfcubic feet Ounces (avdp.) Grams

Kilogram/square centimeter Kilopascal Ounces (U.S.. fluid) Cubic centimeters

Gallons (US. fluid)
Kilometers Meters
Pints (U.S.. fluid) Gallons (US.. fluid)
Kilopascal (k PO) Bar
Pounds/square inch
Pounds (avdp.) Grams
Kilowatts Btu/hoUr
F O O ~poundslsecond
Ounces (avdp.)
Horsepower (mechanical)
Horsepower (electric) Pounds/cubic feet Kilogram/cubic meter
Poundsfcubic inch Grams/cubic centimeter

Liters Bushels (U.S.) Pounds/square inch Bars

Cubic centimeters (CC) Centimeters of Hg (0°C)
Cubic feet Grams/square centimeter
Cubic inches lnches of Hg (32°F)
Gallons (U S.. d%') lnches of H 0 (39.2"F)
Gallons (U.S..fluid) ~ i l o ~ r a r n s j s ~ ucentimeter
Kilopascals (k Pa)
Quarts (U.S.. fluid) Liters
TO comer)from To Mumply by

Square centimeten Square feet 0.00108

Square inches 0 155
Square meters O.COO1
Square feet Sauore centimeters 929.03
Square inches 144
Square meters 0.0929
Square yords 0.1111
Square inches Square centimeters 6 452
Square feet 0.00694
Square kilometers Acres 247.1
Square miles 0.386
Common conversions
Square miles Acres 640
Square kilometers 2.59 Ratio of circumference to diameter 3.1416 .
Cubic inches in one U.S. gallon 231
Yards Centimeters 91.44 One U.S. gallon of water weighs
Fathoms 0.5 8.34pounds
Cubic inches in one cubic foot 1728
Meters 0.9144
One cubic foot of water weighs 62.43pounds

Poles (British) 0 1818
One horsepower hour = 2547
0.746kilowatt hours
One port per million = one milligram per liter
= 0 0584 grains per U.S. gallon
One grain per U.S.gcilon = 17.118 ports per million
Conversion of water meter reading to gallons 100 cubic feet (cu. fl.) = 748 gallons

Equivalent units tor defining boiler output
Itom Equlwlent unb
1 pound steam @ 212T 970 Btu/pound
1 square foot of steam 240 Btu/hour
1 square foot of water 150 Btu/hour
1 boiler horsepower (Bhp) 34.5 pounds of steam/hour @ 212°F
139.5square feet of steam
223 square feet of water

Fuel consumption per hour per Bhp @ 80 percent fuel-to-steamefficiency

Fuel Consumption
No. 2 oil 0.3gallon/hour per Bhp
No. 5 or No. 6 oil 0.28 gallon/hour per Bhp
Gas - 500 Btu/cubic foot 84 cubic feet/hour per Bhp
Gas - 800 Btu/cubic foot 53 cubic feet/hour per Bhp
Gas - 1000 Btu/cubic foot 42 cubic feetlhour per Bhp
Fuel healing values
Fuel Heating wlue

Heovy fuel oHs and middle distillates INDEX

No. 2 burner fuel oil
No. 4 heavy fuel oil Agave 72
No. 5 heavy fuel oil Abaca 72
Abrasion 130,134 Agglomerate 39
NO. 6 heavy fuel oil. 2.7% sulfur
Absorbency 48,78,79,114,119 Air pollution 26.145,149
NO. 6 heavy fuel oil, 0.3% sulfur
Acetate 74 Algae 23,28.146
Gas Alkali 12-14, 16,17,20,22,23,27,
natural 1,000 Btu/cubic foot Acetone 74
Acid 12-14,16,18-23,
26,27.40- 40,43,44.46-48,52-54, 60,
liquified butane 103.300 Btulgalion
44,46,50,54,58,61,63,64, 75,76,92-94, 96,99,101-103,
liquified propane 91.600 Btulgallon
96,103,116, 108,110,113,115-118, 135,
1 therm 100.000 Btu
Electrlclty chemistry 43-48
3.413 Btu 140,141-143
1 Kw formulating 114-118
acetic 12.63
acrylic 72,88,110 selection 118-119
benzoic 132,133 silicates 46
Temperature of Stam Alkaline 11-16,22,27,29,40-50,
carbolic 131
Pounds of Tempe~~lure in Pounds of Temperalure In citric 132,143 52,58,65,77,78,91, 99,116,
gouge pressure degrsss F. gauge pressure degms F. cy anuric 58 117,121,122,129,135,139,
0 2 12.0 320.1 fatty 42 140,156
5 227.2 fluosilicic 63 builders 49
10 239.6 327.6 formic 13,63 damage to fabrics 49,52
15 249.7 331.2 free 29,39,103 pressure 87,IS9
20 258.8 334.6 free fatty 29,103 salts 43,134
35 266.7 100 337.8 hydrochloric 13,18 Alkalinity 12-14, 16,19,20,2'2,
30 274.0 105 hydrofluoric 63,140 27,44,48,50,52,61,62,92,
35 280.6 110 93,94-96,99, 102-104,108,
40 286.7 115
hypochlorous 58
45 292.4 120 mineral 17,72,78,108,112 115,117,118,128,139
50 297.7 125 muriatic 13 active 12, 20,44
55 302.6 130 nitric 13.131 bicarbonate 30,137
60 307.3 150 organic 17,28.58,59 residual 61,65,159.160
65 311.7 175 oxalic 13.63,132,140,141 total 19,95,99, 148,159,160
70 3 16.0 200 phosphoric 13 Alkylaryl sulfonates 41
Zero pounds of gauge pressure = 14.697pounds absolute pressure sulfuric 13,18 Alpaca 73
Acid soil 40 Alum 131
Acidity 13,14,26.27 Ammonia 13,39
Acrylic 72,74.88,110
Ammonium 12, 13, 23, 43, 49, 63, Bib aprons 91, 143 Borax 165 handling 89, 121
67, 78,116,136, 140 Bicarbonate 12, 16, 19, 27, 30,44, Break 20, 22, 42, 48, 52, 68, 81, proprietary 70
acid fluoride 63, 116 62,94,137 92, 93, 99, 101-103, 113, 114, selectioii 114-119
bifluoride 140 Bicomponent fiber 81 118, 119, 133, 148, 153 storage 122
hydroxide 43 Biodegradable 42, 145, 146 Brightener 50, 51, 52, 64, 70,94, supplies 114
silicofluoride 12, 13, 63, 116 Biodegradation 145, 146 97,99, 109,115, 116,128 type and concentration 95
thiocyanate 23 Bleach 12, 16, 20-23, 27, 29,4 1 , Brine 32,33 washing 35-60
Analytical 16. 136 49, 51, 53-61, 66, 67, 77, 78, Broadcloth 165 Chemistry
Angora 73 92, 93-97, 99, 101-105, 109, Brownian movement 165 alkali 43-48
Anidex 72 120, 128, 129, 134, 135, 137, Buffer 18, 19, 21. 46 basic 11-13
Animal 28, 40, 43, 48, 53, 72, 106, 140, 141-143, 153 Builders 12,25,42,44,45,49, laundry 11, 13-16, 46, 78, 89,
118,139 carboy 20 .
, 95, 115, 145, 147
fats 40, 43, 1I8 carryover 61 Building 44, 46,47,52, 110 washroom 18, 19, 87, 99, 114,
fibers 72,75, 81, 137 chlorine 12,27,54,55,57-59,67 Built synthetic detergent 40, 115 125
hair 72, 73 cyanuric 58 Bursting strength 165 Chlorazol sky blue FIT 137
secretions 73 damage 133-135,138 Cadmium 147 Chloride of lime 166
Anion 13, 39, 44, 64 dry 20,62,69,81,91,116 Calcium 12, 19, 26, 29-31, 33, 49, Chlorine 12, 16, 20-23, 27, 3 3 , ~ -
Anionic 39-42, 51, 67 effect of 59 50 59, 61, 66-68, 75, 94-96, 99,
Anti-static 81 effect of chlorine bleach 55 bicarbonate 30.137 105, 109,120,122,128, 140
Antibacterial 97, 99 hydantoin 58 hypochlorite 75 retention 59
types of 87, 157 hydrogen peroxide 59-60, 140 Calico 165 Classification of soil 16, 17, 35,
Antichlor 13, 56,61, 68, 69,99, hypochlorite 75 Camel 73 39, 52, 70, 87-90, 102, 112,
116, 140 liquid 20, 48,57,62, 64, 115-118 Carbon 11,12, 17,27,39,67 127, 148, 159,
Antiseptic 131 lithium hypochlorite 57-58 dioxide 27 textile fibers 11. 71, 129
Aramid 72,74, 155 managemint in the laundry Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Clean weight 91,92
Aseptic 164 57-60 51-52, 108 Closed-oil system 111
Astringent 131 organic 58,59 Carboy solution 20 Cloud point 166
Atoms 11,12 organic chlorine 58-59 Carpets 73, 78 CMC see carboxymethyl-
Available chlorine 16,20, 21,57- oxidizing 54, 130 Carryover 22,61,93, 101-103, 113 cellulose
59, 75, 96, 96 procedure for usage 104, 135 Cashmere 73 Colloidal 51
oxygen 28,60,67, 123 procedure for using 55-57 Catalyst 165 Color 16, 19-23, 27, 28, 50, 52, 54,
Azlon 72 reducing 17, 35,54, 64, 65, 96, Cation 30,39,42,64 59,67, 77, 80,81, 87,95, 97,
Bacteria 28, 53, 54, 62, 65, 66,69, 148 Cattail 72 106, 119, 122, 127, 128, 137,
105, 106, 138, 139, 145 sodium hypochlorite 57 Caustic potash 40,117,118 139, 140
chemicals that control 65-67 sodium percarbonate 60 Caustic soda 12, 13,40, 46-48,52, Colored water 28
gram negative 66 sodium perborate 60 115-117, 120 Calorimeter 97
gram positive 65,66 stain removal 53-54 Causticity 165 Condensate 41,42, 148
Bactericides 66. 105, 112 sterilizing with 54 Cellulose 12, 13,51,63, 71, 72, 75, Conditioning 64, 147, 148, 160,
Bacteriological growth, tests for strenath 55 79,81, 108, 133, 134, 136, 137 161
138-139 acetate 72, 74,81 Contact stain 167
Bacteriostat 67, 70, 116 solution 18, 20, 33, 136, 137 Container label 57, 122
quaternary ammonium 49, 67 temperature 17, 25,54, 56, 57, Cellulosic 51,68, 72, 136 Conventional washer 16, 151,
Base 13, 16, 30-32, 139 59,67, 94, 123, 135, 137 Celcius 166 154,158
Base-ion exchange 30 types of 54,87, 157 Chelate 29, 50 Copper sulfate 136
Rast fibers 72 Bleeding 128 Chemicals Core spun 81
Recks 87 Brood 92, 101 dispensing methods 114
Benzene 41,138 Roil out 139, 141 finishing 61-70
Boll 72
Cotton 12, 133, 24, 40, 49-51, 5:3, Dilution 16, 17, 25, 35, 39, 54, 56, Equipment 17, 18, 28, 41, 55, 57, acetatc 51, 72, 74, 81
55, 58, 61, 63-6.5, 68, 71, 72, 57, 91, 94-96, 105, 117, 1.18, 70, 78,89, 94, 96, 97, 104, araniid 72, 74, 155
74-81, 83, 86, 89, 94-98, 106, 136, 148, 153, 158 106, 110, 114, 121, 127, 135, cellulosic 72-73
109, 110, 119, 131-136, 139, Discoloration 12, 23, 69, 78, 133, 138, 147, 151, 155, 156, 159, classification of 7 1-73
140, 148, 153, 155,159,160 135 161 cotton 12, 40, 49, 50, 71, 74, 81,
Crease resistance 71 Disinfectant 131 continuous washers 147, 156 95, 106, 109, 110, 131
Creasing 87 Dispensing methods for chemi- extractors 98,109,154,159,160 damage 68
Cresols 131 cal supplies 62, 70, 114 ironers and presses 155 encountered in professional
Crimp 81 Dispersion 69 steam/air finishers 156 laundries 73-81
Crock 114 Dissolved oxygen 27, 145,146 steam tunnels 155 flax (linen) 76
Crowsfeet 167 Distillation 30 tumblers 129, 155 lubricants 64
Cuprous oxide 136 Drape 70 washer/extractors 154 man-made 71,72.81
Curing 87 Dry spinning 81 washing a n d finishing 151-161 milkweed 72
Damage, textile Drycleaning 107,139,149 Eriochrome Black T 18, 19 multilobal 77
causes of 130-136 Dryer heat 148,149 Escherichia coli 66 names 71-72
chemical 11, 13, 17, 25, 46,49, Dryers 98, 105, 155, 160, 161 Ethylene oxide 41,42 natural 71,72
54. 114, 115,121, 122, 124, Dull luster 79 Eutrophication 146 nature of 125
125, 130, 132, 134 Durable 70, 78, 87,88, 109, 134, Extensibility 169 nut husk 72
fungi 65, 66, 133 155 Extraction 5 4 , 64, 89, 96-98, 109, nylon 72, 77,78
mechanical 17, 37, 129, 133, press 138, 155 111, 130, 147, 148, 154, 156, olefin 72, 78
134, 152, 158 Dust control 98, 109, 110 159, 160 palm 72
physical 125, 148, 151 Dye specialists 119, 120 centrifugal 98, 154, 160 pineapple 72
testing fibers for 136-138 Dyeing 86, 119-120, 137 hydraulic 154 protein 72, 73
Damask 168 direct 119, 137 Extractors 94, 96, 98, 109, 147, ramie 72,78,79
Deflocculating 16. 17 vat 119-120 148, 154, 158-160 rayon 63, 72, 79-81
Degradation 80, 109, 130, 131, Dyes 51,54,61,62,75,119,140 centrifugal 98, 154, 160 structure 81
134 EDTA 18, 19,50 hydraulic 154 yucca 72
Degrease 168 Electrolytic action 135 tunnel washers 91, 157 Filament 77-81
Demineralization 30 Elements, chemical 11, 12, 16, Fabric 12, 15-17. 23, 25, 29, 36, continuous 106,119, 147
Denier 77, 79,80 29,71,108 39, 40, 49,52-57, 59, 61,62, yarns 78,81,82, 134
Detergency 11, 16, 17, 19,35,41, Elongation 74 64,65,67-70,72-74,76,78, ~ i i l i 82,96,
n~ 129, 134
42,93, 101,146 Emulsification 112 82-91.94,95,97-99, 104, 105, Filling yarns 82, 134
function 16-17, 19 Emulsify 52 108, 109, 111, 116, 119, 135, Filter, rotary vacuum 112
Detergent 17,35. 40, 42-44. 46, Emulsifying 16, 17, 48, 108, 119 137-140, 148, 153-155 Filtration 28, 111
49-52,62.65, 93. 94.96.99, Emulsion 70 finishes 88 Finish 11,59,61,68, 69, 71,86,
102, 103, 108, 110, 112, 113, Ends 82 softeners 64-65,70, 104 109, 116, 138, 155, 156,
115, 119, 127, 128, 139, 143, Energy structure 82-86 durable press 87,88, 155
146,156 conservation 147-149 Fade-ometer 169 permanent press 87,96,155
consumer laundry 41,49,64, costs 147 Fats, animal 40, 43, 118 soil-release 70,87,88
146 Entrance mats 73,110 Fatty alcohol 42 Finishing chemicals 61-70, 116
nonbiodegradable 145-146 Environment 65, 121,126,130, Ferric chloride 131 First aid 121, 122, 125
synthetic 30,41. 51, 52, 68, 70, 145-149 Ferric hydroxide 12 Flame retardant 81
146 Environmental protection Ferrous sulfate 13'7 Flammability 71, 73, 113, 122,
Deterioration 130, 132 agencies 146 Fibers 11-13,35, 37, 41, 51, 63, 123
Diapers 29, 104, 105.143, 155 Enzymes 133 59,68, 71-75, 77-79,81,83, Flash point 123
Diatomaceous 111, 112 EPA 66,125, 147, 149 97, 105, 106, 11, 119, 129, Flatwork ironer 62, 155
130, 133-137 Flax (linen) 72, 76-77, 81
Floats 134
Fluorine 12 Hues 51,119
Fluorocarbon 170 Humectant 65 Launderiug steps Magnesium bicarbonate 12
Flush 29,92,93,102,125,154 Hydrate 171 bleach suds 93 Material handling 151. 160, 161
Foodstuffs 132-134 Hydrocellulose 137 break 22,93 Material Safety Data Sheet 125
Formulas, laundry 89,98-112, Hydrogen 12-14.39, 54,59,60, detergency function 16 Matrix fiber 72, 81
129, 147 78,131,132, 140 extraction 97, 98, 109, 130 Mats 73,104,109,110
heavy soil 98,102 Hydrogen peroxide 12,54,59,60, flushes 92 Mechanical action 17.23-25.35,
industrial pants 108 78,131,140 guidelines for loading 90 37-39.53. 91, 129, 133, 151-
industrial shirts 107 Hydrolysis 13,49,61,65, 135 rinsing 94,95, 129 153, 157,158
laundry 98-104 Hydrophilic 36,37,39,68 1
soil sorting 89,92 Medium soil 98,99, 101, 102, 104,
Hydrophobic 36,78 souring 13,27,51,56,59, 61-62, 105
light soil 98,99-101
mats 110 Hydrotope 171 76,95,97-98, 104, 128, 129, Melt RO,81
medium soil 98, 101 Hydroxide 12-14, 29,43,44, 136, 148 Melt spinning 81
138 suds (carryover) 93, 101, 113 Mercerize 74,86
printer towels 112-113
Hygroscopic 171 Laundry and the environment Merchandise classifications 104-
shop towels 112-114
Indicator 16, 18-23,43,93,97 145-149 112
very heavy soil 98, 102-104
Industrial garments 98, 106-109 Laundry procedures 89-120 dust control 109-112
very light soil 98-100
Industrial growth 145-147 Lead 49,76, 147 general linen supply 106
Free space 158 Leaf fibers 72
Fugitive 140 Infection 65, 106 healthcare 104-106
Insects 79, 134 Lifting action 153 hotel/motel 104
Fungi 65,66,133, 138 Light soil 98-101, 104, 110, 120,
G force 153, 160 Insoluble 12, 26, 27, 29, 35, 40, 49 industrial garments 106-109
159 shop and printer towels 112-114
Garments, industrial 98, 106-109 soap 26,40,51
Lime soaps 12,29,40 Mercurochrome 131
Gas 123, 124, 147, 155 Interfacial tension 17
Interlocking 82 Linen 11, 12,48, 76, 77,94, 98, Mercury 67, 147
ironers 98, 155 104-106,118, 133, 136, 139,
Intermediate extraction 96, 130, Merthiolate 131
Germicide 64 143, 145, 149, 1.56, 157
147,148, 154, 158 Metallic 30, 49, 62, 72, 128, 139,
Glass 72 Lint 106, 135, 149
Glauconite 30 Iodine 131, 143 140
Linting 129 fibers 72
Glyceride 170 Ion exchange 30-32,116
Liquid stains 35, 106, 139
Greasy soils 103 Ions 13, 29-31, 43, 49
alkali 17, 23, 43, 44, 75, 93, 96, Metasilicate 12, 13, 22, 44, 45, 17,
Green sands 30 Iron 11, 12, 23, 26-28, 30, 50,62,
115,116 48, 52, 93, 112, 115-119
Greige 119 114, 128,140
bleach 20, 22,53, 54, 56,57, 93, Methyl alcohol 138
Greying 17, 40 Ironers 69, 74, 98, 104, 105, 129,
94, 103, 109, 128, 134, 140, Methyl orange 16, 18-20, 43,99
Ground water 26-28 155
141,143, 153 modified 69, 152
Guanaco 73 Isothiazolone 67 caustic 13,16
Item classifications 89,98, 104- Micelle 172
Gums 74 fabric ratio 15, 148, 153 Microorganisms 53,54,59,65,
Hand 45, 49,62, 64, 68, 69, 74,84, 112
Jacquard designs 134 silicate 116, 118 66,69, 79, 105, 106, 121, 133,
94, 105, 106, 117, 130, 131, Lithium hypochlorite 57-58
134,161 Jute 72 145
Litmus paper 13,43 Mildew 54,65-69, 74, 78, 79, 133,
Hazard communication stand- Kapok 72
Llama 73 139
ard 122-126 Kier boil 172
Load size
Load factor
153158 chemicals that control 65-68
Health 28, 122, 124, 125, 138, 149 Knitting 81-83,86 t

Labels Mildewcides 66
Heated fluid 155 Loading 24,89-91, 107, 156, 157, Mildistats 66,69
Heavy soil 98,99, 102-104, 119, chemical 57.66.67, 115, 121,
161 Mineral 13, 17,30, 48,53, 72, 76.
159 122,125
Lubricants 64,98 78.80, 106-108. 112, 119. 1.77,
Hemp 72 textile 72, 73 Luster 71.74, 77, 79,80,86
Lastrile 72 140
Hexametaphosphate 29,49.50 Magnesium 12, 26, 29-31,33,49, greases 147
Hexane 114,146 Latex 109 50 Modacrylic 72
Hotel sheets 99
Polyester 24, 41, 49, 51, 52,65, Rayoil 12, 63, 71, 72, 74, 79-81,
Mohair 73 Oxidizing agents 61, 80, 130
68, 72.78, 79,81,83,89,91, 134
Moisture retention 97, 98, 109, Oxycellulose 75, 137 94, 95-98, 106, 108-110, 116,
O x w e n 12, 23, 27, 28, 39, 49.60, bright 77, 79, 80
129, 135, 136, 138, 153, 159, dull 79
Mold 133 160 semi-dull 79
Molecules 11, 13, 36-39, 42, 71 0zone.173 Polyester/cotton 89, 94, 98, 106,
P a d 155 Reactivity 122, 124, 125
Monofilament 81 135, 153, 159 Recirculated air 149
Mops 109-112, 119 Pathogenic 28,65 Polyethylene 42, 78
microorganisms 54, 106, 121 Redeposition 16, 17, 39, 48, 108,
Motel sheets 89 Polytetrafluorethylene 80-81 127, 128
Moths 74, 78, 134 PBI (Polybenzimidazole) 72 Polymer 12,68, 70, 71, 78,80, 81 Reducible stains 54, 140. 142
MSDS 125 Pearl a s h 174 Polyvinyl acetate 68, 70, 116 Reducing agent 27,62, 140
Multi-filament 81 Penetrate 35,38,51, 119 Post-cure 87 Reducing sour 140
Muslin 173 Peptize 17 Potash 40, 117, 118 Reduction 113
Neutralize 12, 14, 27, 43, 5 6 6 1 , Percale 174 Potassium 18, 21, 43, 48,54,58, Regeneration 29,31,32,33,49.
62,96 Perchloroethylene 135,149 117, 118, 131, 132, 136-138 71.81
Neutralizing 16, 17,62,63,76 Permanganate 54,131 ferricyanide 137 Relative humidity 176
Neutralizing value 62 Perspiration 74, 107 hydrogen tartrate 132 Repeating unit 71
Ninhydrin 137 Petroleum 71,111, 146 hydroxide 43, 138 Residual 14, 19, 27, 56, 57, 61, 65,
pH 13-23, 25, 26, 43-46, 49, 50, 52, iodide 18, 21 94-96, 114, 135, 159, 160
Nitrogen 26, 39,64,67
Nonionic 39-42, 51, 64, 67. 103, 53, 55-57,59,60,65,67,75, orthosilicate 22, 48 Resin finishes 96
93, 94, 97,98, 102, 104, 108,
108, 109, 112,115, 119 permanganate 54,131 Rewash 95, 104
115,118,128,129,132,135 sodium tartrate 136 Rice starch 69
Nonpathogenic 28,65
effect of on bleach 22,56, 59, POTW (Publicly owned treat- Right-to-know law 122
Nontoxic 173 93,94, 128, 129,132
Nonwoven 173 ment works) 145, 147 Rinse times 127
foodstuffs 132 Pre-cure 87 Rinsing 94-96, 129
Nutrient 68.69, 146
Nylon 51, 72, 74, 77-78, 81, 109, indicator 13, 14. 15.16 Precipitate 49 Rock salt 119
137, 155 meter 97 Pre-conditioning 155 Rolling, ironer 62, 129
pads 155 test papers 13, 16, 18,21,22 Pre-shrunk 175 Rosin 176
Nvtril 72 P h e n o l ~ ~ h t h a l e 16,18,
in 20, 22, Presses 69, 74, 94,98, 105, 154- Rotary vacuum filter 112
93,-99 156, 159, 160 Rotation speed 130, 153
occluded 49
Phosphate treatment 29 extraction 97, 98, 109, 130 Rubber 72, 109, 114,124,159
Odor 12,63,70,80,105, 112,129
Phosphates 17, 29,46,49-50,52, Prewash operations 89 Hugs 73
Olefin 72, 78
One-suds procedure 99 58,108,115,145,146 soil sorting 89, 92 Running suds 93
Opacifier 173 in detergents 146 Print 175 Rust 12, 27, 62, 63, 69, 1 16, 129,
Optical brighteners 50-51,64 Phosphorous 12,49,146 Printing 86,87 139, 140
Organic 13, 16, 17, 20, 27, 28: 30, Photometer 174 Problem solving and trouble- Safety 62, 67, 99, 121, 122, 125,
39, 42, 50, 54,58, 59, 74, 76, Pick 26,106,110,158 shooting 127-143 126,149
78, 109, 146 Pigment 67,79 Proprietary products 42,52,70, chemical handling 121
bleach 58, 59 piiling 129 96 chemical storage 122
Orientation 36 Pillowcases 51, 89, 104, 134, 155 Propylene 42 hazard communication
Ornamentation 73 Ply 175 Protein 72, 73 standard 122-126
Orthosilicate 11-13, 22, 47, 48,52, Pollutants 145-147, 149 Proteinaceous 92 safe handling of washroom
93, 112, 115, 117-119, 139 Pollution 26, 145,146,149 Publicly owned treatment works chemicals 121-126
Orthotolidine 18, 22,23, 95 air 26, 149 (POTW) 145,147 Salt 11, 13, 31, 33, 41, 43. 4 4 , 46,
OSHA 122, 125, 149 water 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 22, 25- Quaternary ammonium 49,67, 50,54,61,63,64, 116, 119,
29,52,65. 67,75, 89, 90.95, 78, 136 132, 137
Overbleaching 134
96, 110, 123-125, 127-129, compounds l2,44 Salts 12, 13, 26, 29, 30, 33, 32-44,
Oxidation 59
137. 145,147,153,159,160 Ramie 72. 78-79 48-50, 59, 117, 128, 131, 135
Oxidizable stains 75, 140
Sanforizing 176 carbonate 13, 29,50,60,93 Sour bath 13, 22, :j0, 51, 61, 65, Strength loss 23, 24, 55, 58, 59,
Saponify 16, 17 chloride 18,33 67, 96-99 68, 104. 128
Saponification 17, 48, 118, 176 hexametaphosphate 29, 49,50 Sour guidelines 97 Slripping 54
Saran 72 hypochlorite 57 Spandex 72 Stuffing 73
Saturation 97 hydrosulfite l3,54,61, 120, 140 Specific gravity 78 Substantive 178
Sediment 28 hydrosulfite dihydrate 13 Spinneret 81,82 Suds and carryover suds 93
Seed hairs 72 hydroxide 12, 43,44, 136 Spinning 79,81 Suds time 127
Selvage 176 metasilicate 118 Split rinse 177 Sulfated fatty alcohols 4 1
Semi-colloid 176 orthosilicate 11-13, 47, 48, 93, Stain 12, 20, 24, 35, 50,53,54, Sulfated nonionics 41
Sepsis 176 112, 115, 118, 139 56, 66,68, 94, 102, 104, 106, Sulfonated amides 41
Septic 176 oxide 16, 20, 44, 47, 48, 50,52, 119, 128, 137-143 Sulfonated oils 68
93, 95,99, 118 albuminous 52, 101 Sulfonation 41
Sequester 29,49,50
perborate 54,60, 140 grease- and oil-based 139 Sulfur 11, 13, 26,39, 116
Serum 92
percarbonate 54,60 metallic 30, 72, 128, 139, 140 Sulfur dye 178
Sewage disposal 145-147
peroxide 54 mildew 54,67,68, 74, 78, 133 Sulfuric acid 13, 18, 76
Shop and printer towels 48, 111,
silicofluoride 12 oxidizable 139, 140 Sunfast 178
113, 119
stearate 40 reducible 139, 140 Surface-active agent 35
Shrinkage 74
sulfite 27, 28, 61 removal 20, 24, 50, 53,56, 94, Surface tension 35
Silica 47 104, 128, 139, 141, 142
Silicated alkali 116, 118 thiosulfate 18, 21,54, 61, 96, Surface water 26, 28
136, 140, 143 Stain reject percentages 106, 143 Surfaces :35, 37, 40. 70, 121, 129,
Silicates 42, 44-48,52, 116-118
tripolyphosphate 12, 13, 29, 49, Stain removal methods 139-143 134, 138, 156,158
alkaline 13, 42, 45, 49
108 grease and oil-based stains Surfactants 12, 16, 17, 26, 35-42,
liquid 48 139-140
Softeners 45, 49-52, 64, 106, 108, 109,
solid 17, 47 metallic stains 140-141
fabric 64-65 114, 115, 121, 156
Silicon 12 oxidizable stains 140
textile 64 anionic 40-41
Silk 73.81 reducible stains 140
Soil classification 24,89,90,99, cationic 39, 64
Silver nitrate 131, 136, 143 silver nitrate stains 143
103,142,157,158 classification of 39-42, 71
Silverfish 134 stain removal sequence in the
Soil-release finishes 70, 87 how surfactants work 25-39
Sizing 68-70, 116, 149, 158 washer 141-143
Soil removal 24,35, 42,48, 49, nonionic 40-42, 108, 112
starch 68-70
53, 89-91,93,99, 102, 118, Standard solution 16 synthetic anionic 4 1
synthetic polymer 70
119, 127, 128 Staph 66 Suspended matter 28
Skin irritation 61
Soil retardant 177 Staple 74,78, 79,8 1, 114 soil 16, 25
Slide calorimeter 97
Soil sorting 89-90,92 Starch 68-70,97, 116, 129, 145 solids 123
Slime 146 modified 69, 152
Soil suspension 39, 42, 45, 108 Suspending power 17,42,45,51,
S n a g s 133,134
Solvent 17,25,107, 113 thick boiling 69 52
Soap 12, 14, 18, 26, 29, 40-42, 46,
synthetic 30, 41,51,52, 68, 70, thin boiling 68,69 Swale 179
49-52, 61, 64, 67, 102, 103,
116, 128, 129, 139, 146 146 Static 64, 65, 81, 130 Swell 68, 75, 80
Soap specks 12, 103 Sorting 89,92,98, 104, 157, 161 Steam 106, 119, 121, 124,128, Symbol, chemical 11. 12
Soda ash 22, 27, 52, 93, 115, 140 Sour 12-14, 18,22, 23, 27,50, 51, 130, 147, 148, 155, 156 Synthetic detergent 46, 51, 103,
Sodium 11-13, 16, 18, 20.21, 27- 61-65, 67,69.70, 78, 94,96, Steam air finishers and special- 119. 139
31, 33, 40, 41, 43-45, 47-52, 97, 98,99, 116, 122, 129, 140, ized presses 155, 156 synthetic resins 30
54, 57, 58-63, 78, 93, 95, 96, 153 Steam tunnel 155-156 Synthetic solvent 30, 41, 51, 52,
99, 108, 109, 112, 115-118, lubricating 64, 104 Sterile 105 68, 70, 146
120, 136, 137, 139, 140, 143 reducing 17,35,54, 64,65,96, Sterilizing 53, 54, 75 Table salt 119
bicarbonate 30.137 148 Stock solution 20, 51, 56, 59, 60, Tallow 40, 42, 49,5132, 64, 67,
bisulfite 54, 61, 96 under souring 128,129 116, 128 116
borate 60 Tank capacities 193
Teflon 80-81
Temperature 15, 17, 21, 25, 26, physical function 64, 116 Very heavy soil 98,102, 103,159 Waxes 68
49, 51.54-57.59-61,6567, Textile strength loss 55,59,68 Very light soil 98-101, 104, 159 Weaving 81.82.86
69, 75, 76-78, 92-94, 97,99, Texturized 81 Vicuna 73 Weft 82
101, 102, 105, 107-109, 111, Thermal shock 107.124.136 Vinal72 Weight of textile rental items 183
113, 117, 119, 121, 123, 127- Thermoplastic 74,89,109,136 Vinyon 72 Wet spinning 81
129, 135.137, 139, 140, 148, Titanium dioxide 79 viscosity 17, 180 Wet strength 131
154,155,159,160 Titanous chloride 54 viscous 68, 180 Wetting agent 16, 25,35, 41
Tempered water 93,99 Titration 13, 15, 16, 18-22,48,93- Volatile 76. 123 Wheat starch 68.69
Tender 140,179 95,98,101, 114, 115,118, 119 Warp 82,83,86,134 Whiteness 23,24, 40, 49dl,53,
Tensile strength 23, 2455, 59, Top dye 179 yarns 82.83 62,86,lO4, 109
104, 128, 130, 139, 140 Tow 81 Wash-and-wear 180 maintenance 63,62, 109
loss 23, 24,55,59, 104, 128 Toxicity 66, 113 Wash steps 92-98 retention 24,53
Test kit 18, 19 Trailing of bleach 94 Wash test piece services 23-24 Whitening agents 51
Test piece 23,24 Training 11, 121,122,126,138 Washer 120, 151-154 woo1 51,73,78,81
Tests Triacetate 72,81 loading guidelines 90-92 lambs 73
bacteriological growth 138-139 Trilobal 77, 79, 81 Washer/extractor 94,96,98, 147, new 11
cellulosic fibers 72 Tripolyphosphate 12, 13,29, 49, 148, 154 virgin 73
chemical concentrations 15-16 108 Washfast 119 Wool Products Labeling Act 73
chemical damage 130,134 Trisodium phosphate 50 Washing and finishing equip- Wrinkling 78, 87, 91, 107, 130,
textile damage 136-138 Troubleshooting typical operat- ment 151-161 136, 155
washroom 19-23 ing problems 127-130 Washing formulas 29, 106, 107 Yarn 80,82,83,86,87, 134, 180
Tetrasodium phosphate 29,49, Tumblers 94, 105, 129, 135, 155 Washroom compounds count 181
108 Tunnel, steam 155 optical brighteners 50, 51,64 structure 81-82
Textile Tunnel washer 156-161 sizing 68, 70, 149, 158 Yellowing 59,61, 94, 109, 128
dyeing 86-88 development of 156 Washroom test kit 18, 19 Zeolite 30, 32
finishing 86-88 dryers 161 Wastewater 145-146 Zinc 63, 131, 147
printing 86-88 extractors for 159-161 Wastewater regulations 146-147 chloride 131
Textile damage 89, 130, 133, 134, load sizes for 157-158 Water silicofluoride 63
138 mechanical action 158 absorption 65 sulfate 131
causes of 130-136 scheduling loads 158-159 color 27, 28, 52,87, 106
chemical, during manufacture textile handling systems after conservation 147-149
130, 134-135 extraction 160-161 consumption 25,52, 97, 99,
chemical, during use 130-133 sizing for 157-159 147, 148, 156
from fungi 133, 138 textile handling systems free 97
in the laundry 135 for 157 hardness 26,40
types of 157 impurities 26-28,95
mechanical 17,37, 129,133-
134,152,158 Turbidity 26,28,41 levels 17,91,93,95, 127, 129,
to polyester/cotton blends 135- Twill 84,85 148,151,153
136 Two-suds procedure 99 nature and sources 25-26
Textile fibers Ultraviolet light 51,32 pollution 145-147
classification of 71-73 Uniforms 48,68,119,131 purification 145
Textile labels 73 Universal Indicator 18.23.97 reclamation 119
Textile softeners 64 Unloading 152, 154,156, 161 recycled 147
application 11,67 Upholstered 73 repellent 88
Urea 64 rusty 12
chemical structure 39,49,64,
User charge 147 softening 12, 14, 16,28-33
Vat dye 120 sources 25-26
performance 65, 98, 104, 136
spray jets 110