URL Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide

Web. The first part of the address is called a protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use, and the second part is called a resource name and it specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. The protocol identifier and the resource name are separated by a colon and two forward slashes. HTTP Short for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page. The other main standard that controls how the World Wide Web works is HTML, which covers how Web pages are formatted and displayed. IP Short for Internet Protocol. IP specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source. TCP Abbreviation of Transmission Control Protocol, and pronounced as separate letters. TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent. NNTP Short for Network News Transfer Protocol, the protocol used to post, distribute, and retrieve USENET messages. The official specification is RFC 977. NNTP replaced UUCP, the original USENET protocol.

Unlike online services. is independent. offer access to some Internet services. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. the transmission of messages over communications networks. the Internet is decentralized by design. In addition. Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast. Remarkably. Most online services. e-mail Short for electronic mail. news and opinions. The two most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Every time you use a domain name. Browser Short for Web browser. Internet A global network connecting millions of computers. this anarchy by design works exceedingly well.example. an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. the domain name www. most modern browsers can present multimedia information. such as America Online. . and computer networks have an e-mail system. they're easier to remember. The Internet is not synonymous with World Wide Web. and reliable.232. Each Internet computer.DNS Short for Domain Name System (or Service or Server). though they require plug-ins for some formats. flexible. is really based on IP addresses. a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. which are centrally controlled. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data. which means that they can display graphics as well as text. Some electronicmail systems are confined to a single computer system or network. Both of these are graphical browsers. Most mainframes. minicomputers. but others have gateways to other computer systems. a software application used to locate and display Web pages.com might translate to 198. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP). Because domain names are alphabetic. The Internet however. including sound and video. therefore.105. The messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk. called a host. enabling users to send electronic mail anywhere in the world. For example.4.

html in your browser. An intranet's Web sites look and act just like any other Web sites. The correct structure for an HTML document starts with <HTML><HEAD>(enter here what document is about)<BODY> and ends with </BODY></HTML>.Web server A computer that delivers (serves up) Web pages. For example. this sends a request to the server whose domain name is pcwebopedia. . Intranet A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organization.com. Secure intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols. the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web.html and sends it to your browser. Every Web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name. accessible only by the organization's members. usually a corporation. There are many Web server software applications.com/index. HTML Short for HyperText Markup Language. HTML is similar to SGML. although it is not a strict subset. The server then fetches the page named index.pcwebopedia. or others with authorization. Netscape and others. Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet. and commercial packages from Microsoft. All the information you'd like to include in your Web page fits in between the <BODY> and </BODY> tags. intranets are used to share information. including public domain software from NCSA and Apache. HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes. if you enter the URL http://www. Like the Internet itself. but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access. employees.

When applied to Net devices.XHTML Short for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. and Frameset. This enables XHTML pages to be read by many different platforms. which correspond to three HTML 4. will specify which elements are supported. in which objects (text. USENET A worldwide bulletin board system that can be accessed through the Internet or through many online services. which could display the written score or perhaps even invoke a recording of the concerto. that cover every imaginable interest group. You can move from one object to another even though they might have very different forms.0 DTDs: Strict. XHTML markup must conform to the markup standards defined in a HTML DTD. XHTML must go through a modularization process. Content creators will then target these building blocks--or modules. New hypermedia systems under development will allow objects in computer videos to be hyperlinked. The World Wide Web is a partial hypermedia system since is supports graphical hyperlinks and links to sound and video files. The icons that you select to view associated objects are called Hypertext links or buttons Hypermedia An extension to hypertext that supports linking graphics. while reading a document about Mozart. pictures. Namespaces prevent identically custom-named tags that may be used in different XML documents from being read the same way). music. For example. it is an XML application. and so on) can be creatively linked to each other. programs. XHTML is a markup language written in XML. . Clicking on the name Mozart might cause various illustrations of Mozart to appear on the screen. It is used daily by millions of people around the world. invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s. Hypertext A special type of database system. and video elements in addition to text elements. sound. you can see all the other objects that are linked to it. called newsgroups.000 forums. a hybrid between HTML and XML specifically designed for Net device displays. A device designer. using standard building blocks. Transitional. therefore. you might click on the phrase Violin Concerto in A Major. The USENET contains more than 14. XHTML uses three XML namespaces (used to qualify element and attributes names by associating them with namespaces identified by URI references. When you select an object.

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