Name: Siti Sarah Binti Ab Kadir Class: LISN2 AIR POLLUTION

Causes and effect of Air Pollution Major classes of air pollutants are as follow:Pollutant Sources Carbon oxides Incomplete combustion of (CO2 and CO2) fossil fuels, transportation, industry and burning

IC: 830509-02-5140

Effects • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas • (CO) the most abundant pollutant know to affect human health, combines with haemoglobin and may create problem for infants, the elderly and those with heart or respiratory diseases

Sulphur oxides (mainly SO2 or sulphur dioxide)

Most of the SO2 released in the air comes from utilities, industrial manufacturing processes, industrial combustion of coal and oil, transportation and other source

Sulphur oxides can react with gases in atmosphere to form sulphuric acid (H2SO4) which can turn to be acid rain Exposure to SO2 can cause impairment or respiratory function, aggravation of existing respiratory disease (especially bronchitis), and a decrease in the ability of the lungs to clear foreign particles. It can also lead to increase mortality, especially if elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) are also present. Group that appear most sensitive to the effect of SO2 include asthmatics and other individuals with chronic hyperactive airways, and individuals with chronic obstructive lung or cardiovascular disease. Elderly people and children are also likely most sensitive to SO2 Nitrogen oxides can react with other gases in atmosphere to from nitric acid (HNO3) which can turn to be acid rain Eye and respiratory tract irritation, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, memory impairment are among the immediate symptoms that some people have experienced soon after exposure to some organics. At present, not much is known about what health effects occur from the levels of organics usually found in homes. Many organic compound are known to cause cancer in animals, some are suspected of causing or are known to cause cancer in human Act as respiratory irritants, some are known

Nitrogen oxides-NO (nitric oxide) and NO2 (Nitrogen dioxide) Volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons)methane, benzene, propane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)

Motor vehicles and industry (burning fossil fuels)

Motor vehicles (evaporation from tanks), industry and various household products

Suspended particulate Power plant, iron/ steel

When mercury enters the body it becomes concentrated in tissue.matter-solid particles (e. The presence of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide in sunlight with little air movement leads to the generation of ozone The two compounds • (hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide) are produced by cars. by bacteria or chemical reactions. highway construction. mining and other activities that disturb or disrupt the earth’s surface Example:. Urban area with heavy traffic and large industrialized communities are primary areas for ozone problems Other Effect of air pollution o Acid rain o Global warming o Ozone Depletion o Smog Ways to prevent Air Pollution .g. which are then eaten by small fish.g. Because this element is toxic at very low concentrations. diesel fuel. producing ozone. the elderly and people with respiratory problem. pesticides) Toxic compoundstrace amount of at least 600 toxic substances (such as lead and mercury produced by human activities mills. Once mercury enters the water it can be converted to its most toxic form. even slight increases in the minute concentrations naturally present in the environment can have serious effects on humans had wildlife. High concentrations of ozone are especially hazardous to children. land clearing. Methyl mercury is absorbed by tiny aquatic organisms. truck.mainly ozone. Each year many food crops are damaged by ozone. factories and power generating plants or whatever gasoline. nylon . soot. People and wildlife at the top of the food chain are consequently exposed to elevated amounts of methyl mercury through the contaminated fish consume. These gases combine together with sunlight. kerosene. Ozone pollution is principally a daytime problem. dust. dyes an paint. and asbestos) liquid droplets (e. oil or natural gas are combusted.g. Photochemical oxidants.mercury is an • example of toxic elements that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust other sources of mercury is from burning coal and waste (such as medical wastes) carcinogens (e. plastic. Ozone also damage rubber. asbestos) can aggravate heart/ respiratory diseases Most people and wildlife can generally tolerate the extremely low levels of this naturally occurring substance. The greatest concern about ozone pollution is the potential damage it may inflict on human health. methyl mercury. an effect known as bioaccumulation.

wind energy. There are also alternative energies available to power automobiles. walk or cycle whenever possible. Slow human population growth . Sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides emission can be reduced by using coal containing less sulphur. for example burning natural creates much less SO2 than burning coal.1. For example. Using catalytic converters can also reduce NOx emissions form cars. since energy production causes the largest portion of the acid deposition problem. computers and other appliances when you’re not using them. carpool. or better yet. 7. fuel cells. Power plants can also switch the type of fuels used. and using devices call scrubbers to chemically remove the SO2 form the gases leaving the smokestack 2. Use alternatives energy sources-There are other source of electricity besides fossil fuels. use public transportation. etc 6. heaters. These devices have been a requirement for all car users in the US for over 20 years. Take action as individuals-Individuals can contribute directly by conserving energy. 5. Reduce deforestations and plant trees cause plants can absorb CO2 8. washing the coal. Use energy efficient appliances: lighting. you can: turn off light. and solar energy. air conditioners. geothermal energy. Develop mass transit and reduce automobile use. including natural gas powered vehicles. 4. They include: hydropower. Certain approaches will also have additional benefit of reducing other pollutants such as mercury and carbon dioxides 3. washing machines. refrigerators. battery-powered cars. and combinations of alternative and gasoline powered vehicles.

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