# Electronics and Communication Engineering

Engineering Mathematics Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors. Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems. Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method. Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals. Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis. Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations. Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform. Electronics and Communication Engineering Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain

phase delay. Filters. clipping. rectifier. Control Systems: Basic control system components. Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform. BJT. Generation and recombination of carriers. criterion for oscillation. MOSFETs and analog CMOS. PROMs and PLAs. JFET. feedback. Power supplies. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. p-I-n and avalanche photo diode. minimization of Boolean functions. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage. Sinusoidal oscillators. ADCs. Routh-Hurwitz criterion. Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits. and resistivity. ion implantation. continuoustime and discrete-time Fourier series. oxidation. p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process. mobility. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Microprocessor(8085): architecture. z-transform. Simple diode circuits. digital IC families (DTL. Zener diode. multiplexers. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems. n-tub.analysis of RLC circuits. clamping. counters and shift-registers. tunnel diode. diffusion. Semiconductor memories. group delay. MOS capacitor. logic gates. Sampling theorem. Simple op-amp circuits. Frequency response of amplifiers. block diagrammatic description. photolithography. TTL. intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. 555 Timers. Bode and Nyquist plots. Sample and hold circuits. MOS. Control system . Signal transmission through LTI systems. impulse response. DFT and FFT. poles and zeros. drift current. frequency response. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current. Digital circuits: Boolean algebra. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. single-transistor and op-amp configurations. State equations for networks. ECL. convolution. Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes. MOSFET. CMOS). Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci. Basics of LASERs. continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform. BJTs. reduction of block diagrams. parallel and cascade structure. stability. p-n junction diode. memory and I/O interfacing. differential and operational. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process. causality. Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon. decoders. code converters. DACs. and power. LED. programming. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers.

Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM). boundary conditions. Plane waves: propagation through various media. FSK). radiation pattern. cut-off frequencies. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas. Poynting vector. FDMA and CDMA and GSM. impedance transformation. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance. pulse excitation. matched filter receivers. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). Smith chart. autocorrelation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides. skin depth. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. digital modulation schemes: amplitude. impedance matching. Basics of TDMA. dispersion relations. Gauss' and Stokes' theorems. realizations of analog communication systems. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems. elements of hardware. . random variables. spectral analysis of these operations. phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK. superheterodyne receivers. probability density function. PSK. power spectral density. S parameters. bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. phase and group velocity. elements of ProportionalIntegral-Derivative (PID) control. Communications: Random signals and noise: probability. signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. antenna gain. Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl. reflection and refraction. Wave equation. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation.