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Pressure Loss Calculation Procedures for High Speed Gas Flow

Pressure Loss Calculation Procedures for High Speed Gas Flow

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11/07/2012

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CLEARINGHOUSE

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DY N AT E C
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P~SSCSS C-,CojU-K

R OCH -%IEE GAS LOW

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Was irigto 25, D. C.

Bureau

U. S. NAVY
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June 297, 1961

DYNATECH CORPORA.TION 639 Massaichusetts Ave-.,ue CaImbridge 39, Massachusetts

SURI

TA I E B

O U NTNE YTS

LIST O- PROCEXJRES LIST OF
PREFACE 1. 0 2.0 INTROLUCTIMM AND GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO PARAMTE1I7E METHOD OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 2. 1 2.2 Mach Number Total Pressure and Loss Coefficients

ii V
I 3 5

ES=G

0 tAIS

5 6

2.3 2.4
2.5

Total Temperature Mass Flew Parameter and the Con, nujy
Relation Choking in Compiessible Flow

9 10

2.6 "Gas Properties

17

3.0 -SOURCES AND ME i-ODS EMPLOYED IN DZVELOPMENT 18
OF CALCULATION PROCEDURES FOR DUCT LOSS CALCULATION 3. 1 3.2 Straight Constant Area Ducts Area Change 3.2. 1 Abrupt Area Increase 18 20 20

3.2.2 Abrupt Azea Decrease 3.2.3 Diffusers 3. 2.4 Converging Duct (Nozzle)
3.3 Bends

21 22 26
26

3.4

Screens and Gratings

29

TABLE OF CONTENTS (.onr t d)

4.0

CALCULATION PROCEDURES AND EXAM-PLES 4. 1

30

interpretation of Procedure Diagranb

30 ...
-

4.2
4.3 P D 5.0

E.amples
Closely Coupled Comjonents

._

31
3233. 65 84

PROCEDXURES DES!GN CHAPRS APPLICATION OF CALCULATION PROCEDURES TO A DUCT SYSTEM. -

5.1

Sample Duct Pressure Loss Calculation 5. 1. 1 Intake Duct
5.1.2 Exhaust Duct Effect of Pressure Loss on Turbine Performance

89 89
94 99 103 107

5.2

NOMZN CLATJ RE BIBLIOGRAPHY

LIST OF PROCEiDRES

P- I P-2

Mach Number Srraight Duct 2.1 2.2 Intake Duct Exhaust Duct

33

j
P-3

35 37

Duct Inlets, SimplifieL Pruedure 3.1 3.2 Inlet Length with Beilmouth Entrance Inlet Length witr Shnr 2-Edged Entrance, with 39 41

or without screeis at entrance
P-4 Abrupt Area Increase C4..1 4..2 F-5 Intake Duct Exhaust Duc-

43 43

Abrupt Area Decrease 5.1 5.2 Intake Duct Exhaust Duct 45 45

P-6

Diffusers 6.1 6.2 Intake Duct Exhaust Duct 47 49

P-7

Bends 7.1 7.2 Intake Duct Exhaust Duct 51 53

LIST OF PROCEDURES (cont' d)

Page
P-8 Screens and Gratings S. I *' * P- 9 8.2 Intake Duct E ust Dat 55 55

Duct Inlets, Alternate Procedure for Bellmouth Entrance 9.1 9. 2 L/D > 30 57 59 61
61

:x

L/D < 30, rest for procedure x 9.2.1 L/D <

9. . 9.2.2

tr

L

<

-

< 30

P-b0 Duct Inlet, Alternate Procedure for Sharp-Edged
Entrance

63

I(

Loss Coefficients 75 76 77 78 79 00 j Round Wire Screens Sharp-edged Gratings . Re Relative Roughness. 4T (fully developed) Laminar Inlet Length Loss Coefficient. 4T Lmax and 0 T Sharp-edged ilets Abrupt area increase D-10 Abrupt area decrease D-11 Diffuser Loss Coefficients D-12 (a).3 74 D-2 D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 D-7 D-8 D-9 Reynolds Nurrber.V LLST OF DISTGN CHARTS D-I Mass Flow Parameter (a) Ca) Compu:ed from total pressure Computed'from static pressure 65 66 67 68 69 4 2 70 71 72 7. Turbulent Inlet Length Friction Facto~r. Loss Coefficients (c). "D Friction Factor. (d) -13 (a) (b) Square Cross-section Bends. (b) Circular Cross-section Bends.

I °vi LIST OF DESIGN CHARTS (cont' d) Page D. C vs I - 81 83 D-15 Bend Algle Loss Factor I 7! I .14 Loss Coefficient.

We-hope that the short intrdco -included asScin fTe tpr ill 4e helpful to Ehoqe -who are prirnar ily' familiar with.in cMlcUlhrind incor~pr essible*(o speed). were -b Sin '1.. ...TIh calciulation procedures.g ..the -methodss of incom~pressible flow cdlc'Uiations.design p-cdrsfudin n Sekxibns 4..duct. and appreciating SQme of the rpasbnis for thetr con p..pr essur losesathig ga veodIe in gas turbe ducdn~rg. and the govering fw p-rmes case qrt different.losses§. is'"corpJeO in .fir those met .du tflws. These have.ose.and'O contain_ -thi nece saryelemenvs for - a inlaraShee6t As -we thjnatejil -ecesarj=for the -required pFoceduial ialle anddat s.ep l f& pieprartIoA and the~ peiirevision. rneth6ds of compOressible Qigh-speed).Abrifitioduct~i o td -parameters:-and genri.40 design c-harts-and. x~rfor ca l c u l t o n-6f.. serio value t6:hoe ho areu Itlnae.-anfd.:been prepared-in such form ftht they * may bie_ exrce fo h ohr jcinsf the-repr oit frmascontained"set of procOdues-an data-necess-ay -~he clcaioo 4ig-ipeeo. w~-eaizedtha Tis-repoit* w ud be of.jr _0nb-thd e DataShetsandphas i -OdIO *a4Ot-t P q)ior~edols. M&i purpose. in-uniderstanding the procedures recommendedin--this report.The prinfry Ixzr.4Kty Wiaa compared to Incompressible methods. in4 I.Of tis report Isto fulinfil e-contract requirenliet for "a set:of--sg at hes iilin~ form and aojkiarion k o N h~ p De i gn Dat Sh er I~: 8 Ol 2. flw. miore.

methods which led to our recommendations..c felt it would be-useful to iclude in our report som~e specific indications of the-sources-and.§sible.--and judgemenis that wudconfront him.-recommzndat-ions for -calculation. .tsdn -ductAfiows shqrwLed tOlar the-reA ae-mny are~as Where data io incomple-re or ibcondtklsive. We hope that these no%~s will be useful if a critical -review Is made of these methods at some later time when. 2). Turner *Project Manager Approved by: _________ L. ofri des-Ignh2rs Ou~d ptohr baCr survey of die-data-avAiblhe iiiteltrar ncnnrsii (igh speed) ef .. scoifces. somiezfiies confictinfg.of generalizing from incomplete dara. 'Ii masthat. We havE atter'tedto make -the design charts anid calculation procedures as complete as§ -po.. to extend existing data or methods -(e.- Z- in--te-preparatioz.te 0 analysis f6r dbrupr--aiea decirease it Section 3. presumably.j James R. Thfis situation resul ted In the necessiry.and off caltulatig from dieo-retica- anaiysis. were wbrking d_. 'the finalcharts-and procedures. facE. in some cases...C.1so true to a lesser extent of the afailAble damta ~incompressible &jct flowYs rwm various sources. if he. g. In prejgring. more high speed duct flow data will be available in the literature. HoagXhnd . These notes on methods and'sources we have included as Section 3 of the report. afid-in.2. or'aipolyffng-our Judgeinen in choosing data. Th.which are-our. we -have made for the designer the deisio. where daaIs iflcomplete or inconclusive.is is 0.

to accelera-ons... etc. the magniwude of the density changes accompanying the pressure changes &.b ~prim tl t e gas Is . -r be esdinmare bt.oss. the loss coefficient characterizing th pressure loss in each duc"'Mg component.re losses.1-0 . density. above about Mach Number 0. Correlation of available dc. o r~' &. The presentation of a calculation procedure for high speed duct flows therefore requires two extensioni of low speed calculation procedares: 1. - If it is desrable w deslp Wlet sis exh~aut uc ug for~ highr flow vIacIn. the prssu. At high subsomic gas velocities."ThOWalO for low spm rMhs l sl now*. velocity. and losses should not be Ignored in calculation. Fornularion of a calculation procedure which will Lake into account the effects of compressibility on local values of flow parameters (pressure.) 2. deceleratioas. in various duct components.. at uL o of9 1:/sc and ess. he pessur ' "I . the . the losses may o lc.es. r the pressure . Furrhermore. usually expressed as a fixed percentage of the velocity head for a component of given £ configuration in incompressible flow. 2.~ umediods ft~ low sppwd-Gows b"s~ b 'accuV. generally depends also on the flow velocity (or Mach Number) in high speed flows. Pressre lcss cllcw.For es. or loss cefficiei::s which cha::. z assums of ncompressible flow. press=&: a ses =y be esumaz wirh ne&g4ie 1 by enpi .-amible asumatcm haie beau coIcted and ormallzed inl :esce I.. Aan. and thus ob=ln 6iczw of smaller diameter.ita or.: .M ii'couiressft!-izd This zsiuex L-ies tI va-kmizns are salM aod -a be goored in caeu mrhbo 1s.

system -which pnrdts the c. the simplest calculation pro&edures which can be applied to high speed flow calculations. and a system is devised foz application to duct presstle loss ca1: culflaxis. In thefollowing computaticnal aid. Th e charts are-included in a separate sectdon of this riport and are arranged so thar rway may be extracted fro m the report to form a self-contained calculation system similar in form and intent to the material of Reference 1.!arloa of dqctng losses for higb sped:flows. Although the system is nor as simple in form and application as the incompressible procedures. they represent. This system ha&.been reduced to a series of charts for c_. I . hU Vids :ep h describes a calculati.l- secdons the mediods and data sources empioyed are described.---I: - -- -. -in our opinion.

necessary for high speed duct flows. Those analytical relations developed which are important to the calculation procedure have been reduced to chart form in later sections. For Mach Number M <0. introduces several new variables into the caiculations. compressibility effects are small. M < 1. Rather extensive changes to incompressible flow methods and procedures mus: be made.1 Mach Number The Mach Number is the basic measure of the relative importance of compressibility effects. and incompressible calculation methods can be applied with sufficient accuracy. 2.0 INTRODUCTTON TO PARPAMETERS AND GENERAL AMETHODS OF COMPRESSELE FLOW Accountring for gas compressibility effects in the calculation of ducting pressure losses. 2. . 0) have been considered. The Mach Number is the ratio of the fluid velocity to the local speed of sound: - M =Vc where V = fluid velocity c = local speed of sound = I RT Only subsonic duct velocities (i..-5- 2. e. The purpose of this section is to provide a brief outline of parameters and methods employed in this report which are peculiar to compressible flow calculations.

lations are most easily carried out ifrha C--calation methods are formulated in such away that Mach Number is the ind. For many of rh. PO P + p + 2 go 2g (2. with compressible methods becoming necessary as the Mach NumberA 'ncreases. The total. The total pressur is the pressure measured by a Pitot tube.pressure-loss calculations which follow.. incompressiTherefore. the total pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the velocity head. 2. it is possible that in a.pendent variable of the calculation procedure.:e in sections near the inlet.9 -6- Shapiro (Reference 2) and others have shown diat most compressible flow cal-.. the Mach Number has herefoze been chosen as the independent vaziable. Generally.1) where p0 p p = total pressure (impact brobe pressure) = = = static pressure (pressure at a wall pressure tap) fluid density fluid velocizy . without incurring any losses in the deceleration. For incompressible flow. long ducting system. losses in ducring components which do not involve area change cause the Mach Number to increase..2 Total Pressure and Loss Coefficients. or an "impact" probe. ble calculation methods may be appropri. pressure is defined as the pressure which a gas stream would reach if it were decelerated to zero velocity . or stagnation.

tic pressure..- --- the.pressure in a duct. . is not true for a compres- sible (i.!oss-: woefficient. 1 cannot be applied directly. 2)- Where i and 2 represent an'upstream aniddownistreTn srz~tion1 re- specivey. . however.. so.. ithe flow. e. The relation corresponding to "'Equation 2. This equation does nor apply -because the fluid density will change during the deceleration.flow is a measure of the losses'. the simple relation between total pressure. -This. st. density.In tOtal. CPo- op- = (2 ¢.a dimensiopless . and stream velocity given by Equation 2.4). i ol - Po2 = -0 P 2. and. (2. V _'go. that is. s6 that the flow lo~e are described-equallywell by either total pressure change or static pressure change.1 for compressibie flow is best expressed in t'rrms-o£ dit -Mach Number: Pg in Equation 2. 1 is not a constant. For a compressible flow. i high speed) flowv. The losses may be chdracreriz*d by. duct is equal to the difference in static pressure. For incompressible-flow ina constant areg duct. the density. change-.

. of course. k/ 2 (2. l'. . .o _-- 2 (2.1~1 . a gasqpro. 5 this becomes. 2 2(. Equ. if the loss coefficient. The Iosses.L conditions for the following ducting component.totai pressure in.6 Ti' C PO rp01-02 . 8.be rearranged -to more €onvenient form through.are known for a given ducting component.. . the relation V V so-that. P02 .tion 2.4.flow. this change is not equivalent to :lhbstatic pressure chaige. the exit total pressure for that component can be determined from equation 2. compres- 'siblefl6w.of loss coefficient. C° P" Ck -.?. and the inlet conditions.1 M2 I K<'. is determined from continuity relations.6.2.. The definition. can k expressed as a changein. These exit conditions will. M and Po .8) Thus.k 14I 2 1 k .erty. CPo. as in'incompe'sible. M 2. may . heats. 2 7) 1~.. 1 11 2 Combined with Equation 2. the exit Mach number. as Will be shown in Section 2..5) ewhere k ratio oi spedific.

e.. Note.temperatureo((teriperatufe ofthe flow.-9- 2. for a gas turbine intake ductflow.ture is the temperature of the atmosphere (i. iemperatuie is similar to the total pressure " in cefinition. the total temperature remains constant. as by acceleration or decelerAtion of the gas stream.3 Total Temperature "Thetotal. :however.. It is best expressediA re ns of the . the temperature of the inlet air when It was at zero veloCity). Ifi a duct flow. and is constant throughout the inlet ductin. been made in the calculation methods presented in this report. That isj 'i is the tempeiatWrq whicha gas stream Would teach if it weredecelerated to zero vel6city. irrespective of the flow losses.Equation 2.ach Nurhber • T'2 where T = T~ k-12 -2 _~ (29) total.temperature (temperature of-stream decelerated to zero velocity) startl. e. according to. the total temperature is un"afflcted by. Therefore.osses. the-total temperature can change only rhroughheat transfer to or from the:gas-stream. the total tempera. If we assume that hear transfer to the surroundings is negligibly small in a duct flow (i. 9.g. the flow is adiabatic). for a gas turbine exhaust duct flow.hg gas stlram) T Unlike the tbtal pressure. The assumption of adiabatic" flow has.. or staiiation. the . that the static temperature may vary considerably. however...

'the Adidbatic condiion -is~nor~so nearly achieved...ach--Number').ure is determined ~by thed exhaust condiffon at 'the' turbine.4 Miss Flow. 4 and molecular weight of 29.p AV pAV (2. however. relation may be expressed as in . -the continiy. the-continuity relation must be appliedalong with the loss relatjins to determine Mach Number chan~ges accompa~nying ducting component losses..'fo r the exhau#t duct flow lqss6s. the velocity will change-ofilyby vi'ttue of nn aroa change.exhaust flow.coufrt f6 thpe ffects othieaEtransfer to~thd surroundings in thi ekhaizst-duct flowW ould'preclude any simpole calcula tion. in. F (M).. ?'hus.. thugh-insig' fi ar errior is. For the hot. is .11) where the constant 0.riithod.pressure losses. probably introducea'16r insulated ducting. and is -cnstant~throughot~the e6chagsr ducting. The function of Mach Number.total temperat . since-only siall-temperature differendes exist b~tweerr the-uruct flow. 532 applies for a gas of k =1.ngces (and thus -clanges 'in.Adiaba'tc flow in the-Intake duct As qtitp accurte. becauise~ of changes in density resulting from. "K The-assumption of. velocity Oha.. 532 F(M) (2.6ornpressib1e low. Parameter and th& Contihuity Relation_ For i-ncompressible flow. -2. the continuity reldtion maybe coinveniently expressed As 01 0.caiW occur in a constant area dL~cr. For Compressible flow. 'To ae.10) Sintce density i's constant barwvean any two sections. and-ihe' sut roundings. 4.

These paraileters areplotted vs. total presadre. to give a simple .. And. Mach Number in a later sectiofi.* for-'a given duct Component. 2 -/po iskon from loQsS~coffidient~data n pA is. '11 gives a.---- ------ -F(M) Y ' ~ . for a given gas' this parqmeter depends on the Mach Number only. With-fixedlarea. th& c6htinutlfy-qution becomhes.total temperature are known. denoted the 'mass flow paramneter!. A simila& parameter employing static pressUre. mfay be~foun'd if -inlex condition-s p 1 and are kn'on. ratio.fu~cn~AA ~uae Table -For an.2). M. coal of. pA can also be determined as a function Qf Mach Number.2 Ths untonis~terei 30-ofRefeience 3. 2.adiabatic 'duct-flowy (T__ : onstant). Equatioit2. the exit MaC NU'ber. hc.the. convenieift WYtd deterr-ie. areda.~ato and (see Section. with ra ThtUs. the Mach Numnber for a duct fl'ow when nmass flow.

polrpo2 rPo' 'Let-us first hold the-ups5t ream total 0 pressure. a nobztle). 2.erip~rature T0 If we assudme thkathre 1 are-no. g. static pressure. This 'may be exp1jined iby'the following considerations.2.Mach Nrniber when-other flow con. dhangeq (e.. 11. pU . p -From Equation. S Choking in Compressible Flow the mnas.14) the Mach Number IM will increase as.ditiojas ate~sp'cifted. .ucin inpl copoen ~k~ hs~a bnfus area. 2 The effect on mass flow rate is-determified through Equation 2. P2 is reduced. phenomehon of "chokinig". -~ * Cosiera . losses. and--flbwat total t . constant and continudu~1y reduce the-downstreamn static.. 5. with specified areas A IA 2' T 0~ A andA 9.flow rate In a duct flow of 'compressible gas A liited ~ the.computational aid in determnnng. 01 pressura. P2 2~ 2 k/k-2.

I shows..or-tat+ Mac h -0. and the mass flow rate remains constant. As-. for a gas-with k = 1.o U. 5k. 0 to supersonic values in the min2 -.IA is ificiresed. 15) JJ b2I M - Sketch. at "hNumber whic condition the flow. Chapter 4 for a rigorous explanation of this limitation.Thus.l. Thus. the value-of M remains at unity. . 4. F (M)icreases-r #i 1-1 -- . This occurs at a value of -0.+- +:-- -"+---- _ _ -. se M4. /I.01 and then decreases.I cachnm. . as the pressure p2 isS further reduced. IM will increase :qnd he mass 2 flow rate will increase a Mach hntil M2 -0 is reached. ThU -.be-shown that the Mach " OK. as tpes 1 Sketch I.. cunno.wi4 a maximrum."- : _- - 532 (2. for ginas-~ lwit 2I s . 2 This maximum value of flow rate is tha "lchokcdll flow rate. a nbximum." - imum area A2. pass through MI =1. *See Reference 2. for our example. the variation -oiF (M) with March Number. as the pressure p2 is decreased. umu . : + --. value at M =.5"+8.yt-ch 2 var to N~ sure timuc ead A * ) Thus. It can.

which cannot be exceeded due-to the "choki .0.13.$" phenomenon. If We now assume that there is a total-pressure loss in the abovenozzle.thu when the chokedflow coni M . . F(M =L 0) .O)-isatminei. and the inlet Mach Number at the choked condition 1 is given by P I IF( ' P6 1 A1 F . sure p is r shown byS ch 2. at M2 =1. - a7 "S~ke~cl " NOte .0 From E-uation 2. M1 . =1. 17) (2. for this duct component.-14- -1J I c6n4tant Upstream to-aI p -a Variation Offlow tet With &~wnistreain sra&c presr-u~e. " F(t) -Po' A1 2.19 -- - .. then Po 2 /PoI < 1. -also-hag a definite-vaiue-Which is fiNdby te . M.0. there is a limiting v u c ftnlet Mach Number.ar~a ratio A2I/A. te !ilet-Mach Number.p andpo2 -= Po Po2Po22 F (M T - Al F (M) (2.18) F (M) Thus.

- -.-ige -ubeils~taEd~ h nexa' ble.:c w .w-~ lach " I- -w - E-i- I . anin~jum size ~~snr~rLi r -rd~zfor.a- b- I..d. ic lnec M ch) m~wr~ a~iber less-than- 4Mthok ui' -with tfpe- ub~ dpeIAdiigg On t-d&leng.'T S-erh 3I .curbine .iutec system. Thea~~-i 4iictn. Sipo -har-uve witb -todesign6. a.ate-fixed. Thiefair j$ Eoa !gzs be ran-fonatmspe~i~LIiions ot~~ -..*.V ~ wil slw ~basI~c irii Uh#W ibcz i~~jii~i izir an Ueslha mN nlr e-~n.

mass flow would ~not be 4ttAined.than unity..~ 44all. M' cannot exceed unity(rd (N ant -- 1 -n . in. Equailo 2. Will be__specified.1 gIe s IrItXsevl-7be ppbsfizs .. Since.0 0.maxitxrnrn iud d cisatMl(lo() AA when-ahb s~cif'Ied-values. of in and p0 aeinserted. cegardless of -how.. then-p 2 < PO. if we nowala' w a-long -inlet duct in which losses are not negligible. -because of the duct losses. .10required~tui -bine~iIas low.532 Po2 A Since-_p 0 2 ig 1es§ than po the duct area required-to admiR the specMfad flow becomes larger thin -for the short inlet duct. the specified.4 cisi so hrT &OlolOt hal-tloe pecfite 1)th will an& wi.low the gas -turbine :conpressor reduced thie pressurevdt the-duct exit.than this wet e-u sed. fbjt:zai valueofF(MY. ic nin the . The limiting inlet Mach Number will N. If d duct any-smaller.

and -mo4. it -l4 irprt~nt'to r~ali26.6 ever. with ratio of specific:...re. Howaato-design for hkdo ercoe * 1 2.. the.1..heats of .. In addition-.minimrum.tict ~~--4int pr pfnbent losse-s '-eer~i~l become sojarge-thqt ducting. . thiese values will apoly!'Wirhh tiffcient -accuracy to-either atmospheric inlet ar.. atMOSpheric concdit._on!) -O~p -Proper ies! JMAl the relations -fthe calculation methods pr es entedassume thnt. ihere aie._t1ha -regiardless of loW much pressure bss is all64vab1e. char ts have been prepared -for a gas. g. 1ecifar weight.NeAir ciOking. or gas tWrbjine exhaust gases.. . thepepe6t~gas-eqiAin-of sr..'29. p =pRT - - is valid I&r the duct flows consider ed... duct areas thAt Will admit-a speifid~mss lowatfixed'inlet Cqonditidns' (e'. d-. ..'. . .

calculation -toinclude the effects of friction. The friction factors of Moody were determined in fully.-18- 3. -in. show that there is no significant effect of compressibility onfriction. Reference 7 shows that.AND METHODS EMPLOYED-'IN DEVELOPMENT OF CALGULATION PROCEDURES' FOR DUJCT LO . factor for subsonic flows.0.developed duct flows and do not apply to flows in inlet lengtchs of ducting. Keenan and Neumann. and'are a standard mnethod. within about 30 to 50 diameters of the duct entrance. ektr~polarions have been necei'sariy. Duct friction factois are-. data from various sourcesconflict. it seerna desirable tou-supplenient the recommended cal'ulation piocedures with this outline. and othdrs. -Ref-arance 5. and chd.. ye- * * lo'ity profiles are rot yet fully developed. The niecessary compressible flow parameters for this calculation are plotted in Figure D-7. iln somhe casesthe available.some ~cases.ATION The data s§ources and correlaion mi-e-thods on which the ~clculation procedures bresented-in this ieport are based. Thbese'are-developed in-detail. RAefer-ence 4. for . for compiessible floy. In this entrance lengtch.taken from Mo-ody.SOURCES .rts are reproduced from thig reference as Figures D-3 and D-4. so that somie judgment has been necessary in cho6sing data for procedures.data is incomplete. so that the friction factors of Moody may be applied hithout Mach Number correction.SCAVICUL. 3.. so that approximationis and. ire outfinie"Ifn this section. of' ource's and methods. 'Under these circumstances. 1Straight Constanr Area Ductsr The procedures for straight ducts are based oir the calculation--methods developed by Shapiro. in Refefence 2.

ak ro-6 -produced asFimire D-5 At the duct length iorrespcnditg to -Re a.duct entrance).aken from. loses arelarger in an inlet leghthan in a fu.an inlet lekgE4h with a smooth .ca from the . transitidr. Therefore.. Re f-0*i atie (Rex _g Vx/IL. Th~us. ftiktibn 1factor 1n this laminar region. the tur~bulert inlet friction factors -of. to _t~rbulence. flow friction factors of Moody.D-6 represen~t. Reference.ratio is larger than unity. Inspeption of these procedures will show that they are complex and lengthy.Rewr~lds-Number. g. friction factor in the turbulei-r inlet region is shown-as 6 -ratio to the friction factor for fullv-develoced~turbUlant flow at the same duct Reynolds Number (Re =p V D/i. The theory of.edure for inlet length calculations has bearn prepared.). . It has been recommended for use in the duct~" t . this. For this reason. Shapiro has. but that the entire inlet flow length is tuibulant. showvn that there 'is no laminai inlet length. an averagre friction factor (calculated fiom. Calculation procedures have been devised *~hich take into account these special cases of inlet flow lengths and determine the appropriate friction factors according to the above considerations.hod. and w i ealcullation rnet. losses. or if there is a screen in the entrance.Figur e-D-6.Referenqce7. thle curves of Figure. procedure P-3. aI beilmouthy. durv~s'faired through this data) toahe aoplied in -this turbulent in'let iL'ength-. the-fim~ 6 is laina:until a lengsth. a simpler approximate proc. If the duct 6rntrance is rnot smooth.should -be applied to the entire -inle&length... x being the dista". presented as procedures P-9 and P-10.6. These arE. Curves prepaied from Langhaairzs theory. (e.entranci. Langhadr.occurs. This approximate procedure employs the fuilly-dav-ooed I ir ....lly-developed flow . Reference 7 pr~zanted d~t4 for friction factors in this turbulent region. The. has been shown'by Shapiro toj-predict the coi rect value of. for such antrance conditiJons.

These authors.s the iithioved accurapy desirable. the.ve beer.sudden expansior-"1) has been develope~d by Hall and:Orme. the design. subsoniic flows through an abrupt area increase (. 2.rhzi. ha.scribed in ~the. Cole and Mills. or if the designer jud.t de. Reference 10. have confirmed the method by e-xi-eriment in the area ratio raige culation of total pressure losses and Mach. charts of Figure D-9.-20- however. ai-d-. the loss caulai'oiis 'bf'.P. Numbe-r change. I The losses f6r sharp. Reference.section on1 abrupt area decre6as6. at entering Mach Numbers from 0..duct system' consists pfimaigy of'-straigrt runs of ducring.for -inlets with screens and-gratings. -because of' the uncerta i-ties ir. 25 to 1. computed by. 0. however. be-cause the.ther duct system -'comnpon-.imrboved. a-.qdged inlets. irncorporating 51a! extrapola'tion of tb~e data for c~ntr action'to~fficients.Aiea Inc-reas A -calculation method for predidtion-of-Iosses in. more accurate-pr6c~dur s..accuracy of-the-more riirplex methopds is not gikeially wairanted for duct sysiefn cdleulations.-a mnethod similar to' . 1 Abrupt. . if. .2 Area Change - 3.hayie verified their calculations by experiment over a range of area ratios from 4 to 30. ents. Reference 12 3.. and results are plotted i-. Reference 9.9 -and P-1O can beuse&~ Telsssb belmot etances inc r~ordted' in these procedures have been esrima ted from the-dati of Henry.

a eparation and subsequent ~mixing. Reference 13).. screens. in the openi literature. attributable to.of the flow (e."Hall arxl Qrme indicate tharth1~total pressure loss -andMachi N14nber dhanpg Pake place.1 diamerers downsream.toll pr-essure loss and Mach 'Number chan're. An analysis has therefore been developed according to the model for incompressible. In the calculation-procedure..2 . unlass some'data to the contrary has been aVailable for.-of. the. in a.is-therefore onld ~eoso imtr f0onte -indi nh calculation of losses in other dutting compnents in vihich -the loss.Apparently. problem of compressible flow through butae* deicreases has n6t been previo6usly considered.(ind ot!-ers. g sudden cotrin.Jhd Qtine . shdr tr-ed~red entrances.total pressure ross attributed to thd-akea7 change.Abrupt-Area. that component 3.evidence of H1a'l .of the-sudden-Area c1hango..fl6w suggested in Reference -11. etc. e-g. mixing length of .zttributed to that domponont have likewise been taken to include 4 downstream duct diam~ters.2.) the. on 'the basis -of the experiimenta. tie. 1 Sketcih I /' . Decrease .* -21- w~t I Theexperirhental'data.

and -inlet Mach NubrI The resultsitof this analysis are presented in F-iguie D-10 which shows exit M~ach -Number and total pressure ratio as.*frm the sharp0-'cor ter. as flow from . changeinic ludei ."/4.fiow fills the area-A2 ../A. IturVbulent mixing then 6CCUErS between sectionis-2h alnd'until the. since there' is -no analy tical mntjifo&fpq prediction. contracting-zto the streatube area. e. Inlet velocity profile)..in high speed flows.4diameters of d-wnstream. at essentially constant veloity adrossrEh6-duct dibssetidn. Values-of area tatio A. I .'have been.s and Mach NUMbdr. a function of area ratio. small -dea decreases can be afforded.2. compressibility. inlet boundary layier thickness (I.and ilet Mach Number. Available correlations of per-formance have been formulated on the basis of diffuser geomptry alone. The 2is-treatedas an. 12. t~knfrm te dta-ortlatonsof 'Referenice.-w1~cbLgiies the dedi area tal A"/A ~a funltkii. the-flow -is aissumed -to sgepar 'e. 1. Sketchi1. ducting. The area Am1rtfstbe related to the ~khowhn ekeasi A1 and A2 by experimenft. Various investigations have shown. note -that moderate area chlanges produce largd-increases in . cor-relations of these data have as -yet -produced no system's for diffuser design or loss calculation that are entirely satisfactory. 3. however. and discharge duct geometry.of A.*As shown in. -so that only. 3 Diffusers Although a large amount of literature describing diffuser investigations is available-.Mach -Number.abiupr Area Eicrease.2..9ecton. A. that there can be-substantial effects of Reynolds Number.2"1t io iiSection 3. Total pressUre lo~. Altugh pressure losses are-small. of t1. tea achange to prqduqe a frie streamiline fow.

are recommtended for determination of inopesbeflow losses -In conical diffusers. fuiser.. The design curves. there Is not. -Such. of desig chart. the loss Ida -diffuser of redtang lar cros-section to be that of aniequivalent conical-diffu'ser circumscribed about-the rectangular dif-. so -that We must.of Patterson. ate subject to some uncertainty in-. because-of the-influenice of the effect~s noted. report. scatter of the data.to: ihtide such effect§Jn a ~generaizcorrelation. Reference 13.. as in the following sketch.*of 'HoWever.D-11 of this. and so. Je1 o'correlations . Various schemes-have been proposed for correlating rectangular diffusers with conical. RECTANGULAR 70nc ~ -.of -Patterson. The most comnplete correlation-available in-the-opefiliterature is-that . with geometry alone. taken from the correlAtionis. above. the method recom~mended here is to assumie. CIRCUMSCRIBED CONICAL DIFFUSER . correlations exhibit considerdbl e. calculation.sufficient data yet available.peifpirmance.

:layer coiidietion has:-be~n -shon in RWO-rence 15 to-. 1Aeference 14.aihd.A for se§verLal coifical and rectangu@lar difhusers.Refierrin-fo the Mach Number correction curvesi note thar'th'--t6Etal pressure loss for conical diffusers begins to increase markedly a~t entering Mvach Nlumbers-of 0. thus. 15i ah'd -by Young and Green. indicate -tbattherie will be cohsiderable-uncertLainty i-iffurser.dfua The effects of increasing Mach Ntieh with a fixed Inlet.1. diffuwuigi of circular cross. 6 to 0. Although rectangular diffusers do nor show as marked an __increase in loss with increasing Mach Number. the total loss always is larger than for comparable conical. The following remarks will serve as a guide to the designer: 1. For a given area chanige par unit lengith of duct. 'Cbrrelations frofi te'tdata of thnese investigatqrs-have-beeni Ysade. Number. loss-caloladions.-~~~ -~- - ------- ifsrprfdrmaice-ax~e shown by Little lgefcso .section give the best effectiveness.presehdlypossible from-existing -data su e.to be subjectrto revision 'if rihort data.ecOiies avallablei the -future. The recommendarions -inthe-curves of D. 7.100 gives be-st diffuser performance. 4-to 0.-sentthe best cor relations . ~ nj. Such-result as these. - - - . An angle between diverging walls of about 60 . Thbesg correladlOn cuives-are based on data. choking occurs in the range of0. boundary. qriac fa. -and are shown on design.be smaller thai -the effect of ic~~ni~tbx tfhickness-at a-fixed Mach.11 s-imply repre. with square dxo~ssections next. RAeference. from. the incompressiblelosses are much larger than for conical diffusers.cart D-41 for -use as correction factrs to the_ incomnpres- 9ih spe 'Sibie loss coe6fficients.5.Wilbur. * 2. and should -be boi~idered. diffusers.-nygfwdfue geometries.

. een ev~ed-o impirove diffuser performance.would be expected after suffiin ln t rfllyi developed flow tobe-establisW:d and that a diffuser-followinga bend. COmpi~ptepresgur6 recovery is nor riealized artde exirvof the diffluser. this -&ffeci 1-ndidates that-beiter. in~ection.e sii'nflr componenjt Which ndy gereatea thick or-separated 'boundary layer.-boundAry laver control by suction. 'The -inlet-v* elocift distributtion -has bcen showm Eo-affect-diffaiser Perfbrmanc6 (ep. !-he 6ftect-is m6re severe with large wall angles an4 also with ri± entry bondary lay~r~s.Atog itecnb done-inra duct"ing systemi w control bdu. -wfiiihave relaitively poorer performance.S -total -pressure loss than a diffujser wirth 0 gr~aier 'rzn40 gr 50. Variousheie-s such-as. Tot a-1 presuire loss inc-eases -withincreasing 'ndot M~ach Number..I 7.dif iier-peiformnince -can be-expected 'for a diffuser relatively near the duct systemp inlet: -(less-than.by-as much as 200% bebween the two T ae. anfd Vortex traps.1Referxentt IS-. ajid dOlay of fi w ieparaion by curved wall.. tan a thick-erv-budayayl with losses differing .-<abour 4w 6exit duct dianiereridoWnistiram of rhe exit ard? to requaired for-complere recovery. A V~ocity disbriwonwith~a tihn 5oundar y lay-. Vanes hve have been used to Lrabilize the-flowi and thus Improve performan:ce. or _sorh6.3.ndar y layer Eicees. 4. Vpro most Commi'i~ usedarea riosabou 6:1 an bru I araincreas z sm wall angle.-. 6.g. sdae raris (Up toaou6)anarp i les.30 diameters5):than. At-diffuser entrance gives better (fiftiuser Per formance.

be &A-' db* a zr the -finpr4 design unas: icesddr f'roM testing wo demrminv einvirically an opdnilmzr conj&guitLe. For small c4one an-gles: (i..2. 3. Wjiei spe b1mkrariors uciuci retqile a diftv-s-er with large wanl an3 e. m~ost availa2ble da a deals -witEh no&Iles exhausting to a large chamber &r aunosphere. VeS can. e. ivis often ir~dte cdesiraIbie to mpldoy an efficien -diffuser (Wal 2e. and a Macn Nuinbe: .ir is recommended that the procedurq for abrupE area decrease be applied to coniVerging sections. Therefore. S.duar Oresenzs-a fvor-able pres-sure-gradienr for the wall h~rtdary la-yer. 33 Bends [ Loss data for bends are shown in design chart D:12k in the form of aI low speed (incompressible) flow loss coefficient.iE-is.3 converging-7sections awith d=miisream uctig.-26- Thesie posslblities have noc bumn cou~dered in dsSdvnen 44-fiiVe da ignr'. -.there is~!ire infrination o .avall=ble-in the lierature on Ach Nu-iber effects 1. iFor fncluled angles greater than 300 . of about 1 0 rfollwaad-by an abrup: area Increase wo &a de ted-area..4 Convergizg' -act:~z' Losses in converging ducting are small compared to those in-ivergikNg du~d~ (dffuers)-becaizse 60e a-Celeratingflawia covergig-. jess tma 300 icluded-artLe) there are g~nr~lyitin-iaixngosss. recoinmen ded -thaEco=vefgiqg duc ting witin in cluded coue -angie -s-tnaller tha n 360 be treated as Straight 4ucring. wizh L/D couted on the smaller diam~eter of the converging section.

d z -sm as.-- 27- -ou =..tl. f coS p g a-c iiFfres a 0- . in- rn- ress. t~e P--.--Lfc= e- &Z.I-l s fMach &%..e.aFZ.ha -aa l.2d L.-ev.arv--s 2frwix0. f 2 fii Dr ~tduhx vns aen is a as &-m.

-vasv~bich are-pc f airfdl in conk=zSneze. 2n a p ier4y rettdZ6 C=Sivr~be ssA.' z!eso ' 'Xe r900bzfbva a is is Eta cID a b azd ba 4 siipa i_2s the -- _ Rc. Reee~e 1. ee-.-: 1=tra~se A less Xp: I is zpX cady' of~b sa o:-z2: as for.r o:e.&.. .-.- :-. w-. - -or b~ds *!a tfi.. b errecd-rarwes fix kzads wazfmm .!etloss caafficiem-S ar=e jxossibme by ska7 !d zrgre rxaEzscLa bz are irgil e~s~ ~e -wieReereoa.L-.l .. for sig-gi infoaiatidon).s prcare. cm naSPT-.dmRa) v!zs dto er. in 4esigmi wdbnic-ze.~~fi i=2ds C-cine yc= g of..A 0 frcDo ~ -a rrs( e-.

fro-on rji. bf ihis ex~it planeL. dze inlet of a sh~rp.rnusi chioose a one-dimensional Mach Number to charactetizemiiie flov.eam.th effect of-the mctal pressurelosses fi theb bend YIff be felt all across the duct 2id-zhe ote-dimensffozial -V--chNOumber.--energy flud-in a EhickenedbouiidaryIayer near the beftd Waflls.llhave inpreased. - 5 .-r assume-the-Maech ~pane wl eidxit plane. !Wfere-~e1. consideredj by Cornell. annd. bssed on an enr~apoiation of the-data for conslcmin design chart D-S. wvhen mixkinE of z-he-coxe fivv. area in screen to Madi Xwber.-n comaleted.COISIgvSls cfiensorsh screens and gr2EIng-s in 6:=. Number is uhaffected by losses in total pressure. .". 34Screetns am x -g The sul~idi compiressible fio'x zhrcuja Ecwbd-wdire screens or gratings (screems off slmrgp-e ed elenmenzs of 2de geonietry) has been. after mving .-h& Ixwzn~ary-layer flowi has bz-.R=oS. lOSSes%-are concentrated~ :inthe_-Io.has occurreo. This totil pressure lossdoes nct a-ffect-tLhe-I-ach Number in die core flxun:til a diswance of about Aciameters-dovvastr. pears tha i on.e. ThsDmie &~mdcz area) and upsiream &uctF flaw ~zadrclyfo ee~ce 2 and re e loscef-iet f a sarp-e: .edged enzrar-. ra apply zq screens at theP moudr 'oi no) in:-eke damt~ Carn-lls cacua-nsj for shaip-edged screens have beea eatended for screens a.. bor varigus screea Slicires (ra.-29there is an isentropi cre flwihc ~Mach. In ffie exit-piane off the bend (as is niecessarv for de-calculadoion procecoire) the proper thoice i .sed (i.Eio of cT=.. Foqr diamcezers downstream of the bend exit.

taken from procedure P-2. 1 CALCULATIONPROCEDURES JAND. AL JC4 - JLI 1 . EXMPLES Interoretartofl of Proceduie Diagrams Calculation procedures for all ductipg-pomponenws are described graphically i1n tiezdiagramns P-I to-P-JO.g. 3. e.g.0 4. I.~ ~ ~ hcruscL Nbe Qaiie ~m t -..g.} * * 4. dle s-'~ezece -- indicates thar the dizn&arum e -2 is tobe eatred and Re is to be read from rte diart. Quantities wvhich ate detex-misied by the calculation are shown in boxes. These diagrams Are to] be interpreted accordingEo-the followi~ng exramples. 1. e. e. Directicos-for calculation are shown on lin !s connecting elemets. The sequeuice Lcaic. ivn.. (4 - 2.as initial -datifor the calu lation are shown in circles .

Iq obvious. the loutour-. osin the-SO~ec -caic 0 2 Pa'o The result of the indicated calculation (L.e-. are to be coinbined'by cadto give 4f(L/D). 4. Each box contains die numnerical result of using the design cbari. which is knowrvas iial data..e.. and Che lower pa-h"if ' f.In somtne cases.e . ..L/D) ibe ecpariba isno ob-4ous. D- 2 This diagram frinicaL.~ -2 Examziples upper path is followed if LID <30 -. i. Here. alterzate caicaio~w prodmu~res are iniikazed.procedure diagram. it-ts incluciedin the box contaifing the result.-33- j -culation -culationis ind inadicates that 4 f. aS in the seience (:aken from procedure P-16). the equatlin required~for cal-cases whee 4 -I x L/.~f each procedu re diagram follow the diagraff... or of calculation as prescribed by th. which is a result fpeiosccuatio.4fU. of the box) is always showa on zhe rignr-hand side off the equzation..e O E amples ilustrating the x. L/D.

&sebarated-by 4 duct-diameters. directly fom this value of mss ~~flox parameter through char: 10-1a. ben&. and screens are ass§umed-rto~beflo 4..r -32-_ Closely-Coupled COMPOnentEs ~Area canges. Thbe prtssurelc. the-calcW6oA-procediire is imodifiedas feollows: L. sumfingde same-entry Nach Numier as-employed-for the firt ojen. Te exit Mach M-1 nl-'-r for iha com.e combined compoaens Is_ thea ipo~J - Ldn LPod 0 3.ine ft-com wnez s is deemined by calculating mue n-sass flow uirMeer at te exitc of &a seconid compoir. When two coMPOI~t-IL-1 are nrz.Tie-pressuie loss for f-. 'Thw pressureIss of the first-comnijenz is detrmined-in the Usual mananer.- 2.3 f - - bye dfam erert of straight duct 'M Which the flow-mi~xes and srabAlizes. .Thsroereiilurae Section 5for a screen follwed by abenid.-4 * *in Exit Mach N mber is derermined.rss of the 6ecomd compoWDen L5 determ~ined byJ a.

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ALTERNATE PROCEDURE FOR BELLNIOLJTII ENTRANCE.1 q P-2. 1 ucr INL '4' -OR BELLMTI(' ALrL. 2. f~rRP-2.-RN\ATE PROCE~DURE I L-*\ I RANCE. 2. x tr L < D 3 CAL.2 .i AT on P -Z.17r 1~ .ROCEIXJRL P-9.2 VJICT INLETS.C C + 4f- EN7ffiR P-2.2 P0/NTr PROCED)URE P-9.

J C D -6 1 CAL~C IRRO .5 5.03 1.FOR BELLMI 0.

..2.... FOR BI3LLUI Xtr < -L < 3 D- CAL.-*. PROCEIXJRE P-9. .C CALC 0.23O 142&0 .... $ALTERNA^&EPROCEDURE ENTRANCI9.-- - - -- - - - __ __ -62PROCIVI1IU P-9.2.2 DUICr INLET. ALTEMATxr I) I PROCEWVRE FOR BLELLM(U1 I EN IRANCE...0178 0.1j IJUCr NLKI'F._ *.

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proceuhzes and to provide ar example comperlam of pres ters of : "I e and po er lo . .-94- 5.2.ses fm diferesm dnca diamemrs. Increase in aculed loses as the duct djamer decreases. The pressurc losses are so iarge: howeverd. Tw results c de cal=Iatioas ir three different duct diamea sysam are zabgalted in Table 5. The xe los pealry asociaed wizh the duca pressure losses has been calculated from a linearized analysis described in Secdon 5. 0 AMLUC TI M OF CALULATM PFROCED DUCT SYSTEM" ES TO A The azm re. that e linearzed analysis should be regarded as giving only appromimaze esfimaes of the power pecalties.syot a Flare I u m cosen to Illustrate the applicaon c de caculadc. The presv-%e re 2. Ne tbe severe losses and power looes are pkmeii in fV.L.

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9a i 0.998 0.360 040.23.995 0.66 -- 0-4 .eT1 0 0-935 0.997 0.e Ii 0m4c.974 L 1 9 ° 0..996 RD L " a c '% 2 +-"IO'j R.. L -Dz7.9r ~2e Su. 0.L(Cm 4 3 M 'WSE .174 0. -102 SU~~~ IO up= of CAD ses o9..uzz 0.162 102 .980 REL E .173 TOTAL EXHAUST SYSM . 0. -. 00 0.s I a " U-230 S 0.! 0.991 L. jo.2-0 0. D =23..D-I.C LDz).33 r. Straigtc .4 t D-1-. IG MAC H -.33 ..) E.0.WI FOR EACH S *i 'ftK TS -mrXJ 3XTAKE 4--.175 0180 -78 0.. 3 R-DO. T Exit Straigt duct &-w.94 90 e960 -0.96 0. -. t -0'W2 . 0".0 0. L D=12 R D=2.067 993 90.-7 . i.246 a .993 TOTAL I AKE SYSTEM: EXHA-.996 0. -. ..999 S--Ln dut @e 960 90n I 0_ o.9 0.246 00..TAM E 5. 0.

490 ..5 l0.2.42 0. -.990 R.3 .7 . ' R/D4.67.L.AI -2- Ii.. L..i I-rER.'. MM L R 0-.0 iLD=28 o4wo 0.99 3 . .5 . .i 0 N30 I-I II 0.9W.3 SM - L0.O 2e top . D-2- R D--3. =2 LDz~ 0. 0. NE%-T 9p OI 2- Ove )A Irnw --- w Mc Pe Se om"T R D--0 0-..1 l -.425 0.700 R D=0. D=2.0 .&O -MB l FOIE AO Srcmi F .8 C-2. 0. o96 0.t .991 R 0=5..974 0. o.4....810 i L D=5! R .33 @j I .7to.0. D. 25a5 .0 0.6ss 0. 1. D =23..7 20z ° -It * LD-3 .947 R~)o 0.965 093 R.93?5 i 0370 o- L D=V7.S47s .2. D=1.97 L.4. . R D2-67 A A .2.750.D-D ! 20 0.e 0-976 9.%.-9 L. t 0.

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sa emoc.. Mach~ Mimbg fo u loe i5 .460 .0.%&S ge. P-7. PO benci 9875 . I . 75 Re .1 x 2. use of..00 M 0.Bwd.KI =019 8 P 0 2 01 - p0 1 ~0.

Y 2 =0.00067 4!T 9. 0gs ao.75 09 4T 0. ) = . 507.93) - -o p A Po2 mrx p A p 0. 1 x 10 z /D = 0.5ft L/D=44. 9.0.CIGRe-c-pe comt)P-1 0..507 Staight Duct .8909 M 3 0.09 P- 0. L = 33. =0.D -0.0181 = X5/. 75ft 06 Re = 2. 373 0.5 o94% .wjmber (abr.401 M2 -. 7 -Lo /2 .33 4i max) (4fLI) PO amax) V3 .5= 1.931 a.820 Po 2 .7 .-91 - Mach ). 0-2. 1 D = Iin.931- a -o cu .05-0.

074. H 4.75 0.0972. -0=0. 29 (Oeptobably rchokes) K# W1.7 Re a2. Po 4 ..0237 Li 040.0 =0.-92- -. CPO 0 K1. 976 [m m "• Po 2 A M4 =0. 18w1. .67 D 0. .501.fi P0 4 A Diffuser . e 55 2e. _ () I . P-6.. .1 x to.75 M 3 =G.5 tan e 7)(2" 0.1 _ _ _ _ _-_ _..--.= 2..40.

0.121 i.A5 S D5 2 182 A4 . 939) (4. 0) .il. 4 M 5 -0. 75 CP O 0.061 Po 4 o5 0.2 0 92 2e. 0 (No. 75 mPo 4 A4 ro-n 04 = 0. no da may choke) DC O o 2 4 C 0. 112 KDw 2. i ill~l ii i ii i ii ii5 .I 4 =0.501 p04 A4 Po5 A 501 (0-.939 M 4 = 0.=0.224 -----.

:. 70 Exhaus Dut m .25 D 0. 442 ft2 Mach Number ..16 lb/sec P5 D A = 14.I b p- ) 0.2 L =38. = 0. P-2.O=500 O Re 15. L : .-. 6 (0 . 939) 0.75 . 3 (Q. 3 0. ML ct / R1(0 820) (0.1 P rese Ritio AJ Ina. 662 M. P.7 psia = 9in. x .688 Straight Duct ..

= 0. P-7.025 03 0 97 0.1 x . 0 86 K B Cp 0 0.. (41[ m D5 ) 0.36 0.928 =1..0 4T D0.2 1. 225. 688 .975I . Po =. 180° .810 p04 Bend.L51 D 001l82 m5 G. 153 M4 =0.490 Re =1.49 p =1. .0 R M4 =0. 470 KB i.L0 Cp = 0.0.192 p.225 D 14 .177 0 Assume M3 = 0.

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Assume :rt ie -* Izes choked (1) InCrease in turbine exhaus.pressure.P4 w BP4 Lwx T I TO k 1 ( p4 1 I.S * x %- o QLa \oi Pn k /1 Ii ..k \m )3 P 3 .

Airiply by P4 awx 8!' P4 Lex ( k-I/k . p0 3 rpJl Po 4 r P'l po3 x - + 1 + mf Matil rJ nT C o3 k-I r 4 k Py 2 Po0l' 011 M . p0 1 : Assume compressor pressure ratio does not change SP4 P4 Po3 Po2 ma)1T Pot..Cpa ri-r -o3\p3 r~Po~ = P4 ol 6 -4 design pressure ratio Uinea rizing F a( &a Ik+jjj \ k-I 1C -7 To3 "I I \k-l/k IjA) p !! ma T Pi (2) Decrease .in conpressor inlet pressure.

A 1f -) m C nC a CT & = 15 lb/sec = 83.6.2060R Design Pressure Ratio .3. 014 lb fuel/lb air Turbine Inlet Temperature .1100 If Fuel-Air RatiG . 70) (0.0. 21) (0. 1 I-P/lb/sec Inlet. 286) (2060)(.5 Assume C =0. Efficiency .4 k-1 (104 ( X01)0. 28678 _) 77 = 83.i+ fl. -1 1 + + i+ .24. Al? i wx w =.1 'PTh soc .70 k= 1..- -01-- r p L1nearizing.C T hV \1/ o3I -/ p0PO ) a / Numeri"zl Example Turbine conditions: SHP .

405) -588 If . -/ _P0 . P = 23.7 O 0. 3 14a7 t.Pctm Patm 21.883..- 'aum . 14.3)(0.3) (0.2 .14.7 14. PeEM . .425 0. 1 IP/lb/sec . 3) - S=_m a C p ma CT M4 P 16 lb/sec 83.4 psi 4 I P4 .0.7 375 It =~ A ll Exhaust: -(IS) (83.442 A =* - (6)(83.P"'0"10.

ft Duct length to attain m =1i. ft Mach Number Gas constant. . in a constant area duct. pV D/jj Inlet length Reynolds Number.veloped fno . p Vx/. lb force - ft/lb mass.. ft/sec Friction factor.FC NOMENCLAWERE CPo A Total pressure loss coefficient Crossametoa duct. ft/sec c Local velocit:. SC L::.- Duct Reynolds Number. 0R Velocity. ACi .0o. ft DEquvalet diaeterof nion-circular cross-section duct.R. 4 x wetted perimeter KB KD K0 L Lmax M R Re Re T *V x Pressure coefficient compressibility factor for bends Pressure coefficient compressibility factor for diffusers Bend angle loss factor Duct length.L Temperature.

2 lb imn:-ss-fr/lb force-sec 2 j Ratio of specific heats Mass flow rare. lb mass/sec-fr Density. psf Screen-olidity = open area in screen/ducE area Distance from duct entrance. lb mass/sec Pressure.NOMENCLATURE.V'iscosity. degrees . lb mass/fr Angle of duct band. Ink: laminar length Friction factor. ft Greek.O0 . E Duct wall rou±ghness. (Cont' d) f f k m p s x Friction factor. degrees 29e p * Superscripts *State at M 1. inlet turbulent length = go ~constant 32. ft Angle between diffusei walls.

tr 21 I . four diameters downstream of state I I2.-. 2. d) Subscripts 0 Stagnation or total state. NOMENCLATURE (Concl. condition of fluid brought to rest isentropically SfI State upstream of component Stare downstr earn of component Transition point from laminar to turbulent flow State.

ft.Special Nomenclature for T1urbine Perormance Clculadon C specific heat.i . Btu. of air In ma rp mass flow rate of fuel.°R k-I CT iF Wx turine power constant +- qr CT I-To net power delivered by turbine unit. lbs/sec /"design pressure ratio compressor efficiency turbine efficiency ?12 71T I 0. horsepower net shaft work. lbs/lb. I a. lbs/sec mass fLow rate of air.

r. 22 July 195(1. in Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics. and \V. Jour.. E. John Wiley ard Sons. 2. M.H. and Edelman. Transactions of the A. W. Design Data Sheet. Ronald Press. 1953. I. H... New York. H8:4. S.-1I07- 0IBL 1OGRAPHY 1. J. DDS 3801-2. Moody. Massachuse Program. INAVORD . Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.Report 1488. Cambric. The _Dynamics' and Thermodynamics of Cornpressible Fiuld Flow. A. Gas Tables. November 1944. G. Best Available Copy .merical Solutions. M. pA-9i. 14. L. A. 13 No. Dopartnent of the Navy. Mechanics and Ther. G. i dissilps 1947. Keenan and Neumann. and Edelman.. The nics of Steady One-Dimensional Gas Flow. and Kaye. . . 3. Measurements of Friction in a Pipe for Subsonic and Supersonic Flow of Air. New' York.. V(-. H. 1948 Note: Compressible Flow Tables are also available in: Shapiro. H.. Meteor Rep-ort :cute of Technology-Ga' .:"mics of Steady One-Dimensional Gas Flow with Table. R. A. No. Hawhoriie. Appl. M. Vol. Mech.. Shapiro. The Mechanics and Thermodvl. F. Vol. Bureau of Ships. 1. 4. Keenan. 3. 2(1946). . Shapiro. . 5.. R.

Patterson.I. G.. Thmry of Sudden Enlargements Applied to the Pope ExtAast-valve. WKm . J. 1955. 10. 13. 12. W. d H L.!ns. 1944. 169.. No- S. Hunsaxer. September. Hmry. G. with Special Reference to Exhatc-pulse Scavreqgira Proceedings of the Institute of 4edinicha Engineers.. Hall. 49.. is die of Swaioh 76=d I'M".omim 9. Transactions of the A. G. Pr 2Lngo h Iwze of Mechanical EM. and Rightmire.N. J. LA z. Plowmoa Cwpressible hdd lthxu&g a Suddwu Enlargemem In a Pipe..Mispaphy f~ad} 6.IL. Cornell. No. andOrme. S. Vol. 1947. 1938.Im a. . at esp P m Pm ndoes Pressurea N C& WR L-20S. Lons Cracorisucs at Icz QC. McCtaw-Hill. and Mills. B. W. Aircraft Engineering. M. 1IL P 364. B. E. May. Engineering Applications of Fluid Mechanics. Losses in Flow Normal to Plane Screens. 5iza.N.Smndy Vi.. Modern Diffuser Design. ACA T 1M115. b do TrM b J h ca 7. Vol. 1958. 11. A-IL and Sm -a-r 19a L 5. Cole B. (. &_. .

2201. - Friedman.. R.I 15. 16. R. ftrkirma and Boudary Layer Data from 12P ad 23° C Diffusers of Area Rado 2. Wood. Higginbotham. Jr. and Wilbur. 1941. Compressibility Effects in Aerodynamics. 1943. I . 45: 1 and with Several Inet Boundary Layers. Tests of HighSpeed Flow in Right-angled Pipe Bends of Rectangular CrossSectice 17. D. 1952. October.D..0 at Mach -numbers up to Coki and Reynolds Kumbes up to 7. NACA TN 2668. Grew.J t t14. H. November. July. and Valentine. LC. C..W. L Tomsotft Sp10 Flow d In dfus of Recanpula: Croas-scdou. BridA A.. British A. 1956. and Wilsted. B H. G.. D. R&M No.. NACA TN'3696. R.L. R&M No. Uzze. Journal of the Aeronautic . mdGreen G.. P. and Wescphal. S. 20. Ymo&~ ADL. NACA TN 1757. i 19. von Karman. June... 1954. Jr.. 18.. April. Performance of Conical Jet Nozzles in Terms of Flow and Velocity Coefficients. W. i948.C.. . C. Experimental Investigation of a 900 Cascade Diffusing Bend with an Area Ratio of 1. and Owen. E. . R.. NACA Report 1201. Grey. J.. 2066. T. July 1944. Sciences. E. F. A Study of the High-Speed Performance Characteristics of 900 Bends In Circular Ducts. T. 5 x 1 6. Young A.

l- DEC HCororalA YN AT 630 ASSAHUSETS AENU CAMBRDGE 9.1. MASACHSETT 617 -UN 88015 .

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