This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A. Write the suitable word. 1.________________________ (noun)
natural global , world local VERB + THE ~ preserve , protect , safeguard , save The government should do more to protect the ~. clean up , improve affect , have an impact on , impact ( AmE ) factors that have a huge impact on the ~ damage , harm , pollute industries which damage the ~ threaten ~ + NOUN agency , committee , department , group ( all esp. BrE ) chief ( BrE ) , minister ( esp. BrE ) spokesman , spokeswoman ( both BrE ) correspondent , editor ( both BrE ) policy ( esp. BrE ) protection ( esp. BrE ) issues 2. ___________________ (noun)
in the ~ the amount of carbon in the ~
conservation of the ~ , protection of the ~ damage to the ~ farming methods that minimize damage to the ~ harmful to the ~ The label identifies the products that are least harmful to the ~. pollution of the ~
fragile natural Non-native plants have colonized the area and altered the natural ~. animal , human , plant , wildlife ( AmE ) forest , marine behavioural/behavioral , evolutionary , physiological landscape ( AmE ) global , local VERB + ~ damage , disrupt study ~ + NOUN movement research 3. __________________________(noun)
major , powerful ~ + VERB hit sth , strike (sth) A ~ hit the city yesterday at 5 p.m. come We had been warned there was a ~ coming. damage sth , destroy sth , devastate sth The fields were devastated by the ~. blow The ~ blew ashore near San Fernando. ~ + NOUN force ~-force winds warning damage , victim relief season
in a/the ~ The roof blew off in a ~.
the eye of the ~ (= the central point)
awful , big , catastrophic , devastating , enormous ( esp. AmE ) , great , horrible , huge , large-scale ( esp. AmE ) , major , massive , terrible , worst the biggest ~ in the history of the industry deadly ( AmE ) the deadliest natural ~ in US history imminent , impending , looming Everyone had the feeling that ~ was imminent. It seemed that nothing could prevent the impending ~. possible , potential certain It would spell certain economic ~ for our local community. coming , future He called for a full investigation to help prevent future ~s. unforeseen the unforeseen ~ that has just been thrust upon us unprecedented This is an unprecedented natural ~. global , national natural earthquakes, floods and other natural ~s man-made air , ecological , environmental , flood , flooding , hurricane , military , mine ( esp. AmE ) , mining , nuclear , rail , tsunami fears of a nuclear ~ human , humanitarian the world's worst humanitarian ~ economic , financial , social Their departure spells social ~ for the region. personal unfolding the unfolding storm ~ in the South costly Hurricane Katrina was the costliest natural ~ in history. VERB + ~ bring , cause , create , lead to One person's mistakes can bring ~ to someone else. attempts to find out what caused the ~ mean , spell Just one mistake can mean ~. The drought spelled economic ~ for the country. avert , avoid , prevent , save sb / sth from , stave off , ward off A major ~ was averted only just in time. What can be done to ward off environmental ~? anticipate , foresee , predict Independent analysts in the market predicted ~. court , invite It's courting ~ to go into the mountains without proper weatherproof clothing. befall sb/sth , hit sb/sth , strike ( sb / sth ) the economic ~ that befell the country affect sb/sth communities affected by ~s loom , threaten We could all see that ~ loomed for the company. ensue His prediction was not heeded, and ~ ensued. be heading for his firm belief that the whole world was heading for ~ face In the last match of the series England were facing ~. experience , suffer There are many who have suffered personal ~s but managed to rebuild their lives.
handle No government could have handled a ~ of this magnitude effectively. overcome , survive It was a miracle any of the passengers or crew survived the ~. end in , result in The show ended in ~ when the tent collapsed. ~ + VERB happen , occur , strike , take place Will we ever find out why the ~ occurred? Everything was going fine. Then, without warning, ~ struck. When ~ struck, no one was prepared. unfold Europe's worst environmental ~ is unfolding at this very moment. ~ + NOUN area , scene , site , zone Only rescue workers are allowed into the ~ area. The area has been declared a ~ zone. aid ( esp. AmE ) , assistance ( esp. AmE ) , relief , response counties eligible for federal ~ assistance The ~ relief operation will continue over the summer. recovery ( esp. AmE ) The majority of enterprises aren't spending very much on ~ recovery at all. plan , planning ( both esp. AmE ) We have a ~ plan in place before every mission. preparation , preparedness ( both esp. AmE ) the planning and implementation of ~ preparedness management They had no real experience in ~ management. declaration ( AmE ) This morning I signed a ~ declaration for the state. fund the governor's ~ fund victim scenario It become a financial ~ scenario. film ( esp. BrE ) , flick ( informal ) , movie ( esp. AmE ) a Hollywood ~ movie
in a/the ~ In a ~ everyone needs to keep calm.
a ~ waiting to happen Any one of these nuclear plants may be a ~ waiting to happen. in the aftermath of a ~ In the aftermath of the ~ people were too shocked to give a clear picture of what had happened. a recipe for ~ Letting her organize the party is a recipe for ~ (= sth that is likely to go badly wrong) . a walking ~ , a walking ~ area ( both figurative , esp. BrE ) I am a walking ~ when it comes to paperwork. a victim of a ~ an organization which provides help for the victims of the ~
5. ___________________ (noun)
air , atmospheric , environmental , marine , river , water agricultural , chemical , industrial , toxic lead , mercury , oil , ozone , smoke , traffic , etc. light , noise airborne VERB + ~ cause create , emit , generate , produce They emit 90% less ~ than standard models. avoid , eliminate , prevent combat , control , fight , tackle ( esp. BrE ) a convention on combating atmospheric ~ The government has announced plans to tackle light ~. cut , limit , minimize , reduce The summit ended with a joint pledge to limit ~. monitor
incident ( esp. BrE ) , issue , problem laws , legislation , regulations offence ( BrE ) sources The computer model assesses the likely impact of new ~ sources. credits ( AmE ) a new market in ~ credits
the cost of ~ the cost of air ~ in health and other terms the effects of ~ Many athletes feel the effects of air ~ during outdoor exercise. a risk of ~ Environmentalists say there is a high risk of ~ from the landfill site. a source of ~ Heavy traffic flow is a major source of noise ~ in urban areas.
6. ____________________________ (noun)
deadly , noxious , poisonous , toxic explosive , flammable , inflammable ( esp. BrE ) , radioactive compressed , hot colourless/colorless , odourless/odorless inert , noble exhaust , greenhouse pollution from greenhouse ~es hydrogen , methane mustard , nerve , sarin , tear Police used water cannon and tear ~ against demonstrators. laughing (= nitrous oxide) ( informal ) VERB + ~ emit , give off , produce , release It gives off a poisonous ~ as it decomposes. ~ + VERB build up Noxious ~es had built up in the sewer. ~ + NOUN escape , leak Toxic ~es can escape through one of the pipes. emissions greenhouse ~ emissions chamber Millions of Jews were sent to the ~ chambers by the Nazis. mask 7. ______________________(verb)
endlessly ( usually figurative ) They endlessly ~ the same worn-out arguments.
from made of plastic ~d from old packaging material into These materials are ~d into other packaging products.
can be ~d The packaging can be ~d. ~d waste, paper, materials, etc. ~ is used with these nouns as the object: CAN ,
8. _________________________(adj.) ~ is used with these nouns: ANIMAL , BIRD , HABITAT , MAMMAL ,
catastrophic , devastating , great , severe flash spring , summer , etc. VERB + ~ cause Heavy rainfall in the mountains caused the ~s. ~ + VERB come No one knew that the ~ was coming. hit sth , strike sth This summer the region was struck by devastating ~s. inundate sth The fields were inundated by heavy ~s. cause sth The ~ caused widespread destruction. subside The ~s are slowly subsiding. ~ + NOUN water (usually floodwater or floodwaters ) The floodwaters did not begin to recede until September. plain damage alert ( BrE ) , warning victim control , defence/defense , prevention , protection , relief insurance 10. _______________________(noun) VERB + ~ trigger ~ + VERB happen wipe out sth/sb kill sb They were killed by an ~ in the Swiss Alps.
be in (full) ~ ( esp. BrE ) The river was in full ~ (= had flooded its banks) .
great constant sudden FLOOD + VERB inundate sb/sth She was inundated by ~s of fan mail. VERB + ~ bring , cause release , unleash
~ of a great ~ of refugees
a ~ of memories ( esp. AmE ) Writing about St. John's brings back a ~ of nostalgic memories. in ~s of tears (= crying a lot) The little girl was in ~s of tears.
in an/the ~ They died in an ~. VERB + ~ be buried under
~ of We've been almost buried under the ~ of letters. 11. _________________________(noun)
harmful , noxious , toxic gaseous automobile ( esp. AmE ) , exhaust , tailpipe ( AmE ) , vehicle industrial atmospheric greenhouse gas the Kyoto protocol on cutting greenhouse gas ~s acid , carbon , carbon dioxide , lead , mercury , methane , sulphur/sulfur , etc. global global ~s of carbon dioxide VERB + ~ generate , produce curb , cut , lower , minimize , reduce We must take action to cut vehicle ~s. eliminate control , limit , regulate offset New power plants must offset ~s by funding climate-change projects. measure , monitor
~+ VERB increase decrease , fall ~ + NOUN levels , rates
~s from measures to reduce harmful ~s from traffic
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?